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Sample records for point tracking mppt

  1. Solar Panel System for Street Light Using Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedjaja, A.; Harta, S.; Josses, L.; Winardi; Rinda, H.

    2014-03-01

    Solar energy is one form of the renewable energy which is very abundant in regions close to the equator. One application of solar energy is for street light. This research focuses on using the maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT), particularly the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, to charge battery for street light system. The proposed charger circuit can achieve 20.73% higher power efficiency compared to that of non-MPPT charger. We also develop the LED driver circuit for the system which can achieve power efficiency up to 91.9% at a current of 1.06 A. The proposed street lightning system can be implemented with a relatively low cost for public areas.

  2. Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Charge Controller using Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelilah, B.; Mouna, A.; KouiderM’Sirdi, N.; El Hossain, A.

    2018-05-01

    the platform Arduino with a number of sensors standard can be used as components of an electronic system for acquiring measures and controls. This paper presents the design of a low-cost and effective solar charge controller. This system includes several elements such as the solar panel converter DC/DC, battery, circuit MPPT using Microcontroller, sensors, and the MPPT algorithm. The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) algorithm has been implemented using an Arduino Nano with the preferred program. The voltage and current of the Panel are taken where the program implemented will work and using this algorithm that MPP will be reached. This paper provides details on the solar charge control device at the maximum power point. The results include the change of the duty cycle with the change in load and thus mean the variation of the buck converter output voltage and current controlled by the MPPT algorithm.

  3. Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (CV) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.

  4. A comparative study of artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain Mutlag, Ammar; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-03-01

    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is normally required to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper presents artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking (AI-MPPT) by considering three artificial intelligent techniques, namely, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven triangular fuzzy sets (7-tri), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven gbell fuzzy sets. The AI-MPPT is designed for the 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV panels, with the capacity of 3 kW peak. A complete PV system is modelled using 300,000 data samples and simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. The AI-MPPT has been tested under real environmental conditions for two days from 8 am to 18 pm. The results showed that the ANN based MPPT gives the most accurate performance and then followed by the 7-tri-based MPPT.

  5. Microwatt power consumption maximum power point tracking circuit using an analogue differentiator for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Z. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme by tracking the open-circuit voltage from a piezoelectric energy harvester using a differentiator is presented in this paper. The MPPT controller is implemented by using a low-power analogue differentiator and comparators without the need of a sensing circuitry and a power hungry controller. This proposed MPPT circuit is used to control a buck converter which serves as a power management module in conjunction with a full-wave bridge diode rectifier. Performance of this MPPT control scheme is verified by using the prototyped circuit to track the maximum power point of a macro-fiber composite (MFC) as the piezoelectric energy harvester. The MFC was bonded on a composite material and the whole specimen was subjected to various strain levels at frequency from 10 to 100 Hz. Experimental results showed that the implemented full analogue MPPT controller has a tracking efficiency between 81% and 98.66% independent of the load, and consumes an average power of 3.187 μW at 3 V during operation.

  6. Tracking the global maximum power point of PV arrays under partial shading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennich, Meryem

    This thesis presents the theoretical and simulation studies of the global maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems under partial shading. The main goal is to track the maximum power point of the photovoltaic module so that the maximum possible power can be extracted from the photovoltaic panels. When several panels are connected in series with some of them shaded partially either due to clouds or shadows from neighboring buildings, several local maxima appear in the power vs. voltage curve. A power increment based MPPT algorithm is effective in identifying the global maximum from the several local maxima. Several existing MPPT algorithms are explored and the state-of-the-art power increment method is simulated and tested for various partial shading conditions. The current-voltage and power-voltage characteristics of the PV model are studied under different partial shading conditions, along with five different cases demonstrating how the MPPT algorithm performs when shading switches from one state to another. Each case is supplemented with simulation results. The method of tracking the Global MPP is based on controlling the DC-DC converter connected to the output of the PV array. A complete system simulation including the PV array, the direct current to direct current (DC-DC) converter and the MPPT is presented and tested using MATLAB software. The simulation results show that the MPPT algorithm works very well with the buck converter, while the boost converter needs further changes and implementation.

  7. Fuzzy observer-based control for maximum power-point tracking of a photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, M.; Dahech, K.; Chaabane, M.; Mehdi, D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a novel fuzzy control design method for maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) via a Takagi and Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model-based approach. A knowledge-dynamic model of the PV system is first developed leading to a TS representation by a simple convex polytopic transformation. Then, based on this exact fuzzy representation, a H∞ observer-based fuzzy controller is proposed to achieve MPPT even when we consider varying climatic conditions. A specified TS reference model is designed to generate the optimum trajectory which must be tracked to ensure maximum power operation. The controller and observer gains are obtained in a one-step procedure by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The proposed method has been compared with some classical MPPT techniques taking into account convergence speed and tracking accuracy. Finally, various simulation and experimental tests have been carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed TS fuzzy MPPT strategy.

  8. Issues regarding the usage of MPPT techniques in micro grid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeidert, I.; Filip, I.; Dragan, F.; Gal, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the control strategies applied at hybrid micro grid systems (wind/hydro/solar), that function based on maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques is to improve the conversion system’s efficiency and to preserve the quality of the generated electrical energy (voltage and power factor). One of the main goals of maximum power point tracking strategy is to achieve the harvesting of the maximal possible energy within a certain time period. In order to implement the control strategies for micro grid, there are typically required specific transducers (sensor for wind speed, optical rotational transducers, etc.). In the technical literature, several variants of the MPPT techniques are presented and particularized at some applications (wind energy conversion systems, solar systems, hydro plants, micro grid hybrid systems). The maximum power point tracking implementations are mainly based on two-level architecture. The lower level controls the main variable and the superior level represents the MPPT control structure. The paper presents micro grid structures developed at Politehnica University Timisoara (PUT) within the frame of a research grant. The paper is focused on the application of MPPT strategies on hybrid micro grid systems. There are presented several structures and control strategies and are highlighted their advantages and disadvantages, together with practical implementation guidelines.

  9. Maximum Power Point Tracking with Dichotomy and Gradient Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.

  10. Hardware Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maganga, Othman; Phillip, Navneesh; Burnham, Keith J.; Montecucco, Andrea; Siviter, Jonathan; Knox, Andrew; Simpson, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    This work describes the practical implementation of two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, namely those of perturb and observe, and extremum seeking control. The proprietary dSPACE system is used to perform hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation whereby the two control algorithms are implemented using the MATLAB/Simulink (Mathworks, Natick, MA) software environment in order to control a synchronous buck-boost converter connected to two commercial thermoelectric modules. The process of performing HIL simulation using dSPACE is discussed, and a comparison between experimental and simulated results is highlighted. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the two MPPT algorithms, and in conclusion the benefits and limitations of real-time implementation of MPPT controllers using dSPACE are discussed.

  11. Photovoltaic Cells Mppt Algorithm and Design of Controller Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X. Z.; Feng, H. B.

    2017-10-01

    This paper combined the advantages of each maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, put forward a kind of algorithm with higher speed and higher precision, based on this algorithm designed a maximum power point tracking controller with ARM. The controller, communication technology and PC software formed a control system. Results of the simulation and experiment showed that the process of maximum power tracking was effective, and the system was stable.

  12. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Ahmed M.; El-arini, Mahdi M. M.; Ghitas, Ahmed; Fathy, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV) systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  13. A Maximum Power Point Tracking Control Method of a Photovoltaic Power Generator with Consideration of Dynamic Characteristics of Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Toshiya; Ohniwa, Katsumi

    This paper discusses a new control strategy for photovoltaic power generation systems with consideration of dynamic characteristics of the photovoltaic cells. The controller estimates internal currents of an equivalent circuit for the cells. This estimated, or the virtual current and the actual voltage of the cells are fed to a conventional Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking (MPPT) controller. Consequently, this MPPT controller still tracks the optimum point even though it is so designed that the seeking speed of the operating point is extremely high. This system may suit for applications, which are installed in rapidly changeable insolation and temperature-conditions e.g. automobiles, trains, and airplanes. The proposed method is verified by experiment with a combination of this estimating function and the modified Boehringer's MPPT algorithm.

  14. A Study of a Two Stage Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Photovoltaic System under Partially Shaded Insolation Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Takano, Ichiro; Sawada, Yoshio

    A photovoltaic array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the Current-Power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multi-local maximum points mode under non-uniform insolation conditions. The operating point of the PV system tends to converge to a local maximum output point which is not the real maximal output point on the I-P curve. Some papers have been also reported, trying to avoid this difficulty. However most of those control systems become rather complicated. Then, the two stage MPPT control method is proposed in this paper to realize a relatively simple control system which can track the real maximum power point even under non-uniform insolation conditions. The feasibility of this control concept is confirmed for steady insolation as well as for rapidly changing insolation by simulation study using software PSIM and LabVIEW. In addition, simulated experiment confirms fundament al operation of the two stage MPPT control.

  15. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shareef, Hussain; Mutlag, Ammar Hussein; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland-Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  16. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland–Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability. PMID:28702051

  17. Comparative Analysis of Reduced-Rule Compressed Fuzzy Logic Control and Incremental Conductance MPPT Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Ekrem; Borekci, Selim; Cetin, Numan S.

    2018-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation has been widely used in recent years, with techniques for increasing the power efficiency representing one of the most important issues. The available maximum power of a PV panel is dependent on environmental conditions such as solar irradiance and temperature. To extract the maximum available power from a PV panel, various maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) methods are used. In this work, two different MPPT methods were implemented for a 150-W PV panel. The first method, known as incremental conductance (Inc. Cond.) MPPT, determines the maximum power by measuring the derivative of the PV voltage and current. The other method is based on reduced-rule compressed fuzzy logic control (RR-FLC), using which it is relatively easier to determine the maximum power because a single input variable is used to reduce computing loads. In this study, a 150-W PV panel system model was realized using these MPPT methods in MATLAB and the results compared. According to the simulation results, the proposed RR-FLC-based MPPT could increase the response rate and tracking accuracy by 4.66% under standard test conditions.

  18. Research of MPPT for photovoltaic generation based on two-dimensional cloud model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuping; Fan, Wei

    2013-03-01

    The cloud model is a mathematical representation to fuzziness and randomness in linguistic concepts. It represents a qualitative concept with expected value Ex, entropy En and hyper entropy He, and integrates the fuzziness and randomness of a linguistic concept in a unified way. This model is a new method for transformation between qualitative and quantitative in the knowledge. This paper is introduced MPPT (maximum power point tracking, MPPT) controller based two- dimensional cloud model through analysis of auto-optimization MPPT control of photovoltaic power system and combining theory of cloud model. Simulation result shows that the cloud controller is simple and easy, directly perceived through the senses, and has strong robustness, better control performance.

  19. Intelligent energy harvesting scheme for microbial fuel cells: Maximum power point tracking and voltage overshoot avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaraj, Muhannad; Radenkovic, Miloje; Park, Jae-Do

    2017-02-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are renewable and sustainable energy sources that can be used for various applications. The MFC output power depends on its biochemical conditions as well as the terminal operating points in terms of output voltage and current. There exists one operating point that gives the maximum possible power from the MFC, maximum power point (MPP), for a given operating condition. However, this MPP may vary and needs to be tracked in order to maintain the maximum power extraction from the MFC. Furthermore, MFC reactors often develop voltage overshoots that cause drastic drops in the terminal voltage, current, and the output power. When the voltage overshoot happens, an additional control measure is necessary as conventional MPPT algorithms will fail because of the change in the voltage-current relationship. In this paper, the extremum seeking (ES) algorithm was used to track the varying MPP and a voltage overshoot avoidance (VOA) algorithm is developed to manage the voltage overshoot conditions. The proposed ES-MPPT with VOA algorithm was able to extract 197.2 mJ during 10-min operation avoiding voltage overshoot, while the ES MPPT-only scheme stopped harvesting after only 18.75 mJ because of the voltage overshoot happened at 0.4 min.

  20. Solar Array Hysteresis and its Interaction with the MPPT System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, A.; Baur, C.; Gomez-Carpintero, F.

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that solar cells have a capacitance in parallel which value changes with the voltage. Depending on the section arrangement on the Solar Array, the power conversion unit connected to it will see a smaller or larger capacitance value and will have to cope with its adverse effects. In the case of converters with an MPPT, this capacitance gives place to an hysteresis effect that might shift the tracking point, reducing the power extracted from the Solar Array. This paper explores the different sides of this issue, from capacitance modelling to the effects on the MPPT. Additionally, this paper analyses a similar interaction between MPPTs and commercial SAS.

  1. Simulation and experimental design of a new advanced variable step size Incremental Conductance MPPT algorithm for PV systems.

    PubMed

    Loukriz, Abdelhamid; Haddadi, Mourad; Messalti, Sabir

    2016-05-01

    Improvement of the efficiency of photovoltaic system based on new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms is the most promising solution due to its low cost and its easy implementation without equipment updating. Many MPPT methods with fixed step size have been developed. However, when atmospheric conditions change rapidly , the performance of conventional algorithms is reduced. In this paper, a new variable step size Incremental Conductance IC MPPT algorithm has been proposed. Modeling and simulation of different operational conditions of conventional Incremental Conductance IC and proposed methods are presented. The proposed method was developed and tested successfully on a photovoltaic system based on Flyback converter and control circuit using dsPIC30F4011. Both, simulation and experimental design are provided in several aspects. A comparative study between the proposed variable step size and fixed step size IC MPPT method under similar operating conditions is presented. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed MPPT algorithm in terms of speed in MPP tracking and accuracy. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Design of MPPT Controller Monitoring Software Based on QT Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X. Z.; Lu, P. G.

    2017-10-01

    The MPPT controller was a hardware device for tracking the maximum power point of solar photovoltaic array. Multiple controllers could be working as networking mode by specific communicating protocol. In this article, based on C++ GUI programming with Qt frame, we designed one sort of desktop application for monitoring and analyzing operational parameter of MPPT controller. The type of communicating protocol for building network was Modbus protocol which using Remote Terminal Unit mode and The desktop application of host computer was connected with all the controllers in the network through RS485 communication or ZigBee wireless communication. Using this application, user could monitor the parameter of controller wherever they were by internet.

  3. Maximum power point tracking techniques for wind energy systems using three levels boost converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Cuong Hung; Nollet, Frédéric; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents modeling and simulation of three level Boost DC-DC converter in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). Three-level Boost converter has significant advantage compared to conventional Boost. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for a variable speed wind turbine using permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is also presented. Simulation of three-level Boost converter topology with Perturb and Observe algorithm and Fuzzy Logic Control is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Results of this simulation show that the system with MPPT using fuzzy logic controller has better performance to the Perturb and Observe algorithm: fast response under changing conditions and small oscillation.

  4. Performance analysis of ‘Perturb and Observe’ and ‘Incremental Conductance’ MPPT algorithms for PV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodhi, Ehtisham; Lodhi, Zeeshan; Noman Shafqat, Rana; Chen, Fieda

    2017-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system usually employed The Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques for increasing its efficiency. The performance of the PV system perhaps boosts by controlling at its apex point of power, in this way maximal power can be given to load. The proficiency of a PV system usually depends upon irradiance, temperature and array architecture. PV array shows a non-linear style for V-I curve and maximal power point on V-P curve also varies with changing environmental conditions. MPPT methods grantees that a PV module is regulated at reference voltage and to produce entire usage of the maximal output power. This paper gives analysis between two widely employed Perturb and Observe (P&O) and Incremental Conductance (INC) MPPT techniques. Their performance is evaluated and compared through theoretical analysis and digital simulation on the basis of response time and efficiency under varying irradiance and temperature condition using Matlab/Simulink.

  5. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic applications by using two-level DC/DC boost converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moamaei, Parvin

    Recently, photovoltaic (PV) generation is becoming increasingly popular in industrial applications. As a renewable and alternative source of energy they feature superior characteristics such as being clean and silent along with less maintenance problems compared to other sources of the energy. In PV generation, employing a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method is essential to obtain the maximum available solar energy. Among several proposed MPPT techniques, the Perturbation and Observation (P&O;) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods are adopted in this work. The components of the MPPT control system which are P&O; and MPC algorithms, PV module and high gain DC-DC boost converter are simulated in MATLAB Simulink. They are evaluated theoretically under rapidly and slowly changing of solar irradiation and temperature and their performance is shown by the simulation results, finally a comprehensive comparison is presented.

  6. An adaptive scale factor based MPPT algorithm for changing solar irradiation levels in outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Trevor Hocksun; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are popularly used for maximizing the output of solar panels by continuously tracking the maximum power point (MPP) of their P-V curves, which depend both on the panel temperature and the input insolation. Various MPPT algorithms have been studied in literature, including perturb and observe (P&O), hill climbing, incremental conductance, fuzzy logic control and neural networks. This paper presents an algorithm which improves the MPP tracking performance by adaptively scaling the DC-DC converter duty cycle. The principle of the proposed algorithm is to detect the oscillation by checking the sign (ie. direction) of the duty cycle perturbation between the current and previous time steps. If there is a difference in the signs then it is clear an oscillation is present and the DC-DC converter duty cycle perturbation is subsequently scaled down by a constant factor. By repeating this process, the steady state oscillations become negligibly small which subsequently allows for a smooth steady state MPP response. To verify the proposed MPPT algorithm, a simulation involving irradiances levels that are typically encountered in outer space is conducted. Simulation and experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm is fast and stable in comparison to not only the conventional fixed step counterparts, but also to previous variable step size algorithms.

  7. An improved maximum power point tracking method for a photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouoba, David; Fakkar, Abderrahim; El Kouari, Youssef; Dkhichi, Fayrouz; Oukarfi, Benyounes

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an improved auto-scaling variable step-size Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for photovoltaic (PV) system was proposed. To achieve simultaneously a fast dynamic response and stable steady-state power, a first improvement was made on the step-size scaling function of the duty cycle that controls the converter. An algorithm was secondly proposed to address wrong decision that may be made at an abrupt change of the irradiation. The proposed auto-scaling variable step-size approach was compared to some various other approaches from the literature such as: classical fixed step-size, variable step-size and a recent auto-scaling variable step-size maximum power point tracking approaches. The simulation results obtained by MATLAB/SIMULINK were given and discussed for validation.

  8. A New MPPT Control for Photovoltaic Panels by Instantaneous Maximum Power Point Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokushima, Daiki; Uchida, Masato; Kanbei, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Naitoh, Haruo

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking control for photovoltaic (PV) panels. The control can be categorized into the Perturb and Observe (P & O) method. It utilizes instantaneous voltage ripples at PV panel output terminals caused by the switching of a chopper connected to the panel in order to identify the direction for the maximum power point (MPP). The tracking for the MPP is achieved by a feedback control of the average terminal voltage of the panel. Appropriate use of the instantaneous and the average values of the PV voltage for the separate purposes enables both the quick transient response and the good convergence with almost no ripples simultaneously. The tracking capability is verified experimentally with a 2.8 W PV panel under a controlled experimental setup. A numerical comparison with a conventional P & O confirms that the proposed control extracts much more power from the PV panel.

  9. Simulation and experiment of a fuzzy logic based MPPT controller for a small wind turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrila, Diana; Muntean, Nicolae

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a fuzzy logic based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategy for a variable speed wind turbine system (VSWT). For this scope, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was described, simulated and tested on a real time "hardware in the loop" wind turbine emulator. Simulation and experimental results show that the controller is able to track the maximum power point for various wind conditions and validate the proposed control strategy.

  10. Variable frequency iteration MPPT for resonant power converters

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Qian; Bataresh, Issa; Chen, Lin

    2015-06-30

    A method of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) uses an MPPT algorithm to determine a switching frequency for a resonant power converter, including initializing by setting an initial boundary frequency range that is divided into initial frequency sub-ranges bounded by initial frequencies including an initial center frequency and first and second initial bounding frequencies. A first iteration includes measuring initial powers at the initial frequencies to determine a maximum power initial frequency that is used to set a first reduced frequency search range centered or bounded by the maximum power initial frequency including at least a first additional bounding frequency. A second iteration includes calculating first and second center frequencies by averaging adjacent frequent values in the first reduced frequency search range and measuring second power values at the first and second center frequencies. The switching frequency is determined from measured power values including the second power values.

  11. Highly efficient maximum power point tracking using DC-DC coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quamruzzaman, M.; Mohammad, Nur; Matin, M. A.; Alam, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PVs) have nonlinear voltage-current characteristics, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP) depending on factors such as solar irradiance and operating temperature. To extract maximum power from the PV array at any environmental condition, DC-DC converters are usually used as MPP trackers. This paper presents the performance analysis of a coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in a PV system. A detailed model of the system has been designed and developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The performance evaluation has been conducted on the basis of stability, current ripple reduction and efficiency at different operating conditions. Simulation results show considerable ripple reduction in the input and output currents of the converter. Both the MPPT and converter efficiencies are significantly improved. The obtained simulation results validate the effectiveness and suitability of the converter model in MPPT and show reasonable agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  12. Smoothing PV System’s Output by Tuning MPPT Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ina, Nobuhiko; Yanagawa, Shigeyuki; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    A PV system’s output is not stable and fluctuates depending on a weather condition. Using a battery is one of the feasible ways to stabilize a PV system’s output, although it requires an additional cost and provides an additional waste of the used battery. In this paper, we propose tuning a characteristic of Maxiumum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control for smoothing a short term change of PV system’s output during a sharp insolation fluctuation, as an approach without additional equipments. In our proposed method, when an insolation increases rapidly, the operation point of MPPT control changes to the new point where the maximum power is not generated with present insolation, so that the speed of PV system’s output increase is limited to a certain value, i. e. 1%/min. In order to evaluate the effect of our proposed method in terms of reducing the additional operation task of the electric power system, we evaluated the additional LFC capacity for a large-scale installation of PV systems. As a result, it was revealed that the additional LFC capacity is not required even if a PV system is installed by 5% of utility system, when our proposed method is applied to all PV systems.

  13. Comparison of four MPPT techniques for PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atik, L.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Bachir, G.; Aillerie, M.

    2016-07-01

    The working behavior of a module / PV array is non-linear and highly dependent on working conditions. As a given condition, there is only one point at which the level of available power at its output is maximum. This point varies with time, enlightenment and temperature. To ensure optimum operation, the use of MPPT control allows us to extract the maximum power. This paper presents a comparative study of four widely-adopted MPPT algorithms, such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, Measurements of the variation of the open circuit voltage or of the short-circuit current. Their performance is evaluated using, for all these techniques. In particular, this study compares the behaviors of each technique in presence of solar irradiation variations and temperature fluctuations. These MPPT techniques will be compared using the Matlab / Simulink tool.

  14. Comparison of four MPPT techniques for PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Atik, L., E-mail: lotfi.atik@univ-usto.dz; Ternifi, Z. T.; Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz

    2016-07-25

    The working behavior of a module / PV array is non-linear and highly dependent on working conditions. As a given condition, there is only one point at which the level of available power at its output is maximum. This point varies with time, enlightenment and temperature. To ensure optimum operation, the use of MPPT control allows us to extract the maximum power. This paper presents a comparative study of four widely-adopted MPPT algorithms, such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, Measurements of the variation of the open circuit voltage or of the short-circuit current. Their performance is evaluated using, formore » all these techniques. In particular, this study compares the behaviors of each technique in presence of solar irradiation variations and temperature fluctuations. These MPPT techniques will be compared using the Matlab / Simulink tool.« less

  15. A new maximum power tracking in PV system during partially shaded conditions based on shuffled frog leap algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, R.; Jeevananthan, S.; Dash, S. S.; Vishnuram, Pradeep

    2017-05-01

    Maximum Power Point Trackers (MPPTs) are power electronic conditioners used in photovoltaic (PV) system to ensure that PV structures feed maximum power for the given ambient temperature and sun's irradiation. When the PV panels are shaded by a fraction due to any environment hindrances then, conventional MPPT trackers may fail in tracking the appropriate peak power as there will be multi power peaks. In this work, a shuffled frog leap algorithm (SFLA) is proposed and it successfully identifies the global maximum power point among other local maxima. The SFLA MPPT is compared with a well-entrenched conventional perturb and observe (P&O) MPPT algorithm and a global search particle swarm optimisation (PSO) MPPT. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm is highly advantageous than P&O, as it tracks nearly 30% more power for a given shading pattern. The credible nature of the proposed SFLA is ensured when it outplays PSO MPPT in convergence. The whole system is realised in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  16. Maximum power point tracking algorithm based on sliding mode and fuzzy logic for photovoltaic sources under variable environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atik, L.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Bachir, G.; Della, M.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    Solar panels have a nonlinear voltage-current characteristic, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP), which depends on the environmental factors, such as temperature and irradiation. In order to continuously harvest maximum power from the solar panels, they have to operate at their MPP despite the inevitable changes in the environment. Various methods for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) were developed and finally implemented in solar power electronic controllers to increase the efficiency in the electricity production originate from renewables. In this paper we compare using Matlab tools Simulink, two different MPP tracking methods, which are, fuzzy logic control (FL) and sliding mode control (SMC), considering their efficiency in solar energy production.

  17. A Novel Technique for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Photovoltaic Based on Sensing of Array Current Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zoghby, Helmy M.; Bendary, Ahmed F.

    2016-10-01

    Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is now widely used method in increasing the photovoltaic (PV) efficiency. The conventional MPPT methods have many problems concerning the accuracy, flexibility and efficiency. The MPP depends on the PV temperature and solar irradiation that randomly varied. In this paper an artificial intelligence based controller is presented through implementing of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to obtain maximum power from PV. The ANFIS inputs are the temperature and cell current, and the output is optimal voltage at maximum power. During operation the trained ANFIS senses the PV current using suitable sensor and also senses the temperature to determine the optimal operating voltage that corresponds to the current at MPP. This voltage is used to control the boost converter duty cycle. The MATLAB simulation results shows the effectiveness of the ANFIS with sensing the PV current in obtaining the MPPT from the PV.

  18. A High Efficiency Boost Converter with MPPT Scheme for Low Voltage Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Mingjie; Wang, Kunpeng; Zhu, Qingyuan; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2016-11-01

    Using thermoelectric elements to harvest energy from heat has been of great interest during the last decade. This paper presents a direct current-direct current (DC-DC) boost converter with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme for low input voltage thermoelectric energy harvesting applications. Zero current switch technique is applied in the proposed MPPT scheme. Theoretical analysis on the converter circuits is explored to derive the equations for parameters needed in the design of the boost converter. Simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical analysis and equations. A prototype of the designed converter is built using discrete components and a low-power microcontroller. The results show that the designed converter can achieve a high efficiency at low input voltage. The experimental efficiency of the designed converter is compared with a commercial converter solution. It is shown that the designed converter has a higher efficiency than the commercial solution in the considered voltage range.

  19. Optimal Design of MPPT Controllers for Grid Connected Photovoltaic Array System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim, M. A.; AbdelHadi, H. A.; Mahmoud, H. M.; Saied, E. M.; Salama, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    Integrating photovoltaic (PV) plants into electric power system exhibits challenges to power system dynamic performance. These challenges stem primarily from the natural characteristics of PV plants, which differ in some respects from the conventional plants. The most significant challenge is how to extract and regulate the maximum power from the sun. This paper presents the optimal design for the most commonly used Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques based on Proportional Integral tuned by Particle Swarm Optimization (PI-PSO). These suggested techniques are, (1) the incremental conductance, (2) perturb and observe, (3) fractional short circuit current and (4) fractional open circuit voltage techniques. This research work provides a comprehensive comparative study with the energy availability ratio from photovoltaic panels. The simulation results proved that the proposed controllers have an impressive tracking response. The system dynamic performance improved greatly using the proposed controllers.

  20. Design of Solar Street Lamp Control System Based on MPPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Fengying

    This paper proposes a new solar street lamp control system which is composed of photovoltaic cell, controller, battery and load. In this system controller as the key part applies the microchip to achieve many functions. According to the nonlinear output characteristics of solar cell and the influence of environment, it uses the perturbation and observation (P&O) method to realize the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and promotes the efficiency. In order to prolong the battery life the pulse width modulation (PWM) charge mode is selected to control the battery capacity and provent the battery from the state of over-charge and over-discharge. Meanwhile the function of temperature compensation, charge and discharge protection are set to improve the running safety and stability.

  1. Comparative study of adaptive controller using MIT rules and Lyapunov method for MPPT standalone PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariba, N.; Bouknadel, A.; Haddou, A.; Ikken, N.; Omari, Hafsa El; Omari, Hamid El

    2017-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Generator have a nonlinear characteristic function relating the intensity at the voltage I = f (U) and depend on the variation of solar irradiation and temperature, In addition, its point of operation depends directly on the load that it supplies. To fix this drawback, and to extract the maximum power available to the terminal of the generator, an adaptation stage is introduced between the generator and the load to couple the two elements as perfectly as possible. The adaptation stage is associated with a command called MPPT MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) whose is used to force the PVG to operate at the MPP (Maximum Power Point) under variation of climatic conditions and load variation. This paper presents a comparative study between the adaptive controller for PV Systems using MIT rules and Lyapunov method to regulate the PV voltage. The Incremental Conductance (IC) algorithm is used to extract the maximum power from the PVG by calculating the voltage Vref, and the adaptive controller is used to regulate and track quickly the PV voltage. The two methods of the adaptive controller will be compared to prove their performance by using the PSIM tools and experimental test, and the mathematical model of step-up with PVG model will be presented.

  2. Optimized MPPT-based converter for TEG energy harvester to power wireless sensor and monitoring system in nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Shaoxu; Anakok, Isil; Zuo, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Accidents like Fukushima Disasters push people to improve the monitoring systems for the nuclear power plants. Thus, various types of energy harvesters are designed to power these systems and the Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) energy harvester is one of them. In order to enhance the amount of harvested power and the system efficiency, the power management stage needs to be carefully designed. In this paper, a power converter with optimized Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is proposed for the TEG Energy Harvester to power the wireless sensor network in nuclear power plant. The TEG Energy Harvester is installed on the coolant pipe of the nuclear plant and harvests energy from its heat energy while the power converter with optimized MPPT can make the TEG Energy Harvester output the maximum power, quickly response to the voltage change and provide sufficient energy for wireless sensor system to monitor the operation of the nuclear power plant. Due to the special characteristics of the Single-Ended Primary Inductor Converter (SEPIC) when it is working in the Discontinuous Inductor Current Mode (DICM) and Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM), the MPPT method presented in this paper would be able to control the converter to achieve the maximum output power in any working conditions of the TEG system with a simple circuit. The optimized MPPT algorithm will significantly reduce the cost and simplify the system as well as achieve a good performance. Experiment test results have shown that, comparing to a fixed- duty-cycle SEPIC which is specifically designed for the working on the secondary coolant loop in nuclear power plant, the optimized MPPT algorithm increased the output power by 55%.

  3. MPPT Algorithm Development for Laser Powered Surveillance Camera Power Supply Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yungui; Dushantha Chaminda, P. R.; Zhao, Kun; Cheng, Lin; Jiang, Yi; Peng, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) cells, modules which are semiconducting materials, convert light energy into electricity. Operation of a PV cell requires 3 basic features. When the light is absorbed it generate pairs of electron holes or excitons. An external circuit carrier opposite types of electrons irrespective of the source (sunlight or LASER light). The PV arrays have photovoltaic effect and the PV cells are defined as a device which has electrical characteristics: such as current, voltage and resistance. It varies when exposed to light, that the power output is depend on direct Laser-light. In this paper Laser-light to electricity by direct conversion with the use of PV cells and its concept of Band gap Energy, Series Resistance, Conversion Efficiency and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) methods [1].

  4. Maximum Power Point tracking charge controllers for telecom applications -- Analysis and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, R.H.

    Simple charge controllers connect photovoltaic modules directly to the battery bank resulting in a significant power loss if the battery bank voltage differs greatly from the PV Maximum Power Point (MPP) voltage. Recent modeling work at AES has shown that dc-dc converter type MPP tracking charge controllers can deliver more than 30% more energy from PV modules to the battery when the PV modules are cool and the battery state of charge is low--this is typically both the worst case condition (i.e., winter) and also the design condition that determines the PV array size. Economic modeling, based on typical telecommore » system installed costs shows benefits of more than $3/Wp for MPPT over conventional charge controllers in this application--a value that greatly exceeds the additional cost of the dc-dc converter.« less

  5. Dynamic performance of maximum power point tracking circuits using sinusoidal extremum seeking control for photovoltaic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, R.; Artillan, P.; Cabal, C.; Estibals, B.; Alonso, C.

    2011-04-01

    The article studies the dynamic performance of a family of maximum power point tracking circuits used for photovoltaic generation. It revisits the sinusoidal extremum seeking control (ESC) technique which can be considered as a particular subgroup of the Perturb and Observe algorithms. The sinusoidal ESC technique consists of adding a small sinusoidal disturbance to the input and processing the perturbed output to drive the operating point at its maximum. The output processing involves a synchronous multiplication and a filtering stage. The filter instance determines the dynamic performance of the MPPT based on sinusoidal ESC principle. The approach uses the well-known root-locus method to give insight about damping degree and settlement time of maximum-seeking waveforms. This article shows the transient waveforms in three different filter instances to illustrate the approach. Finally, an experimental prototype corroborates the dynamic analysis.

  6. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  7. A state-of-the-art compact SiC photovoltaic inverter with maximum power point tracking function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Yuji; Oku, Takeo; Yasuda, Masashi; Ushijima, Kazufumi; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Murozono, Mikio

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a 150-W SiC-based photovoltaic (PV)-inverter with the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function. The newly developed inverter achieved a state-of-the-art combination of the weight (0.79 kg) and the volume (790 mm3) as a 150-250 W class PV-inverter. As compared to the original version that we have previously reported, the weight and volume were decreased by 37% and 38%, respectively. This compactness originated from the optimized circuit structure and the increased density of a wiring circuit. Conversion efficiencies of the MPPT charge controller and the direct current (DC)-alternating current (AC) converter reached 96.4% and 87.6%, respectively. These efficiency values are comparable to those for the original version. We have developed a PV power generation system consisting of this inverter, a spherical Si solar cell module, and a 15-V Li-ion laminated battery. The total weight of the system was below 6 kg. The developed system exhibited stable output power characteristics, even when the weather conditions were fluctuated. These compactness, high efficiencies, and excellent stability clearly indicated the feasibility of SiC power devices even for sub-kW class PV power generation systems.

  8. A proposed adaptive step size perturbation and observation maximum power point tracking algorithm based on photovoltaic system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu

    Solar energy becomes one of the major alternative renewable energy options for its huge abundance and accessibility. Due to the intermittent nature, the high demand of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques exists when a Photovoltaic (PV) system is used to extract energy from the sunlight. This thesis proposed an advanced Perturbation and Observation (P&O) algorithm aiming for relatively practical circumstances. Firstly, a practical PV system model is studied with determining the series and shunt resistances which are neglected in some research. Moreover, in this proposed algorithm, the duty ratio of a boost DC-DC converter is the object of the perturbation deploying input impedance conversion to achieve working voltage adjustment. Based on the control strategy, the adaptive duty ratio step size P&O algorithm is proposed with major modifications made for sharp insolation change as well as low insolation scenarios. Matlab/Simulink simulation for PV model, boost converter control strategy and various MPPT process is conducted step by step. The proposed adaptive P&O algorithm is validated by the simulation results and detail analysis of sharp insolation changes, low insolation condition and continuous insolation variation.

  9. Design of A Grid Integrated PV System with MPPT Control and Voltage Oriented Controller using MATLAB/PLECES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreng, Bineeta; Behera, Pradyumna; Pradhan, Raseswari

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents model of a grid-integrated photovoltaic array with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) and voltage oriented controller. The MPPT of the PV array is usually an essential part of PV system as MPPT helps the operating point of the solar array to align its maximum power point. In this model, the MPPT along with a DC-DC converter lets a PV generator to produce continuous power, despite of the measurement conditions. The neutral-point-clamped converter (NPC) with a boost converter raises the voltage from the panels to the DC-link. An LCL-filter smoothens the current ripple caused by the PWM modulation of the grid-side inverter. In addition to the MPPT, the system has two more two controllers, such as voltage controller and a current controller. The voltage control has a PI controller to regulate the PV voltage to optimal level by controlling the amount of current injected into the boost stage. Here, the grid-side converter transfers the power from the DC-link into the grid and maintains the DC-link voltage. Three-phase PV inverters are used for off-grid or designed to create utility frequency AC. The PV system can be connected in series or parallel to get the desired output power. To justify the working of this model, the grid-integrated PV system has been designed in MATLAB/PLECS. The simulation shows the P-V curve of implemented PV Array consisting 4 X 20 modules, reactive, real power, grid voltage and current.

  10. Control strategy of grid-connected photovoltaic generation system based on GMPPT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Xuyang; Hu, Bo; Liu, Jun; Li, Ligang; Gu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Bowen

    2018-02-01

    There are multiple local maximum power points when photovoltaic (PV) array runs under partial shading condition (PSC).However, the traditional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm might be easily trapped in local maximum power points (MPPs) and cannot find the global maximum power point (GMPP). To solve such problem, a global maximum power point tracking method (GMPPT) is improved, combined with traditional MPPT method and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Under different operating conditions of PV cells, different tracking algorithms are used. When the environment changes, the improved PSO algorithm is adopted to realize the global optimal search, and the variable step incremental conductance (INC) method is adopted to achieve MPPT in optimal local location. Based on the simulation model of the PV grid system built in Matlab/Simulink, comparative analysis of the tracking effect of MPPT by the proposed control algorithm and the traditional MPPT method under the uniform solar condition and PSC, validate the correctness, feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  11. A novel multi-model neuro-fuzzy-based MPPT for three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system

    SciTech Connect

    Chaouachi, Aymen; Kamel, Rashad M.; Nagasaka, Ken

    This paper presents a novel methodology for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a grid-connected 20 kW photovoltaic (PV) system using neuro-fuzzy network. The proposed method predicts the reference PV voltage guarantying optimal power transfer between the PV generator and the main utility grid. The neuro-fuzzy network is composed of a fuzzy rule-based classifier and three multi-layered feed forwarded Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Inputs of the network (irradiance and temperature) are classified before they are fed into the appropriated ANN for either training or estimation process while the output is the reference voltage. The main advantage of the proposed methodology,more » comparing to a conventional single neural network-based approach, is the distinct generalization ability regarding to the nonlinear and dynamic behavior of a PV generator. In fact, the neuro-fuzzy network is a neural network based multi-model machine learning that defines a set of local models emulating the complex and nonlinear behavior of a PV generator under a wide range of operating conditions. Simulation results under several rapid irradiance variations proved that the proposed MPPT method fulfilled the highest efficiency comparing to a conventional single neural network and the Perturb and Observe (P and O) algorithm dispositive. (author)« less

  12. Maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcidiacono, V.; Corsi, S.; Lambri, L.

    The paper describes two different closed-loop control criteria for the maximum power point tracking of the voltage-current characteristic of a photovoltaic generator. The two criteria are discussed and compared, inter alia, with regard to the setting-up problems that they pose. Although a detailed analysis is not embarked upon, the paper also provides some quantitative information on the energy advantages obtained by using electronic maximum power point tracking systems, as compared with the situation in which the point of operation of the photovoltaic generator is not controlled at all. Lastly, the paper presents two high-efficiency MPPT converters for experimental photovoltaic plants of the stand-alone and the grid-interconnected type.

  13. Optimized MPPT algorithm for boost converters taking into account the environmental variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Pierre; Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Saint-Eve, Frédéric; Maufay, Fabrice; Aillerie, Michel

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the specific behavior of the Boost DC-DC converters generally used for powering conversion of PV panels connected to a HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) Bus. It follows some works pointing out that converter MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) is severely perturbed by output voltage variations due to physical dependency of parameters as the input voltage, the output voltage and the duty cycle of the PWM switching control of the MPPT. As a direct consequence many converters connected together on a same load perturb each other because of the output voltage variations induced by fluctuations on the HVDC bus essentially due to a not insignificant bus impedance. In this paper we show that it is possible to include an internal computed variable in charge to compensate local and external variations to take into account the environment variables.

  14. Voltage oriented control of self-excited induction generator for wind energy system with MPPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amieur, Toufik; Taibi, Djamel; Amieur, Oualid

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the study and simulation of the self-excited induction generator in the wind power production in isolated sites. With this intention, a model of the wind turbine was established. Extremum-seeking control algorithm method by using Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is proposed control solution aims at driving the average position of the operating point near to optimality. The reference of turbine rotor speed is adjusted such that the turbine operates around maximum power for the current wind speed value. After a brief review of the concepts of converting wind energy into electrical energy. The proposed modeling tools were developed to study the performance of standalone induction generators connected to capacitor bank. The purpose of this technique is to maintain a constant voltage at the output of the rectifier whatever the loads and speeds. The system studied in this work is developed and tested in MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results validate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed control methods.

  15. MPPT implementation for the outdoor characterization of CPV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Daniel; Mora, Jaime; Calvo-Parra, Gustavo; Martínez, María

    2015-09-01

    One of the challenges during the characterization of CPV modules is to deal with the thermal behavior. During normal operation in the field the concentrator is connected to the inverter and a fraction of the energy coming from the sun is dissipated with the corresponding conversion into electricity. On the other hand, when making the characterization of CPV modules, they are usually kept in VOC between I-V sweeps, what means that none energy is converted into electricity resulting in a higher operation temperature. Current standards, like IEC-62108:2007 and IEC-62670-3 C01 draft, define that, during the outdoor characterization, the CPV module should be connected to an electrical load to maintain it near MPP between I-V sweeps, what simulates normal operating conditions. The easiest solution could be to use mini-inverters, but it is an expensive solution and not easily adaptable to the different technologies. ISFOC has designed and developed a low-cost MPPT equipment that can be easily implemented in an outdoor characterization laboratory. This equipment is compatible with most of the CPV technologies since it covers a wide range of voltage and current values (up to 150V and 10A) and it is able to distinguish between absolute and local MPP what permits working with modules in any phase of development or making shading effects measurements. Currently, the MPPT is implemented and in operation at ISFOC's outdoor laboratory to make the long term validation. But the results obtained up to now are very promising; the equipment is able to maintain the CPV module under test within a ±3% of the expected power in stable conditions and is able to keep tracking the MPP after any variation in the operating conditions, like cloudy periods, tracking incidence, shading, etc.

  16. Lightweight DC-DC Converter with Partial Power Processing and MPPT for a Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab-Marzouk, Ahmad

    A lightweight dc-dc partial power processing converter is demonstrated for solar aerospace applications. A system-level model is conceived to determine conformity to payload and target distance objectives, with the Solarship aircraft used as an application example. The concept of partial power processing is utilized to realize a high efficiency lightweight converter that performs Max Peak Power Tracking (MPPT) to transfer power from the aircraft solar array to the high-voltage battery bus. The isolated Cuk is determined to be a suitable converter topology for the application. A small-signal model is derived for control design. The operation of a 400V, 2.7 kW prototype is verified at high frequency (200 kHz), high efficiency (> 98%), small mass (0.604 kg), and uses no electrolytic capacitors. MPPT operation is verified on a 376 V commercial solar installation at The University of Toronto. The prototype serves as an enabling technology for solar aerospace applications.

  17. Modular Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel PV Inverter with Distributed MPPT for Grid-Connected Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Bailu; Hang, Lijun; Mei, Jun; ...

    2014-09-04

    This paper presents a modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel photovoltaic (PV) inverter for single- or three-phase grid-connected applications. The modular cascaded multilevel topology helps to improve the efficiency and flexibility of PV systems. To realize better utilization of PV modules and maximize the solar energy extraction, a distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied to both single-phase and three-phase multilevel inverters, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. For three-phase grid-connected applications, PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced supplied power, leading to unbalanced grid current. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is alsomore » proposed. An experimental three-phase 7-level cascaded H-bridge inverter has been built utilizing 9 H-bridge modules (3 modules per phase). Each H-bridge module is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach.« less

  18. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  19. Performance optimization of a hybrid micro-grid based on double-loop MPPT and SVC-MERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yewen; Hou, Xilun; Zhang, Xiang; Xiong, Shengnan; Peng, Fei

    2018-02-01

    With ever-increasing concerns on environmental pollution and energy shortage, the development of renewable resource has attracted a lot of attention. This paper first reviews both the wind and photovoltaic (PV) generation techniques and approaches of micro-grid voltage control. Then, a novel islanded micro-grid, which consists of wind & PV generation and hybrid-energy storage device, is built for application to remote and isolated areas. For the PV power generation branch, a double- maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique is developed to trace the sunlight and regulate the tilt angle of PV panels. For wind-power generation branch, squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) is used as its simple structure, robustness and less cost. In order to stabilize the output voltage of SCIGs, a new Static Var Compensator named magnetic energy recovery switch (SVC-MERS) is applied. Finally, experimental results confirm that both of the proposed methods can improve the efficiency of PV power generation and voltage stability of the micro-grid, respectively.

  20. Accurate Simulation of MPPT Methods Performance When Applied to Commercial Photovoltaic Panels

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions. PMID:25874262

  1. Accurate simulation of MPPT methods performance when applied to commercial photovoltaic panels.

    PubMed

    Cubas, Javier; Pindado, Santiago; Sanz-Andrés, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.

  2. Dynamic Performance Comparison for MPPT-PV Systems using Hybrid Pspice/Matlab Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouchiche, N.; Becherif, M.; HadjArab, A.; Aitcheikh, M. S.; Ramadan, H. S.; Cheknane, A.

    2016-10-01

    The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on the surrounding irradiance and temperature. This paper presents a hybrid Matlab™/Pspice™ simulation model of PV system, combined with Cadence software SLPS. The hybridization is performed in order to gain the advantages of both simulation tools such as accuracy and efficiency in both Pspice electronic circuit and Matlab™ mathematical modelling respectively. For this purpose, the PV panel and the boost converter are developed using Pspice™ and hybridized with the mathematical Matlab™ model of maximum power point method controller (MPPT) through SLPS. The main objective is verify the significance of using the proposed hybrid simulation techniques in comparing the different MPPT algorithms such as the perturbation and observation (P&O), incremental of conductance (Inc-Cond) and counter reaction voltage using pilot cell (Pilot-Cell). Various simulations are performed under different atmospheric conditions in order to evaluate the dynamic behaviour for the system under study in terms of stability, efficiency and rapidity.

  3. Microprocessor-controlled step-down maximum-power-point tracker for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazmuder, R. K.; Haidar, S.

    1992-12-01

    An efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) has been developed and can be used with a photovoltaic (PV) array and a load which requires lower voltage than the PV array voltage to be operated. The MPPT makes the PV array to operate at maximum power point (MPP) under all insolation and temperature, which ensures the maximum amount of available PV power to be delivered to the load. The performance of the MPPT has been studied under different insolation levels.

  4. A Power Conditioning Stage Based on Analog-Circuit MPPT Control and a Superbuck Converter for Thermoelectric Generators in Spacecraft Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Wu, Hongfei; Cai, Yan; Xing, Yan

    2014-06-01

    A thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a very important kind of power supply for spacecraft, especially for deep-space missions, due to its long lifetime and high reliability. To develop a practical TEG power supply for spacecraft, a power conditioning stage is indispensable, being employed to convert the varying output voltage of the TEG modules to a definite voltage for feeding batteries or loads. To enhance the system reliability, a power conditioning stage based on analog-circuit maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) control and a superbuck converter is proposed in this paper. The input of this power conditioning stage is connected to the output of the TEG modules, and the output of this stage is connected to the battery and loads. The superbuck converter is employed as the main circuit, featuring low input current ripples and high conversion efficiency. Since for spacecraft power systems reliable operation is the key target for control circuits, a reset-set flip-flop-based analog circuit is used as the basic control circuit to implement MPPT, being much simpler than digital control circuits and offering higher reliability. Experiments have verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed power conditioning stage. The results show the advantages of the proposed stage, such as maximum utilization of TEG power, small input ripples, and good stability.

  5. Study of Simple MPPT Converter Topologies for Grid Integration of Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakis, Janis; Vinnikov, Dmitri

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of two simple MPPT converter topologies for grid integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. A general description and a steady state analysis of the discussed converters are presented. Main operating modes of the converters are explained. Calculations of main circuit element parameters are provided. Experimental setups of the MPPT converters with the power of 800 W were developed and verified by means of main operation waveforms. Also, experimental and theoretical boost properties of the studied topologies are compared. Finally, the integration possibilities of the presented MPPT converters with a grid side inverter are discussed and verified by simulations.

  6. A novel maximum power point tracking system employing phase comparison techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avaritsiotis, J. N.; Tsitomeneas, S.; Caroubalos, C.

    A new MPPT design is presented that is based on the comparison of the phase of a perturbing signal with that of the signal which is the result of the perturbation. More specifically, a voltage ripple is induced on the power loop of the P/V system and its phase is compared to the phase of the resulting ripple on the electric power P = I x V, where I and V are the current and voltage respectively of the P/V generator. A prototype MPPT based on the previous principle has been designed, constructed, and its performance has been studied.

  7. Optimal tracking and second order sliding power control of the DFIG wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeddaim, S.; Betka, A.; Charrouf, O.

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, an optimal operation of a grid-connected variable speed wind turbine equipped with a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is presented. The proposed cascaded nonlinear controller is designed to perform two main objectives. In the outer loop, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on fuzzy logic theory is designed to permanently extract the optimal aerodynamic energy, whereas in the inner loop, a second order sliding mode control (2-SM) is applied to achieve smooth regulation of both stator active and reactive powers quantities. The obtained simulation results show a permanent track of the MPP point regardless of the turbine power-speed slope moreover the proposed sliding mode control strategy presents attractive features such as chattering-free, compared to the conventional first order sliding technique (1-SM).

  8. Utilizing Maximum Power Point Trackers in Parallel to Maximize the Power Output of a Solar (Photovoltaic) Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    photovoltaic (PV) system to use a maximum power point tracker ( MPPT ) to increase... photovoltaic (PV) system to use a maximum power point tracker ( MPPT ) to increase the power output of the solar array. Currently, most military... MPPT ) is an optimizing circuit that is used in conjunction with photovoltaic (PV) arrays to achieve the maximum delivery of power from the array

  9. Chaos Quantum-Behaved Cat Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Application in the PV MPPT

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) algorithm was put forward in 2006. Despite a faster convergence speed compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, the application of CSO is greatly limited by the drawback of “premature convergence,” that is, the possibility of trapping in local optimum when dealing with nonlinear optimization problem with a large number of local extreme values. In order to surmount the shortcomings of CSO, Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (QCSO) algorithm improves the accuracy of the CSO algorithm, because it is easy to fall into the local optimum in the later stage. Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed by introducing tent map for jumping out of local optimum in this paper. Secondly, CQCSO has been applied in the simulation of five different test functions, showing higher accuracy and less time consumption than CSO and QCSO. Finally, photovoltaic MPPT model and experimental platform are established and global maximum power point tracking control strategy is achieved by CQCSO algorithm, the effectiveness and efficiency of which have been verified by both simulation and experiment. PMID:29181020

  10. Chaos Quantum-Behaved Cat Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Application in the PV MPPT.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaohua; Wang, Wei; Nie, Haoyao

    2017-01-01

    Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) algorithm was put forward in 2006. Despite a faster convergence speed compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, the application of CSO is greatly limited by the drawback of "premature convergence," that is, the possibility of trapping in local optimum when dealing with nonlinear optimization problem with a large number of local extreme values. In order to surmount the shortcomings of CSO, Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (QCSO) algorithm improves the accuracy of the CSO algorithm, because it is easy to fall into the local optimum in the later stage. Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed by introducing tent map for jumping out of local optimum in this paper. Secondly, CQCSO has been applied in the simulation of five different test functions, showing higher accuracy and less time consumption than CSO and QCSO. Finally, photovoltaic MPPT model and experimental platform are established and global maximum power point tracking control strategy is achieved by CQCSO algorithm, the effectiveness and efficiency of which have been verified by both simulation and experiment.

  11. Tracking prominent points in image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael

    1994-03-01

    Measuring image motion and inferring scene geometry and camera motion are main aspects of image sequence analysis. The determination of image motion and the structure-from-motion problem are tasks that can be addressed independently or in cooperative processes. In this paper we focus on tracking prominent points. High stability, reliability, and accuracy are criteria for the extraction of prominent points. This implies that tracking should work quite well with those features; unfortunately, the reality looks quite different. In the experimental investigations we processed a long sequence of 128 images. This mono sequence is taken in an outdoor environment at the experimental field of Mercedes Benz in Rastatt. Different tracking schemes are explored and the results with respect to stability and quality are reported.

  12. Correlation and 3D-tracking of objects by pointing sensors

    DOEpatents

    Griesmeyer, J. Michael

    2017-04-04

    A method and system for tracking at least one object using a plurality of pointing sensors and a tracking system are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the tracking system is configured to receive a series of observation data relative to the at least one object over a time base for each of the plurality of pointing sensors. The observation data may include sensor position data, pointing vector data and observation error data. The tracking system may further determine a triangulation point using a magnitude of a shortest line connecting a line of sight value from each of the series of observation data from each of the plurality of sensors to the at least one object, and perform correlation processing on the observation data and triangulation point to determine if at least two of the plurality of sensors are tracking the same object. Observation data may also be branched, associated and pruned using new incoming observation data.

  13. Comparison of P&O and INC Methods in Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hesheng; Cui, Yuanhui; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhisen

    2018-03-01

    In the context of renewable energy, the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is often used to increase the solar power efficiency, taking into account the randomness and volatility of solar energy due to changes in temperature and photovoltaic. In all MPPT techniques, perturb & observe and incremental conductance are widely used in MPPT controllers, because of their simplicity and ease of operation. According to the internal structure of the photovoltaic cell and the output volt-ampere characteristic, this paper established the circuit model and establishes the dynamic simulation model in Matlab/Simulink with the preparation of the s function. The perturb & observe MPPT method and the incremental conductance MPPT method were analyzed and compared by the theoretical analysis and digital simulation. The simulation results have shown that the system with INC MPPT method has better dynamic performance and improves the output power of photovoltaic power generation.

  14. High Step-Up DC—DC Converter for AC Photovoltaic Module with MPPT Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Govindasamy; Karthick, Narashiman; Rama Reddy, Sasi

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the high gain step-up BOOST converter which is essential to step up the low output voltage from PV panel to the high voltage according to the requirement of the application. In this paper a high gain BOOST converter with coupled inductor technique is proposed with the MPPT control. Without extreme duty ratios and the numerous turns-ratios of a coupled inductor this converter achieves a high step-up voltage-conversion ratio and the leakage energy of the coupled inductor is efficiently recycled to the load. MPPT control used to extract the maximum power from PV panel by controlling the Duty ratio of the converter. The PV panel, BOOST converter and the MPPT are modeled using Sim Power System blocks in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The prototype model of the proposed converter has been implemented with the maximum measured efficiency is up to 95.4% and full-load efficiency is 93.1%.

  15. Face landmark point tracking using LK pyramid optical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gang; Tang, Sikan; Li, Jiaquan

    2018-04-01

    LK pyramid optical flow is an effective method to implement object tracking in a video. It is used for face landmark point tracking in a video in the paper. The landmark points, i.e. outer corner of left eye, inner corner of left eye, inner corner of right eye, outer corner of right eye, tip of a nose, left corner of mouth, right corner of mouth, are considered. It is in the first frame that the landmark points are marked by hand. For subsequent frames, performance of tracking is analyzed. Two kinds of conditions are considered, i.e. single factors such as normalized case, pose variation and slowly moving, expression variation, illumination variation, occlusion, front face and rapidly moving, pose face and rapidly moving, and combination of the factors such as pose and illumination variation, pose and expression variation, pose variation and occlusion, illumination and expression variation, expression variation and occlusion. Global measures and local ones are introduced to evaluate performance of tracking under different factors or combination of the factors. The global measures contain the number of images aligned successfully, average alignment error, the number of images aligned before failure, and the local ones contain the number of images aligned successfully for components of a face, average alignment error for the components. To testify performance of tracking for face landmark points under different cases, tests are carried out for image sequences gathered by us. Results show that the LK pyramid optical flow method can implement face landmark point tracking under normalized case, expression variation, illumination variation which does not affect facial details, pose variation, and that different factors or combination of the factors have different effect on performance of alignment for different landmark points.

  16. High performance monolithic power management system with dynamic maximum power point tracking for microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Celal; Carreon-Bautista, Salvador; Sanchez-Sinencio, Edgar; Han, Arum

    2014-12-02

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) that can directly generate electricity from organic waste or biomass is a promising renewable and clean technology. However, low power and low voltage output of MFCs typically do not allow directly operating most electrical applications, whether it is supplementing electricity to wastewater treatment plants or for powering autonomous wireless sensor networks. Power management systems (PMSs) can overcome this limitation by boosting the MFC output voltage and managing the power for maximum efficiency. We present a monolithic low-power-consuming PMS integrated circuit (IC) chip capable of dynamic maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to maximize the extracted power from MFCs, regardless of the power and voltage fluctuations from MFCs over time. The proposed PMS continuously detects the maximum power point (MPP) of the MFC and matches the load impedance of the PMS for maximum efficiency. The system also operates autonomously by directly drawing power from the MFC itself without any external power. The overall system efficiency, defined as the ratio between input energy from the MFC and output energy stored into the supercapacitor of the PMS, was 30%. As a demonstration, the PMS connected to a 240 mL two-chamber MFC (generating 0.4 V and 512 μW at MPP) successfully powered a wireless temperature sensor that requires a voltage of 2.5 V and consumes power of 85 mW each time it transmit the sensor data, and successfully transmitted a sensor reading every 7.5 min. The PMS also efficiently managed the power output of a lower-power producing MFC, demonstrating that the PMS works efficiently at various MFC power output level.

  17. Adaptive smart simulator for characterization and MPPT construction of PV array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouada, Mehdi; Meridjet, Mohamed Salah; Dib, Djalel

    2016-07-01

    Partial shading conditions are among the most important problems in large photovoltaic array. Many works of literature are interested in modeling, control and optimization of photovoltaic conversion of solar energy under partial shading conditions, The aim of this study is to build a software simulator similar to hard simulator and to produce a shading pattern of the proposed photovoltaic array in order to use the delivered information to obtain an optimal configuration of the PV array and construct MPPT algorithm. Graphical user interfaces (Matlab GUI) are built using a developed script, this tool is easy to use, simple, and has a rapid of responsiveness, the simulator supports large array simulations that can be interfaced with MPPT and power electronic converters.

  18. Adaptive smart simulator for characterization and MPPT construction of PV array

    SciTech Connect

    Ouada, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.ouada@univ-annaba.org; Meridjet, Mohamed Salah; Dib, Djalel

    2016-07-25

    Partial shading conditions are among the most important problems in large photovoltaic array. Many works of literature are interested in modeling, control and optimization of photovoltaic conversion of solar energy under partial shading conditions, The aim of this study is to build a software simulator similar to hard simulator and to produce a shading pattern of the proposed photovoltaic array in order to use the delivered information to obtain an optimal configuration of the PV array and construct MPPT algorithm. Graphical user interfaces (Matlab GUI) are built using a developed script, this tool is easy to use, simple, and hasmore » a rapid of responsiveness, the simulator supports large array simulations that can be interfaced with MPPT and power electronic converters.« less

  19. Ultra-Wideband Time-Difference-of-Arrival Two-Point-Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun David; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2009-01-01

    A UWB TDOA Two-Point-Tracking System has been conceived and developed at JSC. This system can provide sub-inch tracking capability of two points on one target. This capability can be applied to guide a docking process in a 2D space. Lab tests demonstrate the feasibility of this technology.

  20. Multi-Layer Artificial Neural Networks Based MPPT-Pitch Angle Control of a Tidal Stream Generator

    PubMed Central

    Bouallègue, Soufiene; Garrido, Aitor J.; Haggège, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Artificial intelligence technologies are widely investigated as a promising technique for tackling complex and ill-defined problems. In this context, artificial neural networks methodology has been considered as an effective tool to handle renewable energy systems. Thereby, the use of Tidal Stream Generator (TSG) systems aim to provide clean and reliable electrical power. However, the power captured from tidal currents is highly disturbed due to the swell effect and the periodicity of the tidal current phenomenon. In order to improve the quality of the generated power, this paper focuses on the power smoothing control. For this purpose, a novel Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is investigated and implemented to provide the proper rotational speed reference and the blade pitch angle. The ANN supervisor adequately switches the system in variable speed and power limitation modes. In order to recover the maximum power from the tides, a rotational speed control is applied to the rotor side converter following the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) generated from the ANN block. In case of strong tidal currents, a pitch angle control is set based on the ANN approach to keep the system operating within safe limits. Two study cases were performed to test the performance of the output power. Simulation results demonstrate that the implemented control strategies achieve a smoothed generated power in the case of swell disturbances. PMID:29695127

  1. Multi-Layer Artificial Neural Networks Based MPPT-Pitch Angle Control of a Tidal Stream Generator.

    PubMed

    Ghefiri, Khaoula; Bouallègue, Soufiene; Garrido, Izaskun; Garrido, Aitor J; Haggège, Joseph

    2018-04-24

    Artificial intelligence technologies are widely investigated as a promising technique for tackling complex and ill-defined problems. In this context, artificial neural networks methodology has been considered as an effective tool to handle renewable energy systems. Thereby, the use of Tidal Stream Generator (TSG) systems aim to provide clean and reliable electrical power. However, the power captured from tidal currents is highly disturbed due to the swell effect and the periodicity of the tidal current phenomenon. In order to improve the quality of the generated power, this paper focuses on the power smoothing control. For this purpose, a novel Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is investigated and implemented to provide the proper rotational speed reference and the blade pitch angle. The ANN supervisor adequately switches the system in variable speed and power limitation modes. In order to recover the maximum power from the tides, a rotational speed control is applied to the rotor side converter following the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) generated from the ANN block. In case of strong tidal currents, a pitch angle control is set based on the ANN approach to keep the system operating within safe limits. Two study cases were performed to test the performance of the output power. Simulation results demonstrate that the implemented control strategies achieve a smoothed generated power in the case of swell disturbances.

  2. Investigation on the Maximum Power Point in Solar Panel Characteristics Due to Irradiance Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, M. A.; Fauziah Toha, Siti; Ahmad, Salmiah

    2017-03-01

    One of the disadvantages of the photovoltaic module as compared to other renewable resources is the dynamic characteristics of solar irradiance due to inconsistency weather condition and surrounding temperature. Commonly, a photovoltaic power generation systems consist of an embedded control system to maximize the power generation due to the inconsistency in irradiance. In order to improve the simplicity of the power optimization control, this paper present the characteristic of Maximum Power Point with various irradiance levels for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT). The technique requires a set of data from photovoltaic simulation model to be extrapolated as a standard relationship between irradiance and maximum power. The result shows that the relationship between irradiance and maximum power can be represented by a simplified quadratic equation. The first section in your paper

  3. Magnification of starting torques of dc motors by maximum power point trackers in photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Singer, S.

    1989-01-01

    A calculation of the starting torque ratio of permanent magnet, series, and shunt-excited dc motors powered by solar cell arrays is presented for two cases, i.e., with and without a maximum-power-point tracker (MPPT). Defining motor torque magnification by the ratio of the motor torque with an MPPT to the motor torque without an MPPT, a magnification of 3 for the permanent magnet motor and a magnification of 7 for both the series and shunt motors are obtained. The study also shows that all motor types are less sensitive to solar insolation variation in systems including MPPTs as compared to systems without MPPTs.

  4. Significant body point labeling and tracking.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Faisal; Tjahjadi, Tardi

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a method is presented to label and track anatomical landmarks (e.g., head, hand/arm, feet), which are referred to as significant body points (SBPs), using implicit body models. By considering the human body as an inverted pendulum model, ellipse fitting and contour moments are applied to classify it as being in Stand, Sit, or Lie posture. A convex hull of the silhouette contour is used to determine the locations of SBPs. The particle filter or a motion flow-based method is used to predict SBPs in occlusion. Stick figures of various activities are generated by connecting the SBPs. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation show that the proposed method robustly labels and tracks SBPs in various activities of two different (low and high) resolution data sets.

  5. Novel laser communications transceiver with internal gimbal-less pointing and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalfant, Charles H., III; Orlando, Fred J., Jr.; Gregory, Jeff T.; Sulham, Clifford; O'Neal, Chad B.; Taylor, Geoffrey W.; Craig, Douglas M.; Foshee, James J.; Lovett, J. Timothy

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes a novel laser communications transceiver for use in multi-platform satellite networks or clusters that provides internal pointing and tracking technique allowing static mounting of the transceiver subsystems and minimal use of mechanical stabilization techniques. This eliminates the need for the large, power hungry, mechanical gimbals that are required for laser cross-link pointing, acquisition and tracking. The miniature transceiver is designed for pointing accuracies required for satellite cross-link distances of between 500 meters to 5000 meters. Specifically, the designs are targeting Air Force Research Lab's TechSat21 Program, although alternative transceiver configurations can provide for much greater link distances and other satellite systems. The receiver and transmitter are connected via fiber optic cabling from a separate electronics subsystem containing the optoelectronics PCBs, thereby eliminating active optoelectronic elements from the transceiver's mechanical housing. The internal acquisition and tracking capability is provided by an advanced micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) and an optical design that provides a specific field-of-view based on the satellite cluster's interface specifications. The acquisition & tracking control electronics will utilize conventional closed loop tracking techniques. The link optical power budget and optoelectronics designs allow use of transmitter sources with output powers of near 100 mW. The transceiver will provide data rates of up to 2.5 Gbps and operate at either 1310 nm or 1550 nm. In addition to space-based satellite to satellite cross-links, we are planning to develop a broad range of applications including air to air communications between highly mobile airborne platforms and terrestrial fixed point to point communications.

  6. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai

    2017-05-01

    To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.

  7. CMOS imager for pointing and tracking applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Chao (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Heynssens, Julie B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Systems and techniques to realize pointing and tracking applications with CMOS imaging devices. In general, in one implementation, the technique includes: sampling multiple rows and multiple columns of an active pixel sensor array into a memory array (e.g., an on-chip memory array), and reading out the multiple rows and multiple columns sampled in the memory array to provide image data with reduced motion artifact. Various operation modes may be provided, including TDS, CDS, CQS, a tracking mode to read out multiple windows, and/or a mode employing a sample-first-read-later readout scheme. The tracking mode can take advantage of a diagonal switch array. The diagonal switch array, the active pixel sensor array and the memory array can be integrated onto a single imager chip with a controller. This imager device can be part of a larger imaging system for both space-based applications and terrestrial applications.

  8. Application of inertial instruments for DSN antenna pointing and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, D. B.; Nerheim, N. M.; Holmes, K. G.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using inertial instruments to determine the pointing attitude of the NASA Deep Space Network antennas is examined. The objective is to obtain 1 mdeg pointing knowledge in both blind pointing and tracking modes to facilitate operation of the Deep Space Network 70 m antennas at 32 GHz. A measurement system employing accelerometers, an inclinometer, and optical gyroscopes is proposed. The initial pointing attitude is established by determining the direction of the local gravity vector using the accelerometers and the inclinometer, and the Earth's spin axis using the gyroscopes. Pointing during long-term tracking is maintained by integrating the gyroscope rates and augmenting these measurements with knowledge of the local gravity vector. A minimum-variance estimator is used to combine measurements to obtain the antenna pointing attitude. A key feature of the algorithm is its ability to recalibrate accelerometer parameters during operation. A survey of available inertial instrument technologies is also given.

  9. Feature point based 3D tracking of multiple fish from multi-view images

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Zhi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    A feature point based method is proposed for tracking multiple fish in 3D space. First, a simplified representation of the object is realized through construction of two feature point models based on its appearance characteristics. After feature points are classified into occluded and non-occluded types, matching and association are performed, respectively. Finally, the object's motion trajectory in 3D space is obtained through integrating multi-view tracking results. Experimental results show that the proposed method can simultaneously track 3D motion trajectories for up to 10 fish accurately and robustly. PMID:28665966

  10. Feature point based 3D tracking of multiple fish from multi-view images.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2017-01-01

    A feature point based method is proposed for tracking multiple fish in 3D space. First, a simplified representation of the object is realized through construction of two feature point models based on its appearance characteristics. After feature points are classified into occluded and non-occluded types, matching and association are performed, respectively. Finally, the object's motion trajectory in 3D space is obtained through integrating multi-view tracking results. Experimental results show that the proposed method can simultaneously track 3D motion trajectories for up to 10 fish accurately and robustly.

  11. A maximum power point tracking algorithm for buoy-rope-drum wave energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Zhou, Y.; Cui, Z. C.; Zhu, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    The maximum power point tracking control is the key link to improve the energy conversion efficiency of wave energy converters (WEC). This paper presents a novel variable step size Perturb and Observe maximum power point tracking algorithm with a power classification standard for control of a buoy-rope-drum WEC. The algorithm and simulation model of the buoy-rope-drum WEC are presented in details, as well as simulation experiment results. The results show that the algorithm tracks the maximum power point of the WEC fast and accurately.

  12. Autonomous subpixel satellite track end point determination for space-based images.

    PubMed

    Simms, Lance M

    2011-08-01

    An algorithm for determining satellite track end points with subpixel resolution in spaced-based images is presented. The algorithm allows for significant curvature in the imaged track due to rotation of the spacecraft capturing the image. The motivation behind the subpixel end point determination is first presented, followed by a description of the methodology used. Results from running the algorithm on real ground-based and simulated spaced-based images are shown to highlight its effectiveness.

  13. Magnification of starting torques of dc motors by maximum power point trackers in photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Singer, S.

    1989-01-01

    Direct current (dc) motors are used in terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) systems such as in water-pumping systems for irrigation and water supply. Direct current motors may also be used for space applications. Simple and low weight systems including dc motors may be of special interest in space where the motors are directly coupled to the solar cell array (with no storage). The system will operate only during times when sufficient insolation is available. An important performance characteristic of electric motors is the starting to rated torque ratio. Different types of dc motors have different starting torque ratios. These ratios are dictated by the size of solar cell array, and the developed motor torque may not be sufficient to overcome the load starting torque. By including a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in the PV system, the starting to rated torque ratio will increase, the amount of which depends on the motor type. The starting torque ratio is calculated for the permanent magnet, series and shunt excited dc motors when powered by solar cell arrays for two cases: with and without MPPT's. Defining a motor torque magnification by the ratio of the motor torque with an MPPT to the motor torque without an MPPT, a magnification of 3 was obtained for the permanent magnet motor and a magnification of 7 for both the series and shunt motors. The effect of the variation of solar insolation on the motor starting torque was covered. All motor types are less sensitive to insolation variation in systems including MPPT's as compared to systems with MPPT's. The analysis of this paper will assist the PV system designed to determine whether or not to include an MPPT in the system for a specific motor type.

  14. Increased Energy Delivery for Parallel Battery Packs with No Regulated Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chung-Ti

    In this dissertation, a new approach to paralleling different battery types is presented. A method for controlling charging/discharging of different battery packs by using low-cost bi-directional switches instead of DC-DC converters is proposed. The proposed system architecture, algorithms, and control techniques allow batteries with different chemistry, voltage, and SOC to be properly charged and discharged in parallel without causing safety problems. The physical design and cost for the energy management system is substantially reduced. Additionally, specific types of failures in the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in a photovoltaic (PV) system when tracking only the load current of a DC-DC converter are analyzed. The periodic nonlinear load current will lead MPPT realized by the conventional perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm to be problematic. A modified MPPT algorithm is proposed and it still only requires typically measured signals, yet is suitable for both linear and periodic nonlinear loads. Moreover, for a modular DC-DC converter using several converters in parallel, the input power from PV panels is processed and distributed at the module level. Methods for properly implementing distributed MPPT are studied. A new approach to efficient MPPT under partial shading conditions is presented. The power stage architecture achieves fast input current change rate by combining a current-adjustable converter with a few converters operating at a constant current.

  15. Experimental study of adaptive pointing and tracking for large flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, D.; Bayard, D. S.; Ih, C.; Wang, S. J.; Ahmed, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of adaptive pointing and tracking control for flexible spacecraft conducted on a complex ground experiment facility. The algorithm used in this study is based on a multivariable direct model reference adaptive control law. Several experimental validation studies were performed earlier using this algorithm for vibration damping and robust regulation, with excellent results. The current work extends previous studies by addressing the pointing and tracking problem. As is consistent with an adaptive control framework, the plant is assumed to be poorly known to the extent that only system level knowledge of its dynamics is available. Explicit bounds on the steady-state pointing error are derived as functions of the adaptive controller design parameters. It is shown that good tracking performance can be achieved in an experimental setting by adjusting adaptive controller design weightings according to the guidelines indicated by the analytical expressions for the error.

  16. Face pose tracking using the four-point algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Ho Yin; Wong, Kin Hong; Yu, Ying Kin; Tsui, Kwan Pang; Kam, Ho Chuen

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to track the pose of a human face robustly and efficiently. Face pose estimation is very useful in many applications such as building virtual reality systems and creating an alternative input method for the disabled. Firstly, we have modified a face detection toolbox called DLib for the detection of a face in front of a camera. The detected face features are passed to a pose estimation method, known as the four-point algorithm, for pose computation. The theory applied and the technical problems encountered during system development are discussed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the system is able to track the pose of a face in real time using a consumer grade laptop computer.

  17. Research of PV Power Generation MPPT based on GABP Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu; Lin, Xianfu

    2018-05-01

    Photovoltaic power generation has become the main research direction of new energy power generation. But high investment and low efficiency of photovoltaic industry arouse concern in some extent. So maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic power generation has been a popular study point. Due to slow response, oscillation at maximum power point and low precision, the algorithm based on genetic algorithm combined with BP neural network are designed detailedly in this paper. And the modeling and simulation are completed by use of MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results show that the algorithm is effective and the maximum power point can be tracked accurately and quickly.

  18. The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of acquisition, tracking, and pointing technologies (HABE-ATP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimiduk, D.; Caylor, M.; Williamson, D.; Larson, L.

    1995-01-01

    The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing (HABE-ATP) is a system built around balloon-borne payload which is carried to a nominal 26-km altitude. The goal is laser tracking thrusting theater and strategic missiles, and then pointing a surrogate laser weapon beam, with performance levels end a timeline traceable to operational laser weapon system requirements. This goal leads to an experiment system design which combines hardware from many technology areas: an optical telescope and IR sensors; an advanced angular inertial reference; a flexible multi-level of actuation digital control system; digital tracking processors which incorporate real-time image analysis and a pulsed, diode-pumped solid state tracking laser. The system components have been selected to meet the overall experiment goals of tracking unmodified boosters at 50- 200 km range. The ATP system on HABE must stabilize and control a relative line of sight between the platform and the unmodified target booster to a 1 microrad accuracy. The angular pointing reference system supports both open loop and closed loop track modes; GPS provides absolute position reference. The control system which positions the line of sight for the ATP system must sequence through accepting a state vector handoff, closed-loop passive IR acquisition, passive IR intermediate fine track, active fine track, and then finally aimpoint determination and maintenance modes. Line of sight stabilization to fine accuracy levels is accomplished by actuating wide bandwidth fast steering mirrors (FSM's). These control loops off-load large-amplitude errors to the outer gimbal in order to remain within the limited angular throw of the FSM's. The SWIR acquisition and MWIR intermediate fine track sensors (both PtSi focal planes) image the signature of the rocket plume. After Hard Body Handover (HBHO), active fine tracking is conducted with a visible focal plane viewing the laser-illuminated target

  19. Dithering Digital Ripple Correlation Control for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, C; Pilawa-Podgurski, RCN

    This study demonstrates a new method for rapid and precise maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic (PV) applications using dithered PWM control. Constraints imposed by efficiency, cost, and component size limit the available PWM resolution of a power converter, and may in turn limit the MPP tracking efficiency of the PV system. In these scenarios, PWM dithering can be used to improve average PWM resolution. In this study, we present a control technique that uses ripple correlation control (RCC) on the dithering ripple, thereby achieving simultaneous fast tracking speed and high tracking accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method solves some ofmore » the practical challenges that have to date limited the effectiveness of RCC in solar PV applications. We present a theoretical derivation of the principles behind dithering digital ripple correlation control, as well as experimental results that show excellent tracking speed and accuracy with basic hardware requirements.« less

  20. Differential Rotation via Tracking of Coronal Bright Points.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAteer, James; Boucheron, Laura E.; Osorno, Marcy

    2016-05-01

    The accurate computation of solar differential rotation is important both as a constraint for, and evidence towards, support of models of the solar dynamo. As such, the use of Xray and Extreme Ultraviolet bright points to elucidate differential rotation has been studied in recent years. In this work, we propose the automated detection and tracking of coronal bright points (CBPs) in a large set of SDO data for re-evaluation of solar differential rotation and comparison to other results. The big data aspects, and high cadence, of SDO data mitigate a few issues common to detection and tracking of objects in image sequences and allow us to focus on the use of CBPs to determine differential rotation. The high cadence of the data allows to disambiguate individual CBPs between subsequent images by allowing for significant spatial overlap, i.e., by the fact that the CBPs will rotate a short distance relative to their size. The significant spatial overlap minimizes the effects of incorrectly detected CBPs by reducing the occurrence of outlier values of differential rotation. The big data aspects of the data allows to be more conservative in our detection of CBPs (i.e., to err on the side of missing CBPs rather than detecting extraneous CBPs) while still maintaining statistically larger populations over which to study characteristics. The ability to compute solar differential rotation through the automated detection and tracking of a large population of CBPs will allow for further analyses such as the N-S asymmetry of differential rotation, variation of differential rotation over the solar cycle, and a detailed study of the magnetic flux underlying the CBPs.

  1. Point-cloud-to-point-cloud technique on tool calibration for dental implant surgical path tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorsakul, Auranuch; Suthakorn, Jackrit; Sinthanayothin, Chanjira

    2008-03-01

    Dental implant is one of the most popular methods of tooth root replacement used in prosthetic dentistry. Computerize navigation system on a pre-surgical plan is offered to minimize potential risk of damage to critical anatomic structures of patients. Dental tool tip calibrating is basically an important procedure of intraoperative surgery to determine the relation between the hand-piece tool tip and hand-piece's markers. With the transferring coordinates from preoperative CT data to reality, this parameter is a part of components in typical registration problem. It is a part of navigation system which will be developed for further integration. A high accuracy is required, and this relation is arranged by point-cloud-to-point-cloud rigid transformations and singular value decomposition (SVD) for minimizing rigid registration errors. In earlier studies, commercial surgical navigation systems from, such as, BrainLAB and Materialize, have flexibility problem on tool tip calibration. Their systems either require a special tool tip calibration device or are unable to change the different tool. The proposed procedure is to use the pointing device or hand-piece to touch on the pivot and the transformation matrix. This matrix is calculated every time when it moves to the new position while the tool tip stays at the same point. The experiment acquired on the information of tracking device, image acquisition and image processing algorithms. The key success is that point-to-point-cloud requires only 3 post images of tool to be able to converge to the minimum errors 0.77%, and the obtained result is correct in using the tool holder to track the path simulation line displayed in graphic animation.

  2. Energy-Efficient Underwater Surveillance by Means of Hybrid Aquacopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    life-cycle analysis, photovoltaic device maximum power point tracking (MPPT), and surface treatments for antifouling of the solar cells can be...108 3. Power Conversion and Storage...15 Figure 10. Shallow Water Analysis and Forecast System product, displaying regional ocean current vectors overlaying a sea surface

  3. Sliding mode controller for a photovoltaic pumping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElOugli, A.; Miqoi, S.; Boutouba, M.; Tidhaf, B.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a sliding mode control scheme (SMC) for maximum power point tracking controller for a photovoltaic pumping system, is proposed. The main goal is to maximize the flow rate for a water pump, by forcing the photovoltaic system to operate in its MPP, to obtain the maximum power that a PV system can deliver.And this, through the intermediary of a sliding mode controller to track and control the MPP by overcoming the power oscillation around the operating point, which appears in most implemented MPPT techniques. The sliding mode control approach is recognized as one of the efficient and powerful tools for nonlinear systems under uncertainty conditions.The proposed controller with photovoltaic pumping system is designed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. In addition, to evaluate its performances, a classical MPPT algorithm using perturb and observe (P&O) has been used for the same system to compare to our controller. Simulation results are shown.

  4. Adaptive Neural Star Tracker Calibration for Precision Spacecraft Pointing and Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    1996-01-01

    The Star Tracker is an essential sensor for precision pointing and tracking in most 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. In the interest (of) improving pointing performance by taking advantage of dramatic increases in flight computer power and memory anticipated over the next decade, this paper investigates the use of a neural net for adaptive in-flight calibration of the Star Tracker.

  5. An automated method for the evaluation of the pointing accuracy of sun-tracking devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Rieder, Harald E.; Pötzi, Werner; Freislich, Heinrich; Strutzmann, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of measurements of solar radiation (direct and diffuse radiation) depends significantly on the accuracy of the operational sun-tracking device. Thus rigid targets for instrument performance and operation are specified for international monitoring networks, such as e.g., the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) operating under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). Sun-tracking devices fulfilling these accuracy targets are available from various instrument manufacturers, however none of the commercially available systems comprises a secondary accuracy control system, allowing platform operators to independently validate the pointing accuracy of sun-tracking sensors during operation. Here we present KSO-STREAMS (KSO-SunTRackEr Accuracy Monitoring System), a fully automated, system independent and cost-effective method for evaluating the pointing accuracy of sun-tracking devices. We detail the monitoring system setup, its design and specifications and results from its application to the sun-tracking system operated at the Austrian RADiation network (ARAD) site Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO). Results from KSO-STREAMS (for mid-March to mid-June 2015) show that the tracking accuracy of the device operated at KSO lies well within BSRN specifications (i.e. 0.1 degree accuracy). We contrast results during clear-sky and partly cloudy conditions documenting sun-tracking performance at manufacturer specified accuracies for active tracking (0.02 degrees) and highlight accuracies achieved during passive tracking i.e. periods with less than 300 W m-2 direct radiation. Furthermore we detail limitations to tracking surveillance during overcast conditions and periods of partial solar limb coverage by clouds.

  6. Track and mode controller (TMC): a software executive for a high-altitude pointing and tracking experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michnovicz, Michael R.

    1997-06-01

    A real-time executive has been implemented to control a high altitude pointing and tracking experiment. The track and mode controller (TMC) implements a table driven design, in which the track mode logic for a tracking mission is defined within a state transition diagram (STD). THe STD is implemented as a state transition table in the TMC software. Status Events trigger the state transitions in the STD. Each state, as it is entered, causes a number of processes to be activated within the system. As these processes propagate through the system, the status of key processes are monitored by the TMC, allowing further transitions within the STD. This architecture is implemented in real-time, using the vxWorks operating system. VxWorks message queues allow communication of status events from the Event Monitor task to the STD task. Process commands are propagated to the rest of the system processors by means of the SCRAMNet shared memory network. The system mode logic contained in the STD will autonomously sequence in acquisition, tracking and pointing system through an entire engagement sequence, starting with target detection and ending with aimpoint maintenance. Simulation results and lab test results will be presented to verify the mode controller. In addition to implementing the system mode logic with the STD, the TMC can process prerecorded time sequences of commands required during startup operations. It can also process single commands from the system operator. In this paper, the author presents (1) an overview, in which he describes the TMC architecture, the relationship of an end-to-end simulation to the flight software and the laboratory testing environment, (2) implementation details, including information on the vxWorks message queues and the SCRAMNet shared memory network, (3) simulation results and lab test results which verify the mode controller, and (4) plans for the future, specifically as to how this executive will expedite transition to a fully

  7. A novel infrared small moving target detection method based on tracking interest points under complicated background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiabin; Huang, Xinsheng; Zheng, Yongbin; Bai, Shengjian; Xu, Wanying

    2014-07-01

    Infrared moving target detection is an important part of infrared technology. We introduce a novel infrared small moving target detection method based on tracking interest points under complicated background. Firstly, Difference of Gaussians (DOG) filters are used to detect a group of interest points (including the moving targets). Secondly, a sort of small targets tracking method inspired by Human Visual System (HVS) is used to track these interest points for several frames, and then the correlations between interest points in the first frame and the last frame are obtained. Last, a new clustering method named as R-means is proposed to divide these interest points into two groups according to the correlations, one is target points and another is background points. In experimental results, the target-to-clutter ratio (TCR) and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves are computed experimentally to compare the performances of the proposed method and other five sophisticated methods. From the results, the proposed method shows a better discrimination of targets and clutters and has a lower false alarm rate than the existing moving target detection methods.

  8. Frequency analysis of gaze points with CT colonography interpretation using eye gaze tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Shoko; Tamashiro, Wataru; Sato, Mitsuru; Okajima, Mika; Ogura, Toshihiro; Doi, Kunio

    2017-03-01

    It is important to investigate eye tracking gaze points of experts, in order to assist trainees in understanding of image interpretation process. We investigated gaze points of CT colonography (CTC) interpretation process, and analyzed the difference in gaze points between experts and trainees. In this study, we attempted to understand how trainees can be improved to a level achieved by experts in viewing of CTC. We used an eye gaze point sensing system, Gazefineder (JVCKENWOOD Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), which can detect pupil point and corneal reflection point by the dark pupil eye tracking. This system can provide gaze points images and excel file data. The subjects are radiological technologists who are experienced, and inexperienced in reading CTC. We performed observer studies in reading virtual pathology images and examined observer's image interpretation process using gaze points data. Furthermore, we examined eye tracking frequency analysis by using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). We were able to understand the difference in gaze points between experts and trainees by use of the frequency analysis. The result of the trainee had a large amount of both high-frequency components and low-frequency components. In contrast, both components by the expert were relatively low. Regarding the amount of eye movement in every 0.02 second we found that the expert tended to interpret images slowly and calmly. On the other hand, the trainee was moving eyes quickly and also looking for wide areas. We can assess the difference in the gaze points on CTC between experts and trainees by use of the eye gaze point sensing system and based on the frequency analysis. The potential improvements in CTC interpretation for trainees can be evaluated by using gaze points data.

  9. Noble-TLBO MPPT Technique and its Comparative Analysis with Conventional methods implemented on Solar Photo Voltaic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsariya, Ajay; Rai, Shiwani; Kumar, Yogendra, Dr.; Kirar, Mukesh, Dr.

    2017-08-01

    The energy crisis particularly with developing GDPs, has bring up to a new panorama of sustainable power source like solar energy, which has encountered huge development. Progressively high infiltration level of photovoltaic (PV) era emerges in keen matrix. Sunlight based power is irregular and variable, as the sun based source at the ground level is exceedingly subject to overcast cover inconstancy, environmental vaporized levels, and other climate parameters. The inalienable inconstancy of substantial scale sun based era acquaints huge difficulties with keen lattice vitality administration. Exact determining of sun powered power/irradiance is basic to secure financial operation of the shrewd framework. In this paper a noble TLBO-MPPT technique has been proposed to address the vitality of solar energy. A comparative analysis has been presented between conventional PO, IC and the proposed MPPT technique. The research has been done on Matlab Simulink software version 2013.

  10. An automated method for the evaluation of the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Pötzi, Werner; Freislich, Heinrich; Strutzmann, Heinz; Veronig, Astrid M.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2017-03-01

    The accuracy of solar radiation measurements, for direct (DIR) and diffuse (DIF) radiation, depends significantly on the precision of the operational Sun-tracking device. Thus, rigid targets for instrument performance and operation have been specified for international monitoring networks, e.g., the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) operating under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). Sun-tracking devices that fulfill these accuracy requirements are available from various instrument manufacturers; however, none of the commercially available systems comprise an automatic accuracy control system allowing platform operators to independently validate the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking sensors during operation. Here we present KSO-STREAMS (KSO-SunTRackEr Accuracy Monitoring System), a fully automated, system-independent, and cost-effective system for evaluating the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking devices. We detail the monitoring system setup, its design and specifications, and the results from its application to the Sun-tracking system operated at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO) Austrian radiation monitoring network (ARAD) site. The results from an evaluation campaign from March to June 2015 show that the tracking accuracy of the device operated at KSO lies within BSRN specifications (i.e., 0.1° tracking accuracy) for the vast majority of observations (99.8 %). The evaluation of manufacturer-specified active-tracking accuracies (0.02°), during periods with direct solar radiation exceeding 300 W m-2, shows that these are satisfied in 72.9 % of observations. Tracking accuracies are highest during clear-sky conditions and on days where prevailing clear-sky conditions are interrupted by frontal movement; in these cases, we obtain the complete fulfillment of BSRN requirements and 76.4 % of observations within manufacturer-specified active-tracking accuracies. Limitations to tracking surveillance arise during overcast conditions and

  11. Improving maximum power point tracking of partially shaded photovoltaic system by using IPSO-BELBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alim El-Garhy, M. Abd; Mubarak, R. I.; El-Bably, M.

    2017-08-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays in remote applications are often related to the rapid changes in the partial shading pattern. Rapid changes of the partial shading pattern make the tracking of maximum power point (MPP) of the global peak through the local ones too difficult. An essential need to make a fast and efficient algorithm to detect the peaks values which always vary as the sun irradiance changes. This paper presents two algorithms based on the improved particle swarm optimization technique one of them with PID controller (IPSO-PID), and the other one with Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (IPSO-BELBIC). These techniques improve the maximum power point (MPP) tracking capabilities for photovoltaic (PV) system under partial shading circumstances. The main aim of these improved algorithms is to accelerate the velocity of IPSO to reach to (MPP) and increase its efficiency. These algorithms also improve the tracking time under complex irradiance conditions. Based on these conditions, the tracking time of these presented techniques improves to 2 msec, with an efficiency of 100%.

  12. Towards free 3D end-point control for robotic-assisted human reaching using binocular eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Maimon-Dror, Roni O; Fernandez-Quesada, Jorge; Zito, Giuseppe A; Konnaris, Charalambos; Dziemian, Sabine; Faisal, A Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces. We demonstrate here how combining 3D gaze tracking using our GT3D binocular eye tracker with custom designed 3D head tracking system and calibration method enables continuous 3D end-point control of a robotic arm support system. The users can move their own hand to any location of the workspace by simple looking at the target and winking once. This purely eye tracking based system enables the end-user to retain free head movement and yet achieves high spatial end point accuracy in the order of 6 cm RMSE error in each dimension and standard deviation of 4 cm. 3D calibration is achieved by moving the robot along a 3 dimensional space filling Peano curve while the user is tracking it with their eyes. This results in a fully automated calibration procedure that yields several thousand calibration points versus standard approaches using a dozen points, resulting in beyond state-of-the-art 3D accuracy and precision.

  13. Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Hydrokinetic Turbine and Low-speed High-Thrust Permanent Magnet Generator Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Schematic of the generator and power converters built in PLECS ............. 26 Figure 3.12. Block diagram of the MPPT control built in Matlab/Simulink...validated by simulation results done in Matlab/Simulink R2010a and PLECS . Figure 3.9 shows the block diagram of the hydrokinetic system built in Matlab...rectifier, boost converter and battery model built in PLECS . The battery bank on the load side is simulated by a constant dc voltage source. 25

  14. Spatial and Temporal Point Tracking in Real Hyperspectral Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-26

    Dr. Stanley Rotman 5e. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Ben-Gurion University of the Negev PO Box 653...results from a contract tasking Ben-Gurion University of the Negev as follows: The Grantee will investigate developing a full target detection module...point tracking in real hyper spectral imagesʺ  Benjamin Aminov, Ofir Nichtern, Stanley Rotman Page 1 of 102  BEN-GURION UNIVERSITY OF THE NEGEV

  15. Integrated system for point cloud reconstruction and simulated brain shift validation using tracked surgical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Clements, Logan W.; Luo, Ma; Narasimhan, Saramati; Thompson, Reid C.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-03-01

    Intra-operative soft tissue deformation, referred to as brain shift, compromises the application of current imageguided surgery (IGS) navigation systems in neurosurgery. A computational model driven by sparse data has been used as a cost effective method to compensate for cortical surface and volumetric displacements. Stereoscopic microscopes and laser range scanners (LRS) are the two most investigated sparse intra-operative imaging modalities for driving these systems. However, integrating these devices in the clinical workflow to facilitate development and evaluation requires developing systems that easily permit data acquisition and processing. In this work we present a mock environment developed to acquire stereo images from a tracked operating microscope and to reconstruct 3D point clouds from these images. A reconstruction error of 1 mm is estimated by using a phantom with a known geometry and independently measured deformation extent. The microscope is tracked via an attached tracking rigid body that facilitates the recording of the position of the microscope via a commercial optical tracking system as it moves during the procedure. Point clouds, reconstructed under different microscope positions, are registered into the same space in order to compute the feature displacements. Using our mock craniotomy device, realistic cortical deformations are generated. Our experimental results report approximately 2mm average displacement error compared with the optical tracking system. These results demonstrate the practicality of using tracked stereoscopic microscope as an alternative to LRS to collect sufficient intraoperative information for brain shift correction.

  16. Quality assurance of a gimbaled head swing verification using feature point tracking.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hideharu; Ozawa, Shuichi; Enosaki, Tsubasa; Kawakubo, Atsushi; Hosono, Fumika; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    To perform dynamic tumor tracking (DTT) for clinical applications safely and accurately, gimbaled head swing verification is important. We propose a quantitative gimbaled head swing verification method for daily quality assurance (QA), which uses feature point tracking and a web camera. The web camera was placed on a couch at the same position for every gimbaled head swing verification, and could move based on a determined input function (sinusoidal patterns; amplitude: ± 20 mm; cycle: 3 s) in the pan and tilt directions at isocenter plane. Two continuous images were then analyzed for each feature point using the pyramidal Lucas-Kanade (LK) method, which is an optical flow estimation algorithm. We used a tapped hole as a feature point of the gimbaled head. The period and amplitude were analyzed to acquire a quantitative gimbaled head swing value for daily QA. The mean ± SD of the period were 3.00 ± 0.03 (range: 3.00-3.07) s and 3.00 ± 0.02 (range: 3.00-3.07) s in the pan and tilt directions, respectively. The mean ± SD of the relative displacement were 19.7 ± 0.08 (range: 19.6-19.8) mm and 18.9 ± 0.2 (range: 18.4-19.5) mm in the pan and tilt directions, respectively. The gimbaled head swing was reliable for DTT. We propose a quantitative gimbaled head swing verification method for daily QA using the feature point tracking method and a web camera. Our method can quantitatively assess the gimbaled head swing for daily QA from baseline values, measured at the time of acceptance and commissioning. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Impact of random pointing and tracking errors on the design of coherent and incoherent optical intersatellite communication links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Gardner, Chester S.

    1989-01-01

    Given the rms transmitter pointing error and the desired probability of bit error (PBE), it can be shown that an optimal transmitter antenna gain exists which minimizes the required transmitter power. Given the rms local oscillator tracking error, an optimum receiver antenna gain can be found which optimizes the receiver performance. The impact of pointing and tracking errors on the design of direct-detection pulse-position modulation (PPM) and heterodyne noncoherent frequency-shift keying (NCFSK) systems are then analyzed in terms of constraints on the antenna size and the power penalty incurred. It is shown that in the limit of large spatial tracking errors, the advantage in receiver sensitivity for the heterodyne system is quickly offset by the smaller antenna gain and the higher power penalty due to tracking errors. In contrast, for systems with small spatial tracking errors, the heterodyne system is superior because of the higher receiver sensitivity.

  18. A Method of Maximum Power Control in Single-phase Utility Interactive Photovoltaic Generation System by using PWM Current Source Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neba, Yasuhiko

    This paper deals with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the photovoltaic generation with the single-phase utility interactive inverter. The photovoltaic arrays are connected by employing the PWM current source inverter to the utility. The use of the pulsating dc current and voltage allows the maximum power point to be searched. The inverter can regulate the array voltage and keep the arrays to the maximum power. This paper gives the control method and the experimental results.

  19. A maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelatury, Sudarshan R.; Gray, Robert

    2013-05-01

    The voltage and current characteristic of a photovoltaic (PV) cell is highly nonlinear and operating a PV cell for maximum power transfer has been a challenge for a long time. Several techniques have been proposed to estimate and track the maximum power point (MPP) in order to improve the overall efficiency of a PV panel. A strategic use of the mean value theorem permits obtaining an analytical expression for a point that lies in a close neighborhood of the true MPP. But hitherto, an exact solution in closed form for the MPP is not published. This problem can be formulated analytically as a constrained optimization, which can be solved using the Lagrange method. This method results in a system of simultaneous nonlinear equations. Solving them directly is quite difficult. However, we can employ a recursive algorithm to yield a reasonably good solution. In graphical terms, suppose the voltage current characteristic and the constant power contours are plotted on the same voltage current plane, the point of tangency between the device characteristic and the constant power contours is the sought for MPP. It is subject to change with the incident irradiation and temperature and hence the algorithm that attempts to maintain the MPP should be adaptive in nature and is supposed to have fast convergence and the least misadjustment. There are two parts in its implementation. First, one needs to estimate the MPP. The second task is to have a DC-DC converter to match the given load to the MPP thus obtained. Availability of power electronics circuits made it possible to design efficient converters. In this paper although we do not show the results from a real circuit, we use MATLAB to obtain the MPP and a buck-boost converter to match the load. Under varying conditions of load resistance and irradiance we demonstrate MPP tracking in case of a commercially available solar panel MSX-60. The power electronics circuit is simulated by PSIM software.

  20. Pointing and Tracking Concepts for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. W.; Lee, S.; Chen, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of a FY1998 effort on the design and development of an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for the Advanced Deep Space System Development (ADSSD) Project. This study was funded by the JPL X2000 program to develop an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for use in future planetary missions. The goal of this development effort was aimed at providing prototype hardware with the capability of performing uplink, downlink, and ranging functions from deep space distances. Such a system was envisioned to support future deep space missions in the Outer Planets/Solar Probe (OPSP) mission set such as the Pluto express and Europa orbiter by providing a significant enhancement of data return capability. A study effort was initiated to develop a flyable engineering model optical terminal to support the proposed Europa Orbiter mission - as either the prime telecom subsystem or for mission augmentation. The design concept was to extend the prototype lasercom terminal development effort currently conducted by JPL's Optical Communications Group. The subsystem would track the sun illuminated Earth at Europa and farther distances for pointing reference. During the course of the study, a number of challenging issues were found. These included thermo-mechanical distortion, straylight control, and pointing. This paper focuses on the pointing aspects required to locate and direct a laser beam from a spacecraft (S/C) near Jupiter to a receiving station on Earth.

  1. PSO Based PI Controller Design for a Solar Charger System

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs). PMID:23766713

  2. PSO based PI controller design for a solar charger system.

    PubMed

    Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs).

  3. Point-ahead limitation on reciprocity tracking. [in earth-space optical link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The average power received at a spacecraft from a reciprocity-tracking transmitter is shown to be the free-space diffraction-limited result times a gain-reduction factor that is due to the point-ahead requirement. For a constant-power transmitter, the gain-reduction factor is approximately equal to the appropriate spherical-wave mutual-coherence function. For a constant-average-power transmitter, an exact expression is obtained for the gain-reduction factor.

  4. Fusion of Cross-Track TerraSAR-X PS Point Clouds over Las Vegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziyun; Balz, Timo; Wei, Lianhuan; Liao, Mingsheng

    2014-11-01

    Persistent scatterer interferometry (PS-InSAR) is widely used in radar remote sensing. However, because the surface motion is estimated in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction, it is not possible to differentiate between vertical and horizontal surface motions from a single stack. Cross-track data, i.e. the combination of data from ascending and descending orbits, allows us to better analyze the deformation and to obtain 3d motion information. We implemented a cross-track fusion of PS-InSAR point cloud data, making it possible to separate the vertical and horizontal components of the surface motion.

  5. Investigation Results on Solar Array Thermal & Electrical Imbalance Phenomenon on Power Systems Equipped with MPPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, F.; Samaniego, B.; Soriano, T.; Beaufils, G.; Fernandez Lisbona, E.; Dettlaff, K.; Jensen, H.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal / electrical imbalance phenomenon on the satellite solar arrays is a common issue inherent to the negative thermal voltage coefficient of the triple junction cells, which is usually already taken into account with basic precautions on the solar panel layout.In the frame of the ESA TRP study "Investigation on Solar Array thermal and electrical imbalance phenomenon on power systems equipped with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)" performed by Airbus Defence & Space (former Astrium Toulouse and Ottobrunn) and TERMA, in-depth analyses were conducted for the first time to better understand and characterize the secondary maximum power point phenomenon for various representative mission cases, whether in Earth vicinity or not. With the help of a newly developed detailed thermo-electrical coupled solver and a wide range of solar cell characterizations in flux and temperature, multiple sets of simulations were run to simulate realistic solar panel characteristics.The study showed that no secondary false maximum power point can be created on the solar panel characteristic IV curve for missions around Earth vicinity, at the sole exception of critical shadowing cases. Furthermore, the same conclusions apply for missions up to Mars orbit. The only potential threats come from the missions further than Mars (typically Jupiter missions) where various very high heterogeneities could lead to multiple maxima. This is deeply linked to the LILT (low illumination low temperature) conditions applied to the current solar cell triple junction characteristics and shape. Moreover, thermo-electrical imbalances that do not create secondary power point can still seriously grieve the solar array power output performances. This power loss can however be accurately assessed by the newly developed solver in support of in-development missions like Juice.

  6. A novel power converter for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvarajan, S.; Yu, Dachuan; Xu, Shanguang

    A simple and economical power conditioner to convert the power available from solar panels into 60 Hz ac voltage is described. The raw dc voltage from the solar panels is converted to a regulated dc voltage using a boost converter and a large capacitor and the dc output is then converted to 60 Hz ac using a bridge inverter. The ratio between the load current and the short-circuit current of a PV panel at maximum power point is nearly constant for different insolation (light) levels and this property is utilized in designing a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller. The controller includes a novel arrangement for sensing the short-circuit current without disturbing the operation of the PV panel and implementing MPPT. The switching losses in the inverter are reduced by using snubbers. The results obtained on an experimental converter are presented.

  7. Application of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Photovoltaic Cells to Extend the Endurance and Capabilities of the Raven RQ-11B Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    POWER POINT TRACKER A more suitable component used in photovoltaic appli- cations is the Maximum Power Point Tracker ( MPPT ). An MPPT ... MPPT / power converter (Solar Charge Controller ) weighed 6.5-Oz, but without the casing it weighed only 3.6-Oz. We preferred to use it without the...for this test was the GV-4 Low Power Charge Controller from GENASUN used in previous the- sis work [5]. This MPPT was programmed to charge up

  8. Use of point-of-sale data to track usage patterns of residential pesticides: methodology development.

    PubMed

    Bekarian, Nyree; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Edmondson, Stuart; Chism, Bill; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2006-05-25

    Residential-use pesticides have been shown to be a major source of pesticide exposure to people in the United States. However, little is understood about the exposures to household pesticides and the resultant health effects. One reason that little is known about home-use pesticide exposure is the lack of comprehensive data on exposures to pesticides in the home. One method to help ascertain the amount of pesticides present in the home is use of point-of-sale data collected from marketing companies that track product sales to obtain the volume of pesticides sold for home-use. This provides a measure of volume of home-use pesticide. We have constructed a searchable database containing sales data for home-use permethrin-containing pesticides sold by retail stores in the United States from January 1997 through December 2002 in an attempt to develop a tracking method for pesticide. This pilot project was conducted to determine if point-of-sale data would be effective in helping track the purchase of home-use permethrin containing pesticides and if it would stand as a good model for tracking sales of other home-use pesticides. There are several limitations associated with this tracking method, including the availability of sales data, market coverage, and geographic resolution. As a result, a fraction of sales data potentially available for reporting is represented in this database. However, the database is sensitive to the number and type of merchants reporting permethrin sales. Further, analysis of the sale of individual products included in the database indicates that year to year variability has a greater impact on reported permethrin sales than the amount sold by each type of merchant. We conclude that, while nothing could completely replace a detailed exposure assessment to estimate exposures to home-use pesticides, a point-of-sale database is a useful tool in tracking the purchase of these types of pesticides to 1) detect anomalous trends in regional and seasonal

  9. Use of point-of-sale data to track usage patterns of residential pesticides: methodology development

    PubMed Central

    Bekarian, Nyree; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Edmondson, Stuart; Chism, Bill; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2006-01-01

    Background Residential-use pesticides have been shown to be a major source of pesticide exposure to people in the United States. However, little is understood about the exposures to household pesticides and the resultant health effects. One reason that little is known about home-use pesticide exposure is the lack of comprehensive data on exposures to pesticides in the home. One method to help ascertain the amount of pesticides present in the home is use of point-of-sale data collected from marketing companies that track product sales to obtain the volume of pesticides sold for home-use. This provides a measure of volume of home-use pesticide. Methods We have constructed a searchable database containing sales data for home-use permethrin-containing pesticides sold by retail stores in the United States from January 1997 through December 2002 in an attempt to develop a tracking method for pesticide. This pilot project was conducted to determine if point-of-sale data would be effective in helping track the purchase of home-use permethrin containing pesticides and if it would stand as a good model for tracking sales of other home-use pesticides. Results There are several limitations associated with this tracking method, including the availability of sales data, market coverage, and geographic resolution. As a result, a fraction of sales data potentially available for reporting is represented in this database. However, the database is sensitive to the number and type of merchants reporting permethrin sales. Further, analysis of the sale of individual products included in the database indicates that year to year variability has a greater impact on reported permethrin sales than the amount sold by each type of merchant. Conclusion We conclude that, while nothing could completely replace a detailed exposure assessment to estimate exposures to home-use pesticides, a point-of-sale database is a useful tool in tracking the purchase of these types of pesticides to 1) detect

  10. Improving a free air breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cell through the Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuita Cano, Mauricio; Mousli, Mohamed Islam Aniss; Kelouwani, Sousso; Agbossou, Kodjo; Hammoudi, Mhamed; Dubé, Yves

    2017-03-01

    This work investigates the design and validation of a fuel cell management system (FCMS) which can perform when the fuel cell is at water freezing temperature. This FCMS is based on a new tracking technique with intelligent prediction, which combined the Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking with variable perturbation-current step and the fuzzy logic technique (MEPT-FL). Unlike conventional fuel cell control systems, our proposed FCMS considers the cold-weather conditions, the reduction of fuel cell set-point oscillations. In addition, the FCMS is built to respond quickly and effectively to the variations of electric load. A temperature controller stage is designed in conjunction with the MEPT-FL in order to operate the FC at low-temperature values whilst tracking at the same time the maximum efficiency point. The simulation results have as well experimental validation suggest that propose approach is effective and can achieve an average efficiency improvement up to 8%. The MEPT-FL is validated using a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) of 500 W.

  11. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms.

  12. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms. PMID:28877191

  13. Elastic collisions of classical point particles on a finite frictionless linear track with perfectly reflecting endpoints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, R.

    2006-03-01

    Repeated elastic collisions of point particles on a finite frictionless linear track with perfectly reflecting endpoints are considered. The problem is analysed by means of an elementary linear algebra approach. It is found that, starting with a state consisting of a projectile particle in motion at constant velocity and a target particle at rest in a fixed known position, the points at which collisions occur on track, when plotted versus progressive numerals, corresponding to the collisions themselves, show periodic patterns for a rather large choice of values of the initial position x(0) and on the mass ratio r. For certain values of these parameters, however, only regular behaviour over a large number of collisions is detected.

  14. Research on infrared dim-point target detection and tracking under sea-sky-line complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yu-xing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Target detection and tracking technology in infrared image is an important part of modern military defense system. Infrared dim-point targets detection and recognition under complex background is a difficulty and important strategic value and challenging research topic. The main objects that carrier-borne infrared vigilance system detected are sea-skimming aircrafts and missiles. Due to the characteristics of wide field of view of vigilance system, the target is usually under the sea clutter. Detection and recognition of the target will be taken great difficulties .There are some traditional point target detection algorithms, such as adaptive background prediction detecting method. When background has dispersion-decreasing structure, the traditional target detection algorithms would be more useful. But when the background has large gray gradient, such as sea-sky-line, sea waves etc .The bigger false-alarm rate will be taken in these local area .It could not obtain satisfactory results. Because dim-point target itself does not have obvious geometry or texture feature ,in our opinion , from the perspective of mathematics, the detection of dim-point targets in image is about singular function analysis .And from the perspective image processing analysis , the judgment of isolated singularity in the image is key problem. The foregoing points for dim-point targets detection, its essence is a separation of target and background of different singularity characteristics .The image from infrared sensor usually accompanied by different kinds of noise. These external noises could be caused by the complicated background or from the sensor itself. The noise might affect target detection and tracking. Therefore, the purpose of the image preprocessing is to reduce the effects from noise, also to raise the SNR of image, and to increase the contrast of target and background. According to the low sea-skimming infrared flying small target characteristics , the median filter is used to

  15. Atmospheric-Fade-Tolerant Tracking and Pointing in Wireless Optical Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo; Lee, Shinhak

    2003-01-01

    An acquisition, tracking, and pointing (ATP) system, under development at the time of reporting the information for this article, is intended to enable a terminal in a free-space optical communication system to continue to aim its transmitting laser beam toward a receiver at a remote terminal when the laser beacon signal from the remote terminal temporarily fades or drops out of sight altogether. Such fades and dropouts can be caused by adverse atmospheric conditions (e.g., rain or clouds). They can also occur when intervening objects block the line of sight between terminals as a result of motions of those objects or of either or both terminals

  16. Theory and design of line-to-point focus solar concentrators with tracking secondary optics.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Thomas; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Pedretti, Andrea; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2013-12-10

    The two-stage line-to-point focus solar concentrator with tracking secondary optics is introduced. Its design aims to reduce the cost per m(2) of collecting aperture by maintaining a one-axis tracking trough as the primary concentrator, while allowing the thermodynamic limit of concentration in 2D of 215× to be significantly surpassed by the implementation of a tracking secondary stage. The limits of overall geometric concentration are found to exceed 4000× when hollow secondary concentrators are used, and 6000× when the receiver is immersed in a dielectric material of refractive index n=1.5. Three exemplary collectors, with geometric concentrations in the range of 500-1500× are explored and their geometric performance is ascertained by Monte Carlo ray-tracing. The proposed solar concentrator design is well-suited for large-scale applications with discrete, flat receivers requiring concentration ratios in the range 500-2000×.

  17. A New Approach for Inspection of Selected Geometric Parameters of a Railway Track Using Image-Based Point Clouds

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of testing a proposed image-based point clouds measuring method for geometric parameters determination of a railway track. The study was performed based on a configuration of digital images and reference control network. A DSLR (digital Single-Lens-Reflex) Nikon D5100 camera was used to acquire six digital images of the tested section of railway tracks. The dense point clouds and the 3D mesh model were generated with the use of two software systems, RealityCapture and PhotoScan, which have implemented different matching and 3D object reconstruction techniques: Multi-View Stereo and Semi-Global Matching, respectively. The study found that both applications could generate appropriate 3D models. Final meshes of 3D models were filtered with the MeshLab software. The CloudCompare application was used to determine the track gauge and cant for defined cross-sections, and the results obtained from point clouds by dense image matching techniques were compared with results of direct geodetic measurements. The obtained RMS difference in the horizontal (gauge) and vertical (cant) plane was RMS∆ < 0.45 mm. The achieved accuracy meets the accuracy condition of measurements and inspection of the rail tracks (error m < 1 mm), specified in the Polish branch railway instruction Id-14 (D-75) and the European technical norm EN 13848-4:2011. PMID:29509679

  18. A New Approach for Inspection of Selected Geometric Parameters of a Railway Track Using Image-Based Point Clouds.

    PubMed

    Gabara, Grzegorz; Sawicki, Piotr

    2018-03-06

    The paper presents the results of testing a proposed image-based point clouds measuring method for geometric parameters determination of a railway track. The study was performed based on a configuration of digital images and reference control network. A DSLR (digital Single-Lens-Reflex) Nikon D5100 camera was used to acquire six digital images of the tested section of railway tracks. The dense point clouds and the 3D mesh model were generated with the use of two software systems, RealityCapture and PhotoScan, which have implemented different matching and 3D object reconstruction techniques: Multi-View Stereo and Semi-Global Matching, respectively. The study found that both applications could generate appropriate 3D models. Final meshes of 3D models were filtered with the MeshLab software. The CloudCompare application was used to determine the track gauge and cant for defined cross-sections, and the results obtained from point clouds by dense image matching techniques were compared with results of direct geodetic measurements. The obtained RMS difference in the horizontal (gauge) and vertical (cant) plane was RMS∆ < 0.45 mm. The achieved accuracy meets the accuracy condition of measurements and inspection of the rail tracks (error m < 1 mm), specified in the Polish branch railway instruction Id-14 (D-75) and the European technical norm EN 13848-4:2011.

  19. Simultaneous Tracking of Multiple Points Using a Wiimote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeffington, Alex; Scully, Kyle

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the construction of an inexpensive motion tracking and data logging system, which can be used for a wide variety of teaching experiments ranging from entry-level physics courses to advanced courses. The system utilizes an affordable infrared camera found in a Nintendo Wiimote to track IR LEDs mounted to the objects to be tracked. Two quick experiments are presented using the motion tracking system to demonstrate the diversity of tasks this system can handle. The first experiment uses the Wiimote to record the harmonic motion of oscillating masses on a near-frictionless surface, while the second experiment uses the Wiimote as part of a feedback mechanism in a rotational system. The construction, capabilities, demonstrations, and suggested improvements of the system are reported here.

  20. Comparison of Photovoltaic Energy Systems for the Solar Village

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    power -point-trackIng ( MPPT ) for the array. It also Includes AC and DC contactors, an isolation transformer, and a control system that fully automates...the day when the array is producing power , the battery controller uses excess array power , not needed for household use , to recharge the batteries. As...alone design) The battery controller used Is the Balance of System Specialists, Inc. Power Control Series model *8104820 rated at 48 volt, 20 amp. This

  1. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D.; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC. PMID:27701451

  2. Efficiency degradation due to tracking errors for point focusing solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1978-01-01

    An important parameter in the design of point focusing solar collectors is the intercept factor which is a measure of efficiency and of energy available for use in the receiver. Using statistical methods, an expression of the expected value of the intercept factor is derived for various configurations and control law implementations. The analysis assumes that a radially symmetric flux distribution (not necessarily Gaussian) is generated at the focal plane due to the sun's finite image and various reflector errors. The time-varying tracking errors are assumed to be uniformly distributed within the threshold limits and allows the expected value calculation.

  3. The Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm and the Quadratic Boost Converter for Pv System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altin, Necmi

    2018-05-01

    An interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller-based maximum power point tracking algorithm and direct current-direct current (DC-DC) converter topology are proposed for photovoltaic (PV) systems. The proposed maximum power point tracking algorithm is designed based on an interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller that has an ability to handle uncertainties. The change in PV power and the change in PV voltage are determined as inputs of the proposed controller, while the change in duty cycle is determined as the output of the controller. Seven interval type-2 fuzzy sets are determined and used as membership functions for input and output variables. The quadratic boost converter provides high voltage step-up ability without any reduction in performance and stability of the system. The performance of the proposed system is validated through MATLAB/Simulink simulations. It is seen that the proposed system provides high maximum power point tracking speed and accuracy even for fast changing atmospheric conditions and high voltage step-up requirements.

  4. Identifying and Tracking Solar Photospheric Bright Points Based on Three-dimensional Segmentation Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, J. P.; Zhang, A. L.; Ji, K. F.; Feng, S.; Deng, H.; Yang, Y. F.

    2016-01-01

    Photospheric bright points (PBPs) are tiny and short-lived phenomena which can be seen within dark inter-granular lanes. In this paper, we develop a new method to identify and track the PBPs in the three-dimensional data cube. Different from the previous way such as Detection-Before-Tracking, this method is based on the Tracking-While-Detection. Using this method, the whole lifetime of a PBP can be accurately measured while this PBP is possibly separated into several with Laplacian and morphological dilation (LMD) method due to its weak intensity sometimes. With consideration of the G-band PBPs observed by Hinode/SOT (Solar Optical Telescope) for more than two hours, we find that the isolated PBPs have an average lifetime of 3 minutes, and the longest one is up to 27 minutes, which are greater than the values detected by the previous LMD method. Furthermore, we also find that the mean intensity of PBPs is 1.02 times of the mean photospheric intensity, which is less than the values detected by LMD method, and the intensity of PBPs presents a period of oscillation with 2-3 minutes during the whole lifetime.

  5. Experimental Tracking of Limit-Point Bifurcations and Backbone Curves Using Control-Based Continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renson, Ludovic; Barton, David A. W.; Neild, Simon A.

    Control-based continuation (CBC) is a means of applying numerical continuation directly to a physical experiment for bifurcation analysis without the use of a mathematical model. CBC enables the detection and tracking of bifurcations directly, without the need for a post-processing stage as is often the case for more traditional experimental approaches. In this paper, we use CBC to directly locate limit-point bifurcations of a periodically forced oscillator and track them as forcing parameters are varied. Backbone curves, which capture the overall frequency-amplitude dependence of the system’s forced response, are also traced out directly. The proposed method is demonstrated on a single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system with a nonlinear stiffness characteristic. Results are presented for two configurations of the nonlinearity — one where it exhibits a hardening stiffness characteristic and one where it exhibits softening-hardening.

  6. Fast cine-magnetic resonance imaging point tracking for prostate cancer radiation therapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, J.; Dang, K.; Fox, Chris D.; Chandra, S.; Gill, Suki; Kron, T.; Pham, D.; Foroudi, F.

    2014-03-01

    The analysis of intra-fraction organ motion is important for improving the precision of radiation therapy treatment delivery. One method to quantify this motion is for one or more observers to manually identify anatomic points of interest (POIs) on each slice of a cine-MRI sequence. However this is labour intensive and inter- and intra- observer variation can introduce uncertainty. In this paper a fast method for non-rigid registration based point tracking in cine-MRI sagittal and coronal series is described which identifies POIs in 0.98 seconds per sagittal slice and 1.35 seconds per coronal slice. The manual and automatic points were highly correlated (r>0.99, p<0.001) for all organs and the difference generally less than 1mm. For prostate planning peristalsis and rectal gas can result in unpredictable out of plane motion, suggesting the results may require manual verification.

  7. The Six Track Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge…Two double track spans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Six Track Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge…Two double track spans closed. One double-track span open. Photocopy of plate xvi in Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge Company, Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridges. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. Simultaneous Tracking of Multiple Points Using a Wiimote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeffington, Alex; Scully, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the construction of an inexpensive motion tracking and data logging system, which can be used for a wide variety of teaching experiments ranging from entry-level physics courses to advanced courses. The system utilizes an affordable infrared camera found in a Nintendo Wiimote to track IR LEDs mounted to the objects to be…

  9. Application of a single area array detector for acquistion, tracking and point-ahead in space optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. L.; Cosgrove, M.; Vanvranken, R.; Park, H.; Fitzmaurice, M.

    1989-01-01

    Functions of acquisition, tracking, and point-ahead in space optical communications are being combined into a single system utilizing an area array detector. An analysis is presented of the feasibility concept. The key parameters are: optical power less than 1 pW at 0.86 micrometer, acquisition in less than 30 seconds in an acquisition field of view (FOV) of 1 mrad, tracking with 0.5 microrad rms noise at 1000 Hz update rate, and point ahead transfer function precision of 0.25 microrad over a region of 150 microrad. Currently available array detectors were examined. The most demanding specifications are low output noise, a high detection efficiency, a large number of pixels, and frame rates over 1kHz. A proof of concept (POC) demonstration system is currently being built utilizing the Kodak HS-40 detector (a 128 x 128 photodiode array with a 64 channel CCD readout architecture which can be operated at frame rates as high as 40,000/sec). The POC system implements a windowing scheme and special purpose digital signal processing electronic for matched filter acquisition and tracking algorithms.

  10. Dynamic Model and Control of a Photovoltaic Generation System using Energetic Macroscopic Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Javier; Duarte, José; Vargas, Erwin; Cabrera, Jhon; Jácome, Andrés; Botero, Mónica; Rey, Juan

    2016-10-01

    This paper addresses the Energetic Macroscopic Representation EMR, the modelling and the control of photovoltaic panel PVP generation systems for simulation purposes. The model of the PVP considers the variations on irradiance and temperature. A maximum power point tracking MPPT algorithm is considered to control the power converter. A novel EMR is proposed to consider the dynamic model of the PVP with variations in the irradiance and the temperature. The EMR is evaluated through simulations of a PVP generation system.

  11. One-power IC with MPPT design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shengzhi; Chu, Ian; Zhao, Gengshen; Wang, Qingzhang

    2008-03-01

    When proceed photovoltaic power system design, engineer needs prepared model of PV cells to evaluate system response, capability performance, and stability, the DC model is not enough, but an accuracy AC model plays a big role. This paper talks first about the AC model of PV cells, and DC model is also introduced in simple. There is a PV controller example explaining the steps to do system simulation in this paper. Two equivalent circuit models are implemented with mixed-signal language verilog-a, one hardware language easy to use and having good speed and high accuracy. Both of two models include solar cell arrays, one buck switched mode DC-DC converter, and the maximum power point tracking algorithm. The difference between them is that Solar cell in one of two models is with ac small signal parameter, another is without. The simulation result is given in comparison. This paper's work shows that ac parameter plays large role in switch-mode PV power system, especially when the switch frequency is higher than 100kHz.

  12. The star identification, pointing and tracking system of UVSTAR, an attached payload instrument system for the Shuttle Hitchhiker-M platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decarlo, Francesco; Stalio, Roberto; Trampus, Paolo; Broadfoot, A. Lyle; Sandel, Bill R.; Sicuranza, Giovanni

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for star identification and pointing/tracking of a spaceborne electro-optical system and simulation analyses to test the algorithm. The algorithm will be implemented in the guiding system of UVSTAR, a spectrographic telescope for observations of astronomical and planetary sources operating in the 500-1250 A waveband at approximately 1 A resolution. The experiment is an attached payload and will fly as a Hitchhiker-M payload on the Shuttle. UVSTAR includes capabilities for independent target acquisition and tracking. The spectrograph package has internal gimbals that allow angular movement of plus or minus 3 deg from the central position. Rotation about the azimuth axis (parallel to the Shuttle z axis) and elevation axis (parallel to the Shuttle x axis) will actively position the field of view to center the target of interest in the fields of the spectrographs. The algorithm is based on an on-board catalog of stars. To identify star fields, the algorithm compares the positions of stars recorded by the guiding imager to positions computed from the on-board catalog. When the field has been identified, its position within the guiding imager field of view can be used to compute the pointing corrections necessary to point to a target of interest. In tracking mode, the software uses the past history to predict the quasi-periodic attitude control motions of the shuttle and sends pointing commands to cancel the motion and stabilize UVSTAR on the target. The guiding imager (guider) will have an 80-mm focal length and f/1.4 optics giving a field of view of 6 deg x 4.5 deg using a 385 x 288 pixel intensified CCD. It will be capable of providing high accuracy (better than 2 arc-sec) attitude determination from coarse (6 deg x 4.5 deg) initial knowledge of the pointing direction; and of pointing toward the target. It will also be capable of tracking at the same high accuracy with a processing time of less than a few hundredths of a second.

  13. Studies of pointing, acquisition, and tracking of agile optical wireless transceivers for free-space optical communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tzung-Hsien; Trisno, Sugianto; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2004-02-01

    Free space, dynamic, optical wireless communications will require topology control for optimization of network performance. Such networks may need to be configured for bi- or multiple-connectedness, reliability and quality-of-service. Topology control involves the introduction of new links and/or nodes into the network to achieve such performance objectives through autonomous reconfiguration as well as precise pointing, acquisition, tracking, and steering of laser beams. Reconfiguration may be required because of link degradation resulting from obscuration or node loss. As a result, the optical transceivers may need to be re-directed to new or existing nodes within the network and tracked on moving nodes. The redirection of transceivers may require operation over a whole sphere, so that small-angle beam steering techniques cannot be applied. In this context, we are studying the performance of optical wireless links using lightweight, bi-static transceivers mounted on high-performance stepping motor driven stages. These motors provide an angular resolution of 0.00072 degree at up to 80,000 steps per second. This paper focuses on the performance characteristics of these agile transceivers for pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT), including the influence of acceleration/deceleration time, motor angular speed, and angular re-adjustment, on latency and packet loss in small free space optical (FSO) wireless test networks.

  14. Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Azad

    Power map and Maximum Power Point (MPP) of Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) highly depend on system dynamics and environmental parameters, e.g., solar irradiance, temperature, and wind speed. Power optimization algorithms for PV systems and WECS are collectively known as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm. Gradient-based Extremum Seeking (ES), as a non-model-based MPPT algorithm, governs the system to its peak point on the steepest descent curve regardless of changes of the system dynamics and variations of the environmental parameters. Since the power map shape defines the gradient vector, then a close estimate of the power map shape is needed to create user assignable transients in the MPPT algorithm. The Hessian gives a precise estimate of the power map in a neighborhood around the MPP. The estimate of the inverse of the Hessian in combination with the estimate of the gradient vector are the key parts to implement the Newton-based ES algorithm. Hence, we generate an estimate of the Hessian using our proposed perturbation matrix. Also, we introduce a dynamic estimator to calculate the inverse of the Hessian which is an essential part of our algorithm. We present various simulations and experiments on the micro-converter PV systems to verify the validity of our proposed algorithm. The ES scheme can also be used in combination with other control algorithms to achieve desired closed-loop performance. The WECS dynamics is slow which causes even slower response time for the MPPT based on the ES. Hence, we present a control scheme, extended from Field-Oriented Control (FOC), in combination with feedback linearization to reduce the convergence time of the closed-loop system. Furthermore, the nonlinear control prevents magnetic saturation of the stator of the Induction Generator (IG). The proposed control algorithm in combination with the ES guarantees the closed-loop system robustness with respect to high level parameter uncertainty

  15. Determining nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo through point counts, tracking stations, and video photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Bonnie L.; Kus, Barbara E.; Deutschman, Douglas H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared three methods to determine nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) in San Diego County, California, during spring and summer 2000. Point counts and tracking stations were used to identify potential predators and video photography to document actual nest predators. Parental behavior at depredated nests was compared to that at successful nests to determine whether activity (frequency of trips to and from the nest) and singing vs. non-singing on the nest affected nest predation. Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) were the most abundant potential avian predator, followed by Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica). Coyotes (Canis latrans) were abundant, with smaller mammalian predators occurring in low abundance. Cameras documented a 48% predation rate with scrub-jays as the major nest predators (67%), but Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, 17%), gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus, 8%) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile, 8%) were also confirmed predators. Identification of potential predators from tracking stations and point counts demonstrated only moderate correspondence with actual nest predators. Parental behavior at the nest prior to depredation was not related to nest outcome.

  16. Design of New Power Management Circuit for Light Energy Harvesting System

    PubMed Central

    Jafer, Issa; Stack, Paul; MacNamee, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, it can be observed that Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN) are taking increasingly vital roles in many applications, such as building energy monitoring and control, which is the focus of the work in this paper. However, the main challenging issue with adopting WSN technology is the use of power sources such as batteries, which have a limited lifetime. A smart solution that could tackle this problem is using Energy Harvesting technology. The work in this paper will be focused on proposing a new power management design through harvesting indoor light intensity. The new approach is inspired by the use of the Fractional Open Circuit Voltage based Maximum Power Point tracking (MPPT) concept for sub mw Photo Voltaic (PV) cells. The new design adopts two main features: First, it minimizes the power consumed by the power management section; and second, it maximizes the MPPT-converted output voltage and consequently improves the efficiency of the power conversion in the sub mw power level. The new experimentally-tested design showed an improvement of 81% in the efficiency of MPPT conversion using 0.5 mW input power in comparison with the other presented solutions that showed less efficiency with higher input power. PMID:26907300

  17. Dynamics of vehicles in variable velocity runs over non-homogeneous flexible track and foundation with two point input models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, D.; Upadhyay, H. C.

    1992-07-01

    Vehicles obtain track-induced input through the wheels, which commonly number more than one. Analysis available for the vehicle response in a variable velocity run on a non-homogeneously profiled flexible track supported by compliant inertial foundation is for a linear heave model having a single ground input. This analysis is being extended to two point input models with heave-pitch and heave-roll degrees of freedom. Closed form expressions have been developed for the system response statistics. Results are presented for a railway coach and track/foundation problem, and the performances of heave, heave-pitch and heave-roll models have been compared. The three models are found to agree in describing the track response. However, the vehicle sprung mass behaviour is predicted to be different by these models, indicating the strong effect of coupling on the vehicle vibration.

  18. Precision pointing and tracking through random media by exploitation of the enhanced backscatter phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J E; Reddy, S P; Phillips, R L

    1996-07-20

    The active illumination of a target through a turbulent medium with a monostatic transmitter-receiver results in a naturally occurring conjugate wave caused by reciprocal scattering paths that experience identical phase variations. This reciprocal path-scattering phenomenon produces an enhanced backscatter in the retroverse direction (precisely along the boresight of the pointing telescope). A dual aperture causes this intensity enhancement to take the form of Young's interference fringes. Interference fringes produced by the reciprocal path-scattering phenomenon are temporally stable even in the presence of time-varying turbulence. Choosing the width-to-separation ratio of the dual apertures appropriately and utilizing orthogonal polarizations to suppress the time-varying common-path scattered radiation allow one to achieve interferometric sensitivity in pointing accuracy through a random medium or turbulent atmosphere. Computer simulations are compared with laboratory experimental data. This new precision pointing and tracking technique has potential applications in ground-to-space laser communications, laser power beaming to satellites, and theater missile defense scenarios.

  19. An evolutionary computation based algorithm for calculating solar differential rotation by automatic tracking of coronal bright points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Dorotovič, Ivan; Fonseca, Jose M.; Ribeiro, Rita A.

    2016-03-01

    Developing specialized software tools is essential to support studies of solar activity evolution. With new space missions such as Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), solar images are being produced in unprecedented volumes. To capitalize on that huge data availability, the scientific community needs a new generation of software tools for automatic and efficient data processing. In this paper a prototype of a modular framework for solar feature detection, characterization, and tracking is presented. To develop an efficient system capable of automatic solar feature tracking and measuring, a hybrid approach combining specialized image processing, evolutionary optimization, and soft computing algorithms is being followed. The specialized hybrid algorithm for tracking solar features allows automatic feature tracking while gathering characterization details about the tracked features. The hybrid algorithm takes advantages of the snake model, a specialized image processing algorithm widely used in applications such as boundary delineation, image segmentation, and object tracking. Further, it exploits the flexibility and efficiency of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a stochastic population based optimization algorithm. PSO has been used successfully in a wide range of applications including combinatorial optimization, control, clustering, robotics, scheduling, and image processing and video analysis applications. The proposed tool, denoted PSO-Snake model, was already successfully tested in other works for tracking sunspots and coronal bright points. In this work, we discuss the application of the PSO-Snake algorithm for calculating the sidereal rotational angular velocity of the solar corona. To validate the results we compare them with published manual results performed by an expert.

  20. A Miniaturized 0.78-mW/cm2 Autonomous Thermoelectric Energy-Harvesting Platform for Biomedical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Rozgic, Dejan; Markovic, Dejan

    2017-08-01

    In order to use thermoelectric energy harvesters (TEHs) as a truly autonomous energy source for size-limited sensing applications, it is essential to improve the power conversion efficiency and energy density. This study presents a thin-film, array-based TEH with a surface area of 0.83 cm 2 . The TEH autonomously supplies a power management IC fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology. The IC utilizes a single-inductor topology with integrated analog maximum power point tracking (MPPT), resulting in a 68% peak end-to-end efficiency (92% converter efficiency) and less than 20-ms MPPT. In an in-vivo test, a 645-μW regulated output power (effective 3.5 K of temperature gradient) was harvested from a rat implanted with our TEH, demonstrating true energy independence in a real environment while showing a 7.9 × improvement in regulated power density compared to the state-of-the-art. The system showed autonomous operation down to 65-mV TEH input.

  1. A MPPT Algorithm Based PV System Connected to Single Phase Voltage Controlled Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekanth, G.; Narender Reddy, N.; Durga Prasad, A.; Nagendrababu, V.

    2012-10-01

    Future ancillary services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could facilitate their penetration in power systems. In addition, low-power PV systems can be designed to improve the power quality. This paper presents a single-phase PV systemthat provides grid voltage support and compensation of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling thanks to a repetitive controller. The power provided by the PV panels is controlled by a Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based on the incremental conductance method specifically modified to control the phase of the PV inverter voltage. Simulation and experimental results validate the presented solution.

  2. GLAS Spacecraft Pointing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, George H.; Gold, Kenn; Ondrey, Michael; Kubitschek, Dan; Axelrad, Penina; Komjathy, Attila

    1998-01-01

    Science requirements for the GLAS mission demand that the laser altimeter be pointed to within 50 m of the location of the previous repeat ground track. The satellite will be flown in a repeat orbit of 182 days. Operationally, the required pointing information will be determined on the ground using the nominal ground track, to which pointing is desired, and the current propagated orbit of the satellite as inputs to the roll computation algorithm developed by CCAR. The roll profile will be used to generate a set of fit coefficients which can be uploaded on a daily basis and used by the on-board attitude control system. In addition, an algorithm has been developed for computation of the associated command quaternions which will be necessary when pointing at targets of opportunity. It may be desirable in the future to perform the roll calculation in an autonomous real-time mode on-board the spacecraft. GPS can provide near real-time tracking of the satellite, and the nominal ground track can be stored in the on-board computer. It will be necessary to choose the spacing of this nominal ground track to meet storage requirements in the on-board environment. Several methods for generating the roll profile from a sparse reference ground track are presented.

  3. A point process approach to identifying and tracking transitions in neural spiking dynamics in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xinyi; Eskandar, Emad N.; Eden, Uri T.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of rhythmic dynamics in normal and diseased brain function is an important area of research in neural electrophysiology. Identifying and tracking changes in rhythms associated with spike trains present an additional challenge, because standard approaches for continuous-valued neural recordings—such as local field potential, magnetoencephalography, and electroencephalography data—require assumptions that do not typically hold for point process data. Additionally, subtle changes in the history dependent structure of a spike train have been shown to lead to robust changes in rhythmic firing patterns. Here, we propose a point process modeling framework to characterize the rhythmic spiking dynamics in spike trains, test for statistically significant changes to those dynamics, and track the temporal evolution of such changes. We first construct a two-state point process model incorporating spiking history and develop a likelihood ratio test to detect changes in the firing structure. We then apply adaptive state-space filters and smoothers to track these changes through time. We illustrate our approach with a simulation study as well as with experimental data recorded in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's patients performing an arm movement task. Our analyses show that during the arm movement task, neurons underwent a complex pattern of modulation of spiking intensity characterized initially by a release of inhibitory control at 20-40 ms after a spike, followed by a decrease in excitatory influence at 40-60 ms after a spike.

  4. Sliding mode control of magnetic suspensions for precision pointing and tracking applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misovec, Kathleen M.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Johnson, Bruce G.; Hedrick, J. Karl

    1991-01-01

    A recently developed nonlinear control method, sliding mode control, is examined as a means of advancing the achievable performance of space-based precision pointing and tracking systems that use nonlinear magnetic actuators. Analytic results indicate that sliding mode control improves performance compared to linear control approaches. In order to realize these performance improvements, precise knowledge of the plant is required. Additionally, the interaction of an estimating scheme and the sliding mode controller has not been fully examined in the literature. Estimation schemes were designed for use with this sliding mode controller that do not seriously degrade system performance. The authors designed and built a laboratory testbed to determine the feasibility of utilizing sliding mode control in these types of applications. Using this testbed, experimental verification of the authors' analyses is ongoing.

  5. Acousto-optic pointing and tracking systems for free-space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, V.; Khandekar, R.; Sofka, J.; Tartakovsky, G.

    2005-08-01

    Implementation of long-range laser communication systems holds great promise for high-bandwidth applications. They are viewed as a technology that in the nearest future will handle most of the "last mile" communication traffic for the individual subscribers, corporate offices, military, and possibly deep space probes. Indeed, lasers allow for concentration of energy within tightly focused beams and narrow spectral interval, thus offering high throughput, information security, weight and size of components and power requirements that could not be matched by RF systems. However, the advantages of optical communication systems come in the same package with several major challenges. In particular, high data rates should be complemented by high-precision wide-bandwidth position control of a laser beam. In many applications the ability to maintain a link is affected by the complex maneuvers performed by mobile communication platforms, resident vibrations, and atmospheric effects. The search for the most effective and reliable way to shape and steer the laser beam is an on-going effort. This paper is focused on the application of acousto-optic technology as an alternative to electro-mechanical devices. With realization that an acousto-optic Bragg cell is only a component of the entire communication system, which should perform complex tasks of acquisition, pointing, and tracking of the remote terminal, we present an attempt to consider this problem from the "systems" point of view.

  6. Attention and Recall of Point-of-sale Tobacco Marketing: A Mobile Eye-Tracking Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Adkison, Sarah E; O'Connor, Richard J; Thrasher, James F

    2016-01-01

    As tobacco advertising restrictions have increased, the retail 'power wall' behind the counter is increasingly invaluable for marketing tobacco products. The primary objectives of this pilot study were 3-fold: (1) evaluate the attention paid/fixations on the area behind the cash register where tobacco advertising is concentrated and tobacco products are displayed in a real-world setting, (2) evaluate the duration (dwell-time) of these fixations, and (3) evaluate the recall of advertising displayed on the tobacco power wall. Data from 13 Smokers (S) and 12 Susceptible or non-daily Smokers (SS) aged 180-30 from a mobile eye-tracking study. Mobile-eye tracking technology records the orientation (fixation) and duration (dwell-time) of visual attention. Participants were randomized to one of three purchase tasks at a convenience store: Candy bar Only (CO; N = 10), Candy bar + Specified cigarette Brand (CSB; N = 6), and Candy bar + cigarette Brand of their Choice (CBC; N = 9). A post-session survey evaluated recall of tobacco marketing. Key outcomes were fixations and dwell-time on the cigarette displays at the point-of-sale. Participants spent a median time of 44 seconds during the standardized time evaluated and nearly three-quarters (72%) fixated on the power wall during their purchase, regardless of smoking status (S: 77%, SS: 67%) or purchase task (CO: 44%, CSB: 71%, CBC: 100%). In the post session survey, nearly all participants (96%) indicated they noticed a cigarette brand and 64% were able to describe a specific part of the tobacco wall or recall a promotional offer. Consumers are exposed to point-of-sale tobacco marketing, regardless of smoking status. FDA should consider regulations that limit exposure to point-of-sale tobacco marketing among consumers.

  7. Glue detection based on teaching points constraint and tracking model of pixel convolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Lei; Ma, Xiao; Xiao, Zhitao; Wang, Wen

    2018-01-01

    On-line glue detection based on machine version is significant for rust protection and strengthening in car production. Shadow stripes caused by reflect light and unevenness of inside front cover of car reduce the accuracy of glue detection. In this paper, we propose an effective algorithm to distinguish the edges of the glue and shadow stripes. Teaching points are utilized to calculate slope between the two adjacent points. Then a tracking model based on pixel convolution along motion direction is designed to segment several local rectangular regions using distance. The distance is the height of rectangular region. The pixel convolution along the motion direction is proposed to extract edges of gules in local rectangular region. A dataset with different illumination and complexity shape stripes are used to evaluate proposed method, which include 500 thousand images captured from the camera of glue gun machine. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can detect the edges of glue accurately. The shadow stripes are distinguished and removed effectively. Our method achieves the 99.9% accuracies for the image dataset.

  8. Accuracy assessment of the Precise Point Positioning method applied for surveys and tracking moving objects in GIS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Tamara; Gekov, Svetoslav

    2017-04-01

    The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method gives the users the opportunity to determine point locations using a single GNSS receiver. The accuracy of the determined by PPP point locations is better in comparison to the standard point positioning, due to the precise satellite orbit and clock corrections that are developed and maintained by the International GNSS Service (IGS). The aim of our current research is the accuracy assessment of the PPP method applied for surveys and tracking moving objects in GIS environment. The PPP data is collected by using preliminary developed by us software application that allows different sets of attribute data for the measurements and their accuracy to be used. The results from the PPP measurements are directly compared within the geospatial database to different other sets of terrestrial data - measurements obtained by total stations, real time kinematic and static GNSS.

  9. Rover mast calibration, exact camera pointing, and camara handoff for visual target tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Steele, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents three technical elements that we have developed to improve the accuracy of the visual target tracking for single-sol approach-and-instrument placement in future Mars rover missions. An accurate, straightforward method of rover mast calibration is achieved by using a total station, a camera calibration target, and four prism targets mounted on the rover. The method was applied to Rocky8 rover mast calibration and yielded a 1.1-pixel rms residual error. Camera pointing requires inverse kinematic solutions for mast pan and tilt angles such that the target image appears right at the center of the camera image. Two issues were raised. Mast camera frames are in general not parallel to the masthead base frame. Further, the optical axis of the camera model in general does not pass through the center of the image. Despite these issues, we managed to derive non-iterative closed-form exact solutions, which were verified with Matlab routines. Actual camera pointing experiments aver 50 random target image paints yielded less than 1.3-pixel rms pointing error. Finally, a purely geometric method for camera handoff using stereo views of the target has been developed. Experimental test runs show less than 2.5 pixels error on high-resolution Navcam for Pancam-to-Navcam handoff, and less than 4 pixels error on lower-resolution Hazcam for Navcam-to-Hazcam handoff.

  10. Some results regarding stability of photovoltaic maximum-power-point tracking dc-dc converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, John F.

    An analytical investigation of a class of photovoltaic (PV) maximum-power-point tracking dc-dc converters has yielded basic results relative to the stability of such devices. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stable operation are derived, and design tools are given. Specific results have been obtained for arbitrary PV arrays driving converters powering resistive loads and batteries. The analytical techniques are applicable to inverters, also. Portions of the theoretical results have been verified in operational devices: a 1500 watt unit has driven a 1-horsepower, 90-volt dc motor powering a water pump jack for over one year. Prior to modification shortly after initial installation, the unit exhibited instability at low levels of irradiance, as predicted by the theory. Two examples are provided.

  11. An Efficient Modulation Strategy for Cascaded Photovoltaic Systems Suffering From Module Mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Kai; Xiong, Jian

    Modular multilevel cascaded converter (MMCC) is a promising technique for medium/high-voltage high-power photovoltaic systems due to its modularity, scalability, and capability of distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT) etc. However, distributed MPPT under module-mismatch might polarize the distribution of ac output voltages as well as the dc-link voltages among the modules, distort grid currents, and even cause system instability. For the better acceptance in practical applications, such issues need to be well addressed. Based on mismatch degree that is defined to consider both active power distribution and maximum modulation index, this paper presents an efficient modulation strategy for a cascaded-H-bridge-basedmore » MMCC under module mismatch. It can operate in loss-reducing mode or range-extending mode. By properly switching between the two modes, performance indices such as system efficiency, grid current quality, and balance of dc voltages, can be well coordinated. In this way, the MMCC system can maintain high-performance over a wide range of operating conditions. As a result, effectiveness of the proposed modulation strategy is proved with experiments.« less

  12. An Efficient Modulation Strategy for Cascaded Photovoltaic Systems Suffering From Module Mismatch

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Kai; Xiong, Jian; ...

    2017-09-26

    Modular multilevel cascaded converter (MMCC) is a promising technique for medium/high-voltage high-power photovoltaic systems due to its modularity, scalability, and capability of distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT) etc. However, distributed MPPT under module-mismatch might polarize the distribution of ac output voltages as well as the dc-link voltages among the modules, distort grid currents, and even cause system instability. For the better acceptance in practical applications, such issues need to be well addressed. Based on mismatch degree that is defined to consider both active power distribution and maximum modulation index, this paper presents an efficient modulation strategy for a cascaded-H-bridge-basedmore » MMCC under module mismatch. It can operate in loss-reducing mode or range-extending mode. By properly switching between the two modes, performance indices such as system efficiency, grid current quality, and balance of dc voltages, can be well coordinated. In this way, the MMCC system can maintain high-performance over a wide range of operating conditions. As a result, effectiveness of the proposed modulation strategy is proved with experiments.« less

  13. UNISAT-3 Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Bulgarelli, Fabio; Graziani, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    An overview of the UNISAT-3 microsatellite power subsystem is given. This is an educational, low weight and low cost microsatellite designed, built, launched and operated in space by students and professors of Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, at University of Rome "La Sapienza". The satellite power system is based on terrestrial technology solar arrays and NiCd batteries. The microsatellite hosts other solar arrays, including multi-junction solar cells and mono- crystalline silicon high efficiency solar cells, in order to compare their behaviour in orbit. Moreover a MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking ) system has been designed and tested, and it is a technological payload of UNISAT-3. The MPPT design follows the studies performed in the field of solar powered racing cars, with modifications to make the system suitable for use in space. The system design, numerical simulation and hardware ground testing are described in the paper. The experiment and the performance evaluation criterion are described, together with the preliminary results of the first eight months of operation in orbit.

  14. Graph-based geometric-iconic guide-wire tracking.

    PubMed

    Honnorat, Nicolas; Vaillant, Régis; Paragios, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel hybrid graph-based approach for Guide-wire tracking. The image support is captured by steerable filters and improved through tensor voting. Then, a graphical model is considered that represents guide-wire extraction/tracking through a B-spline control-point model. Points with strong geometric interest (landmarks) are automatically determined and anchored to such a representation. Tracking is then performed through discrete MRFs that optimize the spatio-temporal positions of the control points while establishing landmark temporal correspondences. Promising results demonstrate the potentials of our method.

  15. In vivo Three-Dimensional Superresolution Fluorescence Tracking using a Double-Helix Point Spread Function

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Matthew D.; Thompson, Michael A.; Badieirostami, Majid; Moerner, W. E.

    2010-01-01

    The point spread function (PSF) of a widefield fluorescence microscope is not suitable for three-dimensional super-resolution imaging. We characterize the localization precision of a unique method for 3D superresolution imaging featuring a double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF). The DH-PSF is designed to have two lobes that rotate about their midpoint in any transverse plane as a function of the axial position of the emitter. In effect, the PSF appears as a double helix in three dimensions. By comparing the Cramer-Rao bound of the DH-PSF with the standard PSF as a function of the axial position, we show that the DH-PSF has a higher and more uniform localization precision than the standard PSF throughout a 2 μm depth of field. Comparisons between the DH-PSF and other methods for 3D super-resolution are briefly discussed. We also illustrate the applicability of the DH-PSF for imaging weak emitters in biological systems by tracking the movement of quantum dots in glycerol and in live cells. PMID:20563317

  16. Mark Tracking: Position/orientation measurements using 4-circle mark and its tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanda, Shinji; Okabayashi, Keijyu; Maruyama, Tsugito; Uchiyama, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    Future space robots require position and orientation tracking with visual feedback control to track and capture floating objects and satellites. We developed a four-circle mark that is useful for this purpose. With this mark, four geometric center positions as feature points can be extracted from the mark by simple image processing. We also developed a position and orientation measurement method that uses the four feature points in our mark. The mark gave good enough image measurement accuracy to let space robots approach and contact objects. A visual feedback control system using this mark enabled a robot arm to track a target object accurately. The control system was able to tolerate a time delay of 2 seconds.

  17. Tracking Small Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James C.; Klette, Reinhard; Chen, Chia-Yen

    Tracks of small animals are important in environmental surveillance, where pattern recognition algorithms allow species identification of the individuals creating tracks. These individuals can also be seen as artists, presented in their natural environments with a canvas upon which they can make prints. We present tracks of small mammals and reptiles which have been collected for identification purposes, and re-interpret them from an esthetic point of view. We re-classify these tracks not by their geometric qualities as pattern recognition algorithms would, but through interpreting the 'artist', their brush strokes and intensity. We describe the algorithms used to enhance and present the work of the 'artists'.

  18. Post-Newtonian equations of motion for LEO debris objects and space-based acquisition, pointing and tracking laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambi, J. M.; García del Pino, M. L.; Gschwindl, J.; Weinmüller, E. B.

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the problem of throwing middle-sized low Earth orbit debris objects into the atmosphere via laser ablation. The post-Newtonian equations here provided allow (hypothetical) space-based acquisition, pointing and tracking systems endowed with very narrow laser beams to reach the pointing accuracy presently prescribed. In fact, whatever the orbital elements of these objects may be, these equations will allow the operators to account for the corrections needed to balance the deviations of the line of sight directions due to the curvature of the paths the laser beams are to travel along. To minimize the respective corrections, the systems will have to perform initial positioning manoeuvres, and the shooting point-ahead angles will have to be adapted in real time. The enclosed numerical experiments suggest that neglecting these measures will cause fatal errors, due to differences in the actual locations of the objects comparable to their size.

  19. Modeling, control, and simulation of grid connected intelligent hybrid battery/photovoltaic system using new hybrid fuzzy-neural method.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Alireza; Khalili, Abbas; Mazareie, Alireza; Gandomkar, Majid

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) generation is growing increasingly fast as a renewable energy source. Nevertheless, the drawback of the PV system is its dependence on weather conditions. Therefore, battery energy storage (BES) can be considered to assist for a stable and reliable output from PV generation system for loads and improve the dynamic performance of the whole generation system in grid connected mode. In this paper, a novel topology of intelligent hybrid generation systems with PV and BES in a DC-coupled structure is presented. Each photovoltaic cell has a specific point named maximum power point on its operational curve (i.e. current-voltage or power-voltage curve) in which it can generate maximum power. Irradiance and temperature changes affect these operational curves. Therefore, the nonlinear characteristic of maximum power point to environment has caused to development of different maximum power point tracking techniques. In order to capture the maximum power point (MPP), a hybrid fuzzy-neural maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied in the PV system. Obtained results represent the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method, and the average tracking efficiency of the hybrid fuzzy-neural is incremented by approximately two percentage points in comparison to the conventional methods. It has the advantages of robustness, fast response and good performance. A detailed mathematical model and a control approach of a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system have been proposed using Matlab/Simulink. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiradar tracking for theater missile defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviestins, Egils

    1995-09-01

    A prototype system for tracking tactical ballistic missiles using multiple radars has been developed. The tracking is based on measurement level fusion (`true' multi-radar) tracking. Strobes from passive sensors can also be used. We describe various features of the system with some emphasis on the filtering technique. This is based on the Interacting Multiple Model framework where the states are Free Flight, Drag, Boost, and Auxiliary. Measurement error modeling includes the signal to noise ratio dependence; outliers and miscorrelations are handled in the same way. The launch point is calculated within one minute from the detection of the missile. The impact point, and its uncertainty region, is calculated continually by extrapolating the track state vector using the equations of planetary motion.

  1. Controlled ion track etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, J.; Irkens, M.; Neumann, S.; Scherer, U. W.; Srivastava, A.; Sinha, D.; Fink, D.

    2006-03-01

    It is a common practice since long to follow the ion track-etching process in thin foils via conductometry, i.e . by measurement of the electrical current which passes through the etched track, once the track breakthrough condition has been achieved. The major disadvantage of this approach, namely the absence of any major detectable signal before breakthrough, can be avoided by examining the track-etching process capacitively. This method allows one to define precisely not only the breakthrough point before it is reached, but also the length of any non-transient track. Combining both capacitive and conductive etching allows one to control the etching process perfectly. Examples and possible applications are given.

  2. Three-dimensional spatiotemporal tracking of fluorine-18 radiolabeled yeast cells via positron emission particle tracking

    DOE PAGES

    Langford, Seth T.; Wiggins, Cody S.; Santos, Roque; ...

    2017-07-06

    A method for Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) based on optical feature point identification techniques is demonstrated for use in low activity tracking experiments. Furthermore, a population of yeast cells of approximately 125,000 members is activated to roughly 55 Bq/cell by 18F uptake. An in vitro particle tracking experiment is performed with nearly 20 of these cells after decay to 32 Bq/cell. These cells are successfully identified and tracked simultaneously in this experiment. Our work extends the applicability of PEPT as a cell tracking method by allowing a number of cells to be tracked together, and demonstrating tracking for verymore » low activity tracers.« less

  3. Three-dimensional spatiotemporal tracking of fluorine-18 radiolabeled yeast cells via positron emission particle tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, Seth T.; Wiggins, Cody S.; Santos, Roque

    A method for Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) based on optical feature point identification techniques is demonstrated for use in low activity tracking experiments. Furthermore, a population of yeast cells of approximately 125,000 members is activated to roughly 55 Bq/cell by 18F uptake. An in vitro particle tracking experiment is performed with nearly 20 of these cells after decay to 32 Bq/cell. These cells are successfully identified and tracked simultaneously in this experiment. Our work extends the applicability of PEPT as a cell tracking method by allowing a number of cells to be tracked together, and demonstrating tracking for verymore » low activity tracers.« less

  4. Model Predictive Control techniques with application to photovoltaic, DC Microgrid, and a multi-sourced hybrid energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadmand, Mohammad Bagher

    Renewable energy sources continue to gain popularity. However, two major limitations exist that prevent widespread adoption: availability and variability of the electricity generated and the cost of the equipment. The focus of this dissertation is Model Predictive Control (MPC) for optimal sized photovoltaic (PV), DC Microgrid, and multi-sourced hybrid energy systems. The main considered applications are: maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by MPC, droop predictive control of DC microgrid, MPC of grid-interaction inverter, MPC of a capacitor-less VAR compensator based on matrix converter (MC). This dissertation firstly investigates a multi-objective optimization technique for a hybrid distribution system. The variability of a high-penetration PV scenario is also studied when incorporated into the microgrid concept. Emerging (PV) technologies have enabled the creation of contoured and conformal PV surfaces; the effect of using non-planar PV modules on variability is also analyzed. The proposed predictive control to achieve maximum power point for isolated and grid-tied PV systems speeds up the control loop since it predicts error before the switching signal is applied to the converter. The low conversion efficiency of PV cells means we want to ensure always operating at maximum possible power point to make the system economical. Thus the proposed MPPT technique can capture more energy compared to the conventional MPPT techniques from same amount of installed solar panel. Because of the MPPT requirement, the output voltage of the converter may vary. Therefore a droop control is needed to feed multiple arrays of photovoltaic systems to a DC bus in microgrid community. Development of a droop control technique by means of predictive control is another application of this dissertation. Reactive power, denoted as Volt Ampere Reactive (VAR), has several undesirable consequences on AC power system network such as reduction in power transfer capability and increase in

  5. Modeling and analysis of solar distributed generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Rivera, Eduardo Ivan

    Recent changes in the global economy are creating a big impact in our daily life. The price of oil is increasing and the number of reserves are less every day. Also, dramatic demographic changes are impacting the viability of the electric infrastructure and ultimately the economic future of the industry. These are some of the reasons that many countries are looking for alternative energy to produce electric energy. The most common form of green energy in our daily life is solar energy. To convert solar energy into electrical energy is required solar panels, dc-dc converters, power control, sensors, and inverters. In this work, a photovoltaic module, PVM, model using the electrical characteristics provided by the manufacturer data sheet is presented for power system applications. Experimental results from testing are showed, verifying the proposed PVM model. Also in this work, three maximum power point tracker, MPPT, algorithms would be presented to obtain the maximum power from a PVM. The first MPPT algorithm is a method based on the Rolle's and Lagrange's Theorems and can provide at least an approximate answer to a family of transcendental functions that cannot be solved using differential calculus. The second MPPT algorithm is based on the approximation of the proposed PVM model using fractional polynomials where the shape, boundary conditions and performance of the proposed PVM model are satisfied. The third MPPT algorithm is based in the determination of the optimal duty cycle for a dc-dc converter and the previous knowledge of the load or load matching conditions. Also, four algorithms to calculate the effective irradiance level and temperature over a photovoltaic module are presented in this work. The main reasons to develop these algorithms are for monitoring climate conditions, the elimination of temperature and solar irradiance sensors, reductions in cost for a photovoltaic inverter system, and development of new algorithms to be integrated with maximum

  6. Tracking in a ground-to-satellite optical link: effects due to lead-ahead and aperture mismatch, including temporal tracking response.

    PubMed

    Basu, Santasri; Voelz, David

    2008-07-01

    Establishing a link between a ground station and a geosynchronous orbiting satellite can be aided greatly with the use of a beacon on the satellite. A tracker, or even an adaptive optics system, can use the beacon during communication or tracking activities to correct beam pointing for atmospheric turbulence and mount jitter effects. However, the pointing lead-ahead required to illuminate the moving object and an aperture mismatch between the tracking and the pointing apertures can limit the effectiveness of the correction, as the sensed tilt will not be the same as the tilt required for optimal transmission to the satellite. We have developed an analytical model that addresses the combined impact of these tracking issues in a ground-to-satellite optical link. We present these results for different tracker/pointer configurations. By setting the low-pass cutoff frequency of the tracking servo properly, the tracking errors can be minimized. The analysis considers geosynchronous Earth orbit satellites as well as low Earth orbit satellites.

  7. Multiple-object tracking while driving: the multiple-vehicle tracking task.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin J; Trick, Lana M

    2014-11-01

    Many contend that driving an automobile involves multiple-object tracking. At this point, no one has tested this idea, and it is unclear how multiple-object tracking would coordinate with the other activities involved in driving. To address some of the initial and most basic questions about multiple-object tracking while driving, we modified the tracking task for use in a driving simulator, creating the multiple-vehicle tracking task. In Experiment 1, we employed a dual-task methodology to determine whether there was interference between tracking and driving. Findings suggest that although it is possible to track multiple vehicles while driving, driving reduces tracking performance, and tracking compromises headway and lane position maintenance while driving. Modified change-detection paradigms were used to assess whether there were change localization advantages for tracked targets in multiple-vehicle tracking. When changes occurred during a blanking interval, drivers were more accurate (Experiment 2a) and ~250 ms faster (Experiment 2b) at locating the vehicle that changed when it was a target rather than a distractor in tracking. In a more realistic driving task where drivers had to brake in response to the sudden onset of brake lights in one of the lead vehicles, drivers were more accurate at localizing the vehicle that braked if it was a tracking target, although there was no advantage in terms of braking response time. Overall, results suggest that multiple-object tracking is possible while driving and perhaps even advantageous in some situations, but further research is required to determine whether multiple-object tracking is actually used in day-to-day driving.

  8. Design and Experimental Evaluation on an Advanced Multisource Energy Harvesting System for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Gaofei; Ma, Rui; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    An effective multisource energy harvesting system is presented as power supply for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). The advanced system contains not only an expandable power management module including control of the charging and discharging process of the lithium polymer battery but also an energy harvesting system using the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit with analog driving scheme for the collection of both solar and vibration energy sources. Since the MPPT and the power management module are utilized, the system is able to effectively achieve a low power consumption. Furthermore, a super capacitor is integrated in the system so that current fluctuations of the lithium polymer battery during the charging and discharging processes can be properly reduced. In addition, through a simple analog switch circuit with low power consumption, the proposed system can successfully switch the power supply path according to the ambient energy sources and load power automatically. A practical WSNs platform shows that efficiency of the energy harvesting system can reach about 75–85% through the 24-hour environmental test, which confirms that the proposed system can be used as a long-term continuous power supply for WSNs. PMID:25032233

  9. Design and experimental evaluation on an advanced multisource energy harvesting system for wireless sensor nodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Gaofei; Ma, Rui; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    An effective multisource energy harvesting system is presented as power supply for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). The advanced system contains not only an expandable power management module including control of the charging and discharging process of the lithium polymer battery but also an energy harvesting system using the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit with analog driving scheme for the collection of both solar and vibration energy sources. Since the MPPT and the power management module are utilized, the system is able to effectively achieve a low power consumption. Furthermore, a super capacitor is integrated in the system so that current fluctuations of the lithium polymer battery during the charging and discharging processes can be properly reduced. In addition, through a simple analog switch circuit with low power consumption, the proposed system can successfully switch the power supply path according to the ambient energy sources and load power automatically. A practical WSNs platform shows that efficiency of the energy harvesting system can reach about 75-85% through the 24-hour environmental test, which confirms that the proposed system can be used as a long-term continuous power supply for WSNs.

  10. Stable Adaptive Inertial Control of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Moses; Muljadi, Eduard; Hur, Kyeon

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a stable adaptive inertial control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator. The proposed power reference is defined in two sections: the deceleration period and the acceleration period. The power reference in the deceleration period consists of a constant and the reference for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) operation. The latter contributes to preventing a second frequency dip (SFD) in this period because its reduction rate is large at the early stage of an event but quickly decreases with time. To improve the frequency nadir (FN), the constant value is set to be proportional to the rotor speedmore » prior to an event. The reference ensures that the rotor speed converges to a stable operating region. To accelerate the rotor speed while causing a small SFD, when the rotor speed converges, the power reference is reduced by a small amount and maintained until it meets the MPPT reference. The results show that the scheme causes a small SFD while improving the FN and the rate of change of frequency in any wind conditions, even in a grid that has a high penetration of wind power.« less

  11. Continuous adaptive beam pointing and tracking for laser power transmission.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Christian A

    2010-06-21

    The adaptive beam pointing concept has been revisited for the purpose of controlled transmission of laser energy from an optical transmitter to a target. After illumination, a bidirectional link is established by a retro-reflector on the target and an amplifier-phase conjugate mirror (A-PCM) on the transmitter. By setting the retro-reflector's aperture smaller than the diffraction limited spot size but big enough to provide sufficient amount of optical feedback, a stable link can be maintained and light that hits the retro-reflector's surrounded area can simultaneously be reconverted into usable electric energy. The phase conjugate feedback ensures that amplifier's distortions are compensated and the target tracked accurately.After deriving basic arithmetic expressions for the proposed system, a section is devoted for the motivation of free-space laser power transmission which is supposed to find varied applicability in space. As an example, power transmission from a satellite to the earth is described where recently proposed solar power generating structures on high-altitudes receive the power above the clouds to provide constant energy supply.In the experimental part, an A-PCM setup with reflectivity of about R(A-PCM) = 100 was realized using a semiconductor optical amplifier and a photorefractive self-pumped PCM. Simulation results show that a reflectivity of R(A-PCM)>1000 could be obtained by improving the self-pumped PCM's efficiency. That would lead to a transmission efficiency of eta>90%.

  12. Skull registration for prone patient position using tracked ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Grace; Ungi, Tamas; Baum, Zachary; Lasso, Andras; Kronreif, Gernot; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE: Tracked navigation has become prevalent in neurosurgery. Problems with registration of a patient and a preoperative image arise when the patient is in a prone position. Surfaces accessible to optical tracking on the back of the head are unreliable for registration. We investigated the accuracy of surface-based registration using points accessible through tracked ultrasound. Using ultrasound allows access to bone surfaces that are not available through optical tracking. Tracked ultrasound could eliminate the need to work (i) under the table for registration and (ii) adjust the tracker between surgery and registration. In addition, tracked ultrasound could provide a non-invasive method in comparison to an alternative method of registration involving screw implantation. METHODS: A phantom study was performed to test the feasibility of tracked ultrasound for registration. An initial registration was performed to partially align the pre-operative computer tomography data and skull phantom. The initial registration was performed by an anatomical landmark registration. Surface points accessible by tracked ultrasound were collected and used to perform an Iterative Closest Point Algorithm. RESULTS: When the surface registration was compared to a ground truth landmark registration, the average TRE was found to be 1.6+/-0.1mm and the average distance of points off the skull surface was 0.6+/-0.1mm. CONCLUSION: The use of tracked ultrasound is feasible for registration of patients in prone position and eliminates the need to perform registration under the table. The translational component of error found was minimal. Therefore, the amount of TRE in registration is due to a rotational component of error.

  13. PV based converter with integrated charger for DC micro-grid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salve, Rima

    This thesis presents a converter topology for photovoltaic panels. This topology minimizes the number of switching devices used thereby reducing power losses that arise from high frequency switching operations. The control strategy is implemented using a simple microcontroller that implements the proportional plus integral control. All the control loops are closed feedback loops hence minimizing error instantaneously and adjusting efficiently to system variations. The energy management between three components, namely, the photovoltaic panel, a battery and a DC link for a microgrid is shown distributed over three modes. These modes are dependent on the irradiance from the sunlight. All three modes are simulated. The maximum power point tracking of the system plays a crutial role in this configuration as it is one of the main challenge tackled by the control system. Various methods of MPPT are discussed and the Perturb and Observe method is employed and is described in detail. Experimental results are shown for the maximum power point tracking of this system with a scaled down version of the panel's actual capability.

  14. A time domain inverse dynamic method for the end point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, we calculated the torque and the trajectories of all state variables for a given end point trajectory. The interpretation of this method in the frequency domain was explained in detail using the two-sided Laplace transform and the convolution integral. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For real applications, a practical control strategy is proposed by adding a feedback tracking control loop to the inverse dynamic feedforward control, and its good experimental performance is presented.

  15. Remote gaze tracking system for 3D environments.

    PubMed

    Congcong Liu; Herrup, Karl; Shi, Bertram E

    2017-07-01

    Eye tracking systems are typically divided into two categories: remote and mobile. Remote systems, where the eye tracker is located near the object being viewed by the subject, have the advantage of being less intrusive, but are typically used for tracking gaze points on fixed two dimensional (2D) computer screens. Mobile systems such as eye tracking glasses, where the eye tracker are attached to the subject, are more intrusive, but are better suited for cases where subjects are viewing objects in the three dimensional (3D) environment. In this paper, we describe how remote gaze tracking systems developed for 2D computer screens can be used to track gaze points in a 3D environment. The system is non-intrusive. It compensates for small head movements by the user, so that the head need not be stabilized by a chin rest or bite bar. The system maps the 3D gaze points of the user onto 2D images from a scene camera and is also located remotely from the subject. Measurement results from this system indicate that it is able to estimate gaze points in the scene camera to within one degree over a wide range of head positions.

  16. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    SciTech Connect

    Petzoldt, Ronald Wayne

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s 2 if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 μm thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s 2 acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration.more » Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.« less

  17. Trajectory tracking and backfitting techniques against theater ballistic missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Robert G.; Britt, Patrick T.

    1999-10-01

    Since the SCUD launches in the Gulf War, theater ballistic missile (TBM) systems have become a growing concern for the US military. Detection, fast track initiation, backfitting for launch point determination, and tracking and engagement during boost phase or shortly after booster cutoff are goals that grow in importance with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper focuses on track initiation and backfitting techniques, as well as extending some earlier results on tracking a TBM during boost phase cutoff. Results indicate that Kalman techniques are superior to third order polynomial extrapolations in estimating the launch point, and that some knowledge of missile parameters, especially thrust, is extremely helpful in track initiation.

  18. Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine MRI and Tagged MRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract--related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic…

  19. Solar micro-power system for self-powered wireless sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongtai; Li, Yangqiu; Liu, Lihui; Wang, Lei

    2008-10-01

    In self-powered wireless sensor nodes, the efficiency for environmental energy harvesting, storage and management determines the lifetime and environmental adaptability of the sensor nodes. However, the method of improving output efficiency for traditional photovoltaic power generation is not suitable for a solar micro-power system due to the special requirements for its application. This paper presents a solar micro-power system designed for a solar self-powered wireless sensor node. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of solar cells and energy storage are realized by the hybrid energy storage structure and "window" control. Meanwhile, the mathematical model of energy harvesting, storing and management is formulated. In the novel system, the output conversion efficiency of solar cells is 12%.

  20. Direct torque control method applied to the WECS based on the PMSG and controlled with backstepping approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errami, Youssef; Obbadi, Abdellatif; Sahnoun, Smail; Ouassaid, Mohammed; Maaroufi, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a Direct Torque Control (DTC) method for Wind Power System (WPS) based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and Backstepping approach. In this work, generator side and grid-side converter with filter are used as the interface between the wind turbine and grid. Backstepping approach demonstrates great performance in complicated nonlinear systems control such as WPS. So, the control method combines the DTC to achieve Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and Backstepping approach to sustain the DC-bus voltage and to regulate the grid-side power factor. In addition, control strategy is developed in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem for the WPS. Simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink validate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  1. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  2. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  3. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-12-08

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion. 16 figs.

  4. Inferring Models of Bacterial Dynamics toward Point Sources

    PubMed Central

    Jashnsaz, Hossein; Nguyen, Tyler; Petrache, Horia I.; Pressé, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Experiments have shown that bacteria can be sensitive to small variations in chemoattractant (CA) concentrations. Motivated by these findings, our focus here is on a regime rarely studied in experiments: bacteria tracking point CA sources (such as food patches or even prey). In tracking point sources, the CA detected by bacteria may show very large spatiotemporal fluctuations which vary with distance from the source. We present a general statistical model to describe how bacteria locate point sources of food on the basis of stochastic event detection, rather than CA gradient information. We show how all model parameters can be directly inferred from single cell tracking data even in the limit of high detection noise. Once parameterized, our model recapitulates bacterial behavior around point sources such as the “volcano effect”. In addition, while the search by bacteria for point sources such as prey may appear random, our model identifies key statistical signatures of a targeted search for a point source given any arbitrary source configuration. PMID:26466373

  5. An efficient method to compute microlensed light curves for point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, Hans J.

    1993-01-01

    We present a method to compute microlensed light curves for point sources. This method has the general advantage that all microimages contributing to the light curve are found. While a source moves along a straight line, all micro images are located either on the primary image track or on the secondary image tracks (loops). The primary image track extends from - infinity to + infinity and is made of many sequents which are continuously connected. All the secondary image tracks (loops) begin and end on the lensing point masses. The method can be applied to any microlensing situation with point masses in the deflector plane, even for the overcritical case and surface densities close to the critical. Furthermore, we present general rules to evaluate the light curve for a straight track arbitrary placed in the caustic network of a sample of many point masses.

  6. The influence of image sensor irradiation damage on the tracking and pointing accuracy of optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoliang; Luo, Lei; Li, Pengwei; Yu, Qingkui

    2018-03-01

    The image sensor in satellite optical communication system may generate noise due to space irradiation damage, leading to deviation for the determination of the light spot centroid. Based on the irradiation test data of CMOS devices, simulated defect spots in different sizes have been used for calculating the centroid deviation value by grey-level centroid algorithm. The impact on tracking & pointing accuracy of the system has been analyzed. The results show that both the amount and the position of irradiation-induced defect pixels contribute to spot centroid deviation. And the larger spot has less deviation. At last, considering the space radiation damage, suggestions are made for the constraints of spot size selection.

  7. Terrestrial laser scanning point clouds time series for the monitoring of slope movements: displacement measurement using image correlation and 3D feature tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornemann, Pierrick; Jean-Philippe, Malet; André, Stumpf; Anne, Puissant; Julien, Travelletti

    2016-04-01

    Dense multi-temporal point clouds acquired with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) have proved useful for the study of structure and kinematics of slope movements. Most of the existing deformation analysis methods rely on the use of interpolated data. Approaches that use multiscale image correlation provide a precise and robust estimation of the observed movements; however, for non-rigid motion patterns, these methods tend to underestimate all the components of the movement. Further, for rugged surface topography, interpolated data introduce a bias and a loss of information in some local places where the point cloud information is not sufficiently dense. Those limits can be overcome by using deformation analysis exploiting directly the original 3D point clouds assuming some hypotheses on the deformation (e.g. the classic ICP algorithm requires an initial guess by the user of the expected displacement patterns). The objective of this work is therefore to propose a deformation analysis method applied to a series of 20 3D point clouds covering the period October 2007 - October 2015 at the Super-Sauze landslide (South East French Alps). The dense point clouds have been acquired with a terrestrial long-range Optech ILRIS-3D laser scanning device from the same base station. The time series are analyzed using two approaches: 1) a method of correlation of gradient images, and 2) a method of feature tracking in the raw 3D point clouds. The estimated surface displacements are then compared with GNSS surveys on reference targets. Preliminary results tend to show that the image correlation method provides a good estimation of the displacement fields at first order, but shows limitations such as the inability to track some deformation patterns, and the use of a perspective projection that does not maintain original angles and distances in the correlated images. Results obtained with 3D point clouds comparison algorithms (C2C, ICP, M3C2) bring additional information on the

  8. Power Smoothing of a Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Generator in Association With the Rotor-Speed-Dependent Gain

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeonhee; Kang, Moses; Muljadi, Eduard

    This paper proposes a power-smoothing scheme for a variable-speed wind turbine generator (WTG) that can smooth out the WTG's fluctuating power caused by varying wind speeds, and thereby keep the system frequency within a narrow range. The proposed scheme employs an additional loop based on the system frequency deviation that operates in conjunction with the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control loop. Unlike the conventional, fixed-gain scheme, its control gain is modified with the rotor speed. In the proposed scheme, the control gain is determined by considering the ratio of the output of the additional loop to that of themore » MPPT loop. To improve the contribution of the scheme toward maintaining the frequency while ensuring the stable operation of WTGs, in the low rotor speed region, the ratio is set to be proportional to the rotor speed; in the high rotor speed region, the ratio remains constant. The performance of the proposed scheme is investigated under varying wind conditions for the IEEE 14-bus system. The simulation results demonstrate that the scheme successfully operates regardless of the output power fluctuation of a WTG by adjusting the gain with the rotor speed, and thereby improves the frequency-regulating capability of a WTG.« less

  9. Tracking planets and moons: mechanisms of object tracking revealed with a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E

    2011-04-01

    People can attend to and track multiple moving objects over time. Cognitive theories of this ability emphasize location information and differ on the importance of motion information. Results from several experiments have shown that increasing object speed impairs performance, although speed was confounded with other properties such as proximity of objects to one another. Here, we introduce a new paradigm to study multiple object tracking in which object speed and object proximity were manipulated independently. Like the motion of a planet and moon, each target-distractor pair rotated about both a common local point as well as the center of the screen. Tracking performance was strongly affected by object speed even when proximity was controlled. Additional results suggest that two different mechanisms are used in object tracking--one sensitive to speed and proximity and the other sensitive to the number of distractors. These observations support models of object tracking that include information about object motion and reject models that use location alone.

  10. Energy optimization for a wind DFIG with flywheel energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hamzaoui, Ihssen, E-mail: hamzaoui-ihssen2000@yahoo.fr; Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Khemis Miliana, Ain Defla; Bouchafaa, Farid, E-mail: fbouchafa@gmail.com

    2016-07-25

    The type of distributed generation unit that is the subject of this paper relates to renewable energy sources, especially wind power. The wind generator used is based on a double fed induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the DFIG is connected directly to the network and the rotor is connected to the network through the power converter with three levels. The objective of this work is to study the association a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in wind generator. This system is used to improve the quality of electricity provided by wind generator. It is composed of a flywheel; anmore » induction machine (IM) and a power electronic converter. A maximum power tracking technique « Maximum Power Point Tracking » (MPPT) and a strategy for controlling the pitch angle is presented. The model of the complete system is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment / to analyze the results from simulation the integration of wind chain to networks.« less

  11. Ka-band monopulse antenna-pointing systems analysis and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, V. Y.

    1996-01-01

    NASA 's Deep Space Network (DSN) has been using both 70-m and 34-m reflector antennas to communicate with spacecraft at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.45 GHz). To improve the quality of telecommunication and to meet future mission requirements, JPL has been developing 34-m Ka-band (32-GHz) beam waveguide antennas. Presently, antenna pointing operates in either the open-loop mode with blind pointing using navigation predicts or the closed-loop mode with conical scan (conscan). Pointing accuracy under normal conscan operating conditions is in the neighborhood of 5 mdeg. This is acceptable at S- and X-bands, but not enough at Ka-band. Due to the narrow beamwidth at Ka-band, it is important to improve pointing accuracy significantly (approximately 2 mdeg). Monopulse antenna tracking is one scheme being developed to meet the stringent pointing-accuracy requirement at Ka-band. Other advantages of monopulse tracking include low sensitivity to signal amplitude fluctuations as well as single-pulse processing for acquisition and tracking. This article presents system modeling, signal processing, simulation, and implementation of Ka-band monopulse tracking feed for antennas in NASA/DSN ground stations.

  12. Neural Modeling of Fuzzy Controllers for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Ramos-Hernanz, Josean; Altın, Necmi; Ozdemir, Saban; Kurt, Erol; Azkune, Gorka

    2018-06-01

    One field in which electronic materials have an important role is energy generation, especially within the scope of photovoltaic energy. This paper deals with one of the most relevant enabling technologies within that scope, i.e, the algorithms for maximum power point tracking implemented in the direct current to direct current converters and its modeling through artificial neural networks (ANNs). More specifically, as a proof of concept, we have addressed the problem of modeling a fuzzy logic controller that has shown its performance in previous works, and more specifically the dimensionless duty cycle signal that controls a quadratic boost converter. We achieved a very accurate model since the obtained medium squared error is 3.47 × 10-6, the maximum error is 16.32 × 10-3 and the regression coefficient R is 0.99992, all for the test dataset. This neural implementation has obvious advantages such as a higher fault tolerance and a simpler implementation, dispensing with all the complex elements needed to run a fuzzy controller (fuzzifier, defuzzifier, inference engine and knowledge base) because, ultimately, ANNs are sums and products.

  13. Track following of Ξ-hyperons in nuclear emulsion for the E07 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishina, Akihiro; Nakazawa, Kazuma; Hoshino, Kaoru; Itonaga, Kazunori; Yoshida, Junya; Than Tint, Khin; Kyaw Soe, Myint; Kinbara, Shinji; Itoh, Hiroki; Endo, Yoko; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Umehara, Kaori; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Daisuke; J-PARC E07 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Events of Double- Λ and Twin Single- Λ Hypernuclei are very important to understand Λ- Λ and Ξ--N interaction. We planned the E07 experiment to find Nuclear mass dependences of them with ten times higher statistics than before. In the experiment, the number of Ξ- hyperon stopping at rest is about ten thousands which is ten times larger than before. Such number of tracks for Ξ- hyperon candidates should be followed in nuclear emulsion plate up to their stopping point. To complete its job within one year, it is necessary for development of automated track following system. The important points for track following is Track connection in plate by plate. To carry out these points, we innovated image processing methods. Especially, we applied pattern match of K- beams for 2nd point. Position accuracy of this method was 1.4 +/-0.8 μm . If we succeed this application in about one minute for a track in each plate, all track following can be finished in one year.

  14. Robust detection and tracking of annotations for outdoor augmented reality browsing.

    PubMed

    Langlotz, Tobias; Degendorfer, Claus; Mulloni, Alessandro; Schall, Gerhard; Reitmayr, Gerhard; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2011-08-01

    A common goal of outdoor augmented reality (AR) is the presentation of annotations that are registered to anchor points in the real world. We present an enhanced approach for registering and tracking such anchor points, which is suitable for current generation mobile phones and can also successfully deal with the wide variety of viewing conditions encountered in real life outdoor use. The approach is based on on-the-fly generation of panoramic images by sweeping the camera over the scene. The panoramas are then used for stable orientation tracking, while the user is performing only rotational movements. This basic approach is improved by several new techniques for the re-detection and tracking of anchor points. For the re-detection, specifically after temporal variations, we first compute a panoramic image with extended dynamic range, which can better represent varying illumination conditions. The panorama is then searched for known anchor points, while orientation tracking continues uninterrupted. We then use information from an internal orientation sensor to prime an active search scheme for the anchor points, which improves matching results. Finally, global consistency is enhanced by statistical estimation of a global rotation that minimizes the overall position error of anchor points when transforming them from the source panorama in which they were created, to the current view represented by a new panorama. Once the anchor points are redetected, we track the user's movement using a novel 3-degree-of-freedom orientation tracking approach that combines vision tracking with the absolute orientation from inertial and magnetic sensors. We tested our system using an AR campus guide as an example application and provide detailed results for our approach using an off-the-shelf smartphone. Results show that the re-detection rate is improved by a factor of 2 compared to previous work and reaches almost 90% for a wide variety of test cases while still keeping the ability

  15. Robust detection and tracking of annotations for outdoor augmented reality browsing

    PubMed Central

    Langlotz, Tobias; Degendorfer, Claus; Mulloni, Alessandro; Schall, Gerhard; Reitmayr, Gerhard; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A common goal of outdoor augmented reality (AR) is the presentation of annotations that are registered to anchor points in the real world. We present an enhanced approach for registering and tracking such anchor points, which is suitable for current generation mobile phones and can also successfully deal with the wide variety of viewing conditions encountered in real life outdoor use. The approach is based on on-the-fly generation of panoramic images by sweeping the camera over the scene. The panoramas are then used for stable orientation tracking, while the user is performing only rotational movements. This basic approach is improved by several new techniques for the re-detection and tracking of anchor points. For the re-detection, specifically after temporal variations, we first compute a panoramic image with extended dynamic range, which can better represent varying illumination conditions. The panorama is then searched for known anchor points, while orientation tracking continues uninterrupted. We then use information from an internal orientation sensor to prime an active search scheme for the anchor points, which improves matching results. Finally, global consistency is enhanced by statistical estimation of a global rotation that minimizes the overall position error of anchor points when transforming them from the source panorama in which they were created, to the current view represented by a new panorama. Once the anchor points are redetected, we track the user's movement using a novel 3-degree-of-freedom orientation tracking approach that combines vision tracking with the absolute orientation from inertial and magnetic sensors. We tested our system using an AR campus guide as an example application and provide detailed results for our approach using an off-the-shelf smartphone. Results show that the re-detection rate is improved by a factor of 2 compared to previous work and reaches almost 90% for a wide variety of test cases while still keeping the ability

  16. Fuzzy logic control of stand-alone photovoltaic system with battery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalouni, S.; Rekioua, D.; Rekioua, T.; Matagne, E.

    Photovoltaic energy has nowadays an increased importance in electrical power applications, since it is considered as an essentially inexhaustible and broadly available energy resource. However, the output power provided via the photovoltaic conversion process depends on solar irradiation and temperature. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic energy system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array. The present paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) method, based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC), applied to a stand-alone photovoltaic system. It uses a sampling measure of the PV array power and voltage then determines an optimal increment required to have the optimal operating voltage which permits maximum power tracking. This method carries high accuracy around the optimum point when compared to the conventional one. The stand-alone photovoltaic system used in this paper includes two bi-directional DC/DC converters and a lead-acid battery bank to overcome the scare periods. One converter works as an MPP tracker, while the other regulates the batteries state of charge and compensates the power deficit to provide a continuous delivery of energy to the load. The Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy logic controller.

  17. Adaptive quaternion tracking with nonlinear extended state observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yu-liang; Wang, Xiao-gang; Xu, Jiang-tao; Cui, Nai-gang

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of attitude tracking for spacecraft in the presence of uncertainties in moments of inertia and environmental disturbances. An adaptive quaternion tracking control is combined with a nonlinear extended state observer and the disturbances compensated for in each sampling period. The tracking controller is proved to asymptotically track a prescribed motion in the presence of these uncertainties. Simulations of a nano-spacecraft demonstrate a significant improvement in pointing accuracy and tracking error when compared to a conventional attitude controller. The proposed tracking control is completely deterministic, simple to implement, does not require knowledge of the uncertainties and does not suffer from chattering.

  18. Edge-following algorithm for tracking geological features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Sequential edge-tracking algorithm employs circular scanning to point permit effective real-time tracking of coastlines and rivers from earth resources satellites. Technique eliminates expensive high-resolution cameras. System might also be adaptable for application in monitoring automated assembly lines, inspecting conveyor belts, or analyzing thermographs, or x ray images.

  19. Development of Γ-ray tracking detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Lieder, R. M.; Gast, W.; Jäger, H. M.; ...

    2001-12-01

    The next generation of 4π arrays for high-precision γ-ray spectroscopy AGATA will consist of γ-ray tracking detectors. They represent high-fold segmented Ge detectors and a front-end electronics, based on digital signal processing techniques, which allows to extract energy, timing and spatial information on the interactions of a γ-ray in the Ge detector by pulse shape analysis of its signals. Utilizing the information on the positions of the interaction points and the energies released at each point the tracks of the γ-rays in a Ge shell can be reconstructed in three dimensions on the basis of the Compton-scattering formula.

  20. Tracking of Physical Activity across the Lifespan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malina, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    This report considers evidence for tracking of indicators of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, the transition from adolescence into adulthood, and adulthood. Tracking refers to the tendency of individuals to maintain their rank or position within a group over time. Longitudinal data for at least two points in time are necessary.…

  1. Mechatronic track guidance on disturbed track: the trade-off between actuator performance and wheel wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzeck, Bernhard; Heckmann, Andreas; Wesseler, Christoph; Rapp, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Future high-speed trains are the main focus of the DLR research project Next Generation Train. One central point of the research activities is the development of mechatronic track guidance for the two-axle intermediate wagons with steerable, individually powered, independently rotating wheels. The traction motors hereby fulfil two functions; they concurrently are traction drives and steering actuators. In this paper, the influence of the track properties - line layout and track irregularities - on the performance requirements for the guidance actuator is investigated using multi-body models in SIMPACK®. In order to compromise on the design conflict between low wheel wear and low steering torque, the control parameters of the mechatronic track guidance are optimised using the DLR in-house software MOPS. Besides the track irregularities especially the increasing inclination at transition curves defines high actuator requirements due to gyroscopic effects at high speed. After introducing a limiter for the actuating variables into the control system, a good performance is achieved.

  2. Tracking planets and moons: mechanisms of object tracking revealed with a new paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Tombu, Michael

    2014-01-01

    People can attend to and track multiple moving objects over time. Cognitive theories of this ability emphasize location information and differ on the importance of motion information. Results from several experiments have shown that increasing object speed impairs performance, although speed was confounded with other properties such as proximity of objects to one another. Here, we introduce a new paradigm to study multiple object tracking in which object speed and object proximity were manipulated independently. Like the motion of a planet and moon, each target–distractor pair rotated about both a common local point as well as the center of the screen. Tracking performance was strongly affected by object speed even when proximity was controlled. Additional results suggest that two different mechanisms are used in object tracking—one sensitive to speed and proximity and the other sensitive to the number of distractors. These observations support models of object tracking that include information about object motion and reject models that use location alone. PMID:21264704

  3. Suppression of biodynamic interference in head-tracked teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lifshitz, S.; Merhav, S. J.; Grunwald, A. J.; Tucker, G. E.; Tischler, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of helmet-tracked sights to provide pointing commands for teleoperation of cameras, lasers, or antennas in aircraft is degraded by the presence of uncommanded, involuntary heat motion, referred to as biodynamic interference. This interference limits the achievable precision required in pointing tasks. The noise contributions due to biodynamic interference consists of an additive component which is correlated with aircraft vibration and an uncorrelated, nonadditive component, referred to as remnant. An experimental simulation study is described which investigated the improvements achievable in pointing and tracking precision using dynamic display shifting in the helmet-mounted display. The experiment was conducted in a six degree of freedom motion base simulator with an emulated helmet-mounted display. Highly experienced pilot subjects performed precision head-pointing tasks while manually flying a visual flight-path tracking task. Four schemes using adaptive and low-pass filtering of the head motion were evaluated to determine their effects on task performance and pilot workload in the presence of whole-body vibration characteristic of helicopter flight. The results indicate that, for tracking tasks involving continuously moving targets, improvements of up to 70 percent can be achieved in percent on-target dwelling time and of up to 35 percent in rms tracking error, with the adaptive plus low-pass filter configuration. The results with the same filter configuration for the task of capturing randomly-positioned, stationary targets show an increase of up to 340 percent in the number of targets captured and an improvement of up to 24 percent in the average capture time. The adaptive plus low-pass filter combination was considered to exhibit the best overall display dynamics by each of the subjects.

  4. Automatic vasculature identification in coronary angiograms by adaptive geometrical tracking.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ruoxiu; Yang, Jian; Goyal, Mahima; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

    2013-01-01

    As the uneven distribution of contrast agents and the perspective projection principle of X-ray, the vasculatures in angiographic image are with low contrast and are generally superposed with other organic tissues; therefore, it is very difficult to identify the vasculature and quantitatively estimate the blood flow directly from angiographic images. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic algorithm named adaptive geometrical vessel tracking (AGVT) for coronary artery identification in X-ray angiograms. Initially, the ridge enhancement (RE) image is obtained utilizing multiscale Hessian information. Then, automatic initialization procedures including seed points detection, and initial directions determination are performed on the RE image. The extracted ridge points can be adjusted to the geometrical centerline points adaptively through diameter estimation. Bifurcations are identified by discriminating connecting relationship of the tracked ridge points. Finally, all the tracked centerlines are merged and smoothed by classifying the connecting components on the vascular structures. Synthetic angiographic images and clinical angiograms are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm is compared with other two vascular tracking techniques in terms of the efficiency and accuracy, which demonstrate successful applications of the proposed segmentation and extraction scheme in vasculature identification.

  5. A Bayesian Framework for Human Body Pose Tracking from Depth Image Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Youding; Fujimura, Kikuo

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of accurate and robust tracking of 3D human body pose from depth image sequences. Recovering the large number of degrees of freedom in human body movements from a depth image sequence is challenging due to the need to resolve the depth ambiguity caused by self-occlusions and the difficulty to recover from tracking failure. Human body poses could be estimated through model fitting using dense correspondences between depth data and an articulated human model (local optimization method). Although it usually achieves a high accuracy due to dense correspondences, it may fail to recover from tracking failure. Alternately, human pose may be reconstructed by detecting and tracking human body anatomical landmarks (key-points) based on low-level depth image analysis. While this method (key-point based method) is robust and recovers from tracking failure, its pose estimation accuracy depends solely on image-based localization accuracy of key-points. To address these limitations, we present a flexible Bayesian framework for integrating pose estimation results obtained by methods based on key-points and local optimization. Experimental results are shown and performance comparison is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:22399933

  6. Real-time seam tracking control system based on line laser visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yanbiao; Wang, Yanbo; Zhou, Weilin; Chen, Xiangzhi

    2018-07-01

    A set of six-degree-of-freedom robotic welding automatic tracking platform was designed in this study to realize the real-time tracking of weld seams. Moreover, the feature point tracking method and the adaptive fuzzy control algorithm in the welding process were studied and analyzed. A laser vision sensor and its measuring principle were designed and studied, respectively. Before welding, the initial coordinate values of the feature points were obtained using morphological methods. After welding, the target tracking method based on Gaussian kernel was used to extract the real-time feature points of the weld. An adaptive fuzzy controller was designed to input the deviation value of the feature points and the change rate of the deviation into the controller. The quantization factors, scale factor, and weight function were adjusted in real time. The input and output domains, fuzzy rules, and membership functions were constantly updated to generate a series of smooth bias robot voltage. Three groups of experiments were conducted on different types of curve welds in a strong arc and splash noise environment using the welding current of 120 A short-circuit Metal Active Gas (MAG) Arc Welding. The tracking error was less than 0.32 mm and the sensor's metrical frequency can be up to 20 Hz. The end of the torch run smooth during welding. Weld trajectory can be tracked accurately, thereby satisfying the requirements of welding applications.

  7. Tracking of Ball and Players in Beach Volleyball Videos

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Gabriel; Herrera López, Patricia; Link, Daniel; Eskofier, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points. PMID:25426936

  8. UltraTrack: Software for semi-automated tracking of muscle fascicles in sequences of B-mode ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Farris, Dominic James; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic measurements of human muscle fascicle length from sequences of B-mode ultrasound images have become increasingly prevalent in biomedical research. Manual digitisation of these images is time consuming and algorithms for automating the process have been developed. Here we present a freely available software implementation of a previously validated algorithm for semi-automated tracking of muscle fascicle length in dynamic ultrasound image recordings, "UltraTrack". UltraTrack implements an affine extension to an optic flow algorithm to track movement of the muscle fascicle end-points throughout dynamically recorded sequences of images. The underlying algorithm has been previously described and its reliability tested, but here we present the software implementation with features for: tracking multiple fascicles in multiple muscles simultaneously; correcting temporal drift in measurements; manually adjusting tracking results; saving and re-loading of tracking results and loading a range of file formats. Two example runs of the software are presented detailing the tracking of fascicles from several lower limb muscles during a squatting and walking activity. We have presented a software implementation of a validated fascicle-tracking algorithm and made the source code and standalone versions freely available for download. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Computer program TRACK_TEST for calculating parameters and plotting profiles for etch pits in nuclear track materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikezic, D.; Yu, K. N.

    2006-01-01

    the track development, one of which is the model of Nikezic and Yu (2003) [D. Nikezic, K.N. Yu, Three-dimensional analytical determination of the track parameters. Over-etched tracks, Radiat. Meas. 37 (2003) 39-45] used in the present program. The present computer program has been written to calculate coordinates of points on the track wall and to determine other relevant track parameters. Solution method:Coordinates of points on the track wall assuming normal incidence were calculated by using the method as described by Fromm et al. (1988) [M. Fromm, A. Chambaudet, F. Membrey, Data bank for alpha particle tracks in CR39 with energies ranging from 0.5 to 5 MeV recording for various incident angles, Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas. 15 (1988) 115-118]. The track is then rotated through the incident angle in order to obtain the coordinates of the oblique track [D. Nikezic, K.N. Yu, Three-dimensional analytical determination of the track parameters. Over-etched tracks, Radiat. Meas. 37 (2003) 39-45; D. Nikezic, Three dimensional analytical determination of the track parameters, Radiat. Meas. 32 (2000) 277-282]. In this way, the track profile in two dimensions (2D) was obtained. In the next step, points in the track wall profile are rotated around the particle trajectory. In this way, circles that outline the track in three dimensions (3D) are obtained. The intersection between the post-etching surface of the detector and the 3D track is the track opening (or the track contour). Coordinates of the track 2D and 3D profiles and the track opening are saved in separate output data files. Restrictions: The program cannot calculate track parameters for the incident angle of exactly 90°. The alpha-particle energy should be smaller than 10 MeV. Furthermore, the program cannot perform calculations for tracks in some extreme cases, such as for very low incident energies or very small incident angles. Additional comments: This is a freeware, but publications arising from using this

  10. Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power.

    PubMed

    Lekube, Jon; Garrido, Aitor J; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier

    2018-02-10

    Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness.

  11. Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Aitor J.; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness. PMID:29439408

  12. A clamping force measurement system for monitoring the condition of bolted joints on railway track joints and points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfa, B.; Horler, G.; Thobiani, F. Al; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    Many industrial structures associated with railway infrastructures rely on a large number of bolted joint connections to ensure safe and reliable operation of the track and trackside furniture. Significant sums of money are spent annually to repair the damage caused by bolt failures and to maintain the integrity of bolted structures. In the UK, Network Rail (the organization responsible for rail network maintenance and safety) conducts corrective and preventive maintenance manually on 26,000 sets of points (each having approximately 30 bolted joints per set), in order to ensure operational success and safety for the travelling public. Such manual maintenance is costly, disruptive, unreliable and prone to human error. The aim of this work is to provide a means of automatically measuring the clamping force of each individual bolted joint, by means of an instrumented washer. This paper describes the development of a sensor means to be used in the washer, which satisfies the following criteria. Sense changes in the clamping force of the joint and report this fact. Provide compatibility with the large dynamic range of clamping force. Satisfy the limitations in terms of physical size. Provide the means to electronically interface with the washer. Provide a means of powering the washer in situ. Provide a solution at an acceptable cost. Specifically the paper focuses on requirements 1, 2 and 3 and presents the results that support further development of the proposed design and the realization of a pre-prototype system. In the paper, various options for the force sensing element (strain gage, capacitor, piezo-resistive) have been compared, using design optimization techniques. As a result of the evaluation, piezo-resistive sensors in concert with a proprietary force attenuation method, have been found to offer the best performance and cost trade-off The performance of the novel clamping force sensor has been evaluated experimentally and the results show that a smart washer

  13. Ground-based telescope pointing and tracking optimization using a neural controller.

    PubMed

    Mancini, D; Brescia, M; Schipani, P

    2003-01-01

    Neural network models (NN) have emerged as important components for applications of adaptive control theories. Their basic generalization capability, based on acquired knowledge, together with execution rapidity and correlation ability between input stimula, are basic attributes to consider NN as an extremely powerful tool for on-line control of complex systems. By a control system point of view, not only accuracy and speed, but also, in some cases, a high level of adaptation capability is required in order to match all working phases of the whole system during its lifetime. This is particularly remarkable for a new generation ground-based telescope control system. Infact, strong changes in terms of system speed and instantaneous position error tolerance are necessary, especially in case of trajectory disturb induced by wind shake. The classical control scheme adopted in such a system is based on the proportional integral (PI) filter, already applied and implemented on a large amount of new generation telescopes, considered as a standard in this technological environment. In this paper we introduce the concept of a new approach, the neural variable structure proportional integral, (NVSPI), related to the implementation of a standard multi layer perceptron network in new generation ground-based Alt-Az telescope control systems. Its main purpose is to improve adaptive capability of the Variable structure proportional integral model, an already innovative control scheme recently introduced by authors [Proc SPIE (1997)], based on a modified version of classical PI control model, in terms of flexibility and accuracy of the dynamic response range also in presence of wind noise effects. The realization of a powerful well tested and validated telescope model simulation system allowed the possibility to directly compare performances of the two control schemes on simulated tracking trajectories, revealing extremely encouraging results in terms of NVSPI control robustness and

  14. A Modular PV System Using Chain-Link-Type Multilevel Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Nobuhiko; Ise, Toshifumi

    This paper presents a modular photovoltaic system (MPVS) that uses a chain-link-type multilevel converter (CLMC). In large-scale PV generating systems, the DC power supply is generally composed of a large number of PV panels. Hence, losses are caused by differences in the maximum power point at each PV panel. An MPVS has been proposed to address the above mentioned problem. It helps improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency by applying maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control to each group of PV panels. In addition, if a CLMC is used in an MPVS, a high voltage can be output from the AC side and transmission losses can be decreased. However, with this circuit configuration, the current output from the AC side may be unbalanced. Therefore, we propose a method to output balanced current from the AC side, even if the output of the DC power supply is unbalanced. The validity of the proposed method is examined by digital simulation.

  15. A grid-connected single-phase photovoltaic micro inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, X. Y.; Lin, P. J.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, L. J.; Cheng, S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the topology of a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter is proposed. The PV micro-inverter consists of DC-DC stage with high voltage gain boost and DC-AC conversion stage. In the first stage, we apply the active clamp circuit and two voltage multipliers to achieve soft switching technology and high voltage gain. In addition, the flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is employed for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV module in this stage. The second stage cascades a H-bridge inverter and LCL filter. To feed high quality sinusoidal power into the grid, the software phase lock, outer voltage loop and inner current loop control method are adopted as the control strategy. The performance of the proposed topology is tested by Matlab/Simulink. A PV module with maximum power 300W and maximum power point voltage 40V is applied as the input source. The simulation results indicate that the proposed topology and the control strategy are feasible.

  16. Chapter 11.2: Inverters, Power Optimizers, and Microinverters

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, Christopher A

    Inverters span a wide range of sizes, topologies, and connection voltages: from utility-scale megawatt inverters to string inverters. Switch-mode power conversion relies on high frequency chopping of DC signal to periodically charge and discharge energy storage elements, such as inductors and capacitors. Additional circuit components are required to address practical issues in inverters such as voltage ripple and harmonic distortion. Inverters are beginning to incorporate components with a bandgap above should be 3 eV, such as SiC and GaN. Photovoltaic (PV) modules respond dynamically to changing temperature and irradiation conditions. Thus, maximum DC power extraction requires periodic adjustment of themore » PV voltage and current operating point. An inverter's total efficiency is measured by the product of its conversion efficiency and the maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) efficiency. This chapter lists the primary functions of inverters that include auxiliary capabilities, such as monitoring of DC and AC performance, and other error reporting.« less

  17. Viewfinder/tracking system for Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Basic component of system is infrared spectrometer designed for manual target acquisition, pointing and tracking, and data-take initiation. System incorporates three main subsystems which include: (1) viewfinder telescope, (2) control panel and electronics assembly, and (3) IR-spectrometer case assembly.

  18. Experiments with conjugate gradient algorithms for homotopy curve tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irani, Kashmira M.; Ribbens, Calvin J.; Watson, Layne T.; Kamat, Manohar P.; Walker, Homer F.

    1991-01-01

    There are algorithms for finding zeros or fixed points of nonlinear systems of equations that are globally convergent for almost all starting points, i.e., with probability one. The essence of all such algorithms is the construction of an appropriate homotopy map and then tracking some smooth curve in the zero set of this homotopy map. HOMPACK is a mathematical software package implementing globally convergent homotopy algorithms with three different techniques for tracking a homotopy zero curve, and has separate routines for dense and sparse Jacobian matrices. The HOMPACK algorithms for sparse Jacobian matrices use a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm for the computation of the kernel of the homotopy Jacobian matrix, a required linear algebra step for homotopy curve tracking. Here, variants of the conjugate gradient algorithm are implemented in the context of homotopy curve tracking and compared with Craig's preconditioned conjugate gradient method used in HOMPACK. The test problems used include actual large scale, sparse structural mechanics problems.

  19. Power Smoothing and MPPT for Grid-connected Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yuji; Kaneda, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Daichi; Tanaka, Akio

    Recently, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and synchronous generator are mostly applied for wind power generation, and variable speed control and power factor control are executed for high efficiently for wind energy capture and high quality for power system voltage. In variable speed control, a wind speed or a generator speed is used for maximum power point tracking. However, performances of a wind generation power fluctuation due to wind speed variation have not yet investigated for those controls. The authors discuss power smoothing by those controls for the DFIG inter-connected to 6.6kV distribution line. The performances are verified using power system simulation software PSCAD/EMTDC for actual wind speed data and are examined from an approximate equation of wind generation power fluctuation for wind speed variation.

  20. Online tracking of instantaneous frequency and amplitude of dynamical system response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank Pai, P.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a sliding-window tracking (SWT) method for accurate tracking of the instantaneous frequency and amplitude of arbitrary dynamic response by processing only three (or more) most recent data points. Teager-Kaiser algorithm (TKA) is a well-known four-point method for online tracking of frequency and amplitude. Because finite difference is used in TKA, its accuracy is easily destroyed by measurement and/or signal-processing noise. Moreover, because TKA assumes the processed signal to be a pure harmonic, any moving average in the signal can destroy the accuracy of TKA. On the other hand, because SWT uses a constant and a pair of windowed regular harmonics to fit the data and estimate the instantaneous frequency and amplitude, the influence of any moving average is eliminated. Moreover, noise filtering is an implicit capability of SWT when more than three data points are used, and this capability increases with the number of processed data points. To compare the accuracy of SWT and TKA, Hilbert-Huang transform is used to extract accurate time-varying frequencies and amplitudes by processing the whole data set without assuming the signal to be harmonic. Frequency and amplitude trackings of different amplitude- and frequency-modulated signals, vibrato in music, and nonlinear stationary and non-stationary dynamic signals are studied. Results show that SWT is more accurate, robust, and versatile than TKA for online tracking of frequency and amplitude.

  1. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  2. Grid-connected wind and photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devabakthuni, Sindhuja

    The objective of this thesis is to design a grid connected wind and photovoltaic system. A new model of converter control was designed which maintains the voltage of the bus to grid as constant when combined system of solar and wind is connected to AC bus. The model is designed to track maximum power at each point irrespective of changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed which affects the power supplied to grid. Solar power from the sun is not constant as it is affected by changes in irradiances and temperature. Even the wind power is affected by wind speed. A MPPT controller was designed for both systems. A boost converter is designed which uses the pulses from MPPT controller to boost the output. Wind system consists of wind turbine block from the MATLAB with a pitch angle controller to maintain optimum pitch angle. The output from wind turbine is connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The unregulated DC output from the photovoltaic system is directly given to boost converter. The AC output from the wind system is given to an uncontrolled rectifier to get a unregulated DC output. The unregulated DC output goes to the boost converter. A voltage source inverter was designed which converts the rectified DC output from the boost converter to AC power. The inverter is designed to maintain constant AC bus voltage irrespective of the disturbances in the power supply. Photovoltaic and wind systems are individually designed for 5KW each in MATLAB-Simulink environment. In this thesis, the models were subjected to changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed and the results were interpreted. The model was successful in tracking maximum at every instant and the AC bus voltage was maintained constant throughout the simulation.

  3. Investigating the Effects of Multimodal Feedback through Tracking State in Pen-Based Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Minghui; Ren, Xiangshi

    2011-01-01

    A tracking state increases the bandwidth of pen-based interfaces. However, this state is difficult to detect with default visual feedback. This paper reports on two experiments that are designed to evaluate multimodal feedback for pointing tasks (both 1D and 2D) in tracking state. In 1D pointing experiments, results show that there is a…

  4. Conical-scan tracking with the 64-m-diameter antenna at goldstone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlson, J. E.; Reid, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    The theory and experimental work which demonstrated the feasibility of conical-scan tracking with a 64 m diameter paraboloid antenna is documented. The purpose of this scheme is to actively track spacecraft and radio sources continuously with an accuracy superior to that obtained by manual correction of the computer driven pointing. The conical-scan implementation gives increased tracking accuracy with X-band spacecraft signals, as demonstrated in the Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 mission. Also, the high accuracy and ease of measurement with conical-scan tracking allow evaluation of systematic and random antenna tracking errors.

  5. A soft biomimetic tongue: model reconstruction and motion tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xuanming; Xu, Weiliang; Li, Xiaoning

    2016-04-01

    A bioinspired robotic tongue which is actuated by a network of compressed air is proposed for the purpose of mimicking the movements of human tongue. It can be applied in the fields such as medical science and food engineering. The robotic tongue is made of two kinds of silicone rubber Ecoflex 0030 and PDMS with the shape simplified from real human tongue. In order to characterize the robotic tongue, a series of experiments were carried out. Laser scan was applied to reconstruct the static model of robotic tongue when it was under pressurization. After each scan, the robotic tongue was scattered into dense points in the same 3D coordinate system and the coordinates of each point were recorded. Motion tracking system (OptiTrack) was used to track and record the whole process of deformation dynamically during the loading and unloading phase. In the experiments, five types of deformation were achieved including roll-up, roll-down, elongation, groove and twist. Utilizing the discrete points generated by laser scan, the accurate parameterized outline of robotic tongue under different pressure was obtained, which could help demonstrate the static characteristic of robotic tongue. The precise deformation process under one pressure was acquired through the OptiTrack system which contains a series of digital cameras, markers on the robotic tongue and a set of hardware and software for data processing. By means of tracking and recording different process of deformation under different pressure, the dynamic characteristic of robotic tongue could be achieved.

  6. Autonomous antenna tracking system for mobile symphonie ground stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernsberger, K.; Lorch, G.; Waffenschmidt, E.

    1982-01-01

    The implementation of a satellite tracking and antenna control system is described. Due to the loss of inclination control for the symphonie satellites, it became necessary to equip the parabolic antennas of the mobile Symphonie ground station with tracking facilities. For the relatively low required tracking accuracy of 0.5 dB, a low cost, step track system was selected. The step track system developed for this purpose and tested over a long period of time in 7 ground stations is based on a search step method with subsequent parabola interpolation. As compared with the real search step method, the system has the advantage of a higher pointing angle resolution, and thus a higher tracking accuracy. When the pilot signal has been switched off for a long period of time, as for instance after the eclipse, the antenna is repointed towards the satellite by an automatically initiated spiral search scan. The function and design of the tracking system are detailed, while easy handling and tracking results.

  7. Homography-based multiple-camera person-tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple video cameras are cheaply installed overlooking an area of interest. While computerized single-camera tracking is well-developed, multiple-camera tracking is a relatively new problem. The main multi-camera problem is to give the same tracking label to all projections of a real-world target. This is called the consistent labelling problem. Khan and Shah (2003) introduced a method to use field of view lines to perform multiple-camera tracking. The method creates inter-camera meta-target associations when objects enter at the scene edges. They also said that a plane-induced homography could be used for tracking, but this method was not well described. Their homography-based system would not work if targets use only one side of a camera to enter the scene. This paper overcomes this limitation and fully describes a practical homography-based tracker. A new method to find the feet feature is introduced. The method works especially well if the camera is tilted, when using the bottom centre of the target's bounding-box would produce inaccurate results. The new method is more accurate than the bounding-box method even when the camera is not tilted. Next, a method is presented that uses a series of corresponding point pairs "dropped" by oblivious, live human targets to find a plane-induced homography. The point pairs are created by tracking the feet locations of moving targets that were associated using the field of view line method. Finally, a homography-based multiple-camera tracking algorithm is introduced. Rules governing when to create the homography are specified. The algorithm ensures that homography-based tracking only starts after a non-degenerate homography is found. The method works when not all four field of view lines are discoverable; only one line needs to be found to use the algorithm. To initialize the system, the operator must specify pairs of overlapping cameras. Aside from that, the algorithm is fully automatic and uses the natural movement of

  8. Tracking Detectors in the STAR Experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Howard

    2015-04-01

    The STAR experiment at RHIC is designed to measure and identify the thousands of particles produced in 200 Gev/nucleon Au on Au collisions. This talk will focus on the design and construction of two of the main tracking detectors in the experiment, the TPC and the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) pixel detector. The TPC is a solenoidal gas filled detector 4 meters in diameter and 4.2 meters long. It provides precise, continuous tracking and rate of energy loss in the gas (dE/dx) for particles at + - 1 units of pseudo rapidity. The tracking in a half Tesla magnetic field measures momentum and dE/dX provides particle ID. To detect short lived particles tracking close to the point of interaction is required. The HFT pixel detector is a two-layered, high resolution vertex detector located at a few centimeters radius from the collision point. It determines origins of the tracks to a few tens of microns for the purpose of extracting displaced vertices, allowing the identification of D mesons and other short-lived particles. The HFT pixel detector uses detector chips developed by the IPHC group at Strasbourg that are based on standard IC Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This is the first time that CMOS pixel chips have been incorporated in a collider application.

  9. Real-time depth camera tracking with geometrically stable weight algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xingyin; Zhu, Feng; Qi, Feng; Wang, Mingming

    2017-03-01

    We present an approach for real-time camera tracking with depth stream. Existing methods are prone to drift in sceneries without sufficient geometric information. First, we propose a new weight method for an iterative closest point algorithm commonly used in real-time dense mapping and tracking systems. By detecting uncertainty in pose and increasing weight of points that constrain unstable transformations, our system achieves accurate and robust trajectory estimation results. Our pipeline can be fully parallelized with GPU and incorporated into the current real-time depth camera tracking system seamlessly. Second, we compare the state-of-the-art weight algorithms and propose a weight degradation algorithm according to the measurement characteristics of a consumer depth camera. Third, we use Nvidia Kepler Shuffle instructions during warp and block reduction to improve the efficiency of our system. Results on the public TUM RGB-D database benchmark demonstrate that our camera tracking system achieves state-of-the-art results both in accuracy and efficiency.

  10. Applications of inertial-sensor high-inheritance instruments to DSN precision antenna pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory test results of the initialization and tracking performance of an existing inertial-sensor-based instrument are given. The instrument, although not primarily designed for precision antenna pointing applications, demonstrated an on-average 10-hour tracking error of several millidegrees. The system-level instrument performance is shown by analysis to be sensor limited. Simulated instrument improvements show a tracking error of less than 1 mdeg, which would provide acceptable performance, i.e., low pointing loss, for the DSN 70-m antenna sub network, operating at Ka-band (1-cm wavelength).

  11. Applications of inertial-sensor high-inheritance instruments to DSN precision antenna pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory test results of the initialization and tracking performance of an existing inertial-sensor-based instrument are given. The instrument, although not primarily designed for precision antenna pointing applications, demonstrated an on-average 10-hour tracking error of several millidegrees. The system-level instrument performance is shown by analysis to be sensor limited. Simulated instrument improvements show a tracking error of less than 1 mdeg, which would provide acceptable performance, i.e., low pointing loss, for the Deep Space Network 70-m antenna subnetwork, operating at Ka-band (1-cm wavelength).

  12. High gain antenna pointing on the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanelli, C. Anthony; Ali, Khaled S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithm used to point the high gain antennae on NASA/JPL's Mars Exploration Rovers. The gimballed antennae must track the Earth as it moves across the Martian sky during communication sessions. The algorithm accounts for (1) gimbal range limitations, (2) obstructions both on the rover and in the surrounding environment, (3) kinematic singularities in the gimbal design, and (4) up to two joint-space solutions for a given pointing direction. The algorithm computes the intercept-times for each of the occlusions and chooses the jointspace solution that provides the longest track time before encountering an occlusion. Upon encountering an occlusion, the pointing algorithm automatically switches to the other joint-space solution if it is not also occluded. The algorithm has successfully provided flop-free pointing for both rovers throughout the mission.

  13. Simultaneous Detection and Tracking of Pedestrian from Panoramic Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wen; Vallet, Bruno; Schindler, Konrad; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Pedestrian traffic flow estimation is essential for public place design and construction planning. Traditional data collection by human investigation is tedious, inefficient and expensive. Panoramic laser scanners, e.g. Velodyne HDL-64E, which scan surroundings repetitively at a high frequency, have been increasingly used for 3D object tracking. In this paper, a simultaneous detection and tracking (SDAT) method is proposed for precise and automatic pedestrian trajectory recovery. First, the dynamic environment is detected using two different methods, Nearest-point and Max-distance. Then, all the points on moving objects are transferred into a space-time (x, y, t) coordinate system. The pedestrian detection and tracking amounts to assign the points belonging to pedestrians into continuous trajectories in space-time. We formulate the point assignment task as an energy function which incorporates the point evidence, trajectory number, pedestrian shape and motion. A low energy trajectory will well explain the point observations, and have plausible trajectory trend and length. The method inherently filters out points from other moving objects and false detections. The energy function is solved by a two-step optimization process: tracklet detection in a short temporal window; and global tracklet association through the whole time span. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically recover the pedestrians trajectories with accurate positions and low false detections and mismatches.

  14. Tracking coherent structures in massively-separated and turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwood, Matthew; Huang, Yangzi; Green, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Coherent vortex structures are tracked in simulations of massively-separated and turbulent flows. Topological Lagrangian saddle points are found using intersections of the positive and negative finite-time Lyapunov exponent ridges, and these points are then followed in order to track individual coherent structure motion both in a complex interacting three-dimensional flow (turbulent channel) and during vortex formation (two-dimensional bluff body shedding). For a simulation of wall-bounded turbulence in a channel flow, tracking Lagrangian saddles shows that the average structure convection speed exhibits a similar trend as a previously published result based on velocity and pressure correlations, giving validity to the method. When this tracking method is applied in a study of a circular cylinder in cross-flow it shows that Lagrangian saddles rapidly accelerate away from the cylinder surface as the vortex sheds. This saddle behavior is compared with the time-resolved static pressure distribution on the circular cylinder, yielding locations on a cylinder surface where common sensors could detect this phenomenon, which is not available from force measurements or vortex circulation calculations. The current method of tracking coherent structures yields insight into the behavior of the coherent structures in both of the diverse flows presented, highlighting the breadth of its potential application.

  15. A Real-Time Orbit Determination Method for Smooth Transition from Optical Tracking to Laser Ranging of Debris

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Sang, Jizhang; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    A critical requirement to achieve high efficiency of debris laser tracking is to have sufficiently accurate orbit predictions (OP) in both the pointing direction (better than 20 arc seconds) and distance from the tracking station to the debris objects, with the former more important than the latter because of the narrow laser beam. When the two line element (TLE) is used to provide the orbit predictions, the resultant pointing errors are usually on the order of tens to hundreds of arc seconds. In practice, therefore, angular observations of debris objects are first collected using an optical tracking sensor, and then used to guide the laser beam pointing to the objects. The manual guidance may cause interrupts to the laser tracking, and consequently loss of valuable laser tracking data. This paper presents a real-time orbit determination (OD) and prediction method to realize smooth and efficient debris laser tracking. The method uses TLE-computed positions and angles over a short-arc of less than 2 min as observations in an OD process where simplified force models are considered. After the OD convergence, the OP is performed from the last observation epoch to the end of the tracking pass. Simulation and real tracking data processing results show that the pointing prediction errors are usually less than 10″, and the distance errors less than 100 m, therefore, the prediction accuracy is sufficient for the blind laser tracking. PMID:27347958

  16. Laboratory test results of the high speed optical tracking system for the Spaceborne Geodynamic Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    The high speed, high resolution optical tracking system for the Spaceborne Geodynamic Ranging System employs a two-axis gimbaled pointing device that can operate from a Space Shuttle platform and can track multiple retroreflector ground targets with arcsec accuracy. Laboratory tests of the stepping characteristics of the pointing system for various step sizes and directions has shown arcsec repeatability with little wasted motion, overshoot, or ringing. The worst rms tracking jitter was 1 and 2 arcsec in the roll and pitch axes, respectively, at the maximum tracking rate of 2 deg/sec.

  17. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  18. Design of a nonlinear backstepping control strategy of grid interconnected wind power system based PMSG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errami, Y.; Obbadi, A.; Sahnoun, S.; Benhmida, M.; Ouassaid, M.; Maaroufi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents nonlinear backstepping control for Wind Power Generation System (WPGS) based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and connected to utility grid. The block diagram of the WPGS with PMSG and the grid side back-to-back converter is established with the dq frame of axes. This control scheme emphasises the regulation of the dc-link voltage and the control of the power factor at changing wind speed. Besides, in the proposed control strategy of WPGS, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique and pitch control are provided. The stability of the regulators is assured by employing Lyapunov analysis. The proposed control strategy for the system has been validated by MATLAB simulations under varying wind velocity and the grid fault condition. In addition, a comparison of simulation results based on the proposed Backstepping strategy and conventional Vector Control is provided.

  19. Research on Experiment of Islanding Protection Device of Grid-connected Photovoltaic System Based on RTDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ning; Yang, Jia; Cheng, Zheng; Chen, Bo; Su, Yong Chun; Shu, Zhan; Zou, Jin

    2017-06-01

    Solar photovoltaic power generation is the power generation using solar cell module converting sunlight into DC electric energy. In the paper an equivalent model of solar photovoltaic power generation system is built in RTDS. The main circuit structure of the two-stage PV grid-connected system consists of the DC-DC, DC-AC circuit. The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) control of the PV array is controlled by adjusting the duty ratio of the DC-DC circuit. The proposed control strategy of constant voltage/constant reactive power (V/Q) control is successfully implemented grid-connected control of the inverter when grid-connected operation. The closed-loop experiment of islanding protection device of photovoltaic power plant on RTDS, verifies the correctness of the simulation model, and the experimental verification can be applied to this type of device.

  20. TH-AB-202-04: Auto-Adaptive Margin Generation for MLC-Tracked Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Glitzner, M; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B

    Purpose: To develop an auto-adaptive margin generator for MLC tracking. The generator is able to estimate errors arising in image guided radiotherapy, particularly on an MR-Linac, which depend on the latencies of machine and image processing, as well as on patient motion characteristics. From the estimated error distribution, a segment margin is generated, able to compensate errors up to a user-defined confidence. Method: In every tracking control cycle (TCC, 40ms), the desired aperture D(t) is compared to the actual aperture A(t), a delayed and imperfect representation of D(t). Thus an error e(t)=A(T)-D(T) is measured every TCC. Applying kernel-density-estimation (KDE), themore » cumulative distribution (CDF) of e(t) is estimated. With CDF-confidence limits, upper and lower error limits are extracted for motion axes along and perpendicular leaf-travel direction and applied as margins. To test the dosimetric impact, two representative motion traces were extracted from fast liver-MRI (10Hz). The traces were applied onto a 4D-motion platform and continuously tracked by an Elekta Agility 160 MLC using an artificially imposed tracking delay. Gafchromic film was used to detect dose exposition for static, tracked, and error-compensated tracking cases. The margin generator was parameterized to cover 90% of all tracking errors. Dosimetric impact was rated by calculating the ratio between underexposed points (>5% underdosage) to the total number of points inside FWHM of static exposure. Results: Without imposing adaptive margins, tracking experiments showed a ratio of underexposed points of 17.5% and 14.3% for two motion cases with imaging delays of 200ms and 300ms, respectively. Activating the margin generated yielded total suppression (<1%) of underdosed points. Conclusion: We showed that auto-adaptive error compensation using machine error statistics is possible for MLC tracking. The error compensation margins are calculated on-line, without the need of assuming motion

  1. Maximum power point tracking analysis of a coreless ironless electric generator for renewable energy application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, Akhtar; Rahman, Fadhlur; Leong, Yap Wee; Razali Hanipah, Mohd; Azri Hizami, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The magnetism attraction between permanent magnets and soft ironcore lamination in a conventional electric ironcore generator is often known as cogging. Cogging requires an additional input power to overcome, hence became one of the power loss sources. With the increasing of power output, the cogging is also proportionally increased. This leads to the increasing of the supplied power of the driver motor to overcome the cog. Therefore, this research is embarked to study fundamentally about the possibility of removing ironcore lamination in an electric generator to see its performance characteristic. In the maximum power point tracking test, the fabricated ironless coreless electricity generator was tested by applying the load on the ironless coreless electricity generator optimization to maximize the power generated, voltage and the current produced by the ironless coreless electricity generator when the rotational speed of the rotor increased throughout the test. The rotational torque and power output are measured, and efficiency is then analyzed. Results indicated that the generator produced RMS voltage of 200VAC at rotational speed of 318 RPM. Torque required to rotate the generator was at 10.8Nm. The generator had working efficiency of 77.73% and the power generated was at 280W.

  2. Asset tracking systems.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Asset tracking systems are used in healthcare to find objects--medical devices and other hospital equipment--and to record the physical location of those objects over time. Interest in asset tracking is growing daily, but the technology is still evolving, and so far very few systems have been implemented in hospitals. This situation is likely to change over the next few years, at which point many hospitals will be faced with choosing a system. We evaluated four asset tracking systems from four suppliers: Agility Healthcare Solutions, Ekahau, Radianse, and Versus Technology. We judged the systems' performance for two "levels" of asset tracking. The first level is basic locating--simply determining where in the facility an item can be found. This may be done because the equipment needs routine inspection and preventive maintenance or because it is required for recall purposes; or the equipment may be needed, often urgently, for clinical use. The second level, which is much more involved, is inventory optimization and workflow improvement. This entails analyzing asset utilization based on historical location data to improve the use, distribution, and processing of equipment. None of the evaluated products is ideal for all uses--each has strengths and weaknesses. In many cases, hospitals will have to select a product based on their specific needs. For example, they may need to choose between a supplier whose system is easy to install and a supplier whose tags have a long battery operating life.

  3. The tip/tilt tracking sensor based on multi-anode photo-multiplier tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao-yu; Rao, Chang-hui; Tian, Yu; Wei, Kai

    2013-09-01

    Based on the demands of high sensitivity, precision and frame rate of tip/tilt tracking sensors in acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) systems for satellite-ground optical communications, this paper proposes to employ the multiple-anode photo-multiplier tubes (MAPMTs) in tip/tilt tracking sensors. Meanwhile, an array-type photon-counting system was designed to meet the requirements of the tip/tilt tracking sensors. The experiment results show that the tip/tilt tracking sensors based on MAPMTs can achieve photon sensitivity and high frame rate as well as low noise.

  4. Does controlling for biological maturity improve physical activity tracking?

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Marta C; Sherar, Lauren B; Mosewich, Amber D; Kowalski, Kent C; Bailey, Donald A; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G

    2011-05-01

    Tracking of physical activity through childhood and adolescence tends to be low. Variation in the timing of biological maturation within youth of the same chronological age (CA) might affect participation in physical activity and may partially explain the low tracking. To examine the stability of physical activity over time from childhood to late adolescence when aligned on CA and biological age (BA). A total of 91 males and 96 females aged 8-15 yr from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS) were assessed annually for 8 yr. BA was calculated as years from age at peak height velocity. Physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children/Adolescents. Tracking was analyzed using intraclass correlations for both CA and BA (2-yr groupings). To be included in the analysis, an individual required a measure at both time points within an interval; however, not all individuals were present at all tracking intervals. Physical activity tracking by CA 2-yr intervals were, in general, moderate in males (r=0.42-0.59) and females (r=0.43-0.44). However, the 9- to 11-yr CA interval was low and nonsignificant (r=0.23-0.30). Likewise, tracking of physical activity by BA 2-yr intervals was moderate to high in males (r=0.44-0.60) and females (r=0.39-0.62). Accounting for differences in the timing of biological maturity had little effect on tracking physical activity. However, point estimates for tracking are higher in early adolescence in males and to a greater extent in females when aligned by BA versus CA. This suggests that maturity may be more important in physical activity participation in females than males. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  5. Three-Dimensional Eye Tracking in a Surgical Scenario.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Rositsa; Boulanger, Pierre; Zheng, Bin

    2015-10-01

    Eye tracking has been widely used in studying the eye behavior of surgeons in the past decade. Most eye-tracking data are reported in a 2-dimensional (2D) fashion, and data for describing surgeons' behaviors on stereoperception are often missed. With the introduction of stereoscopes in laparoscopic procedures, there is an increasing need for studying the depth perception of surgeons under 3D image-guided surgery. We developed a new algorithm for the computation of convergence points in stereovision by measuring surgeons' interpupillary distance, the distance to the view target, and the difference between gaze locations of the 2 eyes. To test the feasibility of our new algorithm, we recruited 10 individuals to watch stereograms using binocular disparity and asked them to develop stereoperception using a cross-eyed viewing technique. Participants' eye motions were recorded by the Tobii eye tracker while they performed the trials. Convergence points between normal and stereo-viewing conditions were computed using the developed algorithm. All 10 participants were able to develop stereovision after a short period of training. During stereovision, participants' eye convergence points were 14 ± 1 cm in front of their eyes, which was significantly closer than the convergence points under the normal viewing condition (77 ± 20 cm). By applying our method of calculating convergence points using eye tracking, we were able to elicit the eye movement patterns of human operators between the normal and stereovision conditions. Knowledge from this study can be applied to the design of surgical visual systems, with the goal of improving surgical performance and patient safety. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Scalable patients tracking framework for mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a system that tracks patients in a Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) using active RFID triage tags and mobile anchor points (DM-tracks) carried by the paramedics. The system does not involve any fixed deployment of the localization devices while maintaining a low cost triage tag. The localization accuracy is comparable to GPS systems without incurring the cost of providing a GPS based device to every patient in the disaster scene.

  7. Automated Planar Tracking the Waving Bodies of Multiple Zebrafish Swimming in Shallow Water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo Hong; Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Ye; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most widely used model organisms in collective behavior research. Multi-object tracking with high speed camera is currently the most feasible way to accurately measure their motion states for quantitative study of their collective behavior. However, due to difficulties such as their similar appearance, complex body deformation and frequent occlusions, it is a big challenge for an automated system to be able to reliably track the body geometry of each individual fish. To accomplish this task, we propose a novel fish body model that uses a chain of rectangles to represent fish body. Then in detection stage, the point of maximum curvature along fish boundary is detected and set as fish nose point. Afterwards, in tracking stage, we firstly apply Kalman filter to track fish head, then use rectangle chain fitting to fit fish body, which at the same time further judge the head tracking results and remove the incorrect ones. At last, a tracklets relinking stage further solves trajectory fragmentation due to occlusion. Experiment results show that the proposed tracking system can track a group of zebrafish with their body geometry accurately even when occlusion occurs from time to time.

  8. Comparative analysis of respiratory motion tracking using Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Evan; Snyder, Michael

    2018-05-01

    To present and evaluate a straightforward implementation of a marker-less, respiratory motion-tracking process utilizing Kinect v2 camera as a gating tool during 4DCT or during radiotherapy treatments. Utilizing the depth sensor on the Kinect as well as author written C# code, respiratory motion of a subject was tracked by recording depth values obtained at user selected points on the subject, with each point representing one pixel on the depth image. As a patient breathes, specific anatomical points on the chest/abdomen will move slightly within the depth image across pixels. By tracking how depth values change for a specific pixel, instead of how the anatomical point moves throughout the image, a respiratory trace can be obtained based on changing depth values of the selected pixel. Tracking these values was implemented via marker-less setup. Varian's RPM system and the Anzai belt system were used in tandem with the Kinect to compare respiratory traces obtained by each using two different subjects. Analysis of the depth information from the Kinect for purposes of phase- and amplitude-based binning correlated well with the RPM and Anzai systems. Interquartile Range (IQR) values were obtained comparing times correlated with specific amplitude and phase percentages against each product. The IQR time spans indicated the Kinect would measure specific percentage values within 0.077 s for Subject 1 and 0.164 s for Subject 2 when compared to values obtained with RPM or Anzai. For 4DCT scans, these times correlate to less than 1 mm of couch movement and would create an offset of 1/2 an acquired slice. By tracking depth values of user selected pixels within the depth image, rather than tracking specific anatomical locations, respiratory motion can be tracked and visualized utilizing the Kinect with results comparable to that of the Varian RPM and Anzai belt. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  9. Towards an Optimal Interest Point Detector for Measurements in Ultrasound Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukal, Martin; Beneš, Radek; Číka, Petr; Říha, Kamil

    2013-12-01

    This paper focuses on the comparison of different interest point detectors and their utilization for measurements in ultrasound (US) images. Certain medical examinations are based on speckle tracking which strongly relies on features that can be reliably tracked frame to frame. Only significant features (interest points) resistant to noise and brightness changes within US images are suitable for accurate long-lasting tracking. We compare three interest point detectors - Harris-Laplace, Difference of Gaussian (DoG) and Fast Hessian - and identify the most suitable one for use in US images on the basis of an objective criterion. Repeatability rate is assumed to be an objective quality measure for comparison. We have measured repeatability in images corrupted by different types of noise (speckle noise, Gaussian noise) and for changes in brightness. The Harris-Laplace detector outperformed its competitors and seems to be a sound option when choosing a suitable interest point detector for US images. However, it has to be noted that Fast Hessian and DoG detectors achieved better results in terms of processing speed.

  10. Another Way of Tracking Moving Objects Using Short Video Clips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Francisco; Romanque, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Physics teachers have long employed video clips to study moving objects in their classrooms and instructional labs. A number of approaches exist, both free and commercial, for tracking the coordinates of a point using video. The main characteristics of the method described in this paper are: it is simple to use; coordinates can be tracked using…

  11. Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (Sheehan-STS)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Accurate and prospective assessments of treatment-emergent suicidal thoughts and behaviors are essential to both clinical care and randomized clinical trials. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale is a prospective, patient self-report or clinician-administered rating scale that tracks both treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behaviors. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was incorporated into a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and active comparator study examining the efficacy of an experimental corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist (BMS-562086) for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Method: The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was administered to subjects at baseline, Week 2, Week 4, and Week 8 or early termination. Subjects completed theSheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale by self report. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was designated as an exploratory outcome measure in the study protocol, and post-hoc analyses were performed to examine the performance of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale. Results: A total of 82 subjects completed the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale during the course of the study. Altogether, these subjects provided 297 completed Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale ratings across the study time points. Sixty-one subjects (n=25 placebo, n=24 BMS-562086, and n=12 escitalopram) had a baseline and at least one post-baseline Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale measurement. The mean change from baseline at Week 8 in the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale total score was -0.10, -0.02, and -0.06 for escitalopram, placebo, and BMS-562086 groups, respectively. The sensitivity of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale and HAM-D Item #3 (suicide) for identifying subjects with suicidal thoughts or behaviors was 100 percent and 63 percent, respectively. Conclusions: The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale may be a sensitive psychometric tool to prospectively assess for treatment

  12. Learning an intrinsic-variable preserving manifold for dynamic visual tracking.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Suiwu

    2010-06-01

    Manifold learning is a hot topic in the field of computer science, particularly since nonlinear dimensionality reduction based on manifold learning was proposed in Science in 2000. The work has achieved great success. The main purpose of current manifold-learning approaches is to search for independent intrinsic variables underlying high dimensional inputs which lie on a low dimensional manifold. In this paper, a new manifold is built up in the training step of the process, on which the input training samples are set to be close to each other if the values of their intrinsic variables are close to each other. Then, the process of dimensionality reduction is transformed into a procedure of preserving the continuity of the intrinsic variables. By utilizing the new manifold, the dynamic tracking of a human who can move and rotate freely is achieved. From the theoretical point of view, it is the first approach to transfer the manifold-learning framework to dynamic tracking. From the application point of view, a new and low dimensional feature for visual tracking is obtained and successfully applied to the real-time tracking of a free-moving object from a dynamic vision system. Experimental results from a dynamic tracking system which is mounted on a dynamic robot validate the effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  13. Hough transform method for track finding in center drift chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, K. A. Mohammad Kamal; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2016-01-01

    Hough transform is a global tracking method used which had been expected to be faster approach for tracking the circular pattern of electron moving in Center Drift Chamber (CDC), by transforming the point of hit into a circular curve. This paper present the implementation of hough transform method for the reconstruction of tracks in Center Drift Chamber (CDC) which have been generated by random number in C language programming. Result from implementation of this method shows higher peak of circle parameter value (xc,yc,rc) that indicate the similarity value of the parameter needed for circular track in CDC for charged particles in the region of CDC.

  14. A distributed database view of network tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yosinski, Jason; Paffenroth, Randy

    2008-04-01

    In distributed tracking systems, multiple non-collocated trackers cooperate to fuse local sensor data into a global track picture. Generating this global track picture at a central location is fairly straightforward, but the single point of failure and excessive bandwidth requirements introduced by centralized processing motivate the development of decentralized methods. In many decentralized tracking systems, trackers communicate with their peers via a lossy, bandwidth-limited network in which dropped, delayed, and out of order packets are typical. Oftentimes the decentralized tracking problem is viewed as a local tracking problem with a networking twist; we believe this view can underestimate the network complexities to be overcome. Indeed, a subsequent 'oversight' layer is often introduced to detect and handle track inconsistencies arising from a lack of robustness to network conditions. We instead pose the decentralized tracking problem as a distributed database problem, enabling us to draw inspiration from the vast extant literature on distributed databases. Using the two-phase commit algorithm, a well known technique for resolving transactions across a lossy network, we describe several ways in which one may build a distributed multiple hypothesis tracking system from the ground up to be robust to typical network intricacies. We pay particular attention to the dissimilar challenges presented by network track initiation vs. maintenance and suggest a hybrid system that balances speed and robustness by utilizing two-phase commit for only track initiation transactions. Finally, we present simulation results contrasting the performance of such a system with that of more traditional decentralized tracking implementations.

  15. 49 CFR 218.101 - Leaving rolling and on-track maintenance-of-way equipment in the clear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... switching lead track on which the equipment is standing; or (4) The equipment is on an industry track beyond the clearance point of the switch leading to the industry. (c) Each railroad shall implement... clearance points will not permit a person to safely ride on the side of a car. ...

  16. 49 CFR 218.101 - Leaving rolling and on-track maintenance-of-way equipment in the clear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... switching lead track on which the equipment is standing; or (4) The equipment is on an industry track beyond the clearance point of the switch leading to the industry. (c) Each railroad shall implement... clearance points will not permit a person to safely ride on the side of a car. ...

  17. 49 CFR 218.101 - Leaving rolling and on-track maintenance-of-way equipment in the clear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... switching lead track on which the equipment is standing; or (4) The equipment is on an industry track beyond the clearance point of the switch leading to the industry. (c) Each railroad shall implement... clearance points will not permit a person to safely ride on the side of a car. ...

  18. 49 CFR 218.101 - Leaving rolling and on-track maintenance-of-way equipment in the clear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... switching lead track on which the equipment is standing; or (4) The equipment is on an industry track beyond the clearance point of the switch leading to the industry. (c) Each railroad shall implement... clearance points will not permit a person to safely ride on the side of a car. ...

  19. 49 CFR 218.101 - Leaving rolling and on-track maintenance-of-way equipment in the clear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... switching lead track on which the equipment is standing; or (4) The equipment is on an industry track beyond the clearance point of the switch leading to the industry. (c) Each railroad shall implement... clearance points will not permit a person to safely ride on the side of a car. ...

  20. THE FUTURE OF MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) is differentiated from traditional microbial water quality efforts by the need to identify the host species from which the bacteria originate, rather than necessarily identifying an individual point source. Despite recent advances in the developmen...

  1. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

  2. Modified Perfect Harmonics Cancellation Control of a Grid Interfaced SPV Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Shahani, D. T.; Verma, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    This paper deals with a grid interfaced solar photo voltaic (SPV) power generating system with modified perfect harmonic cancellation (MPHC) control for power quality improvement in terms of mitigation of the current harmonics, power factor correction, control of point of common coupling (PCC) voltage with reactive power compensation and load balancing in a three phase distribution system. The proposed grid interfaced SPV system consists of a SPV array, a dc-dc boost converter and a voltage source converter (VSC) used for the compensation of other connected linear and nonlinear loads at PCC. The reference grid currents are estimated using MPHC method and control signals are derived by using pulse width modulation (PWM) current controller of VSC. The SPV power is fed to the common dc bus of VSC and dc-dc boost converter using maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The dc link voltage of VSC is regulated by using dc voltage proportional integral (PI) controller. The analysis of the proposed SPV power generating system is carried out under dc/ac short circuit and severe SPV-SX and SPV-TX intrusion.

  3. Characterization and Design of Digital Pointing Subsystem for Optical Communication Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racho, C.; Portillo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) is a laboratory-based lasercom demonstration terminal designed to validate several key technologies, including beacon acquisition, high bandwidth tracking, precision bearn pointing, and point-ahead compensation functions. It has been under active development over the past few years. The instrument uses a CCD array detector for both spatial acquisition and high-bandwidth tracking, and a fiber coupled laser transmitter. The array detector tracking concept provides wide field-of-view acquisition and permits effective platform jitter compensation and point-ahead control using only one steering mirror. This paper describes the detailed design and characterization of the digital control loop system which includes the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM), the CCD image tracker, and the associated electronics. The objective is to improve the overall system performance using laboratory measured data. The. design of the digital control loop is based on a linear time invariant open loop model. The closed loop performance is predicted using the theoretical model. With the digital filter programmed into the OCD control software, data is collected to verify the predictions. This paper presents the results of the, system modeling and performance analysis. It has been shown that measurement data closely matches theoretical predictions. An important part of the laser communication experiment is the ability of FSM to track the laser beacon within the. required tolerances. The pointing must be maintained to an accuracy that is much smaller than the transmit signal beamwidth. For an earth orbit distance, the system must be able to track the receiving station to within a few microradians. The failure. to do so will result in a severely degraded system performance.

  4. Automated Planar Tracking the Waving Bodies of Multiple Zebrafish Swimming in Shallow Water

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo Hong; Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Ye; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most widely used model organisms in collective behavior research. Multi-object tracking with high speed camera is currently the most feasible way to accurately measure their motion states for quantitative study of their collective behavior. However, due to difficulties such as their similar appearance, complex body deformation and frequent occlusions, it is a big challenge for an automated system to be able to reliably track the body geometry of each individual fish. To accomplish this task, we propose a novel fish body model that uses a chain of rectangles to represent fish body. Then in detection stage, the point of maximum curvature along fish boundary is detected and set as fish nose point. Afterwards, in tracking stage, we firstly apply Kalman filter to track fish head, then use rectangle chain fitting to fit fish body, which at the same time further judge the head tracking results and remove the incorrect ones. At last, a tracklets relinking stage further solves trajectory fragmentation due to occlusion. Experiment results show that the proposed tracking system can track a group of zebrafish with their body geometry accurately even when occlusion occurs from time to time. PMID:27128096

  5. Interaction between a railway track and uniformly moving tandem wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovskiy, P. M.

    2006-12-01

    Interaction among loaded wheels via railway track is studied. The vertical parametric oscillations of an infinite row of identical equally spaced wheels, bearing constant load and uniformly moving over a railway track, are calculated by means of Fourier series technique. If the distance between two consecutive wheels is big enough, then one can disregard their interaction via the railway track and consider every wheel as a single one. In this case, however, the Fourier series technique represents an appropriate computation time-saving approximation to a Fourier integral transformation technique that describes the oscillations of a single moving wheel. Two schemes are considered. In the first scheme, every wheel bears the same load. In the second one, consecutive wheels bear contrarily directed loads of the same magnitude. The second scheme leads to simpler calculations and so is recommended to model the wheel-track interaction. The railway track periodicity due to sleeper spacing is taken into account. Each period is the track segment between two adjacent sleepers. A partial differential equation with constant coefficients governs the vertical oscillations of each segment. Boundary conditions bind the oscillations of two neighbour segments and provide periodicity to the track. The shear deformation in the rail cross-section strongly influences the parametric oscillations. It also causes discontinuity of the rail centre-line slope at any point, where a concentrated transverse force is applied. Therefore, Timoshenko beam properties with respect to the topic of this paper are discussed. Interaction between a railway track and a bogie moving at moderate speed is studied. The study points to influence of the bogie frame oscillations on variation in the wheel-rail contact force over the sleeper span. The simplified bogie model considered includes only the primary suspension. A static load applied to the bogie frame centre presents the vehicle body.

  6. Predicting full-field dynamic strain on a three-bladed wind turbine using three dimensional point tracking and expansion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqersad, Javad; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter

    2014-03-01

    As part of a project to predict the full-field dynamic strain in rotating structures (e.g. wind turbines and helicopter blades), an experimental measurement was performed on a wind turbine attached to a 500-lb steel block and excited using a mechanical shaker. In this paper, the dynamic displacement of several optical targets mounted to a turbine placed in a semi-built-in configuration was measured by using three-dimensional point tracking. Using an expansion algorithm in conjunction with a finite element model of the blades, the measured displacements were expanded to all finite element degrees of freedom. The calculated displacements were applied to the finite element model to extract dynamic strain on the surface as well as within the interior points of the structure. To validate the technique for dynamic strain prediction, the physical strain at eight locations on the blades was measured during excitation using strain-gages. The expansion was performed by using both structural modes of an individual cantilevered blade and using modes of the entire structure (three-bladed wind turbine and the fixture) and the predicted strain was compared to the physical strain-gage measurements. The results demonstrate the ability of the technique to predict full-field dynamic strain from limited sets of measurements and can be used as a condition based monitoring tool to help provide damage prognosis of structures during operation.

  7. The optimization of self-phased arrays for diurnal motion tracking of synchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobold, D. M.; Hodge, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    The diurnal motion of a synchronous satellite necessitates mechanical tracking when a large aperture, high gain antenna is employed at the earth terminal. An alternative solution to this tracking problem is to use a self phased array consisting of a number of fixed pointed elements, each with moderate directivity. Non-mechanical tracking and adequate directive gain are achieved electronically by phase coherent summing of the element outputs. The element beamwidths provide overlapping area coverage of the satellite motion but introduce a diurnal variation into the array gain. The optimum element beamwidth and pointing direction of these elements can be obtained under the condition that the array gain is maximized simultaneously with the minimization of the diurnal variation.

  8. Hough transform method for track finding in center drift chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Azmi, K. A. Mohammad Kamal, E-mail: khasmidatul@siswa.um.edu.my; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T., E-mail: wat@um.edu.my; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    Hough transform is a global tracking method used which had been expected to be faster approach for tracking the circular pattern of electron moving in Center Drift Chamber (CDC), by transforming the point of hit into a circular curve. This paper present the implementation of hough transform method for the reconstruction of tracks in Center Drift Chamber (CDC) which have been generated by random number in C language programming. Result from implementation of this method shows higher peak of circle parameter value (xc,yc,rc) that indicate the similarity value of the parameter needed for circular track in CDC for charged particlesmore » in the region of CDC.« less

  9. Multi-modal imaging, model-based tracking, and mixed reality visualisation for orthopaedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, Bernhard; Tateno, Keisuke; Johnson, Alex; Fotouhi, Javad; Osgood, Greg; Tombari, Federico; Navab, Nassir

    2017-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons are still following the decades old workflow of using dozens of two-dimensional fluoroscopic images to drill through complex 3D structures, e.g. pelvis. This Letter presents a mixed reality support system, which incorporates multi-modal data fusion and model-based surgical tool tracking for creating a mixed reality environment supporting screw placement in orthopaedic surgery. A red–green–blue–depth camera is rigidly attached to a mobile C-arm and is calibrated to the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging space via iterative closest point algorithm. This allows real-time automatic fusion of reconstructed surface and/or 3D point clouds and synthetic fluoroscopic images obtained through CBCT imaging. An adapted 3D model-based tracking algorithm with automatic tool segmentation allows for tracking of the surgical tools occluded by hand. This proposed interactive 3D mixed reality environment provides an intuitive understanding of the surgical site and supports surgeons in quickly localising the entry point and orienting the surgical tool during screw placement. The authors validate the augmentation by measuring target registration error and also evaluate the tracking accuracy in the presence of partial occlusion. PMID:29184659

  10. Flexible wearable sensor nodes with solar energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Taiyang Wu; Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-07-01

    Wearable sensor nodes have gained a lot of attention during the past few years as they can monitor and record people's physical parameters in real time. Wearable sensor nodes can promote healthy lifestyles and prevent the occurrence of potential illness or injuries. This paper presents a flexible wearable sensor system powered by an efficient solar energy harvesting technique. It can measure the subject's heartbeats using a photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor and perform activity monitoring using an accelerometer. The solar energy harvester adopts an output current based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, which controls the solar panel to operate within its high output power range. The power consumption of the flexible sensor nodes has been investigated under different operation conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that wearable sensor nodes can work for more than 12 hours when they are powered by the solar energy harvester for 3 hours in the bright sunlight.

  11. Binocular Vision-Based Position and Pose of Hand Detection and Tracking in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Chen; Wenjun, Hou; Qing, Sheng

    After the study of image segmentation, CamShift target tracking algorithm and stereo vision model of space, an improved algorithm based of Frames Difference and a new space point positioning model were proposed, a binocular visual motion tracking system was constructed to verify the improved algorithm and the new model. The problem of the spatial location and pose of the hand detection and tracking have been solved.

  12. Design of a Maximum Power Point Tracker with Simulation, Analysis, and Comparison of Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    BLANK xxvi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION It is a warm summer day. You feel the sun warm your skin and rejuvenate your motiva- tion. The sun generates more... renewable , there has been an upsurge of interest in clean and renewable energy. While more than one option is available to fill that void, the most...solar array. When this algorithm is functioning correctly, it is said to be an MPPT . 1.2 Motivation Clean and renewable energy has greatly increased

  13. SeaTrack: Ground station orbit prediction and planning software for sea-viewing satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kenneth S.; Gregg, Watson W.; Hoisington, Charles M.; Patt, Frederick S.

    1993-01-01

    An orbit prediction software package (Sea Track) was designed to assist High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) stations in the acquisition of direct broadcast data from sea-viewing spacecraft. Such spacecraft will be common in the near future, with the launch of the Sea viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) in 1994, along with the continued Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series on NOAA platforms. The Brouwer-Lyddane model was chosen for orbit prediction because it meets the needs of HRPT tracking accuracies, provided orbital elements can be obtained frequently (up to within 1 week). Sea Track requires elements from the U.S. Space Command (NORAD Two-Line Elements) for the satellite's initial position. Updated Two-Line Elements are routinely available from many electronic sources (some are listed in the Appendix). Sea Track is a menu-driven program that allows users to alter input and output formats. The propagation period is entered by a start date and end date with times in either Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or local time. Antenna pointing information is provided in tabular form and includes azimuth/elevation pointing angles, sub-satellite longitude/latitude, acquisition of signal (AOS), loss of signal (LOS), pass orbit number, and other pertinent pointing information. One version of Sea Track (non-graphical) allows operation under DOS (for IBM-compatible personal computers) and UNIX (for Sun and Silicon Graphics workstations). A second, graphical, version displays orbit tracks, and azimuth-elevation for IBM-compatible PC's, but requires a VGA card and Microsoft FORTRAN.

  14. System considerations for detection and tracking of small targets using passive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBell, David A.

    1991-08-01

    Passive sensors provide only a few discriminants to assist in threat assessment of small targets. Tracking of the small targets provides additional discriminants. This paper discusses the system considerations for tracking small targets using passive sensors, in particular EO sensors. Tracking helps establish good versus bad detections. Discussed are the requirements to be placed on the sensor system's accuracy, with respect to knowledge of the sightline direction. The detection of weak targets sets a requirement for two levels of tracking in order to reduce processor throughput. A system characteristic is the need to track all detections. For low thresholds, this can mean a heavy track burden. Therefore, thresholds must be adaptive in order not to saturate the processors. Second-level tracks must develop a range estimate in order to assess threat. Sensor platform maneuvers are required if the targets are moving. The need for accurate pointing, good stability, and a good update rate will be shown quantitatively, relating to track accuracy and track association.

  15. Track and track-side video survey technology development.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-05-01

    Researchers at HiDef/Createc have completed prototype development and testing of a novel track video surveying technology : called Track and Track-Side Video Survey (TTVS). TTVS is designed to capture clear video images of the track and track side : ...

  16. Thin plate spline feature point matching for organ surfaces in minimally invasive surgery imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning

    2013-03-01

    Robust feature point matching for images with large view angle changes in Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a challenging task due to low texture and specular reflections in these images. This paper presents a new approach that can improve feature matching performance by exploiting the inherent geometric property of the organ surfaces. Recently, intensity based template image tracking using a Thin Plate Spline (TPS) model has been extended for 3D surface tracking with stereo cameras. The intensity based tracking is also used here for 3D reconstruction of internal organ surfaces. To overcome the small displacement requirement of intensity based tracking, feature point correspondences are used for proper initialization of the nonlinear optimization in the intensity based method. Second, we generate simulated images from the reconstructed 3D surfaces under all potential view positions and orientations, and then extract feature points from these simulated images. The obtained feature points are then filtered and re-projected to the common reference image. The descriptors of the feature points under different view angles are stored to ensure that the proposed method can tolerate a large range of view angles. We evaluate the proposed method with silicon phantoms and in vivo images. The experimental results show that our method is much more robust with respect to the view angle changes than other state-of-the-art methods.

  17. The vibration behavior of railway track at high frequencies under multiple preloads and wheel interactions

    PubMed

    Wu; Thompson

    2000-09-01

    The track foundation is preloaded by multiple wheel loads due to the train weight and, as the pad and ballast are nonlinear, their stiffness depends upon the preload in them. Due to the influence of these resilient components of the track, the track vibration is affected by the wheel loads. It is also affected by the wheel/rail interactions. In this article the preloads in the pad and ballast are calculated by considering the nonlinear properties of the track foundation, and thus the preloaded pad and ballast stiffnesses are determined. The vibration properties are explored for the track under multiple wheel loads and multiple wheel/rail interactions by comparing the results from different track models with and without these effects. It is found that the point receptance of the track is reduced and the vibration decay rate is enhanced at low frequencies due to the wheel loads. The effects of the wheel/rail interactions are most significant for frequencies 400-2000 Hz. Because of the wheel/rail interactions, the point receptance fluctuates and the vibration decay is enhanced in the regions around the wheels.

  18. Stereovision-based integrated system for point cloud reconstruction and simulated brain shift validation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaochen; Clements, Logan W; Luo, Ma; Narasimhan, Saramati; Thompson, Reid C; Dawant, Benoit M; Miga, Michael I

    2017-07-01

    Intraoperative soft tissue deformation, referred to as brain shift, compromises the application of current image-guided surgery navigation systems in neurosurgery. A computational model driven by sparse data has been proposed as a cost-effective method to compensate for cortical surface and volumetric displacements. We present a mock environment developed to acquire stereoimages from a tracked operating microscope and to reconstruct three-dimensional point clouds from these images. A reconstruction error of 1 mm is estimated by using a phantom with a known geometry and independently measured deformation extent. The microscope is tracked via an attached tracking rigid body that facilitates the recording of the position of the microscope via a commercial optical tracking system as it moves during the procedure. Point clouds, reconstructed under different microscope positions, are registered into the same space to compute the feature displacements. Using our mock craniotomy device, realistic cortical deformations are generated. When comparing our tracked microscope stereo-pair measure of mock vessel displacements to that of the measurement determined by the independent optically tracked stylus marking, the displacement error was [Formula: see text] on average. These results demonstrate the practicality of using tracked stereoscopic microscope as an alternative to laser range scanners to collect sufficient intraoperative information for brain shift correction.

  19. A noniterative greedy algorithm for multiframe point correspondence.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Khurram; Shah, Mubarak

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for finding point correspondences in monocular image sequences over multiple frames. The general problem of multiframe point correspondence is NP-hard for three or more frames. A polynomial time algorithm for a restriction of this problem is presented and is used as the basis of the proposed greedy algorithm for the general problem. The greedy nature of the proposed algorithm allows it to be used in real-time systems for tracking and surveillance, etc. In addition, the proposed algorithm deals with the problems of occlusion, missed detections, and false positives by using a single noniterative greedy optimization scheme and, hence, reduces the complexity of the overall algorithm as compared to most existing approaches where multiple heuristics are used for the same purpose. While most greedy algorithms for point tracking do not allow for entry and exit of the points from the scene, this is not a limitation for the proposed algorithm. Experiments with real and synthetic data over a wide range of scenarios and system parameters are presented to validate the claims about the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Application of Template Matching for Improving Classification of Urban Railroad Point Clouds

    PubMed Central

    Arastounia, Mostafa; Oude Elberink, Sander

    2016-01-01

    This study develops an integrated data-driven and model-driven approach (template matching) that clusters the urban railroad point clouds into three classes of rail track, contact cable, and catenary cable. The employed dataset covers 630 m of the Dutch urban railroad corridors in which there are four rail tracks, two contact cables, and two catenary cables. The dataset includes only geometrical information (three dimensional (3D) coordinates of the points) with no intensity data and no RGB data. The obtained results indicate that all objects of interest are successfully classified at the object level with no false positives and no false negatives. The results also show that an average 97.3% precision and an average 97.7% accuracy at the point cloud level are achieved. The high precision and high accuracy of the rail track classification (both greater than 96%) at the point cloud level stems from the great impact of the employed template matching method on excluding the false positives. The cables also achieve quite high average precision (96.8%) and accuracy (98.4%) due to their high sampling and isolated position in the railroad corridor. PMID:27973452

  1. Impact analysis of the transponder time delay on radio-tracking observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, Stefano; Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Lainey, Valéry; Marty, Jean-Charles; Angonin, Marie-Christine

    2018-01-01

    Accurate tracking of probes is one of the key points of space exploration. Range and Doppler techniques are the most commonly used. In this paper we analyze the impact of the transponder delay, i . e . the processing time between reception and re-emission of a two-way tracking link at the satellite, on tracking observables and on spacecraft orbits. We show that this term, only partially accounted for in the standard formulation of computed space observables, can actually be relevant for future missions with high nominal tracking accuracies or for the re-processing of old missions. We present several applications of our formulation to Earth flybys, the NASA GRAIL and the ESA BepiColombo missions.

  2. An analysis of neural receptive field plasticity by point process adaptive filtering

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emery N.; Nguyen, David P.; Frank, Loren M.; Wilson, Matthew A.; Solo, Victor

    2001-01-01

    Neural receptive fields are plastic: with experience, neurons in many brain regions change their spiking responses to relevant stimuli. Analysis of receptive field plasticity from experimental measurements is crucial for understanding how neural systems adapt their representations of relevant biological information. Current analysis methods using histogram estimates of spike rate functions in nonoverlapping temporal windows do not track the evolution of receptive field plasticity on a fine time scale. Adaptive signal processing is an established engineering paradigm for estimating time-varying system parameters from experimental measurements. We present an adaptive filter algorithm for tracking neural receptive field plasticity based on point process models of spike train activity. We derive an instantaneous steepest descent algorithm by using as the criterion function the instantaneous log likelihood of a point process spike train model. We apply the point process adaptive filter algorithm in a study of spatial (place) receptive field properties of simulated and actual spike train data from rat CA1 hippocampal neurons. A stability analysis of the algorithm is sketched in the Appendix. The adaptive algorithm can update the place field parameter estimates on a millisecond time scale. It reliably tracked the migration, changes in scale, and changes in maximum firing rate characteristic of hippocampal place fields in a rat running on a linear track. Point process adaptive filtering offers an analytic method for studying the dynamics of neural receptive fields. PMID:11593043

  3. 16. Detail view of swing span track manual alignment and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail view of swing span track manual alignment and locking mechanisms, looking southwest - India Point Railroad Bridge, Spanning Seekonk River between Providence & East Providence, Providence, Providence County, RI

  4. SOFIA tracking image simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Charles R.; Gross, Michael A. K.

    2016-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) tracking camera simulator is a component of the Telescope Assembly Simulator (TASim). TASim is a software simulation of the telescope optics, mounting, and control software. Currently in its fifth major version, TASim is relied upon for telescope operator training, mission planning and rehearsal, and mission control and science instrument software development and testing. TASim has recently been extended for hardware-in-the-loop operation in support of telescope and camera hardware development and control and tracking software improvements. All three SOFIA optical tracking cameras are simulated, including the Focal Plane Imager (FPI), which has recently been upgraded to the status of a science instrument that can be used on its own or in parallel with one of the seven infrared science instruments. The simulation includes tracking camera image simulation of starfields based on the UCAC4 catalog at real-time rates of 4-20 frames per second. For its role in training and planning, it is important for the tracker image simulation to provide images with a realistic appearance and response to changes in operating parameters. For its role in tracker software improvements, it is vital to have realistic signal and noise levels and precise star positions. The design of the software simulation for precise subpixel starfield rendering (including radial distortion), realistic point-spread function as a function of focus, tilt, and collimation, and streaking due to telescope motion will be described. The calibration of the simulation for light sensitivity, dark and bias signal, and noise will also be presented

  5. Object tracking based on harmony search: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming-Liang; He, Xiao-Hai; Luo, Dai-Sheng; Yu, Yan-Mei

    2012-10-01

    Visual tracking can be treated as an optimization problem. A new meta-heuristic optimal algorithm, Harmony Search (HS), was first applied to perform visual tracking by Fourie et al. As the authors point out, many subjects are still required in ongoing research. Our work is a continuation of Fourie's study, with four prominent improved variations of HS, namely Improved Harmony Search (IHS), Global-best Harmony Search (GHS), Self-adaptive Harmony Search (SHS) and Differential Harmony Search (DHS) adopted into the tracking system. Their performances are tested and analyzed on multiple challenging video sequences. Experimental results show that IHS is best, with DHS ranking second among the four improved trackers when the iteration number is small. However, the differences between all four reduced gradually, along with the increasing number of iterations.

  6. Robot trajectory tracking with self-tuning predicted control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Xianzhong; Shin, Kang G.

    1988-01-01

    A controller that combines self-tuning prediction and control is proposed for robot trajectory tracking. The controller has two feedback loops: one is used to minimize the prediction error, and the other is designed to make the system output track the set point input. Because the velocity and position along the desired trajectory are given and the future output of the system is predictable, a feedforward loop can be designed for robot trajectory tracking with self-tuning predicted control (STPC). Parameters are estimated online to account for the model uncertainty and the time-varying property of the system. The authors describe the principle of STPC, analyze the system performance, and discuss the simplification of the robot dynamic equations. To demonstrate its utility and power, the controller is simulated for a Stanford arm.

  7. The influence of track modelling options on the simulation of rail vehicle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Braghin, Francesco; Bruni, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of different models for track flexibility on the simulation of railway vehicle running dynamics on tangent and curved track. To this end, a multi-body model of the rail vehicle is defined including track flexibility effects on three levels of detail: a perfectly rigid pair of rails, a sectional track model and a three-dimensional finite element track model. The influence of the track model on the calculation of the nonlinear critical speed is pointed out and it is shown that neglecting the effect of track flexibility results in an overestimation of the critical speed by more than 10%. Vehicle response to stochastic excitation from track irregularity is also investigated, analysing the effect of track flexibility models on the vertical and lateral wheel-rail contact forces. Finally, the effect of the track model on the calculation of dynamic forces produced by wheel out-of-roundness is analysed, showing that peak dynamic loads are very sensitive to the track model used in the simulation.

  8. Tracking accuracy assessment for concentrator photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Matthew S. H.; Anstey, Ben; Bentley, Roger W.; Georghiou, George E.

    2010-10-01

    The accuracy to which a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system can track the sun is an important parameter that influences a number of measurements that indicate the performance efficiency of the system. This paper presents work carried out into determining the tracking accuracy of a CPV system, and illustrates the steps involved in gaining an understanding of the tracking accuracy. A Trac-Stat SL1 accuracy monitor has been used in the determination of pointing accuracy and has been integrated into the outdoor CPV module test facility at the Photovoltaic Technology Laboratories in Nicosia, Cyprus. Results from this work are provided to demonstrate how important performance indicators may be presented, and how the reliability of results is improved through the deployment of such accuracy monitors. Finally, recommendations on the use of such sensors are provided as a means to improve the interpretation of real outdoor performance.

  9. Incomplete equalization: The effect of tracking in secondary education on educational inequality.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier; Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Reimer, David

    2013-11-01

    This paper tests whether the existence of vocationally oriented tracks within a traditionally academically oriented upper education system reduces socioeconomic inequalities in educational attainment. Based on a statistical model of educational transitions and data on two entire cohorts of Danish youth, we find that (1) the vocationally oriented tracks are less socially selective than the traditional academic track; (2) attending the vocationally oriented tracks has a negative effect on the likelihood of enrolling in higher education; and (3) in the aggregate the vocationally oriented tracks improve access to lower-tier higher education for low-SES students. These findings point to an interesting paradox in that tracking has adverse effects at the micro-level but equalizes educational opportunities at the macro-level. We also discuss whether similar mechanisms might exist in other educational systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel Passive Tracking Scheme Exploiting Geometric and Intercept Theorems

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Biao; Sun, Chao; Ahn, Deockhyeon; Kim, Youngok

    2018-01-01

    Passive tracking aims to track targets without assistant devices, that is, device-free targets. Passive tracking based on Radio Frequency (RF) Tomography in wireless sensor networks has recently been addressed as an emerging field. The passive tracking scheme using geometric theorems (GTs) is one of the most popular RF Tomography schemes, because the GT-based method can effectively mitigate the demand for a high density of wireless nodes. In the GT-based tracking scheme, the tracking scenario is considered as a two-dimensional geometric topology and then geometric theorems are applied to estimate crossing points (CPs) of the device-free target on line-of-sight links (LOSLs), which reveal the target’s trajectory information in a discrete form. In this paper, we review existing GT-based tracking schemes, and then propose a novel passive tracking scheme by exploiting the Intercept Theorem (IT). To create an IT-based CP estimation scheme available in the noisy non-parallel LOSL situation, we develop the equal-ratio traverse (ERT) method. Finally, we analyze properties of three GT-based tracking algorithms and the performance of these schemes is evaluated experimentally under various trajectories, node densities, and noisy topologies. Analysis of experimental results shows that tracking schemes exploiting geometric theorems can achieve remarkable positioning accuracy even under rather a low density of wireless nodes. Moreover, the proposed IT scheme can provide generally finer tracking accuracy under even lower node density and noisier topologies, in comparison to other schemes. PMID:29562621

  11. A mitral annulus tracking approach for navigation of off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng P; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a real-time mitral valve annulus (MVA) tracking approach based on biplane transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) data and magnetic tracking systems (MTS) to be used in minimally invasive off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair (MVR). The authors' guidance system consists of three major components: TEE, magnetic tracking system, and an image guidance software platform. TEE provides real-time intraoperative images to show the cardiac motion and intracardiac surgical tools. The magnetic tracking system tracks the TEE probe and the surgical tools. The software platform integrates the TEE image planes and the virtual model of the tools and the MVA model on the screen. The authors' MVA tracking approach, which aims to update the MVA model in near real-time, comprises of three steps: image based gating, predictive reinitialization, and registration based MVA tracking. The image based gating step uses a small patch centered at each MVA point in the TEE images to identify images at optimal cardiac phases for updating the position of the MVA. The predictive reinitialization step uses the position and orientation of the TEE probe provided by the magnetic tracking system to predict the position of the MVA points in the TEE images and uses them for the initialization of the registration component. The registration based MVA tracking step aims to locate the MVA points in the images selected by the image based gating component by performing image based registration. The validation of the MVA tracking approach was performed in a phantom study and a retrospective study on porcine data. In the phantom study, controlled translations were applied to the phantom and the tracked MVA was compared to its "true" position estimated based on a magnetic sensor attached to the phantom. The MVA tracking accuracy was 1.29 ± 0.58 mm when the translation distance is about 1 cm, and increased to 2.85 ± 1.19 mm when the translation distance is about 3 cm. In the study on

  12. Particle Tracking on the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, G. F.

    1986-08-07

    Tracking studies including the effects of random multipole errors as well as the effects of random and systematic multipole errors have been made for RHIC. Initial results for operating at an off diagonal working point are discussed.

  13. Orbit Determination Issues for Libration Point Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Libration point mission designers require knowledge of orbital accuracy for a variety of analyses including station keeping control strategies, transfer trajectory design, and formation and constellation control. Past publications have detailed orbit determination (OD) results from individual libration point missions. This paper collects both published and unpublished results from four previous libration point missions (ISEE (International Sun-Earth Explorer) -3, SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) and MAP (Microwave Anisotropy Probe)) supported by Goddard Space Flight Center's Guidance, Navigation & Control Center. The results of those missions are presented along with OD issues specific to each mission. All past missions have been limited to ground based tracking through NASA ground sites using standard range and Doppler measurement types. Advanced technology is enabling other OD options including onboard navigation using seaboard attitude sensors and the use of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurement Delta Differenced One-Way Range (DDOR). Both options potentially enable missions to reduce coherent dedicated tracking passes while maintaining orbital accuracy. With the increased projected loading of the DSN (Deep Space Network), missions must find alternatives to the standard OD scenario.

  14. Implementation of a web-based medication tracking system in a large academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sam V; Williams, Jonathan P

    2012-10-01

    Pharmacy workflow efficiencies achieved through the use of an electronic medication-tracking system are described. Medication dispensing turnaround times at the inpatient pharmacy of a large hospital were evaluated before and after transition from manual medication tracking to a Web-based tracking process involving sequential bar-code scanning and real-time monitoring of medication status. The transition was carried out in three phases: (1) a workflow analysis, including the identification of optimal points for medication scanning with hand-held wireless devices, (2) the phased implementation of an automated solution and associated hardware at a central dispensing pharmacy and three satellite locations, and (3) postimplementation data collection to evaluate the impact of the new tracking system and areas for improvement. Relative to the manual tracking method, electronic medication tracking allowed the capture of far more data points, enabling the pharmacy team to delineate the time required for each step of the medication dispensing process and to identify the steps most likely to involve delays. A comparison of baseline and postimplementation data showed substantial reductions in overall medication turnaround times with the use of the Web-based tracking system (time reductions of 45% and 22% at the central and satellite sites, respectively). In addition to more accurate projections and documentation of turnaround times, the Web-based tracking system has facilitated quality-improvement initiatives. Implementation of an electronic tracking system for monitoring the delivery of medications provided a comprehensive mechanism for calculating turnaround times and allowed the pharmacy to identify bottlenecks within the medication distribution system. Altering processes removed these bottlenecks and decreased delivery turnaround times.

  15. A Track Initiation Method for the Underwater Target Tracking Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-dong; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Yao

    2018-04-01

    A novel efficient track initiation method is proposed for the harsh underwater target tracking environment (heavy clutter and large measurement errors): track splitting, evaluating, pruning and merging method (TSEPM). Track initiation demands that the method should determine the existence and initial state of a target quickly and correctly. Heavy clutter and large measurement errors certainly pose additional difficulties and challenges, which deteriorate and complicate the track initiation in the harsh underwater target tracking environment. There are three primary shortcomings for the current track initiation methods to initialize a target: (a) they cannot eliminate the turbulences of clutter effectively; (b) there may be a high false alarm probability and low detection probability of a track; (c) they cannot estimate the initial state for a new confirmed track correctly. Based on the multiple hypotheses tracking principle and modified logic-based track initiation method, in order to increase the detection probability of a track, track splitting creates a large number of tracks which include the true track originated from the target. And in order to decrease the false alarm probability, based on the evaluation mechanism, track pruning and track merging are proposed to reduce the false tracks. TSEPM method can deal with the track initiation problems derived from heavy clutter and large measurement errors, determine the target's existence and estimate its initial state with the least squares method. What's more, our method is fully automatic and does not require any kind manual input for initializing and tuning any parameter. Simulation results indicate that our new method improves significantly the performance of the track initiation in the harsh underwater target tracking environment.

  16. Homogeneous localized surface plasmon resonance inflection points for enhanced sensitivity and tracking plasmon damping in single gold bipyramids.

    PubMed

    Tsalu, Philippe Vuka; Kim, Geun Wan; Hong, Jong Wook; Ha, Ji Won

    2018-06-22

    The most polarizable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) longitudinal mode of anisotropic metallic nanoparticles, such as gold bipyramids (AuBPs), is of high prominence. This optical response has tremendous applications from spectroscopy to photonics and energy devices to sensing. In conventional LSPR-based sensing, broadening and asymmetry in peaks due to chemical and instrument noise hinder obtaining a precise insight on shift positions, accordingly limiting the effectiveness and impact of LSPR sensors. Further, when investigating LSPR properties, utilizing more simplistic frequency dependent dielectric-type models can aberrantly impact the reliability of fundamental properties used for designing and fabricating efficient optical devices. For instance, more approximations can effectively limit screening intra-band and inter-band (IB) electronic transition contributions and other related optical properties. With an aim to find alternative methods to further improve their efficiency, as a first report, we devoted a particular focus on LSPR scattering inflection points (IFs) of single AuBPs. The findings reveal that tracking LSPR IFs exhibit high sensitivity over their counterpart LSPR peak shift locations. In addition, we newly detected IB transition contributions near the resonance energy in the range (1.50 eV-2.00 eV) dominated by intra-band transitions. A small increase in the local RI effectively enhances the LSPR quality factor due to IB transitions. Therefore, while neglecting IB transitions in the range below 2.4 eV can work for local air refractive index (RI), in high local RI media it can be aberrantly underestimated. Demonstrated by the use of the dielectric function based on Kramers-Kronig consistent Lorentz oscillators, our findings are in good agreement with the enhancing RI sensitivity effect. The results of this investigation support the idea that tracking curvature changes of an optical signal can be effectively used for LSPR longitudinal

  17. Limits in point to point resolution of MOS based pixels detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourches, N.; Desforge, D.; Kebbiri, M.; Kumar, V.; Serruys, Y.; Gutierrez, G.; Leprêtre, F.; Jomard, F.

    2018-01-01

    In high energy physics point-to-point resolution is a key prerequisite for particle detector pixel arrays. Current and future experiments require the development of inner-detectors able to resolve the tracks of particles down to the micron range. Present-day technologies, although not fully implemented in actual detectors, can reach a 5-μm limit, this limit being based on statistical measurements, with a pixel-pitch in the 10 μm range. This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the building blocks for use in pixel arrays enabling accurate tracking of charged particles. Basing us on simulations we will make here a quantitative evaluation of the physical and technological limits in pixel size. Attempts to design small pixels based on SOI technology will be briefly recalled here. A design based on CMOS compatible technologies that allow a reduction of the pixel size below the micrometer is introduced here. Its physical principle relies on a buried carrier-localizing collecting gate. The fabrication process needed by this pixel design can be based on existing process steps used in silicon microelectronics. The pixel characteristics will be discussed as well as the design of pixel arrays. The existing bottlenecks and how to overcome them will be discussed in the light of recent ion implantation and material characterization experiments.

  18. Effect of cross-correlation on track-to-track fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Rajat K.

    1994-07-01

    Since the advent of target tracking systems employing a diverse mixture of sensors, there has been increasing recognition by air defense system planners and other military system analysts of the need to integrate these tracks so that a clear air picture can be obtained in a command center. A popular methodology to achieve this goal is to perform track-to-track fusion, which performs track-to-track association as well as kinematic state vector fusion. This paper seeks to answer analytically the extent of improvement achievable by means of kinetic state vector fusion when the tracks are obtained from dissimilar sensors (e.g., Radar/ESM/IRST/IFF). It is well known that evaluation of the performance of state vector fusion algorithms at steady state must take into account the effects of cross-correlation between eligible tracks introduced by the input noise which, unfortunately, is often neglected because of added computational complexity. In this paper, an expression for the steady-state cross-covariance matrix for a 2D state vector track-to-track fusion is obtained. This matrix is shown to be a function of the parameters of the Kalman filters associated with the candidate tracks being fused. Conditions for positive definiteness of the cross-covariance matrix have been derived and the effect of positive definiteness on performance of track-to-track fusion is also discussed.

  19. NucliTrack: an integrated nuclei tracking application.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sam; Barr, Alexis R; Glen, Robert; Bakal, Chris

    2017-10-15

    Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack's interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly. NucliTrack is available as a free, cross platform application and open source Python package. Installation details and documentation are at: http://nuclitrack.readthedocs.io/en/latest/ A video guide can be viewed online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6e0D9F-qSU Source code is available through Github: https://github.com/samocooper/nuclitrack. A Matlab toolbox is also available at: https://uk.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/61479-samocooper-nuclitrack-matlab. sam@socooper.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Inertial Motion Tracking for Inserting Humans into a Networked Synthetic Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-31

    tracking methods. One method requires markers on the tracked buman body, and other method does not use nmkers. OPTOTRAK from Northem Digital Inc. is a...of using multicasting protocols. Unfortunately, most routers on the Internet are not configured for multicasting. A technique called tunneling is...used to overcome this problem. Tunneling is a software solution that m s on the end point routerslcomputers and allows multicast packets to traverse

  1. The IBM HeadTracking Pointer: improvements in vision-based pointer control.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Rick

    2008-07-01

    Vision-based head trackers have been around for some years and are even beginning to be commercialized, but problems remain with respect to usability. Users without the ability to use traditional pointing devices--the intended audience of such systems--have no alternative if the automatic bootstrapping process fails. There is room for improvement in face tracking, and the pointer movement dynamics do not support accurate and efficient pointing. This paper describes the IBM HeadTracking Pointer, a system which attempts to directly address some of these issues. Head gestures are used to provide the end user a greater level of autonomous control over the system. A novel face-tracking algorithm reduces drift under variable lighting conditions, allowing the use of absolute, rather than relative, pointer positioning. Most importantly, the pointer dynamics have been designed to take into account the constraints of head-based pointing, with a non-linear gain which allows stability in fine pointer movement, high speed on long transitions and adjustability to support users with different movement dynamics. User studies have identified some difficulties with training the system and some characteristics of the pointer motion that take time to get used to, but also good user feedback and very promising performance results.

  2. Optimal model of PDIG based microgrid and design of complementary stabilizer using ICA.

    PubMed

    Amini, R Mohammad; Safari, A; Ravadanegh, S Najafi

    2016-09-01

    The generalized Heffron-Phillips model (GHPM) for a microgrid containing a photovoltaic (PV)-diesel machine (DM)-induction motor (IM)-governor (GV) (PDIG) has been developed at the low voltage level. A GHPM is calculated by linearization method about a loading condition. An effective Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) approach for PV network has been done using sliding mode control (SMC) to maximize output power. Additionally, to improve stability of microgrid for more penetration of renewable energy resources with nonlinear load, a complementary stabilizer has been presented. Imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) is utilized to design of gains for the complementary stabilizer with the multiobjective function. The stability analysis of the PDIG system has been completed with eigenvalues analysis and nonlinear simulations. Robustness and validity of the proposed controllers on damping of electromechanical modes examine through time domain simulation under input mechanical torque disturbances. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 3-D model-based vehicle tracking.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jianguang; Tan, Tieniu; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Hao; Maybank, Steven J

    2005-10-01

    This paper aims at tracking vehicles from monocular intensity image sequences and presents an efficient and robust approach to three-dimensional (3-D) model-based vehicle tracking. Under the weak perspective assumption and the ground-plane constraint, the movements of model projection in the two-dimensional image plane can be decomposed into two motions: translation and rotation. They are the results of the corresponding movements of 3-D translation on the ground plane (GP) and rotation around the normal of the GP, which can be determined separately. A new metric based on point-to-line segment distance is proposed to evaluate the similarity between an image region and an instantiation of a 3-D vehicle model under a given pose. Based on this, we provide an efficient pose refinement method to refine the vehicle's pose parameters. An improved EKF is also proposed to track and to predict vehicle motion with a precise kinematics model. Experimental results with both indoor and outdoor data show that the algorithm obtains desirable performance even under severe occlusion and clutter.

  4. Ultrasound based mitral valve annulus tracking for off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng P.; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs when the mitral valve cannot close properly during systole. The NeoChordtool aims to repair MR by implanting artificial chordae tendineae on flail leaflets inside the beating heart, without a cardiopulmonary bypass. Image guidance is crucial for such a procedure due to the lack of direct vision of the targets or instruments. While this procedure is currently guided solely by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), our previous work has demonstrated that guidance safety and efficiency can be significantly improved by employing augmented virtuality to provide virtual presentation of mitral valve annulus (MVA) and tools integrated with real time ultrasound image data. However, real-time mitral annulus tracking remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe an image-based approach to rapidly track MVA points on 2D/biplane TEE images. This approach is composed of two components: an image-based phasing component identifying images at optimal cardiac phases for tracking, and a registration component updating the coordinates of MVA points. Preliminary validation has been performed on porcine data with an average difference between manually and automatically identified MVA points of 2.5mm. Using a parallelized implementation, this approach is able to track the mitral valve at up to 10 images per second.

  5. The influence of surface roughness on the contact stiffness and the contact filter effect in nonlinear wheel-track interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Oskar E.; Nordborg, Anders; Lopez Arteaga, Ines

    2016-03-01

    A state-dependent contact model including nonlinear contact stiffness and nonlinear contact filtering is used to calculate contact forces and rail vibrations with a time-domain wheel-track interaction model. In the proposed method, the full three-dimensional contact geometry is reduced to a point contact in order to lower the computational cost and to reduce the amount of required input roughness-data. Green's functions including the linear dynamics of the wheel and the track are coupled with a point contact model, leading to a numerically efficient model for the wheel-track interaction. Nonlinear effects due to the shape and roughness of the wheel and the rail surfaces are included in the point contact model by pre-calculation of functions for the contact stiffness and contact filters. Numerical results are compared to field measurements of rail vibrations for passenger trains running at 200 kph on a ballast track. Moreover, the influence of vehicle pre-load and different degrees of roughness excitation on the resulting wheel-track interaction is studied by means of numerical predictions.

  6. Track propagation methods for the correlation of charged tracks with clusters in the calorimeter of the bar PANDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasawasd, T.; Simantathammakul, T.; Herold, C.; Stockmanns, T.; Ritman, J.; Kobdaj, C.

    2018-02-01

    To classify clusters of hits in the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of bar PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt), one has to match these EMC clusters with tracks of charged particles reconstructed from hits in the tracking system. Therefore the tracks are propagated to the surface of the EMC and associated with EMC clusters which are nearby and below a cut parameter. In this work, we propose a helix propagator to extrapolate the track from the Straw Tube Tracker (STT) to the inner surface of the EMC instead of the GEANE propagator which is already embedded within the PandaRoot computational framework. The results for both propagation methods show a similar quality, with a 30% gain in CPU time when using the helix propagator. We use Monte-Carlo truth information to compare the particle ID of the EMC clusters with the ID of the extrapolated points, thus deciding upon the correctness of the matches. By varying the cut parameter as a function of transverse momentum and particle type, our simulations show that the purity can be increased by 3-5% compared to the default value which is a constant cut in the bar PANDA simulation framework PandaRoot.

  7. Lunar libration point flight dynamics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Two satellite concepts, Halo and Hummingbird, for a lunar libration point satellite to be used as a tracking and communications link with the far side of the moon were evaluated. Study areas included flight dynamics, communications, attitude control, propulsion, and system integration. Both concepts were proved feasible, but Halo was shown to be the better concept.

  8. Particle Filtering for Obstacle Tracking in UAS Sense and Avoid Applications

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Obstacle detection and tracking is a key function for UAS sense and avoid applications. In fact, obstacles in the flight path must be detected and tracked in an accurate and timely manner in order to execute a collision avoidance maneuver in case of collision threat. The most important parameter for the assessment of a collision risk is the Distance at Closest Point of Approach, that is, the predicted minimum distance between own aircraft and intruder for assigned current position and speed. Since assessed methodologies can cause some loss of accuracy due to nonlinearities, advanced filtering methodologies, such as particle filters, can provide more accurate estimates of the target state in case of nonlinear problems, thus improving system performance in terms of collision risk estimation. The paper focuses on algorithm development and performance evaluation for an obstacle tracking system based on a particle filter. The particle filter algorithm was tested in off-line simulations based on data gathered during flight tests. In particular, radar-based tracking was considered in order to evaluate the impact of particle filtering in a single sensor framework. The analysis shows some accuracy improvements in the estimation of Distance at Closest Point of Approach, thus reducing the delay in collision detection. PMID:25105154

  9. Laser vision seam tracking system based on image processing and continuous convolution operator tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yanbiao; Chen, Tao

    2018-06-01

    To address the problem of low welding precision caused by the poor real-time tracking performance of common welding robots, a novel seam tracking system with excellent real-time tracking performance and high accuracy is designed based on the morphological image processing method and continuous convolution operator tracker (CCOT) object tracking algorithm. The system consists of a six-axis welding robot, a line laser sensor, and an industrial computer. This work also studies the measurement principle involved in the designed system. Through the CCOT algorithm, the weld feature points are determined in real time from the noise image during the welding process, and the 3D coordinate values of these points are obtained according to the measurement principle to control the movement of the robot and the torch in real time. Experimental results show that the sensor has a frequency of 50 Hz. The welding torch runs smoothly with a strong arc light and splash interference. Tracking error can reach ±0.2 mm, and the minimal distance between the laser stripe and the welding molten pool can reach 15 mm, which can significantly fulfill actual welding requirements.

  10. The Evaluation of HOMER as a Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Predeployment Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    experiment was used to ensure the HOMER models were accurate. Following the calibration, the concept of expeditionary energy density as it pertains to power ...Brigade–Afghanistan xvi MEP Mobile Electric Power MPP Maximum Power Point MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracker NASA National Aeronautics and...process was used to analyze HOMER’s modeling capability: • Conduct photovoltaic (PV) experiment, • Develop a calibration process to match the HOMER

  11. The Evaluation of HOMER as a Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Pre-deployment Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-21

    used to ensure the HOMER models were accurate. Following the calibration, the concept of expeditionary energy density as it pertains to power ...MEP Mobile Electric Power MPP Maximum Power Point MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracker NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration...process was used to analyze HOMER’s modeling capability: • Conduct photovoltaic (PV) experiment, • Develop a calibration process to match the HOMER

  12. Eye-Tracking in the Study of Visual Expertise: Methodology and Approaches in Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sharon E.; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E.

    2017-01-01

    Eye-tracking is the measurement of eye motions and point of gaze of a viewer. Advances in this technology have been essential to our understanding of many forms of visual learning, including the development of visual expertise. In recent years, these studies have been extended to the medical professions, where eye-tracking technology has helped us…

  13. Robust guaranteed cost tracking control of quadrotor UAV with uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwei; Nian, Xiaohong; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yinsheng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a robust guaranteed cost controller (RGCC) is proposed for quadrotor UAV system with uncertainties to address set-point tracking problem. A sufficient condition of the existence for RGCC is derived by Lyapunov stability theorem. The designed RGCC not only guarantees the whole closed-loop system asymptotically stable but also makes the quadratic performance level built for the closed-loop system have an upper bound irrespective to all admissible parameter uncertainties. Then, an optimal robust guaranteed cost controller is developed to minimize the upper bound of performance level. Simulation results verify the presented control algorithms possess small overshoot and short setting time, with which the quadrotor has ability to perform set-point tracking task well. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Person and gesture tracking with smart stereo cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Gaile; Chen, Xiangrong; Buck, Ron

    2008-02-01

    Physical security increasingly involves sophisticated, real-time visual tracking of a person's location inside a given environment, often in conjunction with biometrics and other security-related technologies. However, demanding real-world conditions like crowded rooms, changes in lighting and physical obstructions have proved incredibly challenging for 2D computer vision technology. In contrast, 3D imaging technology is not affected by constant changes in lighting and apparent color, and thus allows tracking accuracy to be maintained in dynamically lit environments. In addition, person tracking with a 3D stereo camera can provide the location and movement of each individual very precisely, even in a very crowded environment. 3D vision only requires that the subject be partially visible to a single stereo camera to be correctly tracked; multiple cameras are used to extend the system's operational footprint, and to contend with heavy occlusion. A successful person tracking system, must not only perform visual analysis robustly, but also be small, cheap and consume relatively little power. The TYZX Embedded 3D Vision systems are perfectly suited to provide the low power, small footprint, and low cost points required by these types of volume applications. Several security-focused organizations, including the U.S Government, have deployed TYZX 3D stereo vision systems in security applications. 3D image data is also advantageous in the related application area of gesture tracking. Visual (uninstrumented) tracking of natural hand gestures and movement provides new opportunities for interactive control including: video gaming, location based entertainment, and interactive displays. 2D images have been used to extract the location of hands within a plane, but 3D hand location enables a much broader range of interactive applications. In this paper, we provide some background on the TYZX smart stereo cameras platform, describe the person tracking and gesture tracking systems

  15. A hemispherical imaging and tracking (HIT) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Fair, Sara B.; Caldwell, Scott E.; Gronner, Sally J.

    1992-05-01

    A hemispherical imaging and tracking (HIT) system is described which is used for an interceptor designed to acquire, select, home, and hit-to-kill reentry vehicle targets from intercontinental ballistic missiles. The system provides a sizable field of view, over which a target may be tracked and yields a unique and distinctive optical signal when the system is 'on target'. The system has an infinite depth of focus and no moving parts are required for imaging within a hemisphere. Critical alignment of the HIT system is based on the comparison of signals captured through different points on an annular window. Assuming that the perturbations are radially symmetric, errors may be eliminated during the subtraction.

  16. Nonstationary EO/IR Clutter Suppression and Dim Object Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovsky, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, J.

    2010-09-01

    We develop and evaluate the performance of advanced algorithms which provide significantly improved capabilities for automated detection and tracking of ballistic and flying dim objects in the presence of highly structured intense clutter. Applications include ballistic missile early warning, midcourse tracking, trajectory prediction, and resident space object detection and tracking. The set of algorithms include, in particular, adaptive spatiotemporal clutter estimation-suppression and nonlinear filtering-based multiple-object track-before-detect. These algorithms are suitable for integration into geostationary, highly elliptical, or low earth orbit scanning or staring sensor suites, and are based on data-driven processing that adapts to real-world clutter backgrounds, including celestial, earth limb, or terrestrial clutter. In many scenarios of interest, e.g., for highly elliptic and, especially, low earth orbits, the resulting clutter is highly nonstationary, providing a significant challenge for clutter suppression to or below sensor noise levels, which is essential for dim object detection and tracking. We demonstrate the success of the developed algorithms using semi-synthetic and real data. In particular, our algorithms are shown to be capable of detecting and tracking point objects with signal-to-clutter levels down to 1/1000 and signal-to-noise levels down to 1/4.

  17. The small low SNR target tracking using sparse representation information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lifan; Zhang, Yiqun; Wang, Shuo; Sun, Chenggang

    2017-11-01

    Tracking small targets, such as missile warheads, from a remote distance is a difficult task since the targets are "points" which are similar to sensor's noise points. As a result, traditional tracking algorithms only use the information contained in point measurement, such as the position information and intensity information, as characteristics to identify targets from noise points. But in fact, as a result of the diffusion of photon, any small target is not a point in the focal plane array and it occupies an area which is larger than one sensor cell. So, if we can take the geometry characteristic into account as a new dimension of information, it will be of helpful in distinguishing targets from noise points. In this paper, we use a novel method named sparse representation (SR) to depict the geometry information of target intensity and define it as the SR information of target. Modeling the intensity spread and solving its SR coefficients, the SR information is represented by establishing its likelihood function. Further, the SR information likelihood is incorporated in the conventional Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter algorithm with point measurement. To illustrate the different performances of algorithm with or without the SR information, the detection capability and estimation error have been compared through simulation. Results demonstrate the proposed method has higher estimation accuracy and probability of detecting target than the conventional algorithm without the SR information.

  18. Target tracking and pointing for arrays of phase-locked lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macasaet, Van P.; Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip; Madajian, Jonathan; Zhang, Qicheng; Griswold, Janelle; Kulkarni, Neeraj; Cohen, Alexander; Brashears, Travis

    2016-09-01

    Arrays of phase-locked lasers are envisioned for planetary defense and exploration systems. High-energy beams focused on a threatening asteroid evaporate surface material, creating a reactionary thrust that alters the asteroid's orbit. The same system could be used to probe an asteroid's composition, to search for unknown asteroids, and to propel interplanetary and interstellar spacecraft. Phased-array designs are capable of producing high beam intensity, and allow beam steering and beam profile manipulation. Modular designs allow ongoing addition of emitter elements to a growing array. This paper discusses pointing control for extensible laser arrays. Rough pointing is determined by spacecraft attitude control. Lateral movement of the laser emitter tips behind the optical elements provides intermediate pointing adjustment for individual array elements and beam steering. Precision beam steering and beam formation is accomplished by coordinated phase modulation across the array. Added cells are incorporated into the phase control scheme by precise alignment to local mechanical datums using fast, optical relative position sensors. Infrared target sensors are also positioned within the datum scheme, and provide information about the target vector relative to datum coordinates at each emitter. Multiple target sensors allow refined determination of the target normal plane, providing information to the phase controller for each emitter. As emitters and sensors are added, local position data allows accurate prediction of the relative global position of emitters across the array, providing additional constraints to the phase controllers. Mechanical design and associated phase control that is scalable for target distance and number of emitters is presented.

  19. 76 FR 41556 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Cannon at MP-PT 118.9 near Duncannon, PA to CP Solomon at MP-PT 352.5 near Pittsburgh, PA, with the... between CP Bloom at MP-PT 351.6 near Pittsburg, PA and CP Solomon. Operations on the Fort Wayne Line...

  20. Stress tracking in thin bars by eigenstrain actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeftner, J.; Irschik, H.

    2016-11-01

    This contribution focuses on stress tracking in slender structures. The axial stress distribution of a linear elastic bar is investigated, in particular, we seek for an answer to the following question: in which manner do we have to distribute eigenstrains, such that the axial stress in a bar is equal to a certain desired stress distribution, despite external forces or support excitations are present? In order to track a certain time- and space-dependent stress function, smart actuators, such as piezoelectric actuators, are needed to realize eigenstrains. Based on the equation of motion and the constitutive relation, which relate stress, strain, displacement and eigenstrains, an analytical solution for the stress tracking problem is derived. The starting point for the derivation of a solution for the stress tracking problem is a semi-positive definite integral depending on the error stress which is the difference between the actual stress and the desired stress. Our derived stress tracking theory is verified by two examples: first, a clamped-free bar which is harmonically excited is investigated. It is shown under which circumstances the axial stress vanishes at every location and at every time instant. The second example is a support-excited bar with end mass, where a desired stress profile is prescribed.

  1. Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    PubMed Central

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Ferreira, Felisberto A.; McFadden, Conor H.; Hallacy, Timothy M.; Granville, Dal A.; Sahoo, Narayan; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe a method in which fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs), novel track detectors with nanoscale spatial resolution, are used to determine the linear energy transfer (LET) of individual proton tracks from proton therapy beams by allowing visualization and 3D reconstruction of such tracks. Methods: FNTDs were exposed to proton therapy beams with nominal energies ranging from 100 to 250 MeV. Proton track images were then recorded by confocal microscopy of the FNTDs. Proton tracks in the FNTD images were fit by using a Gaussian function to extract fluorescence amplitudes. Histograms of fluorescence amplitudes were then compared with LET spectra. Results: The authors successfully used FNTDs to register individual proton tracks from high-energy proton therapy beams, allowing reconstruction of 3D images of proton tracks along with delta rays. The track amplitudes from FNTDs could be used to parameterize LET spectra, allowing the LET of individual proton tracks from therapeutic proton beams to be determined. Conclusions: FNTDs can be used to directly visualize proton tracks and their delta rays at the nanoscale level. Because the track intensities in the FNTDs correlate with LET, they could be used further to measure LET of individual proton tracks. This method may be useful for measuring nanoscale radiation quantities and for measuring the LET of individual proton tracks in radiation biology experiments. PMID:27147359

  2. Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O., E-mail: gsawakuchi@mdanderson.org; Sahoo, Narayan; Ferreira, Felisberto A.

    Purpose: The authors describe a method in which fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs), novel track detectors with nanoscale spatial resolution, are used to determine the linear energy transfer (LET) of individual proton tracks from proton therapy beams by allowing visualization and 3D reconstruction of such tracks. Methods: FNTDs were exposed to proton therapy beams with nominal energies ranging from 100 to 250 MeV. Proton track images were then recorded by confocal microscopy of the FNTDs. Proton tracks in the FNTD images were fit by using a Gaussian function to extract fluorescence amplitudes. Histograms of fluorescence amplitudes were then compared withmore » LET spectra. Results: The authors successfully used FNTDs to register individual proton tracks from high-energy proton therapy beams, allowing reconstruction of 3D images of proton tracks along with delta rays. The track amplitudes from FNTDs could be used to parameterize LET spectra, allowing the LET of individual proton tracks from therapeutic proton beams to be determined. Conclusions: FNTDs can be used to directly visualize proton tracks and their delta rays at the nanoscale level. Because the track intensities in the FNTDs correlate with LET, they could be used further to measure LET of individual proton tracks. This method may be useful for measuring nanoscale radiation quantities and for measuring the LET of individual proton tracks in radiation biology experiments.« less

  3. A new method for tracking organ motion on diagnostic ultrasound images

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiki, E-mail: y-kubota@gunma-u.ac.jp; Matsumura, Akihiko, E-mail: matchan.akihiko@gunma-u.ac.jp; Fukahori, Mai, E-mail: fukahori@nirs.go.jp

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-gated irradiation is effective in reducing the margins of a target in the case of abdominal organs, such as the liver, that change their position as a result of respiratory motion. However, existing technologies are incapable of directly measuring organ motion in real-time during radiation beam delivery. Hence, the authors proposed a novel quantitative organ motion tracking method involving the use of diagnostic ultrasound images; it is noninvasive and does not entail radiation exposure. In the present study, the authors have prospectively evaluated this proposed method. Methods: The method involved real-time processing of clinical ultrasound imaging data rather thanmore » organ monitoring; it comprised a three-dimensional ultrasound device, a respiratory sensing system, and two PCs for data storage and analysis. The study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method by tracking the gallbladder in one subject and a liver vein in another subject. To track a moving target organ, the method involved the control of a region of interest (ROI) that delineated the target. A tracking algorithm was used to control the ROI, and a large number of feature points and an error correction algorithm were used to achieve long-term tracking of the target. Tracking accuracy was assessed in terms of how well the ROI matched the center of the target. Results: The effectiveness of using a large number of feature points and the error correction algorithm in the proposed method was verified by comparing it with two simple tracking methods. The ROI could capture the center of the target for about 5 min in a cross-sectional image with changing position. Indeed, using the proposed method, it was possible to accurately track a target with a center deviation of 1.54 ± 0.9 mm. The computing time for one frame image using our proposed method was 8 ms. It is expected that it would be possible to track any soft-tissue organ or tumor with large

  4. Tracking Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morinelli, Patrick J.; Socoby, Joseph; Hendry, Steve; Campion, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) tracking data certification effort of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Space Communications Network (SCN) complement of tracking stations consisting of the NASA White Sands 1 antenna (WS1), and the commercial provider Universal Space Network (USN) antennas at South Point, Hawaii; Dongara Australia; Weilheim, Germany; and Kiruna, Sweden. Certification assessment required the cooperation and coordination of parties not under the control of either the LRO project or ground stations as uplinks on cooperating spacecraft were necessary. The LRO range-tracking requirement of 10m 1 sigma could be satisfactorily demonstrated using any typical spacecraft capable of range tracking. Though typical Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbiting (GEO) spacecraft may be adequate for range certification, their measurement dynamics and noise would be unacceptable for proper Doppler certification of 1-3mm/sec 1 sigma. As LRO will orbit the Moon, it was imperative that a suitable target spacecraft be utilized which can closely mimic the expected lunar orbital Doppler dynamics of +/-1.6km/sec and +/-1.5m/sq sec to +/-0.15m/sq sec, is in view of the ground stations, supports coherent S-Band Doppler tracking measurements, and can be modeled by the FDF. In order to meet the LRO metric tracking data specifications, the SCN ground stations employed previously uncertified numerically controlled tracking receivers. Initial certification testing revealed certain characteristics of the units that required resolution before being granted certification.

  5. Space-based IR tracking bias removal using background star observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemons, T. M., III; Chang, K. C.

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides the results of a proposed methodology for removing sensor bias from a space-based infrared (IR) tracking system through the use of stars detected in the background field of the tracking sensor. The tracking system consists of two satellites flying in a lead-follower formation tracking a ballistic target. Each satellite is equipped with a narrow-view IR sensor that provides azimuth and elevation to the target. The tracking problem is made more difficult due to a constant, non-varying or slowly varying bias error present in each sensor's line of sight measurements. As known stars are detected during the target tracking process, the instantaneous sensor pointing error can be calculated as the difference between star detection reading and the known position of the star. The system then utilizes a separate bias filter to estimate the bias value based on these detections and correct the target line of sight measurements to improve the target state vector. The target state vector is estimated through a Linearized Kalman Filter (LKF) for the highly non-linear problem of tracking a ballistic missile. Scenarios are created using Satellite Toolkit(C) for trajectories with associated sensor observations. Mean Square Error results are given for tracking during the period when the target is in view of the satellite IR sensors. The results of this research provide a potential solution to bias correction while simultaneously tracking a target.

  6. NucliTrack: an integrated nuclei tracking application

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Sam; Barr, Alexis R.; Glen, Robert; Bakal, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Summary Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack’s interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly. Availability and implementation NucliTrack is available as a free, cross platform application and open source Python package. Installation details and documentation are at: http://nuclitrack.readthedocs.io/en/latest/ A video guide can be viewed online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6e0D9F-qSU Source code is available through Github: https://github.com/samocooper/nuclitrack. A Matlab toolbox is also available at: https://uk.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/61479-samocooper-nuclitrack-matlab. Contact sam@socooper.com Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28637183

  7. Beam width and transmitter power adaptive to tracking system performance for free-space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Arnon, S; Rotman, S; Kopeika, N S

    1997-08-20

    The basic free-space optical communication system includes at least two satellites. To communicate between them, the transmitter satellite must track the beacon of the receiver satellite and point the information optical beam in its direction. Optical tracking and pointing systems for free space suffer during tracking from high-amplitude vibration because of background radiation from interstellar objects such as the Sun, Moon, Earth, and stars in the tracking field of view or the mechanical impact from satellite internal and external sources. The vibrations of beam pointing increase the bit error rate and jam communication between the two satellites. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the satellite receiver beacon power. However, this solution requires increased power consumption and weight, both of which are disadvantageous in satellite development. Considering these facts, we derive a mathematical model of a communication system that adapts optimally the transmitter beam width and the transmitted power to the tracking system performance. Based on this model, we investigate the performance of a communication system with discrete element optical phased array transmitter telescope gain. An example for a practical communication system between a Low Earth Orbit Satellite and a Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite is presented. From the results of this research it can be seen that a four-element adaptive transmitter telescope is sufficient to compensate for vibration amplitude doubling. The benefits of the proposed model are less required transmitter power and improved communication system performance.

  8. Computerized analysis of coronary artery disease: Performance evaluation of segmentation and tracking of coronary arteries in CT angiograms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chuan, E-mail: chuan@umich.edu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in analysis of coronary artery disease in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). This study evaluated the accuracy of the authors’ coronary artery segmentation and tracking method which are the essential steps to define the search space for the detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Methods: The heart region in cCTA is segmented and the vascular structures are enhanced using the authors’ multiscale coronary artery response (MSCAR) method that performed 3D multiscale filtering and analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. Starting from seed points at the origins of the left andmore » right coronary arteries, a 3D rolling balloon region growing (RBG) method that adapts to the local vessel size segmented and tracked each of the coronary arteries and identifies the branches along the tracked vessels. The branches are queued and subsequently tracked until the queue is exhausted. With Institutional Review Board approval, 62 cCTA were collected retrospectively from the authors’ patient files. Three experienced cardiothoracic radiologists manually tracked and marked center points of the coronary arteries as reference standard following the 17-segment model that includes clinically significant coronary arteries. Two radiologists visually examined the computer-segmented vessels and marked the mistakenly tracked veins and noisy structures as false positives (FPs). For the 62 cases, the radiologists marked a total of 10191 center points on 865 visible coronary artery segments. Results: The computer-segmented vessels overlapped with 83.6% (8520/10191) of the center points. Relative to the 865 radiologist-marked segments, the sensitivity reached 91.9% (795/865) if a true positive is defined as a computer-segmented vessel that overlapped with at least 10% of the reference center points marked on the segment. When the overlap threshold is increased to 50% and 100%, the sensitivities

  9. Hidden Communicative Competence: Case Study Evidence Using Eye-Tracking and Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Andrew; Emerson, Anne; Howard-Jones, Patricia; O'Neil, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    A facilitated communication (FC) user with an autism spectrum disorder produced sophisticated texts by pointing, with physical support, to letters on a letterboard while their eyes were tracked and while their pointing movements were video recorded. This FC user has virtually no independent means of expression, and is held to have no literacy…

  10. A Railway Track Geometry Measuring Trolley System Based on Aided INS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qijin; Niu, Xiaoji; Zuo, Lili; Zhang, Tisheng; Xiao, Fuqin; Liu, Yi; Liu, Jingnan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the railway track geometry is a task of fundamental importance to ensure the track quality in both the construction phase and the regular maintenance stage. Conventional track geometry measuring trolleys (TGMTs) in combination with classical geodetic surveying apparatus such as total stations alone cannot meet the requirements of measurement accuracy and surveying efficiency at the same time. Accurate and fast track geometry surveying applications call for an innovative surveying method that can measure all or most of the track geometric parameters in short time without interrupting the railway traffic. We provide a novel solution to this problem by integrating an inertial navigation system (INS) with a geodetic surveying apparatus, and design a modular TGMT system based on aided INS, which can be configured according to different surveying tasks including precise adjustment of slab track, providing tamping measurements, measuring track deformation and irregularities, and determination of the track axis. TGMT based on aided INS can operate in mobile surveying mode to significantly improve the surveying efficiency. Key points in the design of the TGMT’s architecture and the data processing concept and workflow are introduced in details, which should benefit subsequent research and provide a reference for the implementation of this kind of TGMT. The surveying performance of proposed TGMT with different configurations is assessed in the track geometry surveying experiments and actual projects. PMID:29439423

  11. Pointing control for the International Comet Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Schumacher, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the pointing control system for the proposed International Comet Mission, intended to fly by Comet Halley and rendezvous with Comet Tempel-2 is presented. Following a review of mission objectives and the spacecraft configuration, design constraints on the pointing control system controlling the two-axis gimballed scan platform supporting the science instruments are discussed in relation to the scientific requirements of the mission. The primary design options considered for the pointing control system design for the baseline spacecraft are summarized, and the design selected, which employs a target-referenced, inertially stabilized control system, is described in detail. The four basic modes of operation of the pointing control subsystem (target acquisition, inertial hold, target track and slew) are discussed as they relate to operations at Halley and Tempel-2. It is pointed that the pointing control system design represents a significant advance in the state of the art of pointing controls for planetary missions.

  12. Wall shear stress fixed points in blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn

    2017-11-01

    Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics produces large datasets, and wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the most important parameters due to its close connection with the biological processes at the wall. While some studies have investigated WSS vectorial features, the WSS fixed points have not received much attention. In this talk, we will discuss the importance of WSS fixed points from three viewpoints. First, we will review how WSS fixed points relate to the flow physics away from the wall. Second, we will discuss how certain types of WSS fixed points lead to high biochemical surface concentration in cardiovascular mass transport problems. Finally, we will introduce a new measure to track the exposure of endothelial cells to WSS fixed points.

  13. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J.; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user friendly display for the physician. PMID:16829506

  14. Tracking a convoy of multiple targets using acoustic sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damarla, T. R.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm to track a convoy of several targets in a scene using acoustic sensor array data. The tracking algorithm is based on template of the direction of arrival (DOA) angles for the leading target. Often the first target is the closest target to the sensor array and hence the loudest with good signal to noise ratio. Several steps were used to generate a template of the DOA angle for the leading target, namely, (a) the angle at the present instant should be close to the angle at the previous instant and (b) the angle at the present instant should be within error bounds of the predicted value based on the previous values. Once the template of the DOA angles of the leading target is developed, it is used to predict the DOA angle tracks of the remaining targets. In order to generate the tracks for the remaining targets, a track is established if the angles correspond to the initial track values of the first target. Second the time delay between the first track and the remaining tracks are estimated at the highest correlation points between the first track and the remaining tracks. As the vehicles move at different speeds the tracks either compress or expand depending on whether a target is moving fast or slow compared to the first target. The expansion and compression ratios are estimated and used to estimate the predicted DOA angle values of the remaining targets. Based on these predicted DOA angles of the remaining targets the DOA angles obtained from the MVDR or Incoherent MUSIC will be appropriately assigned to proper tracks. Several other rules were developed to avoid mixing the tracks. The algorithm is tested on data collected at Aberdeen Proving Ground with a convoy of 3, 4 and 5 vehicles. Some of the vehicles are tracked and some are wheeled vehicles. The tracking algorithm results are found to be good. The results will be presented at the conference and in the paper.

  15. Markerless rat head motion tracking using structured light for brain PET imaging of unrestrained awake small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Alan; Staelens, Steven; Stroobants, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Jeroen

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in small animals is generally performed under anesthesia to immobilize the animal during scanning. More recently, for rat brain PET studies, methods to perform scans of unrestrained awake rats are being developed in order to avoid the unwanted effects of anesthesia on the brain response. Here, we investigate the use of a projected structure stereo camera to track the motion of the rat head during the PET scan. The motion information is then used to correct the PET data. The stereo camera calculates a 3D point cloud representation of the scene and the tracking is performed by point cloud matching using the iterative closest point algorithm. The main advantage of the proposed motion tracking is that no intervention, e.g. for marker attachment, is needed. A manually moved microDerenzo phantom experiment and 3 awake rat [18F]FDG experiments were performed to evaluate the proposed tracking method. The tracking accuracy was 0.33 mm rms. After motion correction image reconstruction, the microDerenzo phantom was recovered albeit with some loss of resolution. The reconstructed FWHM of the 2.5 and 3 mm rods increased with 0.94 and 0.51 mm respectively in comparison with the motion-free case. In the rat experiments, the average tracking success rate was 64.7%. The correlation of relative brain regional [18F]FDG uptake between the anesthesia and awake scan reconstructions was increased from on average 0.291 (not significant) before correction to 0.909 (p  <  0.0001) after motion correction. Markerless motion tracking using structured light can be successfully used for tracking of the rat head for motion correction in awake rat PET scans.

  16. Constrained tracking control for nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Khani, Fatemeh; Haeri, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a tracking control strategy for nonlinear systems without needing a prior knowledge of the reference trajectory. The proposed method consists of a set of local controllers with appropriate overlaps in their stability regions and an on-line switching strategy which implements these controllers and uses some augmented intermediate controllers to ensure steering the system states to the desired set points without needing to redesign the controller for each value of set point changes. The proposed approach provides smooth transient responses despite switching among the local controllers. It should be mentioned that the stability regions of the proposed controllers could be estimated off-line for a range of set-point changes. The efficiencies of the proposed algorithm are illustrated via two example simulations. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Conditioning of MVM '73 radio-tracking data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, R. E.; Chao, C. C.; Winn, F. B.; Yip, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    An extensive effort was undertaken to edit Mariner 10 radiometric tracking data. Interactive computer graphics were used for the first time by an interplanetary mission to detect blunder points and spurious signatures in the data. Interactive graphics improved the former process time by a factor of 10 to 20, while increasing reliability. S/X dual Doppler data was used for the first time to calibrate charged particles in the tracking medium. Application of the charged particle calibrations decreased the orbit determination error for a short data arc following the 16 March 1974 maneuver by about 80%. A new model was developed to calibrate the earth's troposphere with seasonal adjustments. The new model has a 2% accuracy and is 5 times better than the old model.

  18. Multi-point contact of the high-speed vehicle-turnout system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zunsong

    2013-05-01

    The wheel-rail contact problems, such as the number, location and the track of contact patches, are very important for optimizing the spatial structure of the rails and lowering the vehicle-turnout system dynamics. However, the above problems are not well solved currently because of having the difficulties in how to determine the multi-contact, to preciously present the changeable profiles of the rails and to establish an accurate spatial turnout system dynamics model. Based on a high-speed vehicle-turnout coupled model in which the track is modeled as flexible with rails and sleepers represented by beams, the line tracing extreme point method is introduced to investigate the wheel-rail multiple contact conditions and the key sections of the blade rail, longer nose rail, shorter rail in the switch and nose rail area are discretized to represent the varying profiles of rails in the turnout. The dynamic interaction between the vehicle and turnout is simulated for cases of the vehicle divergently passing the turnout and the multi-point contact is obtained. The tracks of the contact patches on the top of the rails are presented and the wheel-rail impact forces are offered in comparison with the contact patches transference on the rails. The numerical simulation results indicate that the length of two-point contact occurrence of a worn wheel profile and rails is longer than that of the new wheel profile and rails; The two-point contact definitely occurs in the switch and crossing area. Generally, three-point contact doesn't occur for the new rail profile, which is testified by the wheel-rails interpolation distance and the first order derivative function of the tracing line extreme points. The presented research is not only helpful to optimize the structure of the turnout, but also useful to lower the dynamics of the high speed vehicle-turnout system.

  19. Hand-eye calibration for rigid laparoscopes using an invariant point.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen; Stoyanov, Danail; Schneider, Crispin; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Ourselin, Sébastien; Davidson, Brian; Hawkes, David; Clarkson, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic liver resection has significant advantages over open surgery due to less patient trauma and faster recovery times, yet it can be difficult due to the restricted field of view and lack of haptic feedback. Image guidance provides a potential solution but one current challenge is in accurate "hand-eye" calibration, which determines the position and orientation of the laparoscope camera relative to the tracking markers. In this paper, we propose a simple and clinically feasible calibration method based on a single invariant point. The method requires no additional hardware, can be constructed by theatre staff during surgical setup, requires minimal image processing and can be visualised in real time. Real-time visualisation allows the surgical team to assess the calibration accuracy before use in surgery. In addition, in the laboratory, we have developed a laparoscope with an electromagnetic tracking sensor attached to the camera end and an optical tracking marker attached to the distal end. This enables a comparison of tracking performance. We have evaluated our method in the laboratory and compared it to two widely used methods, "Tsai's method" and "direct" calibration. The new method is of comparable accuracy to existing methods, and we show RMS projected error due to calibration of 1.95 mm for optical tracking and 0.85 mm for EM tracking, versus 4.13 and 1.00 mm respectively, using existing methods. The new method has also been shown to be workable under sterile conditions in the operating room. We have proposed a new method of hand-eye calibration, based on a single invariant point. Initial experience has shown that the method provides visual feedback, satisfactory accuracy and can be performed during surgery. We also show that an EM sensor placed near the camera would provide significantly improved image overlay accuracy.

  20. Analysis of the Influence of Cracked Sleepers under Static Loading on Ballasted Railway Tracks

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán Domingo, Laura; Zamorano Martín, Clara; Palenzuela Avilés, Cristina; Real Herráiz, Julia I.

    2014-01-01

    The principal causes of cracking in prestressed concrete sleepers are the dynamic loads induced by track irregularities and imperfections in the wheel-rail contact and the in-phase and out-of-phase track resonances. The most affected points are the mid-span and rail-seat sections of the sleepers. Central and rail-seat crack detection require visual inspections, as legislation establishes, and involve sleepers' renewal even though European Normative considers that thicknesses up to 0.5 mm do not imply an inadequate behaviour of the sleepers. For a better understanding of the phenomenon, the finite element method constitutes a useful tool to assess the effects of cracking from the point of view of structural behaviour in railway track structures. This paper intends to study how the cracks at central or rail-seat section in prestressed concrete sleepers influence the track behaviour under static loading. The track model considers three different sleeper models: uncracked, cracked at central section, and cracked at rail-seat section. These models were calibrated and validated using the frequencies of vibration of the first three bending modes obtained from an experimental modal analysis. The results show the insignificant influence of the central cracks and the notable effects of the rail-seat cracks regarding deflections and stresses. PMID:25530998

  1. Automated multiple target detection and tracking in UAV videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hongwei; Yang, Chenhui; Abousleman, Glen P.; Si, Jennie

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, a novel system is presented to detect and track multiple targets in Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) video sequences. Since the output of the system is based on target motion, we first segment foreground moving areas from the background in each video frame using background subtraction. To stabilize the video, a multi-point-descriptor-based image registration method is performed where a projective model is employed to describe the global transformation between frames. For each detected foreground blob, an object model is used to describe its appearance and motion information. Rather than immediately classifying the detected objects as targets, we track them for a certain period of time and only those with qualified motion patterns are labeled as targets. In the subsequent tracking process, a Kalman filter is assigned to each tracked target to dynamically estimate its position in each frame. Blobs detected at a later time are used as observations to update the state of the tracked targets to which they are associated. The proposed overlap-rate-based data association method considers the splitting and merging of the observations, and therefore is able to maintain tracks more consistently. Experimental results demonstrate that the system performs well on real-world UAV video sequences. Moreover, careful consideration given to each component in the system has made the proposed system feasible for real-time applications.

  2. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  3. Calibration-free gaze tracking for automatic measurement of visual acuity in human infants.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chunshui; Huang, Lei; Liu, Changping

    2014-01-01

    Most existing vision-based methods for gaze tracking need a tedious calibration process. In this process, subjects are required to fixate on a specific point or several specific points in space. However, it is hard to cooperate, especially for children and human infants. In this paper, a new calibration-free gaze tracking system and method is presented for automatic measurement of visual acuity in human infants. As far as I know, it is the first time to apply the vision-based gaze tracking in the measurement of visual acuity. Firstly, a polynomial of pupil center-cornea reflections (PCCR) vector is presented to be used as the gaze feature. Then, Gaussian mixture models (GMM) is employed for gaze behavior classification, which is trained offline using labeled data from subjects with healthy eyes. Experimental results on several subjects show that the proposed method is accurate, robust and sufficient for the application of measurement of visual acuity in human infants.

  4. Autonomous space target recognition and tracking approach using star sensors based on a Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tao; Zhou, Fuqiang

    2015-04-10

    When imaged by detectors, space targets (including satellites and debris) and background stars have similar point-spread functions, and both objects appear to change as detectors track targets. Therefore, traditional tracking methods cannot separate targets from stars and cannot directly recognize targets in 2D images. Consequently, we propose an autonomous space target recognition and tracking approach using a star sensor technique and a Kalman filter (KF). A two-step method for subpixel-scale detection of star objects (including stars and targets) is developed, and the combination of the star sensor technique and a KF is used to track targets. The experimental results show that the proposed method is adequate for autonomously recognizing and tracking space targets.

  5. Aircraft tracking and logging for commercial airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, Lee; Dwyer, David; Thornton, John; Bonsor, Nigel

    2002-07-01

    Airport congestion is becoming a major problem, with many airports stretched to capacity. Monitoring of airport traffic is becoming of increased importance as airport operators try to maximize their efficiency whilst maintaining a high safety standard. This paper describes a fully automatic electro-optic tracking system, designed to track aircraft whilst on, or near, the runway. The system uses a single camera and several surveyed landmarks to predict the 3D location of the aircraft. Two modes of operation are available: take off and landing, with aircraft statistics recorded for each. Aircraft are tracked until they are clear of the runway, either airborne or having turned off onto a taxiway. Statistics and video imagery are recorded for each aircraft movement, detailing the time interval between landings or take offs, the time taken to clear the runway as well as for landing aircraft, details of approach speed, glide slope, point of touch-down and which exit taxiway was used. This information can be analyzed to monitor efficiency and to highlight violations in any safety regulations.

  6. Clinical relevance of the modified physical performance test versus the short physical performance battery for detecting mobility impairments in older men with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Addison, Odessa; Kundi, Rishi; Ryan, Alice S; Goldberg, Andrew P; Patel, Richa; Lal, Brajesh K; Prior, Steven J

    2017-08-23

    The study is to compare the Modified Physical Performance Test (MPPT) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) as metrics of mobility and function in older men with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). A total of 51 men (55-87 years) with PAD underwent functional testing including the SPPB, MPPT, Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ), stair ascent, and 6-min walk distance. Individuals were grouped according to SPPB and MPPT scores as not limited on either, limited only on the MPPT, or limited on both. The MPPT identified a higher proportion of patients as being functionally limited than the SPPB (p < 0.001). Men identified as limited only by the MPPT, and not the SPPB, were subsequently confirmed to have lower function on all measures compared to those not identified as limited by either the SPPB or the MPPT (p < 0.02). These findings suggest the MPPT is an appropriate measure to identify early declines in men with PAD and may identify global disability better than SPPB. Implications for rehabilitation Individuals with peripheral arterial disease have low activity levels and are at risk for a loss of independence and global disability. Early detection of decline in mobility and global function would allow for interventions before large changes in ambulatory ability or a loss of functional independence occur. This study shows the Modified Physical Performance Test may be an appropriate test to identify early decline in function in men with peripheral arterial disease.

  7. Single track effects, Biostack and risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The scientific career of Prof. Bucker has spanned a very exciting period in the fledgling science of Space Radiation Biology. The capability for placing biological objects in space was developed, and the methods for properly packaging, retrieving and analyzing them were worked out. Meaningful results on the effects of radiation were obtained for the first time. In fact, many of the successful techniques and methodologies for handling biological samples were developed in Prof. Bucker's laboratories, as attested by the extensive Biostack program. He was the first to suggest and successfully carry out experiments in space directly aimed at measuring effects of single tracks of high-energy heavy galactic cosmic rays by specifically identifying whether or not the object had been hit by a heavy particle track. Because the "hit" frequencies of heavy galactic cosmic rays to cell nuclei in the bodies of space travelers will be low, it is expected that any effects to humans on the cellular level will be dominated by single-track cell traversals. This includes the most important generally recognized late effect of space radiation exposure: radiation-induced cancer. This paper addresses the single-track nature of the space radiation environment, and points out the importance of single "hits" in the evaluation of radiation risk for long-term missions occurring outside the earth's magnetic field. A short review is made of biological objects found to show increased effects when "hit" by a single heavy charged-particle in space. A brief discussion is given of the most provocative results from the bacterial spore Bacillus subtilis: experimental evidence that tracks can affect biological systems at much larger distances from the trajectory than previously suspected, and that the resultant inactivation cross section in space calculated for this system is very large. When taken at face value, the implication of these results, when compared to those from experiments performed at ground

  8. Tracking features in retinal images of adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope using KLT-SIFT algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Lu, Jing; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2010-01-01

    With the use of adaptive optics (AO), high-resolution microscopic imaging of living human retina in the single cell level has been achieved. In an adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) system, with a small field size (about 1 degree, 280 μm), the motion of the eye severely affects the stabilization of the real-time video images and results in significant distortions of the retina images. In this paper, Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) is used to abstract stable point features from the retina images. Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi(KLT) algorithm is applied to track the features. With the tracked features, the image distortion in each frame is removed by the second-order polynomial transformation, and 10 successive frames are co-added to enhance the image quality. Features of special interest in an image can also be selected manually and tracked by KLT. A point on a cone is selected manually, and the cone is tracked from frame to frame. PMID:21258443

  9. An automated and robust image processing algorithm for glaucoma diagnosis from fundus images using novel blood vessel tracking and bend point detection.

    PubMed

    M, Soorya; Issac, Ashish; Dutta, Malay Kishore

    2018-02-01

    Glaucoma is an ocular disease which can cause irreversible blindness. The disease is currently identified using specialized equipment operated by optometrists manually. The proposed work aims to provide an efficient imaging solution which can help in automating the process of Glaucoma diagnosis using computer vision techniques from digital fundus images. The proposed method segments the optic disc using a geometrical feature based strategic framework which improves the detection accuracy and makes the algorithm invariant to illumination and noise. Corner thresholding and point contour joining based novel methods are proposed to construct smooth contours of Optic Disc. Based on a clinical approach as used by ophthalmologist, the proposed algorithm tracks blood vessels inside the disc region and identifies the points at which first vessel bend from the optic disc boundary and connects them to obtain the contours of Optic Cup. The proposed method has been compared with the ground truth marked by the medical experts and the similarity parameters, used to determine the performance of the proposed method, have yield a high similarity of segmentation. The proposed method has achieved a macro-averaged f-score of 0.9485 and accuracy of 97.01% in correctly classifying fundus images. The proposed method is clinically significant and can be used for Glaucoma screening over a large population which will work in a real time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Instrument Pointing Control System for the Stellar Interferometry Mission - Planet Quest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul B.; Kang, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the high precision Instrument Pointing Control System (PCS) for the Stellar Interferometry Mission (SIM) - Planet Quest. The PCS system provides front-end pointing, compensation for spacecraft motion, and feedforward stabilization, which are needed for proper interference. Optical interferometric measurements require very precise pointing (0.03 as, 1-(sigma) radial) for maximizing the interference pattern visibility. This requirement is achieved by fine pointing control of articulating pointing mirrors with feedback from angle tracking cameras. The overall pointing system design concept is presentcd. Functional requirements and an acquisition concept are given. Guide and Science pointing control loops are discussed. Simulation analyses demonstrate the feasibility of the design.

  11. Potential benefits of dosimetric VMAT tracking verified with 3D film measurements.

    PubMed

    Crijns, Wouter; Defraene, Gilles; Van Herck, Hans; Depuydt, Tom; Haustermans, Karin; Maes, Frederik; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate three different plan adaptation strategies using 3D film-stack dose measurements of both focal boost and hypofractionated prostate VMAT treatments. The adaptation strategies (a couch shift, geometric tracking, and dosimetric tracking) were applied for three realistic intrafraction prostate motions. A focal boost (35 × 2.2 and 35 × 2.7 Gy) and a hypofractionated (5 × 7.25 Gy) prostate VMAT plan were created for a heterogeneous phantom that allows for internal prostate motion. For these plans geometric tracking and dosimetric tracking were evaluated by ionization chamber (IC) point dose measurements (zero-D) and measurements using a stack of EBT3 films (3D). The geometric tracking applied translations, rotations, and scaling of the MLC aperture in response to realistic prostate motions. The dosimetric tracking additionally corrected the monitor units to resolve variations due to difference in depth, tissue heterogeneity, and MLC-aperture. The tracking was based on the positions of four fiducial points only. The film measurements were compared to the gold standard (i.e., IC measurements) and the planned dose distribution. Additionally, the 3D measurements were converted to dose volume histograms, tumor control probability, and normal tissue complication probability parameters (DVH/TCP/NTCP) as a direct estimate of clinical relevance of the proposed tracking. Compared to the planned dose distribution, measurements without prostate motion and tracking showed already a reduced homogeneity of the dose distribution. Adding prostate motion further blurs the DVHs for all treatment approaches. The clinical practice (no tracking) delivered the dose distribution inside the PTV but off target (CTV), resulting in boost dose errors up to 10%. The geometric and dosimetric tracking corrected the dose distribution's position. Moreover, the dosimetric tracking could achieve the planned boost DVH, but not the DVH of the more homogeneously irradiated prostate. A drawback

  12. Extensive computation of albedo contrast between martian dust devil tracks and their neighboring regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statella, Thiago; Pina, Pedro; da Silva, Erivaldo Antônio

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a method to compute the albedo contrast between dust devil tracks and their surrounding regions on Mars. It is mainly based on Mathematical Morphology operators and uses all the points of the edges of the tracks to compute the values of the albedo contrast. It permits the extraction of more accurate and complete information, when compared to traditional point sampling, not only providing better statistics but also permitting the analysis of local variations along the entirety of the tracks. This measure of contrast, based on relative quantities, is much more adequate to establish comparisons at regional scales and in multi-temporal basis using imagery acquired in rather different environmental and operational conditions. Also, the substantial increase in the details extracted may permit quantifying differential depositions of dust by computing local temporal fading of the tracks with consequences on a better estimation of the thickness of the top most layer of dust and the minimum value needed to create dust devils tracks. The developed tool is tested on 110 HiRISE images depicting regions in the Aeolis, Argyre, Eridania, Noachis and Hellas quadrangles. As a complementary evaluation, we also performed a temporal analysis of the albedo in a region of Russell crater, where high seasonal dust devil activity was already observed before, comprising the years 2007-2012. The mean albedo of the Russell crater is in this case indicative of dust devil tracks presence and, therefore, can be used to quantify dust devil activity.

  13. Tracking Human Mobility Using WiFi Signals.

    PubMed

    Sapiezynski, Piotr; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Gatej, Radu; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-01-01

    We study six months of human mobility data, including WiFi and GPS traces recorded with high temporal resolution, and find that time series of WiFi scans contain a strong latent location signal. In fact, due to inherent stability and low entropy of human mobility, it is possible to assign location to WiFi access points based on a very small number of GPS samples and then use these access points as location beacons. Using just one GPS observation per day per person allows us to estimate the location of, and subsequently use, WiFi access points to account for 80% of mobility across a population. These results reveal a great opportunity for using ubiquitous WiFi routers for high-resolution outdoor positioning, but also significant privacy implications of such side-channel location tracking.

  14. Real Time 3D Facial Movement Tracking Using a Monocular Camera.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanchao; Wang, Yanming; Yue, Jiguang; Hu, Zhencheng

    2016-07-25

    The paper proposes a robust framework for 3D facial movement tracking in real time using a monocular camera. It is designed to estimate the 3D face pose and local facial animation such as eyelid movement and mouth movement. The framework firstly utilizes the Discriminative Shape Regression method to locate the facial feature points on the 2D image and fuses the 2D data with a 3D face model using Extended Kalman Filter to yield 3D facial movement information. An alternating optimizing strategy is adopted to fit to different persons automatically. Experiments show that the proposed framework could track the 3D facial movement across various poses and illumination conditions. Given the real face scale the framework could track the eyelid with an error of 1 mm and mouth with an error of 2 mm. The tracking result is reliable for expression analysis or mental state inference.

  15. 3-D rigid body tracking using vision and depth sensors.

    PubMed

    Gedik, O Serdar; Alatan, A Aydn

    2013-10-01

    In robotics and augmented reality applications, model-based 3-D tracking of rigid objects is generally required. With the help of accurate pose estimates, it is required to increase reliability and decrease jitter in total. Among many solutions of pose estimation in the literature, pure vision-based 3-D trackers require either manual initializations or offline training stages. On the other hand, trackers relying on pure depth sensors are not suitable for AR applications. An automated 3-D tracking algorithm, which is based on fusion of vision and depth sensors via extended Kalman filter, is proposed in this paper. A novel measurement-tracking scheme, which is based on estimation of optical flow using intensity and shape index map data of 3-D point cloud, increases 2-D, as well as 3-D, tracking performance significantly. The proposed method requires neither manual initialization of pose nor offline training, while enabling highly accurate 3-D tracking. The accuracy of the proposed method is tested against a number of conventional techniques, and a superior performance is clearly observed in terms of both objectively via error metrics and subjectively for the rendered scenes.

  16. Reproducibility of apatite fission-track length data and thermal history reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketcham, Richard A.; Donelick, Raymond A.; Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Zattin, Massimiliano

    2009-07-01

    The ability to derive detailed thermal history information from apatite fission-track analysis is predicated on the reliability of track length measurements. However, insufficient attention has been given to whether and how these measurements should be standardized. In conjunction with a fission-track workshop we conducted an experiment in which 11 volunteers measured ~ 50 track lengths on one or two samples. One mount contained Durango apatite with unannealed induced tracks, and one contained apatite from a crystalline rock containing spontaneous tracks with a broad length distribution caused by partial resetting. Results for both mounts showed scatter indicative of differences in measurement technique among the individual analysts. The effects of this variability on thermal history inversion were tested using the HeFTy computer program to model the spontaneous track measurements. A cooling-only scenario and a reheating scenario more consistent with the sample's geological history were posed. When a uniform initial length value from the literature was used, results among analysts were very inconsistent in both scenarios, although normalizing for track angle by projecting all lengths to a c-axis parallel crystallographic orientation improved some aspects of congruency. When the induced track measurement was used as the basis for thermal history inversion congruency among analysts, and agreement with inversions based on data previously collected, was significantly improved. Further improvement was obtained by using c-axis projection. Differences among inversions that persisted could be traced to differential sampling of long- and short-track populations among analysts. The results of this study, while demonstrating the robustness of apatite fission-track thermal history inversion, nevertheless point to the necessity for a standardized length calibration schema that accounts for analyst variation.

  17. Infrared dim and small target detecting and tracking method inspired by Human Visual System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiabin; Huang, Xinsheng; Zheng, Yongbin; Shen, Lurong; Bai, Shengjian

    2014-01-01

    Detecting and tracking dim and small target in infrared images and videos is one of the most important techniques in many computer vision applications, such as video surveillance and infrared imaging precise guidance. Recently, more and more algorithms based on Human Visual System (HVS) have been proposed to detect and track the infrared dim and small target. In general, HVS concerns at least three mechanisms including contrast mechanism, visual attention and eye movement. However, most of the existing algorithms simulate only a single one of the HVS mechanisms, resulting in many drawbacks of these algorithms. A novel method which combines the three mechanisms of HVS is proposed in this paper. First, a group of Difference of Gaussians (DOG) filters which simulate the contrast mechanism are used to filter the input image. Second, a visual attention, which is simulated by a Gaussian window, is added at a point near the target in order to further enhance the dim small target. This point is named as the attention point. Eventually, the Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) algorithm is first introduced to predict the attention point of the next frame of an image which simulates the eye movement of human being. Experimental results of infrared images with different types of backgrounds demonstrate the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method to detect and track the dim and small targets.

  18. Toward automating Hammersmith pulled-to-sit examination of infants using feature point based video object tracking.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Debi P; Majumdar, Arun K; Sural, Shamik; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Mukherjee, Suchandra; Singh, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) is a set of tests used for grading neurological development of infants on a scale of 0 to 3. These tests help in assessing neurophysiological development of babies, especially preterm infants who are born before (the fetus reaches) the gestational age of 36 weeks. Such tests are often conducted in the follow-up clinics of hospitals for grading infants with suspected disabilities. Assessment based on HINE depends on the expertise of the physicians involved in conducting the examinations. It has been noted that some of these tests, especially pulled-to-sit and lateral tilting, are difficult to assess solely based on visual observation. For example, during the pulled-to-sit examination, the examiner needs to observe the relative movement of the head with respect to torso while pulling the infant by holding wrists. The examiner may find it difficult to follow the head movement from the coronal view. Video object tracking based automatic or semi-automatic analysis can be helpful in this case. In this paper, we present a video based method to automate the analysis of pulled-to-sit examination. In this context, a dynamic programming and node pruning based efficient video object tracking algorithm has been proposed. Pulled-to-sit event detection is handled by the proposed tracking algorithm that uses a 2-D geometric model of the scene. The algorithm has been tested with normal as well as marker based videos of the examination recorded at the neuro-development clinic of the SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, India. It is found that the proposed algorithm is capable of estimating the pulled-to-sit score with sensitivity (80%-92%) and specificity (89%-96%).

  19. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2016-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  20. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2015-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well to help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  1. Anatomy of an experimental two-link flexible manipulator under end-point control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The design and experimental implementation of an end-point controller for two-link flexible manipulators are presented. The end-point controller is based on linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory and is shown to exhibit significant improvements in trajectory tracking over a conventional controller design. To understand the behavior of the manipulator structure under end-point control, a strobe sequence illustrating the link deflections during a typical slew maneuver is included.

  2. Fundamental and practical limits of planar tracking solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Grede, Alex J; Price, Jared S; Giebink, Noel C

    2016-12-26

    Planar microtracking provides an alternate paradigm for solar concentration that offers the possibility of realizing high-efficiency embedded concentrating photovoltaic systems in the form factor of standard photovoltaic panels. Here, we investigate the thermodynamic limit of planar tracking optical concentrators and establish that they can, in principal, achieve the sine limit of their orientationally-tracked counterparts provided that the receiver translates a minimum distance set by the field of view half-angle. We develop a phase space methodology to optimize practical planar tracking concentrators and apply it to the design of a two surface, catadioptric system that operates with > 90% optical efficiency over a 140° field of view at geometric gains exceeding 1000×. These results provide a reference point for subsequent developments in the field and indicate that planar microtracking can achieve the high optical concentration ratio required in commercial concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  3. Robust human detection, tracking, and recognition in crowded urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present algorithms we recently developed to support an automated security surveillance system for very crowded urban areas. In our approach for human detection, the color features are obtained by taking the difference of R, G, B spectrum and converting R, G, B to HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) space. Morphological patch filtering and regional minimum and maximum segmentation on the extracted features are applied for target detection. The human tracking process approach includes: 1) Color and intensity feature matching track candidate selection; 2) Separate three parallel trackers for color, bright (above mean intensity), and dim (below mean intensity) detections, respectively; 3) Adaptive track gate size selection for reducing false tracking probability; and 4) Forward position prediction based on previous moving speed and direction for continuing tracking even when detections are missed from frame to frame. The Human target recognition is improved with a Super-Resolution Image Enhancement (SRIE) process. This process can improve target resolution by 3-5 times and can simultaneously process many targets that are tracked. Our approach can project tracks from one camera to another camera with a different perspective viewing angle to obtain additional biometric features from different perspective angles, and to continue tracking the same person from the 2nd camera even though the person moved out of the Field of View (FOV) of the 1st camera with `Tracking Relay'. Finally, the multiple cameras at different view poses have been geo-rectified to nadir view plane and geo-registered with Google- Earth (or other GIS) to obtain accurate positions (latitude, longitude, and altitude) of the tracked human for pin-point targeting and for a large area total human motion activity top-view. Preliminary tests of our algorithms indicate than high probability of detection can be achieved for both moving and stationary humans. Our algorithms can simultaneously track

  4. Cortical surface shift estimation using stereovision and optical flow motion tracking via projection image registration

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Songbai; Fan, Xiaoyao; Roberts, David W.; Hartov, Alex; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    Stereovision is an important intraoperative imaging technique that captures the exposed parenchymal surface noninvasively during open cranial surgery. Estimating cortical surface shift efficiently and accurately is critical to compensate for brain deformation in the operating room (OR). In this study, we present an automatic and robust registration technique based on optical flow (OF) motion tracking to compensate for cortical surface displacement throughout surgery. Stereo images of the cortical surface were acquired at multiple time points after dural opening to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) texture intensity-encoded cortical surfaces. A local coordinate system was established with its z-axis parallel to the average surface normal direction of the reconstructed cortical surface immediately after dural opening in order to produce two-dimensional (2D) projection images. A dense displacement field between the two projection images was determined directly from OF motion tracking without the need for feature identification or tracking. The starting and end points of the displacement vectors on the two cortical surfaces were then obtained following spatial mapping inversion to produce the full 3D displacement of the exposed cortical surface. We evaluated the technique with images obtained from digital phantoms and 18 surgical cases – 10 of which involved independent measurements of feature locations acquired with a tracked stylus for accuracy comparisons, and 8 others of which 4 involved stereo image acquisitions at three or more time points during surgery to illustrate utility throughout a procedure. Results from the digital phantom images were very accurate (0.05 pixels). In the 10 surgical cases with independently digitized point locations, the average agreement between feature coordinates derived from the cortical surface reconstructions was 1.7–2.1 mm relative to those determined with the tracked stylus probe. The agreement in feature displacement

  5. Sparse Unorganized Point Cloud Based Relative Pose Estimation for Uncooperative Space Target.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang; Chou, Wusheng; Wu, Yun; Yang, Guang; Xu, Song

    2018-03-28

    This paper proposes an autonomous algorithm to determine the relative pose between the chaser spacecraft and the uncooperative space target, which is essential in advanced space applications, e.g., on-orbit serving missions. The proposed method, named Congruent Tetrahedron Align (CTA) algorithm, uses the very sparse unorganized 3D point cloud acquired by a LIDAR sensor, and does not require any prior pose information. The core of the method is to determine the relative pose by looking for the congruent tetrahedron in scanning point cloud and model point cloud on the basis of its known model. The two-level index hash table is built for speeding up the search speed. In addition, the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is used for pose tracking after CTA. In order to evaluate the method in arbitrary initial attitude, a simulated system is presented. Specifically, the performance of the proposed method to provide the initial pose needed for the tracking algorithm is demonstrated, as well as their robustness against noise. Finally, a field experiment is conducted and the results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Dual S and Ku-band tracking feed for a TDRS reflector antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pullara, J. C.; Bales, C. W.; Kefalas, G. P.; Uyehara, M.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a trade study designed to identify a synchronous satellite antenna system suitable for receiving and transmitting data from lower orbiting satellites at both S- and K sub u-bands simultaneously as part of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. All related problems associated with maintaining a data link between two satellites with a K sub u-band half-power beamwidth of 0.4 db are considered including data link maintenance techniques, beam pointing accuracies, gimbal and servo errors, solar heating, angle tracking schemes, acquisition problems and aids, tracking accuracies versus SNR, antenna feed designs, equipment designs, weight and power budgets, and detailed candidate antenna system designs.

  7. MeV gamma-ray observation with a well-defined point spread function based on electron tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, A.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Mizumoto, T.; Mizumura, Y.; Komura, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Takemura, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Nakamasu, Y.; Matsuoka, Y.; Oda, M.; Miyamoto, S.; Sonoda, S.; Tomono, D.; Miuchi, K.; Kurosawa, S.; Sawano, T.

    2016-07-01

    The field of MeV gamma-ray astronomy has not opened up until recently owing to imaging difficulties. Compton telescopes and coded-aperture imaging cameras are used as conventional MeV gamma-ray telescopes; however their observations are obstructed by huge background, leading to uncertainty of the point spread function (PSF). Conventional MeV gamma-ray telescopes imaging utilize optimizing algorithms such as the ML-EM method, making it difficult to define the correct PSF, which is the uncertainty of a gamma-ray image on the celestial sphere. Recently, we have defined and evaluated the PSF of an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) and a conventional Compton telescope, and thereby obtained an important result: The PSF strongly depends on the precision of the recoil direction of electron (scatter plane deviation, SPD) and is not equal to the angular resolution measure (ARM). Now, we are constructing a 30 cm-cubic ETCC for a second balloon experiment, Sub-MeV gamma ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment: SMILE-II. The current ETCC has an effective area of 1 cm2 at 300 keV, a PSF of 10° at FWHM for 662 keV, and a large field of view of 3 sr. We will upgrade this ETCC to have an effective area of several cm2 and a PSF of 5° using a CF4-based gas. Using the upgraded ETCC, our observation plan for SMILE-II is to map of the electron-positron annihilation line and the 1.8 MeV line from 26Al. In this paper, we will report on the current performance of the ETCC and on our observation plan.

  8. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors--I: Track Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Nand

    1991-01-01

    Heavily ionizing charged particles produce radiation damage tracks in a wide variety of insulating materials. The experimental properties of these tracks and track recorders are described. The mechanisms by which the tracks are produced are discussed. (Author/KR)

  9. A 3D front tracking method on a CPU/GPU system

    SciTech Connect

    Bo, Wurigen; Grove, John

    2011-01-21

    We describe the method to port a sequential 3D interface tracking code to a GPU with CUDA. The interface is represented as a triangular mesh. Interface geometry properties and point propagation are performed on a GPU. Interface mesh adaptation is performed on a CPU. The convergence of the method is assessed from the test problems with given velocity fields. Performance results show overall speedups from 11 to 14 for the test problems under mesh refinement. We also briefly describe our ongoing work to couple the interface tracking method with a hydro solver.

  10. Accuracy analysis for triangulation and tracking based on time-multiplexed structured light.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Benjamin; Stüber, Patrick; Wissel, Tobias; Bruder, Ralf; Schweikard, Achim; Ernst, Floris

    2014-08-01

    The authors' research group is currently developing a new optical head tracking system for intracranial radiosurgery. This tracking system utilizes infrared laser light to measure features of the soft tissue on the patient's forehead. These features are intended to offer highly accurate registration with respect to the rigid skull structure by means of compensating for the soft tissue. In this context, the system also has to be able to quickly generate accurate reconstructions of the skin surface. For this purpose, the authors have developed a laser scanning device which uses time-multiplexed structured light to triangulate surface points. The accuracy of the authors' laser scanning device is analyzed and compared for different triangulation methods. These methods are given by the Linear-Eigen method and a nonlinear least squares method. Since Microsoft's Kinect camera represents an alternative for fast surface reconstruction, the authors' results are also compared to the triangulation accuracy of the Kinect device. Moreover, the authors' laser scanning device was used for tracking of a rigid object to determine how this process is influenced by the remaining triangulation errors. For this experiment, the scanning device was mounted to the end-effector of a robot to be able to calculate a ground truth for the tracking. The analysis of the triangulation accuracy of the authors' laser scanning device revealed a root mean square (RMS) error of 0.16 mm. In comparison, the analysis of the triangulation accuracy of the Kinect device revealed a RMS error of 0.89 mm. It turned out that the remaining triangulation errors only cause small inaccuracies for the tracking of a rigid object. Here, the tracking accuracy was given by a RMS translational error of 0.33 mm and a RMS rotational error of 0.12°. This paper shows that time-multiplexed structured light can be used to generate highly accurate reconstructions of surfaces. Furthermore, the reconstructed point sets can be

  11. Real Time 3D Facial Movement Tracking Using a Monocular Camera

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanchao; Wang, Yanming; Yue, Jiguang; Hu, Zhencheng

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a robust framework for 3D facial movement tracking in real time using a monocular camera. It is designed to estimate the 3D face pose and local facial animation such as eyelid movement and mouth movement. The framework firstly utilizes the Discriminative Shape Regression method to locate the facial feature points on the 2D image and fuses the 2D data with a 3D face model using Extended Kalman Filter to yield 3D facial movement information. An alternating optimizing strategy is adopted to fit to different persons automatically. Experiments show that the proposed framework could track the 3D facial movement across various poses and illumination conditions. Given the real face scale the framework could track the eyelid with an error of 1 mm and mouth with an error of 2 mm. The tracking result is reliable for expression analysis or mental state inference. PMID:27463714

  12. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  13. Technical Note: Gray tracking in medical color displays-A report of Task Group 196.

    PubMed

    Badano, Aldo; Wang, Joel; Boynton, Paul; Le Callet, Patrick; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Deroo, Danny; Flynn, Michael J; Matsui, Takashi; Penczek, John; Revie, Craig; Samei, Ehsan; Steven, Peter M; Swiderski, Stan; Van Hoey, Gert; Yamaguchi, Matsuhiro; Hasegawa, Mikio; Nagy, Balázs Vince

    2016-07-01

    The authors discuss measurement methods and instrumentation useful for the characterization of the gray tracking performance of medical color monitors for diagnostic applications. The authors define gray tracking as the variability in the chromaticity of the gray levels in a color monitor. The authors present data regarding the capability of color measurement instruments with respect to their abilities to measure a target white point corresponding to the CIE Standard Illuminant D65 at different luminance values within the grayscale palette of a medical display. The authors then discuss evidence of significant differences in performance among color measurement instruments currently available for medical physicists to perform calibrations and image quality checks for the consistent representation of color in medical displays. In addition, the authors introduce two metrics for quantifying grayscale chromaticity consistency of gray tracking. The authors' findings show that there is an order of magnitude difference in the accuracy of field and reference instruments. The gray tracking metrics quantify how close the grayscale chromaticity is to the chromaticity of the full white point (equal amounts of red, green, and blue at maximum level) or to consecutive levels (equal values for red, green, and blue), with a lower value representing an improved grayscale tracking performance. An illustrative example of how to calculate and report the gray tracking performance according to the Task Group definitions is provided. The authors' proposed methodology for characterizing the grayscale degradation in chromaticity for color monitors that can be used to establish standards and procedures aiding in the quality control testing of color displays and color measurement instrumentation.

  14. To Track or Not to Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper was written for a graduate level action research course at Muskingum University, located in New Concord, OH. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine which method of instruction best serves ALL high school students. Is it more advantageous to track ("ability group") students or not to track students…

  15. Student Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    This report explains how student tracking systems work and why they are important. It is designed for British funding bodies, further education (FE) colleges, college staff, and software developers to introduce and support systems of student tracking. Chapter 1 provides background information on tracking and the FE sector. Chapter 2 discusses the…

  16. Spacecraft Attitude Tracking and Maneuver Using Combined Magnetic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes attitude-control algorithms using the combination of magnetic actuators with reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) or other types of actuators such as thrusters. The combination of magnetic actuators with one or two RWAs aligned with different body axis expands the two-dimensional control torque to three-dimensional. The algorithms can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded attitude precisely. A design example is presented for nadir-pointing, pitch, and yaw maneuvers. The results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached and the attitude- control accuracy is comparable with RWA-based attitude control. When there are only one or two workable RWAs due to RWA failures, the attitude-control system can switch to the control algorithms for the combined magnetic actuators with the RWAs without going to the safe mode, and the control accuracy can be maintained. The attitude-control algorithms of the combined actuators are derived, which can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded values precisely. Results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached, and the attitude-control accuracy is comparable with 3-axis wheel control.

  17. Tracking Human Mobility Using WiFi Signals

    PubMed Central

    Sapiezynski, Piotr; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Gatej, Radu; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-01-01

    We study six months of human mobility data, including WiFi and GPS traces recorded with high temporal resolution, and find that time series of WiFi scans contain a strong latent location signal. In fact, due to inherent stability and low entropy of human mobility, it is possible to assign location to WiFi access points based on a very small number of GPS samples and then use these access points as location beacons. Using just one GPS observation per day per person allows us to estimate the location of, and subsequently use, WiFi access points to account for 80% of mobility across a population. These results reveal a great opportunity for using ubiquitous WiFi routers for high-resolution outdoor positioning, but also significant privacy implications of such side-channel location tracking. PMID:26132115

  18. Management of three-dimensional intrafraction motion through real-time DMLC tracking.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Amit; Venkat, Raghu; Srivastava, Vikram; Carlson, David; Povzner, Sergey; Cattell, Herb; Keall, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Tumor tracking using a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) represents a promising approach for intrafraction motion management in thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. In this work, we develop, empirically demonstrate, and characterize a novel 3D tracking algorithm for real-time, conformal, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based radiation delivery to targets moving in three dimensions. The algorithm obtains real-time information of target location from an independent position monitoring system and dynamically calculates MLC leaf positions to account for changes in target position. Initial studies were performed to evaluate the geometric accuracy of DMLC tracking of 3D target motion. In addition, dosimetric studies were performed on a clinical linac to evaluate the impact of real-time DMLC tracking for conformal, step-and-shoot (S-IMRT), dynamic (D-IMRT), and VMAT deliveries to a moving target. The efficiency of conformal and IMRT delivery in the presence of tracking was determined. Results show that submillimeter geometric accuracy in all three dimensions is achievable with DMLC tracking. Significant dosimetric improvements were observed in the presence of tracking for conformal and IMRT deliveries to moving targets. A gamma index evaluation with a 3%-3 mm criterion showed that deliveries without DMLC tracking exhibit between 1.7 (S-IMRT) and 4.8 (D-IMRT) times more dose points that fail the evaluation compared to corresponding deliveries with tracking. The efficiency of IMRT delivery, as measured in the lab, was observed to be significantly lower in case of tracking target motion perpendicular to MLC leaf travel compared to motion parallel to leaf travel. Nevertheless, these early results indicate that accurate, real-time DMLC tracking of 3D tumor motion is feasible and can potentially result in significant geometric and dosimetric advantages leading to more effective management of intrafraction motion.

  19. Real-time skeleton tracking for embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleca, Foti; Klement, Sascha; Martinetz, Thomas; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Touch-free gesture technology is beginning to become more popular with consumers and may have a significant future impact on interfaces for digital photography. However, almost every commercial software framework for gesture and pose detection is aimed at either desktop PCs or high-powered GPUs, making mobile implementations for gesture recognition an attractive area for research and development. In this paper we present an algorithm for hand skeleton tracking and gesture recognition that runs on an ARM-based platform (Pandaboard ES, OMAP 4460 architecture). The algorithm uses self-organizing maps to fit a given topology (skeleton) into a 3D point cloud. This is a novel way of approaching the problem of pose recognition as it does not employ complex optimization techniques or data-based learning. After an initial background segmentation step, the algorithm is ran in parallel with heuristics, which detect and correct artifacts arising from insufficient or erroneous input data. We then optimize the algorithm for the ARM platform using fixed-point computation and the NEON SIMD architecture the OMAP4460 provides. We tested the algorithm with two different depth-sensing devices (Microsoft Kinect, PMD Camboard). For both input devices we were able to accurately track the skeleton at the native framerate of the cameras.

  20. Satellite-Tracking Millimeter-Wave Reflector Antenna System For Mobile Satellite-Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Densmore, Arthur C. (Inventor); Jamnejad, Vahraz (Inventor); Woo, Kenneth E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A miniature dual-band two-way mobile satellite-tracking antenna system mounted on a movable vehicle includes a miniature parabolic reflector dish having an elliptical aperture with major and minor elliptical axes aligned horizontally and vertically, respectively, to maximize azimuthal directionality and minimize elevational directionality to an extent corresponding to expected pitch excursions of the movable ground vehicle. A feed-horn has a back end and an open front end facing the reflector dish and has vertical side walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a lesser horn angle and horizontal top and bottom walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a greater horn angle. An RF circuit couples two different signal bands between the feed-horn and the user. An antenna attitude controller maintains an antenna azimuth direction relative to the satellite by rotating it in azimuth in response to sensed yaw motions of the movable ground vehicle so as to compensate for the yaw motions to within a pointing error angle. The controller sinusoidally dithers the antenna through a small azimuth dither angle greater than the pointing error angle while sensing a signal from the satellite received at the reflector dish, and deduces the pointing angle error from dither-induced fluctuations in the received signal.

  1. Contour Tracking with a Spatio-Temporal Intensity Moment.

    PubMed

    Demi, Marcello

    2016-06-01

    Standard edge detection operators such as the Laplacian of Gaussian and the gradient of Gaussian can be used to track contours in image sequences. When using edge operators, a contour, which is determined on a frame of the sequence, is simply used as a starting contour to locate the nearest contour on the subsequent frame. However, the strategy used to look for the nearest edge points may not work when tracking contours of non isolated gray level discontinuities. In these cases, strategies derived from the optical flow equation, which look for similar gray level distributions, appear to be more appropriate since these can work with a lower frame rate than that needed for strategies based on pure edge detection operators. However, an optical flow strategy tends to propagate the localization errors through the sequence and an additional edge detection procedure is essential to compensate for such a drawback. In this paper a spatio-temporal intensity moment is proposed which integrates the two basic functions of edge detection and tracking.

  2. Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition. [deep space network and spacecraft tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition (OTDA) and its two worldwide tracking network facilities, the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network and the Deep Space Network, are described. Other topics discussed include the NASA communications network, the tracking and data relay satellite system, other OTDA tracking activities, and OTDA milestones.

  3. SU-G-BRA-05: Application of a Feature-Based Tracking Algorithm to KV X-Ray Fluoroscopic Images Toward Marker-Less Real-Time Tumor Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M; Matsuo, Y; Mukumoto, N

    Purpose: To detect target position on kV X-ray fluoroscopic images using a feature-based tracking algorithm, Accelerated-KAZE (AKAZE), for markerless real-time tumor tracking (RTTT). Methods: Twelve lung cancer patients treated with RTTT on the Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan, and Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) were enrolled in this study. Respiratory tumor movement was greater than 10 mm. Three to five fiducial markers were implanted around the lung tumor transbronchially for each patient. Before beam delivery, external infrared (IR) markers and the fiducial markers were monitored for 20 to 40 s with the IR camera every 16.7 ms and with an orthogonalmore » kV x-ray imaging subsystem every 80 or 160 ms, respectively. Target positions derived from the fiducial markers were determined on the orthogonal kV x-ray images, which were used as the ground truth in this study. Meanwhile, tracking positions were identified by AKAZE. Among a lot of feature points, AKAZE found high-quality feature points through sequential cross-check and distance-check between two consecutive images. Then, these 2D positional data were converted to the 3D positional data by a transformation matrix with a predefined calibration parameter. Root mean square error (RMSE) was calculated to evaluate the difference between 3D tracking and target positions. A total of 393 frames was analyzed. The experiment was conducted on a personal computer with 16 GB RAM, Intel Core i7-2600, 3.4 GHz processor. Results: Reproducibility of the target position during the same respiratory phase was 0.6 +/− 0.6 mm (range, 0.1–3.3 mm). Mean +/− SD of the RMSEs was 0.3 +/− 0.2 mm (range, 0.0–1.0 mm). Median computation time per frame was 179 msec (range, 154–247 msec). Conclusion: AKAZE successfully and quickly detected the target position on kV X-ray fluoroscopic images. Initial results indicate that the differences between 3D tracking and target position would be clinically acceptable.« less

  4. Webcam mouse using face and eye tracking in various illumination environments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Chao, Yi-Ping; Lin, Chung-Chih; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, due to enhancement of computer performance and popular usage of webcam devices, it has become possible to acquire users' gestures for the human-computer-interface with PC via webcam. However, the effects of illumination variation would dramatically decrease the stability and accuracy of skin-based face tracking system; especially for a notebook or portable platform. In this study we present an effective illumination recognition technique, combining K-Nearest Neighbor classifier and adaptive skin model, to realize the real-time tracking system. We have demonstrated that the accuracy of face detection based on the KNN classifier is higher than 92% in various illumination environments. In real-time implementation, the system successfully tracks user face and eyes features at 15 fps under standard notebook platforms. Although KNN classifier only initiates five environments at preliminary stage, the system permits users to define and add their favorite environments to KNN for computer access. Eventually, based on this efficient tracking algorithm, we have developed a "Webcam Mouse" system to control the PC cursor using face and eye tracking. Preliminary studies in "point and click" style PC web games also shows promising applications in consumer electronic markets in the future.

  5. A Deep-Structured Conditional Random Field Model for Object Silhouette Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Azimifar, Zohreh; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a deep-structured conditional random field (DS-CRF) model for the purpose of state-based object silhouette tracking. The proposed DS-CRF model consists of a series of state layers, where each state layer spatially characterizes the object silhouette at a particular point in time. The interactions between adjacent state layers are established by inter-layer connectivity dynamically determined based on inter-frame optical flow. By incorporate both spatial and temporal context in a dynamic fashion within such a deep-structured probabilistic graphical model, the proposed DS-CRF model allows us to develop a framework that can accurately and efficiently track object silhouettes that can change greatly over time, as well as under different situations such as occlusion and multiple targets within the scene. Experiment results using video surveillance datasets containing different scenarios such as occlusion and multiple targets showed that the proposed DS-CRF approach provides strong object silhouette tracking performance when compared to baseline methods such as mean-shift tracking, as well as state-of-the-art methods such as context tracking and boosted particle filtering. PMID:26313943

  6. The use of a micropore particle technology in the treatment of acute wounds.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E

    2017-07-02

    A clinical audit was performed to evaluate whether Acapsil micropore particle technology (MPPT) powder could improve the management of acute wounds to heal by secondary intention. Wounds, which could be characterised as sloughy, wet and probably infected, normally managed by debridement followed by negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), were included in the evaluation. The MPPT powder was applied topically to the wound surface either once daily or on alternate days, with each wound receiving a total of two to five applications. Most patients had NPWT after the MPPT powder treatment had finished to assist healing. The study included nine patients with dehisced surgical wounds and one with a category IV pressure ulcer (PU). The wounds were generally covered in slough, exudate and showing signs of local infection. The topical MPPT powder rapidly desloughed the wounds, controlled exudate levels, promoted granulation and was well tolerated. All wounds proceeded towards closure. Comparison of the present data with MPPT powder to standard treatment suggests that the speed of healing using MPPT was improved. Further examination is required to determine if this reduces dressing changes, nursing time, and financial cost.

  7. An analysis of particle track effects on solid mammalian tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and quality factor (Q) at extreme values of linear energy transfer (LET) have been determined on the basis of experiments with single-cell systems and specific tissue responses. In typical single-cell systems, each heavy particle (Ar or Fe) passes through a single cell or no cell. In experiments on animal tissues, however, each heavy particle passes through several cells, and the LET can exceed 200 keV micrometers-1 in every cell. In most laboratory animal tissue systems, however, only a small portion of the hit cells are capable of expressing the end-point being measured, such as cell killing, mutation or carcinogenesis. The following question was therefore addressed: do RBEs and Q factors derived from single-cell experiments properly account for the damage at high LET when multiple cells are hit by HZE tracks? A review is offered in which measured radiation effects and known tissue properties are combined to estimate on the one hand, the number of cells at risk, p3n, per track, where n is the number of cells per track based on tissue and organ geometry, and p3 is the probability that a cell in the track is capable of expressing the experimental end-point. On the other hand, the tissue and single-cell responses are compared by determining the ratio RBE in tissue/RBE in corresponding single cells. Experimental data from the literature indicate that tissue RBEs at very high LET (Fe and Ar ions) are higher than corresponding single-cell RBEs, especially in tissues in which p3n is high.

  8. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  9. Thermal bioaerosol cloud tracking with Bayesian classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christian W.; Dupuis, Julia R.; Schundler, Elizabeth C.; Marinelli, William J.

    2017-05-01

    The development of a wide area, bioaerosol early warning capability employing existing uncooled thermal imaging systems used for persistent perimeter surveillance is discussed. The capability exploits thermal imagers with other available data streams including meteorological data and employs a recursive Bayesian classifier to detect, track, and classify observed thermal objects with attributes consistent with a bioaerosol plume. Target detection is achieved based on similarity to a phenomenological model which predicts the scene-dependent thermal signature of bioaerosol plumes. Change detection in thermal sensor data is combined with local meteorological data to locate targets with the appropriate thermal characteristics. Target motion is tracked utilizing a Kalman filter and nearly constant velocity motion model for cloud state estimation. Track management is performed using a logic-based upkeep system, and data association is accomplished using a combinatorial optimization technique. Bioaerosol threat classification is determined using a recursive Bayesian classifier to quantify the threat probability of each tracked object. The classifier can accept additional inputs from visible imagers, acoustic sensors, and point biological sensors to improve classification confidence. This capability was successfully demonstrated for bioaerosol simulant releases during field testing at Dugway Proving Grounds. Standoff detection at a range of 700m was achieved for as little as 500g of anthrax simulant. Developmental test results will be reviewed for a range of simulant releases, and future development and transition plans for the bioaerosol early warning platform will be discussed.

  10. Estimating Aircraft Heading Based on Laserscanner Derived Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppanyi, Z.; Toth, C., K.

    2015-03-01

    Using LiDAR sensors for tracking and monitoring an operating aircraft is a new application. In this paper, we present data processing methods to estimate the heading of a taxiing aircraft using laser point clouds. During the data acquisition, a Velodyne HDL-32E laser scanner tracked a moving Cessna 172 airplane. The point clouds captured at different times were used for heading estimation. After addressing the problem and specifying the equation of motion to reconstruct the aircraft point cloud from the consecutive scans, three methods are investigated here. The first requires a reference model to estimate the relative angle from the captured data by fitting different cross-sections (horizontal profiles). In the second approach, iterative closest point (ICP) method is used between the consecutive point clouds to determine the horizontal translation of the captured aircraft body. Regarding the ICP, three different versions were compared, namely, the ordinary 3D, 3-DoF 3D and 2-DoF 3D ICP. It was found that 2-DoF 3D ICP provides the best performance. Finally, the last algorithm searches for the unknown heading and velocity parameters by minimizing the volume of the reconstructed plane. The three methods were compared using three test datatypes which are distinguished by object-sensor distance, heading and velocity. We found that the ICP algorithm fails at long distances and when the aircraft motion direction perpendicular to the scan plane, but the first and the third methods give robust and accurate results at 40m object distance and at ~12 knots for a small Cessna airplane.

  11. Active disturbance rejection controller of fine tracking system for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ning; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xinglin; Wang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Free space optical communication is one of the best approaches in future communications. Laser beam's acquisition, pointing and tracking are crucial technologies of free space optical communication. Fine tracking system is important component of APT (acquisition, pointing and tracking) system. It cooperates with the coarse pointing system in executing the APT mission. Satellite platform vibration and disturbance, which reduce received optical power, increase bit error rate and affect seriously the natural performance of laser communication. For the characteristic of satellite platform, an active disturbance rejection controller was designed to reduce the vibration and disturbance. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, the effects of vibration on the inter satellite optical communications were analyzed, and the reasons and characters of vibration of the satellite platform were summarized. The amplitude-frequency response of a filter was designed according to the power spectral density of platform vibration of SILEX (Semiconductor Inter-satellite Laser Experiment), and then the signals of platform vibration were generated by filtering white Gaussian noise using the filter. Secondly, the fast steering mirror is a key component of the fine tracking system for optical communication. The mechanical design and model analysis was made to the tip/tilt mirror driven by the piezoelectric actuator and transmitted by the flexure hinge. The transfer function of the fast steering mirror, camera, D/A data acquisition card was established, and the theory model of transfer function of this system was further obtained. Finally, an active disturbance rejection control method is developed, multiple parallel extended state observers were designed for estimation of unknown dynamics and external disturbance, and the estimated states were used for nonlinear feedback control and compensation to improve system performance. The simulation results show that the designed

  12. TrackMate: An open and extensible platform for single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Perry, Nick; Schindelin, Johannes; Hoopes, Genevieve M; Reynolds, Gregory D; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Shorte, Spencer L; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2017-02-15

    We present TrackMate, an open source Fiji plugin for the automated, semi-automated, and manual tracking of single-particles. It offers a versatile and modular solution that works out of the box for end users, through a simple and intuitive user interface. It is also easily scriptable and adaptable, operating equally well on 1D over time, 2D over time, 3D over time, or other single and multi-channel image variants. TrackMate provides several visualization and analysis tools that aid in assessing the relevance of results. The utility of TrackMate is further enhanced through its ability to be readily customized to meet specific tracking problems. TrackMate is an extensible platform where developers can easily write their own detection, particle linking, visualization or analysis algorithms within the TrackMate environment. This evolving framework provides researchers with the opportunity to quickly develop and optimize new algorithms based on existing TrackMate modules without the need of having to write de novo user interfaces, including visualization, analysis and exporting tools. The current capabilities of TrackMate are presented in the context of three different biological problems. First, we perform Caenorhabditis-elegans lineage analysis to assess how light-induced damage during imaging impairs its early development. Our TrackMate-based lineage analysis indicates the lack of a cell-specific light-sensitive mechanism. Second, we investigate the recruitment of NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) clusters in fibroblasts after stimulation by the cytokine IL-1 and show that photodamage can generate artifacts in the shape of TrackMate characterized movements that confuse motility analysis. Finally, we validate the use of TrackMate for quantitative lifetime analysis of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in plant cells. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A climatological model of North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Wotherspoon, Simon J.; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2017-10-01

    Extensive damage and loss of life can be caused by tropical cyclones (TCs) that make landfall. Modelling of TC landfall probability is beneficial to insurance/re-insurance companies, decision makers, government policy and planning, and residents in coastal areas. In this study, we develop a climatological model of tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall for North Indian Ocean (NIO) rim countries based on kernel density estimation, a generalised additive model (GAM) including an Euler integration step, and landfall detection using a country mask approach. Using a 35-year record (1979-2013) of tropical cyclone track observations from the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (part of the International Best Track Archive Climate Stewardship Version 6), the GAM is fitted to the observed cyclone track velocities as a smooth function of location in each season. The distribution of cyclone genesis points is approximated by kernel density estimation. The model simulated TCs are randomly selected from the fitted kernel (TC genesis), and the cyclone paths (TC tracks), represented by the GAM together with the application of stochastic innovations at each step, are simulated to generate a suite of NIO rim landfall statistics. Three hindcast validation methods are applied to evaluate the integrity of the model. First, leave-one-out cross validation is applied whereby the country of landfall is determined by the majority vote (considering the location by only highest percentage of landfall) from the simulated tracks. Second, the probability distribution of simulated landfall is evaluated against the observed landfall. Third, the distances between the point of observed landfall and simulated landfall are compared and quantified. Overall, the model shows very good cross-validated hindcast skill of modelled landfalling cyclones against observations in each of the NIO tropical cyclone seasons and for most NIO rim countries, with only a relatively small difference in the percentage of

  14. Starting characteristics of direct current motors powered by solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, S.; Appelbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    Direct current motors are used in photovoltaic systems. Important characteristics of electric motors are the starting to rated current and torque ratios. These ratios are dictated by the size of the solar cell array and are different for the various dc motor types. Discussed here is the calculation of the starting to rated current ratio and starting to rated torque ratio of the permanent magnet, and series and shunt excited motors when powered by solar cells for two cases: with and without a maximum-power-point-tracker (MPPT) included in the system. Comparing these two cases, one gets a torque magnification of about 3 for the permanent magnet motor and about 7 for other motor types. The calculation of the torques may assist the PV system designer to determine whether or not to include an MPPT in the system.

  15. Dust Devil Track Occurrence in Argyre Planitia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelley, P. L.; Balme, M. R.; Greeley, R.

    2002-12-01

    Martian dust devil tracks were first observed in Viking Orbiter images [Thomas et al., 1985]. While the interpretation of these features was at first controversial, it is now widely accepted that the tracks are formed by the passage of small convective vortices (dust devils). As the dust devils travel across the surface the atmosphere is loaded with fine particles creating a visible trail inferred to be removal or deposition of material [Greeley et al., 2001]. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) images of dust devil tracks in Argyre Planitia were used to asses dust devil track abundance as a function of Martian season as well as elevation using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. Argyre Planitia is a large impact basin in the southern hemisphere (55° to 33°W and 35° to 58°S), with topographic relief of 7 km with the median at -1km. We have studied the 564 Narrow Angle MOC images (taken as of summer 2002) covering the area. The images were divided into two categories: those with devil tracks and those without. The Ls (solar longitude degrees as a fraction of orbit) and elevation of all of the images with and without devil tracks were noted. The elevation was recorded at the center point of each MOC image using MOLA data. A polar plot of all of the images shows a statistically random distribution throughout the Martian year. A context map of the images shows a representative distribution over the area of the crater itself. A polar plot of dust devil track occurrence within the area observed shows a major concentration of tracks between Ls 200° and 360° (southern spring to late summer). A seasonal breakdown of devil track occurrence as a percentage of total area observed yields: fall 11.25%, winter 2.24%, spring 27.21%, and summer 46.49%. We therefore conclude that dust devils tracks are formed preferentially in summer and are destroyed, fade or are covered, over a period of a few months. The elevation of all 564 images was measured and 1

  16. Three-dimensional tracking and imaging laser scanner for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurin, Denis G.; Beraldin, J. A.; Blais, Francois; Rioux, Marc; Cournoyer, Luc

    1999-05-01

    This paper presents the development of a laser range scanner (LARS) as a three-dimensional sensor for space applications. The scanner is a versatile system capable of doing surface imaging, target ranging and tracking. It is capable of short range (0.5 m to 20 m) and long range (20 m to 10 km) sensing using triangulation and time-of-flight (TOF) methods respectively. At short range (1 m), the resolution is sub-millimeter and drops gradually with distance (2 cm at 10 m). For long range, the TOF provides a constant resolution of plus or minus 3 cm, independent of range. The LARS could complement the existing Canadian Space Vision System (CSVS) for robotic manipulation. As an active vision system, the LARS is immune to sunlight and adverse lighting; this is a major advantage over the CSVS, as outlined in this paper. The LARS could also replace existing radar systems used for rendezvous and docking. There are clear advantages of an optical system over a microwave radar in terms of size, mass, power and precision. Equipped with two high-speed galvanometers, the laser can be steered to address any point in a 30 degree X 30 degree field of view. The scanning can be continuous (raster scan, Lissajous) or direct (random). This gives the scanner the ability to register high-resolution 3D images of range and intensity (up to 4000 X 4000 pixels) and to perform point target tracking as well as object recognition and geometrical tracking. The imaging capability of the scanner using an eye-safe laser is demonstrated. An efficient fiber laser delivers 60 mW of CW or 3 (mu) J pulses at 20 kHz for TOF operation. Implementation of search and track of multiple targets is also demonstrated. For a single target, refresh rates up to 137 Hz is possible. Considerations for space qualification of the scanner are discussed. Typical space operations, such as docking, object attitude tracking, and inspections are described.

  17. Effect of ion velocity on creation of point defects halos of latent tracks in LiF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, A. E.; Schwartz, K.; Medvedev, N. A.; Trautmann, C.

    2017-09-01

    Parameters of point defects halos (F-color centers) created due to decays of self-trapped valence holes generated in nanometric vicinities of trajectories of gold ions of 275 MeV and 2187 MeV in LiF are estimated in absorption spectroscopy experiments. Such ions have approximately the same electronic stopping: 24.6 keV/nm and 22.9 keV/nm, respectively. In contrast to the usual concept of the velocity effect that a slower ion produces larger structure changes due to a higher density of the deposited energy, the opposite effect occurs for the defect halo revealing a larger radius and a larger defect concentration for an ion of the higher velocity realizing the same energy loss. Spatial spreading of generated valence holes before their self-trapping (500 fs) forms the size of the defect halos around the trajectories of the applied ions. Simulations with Monte-Carlo code TREKIS show no significant difference in the initial spatial distributions of these valence holes by the times of finishing of ionization cascades (∼10 fs after the projectile passage) within the radii of the defect halos deduced from the experiments. Using these distributions as initial conditions for spatial spreading of generated valence holes and taking into account the difference between the defect halo radii, the diffusion coefficients of these holes near the trajectories of 275 and 2187 MeV Au ions in LiF are estimated showing about six times larger value in tracks of the faster ion for irradiations at room temperatures. Presence of H-color centers changes considerably the kinetics of the created defect ensemble in the defect halo resulting in differences between the defect halo parameters in LiF crystals irradiated at 8 K vs. 300 K.

  18. Multiple-target tracking implementation in the ebCMOS camera system: the LUSIPHER prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, Quang Tuyen; Barbier, Remi; Dominjon, Agnes; Cajgfinger, Thomas; Guerin, Cyrille

    2012-06-01

    The domain of the low light imaging systems progresses very fast, thanks to detection and electronic multiplication technology evolution, such as the emCCD (electron multiplying CCD) or the ebCMOS (electron bombarded CMOS). We present an ebCMOS camera system that is able to track every 2 ms more than 2000 targets with a mean number of photons per target lower than two. The point light sources (targets) are spots generated by a microlens array (Shack-Hartmann) used in adaptive optics. The Multiple-Target-Tracking designed and implemented on a rugged workstation is described. The results and the performances of the system on the identification and tracking are presented and discussed.

  19. Fuzzy Logic Controlled Solar Module for Driving Three- Phase Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Sooi Tat, Chan; Ajisman

    2016-02-01

    Renewable energy produced by solar module gives advantages for generated three- phase induction motor in remote area. But, solar module's ou tput is uncertain and complex. Fuzzy logic controller is one of controllers that can handle non-linear system and maximum power of solar module. Fuzzy logic controller used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to control Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) for switching power electronics circuit. DC-DC boost converter used to boost up photovoltaic voltage to desired output and supply voltage source inverter which controlled by three-phase PWM generated by microcontroller. IGBT switched Voltage source inverter (VSI) produced alternating current (AC) voltage from direct current (DC) source to control speed of three-phase induction motor from boost converter output. Results showed that, the output power of solar module is optimized and controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. Besides that, the three-phase induction motor can be drive and control using VSI switching by the PWM signal generated by the fuzzy logic controller. This concluded that the non-linear system can be controlled and used in driving three-phase induction motor.

  20. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slouma, S.; Baccar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system.

  1. Robust fractional order sliding mode control of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimkhani, Sadegh

    2016-07-01

    Wind power plants have nonlinear dynamics and contain many uncertainties such as unknown nonlinear disturbances and parameter uncertainties. Thus, it is a difficult task to design a robust reliable controller for this system. This paper proposes a novel robust fractional-order sliding mode (FOSM) controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system. In order to enhance the robustness of the control system, uncertainties and disturbances are estimated using a fractional order uncertainty estimator. In the proposed method a continuous control strategy is developed to achieve the chattering free fractional order sliding-mode control, and also no knowledge of the uncertainties and disturbances or their bound is assumed. The boundedness and convergence properties of the closed-loop signals are proven using Lyapunov׳s stability theory. Simulation results in the presence of various uncertainties were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Study Between Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Wesam

    This paper reviews two renewable energy systems; wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The common debate between the two of them is to conclude which one is better, in terms of cost and efficiency. Therefore, comparative study, in terms of cost and efficiency, is attempted. Regarding total cost of both, wind and PV systems, many parameters must be taken into consideration such as availability of energy (either wind or solar), operation and maintenance, availability of costumers, political influence, and the components used in building the system. The main components and parameters that play major role in determining the overall efficiency of wind systems are the wind turbine generator (WTG), gearbox and control technologies such as power, and speed control. On the other hand, in grid-connected PV systems (GCPVS), converter architecture along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and inverter topologies are the issues that affects the efficiency significantly. Cost and efficiency analyses of both systems have been carried out based on the statistics available till today and would be useful in the progress of renewable energy penetration throughout the world.

  3. Xe- and U-tracks in apatite and muscovite near the etching threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauschkuhn, Bastian; Jonckheere, Raymond; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Ion irradiation of a wedge-shaped Durango apatite backed by a mica detector allows investigating ion track ranges and etching properties at different points along the tracks. Transmission profiles obtained by irradiation with 2 × 106 cm-2 11.1 MeV/amu 132Xe and 2 × 106 cm-2 11.1 MeV/amu 238U parallel to the apatite c-axis correspond to ranges calculated with SRIM (Xe: 76.3 μm; U: 81.1 μm). However, the measured profiles show much greater etchable track-length variations than the calculated longitudinal straggles. The probable cause is that the length deficit exhibits significant variation from track to track. The measured length deficit in muscovite is in agreement with most existing data. In contrast, the length deficit in apatite appears to be close to zero, which is in conflict with all earlier estimates. This probably results from the etching properties of the apatite basal face, which permit surface-assisted sub-threshold etching of track sections in the nuclear stopping regime. These sections are not accessible from the opposite direction, i.e. by etching towards the endpoint of the tracks or in the direction of the ion beam. This conclusion is supported by the fact that linear dislocations are revealed in apatite basal faces and by the observation of imperfect etch pits that are separated from the etched ion track channel by a section that appears unetched under the microscope.

  4. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  5. Sparse Unorganized Point Cloud Based Relative Pose Estimation for Uncooperative Space Target

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wusheng; Wu, Yun; Yang, Guang; Xu, Song

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an autonomous algorithm to determine the relative pose between the chaser spacecraft and the uncooperative space target, which is essential in advanced space applications, e.g., on-orbit serving missions. The proposed method, named Congruent Tetrahedron Align (CTA) algorithm, uses the very sparse unorganized 3D point cloud acquired by a LIDAR sensor, and does not require any prior pose information. The core of the method is to determine the relative pose by looking for the congruent tetrahedron in scanning point cloud and model point cloud on the basis of its known model. The two-level index hash table is built for speeding up the search speed. In addition, the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is used for pose tracking after CTA. In order to evaluate the method in arbitrary initial attitude, a simulated system is presented. Specifically, the performance of the proposed method to provide the initial pose needed for the tracking algorithm is demonstrated, as well as their robustness against noise. Finally, a field experiment is conducted and the results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:29597323

  6. Experiment Pointing Subsystems (EPS) requirements for Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nein, M. E.; Nicaise, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    The goal of the experiment pointing subsystems (EPS) is to accommodate a broad spectrum of instrument types by providing a number of stability and control functions that greatly exceed the capability of the shuttle. These functions include target acquisition, target tracking through wide gimbal ranges, stabilization, simultaneous pointing to one or more targets, instrument rastering, and on-orbit calibration. The experiments will vary widely in size, weight, geometry, and instrument types, and many have not been completely defined. This great diversity of requirements reflects the long term plans of the user community and establishes challenging performance requirements for the EPS.

  7. Tracking and Sense of Futility: The Impact of Between-School Tracking versus Within-School Tracking in Secondary Education in Flanders (Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been established since the 1960s that tracking yields negative consequences for students in lower tracks. As this research has been carried out mainly in the USA and UK, the effects of tracking have been demonstrated in systems of within-school tracking mostly. However, in many European countries--such as Belgium (Flanders)--tracking is…

  8. Eccentricity and argument of perigee control for orbits with repeat ground tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to gain an understanding into the problem of eccentricity (e) and argument of perigee (omega) control for TOPEX/Poseidon, the two cases where the highest latitude crossing time and one of the equator crossings are held constant are investigated. Variations in e and omega cause a significant effect on the satellite's ground-track repeatability. Maintaining e and omega near their frozen values will minimize this variation. Analytical expressions are found to express this relationship while keeping an arbitrary point of the ground track fixed. The initial offset of the ground track from its nominal path determines the subsequent evolution of e and omega about their frozen values. This long-term behavior is numerically determined using an earth gravitational field including the first 17 zonal harmonics. The numerical results are plotted together with the analytical constraints to see if the later values of e and omega cause unacceptable deviation in the ground track.

  9. Implementation of high precision optical and radiometric LRO tracking data in the orbit determination to supplement the baseline S-band tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, D.; Torrence, M. H.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    LRO has been in a polar lunar orbit for 7 year since it was launched in June 2009. Seven instruments are onboard LRO to perform a global and detailed geophysical, geological and geochemical mapping of the Moon, some of which have very high spatial resolution. To take full advantage of the high resolution LRO datasets from these instruments, the spacecraft orbit must be reconstructed precisely. The baseline LRO tracking was the NASA's White Sands station in New Mexico and a commercial network, the Universal Space Network (USN), providing up to 20 hours per day of almost continuous S-band radio frequency link to LRO. The USN stations produce S-band range data with a 0.4 m precision and Doppler data with a 0.8 mm/s precision. Using the S-band tracking data together with the high-resolution gravity field model from the GRAIL mission, definitive LRO orbit solutions are obtained with an accuracy of 10 m in total position and 0.5 m radially. Confirmed by the 0.50-m high-resolution NAC images from the LROC team, these orbits well represent the LRO orbit "truth". In addition to the S-band data, one-way Laser Ranging (LR) to LRO provides a unique LRO optical tracking dataset over 5 years, from June 2009 to September 2014. Ten international satellite laser ranging stations contributed over 4000 hours LR data with the 0.05 - 0.10 m normal point precision. Another set of high precision LRO tracking data is provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN), which produces radiometric tracking data more precise than the USN S-band data. In the last two years of the LRO mission, the temporal coverage of the USN data has decreased significantly. We show that LR and DSN data can be a good supplement to the baseline tracking data for the orbit reconstruction.

  10. Putting Off-Track Youths Back on Track to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Adria; Allen, Lili

    2011-01-01

    Back on Track, developed by Jobs for the Future, is a design for schools to not only re-engage off-track and out-of-school youths to graduate from high school, but also to put them on a clear, supported path to a college education. Two schools that have combined Back on Track with the early college model, in which students can earn both a high…

  11. Satellite tracking and earth dynamics research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The SAO laser site in Arequipa continued routine operations throughout the reporting period except for the months of March and April when upgrading was underway. The laser in Orroral Valley was operational through March. Together with the cooperating stations in Wettzell, Grasse, Kootwikj, San Fernando, Helwan, and Metsahove the laser stations obtained a total of 37,099 quick-look observations on 978 passes of BE-C, Starlette, and LAGEOS. The Network continued to track LAGEOS at highest priority for polar motion and Earth rotation studies, and for other geophysical investigations, including crustal dynamics, Earth and ocean tides, and the general development of precision orbit determination. The Network performed regular tracking of BE-C and Starlette for refined determinations of station coordinate and the Earth's gravity field and for studies of solid earth dynamics. Monthly statistics of the passes and points are given by station and by satellite.

  12. Tracking clinical use of personal digital assistant reference resources.

    PubMed

    Pattillo, Robin E; Brewer, Marquette; Smith, Cheryl M

    2007-01-01

    Mechanisms are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of ever-increasing technological resources for nursing student use. The authors tracked the use of personal digital assistants versus textbook resources by junior-level baccalaureate nursing students throughout 1 semester. The authors discuss the results of that activity and provide a starting point for the evaluation of the use of personal digital assistants by nursing students.

  13. Evaluation of a video-based head motion tracking system for dedicated brain PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishchenko, S.; Beylin, D.; Stepanov, P.; Stepanov, A.; Weinberg, I. N.; Schaeffer, S.; Zavarzin, V.; Shaposhnikov, D.; Smith, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional head motion during Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data acquisition can degrade PET image quality and lead to artifacts. Poor patient compliance, head tremor, and coughing are examples of movement sources. Head motion due to patient non-compliance can be an issue with the rise of amyloid brain PET in dementia patients. To preserve PET image resolution and quantitative accuracy, head motion can be tracked and corrected in the image reconstruction algorithm. While fiducial markers can be used, a contactless approach is preferable. A video-based head motion tracking system for a dedicated portable brain PET scanner was developed. Four wide-angle cameras organized in two stereo pairs are used for capturing video of the patient's head during the PET data acquisition. Facial points are automatically tracked and used to determine the six degree of freedom head pose as a function of time. The presented work evaluated the newly designed tracking system using a head phantom and a moving American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. The mean video-tracking error was 0.99±0.90 mm relative to the magnetic tracking device used as ground truth. Qualitative evaluation with the ACR phantom shows the advantage of the motion tracking application. The developed system is able to perform tracking with accuracy close to millimeter and can help to preserve resolution of brain PET images in presence of movements.

  14. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye…

  15. Triple tracks in CR-39 as the result of Pd-D Co-deposition: evidence of energetic neutrons.

    PubMed

    Mosier-Boss, Pamela A; Szpak, Stanislaw; Gordon, Frank E; Forsley, Lawrence P G

    2009-01-01

    Since the announcement by Fleischmann and Pons that the excess enthalpy generated in the negatively polarized Pd-D-D(2)O system was attributable to nuclear reactions occurring inside the Pd lattice, there have been reports of other manifestations of nuclear activities in this system. In particular, there have been reports of tritium and helium-4 production; emission of energetic particles, gamma or X-rays, and neutrons; as well as the transmutation of elements. In this communication, the results of Pd-D co-deposition experiments conducted with the cathode in close contact with CR-39, a solid-state nuclear etch detector, are reported. Among the solitary tracks due to individual energetic particles, triple tracks are observed. Microscopic examination of the bottom of the triple track pit shows that the three lobes of the track are splitting apart from a center point. The presence of three alpha-particle tracks outgoing from a single point is diagnostic of the (12)C(n,n')3alpha carbon breakup reaction and suggests that DT reactions that produce > or = 9.6 MeV neutrons are occurring inside the Pd lattice. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of energetic (> or = 9.6 MeV) neutrons in the Pd-D system.

  16. A satellite-tracking millimeter-wave reflector antenna system for mobile satellite-tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Densmore, Arthur C. (Inventor); Jamnejad, Vahraz (Inventor); Woo, Kenneth E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual-band two-way mobile satellite tracking antenna system mounted on a movable ground vehicle includes a miniature parabolic reflector dish having an elliptical aperture with major and minor elliptical axes aligned horizontally and vertically, respectively, to maximize azimuthal directionality and minimize elevational directionality to an extent corresponding to expected pitch excursions of the movable ground vehicle. A feed-horn has a back end and an open front end facing the reflector dish and has vertical side walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a lesser horn angle and horizontal top and bottom walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a greater horn angle. An RF circuit couples two different signal bands between the feed-horn and the user. An antenna attitude controller maintains an antenna azimuth direction relative to the satellite by rotating it in azimuth in response to sensed yaw motions of the movable ground vehicle so as to compensate for the yaw motions to within a pointing error angle. The controller sinusoidally dithers the antenna through a small azimuth dither angle greater than the pointing error angle while sensing a signal from the satellite received at the reflector dish, and deduces the pointing angle error from dither-induced fluctuations in the received signal.

  17. Tracking marine mammals using passive acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosal, Eva-Marie

    2007-12-01

    It is difficult to study the behavior and physiology of marine mammals or to understand and mitigate human impact on them because much of their lives are spent underwater. Since sound propagates for long distances in the ocean and since many cetaceans are vocal, passive acoustics is a valuable tool for studying and monitoring their behavior. After a brief introduction to and review of passive acoustic tracking methods, this dissertation develops and applies two new methods. Both methods use widely-spaced (tens of kilometers) bottom-mounted hydrophone arrays, as well as propagation models that account for depth-dependent sound speed profiles. The first passive acoustic tracking method relies on arrival times of direct and surface-reflected paths. It is used to track a sperm whale using 5 at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) and gives position estimates that are accurate to within 10 meters. With such accuracy, the whale's pitch and yaw are estimated by assuming that its main axis (which points from the tail to the rostrum) is parallel to its velocity. Roll is found by fitting the details of the pulses within each sperm whale click to the so-called bent horn model of sperm whale sound production. Finally, given the position and orientation of the whale, its beam pattern is reconstructed and found to be highly directional with an intense forward directed component. Pair-wise spectrogram (PWS) processing is the second passive acoustic tracking method developed in this dissertation. Although it is computationally more intensive, PWS has several advantages over arrival-time tracking methods, especially in shallow water environments, for long duration calls, and for multiple-animal datasets, as is the case for humpback whales on Hawaiian breeding grounds. Results of simulations with realistic noise conditions and environmental mismatch are given and compared to other passive localization techniques. When applied to the AUTEC sperm whale dataset, PWS

  18. Extrapolating target tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, James R.

    2012-05-01

    Steady-state performance of a tracking filter is traditionally evaluated immediately after a track update. However, there is commonly a further delay (e.g., processing and communications latency) before the tracks can actually be used. We analyze the accuracy of extrapolated target tracks for four tracking filters: Kalman filter with the Singer maneuver model and worst-case correlation time, with piecewise constant white acceleration, and with continuous white acceleration, and the reduced state filter proposed by Mookerjee and Reifler.1, 2 Performance evaluation of a tracking filter is significantly simplified by appropriate normalization. For the Kalman filter with the Singer maneuver model, the steady-state RMS error immediately after an update depends on only two dimensionless parameters.3 By assuming a worst case value of target acceleration correlation time, we reduce this to a single parameter without significantly changing the filter performance (within a few percent for air tracking).4 With this simplification, we find for all four filters that the RMS errors for the extrapolated state are functions of only two dimensionless parameters. We provide simple analytic approximations in each case.

  19. Ionospheric range-rate effects in satellite-to-satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipofsky, J. R.; Bent, R. B.; Llewellyn, S. K.; Schmid, P. E.

    1977-01-01

    Investigation of ionospheric range and range-rate corrections in satellite-to-satellite tracking were investigated. Major problems were cited and the magnitude of errors that have to be considered for communications between satellites and related experiments was defined. The results point to the need of using a sophisticated modeling approach incorporating daily solar data, and where possible actual ionospheric measurements as update information, as a simple median model cannot possibly account for the complex interaction of the many variables. The findings provide a basis from which the residual errors can be estimated after ionospheric modeling is incorporated in the reduction. Simulations were performed for satellites at various heights: Apollo, Geos, and Nimbus tracked by ATS-6; and in two different geometric configurations: coplanar and perpendicular orbits.

  20. Developing a stability assessment method for power electronics-based microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Peter M.

    Modern microgrids with microsources and energy storage are dependent on power electronics for control and regulation. Under certain circumstances power electronics can be destabilizing to the system due to an effect called negative incremental impedance. A careful review of the theory and literature on the subject is presented. This includes stability criteria for both AC and DC systems, as well as a discussion on the limitations posed by the analysis. A method to integrate stability assessment with higher-level microgrid architectural design is proposed. Crucial to this is impedance characterization of individual components, which was accomplished through simulation. DC and AC impedance measurement blocks were created in Matlab simulink to automate the process. A detailed switching-level model of a DC microgrid was implemented in simulink, including wind turbine microsource, battery storage, and three phase inverter. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) was included to maximize the efficiency of the turbine and was implemented through three rectifier alternatives and control schemes. The stability characteristics of each was compared in the final analysis. Impedance data was collected individually from the components and used to assess stability in the system as a whole. The results included the assessment of stability, margin, and unstable operating points to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  1. Foliage penetration by using 4-D point cloud data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez Rodríguez, Javier; Sánchez-Reyes, Pedro J.; Cruz-Rivera, Sol M.

    2012-06-01

    Real-time awareness and rapid target detection are critical for the success of military missions. New technologies capable of detecting targets concealed in forest areas are needed in order to track and identify possible threats. Currently, LAser Detection And Ranging (LADAR) systems are capable of detecting obscured targets; however, tracking capabilities are severely limited. Now, a new LADAR-derived technology is under development to generate 4-D datasets (3-D video in a point cloud format). As such, there is a new need for algorithms that are able to process data in real time. We propose an algorithm capable of removing vegetation and other objects that may obfuscate concealed targets in a real 3-D environment. The algorithm is based on wavelets and can be used as a pre-processing step in a target recognition algorithm. Applications of the algorithm in a real-time 3-D system could help make pilots aware of high risk hidden targets such as tanks and weapons, among others. We will be using a 4-D simulated point cloud data to demonstrate the capabilities of our algorithm.

  2. Solid state laser communications in space (SOLACOS) position, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) subsystem implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemmig, Joerg; Pribil, Klaus

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents the concept and implementation aspects of the Pointing, Acquisition and Tracking Subsystem (PAT) which is developed in the frame of the SOLACOS (Solid State Laser Communications in Space) program.

  3. Effectiveness of an automatic tracking software in underwater motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Fabrício A; Sawacha, Zimi; Di Michele, Rocco; Cortesi, Matteo; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Tracking of markers placed on anatomical landmarks is a common practice in sports science to perform the kinematic analysis that interests both athletes and coaches. Although different software programs have been developed to automatically track markers and/or features, none of them was specifically designed to analyze underwater motion. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a software developed for automatic tracking of underwater movements (DVP), based on the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi feature tracker. Twenty-one video recordings of different aquatic exercises (n = 2940 markers' positions) were manually tracked to determine the markers' center coordinates. Then, the videos were automatically tracked using DVP and a commercially available software (COM). Since tracking techniques may produce false targets, an operator was instructed to stop the automatic procedure and to correct the position of the cursor when the distance between the calculated marker's coordinate and the reference one was higher than 4 pixels. The proportion of manual interventions required by the software was used as a measure of the degree of automation. Overall, manual interventions were 10.4% lower for DVP (7.4%) than for COM (17.8%). Moreover, when examining the different exercise modes separately, the percentage of manual interventions was 5.6% to 29.3% lower for DVP than for COM. Similar results were observed when analyzing the type of marker rather than the type of exercise, with 9.9% less manual interventions for DVP than for COM. In conclusion, based on these results, the developed automatic tracking software presented can be used as a valid and useful tool for underwater motion analysis. Key PointsThe availability of effective software for automatic tracking would represent a significant advance for the practical use of kinematic analysis in swimming and other aquatic sports.An important feature of automatic tracking software is to require limited human interventions and

  4. Deployment Design of Wireless Sensor Network for Simple Multi-Point Surveillance of a Moving Target

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Ueda, Hirofumi; Tamura, Hitomi; Kawahara, Kenji; Oie, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of tracking a moving target in a wireless sensor network (WSN), in which the capability of each sensor is relatively limited, to construct large-scale WSNs at a reasonable cost. We first propose two simple multi-point surveillance schemes for a moving target in a WSN and demonstrate that one of the schemes can achieve high tracking probability with low power consumption. In addition, we examine the relationship between tracking probability and sensor density through simulations, and then derive an approximate expression representing the relationship. As the results, we present guidelines for sensor density, tracking probability, and the number of monitoring sensors that satisfy a variety of application demands. PMID:22412326

  5. Can we track holes?

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Todd S.; Kuzmova, Yoana

    2011-01-01

    The evidence is mixed as to whether the visual system treats objects and holes differently. We used a multiple object tracking task to test the hypothesis that figural objects are easier to track than holes. Observers tracked four of eight items (holes or objects). We used an adaptive algorithm to estimate the speed allowing 75% tracking accuracy. In Experiments 1–5, the distinction between holes and figures was accomplished by pictorial cues, while red-cyan anaglyphs were used to provide the illusion of depth in Experiment 6. We variously used Gaussian pixel noise, photographic scenes, or synthetic textures as backgrounds. Tracking was more difficult when a complex background was visible, as opposed to a blank background. Tracking was easier when disks carried fixed, unique markings. When these factors were controlled for, tracking holes was no more difficult than tracking figures, suggesting that they are equivalent stimuli for tracking purposes. PMID:21334361

  6. Design and performance of the SLD vertex detector: a 307 Mpixel tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Arodzero, A.; Baltay, C.; Brau, J. E.; Breidenbach, M.; Burrows, P. N.; Chou, A. S.; Crawford, G.; Damerell, C. J. S.; Dervan, P. J.; Dong, D. N.; Emmet, W.; English, R. L.; Etzion, E.; Foss, M.; Frey, R.; Haller, G.; Hasuko, K.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Hoeflich, J.; Huffer, M. E.; Jackson, D. J.; Jaros, J. A.; Kelsey, J.; Lee, I.; Lia, V.; Lintern, A. L.; Liu, M. X.; Manly, S. L.; Masuda, H.; McKemey, A. K.; Moore, T. B.; Nichols, A.; Nagamine, T.; Oishi, N.; Osborne, L. S.; Russell, J. J.; Ross, D.; Serbo, V. V.; Sinev, N. B.; Sinnott, J.; Skarpaas, K. Viii; Smy, M. B.; Snyder, J. A.; Strauss, M. G.; Dong, S.; Suekane, F.; Taylor, F. E.; Trandafir, A. I.; Usher, T.; Verdier, R.; Watts, S. J.; Weiss, E. R.; Yashima, J.; Yuta, H.; Zapalac, G.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, and initial operation of SLD's upgraded vertex detector which comprises 96 two-dimensional charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with a total of 307 Mpixel. Each pixel functions as an independent particle detecting element, providing space point measurements of charged particle tracks with a typical precision of 4 μm in each co-ordinate. The CCDs are arranged in three concentric cylinders just outside the beam-pipe which surrounds the e +e - collision point of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The detector is a powerful tool for distinguishing displaced vertex tracks, produced by decay in flight of heavy flavour hadrons or tau leptons, from tracks produced at the primary event vertex. The requirements for this detector include a very low mass structure (to minimize multiple scattering) both for mechanical support and to provide signal paths for the CCDs; operation at low temperature with a high degree of mechanical stability; and high speed CCD readout, signal processing, and data sparsification. The lessons learned in achieving these goals should be useful for the construction of large arrays of CCDs or active pixel devices in the future in a number of areas of science and technology.

  7. Tissue feature-based intra-fractional motion tracking for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yaoqin; Xing, Lei; Gu, Jia; Liu, Wu

    2013-06-01

    Real-time knowledge of tumor position during radiation therapy is essential to overcome the adverse effect of intra-fractional organ motion. The goal of this work is to develop a tumor tracking strategy by effectively utilizing the inherent image features of stereoscopic x-ray images acquired during dose delivery. In stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation delivery, two orthogonal x-ray images are acquired either simultaneously or sequentially. The essence of markerless tumor tracking is the reliable identification of inherent points with distinct tissue features on each projection image and their association between two images. The identification of the feature points on a planar x-ray image is realized by searching for points with high intensity gradient. The feature points are associated by using the scale invariance features transform descriptor. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by using images of a motion phantom and four archived clinical cases acquired using either a CyberKnife equipped with a stereoscopic x-ray imaging system, or a LINAC equipped with an onboard kV imager and an electronic portal imaging device. In the phantom study, the results obtained using the proposed method agree with the measurements to within 2 mm in all three directions. In the clinical study, the mean error is 0.48 ± 0.46 mm for four patient data with 144 sequential images. In this work, a tissue feature-based tracking method for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation therapy is developed. The technique avoids the invasive procedure of fiducial implantation and may greatly facilitate the clinical workflow.

  8. The pixel tracking telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Kwan, Simon; Lei, CM; Menasce, Dario; ...

    2016-03-01

    An all silicon pixel telescope has been assembled and used at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) since 2009 to provide precise tracking information for different test beam experiments with a wide range of Detectors Under Test (DUTs) requiring high resolution measurement of the track impact point. The telescope is based on CMS pixel modules left over from the CMS forward pixel production. Eight planes are arranged to achieve a resolution of less than 8 μm on the 120 GeV proton beam transverse coordinate at the DUT position. In order to achieve such resolution with 100 × 150 μm 2more » pixel cells, the planes were tilted to 25 degrees to maximize charge sharing between pixels. Crucial for obtaining this performance is the alignment software, called Monicelli, specifically designed and optimized for this system. This paper will describe the telescope hardware, the data acquisition system and the alignment software constituting this particle tracking system for test beam users.« less

  9. Decontaminate feature for tracking: adaptive tracking via evolutionary feature subset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiaoyuan; Wang, Yuru; Yin, Minghao; Ren, Jinchang; Li, Ruizhi

    2017-11-01

    Although various visual tracking algorithms have been proposed in the last 2-3 decades, it remains a challenging problem for effective tracking with fast motion, deformation, occlusion, etc. Under complex tracking conditions, most tracking models are not discriminative and adaptive enough. When the combined feature vectors are inputted to the visual models, this may lead to redundancy causing low efficiency and ambiguity causing poor performance. An effective tracking algorithm is proposed to decontaminate features for each video sequence adaptively, where the visual modeling is treated as an optimization problem from the perspective of evolution. Every feature vector is compared to a biological individual and then decontaminated via classical evolutionary algorithms. With the optimized subsets of features, the "curse of dimensionality" has been avoided while the accuracy of the visual model has been improved. The proposed algorithm has been tested on several publicly available datasets with various tracking challenges and benchmarked with a number of state-of-the-art approaches. The comprehensive experiments have demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed methodology.

  10. The role of vision in odor-plume tracking by walking and flying insects.

    PubMed

    Willis, Mark A; Avondet, Jennifer L; Zheng, Elizabeth

    2011-12-15

    The walking paths of male cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, tracking point-source plumes of female pheromone often appear similar in structure to those observed from flying male moths. Flying moths use visual-flow-field feedback of their movements to control steering and speed over the ground and to detect the wind speed and direction while tracking plumes of odors. Walking insects are also known to use flow field cues to steer their trajectories. Can the upwind steering we observe in plume-tracking walking male cockroaches be explained by visual-flow-field feedback, as in flying moths? To answer this question, we experimentally occluded the compound eyes and ocelli of virgin P. americana males, separately and in combination, and challenged them with different wind and odor environments in our laboratory wind tunnel. They were observed responding to: (1) still air and no odor, (2) wind and no odor, (3) a wind-borne point-source pheromone plume and (4) a wide pheromone plume in wind. If walking cockroaches require visual cues to control their steering with respect to their environment, we would expect their tracks to be less directed and more variable if they cannot see. Instead, we found few statistically significant differences among behaviors exhibited by intact control cockroaches or those with their eyes occluded, under any of our environmental conditions. Working towards our goal of a comprehensive understanding of chemo-orientation in insects, we then challenged flying and walking male moths to track pheromone plumes with and without visual feedback. Neither walking nor flying moths performed as well as walking cockroaches when there was no visual information available.

  11. The role of vision in odor-plume tracking by walking and flying insects

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Mark A.; Avondet, Jennifer L.; Zheng, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The walking paths of male cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, tracking point-source plumes of female pheromone often appear similar in structure to those observed from flying male moths. Flying moths use visual-flow-field feedback of their movements to control steering and speed over the ground and to detect the wind speed and direction while tracking plumes of odors. Walking insects are also known to use flow field cues to steer their trajectories. Can the upwind steering we observe in plume-tracking walking male cockroaches be explained by visual-flow-field feedback, as in flying moths? To answer this question, we experimentally occluded the compound eyes and ocelli of virgin P. americana males, separately and in combination, and challenged them with different wind and odor environments in our laboratory wind tunnel. They were observed responding to: (1) still air and no odor, (2) wind and no odor, (3) a wind-borne point-source pheromone plume and (4) a wide pheromone plume in wind. If walking cockroaches require visual cues to control their steering with respect to their environment, we would expect their tracks to be less directed and more variable if they cannot see. Instead, we found few statistically significant differences among behaviors exhibited by intact control cockroaches or those with their eyes occluded, under any of our environmental conditions. Working towards our goal of a comprehensive understanding of chemo-orientation in insects, we then challenged flying and walking male moths to track pheromone plumes with and without visual feedback. Neither walking nor flying moths performed as well as walking cockroaches when there was no visual information available. PMID:22116754

  12. Design of a tracking device for on-line dose monitoring in hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Muraro, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Rucinski, A.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Toppi, M.; Traini, G.; Voena, C.

    2017-02-01

    Hadrontherapy is a technique for cancer treatment that exploits ion beams (mostly protons and carbons). A critical issue is the accuracy that is achievable when monitoring the dose released by the beam to the tumor and to the surrounding tissues. We present the design of a tracking device, developed in the framework of the INSIDE project [1], capable of monitoring in real time the longitudinal profile of the dose delivered in the patient. This is possible by detecting the secondary particles produced by the interaction of the beam in the tissues. The position of the Bragg peak can be correlated to the charged particles emission point distribution measurement. The tracking device will be able to provide a fast response on the dose pattern by tracking the secondary charged fragments. The tracks are detected using 6 planes of scintillating fibers, providing the 3D coordinates of the track intersection with each plane. The fibers planes are followed by a plastic scintillator and by a small calorimeter built with a pixelated Lutetium Fine Silicate (LFS) crystal. A complete detector simulation, followed by the event reconstruction, has been performed to determine the achievable monitoring spatial resolution.

  13. Mobile gaze tracking system for outdoor walking behavioral studies

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Matteo; Pundlik, Shrinivas; Bowers, Alex R.; Peli, Eli; Luo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Most gaze tracking techniques estimate gaze points on screens, on scene images, or in confined spaces. Tracking of gaze in open-world coordinates, especially in walking situations, has rarely been addressed. We use a head-mounted eye tracker combined with two inertial measurement units (IMU) to track gaze orientation relative to the heading direction in outdoor walking. Head movements relative to the body are measured by the difference in output between the IMUs on the head and body trunk. The use of the IMU pair reduces the impact of environmental interference on each sensor. The system was tested in busy urban areas and allowed drift compensation for long (up to 18 min) gaze recording. Comparison with ground truth revealed an average error of 3.3° while walking straight segments. The range of gaze scanning in walking is frequently larger than the estimation error by about one order of magnitude. Our proposed method was also tested with real cases of natural walking and it was found to be suitable for the evaluation of gaze behaviors in outdoor environments. PMID:26894511

  14. Tracking fuzzy borders using geodesic curves with application to liver segmentation on planning CT

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Yading, E-mail: yading.yuan@mssm.edu; Chao, Ming; Sheu, Ren-Dih

    Purpose: This work aims to develop a robust and efficient method to track the fuzzy borders between liver and the abutted organs where automatic liver segmentation usually suffers, and to investigate its applications in automatic liver segmentation on noncontrast-enhanced planning computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: In order to track the fuzzy liver–chestwall and liver–heart borders where oversegmentation is often found, a starting point and an ending point were first identified on the coronal view images; the fuzzy border was then determined as a geodesic curve constructed by minimizing the gradient-weighted path length between these two points near the fuzzy border.more » The minimization of path length was numerically solved by fast-marching method. The resultant fuzzy borders were incorporated into the authors’ automatic segmentation scheme, in which the liver was initially estimated by a patient-specific adaptive thresholding and then refined by a geodesic active contour model. By using planning CT images of 15 liver patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy, the liver contours extracted by the proposed computerized scheme were compared with those manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. Results: The proposed automatic liver segmentation method yielded an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.930 ± 0.015, whereas it was 0.912 ± 0.020 if the fuzzy border tracking was not used. The application of fuzzy border tracking was found to significantly improve the segmentation performance. The mean liver volume obtained by the proposed method was 1727 cm{sup 3}, whereas it was 1719 cm{sup 3} for manual-outlined volumes. The computer-generated liver volumes achieved excellent agreement with manual-outlined volumes with correlation coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions: The proposed method was shown to provide accurate segmentation for liver in the planning CT images where contrast agent is not applied. The authors’ results also

  15. Improving z-tracking accuracy in the two-photon single-particle tracking microscope.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Liu, Y-L; Perillo, E P; Jiang, N; Dunn, A K; Yeh, H-C

    2015-10-12

    Here, we present a method that can improve the z-tracking accuracy of the recently invented TSUNAMI (Tracking of Single particles Using Nonlinear And Multiplexed Illumination) microscope. This method utilizes a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) to determine the particle's 3D position that maximizes the likelihood of the observed time-correlated photon count distribution. Our Monte Carlo simulations show that the MLE-based tracking scheme can improve the z-tracking accuracy of TSUNAMI microscope by 1.7 fold. In addition, MLE is also found to reduce the temporal correlation of the z-tracking error. Taking advantage of the smaller and less temporally correlated z-tracking error, we have precisely recovered the hybridization-melting kinetics of a DNA model system from thousands of short single-particle trajectories in silico . Our method can be generally applied to other 3D single-particle tracking techniques.

  16. Track analysis of laser-illuminated etched track detectors using an opto-digital imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghan, Moses J.; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K.; Oppon, Osborne C.

    2007-11-01

    An opto-digital imaging system for counting and analysing tracks on a LR-115 detector is described. One batch of LR-115 track detectors was irradiated with Am-241 for a determined period and distance for linearity test and another batch was exposed to radon gas. The laser-illuminated etched track detector area was imaged, digitized and analysed by the system. The tracks that were counted on the opto-digital system with the aid of media cybernetics software as well as spark gap counter showed comparable track density results ranging between 1500 and 2750 tracks cm-2 and 65 tracks cm-2 in the two different batch detector samples with 0.5% and 1% track counts, respectively. Track sizes of the incident alpha particles from the radon gas on the LR-115 detector demonstrating different track energies are statistically and graphically represented. The opto-digital imaging system counts and measures other track parameters at an average process time of 3-5 s.

  17. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, Burrell E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxiliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  18. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, B.E.

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxilliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  19. Neural network tracking and extension of positive tracking periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Moreels, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Feature detectors have been considered for the role of supplying additional information to a neural network tracker. The feature detector focuses on areas of the image with significant information. Basically, if a picture says a thousand words, the feature detectors are looking for the key phrases (keypoints). These keypoints are rotationally invariant and may be matched across frames. Application of these advanced feature detectors to the neural network tracking system at JPL has promising potential. As part of an ongoing program, an advanced feature detector was tested for augmentation of a neural network based tracker. The advance feature detector extended tracking periods in test sequences including aircraft tracking, rover tracking, and simulated Martian landing. Future directions of research are also discussed.

  20. Neural network tracking and extension of positive tracking periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Moreels, Pierre

    2004-04-01

    Feature detectors have been considered for the role of supplying additional information to a neural network tracker. The feature detector focuses on areas of the image with significant information. Basically, if a picture says a thousand words, the feature detectors are looking for the key phrases (keypoints). These keypoints are rotationally invariant and may be matched across frames. Application of these advanced feature detectors to the neural network tracking system at JPL has promising potential. As part of an ongoing program, an advanced feature detector was tested for augmentation of a neural network based tracker. The advance feature detector extended tracking periods in test sequences including aircraft tracking, rover tracking, and simulated Martian landing. Future directions of research are also discussed.

  1. Effects of track and threat information on judgments of hurricane strike probability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao-Che; Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S; Samuelson, Charles D

    2014-06-01

    Although evacuation is one of the best strategies for protecting citizens from hurricane threat, the ways that local elected officials use hurricane data in deciding whether to issue hurricane evacuation orders is not well understood. To begin to address this problem, we examined the effects of hurricane track and intensity information in a laboratory setting where participants judged the probability that hypothetical hurricanes with a constant bearing (i.e., straight line forecast track) would make landfall in each of eight 45 degree sectors around the Gulf of Mexico. The results from 162 participants in a student sample showed that the judged strike probability distributions over the eight sectors within each scenario were, unsurprisingly, unimodal and centered on the sector toward which the forecast track pointed. More significantly, although strike probability judgments for the sector in the direction of the forecast track were generally higher than the corresponding judgments for the other sectors, the latter were not zero. Most significantly, there were no appreciable differences in the patterns of strike probability judgments for hurricane tracks represented by a forecast track only, an uncertainty cone only, or forecast track with an uncertainty cone-a result consistent with a recent survey of coastal residents threatened by Hurricane Charley. The study results suggest that people are able to correctly process basic information about hurricane tracks but they do make some errors. More research is needed to understand the sources of these errors and to identify better methods of displaying uncertainty about hurricane parameters. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Improving z-tracking accuracy in the two-photon single-particle tracking microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Liu, Y.-L.; Perillo, E. P.

    Here, we present a method that can improve the z-tracking accuracy of the recently invented TSUNAMI (Tracking of Single particles Using Nonlinear And Multiplexed Illumination) microscope. This method utilizes a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) to determine the particle's 3D position that maximizes the likelihood of the observed time-correlated photon count distribution. Our Monte Carlo simulations show that the MLE-based tracking scheme can improve the z-tracking accuracy of TSUNAMI microscope by 1.7 fold. In addition, MLE is also found to reduce the temporal correlation of the z-tracking error. Taking advantage of the smaller and less temporally correlated z-tracking error, we havemore » precisely recovered the hybridization-melting kinetics of a DNA model system from thousands of short single-particle trajectories in silico. Our method can be generally applied to other 3D single-particle tracking techniques.« less

  3. Track finding in ATLAS using GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, J.; Schmitt, C.

    2012-12-01

    The reconstruction and simulation of collision events is a major task in modern HEP experiments involving several ten thousands of standard CPUs. On the other hand the graphics processors (GPUs) have become much more powerful and are by far outperforming the standard CPUs in terms of floating point operations due to their massive parallel approach. The usage of these GPUs could therefore significantly reduce the overall reconstruction time per event or allow for the usage of more sophisticated algorithms. In this paper the track finding in the ATLAS experiment will be used as an example on how the GPUs can be used in this context: the implementation on the GPU requires a change in the algorithmic flow to allow the code to work in the rather limited environment on the GPU in terms of memory, cache, and transfer speed from and to the GPU and to make use of the massive parallel computation. Both, the specific implementation of parts of the ATLAS track reconstruction chain and the performance improvements obtained will be discussed.

  4. Monte Carlo Evaluation of a New Track-Finding Method for the VENUS Muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yuzo; Hatanaka, Makoto; Koseki, Tadashi; Mori, Shigeki; Shirakata, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kazumichi

    1989-10-01

    A new method of finding a track is devised for the VENUS muon detector composed of eight-cell drift-tube modules, each cell having a rectangular cross section of 5× 7 cm2. The new method, in which fourth-order equations are solved by the Ferarri-Cardano method, is especially powerful for a track having a large incident angle with respect to the line normal to the anode-wire plane of a drift tube, compared to the presently used method in which a track is determined by the intersecting points of an equi-drift-distance circle and the anode-wire plane. Cosmic-ray test data for the forward-backward part muon detector support these simulation results.

  5. Shuttle communication and tracking systems signal design and interface compatibility analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Various options for the Dedicated Payload Communication Link (DPCL) were evaluated. Specific subjects addressed include: payload to DPCL power transfer in the proximity of the payload, DPCL antenna pointing considerations, and DPCL transceiver implementations which can be mounted on the deployed antenna boom. Additional analysis of the Space Telescope performance was conducted. The feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for attitude determination and control for large spacecraft was examined. The objective of the Shuttle Orbiter Radar Test and Evaluation (SORTE) program was to quantify the Ku-band radar tracking accuracy using White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) radar and optical tracking equipment, with helicopter and balloon targets.

  6. Options for tracking GFP-Labeled transplanted myoblasts using in vivo fluorescence imaging: implications for tracking stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong; Wang, Yaming; Li, Yanan; Liu, Qiang; Zeng, Qing; Xu, Xiaoyin

    2014-06-12

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a useful biomarker, widely used in biomedical research to track stem cells after transplantation and/or to assess therapeutic transgene expression. However, both GFP and therapeutic gene products themselves may be immunogenic to the recipient. The main aim of this study was to use animal models to evaluate potential impact of GFP on the cell engraftment and to optimize tracking strategies prior to transplantation. By using a fluorescent imaging (FLI) system, we investigated the dynamic cell behavior of GFP-transduced myoblasts in tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of immunocompetent mdx mice and immuno-compromised nude mice over a period of three months. The results suggested an apparent underlying host immunorejection in the mdx mice. Dystrophin immunostaining showed that the engraftment of wild type myoblasts was much more effective than that of the GFP-labeled counterparts in the mdx mice, further confirming an antigen role of GFP in this process. We tracked the GFP-transduced myoblasts in C57BL/6 mice and found GFP to be minimally immunogenic in these animals, as indicated by the GFP signal maintaining a much stronger level than that found in mdx and BALB/c mice at parallel time points. We also compared the in vivo cell behavior differences between myoblasts from virally GFP-transduced and GFP transgenic mice. The latter displayed much better engraftment, as determined both biomaging and histological observations. Our results not only demonstrated the immunogenicity of GFP in immunocompetent mice, but determined the optimized conditions for GFP-based in vivo stem cells tracking, that can potentially be extrapolated to human biomedical research.

  7. Pointing and tracking control for freedom's Solar Dynamic modules and vibration control of freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Chen, Jiunn-Liang

    1992-01-01

    A control strategy is presented for pointing particular modules of flexible multibody space structures while simultaneously attenuating structural vibrations. The application that is addressed is the planned Space Station Freedom in a growth configuration with Solar Dynamic (SD) module. A NASTRAN model of Freedom is used to demonstrate the control strategy. Two cases of SD concentrator fine-pointing controller bandwidths are studied with examples. The effect of limiting the controller motor torques to realistic baseline values is examined. SD pointing and station vibration control is accomplished during realistic disturbances due to aerodynamic drag, Shuttle docking, and Shuttle reaction control system plume impingement on SD. Gravity gradient induced torques on SD are relatively small and pseudo-steady.

  8. Tracking truck flows with programmable mobile devices for drayage efficiency analysis: [research brief].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and experiment on a technology to track, organize, : extract and analyze data on port drayage activities from which a clear understanding of drayage : efficiency can be gained. Drayage efficiency may point to ...

  9. Surgical tool detection and tracking in retinal microsurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsheakhali, Mohamed; Yigitsoy, Mehmet; Eslami, Abouzar; Navab, Nassir

    2015-03-01

    Visual tracking of surgical instruments is an essential part of eye surgery, and plays an important role for the surgeons as well as it is a key component of robotics assistance during the operation time. The difficulty of detecting and tracking medical instruments in-vivo images comes from its deformable shape, changes in brightness, and the presence of the instrument shadow. This paper introduces a new approach to detect the tip of surgical tool and its width regardless of its head shape and the presence of the shadows or vessels. The approach relies on integrating structural information about the strong edges from the RGB color model, and the tool location-based information from L*a*b color model. The probabilistic Hough transform was applied to get the strongest straight lines in the RGB-images, and based on information from the L* and a*, one of these candidates lines is selected as the edge of the tool shaft. Based on that line, the tool slope, the tool centerline and the tool tip could be detected. The tracking is performed by keeping track of the last detected tool tip and the tool slope, and filtering the Hough lines within a box around the last detected tool tip based on the slope differences. Experimental results demonstrate the high accuracy achieved in term of detecting the tool tip position, the tool joint point position, and the tool centerline. The approach also meets the real time requirements.

  10. Real-time non-rigid target tracking for ultrasound-guided clinical interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachiu, C.; Ries, M.; Ramaekers, P.; Guey, J.-L.; Moonen, C. T. W.; de Senneville, B. Denis

    2017-10-01

    Biological motion is a problem for non- or mini-invasive interventions when conducted in mobile/deformable organs due to the targeted pathology moving/deforming with the organ. This may lead to high miss rates and/or incomplete treatment of the pathology. Therefore, real-time tracking of the target anatomy during the intervention would be beneficial for such applications. Since the aforementioned interventions are often conducted under B-mode ultrasound (US) guidance, target tracking can be achieved via image registration, by comparing the acquired US images to a separate image established as positional reference. However, such US images are intrinsically altered by speckle noise, introducing incoherent gray-level intensity variations. This may prove problematic for existing intensity-based registration methods. In the current study we address US-based target tracking by employing the recently proposed EVolution registration algorithm. The method is, by construction, robust to transient gray-level intensities. Instead of directly matching image intensities, EVolution aligns similar contrast patterns in the images. Moreover, the displacement is computed by evaluating a matching criterion for image sub-regions rather than on a point-by-point basis, which typically provides more robust motion estimates. However, unlike similar previously published approaches, which assume rigid displacements in the image sub-regions, the EVolution algorithm integrates the matching criterion in a global functional, allowing the estimation of an elastic dense deformation. The approach was validated for soft tissue tracking under free-breathing conditions on the abdomen of seven healthy volunteers. Contact echography was performed on all volunteers, while three of the volunteers also underwent standoff echography. Each of the two modalities is predominantly specific to a particular type of non- or mini-invasive clinical intervention. The method demonstrated on average an accuracy of

  11. Real-time non-rigid target tracking for ultrasound-guided clinical interventions.

    PubMed

    Zachiu, C; Ries, M; Ramaekers, P; Guey, J-L; Moonen, C T W; de Senneville, B Denis

    2017-10-04

    Biological motion is a problem for non- or mini-invasive interventions when conducted in mobile/deformable organs due to the targeted pathology moving/deforming with the organ. This may lead to high miss rates and/or incomplete treatment of the pathology. Therefore, real-time tracking of the target anatomy during the intervention would be beneficial for such applications. Since the aforementioned interventions are often conducted under B-mode ultrasound (US) guidance, target tracking can be achieved via image registration, by comparing the acquired US images to a separate image established as positional reference. However, such US images are intrinsically altered by speckle noise, introducing incoherent gray-level intensity variations. This may prove problematic for existing intensity-based registration methods. In the current study we address US-based target tracking by employing the recently proposed EVolution registration algorithm. The method is, by construction, robust to transient gray-level intensities. Instead of directly matching image intensities, EVolution aligns similar contrast patterns in the images. Moreover, the displacement is computed by evaluating a matching criterion for image sub-regions rather than on a point-by-point basis, which typically provides more robust motion estimates. However, unlike similar previously published approaches, which assume rigid displacements in the image sub-regions, the EVolution algorithm integrates the matching criterion in a global functional, allowing the estimation of an elastic dense deformation. The approach was validated for soft tissue tracking under free-breathing conditions on the abdomen of seven healthy volunteers. Contact echography was performed on all volunteers, while three of the volunteers also underwent standoff echography. Each of the two modalities is predominantly specific to a particular type of non- or mini-invasive clinical intervention. The method demonstrated on average an accuracy of

  12. Energy dependent track structure parametrisations for protons and carbon ions based on nanometric simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Frauke; Villagrasa, Carmen; Rabus, Hans; Wilkens, Jan J.

    2015-09-01

    The BioQuaRT project within the European Metrology Research Programme aims at correlating ion track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation and develops measurement and simulation techniques for determining ion track structure on different length scales from about 2 nm to about 10 μm. Within this framework, we investigate methods to translate track-structure quantities derived on a nanometre scale to macroscopic dimensions. Input data sets were generated by simulations of ion tracks of protons and carbon ions in liquid water using the Geant 4 Monte Carlo toolkit with the Geant4-DNA processes. Based on the energy transfer points - recorded with nanometre resolution - we investigated parametrisations of overall properties of ion track structure. Three different track structure parametrisations have been developed using the distances to the 10 next neighbouring ionisations, the radial energy distribution and ionisation cluster size distributions. These parametrisations of nanometric track structure build a basis for deriving biologically relevant mean values which are essential in the clinical situation where each voxel is exposed to a mixed radiation field. Contribution to the Topical Issue "COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy", edited by Andrey Solov'yov, Nigel Mason, Gustavo García, Eugene Surdutovich.

  13. 1. Mechanics Shop. NE corner. Camera pointed SW. This building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Mechanics Shop. NE corner. Camera pointed SW. This building was the original Paddock barn when the track opened in 1933 and was later moved to this site south of the Paddock. See the historic photo WA-201-4-8. (July 1993) - Longacres, Mechanic's Shop, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  14. Rover Tracks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-07

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed "Barnacle Bill." The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00633

  15. Sign Tracking, but Not Goal Tracking, is Resistant to Outcome Devaluation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Sara E.; Bamkole, Michael A.; Nicola, Saleem M.

    2015-01-01

    During Pavlovian conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (CS) may act as a predictor of a reward to be delivered in another location. Individuals vary widely in their propensity to engage with the CS (sign tracking) or with the site of eventual reward (goal tracking). It is often assumed that sign tracking involves the association of the CS with the motivational value of the reward, resulting in the CS acquiring incentive value independent of the outcome. However, experimental evidence for this assumption is lacking. In order to test the hypothesis that sign tracking behavior does not rely on a neural representation of the outcome, we employed a reward devaluation procedure. We trained rats on a classic Pavlovian paradigm in which a lever CS was paired with a sucrose reward, then devalued the reward by pairing sucrose with illness in the absence of the CS. We found that sign tracking behavior was enhanced, rather than diminished, following reward devaluation; thus, sign tracking is clearly independent of a representation of the outcome. In contrast, goal tracking behavior was decreased by reward devaluation. Furthermore, when we divided rats into those with high propensity to engage with the lever (sign trackers) and low propensity to engage with the lever (goal trackers), we found that nearly all of the effects of devaluation could be attributed to the goal trackers. These results show that sign tracking and goal tracking behavior may be the output of different associative structures in the brain, providing insight into the mechanisms by which reward-associated stimuli—such as drug cues—come to exert control over behavior in some individuals. PMID:26733783

  16. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Omichi, Masaaki; Center for Collaborative Research, Anan National College of Technology, Anan, Tokushima 774-0017; Choi, Wookjin

    2014-11-15

    Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic forcemore » microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.« less

  17. Online Tracking

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to track you on all kinds of internet-connected devices that have browsers, such as smart phones, tablets, laptop and desktop computers. How does tracking in mobile apps occur? When you access mobile applications, companies don’t have access to ...

  18. Active point out-of-plane ultrasound calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Alexis; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Haichong K.; Kang, Hyunjae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    Image-guided surgery systems are often used to provide surgeons with informational support. Due to several unique advantages such as ease of use, real-time image acquisition, and no ionizing radiation, ultrasound is a common intraoperative medical imaging modality used in image-guided surgery systems. To perform advanced forms of guidance with ultrasound, such as virtual image overlays or automated robotic actuation, an ultrasound calibration process must be performed. This process recovers the rigid body transformation between a tracked marker attached to the transducer and the ultrasound image. Point-based phantoms are considered to be accurate, but their calibration framework assumes that the point is in the image plane. In this work, we present the use of an active point phantom and a calibration framework that accounts for the elevational uncertainty of the point. Given the lateral and axial position of the point in the ultrasound image, we approximate a circle in the axial-elevational plane with a radius equal to the axial position. The standard approach transforms all of the imaged points to be a single physical point. In our approach, we minimize the distances between the circular subsets of each image, with them ideally intersecting at a single point. We simulated in noiseless and noisy cases, presenting results on out-of-plane estimation errors, calibration estimation errors, and point reconstruction precision. We also performed an experiment using a robot arm as the tracker, resulting in a point reconstruction precision of 0.64mm.

  19. Absolute vs. relative error characterization of electromagnetic tracking accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Gutierrez, Luis; Chan, Raymond; Jain, Ameet

    2010-02-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems are often used for real time navigation of medical tools in an Image Guided Therapy (IGT) system. They are specifically advantageous when the medical device requires tracking within the body of a patient where line of sight constraints prevent the use of conventional optical tracking. EM tracking systems are however very sensitive to electromagnetic field distortions. These distortions, arising from changes in the electromagnetic environment due to the presence of conductive ferromagnetic surgical tools or other medical equipment, limit the accuracy of EM tracking, in some cases potentially rendering tracking data unusable. We present a mapping method for the operating region over which EM tracking sensors are used, allowing for characterization of measurement errors, in turn providing physicians with visual feedback about measurement confidence or reliability of localization estimates. In this instance, we employ a calibration phantom to assess distortion within the operating field of the EM tracker and to display in real time the distribution of measurement errors, as well as the location and extent of the field associated with minimal spatial distortion. The accuracy is assessed relative to successive measurements. Error is computed for a reference point and consecutive measurement errors are displayed relative to the reference in order to characterize the accuracy in near-real-time. In an initial set-up phase, the phantom geometry is calibrated by registering the data from a multitude of EM sensors in a non-ferromagnetic ("clean") EM environment. The registration results in the locations of sensors with respect to each other and defines the geometry of the sensors in the phantom. In a measurement phase, the position and orientation data from all sensors are compared with the known geometry of the sensor spacing, and localization errors (displacement and orientation) are computed. Based on error thresholds provided by the

  20. Large scale tracking algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For highermore » resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.« less

  1. Calibration of 3D ultrasound to an electromagnetic tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Andrew; Parthasarathy, Vijay; Jain, Ameet

    2011-03-01

    The use of electromagnetic (EM) tracking is an important guidance tool that can be used to aid procedures requiring accurate localization such as needle injections or catheter guidance. Using EM tracking, the information from different modalities can be easily combined using pre-procedural calibration information. These calibrations are performed individually, per modality, allowing different imaging systems to be mixed and matched according to the procedure at hand. In this work, a framework for the calibration of a 3D transesophageal echocardiography probe to EM tracking is developed. The complete calibration framework includes three required steps: data acquisition, needle segmentation, and calibration. Ultrasound (US) images of an EM tracked needle must be acquired with the position of the needles in each volume subsequently extracted by segmentation. The calibration transformation is determined through a registration between the segmented points and the recorded EM needle positions. Additionally, the speed of sound is compensated for since calibration is performed in water that has a different speed then is assumed by the US machine. A statistical validation framework has also been developed to provide further information related to the accuracy and consistency of the calibration. Further validation of the calibration showed an accuracy of 1.39 mm.

  2. Research of maneuvering target prediction and tracking technology based on IMM algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zheng; Mao, Yao; Deng, Chao; Liu, Qiong; Chen, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Maneuvering target prediction and tracking technology is widely used in both military and civilian applications, the study of those technologies is all along the hotspot and difficulty. In the Electro-Optical acquisition-tracking-pointing system (ATP), the primary traditional maneuvering targets are ballistic target, large aircraft and other big targets. Those targets have the features of fast velocity and a strong regular trajectory and Kalman Filtering and polynomial fitting have good effects when they are used to track those targets. In recent years, the small unmanned aerial vehicles developed rapidly for they are small, nimble and simple operation. The small unmanned aerial vehicles have strong maneuverability in the observation system of ATP although they are close-in, slow and small targets. Moreover, those vehicles are under the manual operation, therefore, the acceleration of them changes greatly and they move erratically. So the prediction and tracking precision is low when traditional algorithms are used to track the maneuvering fly of those targets, such as speeding up, turning, climbing and so on. The interacting multiple model algorithm (IMM) use multiple models to match target real movement trajectory, there are interactions between each model. The IMM algorithm can switch model based on a Markov chain to adapt to the change of target movement trajectory, so it is suitable to solve the prediction and tracking problems of the small unmanned aerial vehicles because of the better adaptability of irregular movement. This paper has set up model set of constant velocity model (CV), constant acceleration model (CA), constant turning model (CT) and current statistical model. And the results of simulating and analyzing the real movement trajectory data of the small unmanned aerial vehicles show that the prediction and tracking technology based on the interacting multiple model algorithm can get relatively lower tracking error and improve tracking precision

  3. A combination strategy for tracking the serial criminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chuan; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Wan, Jiadi; Yu, Wenjing

    2010-08-01

    We build a Geographic Profiling Model to generate the criminal's geographical profile, by combining two complementary strategies: the Spatial Distribution Strategy and the Probability Distance Strategy. In the first strategy, we designate the mean of all the known crime sites as the anchor point, and build a Standard Deviational Ellipse Model, considering the effect of landscape. In the second strategy, we take many factors such as the buffer zone and distance decay theory into consideration and calculate the probability of the offender's residence in a certain area by using the Bayesian Theorem and the Rossmo Algorithm. Then, we combine the result of two strategies and get three search areas suit different conditions of the police to track the serial criminal. Apply the model to the English serial killer Peter Sutcliffe's case, the calculation result shows that the model can effectively be used to track serial criminal.

  4. Quantization-Based Adaptive Actor-Critic Tracking Control With Tracking Error Constraints.

    PubMed

    Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong; Ye, Dan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive actor-critic (AC) tracking control is investigated for a class of continuous-time nonlinear systems with unknown nonlinearities and quantized inputs. Different from the existing results based on reinforcement learning, the tracking error constraints are considered and new critic functions are constructed to improve the performance further. To ensure that the tracking errors keep within the predefined time-varying boundaries, a tracking error transformation technique is used to constitute an augmented error system. Specific critic functions, rather than the long-term cost function, are introduced to supervise the tracking performance and tune the weights of the AC neural networks (NNs). A novel adaptive controller with a special structure is designed to reduce the effect of the NN reconstruction errors, input quantization, and disturbances. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the boundedness of the closed-loop signals and the desired tracking performance can be guaranteed. Finally, simulations on two connected inverted pendulums are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Tracking formulas and strategies for a receiver oriented dual-axis tracking toroidal heliostat

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Minghuan; Wang, Zhifeng; Liang, Wenfeng

    2010-06-15

    A 4 m x 4 m toroidal heliostat with receiver oriented dual-axis tracking, also called spinning-elevation tracking, was developed as an auxiliary heat source for a hydrogen production system. A series of spinning-elevation tracking formulas have been derived for this heliostat. This included basic tracking formulas, a formula for the elevation angle for heliostat with a mirror-pivot offset, and a more general formula for the biased elevation angle. This paper presents the new tracking formulas in detail and analyzes the accuracy of applying a simplifying approximation. The numerical results show these receiver oriented dual-axis tracking formula approximations are accurate tomore » within 2.5 x 10{sup -6} m in image plane. Some practical tracking strategies are discussed briefly. Solar images from the toroidal heliostat at selected times are also presented. (author)« less

  6. Study of a thermoelectric system equipped with a maximum power point tracker for stand-alone electric generation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favarel, C.; Champier, D.; Bédécarrats, J. P.; Kousksou, T.; Strub, F.

    2012-06-01

    According to the International Energy Agency, 1.4 billion people are without electricity in the poorest countries and 2.5 billion people rely on biomass to meet their energy needs for cooking in developing countries. The use of cooking stoves equipped with small thermoelectric generator to provide electricity for basic needs (LED, cell phone and radio charging device) is probably a solution for houses far from the power grid. The cost of connecting every house with a landline is a lot higher than dropping thermoelectric generator in each house. Thermoelectric generators have very low efficiency but for isolated houses, they might become really competitive. Our laboratory works in collaboration with plane`te-bois (a non governmental organization) which has developed energy-efficient multifunction (cooking and hot water) stoves based on traditional stoves designs. A prototype of a thermoelectric generator (Bismuth Telluride) has been designed to convert a small part of the energy heating the sanitary water into electricity. This generator can produce up to 10 watts on an adapted load. Storing this energy in a battery is necessary as the cooking stove only works a few hours each day. As the working point of the stove varies a lot during the use it is also necessary to regulate the electrical power. An electric DC DC converter has been developed with a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to have a good efficiency of the electronic part of the thermoelectric generator. The theoretical efficiency of the MMPT converter is discussed. First results obtained with a hot gas generator simulating the exhaust of the combustion chamber of a cooking stove are presented in the paper.

  7. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesismore » underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.« less

  8. Modelling, validation and analysis of a three-dimensional railway vehicle-track system model with linear and nonlinear track properties in the presence of wheel flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzzal, R. U. A.; Ahmed, A. K. W.; Bhat, R. B.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents dynamic contact loads at wheel-rail contact point in a three-dimensional railway vehicle-track model as well as dynamic response at vehicle-track component levels in the presence of wheel flats. The 17-degrees of freedom lumped mass vehicle is modelled as a full car body, two bogies and four wheelsets, whereas the railway track is modelled as two parallel Timoshenko beams periodically supported by lumped masses representing the sleepers. The rail beam is also supported by nonlinear spring and damper elements representing the railpad and ballast. In order to ensure the interactions between the railpads, a shear parameter beneath the rail beams has also been considered into the model. The wheel-rail contact is modelled using nonlinear Hertzian contact theory. In order to solve the coupled partial and ordinary differential equations of the vehicle-track system, modal analysis method is employed. Idealised Haversine wheel flats with the rounded corner are included in the wheel-rail contact model. The developed model is validated with the existing measured and analytical data available in the literature. The nonlinear model is then employed to investigate the wheel-rail impact forces that arise in the wheel-rail interface due to the presence of wheel flats. The validated model is further employed to investigate the dynamic responses of vehicle and track components in terms of displacement, velocity, and acceleration in the presence of single wheel flat.

  9. Approximate optimal tracking control for near-surface AUVs with wave disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers the optimal trajectory tracking control problem for near-surface autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) in the presence of wave disturbances. An approximate optimal tracking control (AOTC) approach is proposed. Firstly, a six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF) AUV model with its body-fixed coordinate system is decoupled and simplified and then a nonlinear control model of AUVs in the vertical plane is given. Also, an exosystem model of wave disturbances is constructed based on Hirom approximation formula. Secondly, the time-parameterized desired trajectory which is tracked by the AUV's system is represented by the exosystem. Then, the coupled two-point boundary value (TPBV) problem of optimal tracking control for AUVs is derived from the theory of quadratic optimal control. By using a recently developed successive approximation approach to construct sequences, the coupled TPBV problem is transformed into a problem of solving two decoupled linear differential sequences of state vectors and adjoint vectors. By iteratively solving the two equation sequences, the AOTC law is obtained, which consists of a nonlinear optimal feedback item, an expected output tracking item, a feedforward disturbances rejection item, and a nonlinear compensatory term. Furthermore, a wave disturbances observer model is designed in order to solve the physically realizable problem. Simulation is carried out by using the Remote Environmental Unit (REMUS) AUV model to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. A New Blind Pointing Model Improves Large Reflector Antennas Precision Pointing at Ka-Band (32 GHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)-Deep Space Network (DSN) subnet of 34-m Beam Waveguide (BWG) Antennas was recently upgraded with Ka-Band (32-GHz) frequency feeds for space research and communication. For normal telemetry tracking a Ka-Band monopulse system is used, which typically yields 1.6-mdeg mean radial error (MRE) pointing accuracy on the 34-m diameter antennas. However, for the monopulse to be able to acquire and lock, for special radio science applications where monopulse cannot be used, or as a back-up for the monopulse, high-precision open-loop blind pointing is required. This paper describes a new 4th order pointing model and calibration technique, which was developed and applied to the DSN 34-m BWG antennas yielding 1.8 to 3.0-mdeg MRE pointing accuracy and amplitude stability of 0.2 dB, at Ka-Band, and successfully used for the CASSINI spacecraft occultation experiment at Saturn and Titan. In addition, the new 4th order pointing model was used during a telemetry experiment at Ka-Band (32 GHz) utilizing the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft while at a distance of 0.225 astronomical units (AU) from Earth and communicating with a DSN 34-m BWG antenna at a record high rate of 6-megabits per second (Mb/s).

  11. Electrical Power Subsystem Integration and Test for the NPS Solar Cell Array Tester CubeSat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Earth’s Gravitational Constant MCU Microcontroller Unit MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracker NiCr Nickel Chromium NPS Naval Postgraduate School P...new testing platform was designed, built, and used to conduct integrated testing on CubeSat Kit (CSK) compatible devices. The power budgets and...acceptance test results obtained from the testing platform were used with a solar array power generation simulation, and a battery state of charge

  12. Accuracy Assessment for the Auxillary Tracking System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Auxiliary Tracking System (ATS), paper prepared for evaluation of ATS design review, 28 June, 1990. Anton , H., and Rorres, C., Elementary Linear Algebra with...are linearized around the trial value (XT6, YT,, Zro), shown in Equation 3.16, where 10 means evaluated at point "o". The OR1aI * YaT- I T.) ZR (ZT...3.16) partial derivatives are listed in Equations 3.17 through 3.19. 8XR.[ o 7.-OR1 [ .XT-XL (3.17) aOR., ZTo-Z 1 (3.19) aZTIo R. The linearized

  13. Effects of etching time on alpha tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Crust, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) are used extensively for monitoring alpha particle radiation, neutron flux and cosmic ray radiation. Radon gas inhalation is regarded as being a significant contributory factor to lung cancer deaths in the UK each year. Gas concentrations are often monitored using CR39 based SSNTDs as the natural decay of radon results in alpha particles which form tracks in these detectors. Such tracks are normally etched for about 4h to enable microscopic analysis. This study examined the effect of etching time on the appearance of alpha tracks in SSNTDs by collecting 2D and 3D image datasets using laser confocal microscope imaging techniques. Etching times of 2 to 4h were compared and marked differences were noted in resultant track area. The median equivalent diameters of tracks were 20.2, 30.2 and 38.9μm for etching at 2, 3 and 4h respectively. Our results indicate that modern microscope imaging can detect and image the smaller size tracks seen for example at 3h etching time. Shorter etching times may give rise to fewer coalescing tracks although there is a balance to consider as smaller track sizes may be more difficult to image. Thus etching for periods of less than 4h clearly merits further investigation as this approach has the potential to improve accuracy in assessing the number of tracks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multisensor fusion for 3D target tracking using track-before-detect particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshtagh, Nima; Romberg, Paul M.; Chan, Moses W.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents a novel fusion mechanism for estimating the three-dimensional trajectory of a moving target using images collected by multiple imaging sensors. The proposed projective particle filter avoids the explicit target detection prior to fusion. In projective particle filter, particles that represent the posterior density (of target state in a high-dimensional space) are projected onto the lower-dimensional observation space. Measurements are generated directly in the observation space (image plane) and a marginal (sensor) likelihood is computed. The particles states and their weights are updated using the joint likelihood computed from all the sensors. The 3D state estimate of target (system track) is then generated from the states of the particles. This approach is similar to track-before-detect particle filters that are known to perform well in tracking dim and stealthy targets in image collections. Our approach extends the track-before-detect approach to 3D tracking using the projective particle filter. The performance of this measurement-level fusion method is compared with that of a track-level fusion algorithm using the projective particle filter. In the track-level fusion algorithm, the 2D sensor tracks are generated separately and transmitted to a fusion center, where they are treated as measurements to the state estimator. The 2D sensor tracks are then fused to reconstruct the system track. A realistic synthetic scenario with a boosting target was generated, and used to study the performance of the fusion mechanisms.

  15. Dependence of yield of nuclear track-biosensors on track radius and analyte concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Arellano, H.; Muñoz H., G.; Fink, D.; Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Alfonta, L.; Kiv, A.

    2018-04-01

    In swift heavy ion track-based polymeric biosensor foils with incorporated enzymes one exploits the correlation between the analyte concentration and the sensor current, via the enrichment of charged enzymatic reaction products in the track's confinement. Here we study the influence of the etched track radius on the biosensor's efficiency. These sensors are analyte-specific only if both the track radii and the analyte concentration exceed certain threshold values of ∼15 nm and ∼10-6 M (for glucose sensing), respectively. Below these limits the sensor signal stems un-specifically from any charge carrier. In its proper working regime, the inner track walls are smoothly covered by enzymes and the efficiency is practically radius independent. Theory shows that the measured current should be slightly sub-proportional to the analyte concentration; the measurements roughly reconfirm this. Narrower tracks (∼5-15 nm radius) with reduced enzyme coverage lead to decreasing efficiency. Tiny signals visible when the tracks are etched to effective radii between 0 and ∼5 nm are tentatively ascribed to enzymes bonded to surface-near nano-cracks in the polymer foil, resulting from its degradation due to aging, rather than to the tracks. Precondition for this study was the accurate determination of the etched track radii, which is possible only by a nanofluidic approach. This holds to some extent even for enzyme-covered tracks, though in this case most of the wall charges are compensated by enzyme bonding.

  16. A Probabilistic Cell Tracking Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, Reinhold; Mayer, Dieter; Leiding, Tina; Lexer, Annemarie; Umdasch, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The research described below was carried out during the EU-Project Lolight - development of a low cost, novel and accurate lightning mapping and thunderstorm (supercell) tracking system. The Project aims to develop a small-scale tracking method to determine and nowcast characteristic trajectories and velocities of convective cells and cell complexes. The results of the algorithm will provide a higher accuracy than current locating systems distributed on a coarse scale. Input data for the developed algorithm are two temporally separated lightning density fields. Additionally a Monte Carlo method minimizing a cost function is utilizied which leads to a probabilistic forecast for the movement of thunderstorm cells. In the first step the correlation coefficients between the first and the second density field are computed. Hence, the first field is shifted by all shifting vectors which are physically allowed. The maximum length of each vector is determined by the maximum possible speed of thunderstorm cells and the difference in time for both density fields. To eliminate ambiguities in determination of directions and velocities, the so called Random Walker of the Monte Carlo process is used. Using this method a grid point is selected at random. Moreover, one vector out of all predefined shifting vectors is suggested - also at random but with a probability that is related to the correlation coefficient. If this exchange of shifting vectors reduces the cost function, the new direction and velocity are accepted. Otherwise it is discarded. This process is repeated until the change of cost functions falls below a defined threshold. The Monte Carlo run gives information about the percentage of accepted shifting vectors for all grid points. In the course of the forecast, amplifications of cell density are permitted. For this purpose, intensity changes between the investigated areas of both density fields are taken into account. Knowing the direction and speed of thunderstorm

  17. A preliminary assessment of small steam Rankine and Brayton point-focusing solar modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschke, E. J.; Wen, L.; Steele, H.; Elgabalawi, N.; Wang, J.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of three conceptual point-focusing distributed solar modules is presented. The basic power conversion units consist of small Brayton or Rankine engines individually coupled to two-axis, tracking, point-focusing solar collectors. An array of such modules can be linked together, via electric transport, to form a small power station. Each module also can be utilized on a stand-alone basis, as an individual power source.

  18. VIEW OF FACILITY NO. S 20 NEAR THE POINT WHERE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FACILITY NO. S 20 NEAR THE POINT WHERE IT JOINS FACILITY NO. S 21. NOTE THE ASPHALT-FILLED NARROW-GAUGE TRACKWAY WITH SOME AREAS OF STEEL TRACK SHOWING. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Floating Dry Dock Quay, Hurt Avenue at northwest side of Magazine Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Galileo Spacecraft Scan Platform Celestial Pointing Cone Control Gain Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    In, C-H. C.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1994-01-01

    During September and October 1991, pictures of the Gaspra asteroid and neighboring stars were taken by the Galileo Optical Navigation (OPNAV) Team for the purpose of navigation the spacecraft for a successful Gaspra encounter. The star tracks in these pictures showed that the scan platform celestial pointing cone controller performed poorly in compensating for wobble-induced cone offsets.

  20. Detection of pointing errors with CMOS-based camera in intersatellite optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Si-yuan; Ma, Jing; Tan, Li-ying

    2005-01-01

    For very high data rates, intersatellite optical communications hold a potential performance edge over microwave communications. Acquisition and Tracking problem is critical because of the narrow transmit beam. A single array detector in some systems performs both spatial acquisition and tracking functions to detect pointing errors, so both wide field of view and high update rate is required. The past systems tend to employ CCD-based camera with complex readout arrangements, but the additional complexity reduces the applicability of the array based tracking concept. With the development of CMOS array, CMOS-based cameras can employ the single array detector concept. The area of interest feature of the CMOS-based camera allows a PAT system to specify portion of the array. The maximum allowed frame rate increases as the size of the area of interest decreases under certain conditions. A commercially available CMOS camera with 105 fps @ 640×480 is employed in our PAT simulation system, in which only part pixels are used in fact. Beams angle varying in the field of view can be detected after getting across a Cassegrain telescope and an optical focus system. Spot pixel values (8 bits per pixel) reading out from CMOS are transmitted to a DSP subsystem via IEEE 1394 bus, and pointing errors can be computed by the centroid equation. It was shown in test that: (1) 500 fps @ 100×100 is available in acquisition when the field of view is 1mrad; (2)3k fps @ 10×10 is available in tracking when the field of view is 0.1mrad.