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Sample records for poison control centers

  1. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePlus

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  2. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... except Maricopa County Mail donation to: College of Pharmacy, Development Office PO Box 210202, Tucson, AZ 85721 ... gl/xomtXD Tucson, AZ 85721 Online http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison/ Email: boesen at pharmacy ...

  3. "Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

    1971-01-01

    Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

  4. "Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

    1971-01-01

    Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

  5. 2005 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' national poisoning and exposure database.

    PubMed

    Lai, Melisa W; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; Rodgers, George C; Abrams, Joseph Y; Haber, Deborah A; Bronstein, Alvin C; Wruk, Kathleen M

    2006-01-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC; http://www.aapcc.org) maintains the national database of information logged by the country's 61 Poison Control Centers (PCCs). Case records in this database are from self-reported calls: they reflect only information provided when the public or healthcare professionals report an actual or potential exposure to a substance (e.g., an ingestion, inhalation, or topical exposure.), or request information/educational materials. Exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning or overdose. The AAPCC is not able to completely verify the accuracy of every report made to member centers. Additional exposures may go unreported to PCCs, and data referenced from the AAPCC should not be construed to represent the complete incidence of national exposures to any substance(s). U.S. Poison Centers make possible the compilation and reporting of this report through their staffs' meticulous documentation of each case using standardized definitions and compatible computer systems. The 61 participating poison centers in 2005 are: Regional Poison Control Center, Birmingham, AL; Alabama Poison Center, Tuscaloosa, AL; Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center, Tucson, AZ; Banner Poison Control Center, Phoenix, AZ; Arkansas Poison and Drug Information Center, Little Rock, AK; California Poison Control System-Fresno/Madera Division, CA; California Poison Control System-Sacramento Division, CA; California Poison Control System-San Diego Division, CA; California Poison Control System-San Francisco Division, CA; Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver, CO; Connecticut Poison Control Center, Farmington, CT; National Capital Poison Center, Washington, DC; Florida Poison Information Center, Tampa, FL; Florida Poison Information Center, Jacksonville, FL; Florida Poison Information Center, Miami, FL; Georgia Poison Center, Atlanta, GA; Illinois Poison Center, Chicago, IL; Indiana

  6. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  7. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  8. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your smartphone. Take the pledge! National Poison Prevention Week is March 19-25! Be a part of ... Centers Celebrates the 55th Annual National Poison Prevention Week › View more Find Your Local Poison Center Poison ...

  9. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePlus

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  10. Underreporting of fatal cases to a regional poison control center.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, P D; Kearney, T E; Olson, K R

    1995-01-01

    We assessed fatal drug overdose and poisoning case surveillance by a regional poison control center, comparing it with medical examiner determinations of death by poisoning over the same 2-year period and from the same catchment area. We studied 358 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a medical examiner and 10 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a poison control center, analyzing demographics and other case-associated factors with with possible successful poison control center case surveillance. Of the medical examiner cases, 245 (68%) were prehospital deaths. Of the remaining 113 emergency department or hospital cases, only 5 (4.4%) were also reported to the poison control center. Compared with cases involving illicit drugs, other narcotics, and sedative drugs, those that involved other prescription drugs (relative odds, 30.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 351) and over-the-counter products and other substances (odds ratio, 18.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 257) were significantly more likely to be reported to the poison control center. Most fatal cases of poisoning and drug overdose are not detected through poison control center surveillance. For prevention and treatment, health planners and policy makers should recognize the implications of case underreporting. PMID:7618309

  11. Analysis of intentional drug poisonings using Ohio Poison Control Center Data, 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Kelsey; Caupp, Sarah; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Xiang, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical drug poisonings, especially those that are intentional, are a serious problem for adolescents and young adults. Poison control center data is a viable tool to track intentional drug poisonings in near real-time. To determine intentional drug poisoning rates among adolescents and young adults in Ohio using poison control center data. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2014 obtained by Ohio's three poison control centers. Inclusion variables were calls made to the centers that had appropriate subject age (10-29 years old), subject sex, involved substance (all drug classes), and medical outcome (no effect, minor effect, moderate effect, major effect, and death). Intentional drug poisoning reports were also separated into subgroups to compare suspected suicide reports to misuse and abuse reports. Finally, resident population estimates were used to generate 2014 intentional drug poisoning rates for each county in Ohio. The most common age group for intentional drug poisonings was 18-24. Females reported more suspected suicide drug poisonings while males reported more misuse/abuse drug poisonings. The most reported drug class across all ages was analgesics. Of the 88 counties in Ohio, Hamilton, Williams, Washington, and Guernsey counties had the highest rates of intentional drug poisonings. The high report rate of suspected suicides and analgesic class drugs demonstrates the need for preventative measures for adolescents and young adults in Ohio. Any interventions, along with legislative changes, will need to take place in our local communities.

  12. [Assessing the Brazilian network of poison control centers].

    PubMed

    Marques, M B; Bortoletto, M E; Bezerra, M C; de Santana, R A

    1995-01-01

    General concern about increasing reports of emergencies caused by or attributed to the exposure of human beings to various toxic agents has created demand for assessing the informational performance of a Brazilian network of 34 poison control centers (PCCs), located in different regions of the country and pertaining to the National Poison Information System (SINITOX). The primary purpose of these PCCs is to inform the public, prevent cases of poisoning, and provide medical care. This paper analyzes the available resources for identifying cases of poisoning, preventing new occurrences, and monitoring the consequences of toxic agents. This paper also analyzes data recorded front 1990 to 1992. The objective is to identify the main constraints to using health-data and management information as decision-making tools at the local level.

  13. The Cooperation Between Poison Control Center and Organized Industrial District for Chemical Disaster Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    BETWEEN POISON CONTROL CENTER AND ORGANIZED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT FOR CHEMICAL DISASTER PREVENTION Ozyurt G. and Tokyay N. Uludag Poison Center; Uludag...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013444 TITLE: The Cooperation Between Poison Control Center and...Organized Industrial District for Chemical Disaster Prevention DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the

  14. Re-engineering regional poison control center services.

    PubMed

    Wieland, M J

    1996-04-01

    In summary, I propose a model of poison control service delivery to replace poison control centers. A handful of financially self-sustaining poison consult centers would remain. All other services would be provided by health plans to their members, including those covered under State-funded managed care. The need for continued fundraising efforts would be eliminated. Rather than devoting large sums of money to consolidate the State's 6 centers into 1 large center, I encourage Blue Cross of California to fund the protocol development process that will drive a true restructuring effort for poison control services. In our hearts, if our goal is to ensure continued service provision, then let's take the initiative to re-engineer the way we do business. The risks of doing nothing more than seek continued funding for the existing service delivery model should be painfully obvious by now. If your individual goals include survival for your center, then there's great news. The demand for call centers providing a wide range of advice services is approaching a critical level. Most health and hospital systems are moving to a managed care environment. Health care delivery is quickly moving out of the hospital to ambulatory services. Telemedicine is here--and growing very quickly. Distance learning technology is knocking at the door. There is plenty to do. With sound strategic development, your center will survive--it just won't look or feel the same as its does today. Survival the way it used to be ...uh, except for the computers and stuff.

  15. Evaluation of completeness of selected poison control center data fields.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Jeanie E; Marchbanks, Brenda; Willis, Branch; Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-08-01

    Poison control center data are used in research and surveillance. Due to the large volume of information, these efforts are dependent on data being recorded in machine readable format. However, poison center records include non-machine readable text fields and machine readable coded fields, some of which are duplicative. Duplicating this data increases the chance of inaccurate/incomplete coding. For surveillance efforts to be effective, coding should be complete and accurate. Investigators identified a convenience sample of 964 records and reviewed the substance code determining if it matched its text field. They also reviewed the coded clinical effects and treatments determining if they matched the notes text field. The substance code matched its text field for 91.4% of the substances. The clinical effects and treatments codes matched their text field for 72.6% and 82.4% of occurrences respectively. This under-reporting of clinical effects and treatments has surveillance and public health implications.

  16. The Role of National Poison Control Center in Organisation and Management of Mass Ammonia Accident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013382 TITLE: The Role of National Poison Control Center in Organisation...report. Fhe following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP013371 thru ADP013468 UNCLASSIFIED 12. THE ROLE OF NATIONAL POISON ...Danica Srnic, Olivera Potrebic, Dragana Djordjevic, Milos P. Stojiljkovic National Poison Control Centre, Military Medical Academy, Cmotravska 17

  17. Eszopiclone ingestions reported to Texas poison control centers, 2005 2006.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2007-10-01

    Eszopiclone is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic for the treatment of insomnia and classified as schedule IV controlled substance. Limited information exists on eszopiclone ingestions reported to poison control centers. The distribution of eszopiclone ingestions reported to Texas poison control centers during 2005-2006 was determined for various factors. In addition, triage guidelines for the management of such ingestions were drafted. Of 525 total eszopiclone ingestions, 259 involved coingestants. Of coingestant cases, 78.8% involved suspected attempted suicide and 90.7% were managed at a healthcare facility. Of 266 ingestions of eszopiclone alone, 40.2% were suspected attempted suicide and 62.0% were managed at a healthcare facility. A final medical outcome and dose ingested were known for 60 ingestions of eszopiclone alone. The mean dose was 28.3 mg (range 0.3-210 mg). Ingestions of eszopiclone alone of < or =6 and >6 mg differed with respect to the proportion involving suspected attempted suicide (0.0% versus 64.7%), final medical outcome of minor or moderate effect (38.5% versus 67.6%) and management at a healthcare facility (34.6% versus 91.2%). Using 6 mg as a threshold dose for referral to a healthcare facility, 78% of cases not already at/en route to a healthcare facility were managed according drafted triage guidelines.

  18. Transportation-related hazardous materials incidents and the role of poison control centers.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Mark E; Hon, Stephanie L; Chang, Arthur S; Schwartz, Michael D; Algren, D Adam; Schier, Joshua G; Lando, James; Lewis, Lauren S

    2010-06-01

    Department of Transportation (DOT) mandates reporting of all serious hazardous materials incidents. Hazardous material exposures may result in secondary contamination of emergency departments, or delayed clinical effects. Poison control centers specialize in the management of patients exposed to toxic substances; however, poison control center notification is not required. The objective is to determine the frequency of poison control center notification after serious hazardous materials incidents when patients were transported to a hospital. A retrospective analysis was conducted of serious hazardous materials incidents as reported by DOT, matched with data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers from 2002 through 2006 that involved patient transport. Incidents were divided into four groups: those reported to a poison control center within 0-360 minutes of the incident; those reported within 361-1440 minutes of the incident; those reported within 1441-4320 minutes of the incident; and no poison control center notification. Analyses were performed on variables including date, time, substance, and time to notification. Data were received in January 2008. One hundred fifty-four serious incidents met inclusion criteria. One hundred thirty-four incidents (87%) occurred without poison control center notification. Poison control centers were notified in 20 incidents (12.9%); 15 incidents (9.7%) were reported within 0-360 minutes of the incident (M=115 minutes, range=5-359 minutes); four incidents (2.6%) were reported within 361-1440 minutes of the incident (M=652 minutes, range=566-750 minutes); and one incident (0.7%) was reported after 4320 minutes following the incident. Most serious hazardous materials incidents involving patient transport are not reported to poison control centers. Opportunities exist to increase utilization of poison control center resources without increasing financial burdens of the hazardous materials incident. Published by

  19. The arrival of the ED-based POISINDEX: perceived impact on poison control center use.

    PubMed

    Wax, P M; Rodewald, L; Lawrence, R

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of emergency department-based POISINDEX (Micromedex Inc, Denver, CO) and assess its perceived impact on use of poison control centers. Survey methodology was used. A written questionnaire was distributed to all emergency departments (EDs) in the state of New York. ED directors or their designee (n = 239) were surveyed regarding the presence of POISINDEX in their ED and their perceptions of its impact on ED use of poison control centers. Completed questionnaires were returned from 180 of 239 (75%) EDs. Of the returned questionnaires, 42 of 180 (23%) have their own POISINDEX. In 32 of 42 (76%) of these EDs that have their own POISINDEX, it was perceived that ED-based POISINDEX decreased poison control center use. Use of ED-based POISINDEX may decrease ED use of poison control centers.

  20. Surveillance of poisoning and drug overdose through hospital discharge coding, poison control center reporting, and the Drug Abuse Warning Network.

    PubMed

    Blanc, P D; Jones, M R; Olson, K R

    1993-01-01

    There is no gold standard for determining poisoning incidence. We wished to compare four measures of poisoning incidence: International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision (ICD-9) principal (N-code) and supplemental external cause of injury (E-code) designations, poison control center (PCC) reporting, and detection by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). We studied a case series at two urban hospitals. We assigned ICD-9 N-code and E-code classifications, determining whether these matched with medical records. We ascertained PCC and DAWN system reporting. A total of 724 subjects met entry criteria; 533 were studied (74%). We matched poisoning N-codes for 278 patients (52%), E-code by cause in 306 patients (57%), and E-code by intent in 171 patients (32%). A total of 383 patients (72%) received any poisoning N-code or any E-code. We found that PCC and DAWN reporting occurred for 123 of all patients (23%) and 399 of 487 eligible patients (82%), respectively. In multiple logistic regression, factors of age, hospital admission, suicidal intent, principal poisoning or overdose type, and mixed drug overdose were statistically significant predictors of case match or report varying by surveillance measure. Our findings indicate that common surveillance measures of poisoning and drug overdose may systematically undercount morbidity.

  1. Online social networking and US poison control centers: Facebook as a means of information distribution.

    PubMed

    Vo, Kathy; Smollin, Craig

    2015-06-01

    Online social networking services such as Facebook provide a novel medium for the dissemination of public health information by poison control centers in the United States. We performed a cross-sectional study of poison control center Facebook pages to describe and assess the use of this medium. Facebook pages associated with poison control centers were identified during a continuous two-week period from December 24, 2012 to January 7, 2013. Data were extracted from each page, including affiliated poison control center; page duration, measured in years since registration; number of subscribers; number of postings by general toxicological category; and measures of user-generated activity including "likes", "shares", and comments per posting. Among the 56 US poison control centers, 39 Facebook pages were identified, of which 29 were currently active. The total number of active pages has increased by 140% from 2009 to 2013 (average of 25% per year). The total number of all subscribers to active pages was 11,211, ranging from 40 to 2,456 (mean 387, SD 523), equal to 0.006% of all Facebook users in the United States. The number of subscribers per page was associated with page duration, number of postings, and type of postings. The types of toxicological postings were public education (45%), self-promotion (28%), childhood safety (12%), drugs of abuse (8%), environmental poisonings (6%), and general overdoses (1%). Slightly over half of all poison control centers in the United States are supplementing their outreach and education efforts through Facebook. In general, the more active the poison control center on Facebook, the more page followers and follower engagement gained.

  2. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices and Poison Control Centers: Collaborating to Prevent Medication Errors and Unintentional Poisonings.

    PubMed

    Vaida, Allen J

    2015-06-01

    This article provides an overview on the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), the only independent nonprofit organization in the USA devoted to the prevention of medication errors. ISMP developed the national Medication Errors Reporting Program (MERP) and investigates and analyzes errors in order to formulate recommendations to prevent further occurrences. ISMP works closely with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), drug manufacturers, professional organizations, and others to promote changes in package design, practice standards, and healthcare practitioner and consumer education. By collaborating with ISMP to share and disseminate information, Poison Control centers, emergency departments, and toxicologists can help decrease unintentional and accidental poisonings.

  3. The Current State of Poison Control Centers in Pakistan and the Need for Capacity Building

    PubMed Central

    KHAN1, NADEEM ULLAH; MIR, MOHAMMED UMER; KHAN, UZMA RAHIM; KHAN, AFSHAN RAHIM; ARA, JAMAL; RAJA, KHURRAM; MIRZA, FARHAT HUSSAIN

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical exposure is a major health problem globally. Poison control centers (PCCs) play a leading role both in developed and developing countries in the prevention and control of poisonous chemical exposures. In this study, we aimed to assess the current state of PCCs in Pakistan and highlight capacity building needs in these centers. Methods A cross-sectional survey of the two registered PCCs was done during August – December 2011. Necessary services of the PCCs were evaluated and the data were recorded on a predesigned checklist. Results Both PCCs are affiliated to a tertiary care hospital. Clinical services to poisoned patients were available 24 hours a day / 7 days a week. Information on common local products was available to poison center staff. Both centers were involved in undergraduate and post graduate teaching. Telephone poison information service was not available in either of centers. There was a limited capacity for qualitative and analytical toxicology. Common antidotes were available. There were limited surveillance activities to capture toxic risks existing in the community and also a deficiency was observed in chemical disaster planning. Conclusion PCCs in Pakistan need capacity building for specialized training in toxicology, toxicovigilance, chemical disaster planning, analytical laboratory tests and telephone service for consultation in poisoning cases. PMID:26985441

  4. Animal bites and stings reported by United States poison control centers, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky L

    2008-01-01

    There is not a single data source for information on the extent of nonfatal injuries inflicted by animals. Although individuals bitten or stung by animals may not visit a health care provider, they may call poison control centers (PCCs) for information. These centers are one source of information on the frequency of occurrence of injuries from animals. The American Association of Poison Control Centers compiles an annual report of exposure calls to various agents, including chemicals, medications, animal bites and stings, plants, and use of antivenoms from their network of PCCs. An estimate of the severity of exposure for each call is also determined. This review examines summary data on different species of animal bites and stings reported by PCCs from 2001 to 2005. From 2001 to 2005 there were 472 760 reports of animal bites and stings, an average of 94,552 per year. There was a trend noted for increasing use of antivenom over this period. Twenty-seven deaths were recorded, most from snakebites. Poison control centers are a source of information for health care workers on management of animal bites and stings. The database maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers is another source of information on the magnitude and public health impact of injuries from animals.

  5. Self-poisoning with baclofen in alcohol-dependent patients: national reports to French Poison Control Centers, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Pelissier, Fanny; de Haro, Luc; Cardona, Florence; Picot, Cyndie; Puskarczyk, Emmanuel; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Tournoud, Christine; Franchitto, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol use disorders are frequently associated with self-intoxication in attempted suicide. In France since 2008, the off-label use of baclofen for treatment of alcohol dependence has greatly increased, leading to temporary regulation of use of the drug. At the request of the national authorities, the French Poison Control Centers carried out a retrospective survey to give an overview of baclofen exposure in this population. A retrospective study was carried out from January 2008 to December 2013, focusing on baclofen exposures in alcohol-dependent patients managed by the nine national French Poison Control Centers. 294 observations of baclofen exposures in alcohol-dependent patients were identified in our database. Of these, 220 were suicide attempts by self-poisoning and 74 were unintentional. The mean age of patients was 41.7 years, with a sex-ratio of 1.6. Patients attempting suicide with baclofen were younger than those with unintentional exposures, and 43.6% of them were women (vs 22.9%, p < 0.01). The mean supposed ingested dose was higher (480.7 mg) in patients who attempted suicide (vs 192.5 mg, p < 0.0001). 21.8% of intentional exposures involved baclofen alone. Psychiatric comorbidity (50.4%) was more frequent in the group of self-poisoning (p < 0.001). 132 patients were coded as severely exposed (60.0%). Nine victims died, but the causal link between self-poisoning with baclofen and fatal outcome should be interpreted with particular caution. Baclofen self-poisoning by alcohol-dependent patients is a serious concern for the French health authorities. Our results are similar to those previously published, suggesting that most patients with baclofen overdose should be admitted to an intermediate or intensive care unit as the clinical course requires close monitoring. Because suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more prevalent in people with substance use disorders than in the general population, and because of the lack of

  6. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children: A Statement by the Center for Disease Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    The purpose of this statement by the Center for Disease Control is to reflect new data available from clinical, epidemiological and experimental studies by making revised recommendations regarding the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and followup of children with undue lead absorption and lead poisoning. The ultimate preventive goal is…

  7. Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education.

    PubMed

    Makalinao, Irma R; Awang, Rahmat

    2005-09-01

    Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The "Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals", a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well.

  8. Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education

    SciTech Connect

    Makalinao, Irma R. . E-mail: docirma@mydestiny.net; Awang, Rahmat

    2005-09-01

    Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The 'Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals', a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well.

  9. Poison control centers' role in glow product-related outbreak detection: implications for comprehensive surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Chu, Alvin F; Marcus, Steven M; Ruck, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The development of syndromic surveillance systems to detect bioterrorist attacks and emerging infectious diseases has become an important and challenging goal to many governmental agencies and healthcare authorities. This study utilized the sharp increase of glow product-related calls to demonstrate the utility of poison control data for early detection of potential outbreaks during the week of Halloween in 2007. A review was conducted of the electronic records of exposures reported to the New Jersey Poison Information and Education System (NJPIES) Poison Control Hotline from 2002 through 2007 with generic code number 0201027 (glow products) set by the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC). Key information such as age, gender, time of the call, exposure reason, clinical effects, and medical outcomes along with telephone number, zip code, and county location were used in the analyses to determine the extent of the outbreak. Analyses included a total of 139 glow product-related calls during the week of Halloween in 2007 with a single-day high of 59 calls on Halloween Day. More than 90% of the glow product exposures were in children 1-10 years of age. The glow product-related calls on Halloween Day increased from 14 calls in 2002 to 59 calls in 2007, a 321% increase during a six-year period. Poison control centers in the United States are equipped with a unique and uniform input data collection system -- the National Poison Data System -- that provides an important data source in the development of a comprehensive surveillance system for early outbreak detection.

  10. 2011 Annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 29th Annual Report.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Rumack, Barry H; Dart, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    This is the 29th Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS). As of 1 July 2011, 57 of the nation's poison centers (PCs) uploaded case data automatically to NPDS. The upload interval was 8.43 [6.29, 13.7] (median [25%, 75%]) minutes, creating a near real-time national exposure and information database and surveillance system. We analyzed the case data tabulating specific indices from NPDS. The methodology was similar to that of previous years. Where changes were introduced, the differences are identified. Poison center cases with medical outcomes of death were evaluated by a team of 38 medical and clinical toxicologist reviewers using an ordinal scale of 1-6 to assess the Relative Contribution to Fatality (RCF) of the exposure to the death. In 2011, 3,624,063 closed encounters were logged by NPDS: 2,334,004 human exposures, 80,266 animal exposures, 1,203,282 information calls, 6,243 human confirmed nonexposures, and 268 animal confirmed nonexposures. Total encounters showed an 8.3% decline from 2010, while health care facility exposure calls increased by 4.8%. Human exposures with less serious outcomes decreased by 3.4% while those with more serious outcomes (moderate, major or death) increased by 6.8%. All information calls decreased by 17.9% and health care facility (HCF) information calls decreased by 2.9%, Medication identification requests (Drug ID) decreased by 24.1%, and human exposures reported to US poison centers decreased by 2.2%. The top 5 substance classes most frequently involved in all human exposures were analgesics (11.7%), cosmetics/personal care products (8.0%), household cleaning substances (7.0%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (6.1%), and foreign bodies/toys/miscellaneous (4.1%). Analgesic exposures as a class increased most rapidly (10,134 calls/year) over the last 11 years. The top 5 most common exposures in children aged 5 years or less were cosmetics/personal care

  11. Ayahuasca Exposure: Descriptive Analysis of Calls to US Poison Control Centers from 2005 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Heise, C William; Brooks, Daniel E

    2016-11-28

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity. Psychotria viridis contains the 5HT2A/2C/1A receptor agonist hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Usual desired effects include hallucination, dissociation, mood alteration and perception change. Undesired findings previously reported are nausea, vomiting, hypertension, and tachycardia. All human exposure calls reported to the American Association of Poison Controls Centers' (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS) between September 1, 2005 and September 1, 2015 were reviewed. Cases were filtered for specific plant derived ayahuasca-related product codes. Abstracted data included the following: case age and gender, exposure reason, exposure route, clinical manifestations, treatments given, medical outcomes and fatality. Five hundred and thirty-eight exposures to ayahuasca botanical products were reported. The majority of the calls to poison control centers came from healthcare facilities (83%). The most common route of exposure was ingestion. Most cases were men (437, 81%, 95% CI 77.7% - 84.3%). The median age was 21 (IQR 18-29). Most exposures were acute. Three hundred thirty-seven (63%) were reported to have a major or moderate clinical effect. The most common clinical manifestations reported were hallucinations (35%), tachycardia (34%), agitation (34%), hypertension (16%), mydriasis (13%) and vomiting (6%). Benzodiazepines were commonly given (30%). There were 28 cases in the series who required endotracheal intubation (5

  12. Demand for poison control center services "surged" during the 2003 blackout.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kelly R; Herzog, Perri; Smolinske, Susan; White, Suzanne R

    2007-01-01

    Beginning 8/14/03, for 24 hours, the largest geographic power failure in U.S. history occurred. Our Poison Control Center (PCC) catchment area was one of the most severely affected, with most of the population left without electricity, fuel, water pressure, or municipal potable water. The paucity of reports on the impact of disasters on PCC operations led us to summarize our experience. Data sources included 1) Toxicall human exposures during 8/03 (with comparison to 2002 and to national trends) and 2) an after-action report completed by Specialists-in-Poison Information (SPI's) on duty during the disaster. The average call volume for 8/03 increased by 7.8%. Significant increases in human exposure and information calls occurred in four categories: gasoline, carbon monoxide, food poisoning, and water contamination. After-action report findings included: vulnerability of PCC operations to interruptions in power supply; lack of redundant communication methods; staffing challenges; and exclusion of PCC staff from hospital disaster plans despite co-location. During the blackout of 2003, there was a measurably increased demand for poison center services. PCC disaster plans should address increased staffing needs during the time of disaster, communication system redundancy, back-up power supply, and SPI needs (food, water, transportation, environmental safety, and rest/rotation).

  13. Trends in child and teen nonprescription drug abuse reported to a regional poison control center.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Barbara Insley; Caravati, E Martin; Booth, Jeremy

    2004-06-15

    Trends in child and teen nonprescription drug abuse reported to a regional poison control center over a 10-year period were examined. Human exposures to toxic substances reported to the Utah Poison Control Center between January 1990 and December 1999 were reviewed. Cases were selected for analysis if the exposure involved a nonprescription drug, the patient was 6-19 years old, and the reason for exposure was intentional abuse. Frequencies and cross-tabulations were calculated to identify trends in nonprescription drug abuse. There were 2214 reports of intentional drug abuse among children and teenagers 6-19 years old. Of those, 844 (38.1%) involved nonprescription drugs. The percentage of exposures Involving nonprescription products varied every year and declined over time. Exposures were slightly more common In males (51.7%). The site of exposure was a residence in 65% of cases and a school in 10% of cases. The majority of patients with exposures (68.4%) were treated In a health care facility. The most common types of nonprescription medications abused were drugs with anticholinergic properties, caffeine, dextromethorphan, and nonprescription stimulants. Reports of the Intentional abuse of nonprescription drugs by children and teenagers were common at a regional poison control center. There was significant variation in the type of nonprescription medication most commonly abused. The knowledge of these trends may assist public health policymakers, physicians, pharmacists, and child educators in their attempts to curb nonprescription drug abuse. drugs.

  14. Calls to Florida Poison Control Centers about mercury: Trends over 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Matthew O; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Stephan, Wendy B; Hunter, Candis M; Weisman, Richard S

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this analysis was to contrast trends in exposure-report calls and informational queries (a measure of public interest) about mercury to the Florida Poison Control Centers over 2003-2013. Poison-control specialists coded calls to Florida Poison Control Centers by substance of concern, caller demographics, and whether the call pertained to an exposure event or was an informational query. For the present study, call records regarding mercury were de-identified and provided along with daily total number of calls for statistical analysis. We fit Poisson models using generalized estimating equations to summarize changes across years in counts of daily calls to Florida Poison Control Centers, adjusting for month. In a second stage of analysis, we further adjusted for the total number of calls each day. We also conducted analyses stratified by age of the exposed. There was an overall decrease over 2003-2013 in the number of total calls about mercury [Ratio per year: 0.89, 95% CI: (0.88, 0.90)], and calls about mercury exposure [Ratio per year: 0.84, 95% CI: (0.83, 0.85)], but the number of informational queries about mercury increased over this time [Ratio per year: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.18)]. After adjusting for the number of calls of that type each day (e.g., call volume), the associations remained similar: a ratio of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.89) per year for total calls, 0.85 (0.83, 0.86) for exposure-related calls, and 1.17 (1.14, 1.21) for informational queries. Although, the number of exposure-related calls decreased, informational queries increased over 2003-2013. This might suggest an increased public interest in mercury health risks despite a decrease in reported exposures over this time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 2014 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 32nd Annual Report.

    PubMed

    Mowry, James B; Spyker, Daniel A; Brooks, Daniel E; McMillan, Naya; Schauben, Jay L

    2015-01-01

    This is the 32nd Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS). As of 1 January 2014, 56 of the nation's poison centers (PCs) uploaded case data automatically to NPDS. The upload interval was 7.82 [7.02, 11.17] (median [25%, 75%]) minutes, creating a near real-time national exposure and information database and surveillance system. We analyzed the case data tabulating specific indices from NPDS. The methodology was similar to that of previous years. Where changes were introduced, the differences are identified. Poison center cases with medical outcomes of death were evaluated by a team of medical and clinical toxicologist reviewers using an ordinal scale of 1-6 to assess the Relative Contribution to Fatality (RCF) of the exposure to the death. In 2014, 2,890,909 closed encounters were logged by NPDS: 2,165,142 human exposures, 56,265 animal exposures, 663,305 information calls, 6,085 human confirmed nonexposures, and 112 animal confirmed nonexposures. US poison centers (PCs) also made 2,617,346 follow-up calls in 2014. Total encounters showed a 5.5% decline from 2013, while health care facility human exposure cases increased by 3.3% from 2013. All information calls decreased by 17.7% and health care facility (HCF) information calls were essentially flat, decreasing by 0.04%, medication identification requests (Drug ID) decreased 29.8%, and human exposures reported to US PCs decreased 1.1%. Human exposures with less serious outcomes have decreased 3.40% per year since 2008 while those with more serious outcomes (moderate, major or death) have increased by 4.29% per year since 2000. The top 5 substance classes most frequently involved in all human exposures were analgesics (11.3%), cosmetics/personal care products (7.7%), household cleaning substances (7.7%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (5.9%), and antidepressants (4.4%). Sedative/Hypnotics/Antipsychotics exposures as a class increased the most

  16. 2015 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 33rd Annual Report.

    PubMed

    Mowry, James B; Spyker, Daniel A; Brooks, Daniel E; Zimmerman, Ashlea; Schauben, Jay L

    2016-12-01

    This is the 33rd Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS). As of 1 January 2015, 55 of the nation's poison centers (PCs) uploaded case data automatically to NPDS. The upload interval was 9.52 [7.40, 13.6] (median [25%, 75%]) minutes, creating a near real-time national exposure and information database and surveillance system. We analyzed the case data tabulating specific indices from NPDS. The methodology was similar to that of previous years. Where changes were introduced, the differences are identified. Poison center cases with medical outcomes of death were evaluated by a team of medical and clinical toxicologist reviewers using an ordinal scale of 1-6 to assess the Relative Contribution to Fatality (RCF) of the exposure. In 2015, 2,792,130 closed encounters were logged by NPDS: 2,168,371 human exposures, 55,516 animal exposures, 560,467 information calls, 7657 human confirmed nonexposures, and 119 animal confirmed nonexposures. US PCs also made 2,695,699 follow-up calls in 2015. Total encounters showed a 3.42% decline from 2014, while health care facility (HCF) human exposure cases increased by 5.09% from 2014. All information calls decreased by 15.5% but HCF information calls increased 2.67%, and while medication identification requests (Drug ID) decreased 31.7%, human exposures reported to US PCs were essentially flat, increasing by 0.149%. Human exposures with less serious outcomes have decreased 2.95% per year since 2008 while those with more serious outcomes (moderate, major or death) have increased by 4.34% per year since 2000. The top 5 substance classes most frequently involved in all human exposures were analgesics (11.1%), household cleaning substances (7.54%), cosmetics/personal care products (7.41%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (5.83%), and antidepressants (4.58%). Sedative/Hypnotics/Antipsychotics exposures as a class increased the most rapidly (2597 calls (11.4%)/year

  17. Case reports of lead poisoning in dogs from the National Animal Poison Control Center and the Centre National D'Informations Toxicologiques, Veterinaires: anecdotes or reality?

    PubMed

    Berny, P J; Cote, L M; Buck, W B

    1992-02-01

    This paper presents case reports of lead toxicoses from 2 major animal poison control centers in Europe and North America, gathered from 1985 through 1989. All results examined here involved cases assessed as "toxicosis" or "suspected toxicosis" by the National Animal Poison Control Center (NAPCC) or the Centre National d'Informations Toxicologiques Veterinaries (CNITV). 537 cases were reported to the NAPCC, most of them concerning dogs (59%). In France, most of the 362 cases involved cattle (57.2%). There was an increased number of cases reported during late summer and early fall, and a decreased number of cases in November and December, in both centers. Dogs intoxicated were predominantly young animals (60% were less than 2 years old). No sex difference was noted. Pure bred dogs appeared more often involved than mixed-breed ones, but the breed distribution closely resembles dog breed distribution in the US. The source of lead was usually unknown and, when information was available, paint seemed to be the most common cause of poisoning. Clinical signs reported to the animal poison control centers involved the CNS and GI tract. Results from the French and the American database showed similar trends. They are compared to data from veterinary clinics and veterinary colleges in the US and Australia. In each case, data are very similar to what was reported to the CNITV and the NAPCC. It is concluded that animal poison control centers databases can provide a useful tool for better knowledge of animal poisoning. They can also help identify unexpected toxicologic problems related to drug administration or pesticide use.

  18. Impact of the Use of Regional Poison Control Centers in an Urban EMS Dispatch System.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michael; Flores, John; Seabury, Seth A; Sanko, Stephen; Eckstein, Marc

    2017-03-01

    The public commonly calls 911 for unintentional ingestions, rather than calling the local poison center. By utilizing a series of scripted questions, 911 dispatchers in Los Angeles determine if an ingestion meets "omega-1" classification. Under such circumstances, the regional poison center is contacted prior to dispatch of paramedics. If the poison center advises that the patient can remain at home, EMS is not dispatched and the patient is followed at home by the poison center. The primary objective is to determine the number of averted transports through involvement of a poison center. A secondary objective is to determine the potential costs and charges saved with the use of such a strategy. A retrospective review of all overdose calls with an "omega-1" classification to a single EMS system between 1/2008-6/2012. Each call culminating in an EMS dispatch was subsequently reviewed by two additional reviewers. The cost savings was determined by utilizing data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) from 2000 to 2010. Monetary values were adjusted to 2012 dollars. Three hundred eighteen cases received "omega-1" dispatch classification. EMS was dispatched 19 times (5.98 %), and 11 patients (3.46 %) were ultimately transported. The most common reasons for transport were ambiguity over the ingested agent or amount, and caller insistence. Using these estimates, routine consultation of a regional poison center as part of EMS dispatch averted $486,595 in charges, and $183,279 in payments. Routine consultation of a poison center by emergency medical dispatchers can reduce unnecessary dispatches, ambulance transports, and ED visits with significant associated cost savings.

  19. Public Health Data for Individual Patient Care: Mapping Poison Control Center Data to the C-CDA Consultation Note

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Aly; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a new process of health information exchange supported collaboration that leverages the HL7 consolidated CDA standard through four document types (consultation note, history and physical, progress note and discharge summary). The focus of the present study is the C-CDA consultation note template that will be submitted from poison control centers (PCC)s to emergency departments (EDs) with treatment recommendations. Specifically, we aimed to (i) create computable mappings between a poison control center database and the C-CDA consultation note template; and (ii) assess the extent and nature of information types that successfully map to discrete data elements in a poison control center database. The resulting template and mappings can be used to implement standards-based health information exchange between PCCs and EDs in the U.S. This is a part of the first formal effort to leverage health information exchange standards to support PCC-ED collaboration. PMID:28269944

  20. Public Health Data for Individual Patient Care: Mapping Poison Control Center Data to the C-CDA Consultation Note.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Aly; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Cummins, Mollie R

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a new process of health information exchange supported collaboration that leverages the HL7 consolidated CDA standard through four document types (consultation note, history and physical, progress note and discharge summary). The focus of the present study is the C-CDA consultation note template that will be submitted from poison control centers (PCC)s to emergency departments (EDs) with treatment recommendations. Specifically, we aimed to (i) create computable mappings between a poison control center database and the C-CDA consultation note template; and (ii) assess the extent and nature of information types that successfully map to discrete data elements in a poison control center database. The resulting template and mappings can be used to implement standards-based health information exchange between PCCs and EDs in the U.S. This is a part of the first formal effort to leverage health information exchange standards to support PCC-ED collaboration.

  1. Pesticide poisoning in Palestine: a retrospective analysis of calls received by Poison Control and Drug Information Center from 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ansam F; O'Malley, Gerald F; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural industry is the largest economic sector in Palestine and is characterized by extensive and unregulated use of pesticides. The objective of this study was to analyze phone calls received by the Poison Control and Drug Information Center (PCDIC) in Palestine regarding pesticide poisoning. All phone calls regarding pesticide poisoning received by the PCDIC from 2006 to 2010 were descriptively analyzed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16) was used in statistical analysis and to create figures. A total of 290 calls regarding pesticide poisoning were received during the study period. Most calls (83.8%) were made by physicians. The average age of reported cases was 19.6 ± 15 years. Pesticide poisoning occurred mostly in males (56.9%). Pesticide poisoning was most common (75, 25.9%) in the age category of 20-29.9 years. The majority (51.7%) of the cases were deliberate self-harm while the remaining was accidental exposure. The majority of phone calls (250, 86.2%) described oral exposure to pesticides. Approximately one third (32.9%) of the cases had symptoms consistent with organophosphate poisoning. Gastric lavage (31.7%) was the major decontamination method used, while charcoal was only utilized in 1.4% of the cases. Follow up was performed in 45.5% of the cases, two patients died after hospital admission while the remaining had positive outcome. Pesticide poisoning is a major health problem in Palestine, and the PCDIC has a clear mission to help in recommending therapy and gathering information.

  2. Preventing lead poisoning in young children: A statement by the Centers for Disease Control, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, W.L.; Houk, V.N.; Falk, H.; Binder, S.

    1991-10-01

    The document is the fourth revision of the statement on Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The recommendations continued herein are based mainly on the scientific data showing adverse effects of lead in young children at increasingly lower blood lead levels. They are tempered, however, by practical considerations, for example, of the numbers of children who would require followup and the resources required to prevent this disease. It is possible that further scientific data and development of infrastructure and technology will result in a lowering of the blood lead level at which interventions are recommended at a future time. The statement is a departure from previous ones in several ways. Perhaps most important is the emphasis on primary prevention and the need for coordination between pediatric health-care providers and public agencies. The statement reflects the vision expressed in the Department of Health and Human Services' Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Childhood Lead Poisoning, which calls for a concerted, coordinated societywide effort to eliminate this disease. The authors identified several areas where better data are needed in order to provide scientifically sound guidance. These range from evaluating the efficacy of chelation therapy at lower blood lead levels in terms of preventing the adverse effects of lead to developing science-based criteria for determining when an abated unit is cleaned up enough for rehabilitation.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of a video module to increase U.S. poison center use by low-income parents.

    PubMed

    Kelly, N R; Harding, J T; Fulton, J E; Kozinetz, C A

    2014-01-01

    U.S. poison centers decrease medical visits by providing telephone advice for home management of potential poisonings, but are underutilized by low-income African-American and Latino parents, and those with limited English proficiency, due to lack of knowledge and misconceptions about poison centers. To assess the effectiveness of a poison prevention video module in improving knowledge, behavior, and behavioral intention concerning use of poison centers in a population of low-income, language-diverse adults attending parenting courses offered by a community organization. A randomized, blinded, controlled trial was conducted at 16 parenting course sites of a community organization and included 297 participants. The organization's instructors presented the video module (intervention) or the usual class curriculum (control). Participants completed questionnaires at baseline and a telephone interview 2-4 weeks later. Changes from baseline to follow-up were compared between the intervention and control groups using analysis of variance and Chi-square tests. Intervention group participants were stratified by English proficiency and compared to assess baseline and follow-up responses by language. After the intervention, participants in the intervention group had a significantly greater increase in knowledge about the poison center, were more likely to have the correct poison center phone number at home, and had greater behavioral intention to use the poison center compared to control group participants. At baseline, Spanish-primary-language participants with limited English proficiency had less knowledge about the poison center, were less likely to have the poison center number at home, and had lower behavioral intention to use the poison center than English proficient participants, but significantly improved after the intervention. This video module, when presented by a community organization's instructors, was highly effective in improving knowledge, behavior, and

  4. Determinants of U.S. poison center utilization.

    PubMed

    Litovitz, Toby; Benson, Blaine E; Youniss, Jessica; Metz, Edward

    2010-06-01

    High poison center utilization has been associated with decreased emergency department usage and hospitalization rates. However, utilization requires awareness of the poison center. Penetrance, defined as the number of human poison exposures reported to a poison center per 1,000 population, has been used as a marker of poison center awareness. To identify factors that influence poison center penetrance to optimize the life- and cost-saving benefits of poison control centers. Human poison exposures that were reported to the National Poison Data System in 2001 were analyzed to identify and rank factors affecting poison center penetrance. Overall penetrance correlated with pediatric penetrance (R(2) = 0.75, p < 0.01). As pediatric penetrance increased, there was a significant decline in the percent of children reported to a poison center that were already in or en route to a healthcare facility at the time of the call to the poison center (R(2) = 0.41, p < 0.01). Larger poison center service populations were associated with lower penetrance (R(2) = 0.23, p < 0.01). Inverse predictors of penetrance included inability to speak English well, Black/African American race, and distance from the poison center (multiple regression). Positive predictors included the percentage of the population younger than 5 years, the percentage of the adult population with a bachelor's degree, poison center certification, poison center educator FTEs (full time equivalents), Asian population percentage, and population density. The inverse correlation between pediatric penetrance and healthcare facility utilization supports prior observations of excessive healthcare utilization when a poison center is not called. Since race, language and distance are barriers to poison center utilization, and since healthcare utilization increases when poison center penetrance declines, low penetrance suggests a lack of awareness of the poison center rather than a low incidence of poisonings. Strategies to

  5. Relating calls to US poison centers for potential exposures to medications to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting of influenza-like illness.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Gillian A; McKeown, Nathanael J; Rodriguez, Sergio; Spyker, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) monitors influenza like illness (ILI) and the National Poison Data System (NPDS) warehouses call data uploaded by US poison centers regarding reported exposures to medication. We examined the relationship between calls to poison centers regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI and weekly reports of ILI. The CDC reports ILI, by age group, for each of 10 Health and Human Services (HHS) regions. We examined NPDS summary data from calls reported to poison centers regarding reported exposures to acetaminophen, cough/cold medications, and promethazine, for the same weeks, age groups, and HHS regions for influenza seasons 2000-2013. ILI and NPDS exposures were examined using graphical plots, descriptive statistics, stepwise regression analysis, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). About 5,101,841 influenza-like illness cases were reported to the CDC, and 2,122,940 calls regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI, were reported by poison centers to the NPDS over the 13 flu seasons. Analysis of stepwise models of the linear untransformed data involving 24 NPDS data groups and for 60 ILI measures, over the 13 influenza seasons, demonstrated that reported exposures to medications used to treat ILI correlated with reported cases of ILI with a median R(2 )=( )0.489 (min R(2 )=( )0.248, max R(2 )=( )0.717), with mean ± SD of R(2 )=( )0.494 ± 0.121. Median number of parameters used (degrees of freedom - 1) was 7. NPDS data regarding poison center calls for selected ILI medication exposures were highly correlated with CDC ILI data. Since NPDS data are available in real time, it provides complimentary ILI monitoring. This approach may provide public health value in predicting other illnesses which are not currently as thoroughly monitored.

  6. A retrospective review of 911 calls to a regional poison control center.

    PubMed

    Bosak, Adam; Brooks, Daniel E; Welch, Sharyn; Padilla-Jones, Angie; Gerkin, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    There is little data as to what extent national Emergency Medical Services (EMS; 911) utilize poison control centers (PCCs). A review of data from our PCC was done to better understand this relationship and to identify potential improvements in patient care and health care savings. Retrospective chart review of a single PCC to identify calls originating from 911 sources over a 4-year study period (1/1/08-12/31/11). Recorded variables included the origin of call to the PCC, intent of exposure, symptoms, management site, hospital admission, and death. Odds ratios (OR) were developed using multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for EMS dispatch, management site, and the need for hospital admission. A total of 7556 charts were identified; 4382 (58%) met inclusion criteria. Most calls (63.3%) involved accidental exposures and 31% were self-harm or misuse. A total of 2517 (57.4%) patients had symptoms and 2044 (50.8%) were transported to an Emergency Department (ED). Over 38% of calls (n = 1696) were handled primarily by the PCC and did not result in EMS dispatch; only 6.5% of cases (n = 287) with initial PCC involvement resulted in crew dispatch. There were 955 (21.8%) cases that resulted in admission, and five deaths. The OR for being transported to an ED was 45.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.2-68.4) when the crew was dispatched by the PCC. Hospital admission was predicted by intent for self-harm (OR 5.0; 95% CI: 4.1-6.2) and the presence of symptoms (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.9-3.0). The ORs for several other predictive variables are also reported. When 911 providers contact a PCC about poisoning-related emergencies, a history of intentional exposure and the presence of symptoms each predicted EMS dispatch by the PCC, patient transport to an ED, and hospital admission. Early involvement of a PCC may prevent the need for EMS activation or patient transfer to a health care facility.

  7. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its

  8. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  9. Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2014-10-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality.

  10. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  11. Increasing frequency and fatality of poison control center reported exposures involving medication and multiple substances: data from reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers 1984-2013.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Peter W; Farmer, Brenna M; O'Neill, Matthew; Essner, Rachel A; Flomenbaum, Neal E

    2016-08-01

    Medication use has become increasingly prevalent in the United States, with up trending use of both prescription and over the counter medication. The increasing use and availability of medication may be changing the nature of poisoning fatality. To evaluate changes in fatal poisoning over time, with respect to fatalities involving one or more medications, using annual reports published by the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC). AAPCC annual reports were reviewed from 1984 to 2013. Data from tables in each annual report titled Number of Substances Involved in Human Exposure Cases and Summary of Fatal Exposures were abstracted. Fatality rates and changes in these rates over time were calculated for exposures to 1, 2, or ≥ 3 substances. All substances detailed in Summary of Fatal Exposures tables were then coded as medication or non-medication. The percentage of fatalities involving 1, 2, or ≥ 3 medications was calculated and trended over time. Subset analysis was performed to compare the periods 1984-2005 and 2006-2013 in order to limit confounding from changes in reporting. Secondary analysis linking the number of substances cases were exposed to and the fatality rate was performed for data from 2006-2013. There were 59,866,357 human exposures and 29,659 fatalities reported from 1984 to 2013. There were 49.5 fatalities per 100,000 exposures. The majority of fatalities (52.2%) involved more than one substance, although multiple substances were involved in only 8.3% of exposures. Fatality rates increased over time and were higher for cases involving multiple substances. Medications were involved in 79.2% of fatalities, a percentage that increased from 70% in the 1980s to nearly 90% after 2010. In recent years, the majority of fatalities have involved multiple medications. For data from 2006-2013 there was a strong association between fatality rate and number of substances involved in an exposure (221 additional fatalities per 100

  12. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  13. Review of Experience of a Statewide Poison Control Center With Pediatric Exposures to Oral Antineoplastic Drugs in the Nonmedical Setting.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Stephen L; Liu, Jehnan; Soleymani, Kamyar; Romasco, Rebecca L; Farid, Hanieh; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    The use of oral antineoplastic agents in nonmedical settings continues to increase. There are limited data available on pediatric exposures to these agents. We sought to identify characteristics of such exposures. We performed a retrospective review of database of a statewide poison system from 2000 to 2009 for all cases of pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic agents, which took place in a nonmedical setting. Data collected include gender, age, agent of exposure, dose, drug concentration, reason for exposure, symptoms, outcomes, interventions, and length of hospital stay. There were a total of 328 patients. The mean average age was 4.1 years. Eighty-nine percentage (n = 293) was unintentional. Exposures to 21 different antineoplastic agents were identified. Methotrexate (n = 91) and 6-mercaptopurine (n = 47) were the most common agents encountered. Two hundred ninety-nine (91%) cases had no symptoms reported. When reported, gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 17) and central nervous system sedation (n = 6) were most common. One case of pancytopenia was reported. No deaths were reported in this series. Sixty-seven percent (n = 220) were managed at home, whereas 19 (6%) were admitted to a health care facility. Cases were followed by the poison control center for 0.34 days (SD = 1.40). In this study, exposures to oral antineoplastics were primarily unintentional, asymptomatic, and managed at home. Study limitations include possible reporting bias, inability to objectively confirm exposures, and limited duration of monitoring by the poison control center. In this retrospective review, no significant morbidity or mortality was reported from pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic drugs in the nonmedical setting.

  14. A Retrospective Study of Clinical Effects of Powdered Caffeine Exposures Reported to Three US Poison Control Centers.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Gillian A; Johnson, Amberly R; Crouch, Barbara I; Valento, Matthew; Horowitz, B Zane; Hendrickson, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    Anhydrous caffeine, often sold on the Internet as a powdered caffeine product, is sold as "pure caffeine" to be used as an additive to beverages and has also been used as an ingredient in energy supplement products. This is a retrospective multiple-poison center chart review of calls regarding powdered caffeine to poison centers covering Oregon, Alaska, Guam, Washington, and Utah between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2015. There were 40 calls to three poison centers over 30 months for powdered caffeine exposure. The majority of patients were over age 19 (52.5 %; 21/40) and male (70 %; 28/40). Sixty percent (24/40) of the patients were symptomatic but only 10 % (4/40) required admission; 52.5 % (21/40) of the patient calls were for inadvertent overdose of powdered caffeine; one patient overdosed in a self-harm attempt. Powdered caffeine calls to three poison centers during a 30-month study period were rare, and severe caffeine toxicity due to exposure was found in few patients. The majority of symptoms were reported after an inadvertent powdered caffeine overdose. An analysis of calls to three poison centers for powdered caffeine found that exposures were uncommon, but did result in toxicity, and highlighted that the lack of clear dosing instructions on product packaging may place patients at risk of inadvertent overdose.

  15. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The container or bottle from the medicine or ...

  16. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children. A Statement by the Centers for Disease Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This document is the fourth revision of a statement by the Centers for Disease Control. Introductory and background chapters present data that indicate significant adverse effects of lead levels in children's blood that were previously believed to be safe. Other chapters discuss: (1) sources of lead exposure, including paint, soil and dust, and…

  17. The value of a poison control center in preventing unnecessary ED visits and hospital charges: A multi-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Tak, Casey R; Malheiro, Marty C; Bennett, Heather K W; Crouch, Barbara I

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the economic value of the Utah Poison Control Center (UPCC) by examining its contribution to the reduction of unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits and associated charges across multiple years. A multi-year (2009-2014) analysis of cross-sectional data was performed. Callers were asked what they would do for a poison emergency if the UPCC was not available. Healthcare charges for ED visits averted were calculated according to insurance status using charges obtained from a statewide database. Of the 10,656 survey attempts, 5018 were completed. Over 30,000 cases were managed on-site each year. Using the proportion of callers who noted they would call 911, visit an ED, or call a physician's office, between 20.0 and 24.2 thousand ED visits were potentially prevented each year of the survey. Between $16.6 and $24.4 million dollars in unnecessary healthcare charges were potentially averted annually. Compared to the cost of operation, the service UPCC provides demonstrates economic value by reducing ED visits and associated charges. As the majority of patients have private insurance, the largest benefit falls to private payers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surveillance of toxic exposures: the pilot experience of the Poison Control Centers of Milan, Pavia and Bergamo in 2006.

    PubMed

    Settimi, Laura; Davanzo, Franca; Carbone, Pietro; Sesana, Fabrizio; Locatelli, Carlo; Farina, Maria Luisa; Maiozzi, Pietro; Roazzi, Paolo; Maccari, Fabio; Macchi, Luigi; Fanuzzi, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Between 1 February and 31 March 2006, the Poison Control Centers (PPC) active in Lombardy collaborated with an integrated surveillance system carried out in Piedmont during the Olympic Games 2006. The collaborating PPC notified to the system 697 human cases of exposure occurred in Piedmont during the observation period. Among these cases, 70% were exposed accidentally, 40% were 6 years old or younger, and 45% reported at least a clinical effect. The agents more frequently reported were: cleaning substances (household) (110 cases), fumes/gases/vapors (63 cases, comprising 38 cases accidentally exposed to carbon monoxide), and sedative/hypnotics/antipsychotics (53 cases). Although very limited, the available observations focused the attention on specific hazards and were able to highlight the potential of a toxic exposure surveillance system based on the information reported by the Italian PPC.

  19. Snakebites notified to the poison control center of Morocco between 2009 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Chafiq, Fouad; El Hattimy, Faiçal; Rhalem, Naima; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani-Bencheikh, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Snakebites cause considerable death and injury throughout the globe, particularly in tropical regions, and pose an important yet neglected threat to public health. In 2008, the Centre Anti Poison et de Parmacovigilance du Maroc (CAPM) started to set up a specific strategy for the control of snakebites that was formalized in 2012. The aim of the present study is to describe and update the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites notified to CAPM between 2009 and 2013. This retrospective five-year study included all cases of snakebites notified to CAPM by mail or phone. During the study period, 873 snakebite cases were reported to CAPM, an average incidence of 2.65 cases per 100,000 inhabitants with 218 cases each year. The highest incidence was found in Tangier-Tetouan region with 357 cases (40.9 %) followed by Souss Massa Draa region with 128 cases (14.6 %). The average age of patients was 26.8 ± 17.2 years. The male to female sex ratio was 1.67:1 and 77 % of cases occurred in rural areas. The bites occurred mainly in spring (44 %) followed by summer (42 %). Snake species was identified in 54 cases (6.2 %): colubrids represented 31 % (n = 18) and vipers 67 % (n = 36), mainly Daboia mauritanica, Bitis arietans and Cerastes cerastes. In 311 cases (35.6 %), the patients showed viper syndrome. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 23.5 % of viper syndrome cases, whereas, compartment syndrome was observed in 7.6 % patients. FAV-Afrique® was administered in 41 patients (5 %). In patients treated with antivenom, 38 patients recovered and three died. Twenty-seven deaths were reported (3.9 %). Despite specific efforts to better understand the epidemiology of snakebites in Morocco (incidence, severity, snake species involved), it remains underestimated. Therefore, further work is still necessary to ensure accessibility of appropriate antivenom against venomous species and to improve the management of envenomation in Morocco.

  20. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ... a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

  1. A controlled evaluation of case clinical effect coding by poison center specialists for detection of WMD scenarios.

    PubMed

    Beuhler, Michael C; Wittler, Mary A; Ford, Marsha; Dulaney, Anna R

    2011-08-01

    Many public health entities employ computer-based syndromic surveillance to monitor for aberrations including possible exposures to weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Often, this is done by screening signs and symptoms reported for cases against syndromic definitions. Poison centers (PCs) may offer significant contributions to public health surveillance because of their detailed clinical effect data field coding and real-time data entry. Because improper clinical effect coding may impede syndromic surveillance, it is important to assess this accuracy for PCs. An AAPCC-certified regional PC assessed the accuracy of clinical effect coding by specialists in poison information (SPIs) listening to audio recordings of standard cases. Eighteen different standardized cases were used, consisting of six cyanide, six botulism, and six control cases. Cases were scripted to simulate clinically relevant telephone conversations and converted to audio recordings. Ten SPIs were randomly selected from the center's staff to listen to and code case information from the recorded cases. Kappa scores and the percentage of correctly coding a present clinical effect were calculated for individual clinical effects summed over all test cases along with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. The rate of the case coding by the SPIs triggering the PC's automated botulism and cyanide alerts was also determined. The kappa scores and the percentage of correctly coding a present clinical effect varied depending on the specific clinical effect, with greater accuracy observed for the clinical effects of vomiting and agitation/irritability, and poor accuracy observed for the clinical effects of visual defect and anion gap increase. Lack of correct coding resulted in only 60 and 86% of the cases that met the botulism and cyanide surveillance definitions, respectively, triggering the corresponding alert. There was no difference observed in the percentage of coding a present clinical effect between

  2. A 9-state analysis of designer stimulant, "bath salt," hospital visits reported to poison control centers.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Brandon J; Hill, Meredith; Hekman, Kimberly; Christensen, Rachelle; Goetz, Robert; Casavant, Marcel J; Wahl, Michael; Mowry, James B; Spiller, Henry; Anderson, Deborah; Aleguas, Alfred; Gummin, David; Thomas, Ronald; Nezlek, Christopher; Smolinske, Susan

    2013-09-01

    A new generation of designer stimulants marketed as "bath salts" emerged in late 2010. The goal is to describe the epidemiologic emergence of designer stimulants in 9 states in the Midwest. A retrospective review of the National Poison Data System was performed between November 1, 2010, and November 30, 2011. Inclusion criteria were health care-evaluated bath salts or other synthetic stimulants exposures. Cases were excluded if the exposure was unrelated to a designer stimulant. Demographic and clinical characteristics of cases were calculated and differences in outcome and exposure by generation were examined. One thousand six hundred thirty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. Age ranged from 1 day to 61 years (mean=29.2 years), with 67.9% male patients. The most common clinical features were agitation (62.2%), tachycardia (55.2%), and hallucinations (32.7%). In addition to 15.5% of patients having a major medical effect, 0.6% died. Reason for use was primarily intentional abuse (88.5%). However, 0.7% of patients reported withdrawal. Treatment involved primarily benzodiazepines (58.5%), with 8.7% of patients being intubated. Baby Boomers were more likely to have a major medical outcome (24.2%) and to report injection as the method of administration (8.6%-12.9%). Synthetic stimulants rapidly swept across the Midwest, resulting in more than 1,600 patients seeking medical care. Serious medical effects or death was observed in 16.1% of cases. Older generations were more likely to inject and to have a major medical outcome. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. I Can't Believe It's Not Toothpaste! Poison Control Center Calls Regarding Dental and Oral-Care Products.

    PubMed

    Suchard, Jeffrey R

    2003-01-01

    A cluster of incidents in which non-tooth-paste products were used to brush teeth prompted a review of all calls to one Poison Control Center (PCC) regarding exposures to dental and oral-care products to determine if any resulted in significant toxicity. Retrospective review of 65,849 calls to one PCC during one calendar year. All inquiries about exposures to substances used as dental or oral-care products were analyzed by a single reviewer for reported adverse effects; including hospital admission or PCC referral for emergent medical evaluation. 798 calls involved exposure to dental or oral-care products, comprising 1.21 % of all calls received. Toothbrushing incidents with non-toothpaste products (122 cases) did not result in any significant recognized toxicity. Twenty-four patients were either referred for emergent medical evaluation (14) or were admitted to the hospital (10). In 23 of these patients (96%), the toxic agent was either an over-the-counter analgesic or a local anesthetic used to treat dental pain. Among PCC calls received regarding dental and oral-care products, over-the-counter analgesics and local anesthetics used for dental pain resulted in the most frequent need for emergent medical evaluation or for hospital admission.

  4. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site.

  5. Effects of a videotape to increase use of poison control centers by low-income and Spanish-speaking families: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nancy R; Huffman, Lynne C; Mendoza, Fernando S; Robinson, Thomas N

    2003-01-01

    Poison control centers (PCCs) reduce health care costs for childhood poisonings by providing telephone advice for home management of most cases. Past research suggests that PCCs are underutilized by low-income minority and Spanish-speaking parents because of lack of knowledge and misconceptions about the PCC. A videotape intervention was designed to address these barriers to PCC use. To evaluate the effectiveness of a videotape intervention (videotape, PCC pamphlet, and PCC stickers) in improving knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention regarding use of the PCC in a low-income and predominantly Spanish-speaking population in Northern California. Two hundred eighty-nine parents of children <6 years of age, attending educational classes at 2 Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) clinics participated in a randomized, controlled trial. WIC classes were randomized to receive the video intervention (video group) or to attend the regularly scheduled WIC class (control group). Participants completed a baseline questionnaire and 2 to 4 weeks later, a follow-up telephone interview. Changes from baseline to posttest were compared in the treatment and control groups using analysis of variance. Compared with the control group, the video group showed an increase in knowledge about the PCC's function, its hours of operation, and staff qualifications; was more likely to feel confident in speaking with and carrying out recommendations made by the PCC; was less likely to believe the PCC would report a mother for neglect; was more likely to have the correct PCC phone number posted in their homes; and when presented with several hypothetical emergency scenarios, was more likely to correctly answer that calling the PCC was the best action to take in a poisoning situation. This videotape intervention was highly effective in changing knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intentions concerning the PCC within this population. As a result, use of this video may help

  6. [Prevalence and epidemiology of Loxosceles laeta bite. Analysis of consultations to a poison control center].

    PubMed

    Ríos, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Marcela; Sánchez, Paula; Bettini, Marli; Mieres, Juan José; Paris, Enrique

    2007-09-01

    Loxoscelism is caused by the bite of spider Loxosceles laeta. It can cause a cutaneous or systemic syndrome. To determine the epidemiológica! and clinical features of patients bitten by the Chilean recluse spider (Loxosceles laeta). All communications received at a telephonic orientation center for intoxications during 2005 were analyzed, selecting those who involved patients with symptoms that suggested loxoscelism (i.e., pain, burning sensation, blue area, hematuria, fever or myalgia). These were derived to the emergency room for confirmation of the diagnosis. Forty-eight hours after the initial communication, patients were contacted by phone to find out about the definitive diagnosis. The variables analyzed were: gender, age, geographical location, time since exposure, part of the body involved, clinical signs and definitive diagnosis. Of 2,831 telephonic consultations with suspected loxoscelism, the diagnosis was confirmed in 287. All of these patients had cutaneous loxoscelism and only 7.3% of them developed visceral loxoscelism. Fifty six percent of patients with loxoscelism presented two or more clinical signs. The most common were a blue area, pain and a burning sensation, in 69%, 58% and 38% of patients, respectively. Fifty-one percent of patients developed signs within the first 12 hours. All patients with visceral syndrome presented with hemoglobinuria. No cases of loxoscelism were registered in areas located southern than the Xth region of Chile. There were no fatalities attributed to loxoscelism. Most cases of loxoscelism of this series were cutaneous. The population must be educated about the clinical signs of spider bite to seek early and adequate medical treatment.

  7. A poison center's emergency response plan.

    PubMed

    Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1988-04-01

    Over 30 major chemical accidents have occurred in the tri-state area during the last decade. A recent incident involved a train which was carrying at least 5 toxic chemicals and was derailed in a heavily populated area causing 20,000 residents to be evacuated from their homes twice in 24 hr. In a 30-hr period over 900 calls were received at the poison center and approximately 80 people were examined at local health care facilities and treated for symptoms of toxic fume inhalation. This incident prompted the poison center to evaluate our emergency response capabilities. A strategy was developed to enable the poison center to deal with an increased call volume rapidly and effectively. Our Emergency Response Plan includes a chain of command for notification in the event of an anticipated increase in call volume; delineated responsibilities for medical, administrative, and professional staff members; designation of phone lines for incoming and outgoing calls; and a means of documenting both poison exposures and inquiries regarding the chemicals. So that staff members may report to the center without delay, child care provisions are also included. The development of the Emergency Response Plan, potential applications, and a synopsis of the aforementioned chemical spill will be discussed in detail.

  8. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Cologne poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Jimsonweed poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... were eaten, if known Time swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Deodorant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Philodendron poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Ammonia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Kerosene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition Time the gasoline was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Anticoagulant rodenticides poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Rat killer poisoning; Rodenticide poisoning ... up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional. ... a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

  3. Monitoring poison control center data to detect health hazards during hurricane season--Florida, 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    2006-04-21

    Eight hurricanes made landfall in Florida from August 13, 2004, through October 24, 2005. Each hurricane caused flooding and widespread power outages. In the fall of 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) began retrospectively reviewing data collected by the Florida Poison Information Center Network (FPICN) during the 2004 hurricane season. During the 2005 hurricane season, FDOH, in consultation with FPICN, initiated daily monitoring of FPICN records of exposures that might reflect storm-related health hazards. Analysis of these data determined that 28 carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were reported to FPICN in the 2 days after Hurricane Katrina made its August 25, 2005, landfall in Florida, en route to a second landfall on the Gulf Coast. Data on CO and other exposures were used to develop and distribute public health prevention messages to Florida communities affected by hurricanes.

  4. Xylazine Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2016-10-01

    Xylazine is a sedative, analgesic, anesthetic, and central muscle relaxant approved for animals but not humans. Although xylazine is an emerging drug of abuse, there are limited data on potentially adverse exposures to the drug. The intent of this study was to describe potentially adverse xylazine exposures reported to a large poison center system. All xylazine exposures reported to Texas poison centers between 2000 and 2014 were included. The distribution of cases by select variables was determined. Of 76 total cases, 93% of the patients were ≥20 years of age, and 54% were male. Fifty-one percent of the exposures occurred by injection, 28% by ingestion, 16% were dermal, 14% were ocular, and 3% by inhalation. Sixty-four percent of the exposures were unintentional, 32% were intentional, and 1% each was related to malicious use and adverse reaction. Sixty-seven percent of the patients were already at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, 21% were managed on-site, and 9% were referred to a health care facility. The most common clinical effects were drowsiness or lethargy (47%), bradycardia (20%), hypotension (11%), hypertension (9%), puncture or wound (8%), and slurred speech (8%). Xylazine exposures tended to involve patients who were adult males, exposures were typically unintentional; and most often occurred by injection. Most of the patients were already at or en route to a health care facility when a poison center was contacted. The most frequently reported adverse effects were cardiovascular or neurologic in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Redotex ingestions reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although the multi-component weight loss supplement Redotex is banned in the United States, the supplement can be obtained in Mexico. The intent of this report was to describe the pattern of Redotex calls received by a statewide poison center system. Cases were all Redotex calls received by Texas poison centers during 2000-2008. The distribution of total calls and those involving ingestion of the supplement were determined for selected demographic and clinical factors. Of 34 total Redotex calls received, 55.9% came from the 14 Texas counties that border Mexico. Of the 22 reported Redotex ingestions, 77.3% of the patients were female and 45.5% 20 years or more. Of the 17 ingestions involving no co-ingestants, 52.9% were already at or en route to a health care facility, 41.2% were managed on site, and 5.9% was referred to a health care facility. The final medical outcome was no effect in 23.5% cases, minor effect in 5.9%, moderate effect in 11.8%, not followed but minimal clinical effects possible in 47.1%, and unable to follow but judged to be potentially toxic in 11.8%. Most Redotex calls to the Texas poison center system originated from counties bordering Mexico.

  6. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior.

  7. The pediatrician's role in the poison control movement and poison prevention.

    PubMed

    Arena, J M

    1983-09-01

    When Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote "To guard is better than to heal, the shield is nobler than the spear!" he must have had in mind the origin, many years later, of the poison control center movement. In 1952, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), through a survey by its newly appointed Committee on Accident Prevention, found that the most common medical emergency in children was poisoning. The study brought forth many requests for up-to-date information on toxic ingredients in household products, as well as for improved therapeutic measures. This gave impetus to the development and implementation of poison control centers in the United States, an endeavor practically all-pediatric oriented. Then, the development of safety closures and packaging and the Poison Prevention Packaging Act in 1970 rapidly followed. This is a historical account of the AAP's role and the combined efforts of practicing and academic pediatricians in a mid-20th century movement that has saved countless children's lives.

  8. Comparison of poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration hospitals reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, M B

    2017-01-01

    There is little information on poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. This investigation described and compared poisonings reported to Texas poison centers that were managed at military and VA hospitals. Retrospective analysis of poison centre data. Cases were poisonings among patients aged 18 years or more reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015 where management occurred at a military or VA hospital. The distribution of exposures for various demographic and clinical factors was determined for military and veterans hospitals and comparisons were made between the two groups. There were 4353 and 1676 poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, resepctively. Males accounted for 50.5% of the military hospital patients and 84.9% of the VA hospital patients. The mean age for military hospital patients was 31 years and for VA hospital patients was 50 years. The proportion of poisonings managed at military hospitals and VA hospitals, respectively, were intentional (70.0% vs 64.1%), particularly suspected attempted suicide (57.3% vs 47.7%), and unintentional (25.0% vs 30.5%). More than one substance was reported in 37.7% of military and 33.2% of VA hospital poisonings. The most commonly reported substance categories for poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, respectively, were analgesics (28.4% vs 19.7%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (24.7% vs 23.4%), antidepressants (18.7% vs 19.7%) and alcohol (11.3% vs 10.6%). A number of differences were observed between poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals. These differing patterns of poisonings may need to be taken into account in the education, prevention and treatment of poisonings at these hospitals and among the populations they serve. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "I wz wondering-uhm could 'Raid' uhm 'e'ffect the brain permanently d'y know?": Some Observations on the Intersection of Speaking and Writing in Calls to a Poison Control Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on how written records are created during calls to a Poison Control Center. Describes the relationship between writing and speaking in this bureaucratic context. Finds that keeping written records extends the length of call processing time, representing a barrier to handling new calls promptly. (MS)

  10. "I wz wondering-uhm could 'Raid' uhm 'e'ffect the brain permanently d'y know?": Some Observations on the Intersection of Speaking and Writing in Calls to a Poison Control Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on how written records are created during calls to a Poison Control Center. Describes the relationship between writing and speaking in this bureaucratic context. Finds that keeping written records extends the length of call processing time, representing a barrier to handling new calls promptly. (MS)

  11. Lipid rescue 911: Are poison centers recommending intravenous fat emulsion therapy for severe poisoning?

    PubMed

    Christian, Michael R; Pallasch, Erin M; Wahl, Michael; Mycyk, Mark B

    2013-09-01

    Intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) therapy is a novel treatment that has been used to reverse the acute toxicity of some xenobiotics with varied success. We sought to determine how US Poison Control Centers (PCCs) have incorporated IFE as a treatment strategy for poisoning. A closed-format multiple-choice survey instrument was developed, piloted, revised, and then sent electronically to every medical director of an accredited US PCC in March 2011. Addresses were obtained from the American Association of Poison Control Centers listserv, and participation was voluntary and remained anonymous. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The majority of PCC medical directors completed the survey (45 out of 57; 79 %). Of the 45 respondents, all felt that IFE therapy played a role in the acute overdose setting. Most PCCs (30 out of 45; 67 %) have a protocol for IFE therapy. In a scenario with "cardiac arrest" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their center would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (43 out of 45; 96 %), verapamil (36 out of 45; 80 %), amitriptyline (31 out of 45; 69 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (12 out of 45; 27 %). In a scenario with "shock" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their PCC would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (40 out of 45; 89 %), verapamil (28 out of 45; 62 %), amitriptyline (25 out of 45; 56 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (8 out of 45; 18 %). IFE therapy is being recommended by US PCCs; protocols and dosing regimens are nearly uniform. Most directors feel that IFE is safe but are more likely to recommend IFE in patients with cardiac arrest than in patients with severe hemodynamic compromise.

  12. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center.

    PubMed

    Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M; Narahari, M G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. This was a prospective observational study. The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Chi-Square test (χ(2)). A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning

  13. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    PubMed

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged < 13 years comprised the largest percent (69.8%) of the cases. The major type of exposure was unintentional ingestion. Ninety-nine types of poisonous plants were recorded as the causative agents among 99.1%of the cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 72.0% of cases with Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged < 13 years. The greatest number of fatalities were due to ingestion of Manihot esculenta (cassava), primarily due to multi-system organ failure. Children aged < 13 years are at the greatest risk for plant poisoning in Thailand; mostly unintentional. Most cases were minor and the mortality rate was low. Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings.

  14. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... eaten Amount swallowed The time it was swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002886.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac To use the sharing features ... the plant, if known Amount swallowed (if swallowed) Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  20. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Cuticle remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Drain cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Shaving cream poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Evaluation of quetiapine abuse and misuse reported to poison centers.

    PubMed

    Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; Schwartz, Elana K; Anderson, Bruce D

    2014-01-01

    There are case reports of abuse of quetiapine, but no studies address quetiapine abuse or misuse. Most literature on the population that abuses quetiapine describes an older age group with previous substance abuse history, many of whom are in jail. The objective of this study was to evaluate national poison center data on misuse/abuse of quetiapine. A retrospective study of American Association of Poison Control Centers National Poison Data System data from 2005 to 2011 on single substance quetiapine exposures coded as intentional misuse or abuse and followed to known outcome was performed. Data were evaluated for age, toxicity, management sites, treatments, and medical outcomes. There were 3116 cases meeting inclusion criteria; reason was misuse in 1948 cases and abuse in 1168 cases. The median age was 23 years. Misuse was reported most often in adults, whereas abuse occurred most frequently in adolescents. The male-to-female ratio was 1.7 for abuse and 1.0 for misuse. There were no deaths. Moderate or major toxicity occurred in 23.7% and 27.1% of misuse and abuse cases, respectively. Seventy-six percent were treated in the emergency department and/or received medical admission. Misuse was more common than abuse, except in adolescents for whom abuse was more frequent. Although outcomes were generally good, significant toxicity occurred in 25% of cases and more than 75% of the patients were treated in the emergency department and/or received medical admission. The consequences of nonmedical use of quetiapine are serious in some patients.

  16. POISON CONTROL—Operation of an Information Center in a Rural and Agricultural Community

    PubMed Central

    Bocian, J. J.

    1960-01-01

    The Fresno Community Hospital Poison Control Center has been in operation for about three years, under the sole directorship of the pathologist. All expenses are paid by the hospital. It has served a definite need in the community. As an agricultural and more or less rural community, it shows more poison cases having to do with plants, insecticides, kerosene and fertilizers than do urban communities. PMID:13801875

  17. The importance of interpersonal communication in poison centers.

    PubMed

    Crouch, B I; Thomas, K C; Rothwell, E; Planalp, S; Ellington, L; Teemant, K

    2013-11-01

    Poison control center (PCC) personnel face many challenges in communicating with callers and with each other. The purpose of this study was to identify interpersonal communication issues that affect the work environment within PCCs. As part of a larger questionnaire study distributed electronically to members of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) to assess communication training needs for PCCs, three questions were included to assess interpersonal communication within the work environment: (1) How important is interpersonal communication within your center to a positive work environment? (not at all to extremely important, 1-7); (2) How disruptive is interpersonal communication to your work? (not at all to extremely disruptive, 1-7); and (3) What communication issues do you find most disruptive to your work? (free-text response). Descriptive and qualitative content analyses were used to identify themes in responses. A total of 537 responses were received from SPIs, directors, medical directors, and other PCC staff. Interpersonal communication within the PCC was rated as extremely important to a positive work environment (median = 7 and IQR = 6-7; 62.3% rated as extremely important). Interpersonal communication was rated as less than moderately disruptive on average (median = 3 and IQR = 2-4). Free-text responses were received from 335 (62%) respondents. Free-text comments were broadly categorized as relating to PCC personnel and work environment and issues related to PCC callers. Categories that emerged from the PCC personnel and work environment category included the following: poor interpersonal communication (n = 104; 31%); background noise (n = 96; 29%); poor work procedures (n = 51; 15%); and poor management communication (n = 38; 11%). Interpersonal communication within PCCs was considered to be important for a positive work environment. Although not found to be strongly disruptive by most respondents, several specific interpersonal

  18. A model to improve the accuracy of US Poison Center data collection.

    PubMed

    Krenzelok, E P; Reynolds, K M; Dart, R C; Green, J L

    2014-01-01

    Over 2 million human exposure calls are reported annually to United States regional poison information centers. All exposures are documented electronically and submitted to the American Association of Poison Control Center's National Poison Data System. This database represents the largest data source available on the epidemiology of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical poisoning exposures. The accuracy of these data is critical; however, research has demonstrated that inconsistencies and inaccuracies exist. This study outlines the methods and results of a training program that was developed and implemented to enhance the quality of data collection using acetaminophen exposures as a model. Eleven poison centers were assigned randomly to receive either passive or interactive education to improve medical record documentation. A task force provided recommendations on educational and training strategies and the development of a quality-measurement scorecard to serve as a data collection tool to assess poison center data quality. Poison centers were recruited to participate in the study. Clinical researchers scored the documentation of each exposure record for accuracy. Results. Two thousand two hundred cases were reviewed and assessed for accuracy of data collection. After training, the overall mean quality scores were higher for both the passive (95.3%; + 1.6% change) and interactive intervention groups (95.3%; + 0.9% change). Data collection accuracy improved modestly for the overall accuracy score and significantly for the substance identification component. There was little difference in accuracy measures between the different training methods. Despite the diversity of poison centers, data accuracy, specifically substance identification data fields, can be improved by developing a standardized, systematic, targeted, and mandatory training process. This process should be considered for training on other important topics, thus enhancing the value of these data in

  19. Epidemiological trends in electronic cigarette exposures reported to U.S. Poison Centers.

    PubMed

    Vakkalanka, J P; Hardison, L S; Holstege, C P

    2014-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported an increase in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in both adults and adolescents. Poison Center calls provide data on exposures pertaining to e-cigarette devices and components (including nicotine-refill cartridges), potentially identifying epidemiological trends in reported exposures over time. To characterize the trends in e-cigarette exposures reported to United States (U.S.) Poison Centers between 01 June 2010 and 30 September 2013. We obtained data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) for all exposures involving e-cigarettes reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) by U.S. Poison Centers and described trends in exposures over time, demographics, geographical characteristics, clinical effects and outcomes, management site, and exposure route. A total of 1,700 exposures were reported to Poison Centers during this time. The most frequent age groups were children 5 years or below with 717 (42.2%) exposures and adults ages 20-39 years with 466 (27.4%) exposures. Temporal trends showed an increase of 1.36 exposures per month [95% CI: 1.16-1.56] from June 2010 through December 2012, after which exposures increased by 9.60 per month [95% CI: 8.64-10.55] from January through September 2013. The majority of patients who were followed reported that they had only minor effects. The majority of exposures to e-cigarette devices and components occurred in children of 5 years or below due to accidental exposure. Based on the available data, the reported exposures have resulted in minimal toxicity. Calls to Poison Centers regarding these products have rapidly increased since 2010, and continued surveillance may show changes in the epidemiological trends surrounding e-cigarette exposures.

  20. Poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel: a National Poison Center Data analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavon, Ophir; Bentur, Yedidia

    2017-06-01

    To characterize poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel as reported to the national poison center. Retrospective poison center chart review over a 14-year period. Cases included were Israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, the compulsory military service age required by the Israeli law. 1770 records of poison exposures in young military personnel were identified. Most exposed individuals involved males (n = 1268, 71.6%). Main routes of exposure were ingestion (n = 854, 48.3%), inhalation (n = 328, 18.6%) and ocular (n = 211, 11.9%). Accidents or misuse (n = 712, 40.2%) were the most frequently reported circumstances, followed by suicide attempts (370, 20.9%), and bites and stings (161, 9.1%). More than half of the cases involved chemicals (n = 939, 53.1%); hydrocarbons, gases and corrosives were the main causative agents. Pharmaceuticals (mainly analgesics) were involved in 519 (29.3%) cases, venomous animals (mainly scorpions, centipedes, and snakes) in 79 (4.5%). Clinical manifestations were reported in 666 (37.6%) cases, mostly gastrointestinal, neurologic, and respiratory. The vast majority of cases (1634, 92.3%) were asymptomatic or mildly affected; no fatalities were recorded. In 831 (46.9%) cases the clinical toxicologist recommended referral to an emergency department; ambulatory observation was recommended in 563 (31.8%) cases, and hospitalization in 86 (4.9%). Our data show that poison exposures among young soldiers involve mainly males, accidents, misuse and suicides, oral route and chemicals; most exposures were asymptomatic or with mild severity. Repeated evaluations of poison center data pertaining to military personnel is advised for identifying trends in poison exposure and characteristics in this particular population.

  1. The poison center role in biological and chemical terrorism.

    PubMed

    Krenzelok, E P; Allswede, M P; Mrvos, R

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism countermeasures are a major priority with municipalities, healthcare providers, and the federal government. Significant resources are being invested to enhance civilian domestic preparedness by conducting education at every response level in anticipation of a NBC terroristic incident. The key to a successful response, in addition to education, is integration of efforts as well as thorough communication and understanding the role that each agency would play in an actual or impending NBC incident. In anticipation of a NBC event, a regional counter-terrorism task force was established to identify resources, establish responsibilities and coordinate the response to NBC terrorism. Members of the task force included first responders, hazmat, law enforcement (local, regional, national), government officials, the health department, and the regional poison information center. Response protocols were developed and education was conducted, culminating in all members of the response task force becoming certified NBC instructors. The poison center participated actively in 3 incidents of suspected biologic and chemical terrorism: an alleged anthrax-contaminated letter sent to a women's health clinic; a possible sarin gas release in a high school: and a potential anthrax/ebola contamination incident at an international airport. All incidents were determined hoaxes. The regional response plan establishes the poison information center as a common repository for all cases in a biological or chemical incident. The poison center is one of several critical components of a regional counterterrorism response force. It can conduct active and passive toxicosurveillance and identify sentinel events. To be responsive, the poison center staff must be knowledgeable about biological and chemical agents. The development of basic protocols and a standardized staff education program is essential. The use of the RaPiD-T (R-recognition, P

  2. Unintentional Epinephrine Auto-injector Injuries: A National Poison Center Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Anshien, Marco; Rose, S Rutherfoord; Wills, Brandon K

    2016-11-24

    Epinephrine is the only first-line therapeutic agent used to treat life-threatening anaphylaxis. Epinephrine auto-injectors are commonly carried by patients at risk for anaphylaxis, and reported cases of unintentional auto-injector injury have increased over the last decade. Modifications of existing designs and release of a new style of auto-injector are intended to reduce epinephrine auto-injector misuse. The aim of the study was to characterize reported cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures from 2013 to 2014 and compare demographics, auto-injector model, and anatomical site of such exposures. The American Association of Poison Control Center's National Poison Data System was searched from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, for cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures. Anatomical site data were obtained from all cases reported to the Virginia Poison Center and participating regional poison center for Auvi-Q cases. A total of 6806 cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures were reported to US Poison Centers in 2013 and 2014. Of these cases, 3933 occurred with EpiPen, 2829 with EpiPen Jr, 44 with Auvi-Q, and no case reported of Adrenaclick. The most common site of unintentional injection for traditional epinephrine auto-injectors was the digit or thumb, with 58% of cases for EpiPen and 39% of cases with EpiPen Jr. With Auvi-Q, the most common site was the leg (78% of cases). The number of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector cases reported to American Poison Centers in 2013-2014 has increased compared with previous data. Most EpiPen exposures were in the digits, whereas Auvi-Q was most frequently in the leg. Because of the limitations of Poison Center data, more research is needed to identify incidence of unintentional exposures and the effectiveness of epinephrine auto-injector redesign.

  3. Neonicotinoid insecticide exposures reported to six poison centers in Texas.

    PubMed

    Forrester, M B

    2014-06-01

    Neonicotinoids are a relatively newer class of insecticide. Used primarily in agriculture, neonicotinoids are also used for flea control in domestic animals. Information on human exposures to neonicotinoids is limited. Neonicotinoid exposures reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2012 were identified and the distribution by selected factors examined. Of 1,142 total exposures, most products contained imidacloprid (77%) or dinotefuran (17%). The exposures were seasonal with half reported during May-August. The most common routes of exposure were ingestion (51%), dermal (44%), and ocular (11%). The distribution by patient age was 5 years or less (28%), 6-19 years (9%), 20 years or more (61%), and unknown (2%); and 64% of the patients were female. Of all, 97% of the exposures were unintentional and 97% occurred at the patient's own residence. The management site was on-site (92%), already at/en route to a health care facility (6%), and referred to a health care facility (2%). The medical outcomes included no effect (22%), minor effect (11%), moderate effect (1%), not followed judged nontoxic (14%), not followed minimal effects (46%), unable to follow potentially toxic (1%), and unrelated effect (4%). The most commonly reported adverse clinical effects were ocular irritation (6%), dermal irritation (5%), nausea (3%), vomiting (2%), oral irritation (2%), erythema (2%), and red eye (2%). The most frequently reported treatments were dilution/wash (85%) and food (6%). In summary, these data suggest that the majority of neonicotinoid exposures reported to the poison centers may be managed outside of health care facilities with few clinical effects expected. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Hospital Performance Indicators and Their Associated Factors in Acute Child Poisoning at a Single Poison Center, Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q.; Al-Jeriasy, Majed I.; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H.; Afesh, Lara Y.; Alhammad, Fahad; Salam, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Admission rate and length of stay (LOS) are two hospital performance indicators that affect the quality of care, patients’ satisfaction, bed turnover, and health cost expenditures. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with higher admission rates and extended average LOS among acutely poisoned children at a single poison center, central Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional, poison and medical chart review between 2009 and 2011. Exposures were child characteristics, that is, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), health history, and Canadian 5-level triage scale. Poison incident characteristics were, that is, type, exposure route, amount, form, home remedy, and arrival time to center. Admission status and LOS were obtained from records. Chronic poisoning, plant allergies, and venomous bites were excluded. Bivariate and regression analyses were applied. Significance at P < 0.05. Of the 315 eligible cases, (72%) were toddlers with equal gender distribution, (58%) had normal BMI, and (77%) were previously healthy. Poison substances were pharmaceutical drugs (63%) versus chemical products (37%). Main exposure route was oral (98%). Home remedy was observed in (21.9%), which were fluids, solutes, and/or gag-induced vomiting. Almost (52%) arrived to center >1 h. Triage levels: non-urgent cases (58%), less urgent (11%), urgent (18%), emergency (12%), resuscitative (1%). Admission rate was (20.6%) whereas av. LOS was 13 ± 22 h. After adjusting and controlling for confounders, older children (adj.OR = 1.19) and more critical triage levels (adj.OR = 1.35) were significantly associated with higher admission rates compared to younger children and less critical triage levels (adj.P = 0.006) and (adj.P = 0.042) respectively. Home remedy prior arrival was significantly associated with higher av. LOS (Beta = 9.48, t = 2.99), compared to those who directly visited the center, adj.P = 0.003. Hospital administrators

  5. Hospital Performance Indicators and Their Associated Factors in Acute Child Poisoning at a Single Poison Center, Central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Al-Jeriasy, Majed I; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Afesh, Lara Y; Alhammad, Fahad; Salam, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Admission rate and length of stay (LOS) are two hospital performance indicators that affect the quality of care, patients' satisfaction, bed turnover, and health cost expenditures. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with higher admission rates and extended average LOS among acutely poisoned children at a single poison center, central Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional, poison and medical chart review between 2009 and 2011. Exposures were child characteristics, that is, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), health history, and Canadian 5-level triage scale. Poison incident characteristics were, that is, type, exposure route, amount, form, home remedy, and arrival time to center. Admission status and LOS were obtained from records. Chronic poisoning, plant allergies, and venomous bites were excluded. Bivariate and regression analyses were applied. Significance at P < 0.05.Of the 315 eligible cases, (72%) were toddlers with equal gender distribution, (58%) had normal BMI, and (77%) were previously healthy. Poison substances were pharmaceutical drugs (63%) versus chemical products (37%). Main exposure route was oral (98%). Home remedy was observed in (21.9%), which were fluids, solutes, and/or gag-induced vomiting. Almost (52%) arrived to center >1 h. Triage levels: non-urgent cases (58%), less urgent (11%), urgent (18%), emergency (12%), resuscitative (1%). Admission rate was (20.6%) whereas av. LOS was 13 ± 22 h. After adjusting and controlling for confounders, older children (adj.OR = 1.19) and more critical triage levels (adj.OR = 1.35) were significantly associated with higher admission rates compared to younger children and less critical triage levels (adj.P = 0.006) and (adj.P = 0.042) respectively. Home remedy prior arrival was significantly associated with higher av. LOS (Beta = 9.48, t = 2.99), compared to those who directly visited the center, adj.P = 0.003.Hospital administrators are cautioned

  6. Poisoning in Israel: annual report of the Israel Poison Information Center, 2012.

    PubMed

    Bentur, Yedidia; Lurie, Yael; Cahana, Alfred; Kovler, Nona; Bloom-Krasik, Anna; Gurevych, Bella; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    The Israel National Poison Information Center (IPIC), Rambam Health Care Campus, provides 24 hour telephone consultations in clinical toxicology as well as drug and teratogen information. It participates in research, teaching and regulatory activities, and also provides laboratory services. To report data on the epidemiology of poisonings and poison exposures in Israel. We made computerized queries and descriptive analyses of the medical records database of the IPIC during 2012. A total of 31,519 poison exposure cases were recorded, a 157.6% increase compared with 1995. Children < 6 years of age were involved in 43.1% of cases; 74.0% of calls were made by the public and 23.7% by physicians; 74.8% of exposures were unintentional and 9.1% intentional. Chemicals were involved in 35.8% of all cases (single and multiple substances), pharmaceuticals in 48.8%, bites and stings in 3.8%, and plants and mushrooms in 1.6%. Substances most frequently involved were analgesics, cleaning products and antimicrobials. Clinical severity was moderate/major in 3.4%. Substances most frequently involved in moderate/major exposures were corrosives, insecticides and snake venom. Four fatalities were recorded; all were intentional exposures in adults (corrosive, medications, energy drink). Poison exposures and poisonings have increased significantly and have contributed substantially to morbidity and mortality in Israel. The IPIC database is a valuable national resource for the collection and monitoring of poisoning exposure cases. It can be used as a real-time surveillance system for the benefit of public health. It is recommended that reporting to the IPIC become mandatory and its activities be adequately supported by national resources.

  7. Morbidity and Mortality Associated With Medications Used in the Treatment of Depression: An Analysis of Cases Reported to U.S. Poison Control Centers, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J Craig; Spyker, Daniel A

    2017-05-01

    The authors sought to determine the relative morbidity and mortality associated with drugs used to treat depression and to examine specific clinical effects associated with serious outcomes. The National Poison Data System, which receives exposure reports from regional poison centers serving the United States, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, was queried for single drug exposures in individuals 12 years and older during the period 2000-2014. Medications included were antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, lithium, and other medications used in the treatment of depression. The main outcomes were the morbidity index (the number of serious outcomes per 1,000 exposures) and the mortality index (the number of fatal outcomes per 10,000 exposures). During this 15-year period, there were 962,222 single substance exposures to the 48 medications studied. Serious outcomes rose 2.26-fold and in linear fashion over the 15 years. While tricyclic and monoamine oxidase inhibitor medications were associated with high morbidity and mortality, several newer agents also appeared hazardous. Lithium, quetiapine, olanzapine, bupropion, and carbamazepine were associated with high morbidity indices. Lithium, venlafaxine, bupropion, quetiapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone, valproic acid, carbamazepine, and citalopram were associated with higher mortality indices. Serious outcomes after overdose or nonintentional exposures to medications used to treat depression have risen dramatically over the past 15 years. The present data suggest that the morbidity and mortality risks vary substantially among these medications. These differences become important when selecting treatments for patients with depression, especially those at increased risk for suicide.

  8. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning and Climate Change: Analysis of National Poison Center Data in the United States, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Matthew J.; Hess, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Increased severe storm frequency may create more habitat for ciguatoxic organisms. Although climate change could expand the endemic range of CFP, the relationship between CFP incidence and specific environmental conditions is unknown. Objectives: We estimated associations between monthly CFP incidence in the contiguous United States and SST and storm frequency in the Caribbean basin. Methods: We obtained information on 1,102 CFP-related calls to U.S. poison control centers during 2001–2011 from the National Poison Data System. We performed a time-series analysis using Poisson regression to relate monthly CFP call incidence to SST and tropical storms. We investigated associations across a range of plausible lag structures. Results: Results showed associations between monthly CFP calls and both warmer SSTs and increased tropical storm frequency. The SST variable with the strongest association linked current monthly CFP calls to the peak August SST of the previous year. The lag period with the strongest association for storms was 18 months. If climate change increases SST in the Caribbean 2.5–3.5°C over the coming century as projected, this model implies that CFP incidence in the United States is likely to increase 200–400%. Conclusions: Using CFP calls as a marker of CFP incidence, these results clarify associations between climate variability and CFP incidence and suggest that, all other things equal, climate change could increase the burden of CFP. These findings have implications for disease prediction, surveillance, and public health preparedness for climate change. Citation: Gingold DB, Strickland MJ, Hess JJ. 2014. Ciguatera fish poisoning and climate change: analysis of National Poison Center data in the United States, 2001–2011. Environ Health Perspect 122:580–586; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307196 PMID:24618280

  9. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant.

  10. Analysis of Hymenoptera stings reported to the Illinois Poison Center.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lee S; Modi, Pinal; Liang, Shile; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Although there is some detailed research on anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera venom, there continues to be little epidemiological data about the distribution, trend, and factors associated with the occurrence of Hymenoptera envenomations in humans. We describe characteristics of persons suffering Hymenoptera stings from bees, wasps, and hornets as reported to the Illinois Poison Center, and assess seasonal, climatologic, and time trends of calls for envenomations between 2002 and 2007. Mean daily temperature and mean daily atmospheric pressure were positively associated with envenomations, whereas wind speed was negatively associated with envenomations. We also observed a significant increase in calls for envenomations on summer holidays (P < 0.001). In addition, our findings showed that the number of calls for envenomations declined by nearly half after 2005 (P < 0.001) compared with previous years. Our findings indicate that the decline in bees, wasps, and hornets may be widespread, affecting both wild and commercial populations, and that the decline appears to have been rapid and sustained in recent years. Poison center data are a valuable resource for the surveillance of poisoning in humans, but our findings show that the data can be used to monitor changes in nonhuman species.

  11. Compatibility of refractory materials for nuclear reactor poison control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Metal-clad poison rods have been considered for the control system of an advanced space power reactor concept studied at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Such control rods may be required to operate at temperatures of about 140O C. Selected poison materials (including boron carbide and the diborides of zirconium, hafnium, and tantalum) were subjected to 1000-hour screening tests in contact with candidate refractory metal cladding materials (including tungsten and alloys of tantalum, niobium, and molybdenum) to assess the compatibility of these materials combinations at the temperatures of interest. Zirconium and hafnium diborides were compatible with refractory metals at 1400 C, but boron carbide and tantalum diboride reacted with the refractory metals at this temperature. Zirconium diboride also showed promise as a reaction barrier between boron carbide and tungsten.

  12. A regional poison center's experience with poisoning exposures occurring in schools.

    PubMed

    Perry, P A; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1992-04-01

    The nature of and response to poisonings in the school setting has not been characterized. To define these problems a retrospective review of calls to a Regional Poison Information Center (RPIC) involving school exposures was done for the 1988-89 academic year. 362 cases were reported; 74% were reported by school nurses, 10% by other school employees, 10% by parents, 5% by health care facilities, and 1% by students themselves. Ingestions accounted for 45% of exposures, dermal 24%, ocular 19%, inhalation 7%, with the remainder being combinations of routes. Correct treatment prior to RPIC consultation occurred in only 40% of the cases. None developed major symptoms, 23% had minor and 10% had moderate symptoms. High school students accounted for the greatest number (20) of suicide gestures, while middle schools reported more cases of substance abuse. School nurses often were unaware of situations until several hours later. 61% of suicide gestures were referred to an HCF; 7 of these developed moderate symptoms. Exposures to chemicals in science or vo-tech classes accounted for 102 cases; 28% were referred to a HCF and 15% had moderate symptoms. There was often a delay in evaluation by the school nurse and initial decontamination was inadequate or absent. Parents were often instructed by school personnel to contact the RPIC for information and then relay it to the school. These delays could have resulted in greater toxicity. School nurses should be targeted for educational programs by poison centers, but teachers and other school employees must also be included since often they are the first at the scene. Students should be instructed to report exposures to a teacher immediately.

  13. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Impact of Hurricane Ike on Texas poison center calls.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2009-10-01

    On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall in Texas, resulting in the mandatory evacuation of 8 counties before landfall and the declaration of disaster areas in 29 counties afterward. This study evaluated whether Hurricane Ike affected the pattern of Texas poison center calls. Texas poison center calls received from the disaster area counties were identified for 3 time periods: August 12 to September 10, 2008 (preevacuation), September 11 to 13, 2008 (evacuation and hurricane landfall), and September 14 to 30, 2008 (postevacuation). For selected types of calls, the mean daily call volume during time periods 2 and 3 was compared with a baseline range (BR) derived from the mean daily call volume during time period 1. During the evacuation and landfall period, gasoline exposure calls were higher than expected (mean 3, BR -1 to 2). During the postevacuation period, higher than expected numbers of calls were observed for gasoline exposures (mean 5, BR -1 to 2) and carbon monoxide exposures (mean 3, BR -1-1). During an evacuation, certain calls such as those involving gasoline exposures may increase. After a hurricane, calls such as those involving carbon monoxide and gasoline exposures may increase.

  16. Budget cuts and U.S. Poison Centers - regional challenges create a nationwide problem.

    PubMed

    Giffin, S; Heard, S E

    2009-09-01

    Federal funding of poison centers (PCs) in the United States was established in 2000 through the Poison Control Center Enhancement and Awareness Act. Unfortunately, the problems with financial stability of PCs that this legislation was intended to improve persist because of continued reliance on fragile local funding sources. In the past few months budget cuts have had an impact on PC activity and threaten the continued existence of a nationwide network of PCs in the United States. This commentary discusses the problems faced by PCs in this changing environment and illustrates the many competing tasks that the PC network performs for the U.S. population. PCs face continuing challenges in coming months and a unified approach at a national level may provide the best opportunity for a solution to this crisis.

  17. Sticky situations: cyanoacrylate exposures reported to a poison control system.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Shaun D; Koh, Cynthia; Qian, Lily; Qozi, Mariam; Seivard, Grant; Cantrell, F Lee

    2017-11-01

    Cyanoacrylate (Super Glue(®)) exposures are commonly reported to poison control centers, but little has been published in the medical literature regarding these exposures. We sought to characterize cyanoacrylate exposures reported to a poison control system. We performed a retrospective review of a poison system's database for all cases of single-substance human exposure to cyanoacrylate-containing products from 2005 to 2015. Data collected included age, gender, route of exposure, clinical effects, treatments recommended and medical outcome. There were a total of 893 patients, 505 (56.6%) of which were female. Patient ages ranged from 6 months to 88 years with a median of 11 years. The vast majority of exposures (n = 871, 97.5%) were unintentional, but a small number of exposures (n = 22, 2.5%) were due to intentional misuse (such as trying to stop a bleeding cut) or malicious intent (such as purposefully gluing a person's eyes shut as a prank). Routes of exposure included: ingestion, n = 337 (37.7%); ocular, n = 322 (36.1%); dermatologic, n = 285 (31.9%); inhalation, n = 16 (1.8%); nasal, n = 1 (0.1%); and otic, n = 1 (0.1%); some patients had multiple routes of exposure. Treatments recommended by the poison center included irrigation (n = 411), petroleum jelly (n = 143), mineral oil (n = 131), topical antibiotic ointment (n = 82), peanut butter (n = 6), acetone (n = 4) and WD-40(®) (n = 2). A total of 657 patients (73.6%) were managed on-site, while 236 (26.4%) were seen in a health care facility. Among all exposures, effects were classified as none (n = 287), minor (n = 529) and moderate (n = 77). No major effects or deaths were reported. In this case series, the majority of cases occurred in children and most exposures did not result in significant morbidity. Notably, there was wide variation in terms of recommended treatments; further study is needed to determine the optimal treatment

  18. Ciguatera fish poisoning and climate change: analysis of National Poison Center Data in the United States, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Gingold, Daniel B; Strickland, Matthew J; Hess, Jeremy J

    2014-06-01

    Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Increased severe storm frequency may create more habitat for ciguatoxic organisms. Although climate change could expand the endemic range of CFP, the relationship between CFP incidence and specific environmental conditions is unknown. We estimated associations between monthly CFP incidence in the contiguous United States and SST and storm frequency in the Caribbean basin. We obtained information on 1,102 CFP-related calls to U.S. poison control centers during 2001-2011 from the National Poison Data System. We performed a time-series analysis using Poisson regression to relate monthly CFP call incidence to SST and tropical storms. We investigated associations across a range of plausible lag structures. Results showed associations between monthly CFP calls and both warmer SSTs and increased tropical storm frequency. The SST variable with the strongest association linked current monthly CFP calls to the peak August SST of the previous year. The lag period with the strongest association for storms was 18 months. If climate change increases SST in the Caribbean 2.5-3.5 °C over the coming century as projected, this model implies that CFP incidence in the United States is likely to increase 200-400%. Using CFP calls as a marker of CFP incidence, these results clarify associations between climate variability and CFP incidence and suggest that, all other things equal, climate change could increase the burden of CFP. These findings have implications for disease prediction, surveillance, and public health preparedness for climate change.

  19. Poison centers' experience with methylphenidate abuse in pre-teens and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; McGrath, Jean

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate trends and toxicity of methylphenidate abuse in pre-teens and adolescents reported to poison centers. The 1993-1999 American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System was queried for methylphenidate abuse cases in children aged 10 through 19 years that were followed to known outcome. Main outcome measures included number of cases annually, toxicity, management site, and coded medical outcome. Of 759 cases, 42.7% involved 10-through 14-year-olds. For the 530 (70.0%) cases involving methylphenidate only, the frequency increased sevenfold from 1993 to 1999. Of 570 patients (75.1%) managed in a health care facility, 398 were discharged from the emergency department and 172 were admitted. Symptoms occurred more commonly in exposures involving coingestants (84.3%) than in methylphenidate-only exposures (71.1%). The most common symptoms in adolescents with methylphenidate only were tachycardia (31.7%), agitation/irritability (25.7%), and hypertension (11.5%). Outcomes were no effect in 189 cases (24.9%) and mild, moderate, and severe in 318 (41.9%), 245 (32.3%), and 7 (0.9%) patients, respectively. Poison center data demonstrate increasing frequency of methylphenidate abuse. While the majority of adolescents experienced clinical effects and were managed in a health care facility, outcomes were good, especially in cases involving methylphenidate only.

  20. Poison prevention practices and medically attended poisoning in young children: multicentre case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Denise; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Timblin, Clare; Hayes, Mike; Goodenough, Trudy; Hawkins, Adrian; Reading, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Childhood poisonings are common, placing a substantial burden on health services. Case-control studies have found inconsistent evidence about modifiable risk factors for poisonings among children aged 0-4 years. This study quantifies associations between poison prevention practices and medically attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. Multicentre case-control study conducted at hospitals, minor injury units and family practices from four study centres in England between 2010 and 2013. Participants comprised 567 children presenting with unintentional poisoning occurring at home and 2320 community control participants matched on age, sex, date of event and study centre. Parents/caregivers provided data on safety practices, safety equipment use, home hazards and potential confounders by means of self-completion questionnaires. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with community controls, parents of poisoned children were significantly more likely not to store medicines out of reach (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.59; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.09; population attributable fraction (PAF) 15%), not to store medicines safely (locked or out of reach (AOR 1.83; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.42; PAF 16%) and not to have put all medicines (AOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.90; PAF 20%) or household products (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.48; PAF 11%) away immediately after use. Not storing medicines out of reach or locked away and not putting medicines and household products away immediately after use increased the odds of secondary care attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. If associations are causal, implementing these poison prevention practices could each prevent between 11% and 20% of poisonings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Trends in hepatic injury associated with unintentional overdose of paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in products with and without opioid: an analysis using the National Poison Data System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers, 2000-7.

    PubMed

    Bond, G Randall; Ho, Mona; Woodward, Randall W

    2012-02-01

    Unintended hepatic injury associated with the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-containing products has been growing. The aim of the study was to seek a better understanding of the causes of this observation in order to evaluate the potential impact of proposed preventive measures. Retrospective analysis of a large database containing prospectively collected patient exposure data, clinical symptomatology and outcome. The National Poison Data System database for 2000-7 involving exposures to paracetamol and an opioid was obtained and analysed. This dataset was limited to non-suicidal cases in patients 13 years of age and older. For comparison, the parallel, mutually exclusive dataset involving exposures to one or more non-opioid containing paracetamol products was analysed. Trends in the numbers of patients exposed, treated, and mildly and severely injured were obtained and compared with each other and with trends calculated from publicly available data on sales and population. The association of injury with the number of paracetamol-containing products and the reason for taking them were also assessed. Comparators: During the study period, the US population of those 15 years of age and over rose 8.5%; all pharmaceutical-related calls to all US poison centres rose 25%. For the 8-year period from 2001 to 2008, sales of over-the-counter paracetamol products rose 5% (single-ingredient products fell 3%; paracetamol-containing combination cough and cold products rose 11%) and prescription paracetamol combination products rose 67%. Opioids with paracetamol: A total of 119 731 cases were identified, increasing 70% over the period. The exposure merited acetylcysteine treatment in 8995 cases (252% increase). In total, 2729 patients (2.3%) experienced some hepatic injury (500% increase). Minor injuries rose faster than severe injuries (833% vs 280%) and most injuries (73.0%) were from overuse of a single combination product only, but the injury rate increased with use of

  2. [Electronic poison information management system].

    PubMed

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  3. Dofetilide in Overdose: A Case Series from Poison Center Data.

    PubMed

    Hieger, M A; Maskell, K F; Moss, M J; Powell, S W; Cumpston, K L

    2016-08-26

    Dofetilide is a class III antiarrhythmic used for treating atrial dysrhythmias. Though its adverse effects are well described in routine use, very little is known about dofetilide toxicity in overdose. This is a retrospective case series of consecutive patients reported to our poison center after dofetilide overdose. Twenty-seven cases were included. Seventeen patients were treated at a healthcare facility, and of these, eight were admitted. Twenty-one patients took one extra capsule, four took someone else's medication, one took three extra capsules, and one had a large intentional overdose. Ten patients had co-ingestants reported, including three QT-prolonging agents. No one required cardioversion, defibrillation, CPR, or overdrive pacing. The patient who reported taking 90 times his usual dose in suicide attempt was the only patient to have significant clinical effects. He experienced an 8-beat run of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, frequent multifocal PVCs, and ventricular bigeminy. He received magnesium sulfate and potassium chloride supplementation. In this series, unintentional small overdoses did not result in significant clinical effects and were often managed successfully at home, despite the fact that information showing a single capsule can cause torsades. This study is limited by its small sample size, retrospective design, and reliance on incomplete information.

  4. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... scientific knowledge and technological developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning...

  5. New roles for poison control centres in the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Laborde, Amalia

    2004-05-20

    The primary mission of poison control centres has always been an improvement in the poisoned patients' care and poison prevention. The need to reach this mission implies that many functions and roles must be accomplished. Many centres, even in developing countries, are multifunctional and provide a broad toxicological information service. However, the main challenges of poison centres in developing countries are still treatment information, formal training, laboratory services accessibility and availability of antidotes. At the same time poison centres from developing countries need to accomplish their public health mission through strengthening and expansion of some well-defined roles like toxico-surveillance and environmental health monitoring according to the prevailing and future toxicological problems. Poison control centres from developing countries continue to face old challenges but cannot ignore the new ones that appear in the globalised world. Poison centres have a vital role for environmental exposure surveillance systems for sentinel event detection. Poison centres offer real-time and continuous data needed for preparation and response during such events and also offer a means to report health concerns. Centres from South America were involved in some of the most important environmental health problems of the region e.g., lead contamination (children), children 'occupational' poisoning, and flour contamination with fusarium toxins. Furthermore, poison centres can be the markers of risk factors or identifiers of vulnerable population e.g., changes in drugs prescription patterns, unusual patterns of addiction, unexpected product uses, children abuse scenarios or undetected sources of environmental contamination. In an era of evidence-based medicine and research, toxico-vigilance based on the millions of cases registered by poison centres everyday acquires more and more importance. A new approach of the toxico-vigilance and preventive roles of poison

  6. Hazardous Substance Center: a poison center's workers right to know program.

    PubMed

    Krenzelok, E P; Dean, B S

    1988-02-01

    Workers Right To Know (WRTK) legislation has been enacted in several states. It is landmark advocacy legislation for employees and communities who may be exposed to hazardous chemicals, but it is also a complex and costly problem for business, industry, and nonprofit organizations. The Hazardous Substance Center (HSC), a division of the Pittsburgh Poison Center, was created to develop and implement programs to enable the business community to comply with the requirements of WRTK legislation. Specifically, the HSC provides the client with a 24-hour toxicology resource which objectively assists employees in the interpretation of the health-related effects information on material safety data sheets (MSDS) and assists them and medical professionals in the management of acute and chronic exposures. A variety of online databases and reference materials are utilized to respond to these inquiries. Each case is documented using the AAPCC Report Form. Data is analyzed to identify trends which can be used to assist the client in complying with the educational component. The HSC also provides a labeling program to the client to identify and classify hazardous substances. The service is provided for an annual contractual fee and creates an additional source of poison center revenue.

  7. Incidents of potential public health significance identified using national surveillance of US poison center data (2008–2012)

    PubMed Central

    LAW, R. K.; SHEIKH, S.; BRONSTEIN, A.; THOMAS, R.; SPILLER, H. A.; SCHIER, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Association of Poison Control Centers conduct national surveillance on data collected by US poison centers to identify incidents of potential public health significance (IPHS). The overarching goals of this collaboration are to improve CDC’s national surveillance capacity for public health threats, identify early markers of public health incidents and enhance situational awareness. The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is used as a surveillance system to automatically identify data anomalies. Purpose To characterize data anomalies and IPHS captured by national surveillance of poison center data over 5 years. Methods Data anomalies are identified through three surveillance methodologies: call-volume, clinical effect, and case-based. Anomalies are reviewed by a team of epidemiologists and clinical toxicologists to determine IPHS using standardized criteria. The authors reviewed IPHS identified by these surveillance activities from 2008 through 2012. Results Call-volume surveillance identified 384 IPHS; most were related to gas and fume exposures (n=229; 59.6%) with the most commonly implicated substance being carbon monoxide (CO) (n=92; 22.8%). Clinical-effect surveillance identified 138 IPHS; the majority were related to gas and fume exposures (n=58; 42.0%) and gastrointestinal complaints (n=84; 16.2%), and the most commonly implicated substance was CO (n=20; 14.4%). Among the 11 case-based surveillance definitions, the botulism case definition yielded the highest percentage of identified agent-specific illness. Conclusions A small proportion of data anomalies were designated as IPHS. Of these, CO releases were the most frequently reported IPHS and gastrointestinal syndromes were the most commonly reported illness manifestations. poison center data surveillance may be used as an approach to identify exposures, illnesses, and incidents of importance at the national and state level

  8. Incidents of potential public health significance identified using national surveillance of US poison center data (2008-2012).

    PubMed

    Law, R K; Sheikh, S; Bronstein, A; Thomas, R; Spiller, H A; Schier, J G

    2014-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Association of Poison Control Centers conduct national surveillance on data collected by US poison centers to identify incidents of potential public health significance (IPHS). The overarching goals of this collaboration are to improve CDC's national surveillance capacity for public health threats, identify early markers of public health incidents and enhance situational awareness. The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is used as a surveillance system to automatically identify data anomalies. To characterize data anomalies and IPHS captured by national surveillance of poison center data over 5 years. Data anomalies are identified through three surveillance methodologies: call-volume, clinical effect, and case-based. Anomalies are reviewed by a team of epidemiologists and clinical toxicologists to determine IPHS using standardized criteria. The authors reviewed IPHS identified by these surveillance activities from 2008 through 2012. Call-volume surveillance identified 384 IPHS; most were related to gas and fume exposures (n = 229; 59.6%) with the most commonly implicated substance being carbon monoxide (CO) (n = 92; 22.8%). Clinical-effect surveillance identified 138 IPHS; the majority were related to gas and fume exposures (n = 58; 42.0%) and gastrointestinal complaints (n = 84; 16.2%), and the most commonly implicated substance was CO (n = 20; 14.4%). Among the 11 case-based surveillance definitions, the botulism case definition yielded the highest percentage of identified agent-specific illness. A small proportion of data anomalies were designated as IPHS. Of these, CO releases were the most frequently reported IPHS and gastrointestinal syndromes were the most commonly reported illness manifestations. poison center data surveillance may be used as an approach to identify exposures, illnesses, and incidents of importance at the national and state level.

  9. Notes from the Field: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exposures Reported to Poison Centers - United States, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mehruba; Law, Royal; Schier, Josh

    2016-07-29

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2). It is also known as Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, and Biak (3). The Drug Enforcement Administration includes kratom on its Drugs of Concern list (substances that are not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but that pose risks to persons who abuse them), and the National Institute of Drug Abuse has identified kratom as an emerging drug of abuse (3,4). Published case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, and deaths (5,6). Because deaths have been attributed to kratom in the United States (7), some jurisdictions have passed or are considering legislation to make kratom use a felony (8). CDC characterized kratom exposures that were reported to poison centers and uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) during January 2010-December 2015. The NPDS is a national database of information logged by the country's regional poison centers serving all 50 United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico and is maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. NPDS case records are the result of call reports made by the public and health care providers.

  10. "Bath salts" and "plant food" products: the experience of one regional US poison center.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christine M; Dulaney, Anna R; Beuhler, Michael C; Kacinko, Sherri

    2013-03-01

    Abuse of psychogenic substances sold as "bath salts" and "plant food" has escalated in recent years in the United States (USA). Previous reports suggest regional differences in the primary active β-keto phenylalkylamines found in these products and the corresponding signs and symptoms reported after exposure. Currently, there are only limited studies describing the clinical effects associated with reported "bath salts" exposure in the USA. This study describes the clinical effects associated with "bath salt" and "plant food" exposures as reported to the poison center serving the state of North Carolina (Carolinas Poison Center). We performed a retrospective review of the Carolinas Poison Center database for all cases of reported human exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products from 2010 to 2011 with specific attention to clinical effects and routes of exposure. Additionally, we reviewed therapies used, trended the volume of exposure cases reported over the study period, and evaluated the distribution of calls within state counties using descriptive statistics. Carolinas Poison Center received 485 total calls and 409 reported exposure calls regarding "bath salt" or "plant food" products between January of 2010 and December of 2011. The peak of reported exposures occurred in May of 2011. Clinical effects commonly reported in the exposure cases generated from these calls included tachycardia (53.3 %, n = 218), agitated/irritable (50.4 %, n = 206), hallucination/delusions (26.7 %, n = 109), and hypertension (25.2 %, n = 103). In addition to intravenous fluids, common therapies included benzodiazepines (46.0 %, n = 188), sedation (13.4 %, n = 55), alkalinization (3.90 %, n = 16), antihistamine (4.16 %, n = 17), and intubation (3.67 %, n = 15). Haloperidol was the antipsychotic agent used most often to treat agitation (n = 40). Serious complications associated with reported exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products

  11. Animal poisoning in Italy: 10 years of epidemiological data from the Poison Control Centre of Milan.

    PubMed

    Caloni, F; Cortinovis, C; Rivolta, M; Davanzo, F

    2012-04-21

    From 2000 to 2010, the Poison Control Centre of Milan (CAV), in collaboration with the University of Milan, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Sciences and Technologies for Food Safety, Toxicology Section, collected epidemiological information related to animal poisoning and classified it in an organised and computerised data bank. Data recorded were predominantly related to small animals and to some extent to horses, ruminants and other food-production animals. Few calls were registered involving exotics and no information was recorded on wildlife. The dog was reported to be the most common species involved in animal poisoning, and pesticides constituted the primary group of toxicants. In the case of pets, 'drugs' including veterinary parasiticide and drugs for human use constituted the second class of toxicants responsible for poisoning followed by household products, plants, zootoxins and metals. With regard to horses and farm animals, the second group consisted of phytotoxins, even if only episodically. In Italy, published data on this subject are scarce but this information is crucial for better management of the poisoning of domestic animals in an effort to reduce mortality.

  12. webPOISONCONTROL: can poison control be automated?

    PubMed

    Litovitz, Toby; Benson, Blaine E; Smolinske, Susan

    2016-08-01

    A free webPOISONCONTROL app allows the public to determine the appropriate triage of poison ingestions without calling poison control. If accepted and safe, this alternative expands access to reliable poison control services to those who prefer the Internet over the telephone. This study assesses feasibility, safety, and user-acceptance of automated online triage of asymptomatic, nonsuicidal poison ingestion cases. The user provides substance name, amount, age, and weight in an automated online tool or downloadable app, and is given a specific triage recommendation to stay home, go to the emergency department, or call poison control for further guidance. Safety was determined by assessing outcomes of consecutive home-triaged cases with follow-up and by confirming the correct application of algorithms. Case completion times and user perceptions of speed and ease of use were measures of user-acceptance. Of 9256 cases, 73.3% were triaged to home, 2.1% to an emergency department, and 24.5% directed to call poison control. Children younger than 6 years were involved in 75.2% of cases. Automated follow-up was done in 31.2% of home-triaged cases; 82.3% of these had no effect. No major or fatal outcomes were reported. More than 91% of survey respondents found the tool quick and easy to use. Median case completion time was 4.1 minutes. webPOISONCONTROL augments traditional poison control services by providing automated, accurate online access to case-specific triage and first aid guidance for poison ingestions. It is safe, quick, and easy to use. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Forging a poison prevention and control system: report of an Institute of Medicine committee.

    PubMed

    Guyer, Bernard; Mavor, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The Committee forged a vision for a national poison prevention and control system that broadly integrates the current network of poison control centers with state and local public health departments responsible for monitoring populations. Implementing the Committee's recommendations, however, will require leadership from the Congress and the federal agencies to whom the report is addressed: HRSA and CDC. The next steps include amendments to existing legislation to establish the national system and to secure federal funding to assure stability of the system and systematic oversight by the federal agencies to hold all parties accountable for the performance of the system.

  14. Characteristics of novel psychoactive substance exposures reported to New York City Poison Center, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Su, Mark K.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are emerging at an unprecedented rate. Likewise, prevalence of use and poisonings has increased in recent years. Objective To compare characteristics of NPS exposures and non-NPS-drug-related exposures and to examine whether there are differences between exposures involving synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) and other NPS. Methods Poison control center data from the five counties of New York City and Long Island were examined from2011–2014. We examined prevalence and characteristics of NPS exposures (classified as intentional abuse) and compared characteristics of cases involving SCRAs and other NPS. Results Prevalence of NPS exposures was 7.1% in 2011, rising to 12.6% in 2014. Most exposures (82.3%) involved SCRA use. The second and third most prevalent classes were phenethylamines/synthetic cathinones (“bath salts”; 10.2%) and psychedelic phenethylamines (4.3%). Compared to other drug-related exposures (i.e. involving licit and illicit drugs), those who used NPS were more likely to be younger, male, and to have not co-used other drugs (ps < 0.001). SCRA exposures increased sharply in 2014 and the mean age of users increased over time (p < 0.01). Females exposed to SCRAs were younger than males (p < 0.001), and in 2014, individuals exposed to SCRAs were more likely to report concomitant use of alcohol than users of other NPS (p = 0.010). Users of other NPS were more likely than SCRA users to report concomitant use of ecstasy/3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)/“Molly” (p < 0.001). Conclusion Exposures reported to the poison center that involve NPS are increasing and the majority involve SCRAs. These findings should inform prevention and harm reduction approaches. PMID:26678258

  15. Nutmeg poisonings: a retrospective review of 10 years experience from the Illinois Poison Center, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Ehrenpreis, Jamie E; DesLauriers, Carol; Lank, Patrick; Armstrong, P Keelan; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2014-06-01

    Nutmeg is a commonly consumed spice. The toxic effects of nutmeg have been purported to be due mainly to myristicin oil. Prior poison center series of nutmeg exposures show very few unintentional exposures of nutmeg to children younger than 13. Case series from these centers did not record drug exposures combined with nutmeg. This study is a review of Illinois Poison Center (IPC) data regarding nutmeg exposures from January of 2001 to December 2011. The goal of this study was to compare the Illinois data to the literature as well as look for current trends in nutmeg poisonings. The data were extracted using the code for hallucinogenic plants in the IPC database, and poisonings unrelated to nutmeg exposure were eliminated. Medical outcomes were noted as recorded. Thirty-two cases of nutmeg ingestion were reported. Of the 17 (53.1 %) unintentional exposures, 10 subjects (58.8 %) were under the age of 13. Four of the exposures in children under the age of 13 were ocular exposures. Fifteen exposures (46.9 %) were intentional exposures. Of these intentional exposures, five (33.3 %) were recorded to have combined drug intoxication. All of these were between the ages of 15 and 20. One patient with polypharmaceutical exposure required ventilatory support in the hospital. Our study shows an unexpected percentage of unintentional exposures in juveniles under the age of 13, out of the total exposures to nutmeg. Mixing of nutmeg with other drugs was seen and required more intervention in adolescents. More education about these two factors, i.e., nutmeg exposures as intentional polypharmacy in adolescents and unintentional exposures in young children, is advised.

  16. The sentinel role of poisons centers in the protection of children's environmental health.

    PubMed

    Pronczuk de Garbino, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Growing concern exists about the threats posed by environmental pollutants and physical agents on children's health. A number offactors, including globalization, increased industrialization, and trade of chemicals and poverty have an impact on the quality of the environment and on children's health. Acute toxic exposures lead to poisoning, and chronic low-level exposures may cause functional and organ damage during periods of special vulnerability. The need to protect children's environmental health is urgent, in view of the magnitude of the problem and the fact that "children are not little adults." The effects suffered during special developmental periods-"windows of vulnerability"-can be permanent and irreversible. The main global environmental problems affecting children's health are lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation and exposure to indoor air pollution. Furthermore, environmentally related accidents, injuries, and poisonings have a major impact on children and adolescent's morbidity and mortality. A number of examples that illustrate the complexity of assessing and dealing with children's environmental health issues are presented. A Task Force on the Protection of Children's Environmental Health that aims to prevent disease and disability in children associated with chemical and physical threats was set up in 1999 by the World Health Organization. The priorities for action include the consideration of accidents, injuries, and poisonings (accidental, intentional, and occupational), and children in the workplace (e.g., scavenging children, children in cottage industries). Poisons Centers and related toxicology centers are in a strategic position to play a "sentinel" role in the protection of children's environmental health. They record acute and chronic toxic exposures in children in a harmonized manner, using controlled vocabularies and definitions. This will allow collecting a large, highly valuable database on the main toxicological

  17. Building knowledge for poison control: the novel pairing of communication analysis with data mining methods.

    PubMed

    Poynton, Mollie R; Ellington, Lee; Caravati, E Martin; Crouch, Barbara I; Bennett, Heather

    2009-01-01

    As information systems become increasingly integrated with health care delivery, vast amounts of clinical data are stored. Knowledge discovery and data mining methods are potentially powerful for the induction of knowledge models from this data relevant to nursing outcomes. However, an important barrier to the widespread application of these methods for induction of nursing knowledge models is that important concepts relevant to nursing outcomes are often unrepresented in clinical data. For instance, communication approaches are not necessarily consciously chosen by nurses, yet they are known to impact multiple clinical outcomes including satisfaction, pain and symptom response, recovery, physiological change (e.g., blood pressure), and adherence. Decisions about communication behaviors are likely intuitive and instantaneously made in response to cues offered by the patient. For this reason, among others, important choices and actions of nurses are not routinely documented. And so for many clinical outcomes relevant to nursing, important concepts such as communication are not represented in clinical data repositories. In studying poison control center outcomes, it is important to consider not only routinely documented clinical data, but the communication processes and verbal cues of both patient and SPI. In a novel approach, our current study of poison control center outcomes pairs a qualitative study of the communication patterns of SPIs and callers to a regional poison control center, with predictive modeling of poison control center outcomes using knowledge discovery and data mining methods. This three year study, currently in progress, pairs SPI-caller communication analysis with predictive models resulting from the application of knowledge discovery and data mining methods to three years' of archived clinical data. The results will form a hybrid model and the basis for future decision support interventions that leverage knowledge about both implicit and

  18. The general approach to the poisoned patient.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Trevonne M; Theobald, Jillian; Lu, Jenny; Erickson, Timothy B

    2014-11-01

    The poisoned patient can present many challenges to the healthcare practitioner. An organized and thoughtful approach to the poisoned patient is necessary. Understanding the nuances of a toxicological history and physical examination can aid in the management of these patients. Supportive care with attention to the body systems at risk from the poisoning is the mainstay of therapy. Consultation with a medical toxicologist or regional poison control center can positively impact diagnosis, management, and disposition of poisoned patients.

  19. Test Control Center exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  20. Epidemiology of acute drug poisoning in a tertiary center from Iasi County, Romania.

    PubMed

    Sorodoc, Victorita; Jaba, Irina M; Lionte, Catalina; Mungiu, Ostin C; Sorodoc, Laurentiu

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective epidemiological study was to investigate the demographical, etiological and clinical characteristics of acute drug poisonings in Iasi County, Romania. All patients were referred and admitted in the Toxicology Clinic of "Sf. Ioan" Emergency Clinic Hospital Iasi, Romania. Between 2003 and 2009, 811 cases of acute drug poisonings were recorded, counting for 28.43% from the total number of poisonings. The majority of these poisonings resulted in mild (51.94%) and medium (28.35%) clinical forms, while 19.71% were coma situations. In all, 63.51% of patients originated from urban areas, 39.94% were unemployed and the patients were predominantly women (66.46%). A high percentage (97.27%) were suicide attempts, using only one type of drug (65.88%) and the 21-30 years group (29.8%) records the highest incidence, for both women and men. The most frequently involved drugs were benzodiazepines 13.69%, anticonvulsive drugs 8.63%, barbiturates 8.51% and cardiovascular drugs 5.92%. Drugs combinations were recorded in 32.92% of cases and 1.2% were combinations between drugs and other substances. Mortality was the outcome in 0.3% of the total registered number of acute drug poisonings. This study underlines that in order to provide a proper management of these situations, a Regional Poison Information Center is absolutely necessary.

  1. 78 FR 40743 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead... childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning...

  2. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends...

  3. Environmental specimen banking and poisons control--a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Jekat, F W; Eckard, R; Kemper, F H

    1993-11-01

    Today clinical toxicology and poisons control are widely lacking objective criteria, e.g., analytical data, figures of kinetics and metabolism in acute and chronic poisoning. Co-operation between clinical toxicology and an environmental specimen bank for human tissue will help to overcome many difficulties and complement one another. The possible power of such a co-operation is demonstrated by the example of the institutions in Münster, Germany. The successful strategies used for setting-up an environmental specimen bank for human tissue may also be applied in clinical toxicology and experimental toxicology. The frame of a university medical clinic seems to be the ideal basis of an effective co-operation of an Environmental Specimen Bank for Human Tissue, a Poisons Control Centre and clinical toxicology. In general a co-operation of an environmental specimen bank for human tissue and a poisons control centre will be cost-saving and beneficial to both and an environmental specimen bank for human tissue will gain the status of a unique tool for risk assessment of xenobiotics.

  4. A regional poison information center IVR medication identification system: does it accomplish its goal?

    PubMed

    Krenzelok, Edward P; Mrvos, Rita

    2011-11-01

    The 2009 AAPCC NPDS report identified 1,057,632 medication identification requests to poison information centers. This represents 24.7% of all calls to US poison information centers. To reduce the impact of medication identification requests on a poison information center, a regional poison information center developed and implemented an automated medication identification system that utilized an interactive voice response (IVR) system. The objective of this project was to describe how the IVR affected the regional poison information center medication identification request call volume and workload of the staff. All documented medication identification request inquiries from January 1, 2007 through June 30, 2011 were extracted from the RPIC Visual Dotlab electronic medical record system. Descriptive statistics, presented as means, were used to characterize the monthly call volume inquiries. Over the 18 months (January, 2007 to June, 2008) preceding the implementation of the IVR medication identification request system, a mean of 4,389.6 medication identification requests per month required manual electronic documentation by SPI. In the immediate 12 months (August, 2008 to July, 2009) following the IVR medication identification request system implementation, a mean of 2132.6 inquiries per month (54% reduction) were managed by the IVR. During the 12 month period of July, 2010 through June, 2011, the combined monthly mean of medication identification requests documented by SPI and the IVR decreased to a total of 686.7 compared to the mean pre-implementation monthly total of 4,389.6. The IVR medication identification request system was successful in reducing the number of medication identification requests that required manual electronic documentation by SPI and freed up a substantial amount of time for SPI to perform other critical patient care-related responsibilities. The enhanced technology that was implemented to improve efficiency came with the unintended

  5. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  6. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  7. Using Secure Web Services to Visualize Poison Center Data for Nationwide Biosurveillance: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Savel, Thomas G; Bronstein, Alvin; Duck, William; Rhodes, M. Barry; Lee, Brian; Stinn, John; Worthen, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Real-time surveillance systems are valuable for timely response to public health emergencies. It has been challenging to leverage existing surveillance systems in state and local communities, and, using a centralized architecture, add new data sources and analytical capacity. Because this centralized model has proven to be difficult to maintain and enhance, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been examining the ability to use a federated model based on secure web services architecture, with data stewardship remaining with the data provider. Methods As a case study for this approach, the American Association of Poison Control Centers and the CDC extended an existing data warehouse via a secure web service, and shared aggregate clinical effects and case counts data by geographic region and time period. To visualize these data, CDC developed a web browser-based interface, Quicksilver, which leveraged the Google Maps API and Flot, a javascript plotting library. Results Two iterations of the NPDS web service were completed in 12 weeks. The visualization client, Quicksilver, was developed in four months. Discussion This implementation of web services combined with a visualization client represents incremental positive progress in transitioning national data sources like BioSense and NPDS to a federated data exchange model. Conclusion Quicksilver effectively demonstrates how the use of secure web services in conjunction with a lightweight, rapidly deployed visualization client can easily integrate isolated data sources for biosurveillance. PMID:23569581

  8. Physiology of food poisoning microorganisms and the major problems in food poisoning control.

    PubMed

    Gould, G W; Abee, T; Granum, P E; Jones, M V

    1995-12-01

    There remains considerable public concern regarding the current high level of food poisoning disease in Europe and the fact that, year by year, it continues to rise rather than fall. At the same time, there are strong and increasing demands from consumers for foods that are more convenient, fresher, more natural, less heavily processed (e.g. 'REPFEDS' and 'Sous Vide' foods, mildly heated and distributed at chill temperatures; Lund and Notermans, 1992), less heavily preserved (e.g. less acid, less salt, less sugar; Gould, 1995) and less reliant on additive preservatives than hitherto (e.g. sulphite, nitrite, organic acids and esters; Russell and Gould, 1991). Most of these trends result in a general reduction in the intrinsic preservation of foods. Furthermore, many food poisoning microorganisms escape the attention of preservation techniques altogether, reaching the consumer more or less directly from contaminated foods, most often foods of animal origin. It has therefore been argued that a substantial reduction in food poisoning in the near future will be difficult to achieve unless we obtain a greatly improved understanding of the physiology of the most important target organisms (Knochel and Gould, 1995). This knowledge must then be exploited in ways which effectively improve our means for the control of these hazards and reduce the risk to the consumer. A three year AAIR Concerted Action Programme (PL920630: 'Physiology of Food Poisoning Microorganisms') was therefore initiated in 1992 in order to bring together research groups working on the physiology and related aspects of food poisoning microorganisms. The principal objectives of the programme were: 1. To determine the physiological, biochemical and genetical bases of the organisms' survival of and responses to food-relevant stresses; 2. to determine the physiological and genetical factors influencing infectivity and toxinogenesis; 3. to understand the physiological bases of those synergistic systems that

  9. Epidemiology of acute poisoning in children presenting to the poisoning treatment center at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Sonya M. S.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hayes, Bryan D.; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S.; Sakr, Mahmoud Lotfy; Tawfik, Hany; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups. Methods This retrospective study involved acutely poisoned patients, 0 to 18 years of age, who presented to the ASU-PTC between 1/1/2009 and 12/31/2013. Data were extracted from electronic records maintained by the ASU-PTC. Collected data included demographics, substance of exposure, circumstances of the poisoning, patient disposition, and outcome. Results During the 5-year study period, 38,470 patients meeting our criteria were treated by the ASU-PTC; 19,987 (52%) were younger than 6 years of age; 4,196 (11%) were 6 to 12 years; and 14,287 (37%) were >12 years. Unintentional poisoning accounted for 68.5% of the ingestions, though among adolescents 84.1% of ingestions were with self-harm intent. In all age groups, the most frequent causative drugs were non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics. The most common nonpharmaceutical agents were corrosives in preschool children and pesticides in adolescents. Most patients had no/minor effects (29,174 [75.8%]); hospitalization rates were highest among adolescents. There were 119 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.3), primarily from pesticide ingestion. Conclusion Poisoning in preschool children is mainly unintentional and commonly due to nonpharmaceutical agents while poisoning in adolescents is mainly intentional (self-harm). Pesticides, mainly organophosphorous compounds and carbamates, were the most frequent agent leading to morbidity and mortality. PMID:26653953

  10. Characteristics of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents reported to poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2015-02-01

    There had been reports of adolescents using hand sanitizers to obtain alcohol and ending up in emergency departments with alcohol poisoning. This study aimed to describe the pattern of adolescent ingestions of hand sanitizers reported to a statewide poison center system. Our study subjects included patients aged 13-19 years who reported hand sanitizer ingestions as reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2013. The distribution of the ingestions was determined for various demographic and clinical factors. Of 385 total cases, 61% of the patients were male, and the mean age was 15.3 years. The ingestion reason was unintentional (61%), intentional abuse/misuse (18%), and malicious (10%). Ingestion site was most frequently reported to be the patient's own residence (53%), followed by school (35%). About 77% of the patients were managed on site. The medical outcome was serious (moderate effect or unable to follow-potentially toxic) in 5% of the cases. The most frequently reported adverse clinical effects were vomiting (5%), abdominal pain (4%), nausea (4%), throat irritation (4%), and drowsiness (2%). Adolescents who ingested hand sanitizers were more likely to be male and younger. One-third of the ingestions occurred at school, suggesting that school personnel might be made aware of the potential problem of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents. Nevertheless, despite the potential for serious outcomes from adolescent hand sanitizer ingestion, most of the ingestions reported to poison centers are not likely to be serious and can be successfully managed outside of a healthcare facility.

  11. Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Corinne; de Haro, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers. PMID:23917333

  12. Clinical marine toxicology: a European perspective for clinical toxicologists and poison centers.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Corinne; De Haro, Luc

    2013-08-02

    Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances--including global warming--that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers.

  13. A ten-step quality assurance program for regional poison information centers.

    PubMed

    Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1992-10-01

    Our regional poison information center (RPIC) has developed and implemented an ongoing quality assurance (QA) initiative, using performance indicators and evaluation thresholds to permit a planned and systematic process for monitoring the quality, appropriateness and effectiveness of service. A 10-step QA plan was designed that included delineating the scope of care, identifying the most important aspects of care, identifying indicators and thresholds to monitor performance and outcomes, and establishing a formal medical audit review process to resolve questions and/or problems. This QA program has resulted in verification of the validity of the RPIC's data and services. Threshold indicators (the incidence of accidental poisoning in children less than 6 y, incidence of intentional poisoning among children less than 18 y, appropriateness of home versus hospital management, and reduction in major/mortal outcomes in children less than 6 y) have all been successfully met during the past 12 mo. A medical audit committee objectively reviews and meets to discuss all unique poison exposures or those suffering major/mortal outcomes. Examples of identified problems include the lack of utilizing standard abbreviations during documentation and the need to standardize indications for consulting medical back-up. RPICs are innovative health services with unique and increasing responsibilities and liabilities. A QA program, designed to objectively and systematically monitor and evaluate the quality and appropriateness of care rendered the poisoned patient, can improve care and resolve identified problems in a timely manner. A formalized QA program is essential for all RPICs.

  14. Test Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the test observation periscope in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., visitors can observe a test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine exactly as test engineers might see it during a real engine test. The Test Control Center exhibit exactly simulates not only the test control environment, but also the procedure of testing a rocket engine. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative dispays and exhibits from NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion and remote sensing applications. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  15. Test Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the test observation periscope in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., visitors can observe a test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine exactly as test engineers might see it during a real engine test. The Test Control Center exhibit exactly simulates not only the test control environment, but also the procedure of testing a rocket engine. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative dispays and exhibits from NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion and remote sensing applications. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  16. Test Control Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-25

    At the test observation periscope in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., visitors can observe a test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine exactly as test engineers might see it during a real engine test. The Test Control Center exhibit exactly simulates not only the test control environment, but also the procedure of testing a rocket engine. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative dispays and exhibits from NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion and remote sensing applications. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  17. Inhalant abuse: monitoring trends by using poison control data, 1993-2008.

    PubMed

    Marsolek, Melinda R; White, Nicole C; Litovitz, Toby L

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the value of poison control data as an adjunct to national drug abuse surveys and a source of data to inform and focus prevention efforts. National Poison Data System (NPDS) data are collected and compiled in real time by the 60 US poison centers as callers seek guidance for poison exposures. Demographic, geographic, product, outcome, and treatment-site data for the 35453 inhalant cases reported between 1993 and 2008 were analyzed. The prevalence of inhalant cases reported to US poison control centers decreased 33% from 1993 to 2008. Prevalence was highest among children aged 12 to 17 years and peaked in 14-year-olds. In contrast to national survey data showing nearly equal use of inhalants by both genders, 73.5% of NPDS inhalant cases occurred in boys, which suggests that boys may pursue riskier usage behaviors. Most cases (67.8%) were managed in health care facilities. More than 3400 different products were reported. Propellants, gasoline, and paint were the most frequent product categories. Propellants were the only product category that substantially increased over time. Butane, propane, and air fresheners had the highest fatality rates. Prevalence for all inhalants was highest in western mountain states and West Virginia, but geographic distribution varied according to product type. Gasoline was a proportionately greater problem for younger children; propellants were an issue for older children. NPDS should be used to monitor inhalant abuse because it provides unique, timely, and clinically useful information on medical outcomes experienced by users, includes detailed product information (brand and formulation), and can potentially be used to identify real-time demographic, geographic, and product trends. Focusing inhalant prevention efforts on the most hazardous products and most seriously affected users may improve and facilitate strategic prevention, enabling interventions such as targeted education, product reformulation, repackaging

  18. Comparing Syndromic Surveillance and Poison Center Data for Snake Bites in Missouri

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Karen H.; Kelsey, Amy; Tominack, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study intends to use two different surveillance systems available in Missouri to explore snake bite frequency and geographic distribution. Introduction In 2010, there were 4,796 snake bite exposures reported to Poison Centers nationwide (1). Health care providers frequently request help from poison centers regarding snake envenomations due to the unpredictability and complexity of prognosis and treatment. The Missouri Poison Center (MoPC) maintains a surveillance database keeping track of every phone call received. ESSENCE, a syndromic surveillance system used in Missouri, enables surveillance by chief complaint of 84 different emergency departments (ED) in Missouri (accounting for approximately 90% of all ED visits statewide). Since calling a poison center is voluntary for health care providers, poison center data is most likely an underestimation of the true frequency of snake envenomations. Comparing MoPC and ESSENCE data for snake envenomations would enable the MoPC to have a more accurate depiction of snake bite frequency in Missouri and to see where future outreach of poison center awareness should be focused. Methods Archived data from Toxicall®, the MoPC surveillance system, was used to query the total number of snake bite cases from 01/01/2007 until 12/31/2011 called into the MoPC center by hospitals that also participate ESSENCE. Next, ESSENCE data was used to estimate the total number of snake envenomations presenting to EDs in Missouri. This was accomplished using the same date range as well as searching for key terms in the chief complaints that would signify a snake bite. The results of each datasearch were compared and contrasted by Missouri region. Results The Toxicall® search showed a total of 324 snake bite cases. The initial ESSENCE data query showed a total of 1983 snake bite cases. After certain data exclusions, there was a total of 1763 ESSENCE snake bite visits. This suggests that approximately 18% of all snake bite visits

  19. [Characterization of paracetamol overdose: report of a poison information center in Chile].

    PubMed

    Bravo, Victoria; Román, Matías; Bettini, Marli; Cerda, Patricia; Mieres, Juan José; Paris, Enrique; Ríos, Juan Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is an analgesic and antipyretic drug widely used across the world. Its ingestion is one of the most common causes of drug overdose. In the United States is the first cause of acute hepatitis in adults. To describe the epidemiological profile of paracetamol overdose in Chile. Cross sectional retrospective study that included all the phone call inquiries received at the Poison Control Center of the Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile (CITUC) during 2009. Nine hundred fifty nine inquiries involving acute paracetamol exposures were received. Women represented a 63.1% of the cases. Half of the cases were suicide attempts, of which 74.8% were women. Accidental exposures occurred mainly in children. In 29.3% of the patients, the exposure was considered to involve a hepatotoxic dose. Women had 2.7 times the risk of men to ingest a toxic dose of paracetamol with suicidal purpose (Odds ratio (OR) = 2.7; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 2.1-3.6; p < 0.001). Adolescents had 3.4 times the risk of the general consultants (OR: 3.4; 95% Cl: 2.4-4.7; p < 0.001). Paracetamol overdose is common in Chile. Authorities should carry out preventive measures. Antidotes and the capacity to measure plasma levels of paracetamol should be available in healthcare centers.

  20. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptom checker Get Started Related ArticlesControlling Asthma in Urban AreasRead Article >>Prevention and WellnessControlling Asthma in Urban AreasAsthma has many triggers. Some triggers are different ...

  1. Bibliometric analysis of poison center-related research published in peer-review journals.

    PubMed

    Forrester, M B

    2016-07-01

    Poison centers advance knowledge in the field of toxicology through publication in peer-review journals. This investigation describes the pattern of poison center-related publications. Cases were poison center-related research published in peer-review journals during 1995-2014. These were identified through searching the PubMed database, reviewing the tables of contents of selected toxicology journals, and reviewing abstracts of various national and international meetings. The following variables for each publication were identified: year of publication, journal, type of publication (meeting abstract vs. other, i.e. full article or letter to the editor), and the country(ies) of the poison center(s) included in the research. Of the 3147 total publications, 62.1% were meeting abstracts. There were 263 publications in 1995-1999, 536 in 2000-2004, 999 in 2005-2009, and 1349 in 2010-2014. The publications were in 234 different journals. The journals in which the highest number of research was published were Clinical Toxicology (69.7%), Journal of Medical Toxicology (2.2%), and Veterinary and Human Toxicology (2.1%). The research was reported from 62 different countries. The countries with the highest number of publications were the United States (67.9%), United Kingdom (6.5%), Germany (3.9%), France (2.5%), and Italy (2.4%). The number of publications increased greatly over the 20 years. Although the publications were in a large number of journals, a high proportion of the publications were in one journal. While the research came from a large number of countries, the preponderance came from the United States. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Towards cheaper control centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel

    1994-01-01

    Today, any approach to the design of new space systems must take into consideration an important constraint, namely costs. This approach is our guideline for new missions and also applies to the ground segment, and particularly to the control center. CNES has carried out a study on a recent control center for application satellites in order to take advantage of the experience gained. This analysis, the purpose of which is to determine, a posteriori, the costs of architecture needs and choices, takes hardware and software costs into account and makes a number of recommendations.

  3. Trends in analgesic exposures reported to Texas Poison Centers following increased regulation of hydrocodone.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Ashley; Kleinschmidt, Kurt; Forrester, Mathias B; Young, Amy

    2016-06-01

    In October 2014, the Drug Enforcement Administration reclassified hydrocodone to schedule II, increasing regulations on use. The impact of rescheduling hydrocodone on opioid exposures is unclear, especially in states with special restrictions required for prescribing schedule II agents. To assess whether changes in exposures to prescription opioid analgesics and heroin as reported to poison centers occurred in the 6 months after hydrocodone rescheduling. We hypothesized that hydrocodone exposures would decrease, while less tightly regulated opioids, such as codeine and tramadol, would increase. This study compares opioid analgesic exposures reported to Texas Poison Centers before and after this change in a state that requires special prescription pads for Schedule II agents. Cases included all opioid analgesic exposures reported to a statewide poison center network, comparing exposures from 6 months before to 6 months after heightened regulations. Specific opioids with large changes in reported exposures were further characterized by patient age and exposure intent. Hydrocodone exposures decreased from 1567 to 1135 (28%, p = 0.00017), decreasing for all ages. Codeine exposures increased significantly from 189 to 522 (176%, p = 0.00014), including a 263% increase for age >20 years. Codeine misuse increased 443% and adverse drug events 327%. Oxycodone exposures increased from 134 to 189 (39%, p = 0.0143), increasing only among patients age >20 years. Reported heroin exposures increased from 156 to 179 (15%, p = 0.2286) and tramadol from 666 to 708 (6%, p = 0.0193). Other opioid exposures changed little or had limited reports. The increased regulation of hydrocodone was followed temporally by a decrease in reported hydrocodone exposures, but also increases in codeine, oxycodone and tramadol exposures. This may reflect a shift in prescribing practices, changes in street availability of hydrocodone or decreased drug diversion. The increased

  4. Salvia divinorum: exposures reported to a statewide poison control system over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Rais; Seefeld, Andrew; Cantrell, F Lee; Clark, Richard F

    2011-06-01

    Salvia divinorum, a hallucinogenic herb, has in recent years become popular among teenagers and young adults. Salvia is presently marketed as a "legal" alternative to other drugs of abuse, but little is known about the clinical toxicity of this substance. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and demographic features of this emerging substance of recreational abuse using data obtained from the records of a poison control center. We performed retrospective review of exposures to the herbal hallucinogen Salvia divinorum as reported to the California Poison Control System (CPCS) over the last 10 years. Demographic and clinical data were collected and compiled from the computerized records of the CPCS for the search terms "salvia" and "sage." There were 37 exposures to S. divinorum and 96 exposures to non-hallucinogenic Salvia species. Eighteen (49%) of the exposures were to S. divinorum alone. Intentional Salvia exposures resulted in a variety of neurologic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal effects. Notably, the use of concomitant substances of abuse was associated with a high rate of complications and psychomotor disturbances. Intentional use of S. divinorum, whether alone or in combination with alcoholic beverages and other drugs, causes neurologic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal effects. This poison-center-based review helps to characterize the clinical toxicity of S. divinorum, but more clinical and pharmacologic research is warranted for this rapidly emerging substance of abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Medication wrong route administration: a poisons center-based study.

    PubMed

    Bloch-Teitelbaum, Alexandra; Lüde, Saskia; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Russmann, Stefan; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    To describe clinical effects, circumstances of occurrence, management and outcomes of cases of inadvertent administration of medications by an incorrect parenteral route. Retrospective single-center consecutive review of parenteral route errors of medications, reported to our center between January 2006 and June 2010. We collected demographic data and information on medications, route and time of administration, severity of symptoms/signs, treatment, and outcome. Seventy-eight cases (68 adults, 10 children) were available for analysis. The following wrong administration routes were recorded: paravenous (51%), intravenous (33%), subcutaneous (8%), and others (8%). Medications most frequently involved were iodinated x-ray contrast media (11%) and iron infusions (9%). Twenty-eight percent of the patients were asymptomatic and 54% showed mild symptoms; moderate and severe symptoms were observed in 9% and 7.7%, respectively, and were mostly due to intravenous administration errors. There was no fatal outcome. In most symptomatic cases local nonspecific treatment was performed. Enquiries concerning administration of medicines by an incorrect parenteral route were rare, and mainly involved iodinated x-ray contrast media and iron infusions. Most events occurred in adults and showed a benign clinical course. Although the majority of exposures concerned the paravenous route, the occasional severe cases were observed mainly after inadvertent intravenous administration.

  6. Assessment of learning by emergency medicine residents and pharmacy students participating in a poison center clerkship.

    PubMed

    Cobaugh, D J; Goetz, C M; Lopez, G P; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1997-06-01

    An AAPCC-designated poison center developed and validated an objective testing instrument to evaluate learning during a poison center clinical rotation for 2nd-year emergency medicine residents and 5th-year pharmacy students. The examination contained multiple-choice, true-false, and fill-in questions pertaining to basic clinical toxicology. A pretest was administered prior to the rotation and a post-test was administered upon completion of the rotation. Overall pre-test mean was 56.2%; physician pre-test mean was 73.8%, and student pre-test mean was 43.9%. Overall post-test mean was 78.7%; physician post-test mean was 85.7%, and student post-test mean was 81%. Pre-test scores ranged from 21 to 86% for the group, and post-test scores ranged from 68 to 96%. The mean difference in pre-test to post-test score was 26.9%. These data suggest that a poison center rotation can result in significant increases in post-test scores in comparison to pre-test scores.

  7. Evaluation of pharmacist utilization of a poison center as a resource for patient care.

    PubMed

    Armahizer, Michael J; Johnson, David; Deusenberry, Christina M; Foley, John J; Krenzelok, Edward P; Pummer, Tara L

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate pharmacist use of a Regional Poison Information Center (RPIC), identify potential barriers to utilization, and provide strategies to overcome these barriers. All calls placed to a RPIC by a pharmacist, physician, or nurse over a 5-year period were retrieved. These data were analyzed to assess the pharmacist utilization of the RPIC and the variation of call types. Additionally, a survey, designed to assess the past and future use of the RPIC by pharmacists, was distributed to pharmacists in the region. Of the 37,799 calls made to the RPIC, 26,367 (69.8%) were from nurses, 8096 (21.4%) were from physicians, and 3336 (8.8%) were from pharmacists. Among calls initiated by pharmacists, the majority involved medication identification (n = 2391, 71.7%). The survey had a 38.9% response rate (n = 715) and revealed a trend toward less RPIC utilization by pharmacists with more formal training but less practice experience. The utilization of the RPIC was lowest among pharmacists as compared to other health care professionals. This may be due to pharmacists' unfamiliarity with the poison center's scope of services and resources. Therefore, it is important that pharmacists are educated on the benefit of utilizing poison centers in clinical situations.

  8. Lionfish string experiences of an inland poison center: a retrospective study of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Trestrail, J H; al-Mahasneh, Q M

    1989-04-01

    From January 1979 through March 1988, our regional poison center, located many hundreds of miles from the nearest coastal salt water, documented 23 cases of envenomation by "Lionfish" (members of genus Pterois). All cases involved specimens which were maintained in the homes of amateur aquarists. A study of patient epidemiology showed the following: patient's sex 91.3% male, 8.7% female; patients ages ranged from 17 to 50 years with an average age for males of 29.8 years and 35 years for females; the site of the envenomation accident was always in the home; the only part of the body envenomated was the hand or finger; and all of the patients were symptomatic. Symptoms noted included sharp pain, swelling, redness, bleeding, nausea, numbness, joint pain, anxiety, headache, disorientation, and dizziness. One patient had a complication of cellulitis. Treatment provided included immersion of the effected area in hot water at 40 C for 60 to 90 min, analgesics, tetanus toxoid, and antibiotics. There were no deaths noted and treatment proved effective in all cases. This paper also discusses the natural history, clinical effects, and current treatment for envenomations from these beautiful but dangerous venomous fish, which can cause poisoning exposures that are likely to be encountered by poison centers anywhere in the world.

  9. Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) envenomation: Descriptive analysis of calls to United States Poison Centers with focus on Arizona cases.

    PubMed

    French, Robert; Brooks, Daniel; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Shirazi, Farshad; Chase, Peter; Boesen, Keith; Walter, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) is a venomous lizard native to the deserts of southwestern United States (US) and northern Mexico. The purpose of this study was to describe human exposures to Gila monsters reported to US poison control centers (PCCs) with a focus on Arizona cases. The American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS) was used to access and retrospectively review all calls to US PCCs, concerning Gila monsters between January 1, 2000 and October 31, 2011. In addition, detailed records from the two Arizona PCCs were reviewed for the same time period. A total of 319 calls regarding Gila monsters were identified in the NPDS. Of these, 105 (33%) were human exposures; most (79%) occurred in males. A total of 71 (68%) of these 105 cases were referred to a health care facility (HCF); 30 (29%) were managed on-site. Of the 71 HCF referrals, 36 (51%) were discharged home and 17 (24%) were admitted. Most (65%) admissions were to an intensive care unit (ICU). Arizona's PCCs received 70 unique reports of Gila monster bite. Most (77%) of the bites in Arizona involved an upper extremity. Eight (11%) involved patients under the age of 18 years. Eleven (16%) Arizona cases were work-related. Twenty-eight (40%) of the 70 bites in Arizona were evaluated in a HCF, but not admitted. Eleven (16%) were admitted, of which five were to an ICU. Six patients had edema of airway structures; three required emergent airway management, one by cricothyrotomy. There were no deaths. Gila monster bites are uncommon. Many cases did not require hospitalization. Edema of airway structures is an infrequent, but life-threatening complication.

  10. [Effects of controlling specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Jiang-xia; Chang, Xiu-li; Zhou, Zhi-jun

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effects of controlling the specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area. The data of reported cases of pesticide poisoning were analyzed to find out the specific dangerous pesticide in acute pesticide poisoning. Then the occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning were estimated under the hypothesis of removing the specific dangerous pesticides. The data indicated that parathion (including methyl parathion) was the specific dangerous pesticide inducing occupational pesticide poisoning. After removing the use of parathion, the hazard of pesticides which caused occupational pesticide poisoning would be significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Parathion was also the most dangerous pesticide which caused non-occupational pesticide poisoning, with its fatality up to 15.8%. If parathion was well controlled, the fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning would be declined from 9.4% to 7.4%. The analyses of related literatures also revealed the similar results. The occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning may decrease if the most dangerous pesticides are well supervised.

  11. Varnish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a clear liquid that is used as coating on woodwork and other products. Varnish poisoning occurs ... NOT make the person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to. ...

  12. 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 31st Annual Report

    PubMed Central

    Mowry, James B.; Spyker, Daniel A.; Cantilena, Louis R.; McMillan, Naya; Ford, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: This is the 31st Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS). As of January 1, 2013, 57 of the nation's poison centers (PCs) uploaded case data automatically to NPDS. The upload interval was 8.08 [7.10, 11.63] (median [25%, 75%]) minutes, creating a near real-time national exposure and information database and surveillance system. Methodology: We analyzed the case data tabulating specific indices from NPDS. The methodology was similar to that of previous years. Where changes were introduced, the differences are identified. Poison center (PC) cases with medical outcomes of death were evaluated by a team of 38 medical and clinical toxicologist reviewers using an ordinal scale of 1–6 to assess the Relative Contribution to Fatality (RCF) of the exposure to the death. Results: In 2013, 3,060,122 closed encounters were logged by NPDS: 2,188,013 human exposures, 59,496 animal exposures, 806,347 information calls, 6,116 human-confirmed nonexposures, and 150 animal-confirmed nonexposures. Total encounters showed a 9.3% decline from 2012, while health care facility human exposure calls were essentially flat, decreasing by 0.1%.All information calls decreased 21.4% and health care facility (HCF) information calls decreased 8.5%, medication identification requests (drug ID) decreased 26.8%, and human exposures reported to US PCs decreased 3.8%. Human exposures with less serious outcomes have decreased 3.7% per year since 2008 while those with more serious outcomes (moderate, major or death) have increased by 4.7% per year since 2000. The top five substance classes most frequently involved in all human exposures were analgesics (11.5%), cosmetics/personal care products (7.7%), household cleaning substances (7.6%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (5.9%), and antidepressants (4.2%). Sedative/hypnotics/antipsychotics exposures as a class increased most rapidly (2,559 calls/year) over

  13. Control Center Technology Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Conference papers and presentations are compiled and cover evolving architectures and technologies applicable to flight control centers. Advances by NASA Centers and the aerospace industry are presented.

  14. A case-control study on risk factors for unintentional childhood poisoning in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Mansori, Kamyar; Soori, Hamid; Farnaghi, Fariba; Khodakarim, Sohila; Mansouri hanis, Shiva; Khodadost, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poisoning is a major public health problem and is one of the most frequent causes of emergency hospital admissions. The aim of this study was to identify the main risk factors for unintentional childhood poisoning in Tehran, Iran and to suggest possible causes and preventative measures. Methods: In this case-control study (case, n=140; control, n=280), two controls were selected for every case. Controls were matched by age, sex, and date of hospital attendance. All children and their guardians were then interviewed by the same person using a standard questionnaire that covered the demographic, behavioral, and risk factors associated with accidental poisonings. Results: The most common type of poisoning was related to narcotics (58.6%); and among the narcotics, methadone was the most prevalent poisoning agent (74.7%). Multivariate conditional logistic regression model revealed that addiction in the family (OR=14.6; 95% CI:6.2-34.6), previous poisoning (OR=7; 95% CI:2.4- 20.2), maternal occupation (OR=4; 95% CI:1.3- 12.3), and inaccessibility of poisoning products (OR=0.03; 95% CI:0.01- 0.12) were the main risk factors in unintentional childhood poisoning. Conclusion: Addiction in the family as a risk factor and inaccessibility of poisoning products as a protecting factor were recognized to have the highest correlation with the unintentional child poisoning. These two factors were considered as priorities in health education programs. PMID:27453885

  15. A case-control study on risk factors for unintentional childhood poisoning in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Mansori, Kamyar; Soori, Hamid; Farnaghi, Fariba; Khodakarim, Sohila; Mansouri Hanis, Shiva; Khodadost, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Poisoning is a major public health problem and is one of the most frequent causes of emergency hospital admissions. The aim of this study was to identify the main risk factors for unintentional childhood poisoning in Tehran, Iran and to suggest possible causes and preventative measures. In this case-control study (case, n=140; control, n=280), two controls were selected for every case. Controls were matched by age, sex, and date of hospital attendance. All children and their guardians were then interviewed by the same person using a standard questionnaire that covered the demographic, behavioral, and risk factors associated with accidental poisonings. The most common type of poisoning was related to narcotics (58.6%); and among the narcotics, methadone was the most prevalent poisoning agent (74.7%). Multivariate conditional logistic regression model revealed that addiction in the family (OR=14.6; 95% CI:6.2-34.6), previous poisoning (OR=7; 95% CI:2.4- 20.2), maternal occupation (OR=4; 95% CI:1.3- 12.3), and inaccessibility of poisoning products (OR=0.03; 95% CI:0.01- 0.12) were the main risk factors in unintentional childhood poisoning. Addiction in the family as a risk factor and inaccessibility of poisoning products as a protecting factor were recognized to have the highest correlation with the unintentional child poisoning. These two factors were considered as priorities in health education programs.

  16. Russian Mission Control Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    Helen Conijn, fiancée of European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands, far right, joins Renita Fincke, second from right, wife of Expedition 9 Flight Engineer and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Michael Fincke, along with family members at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow, Wednesday, April 21, 2004 to view the docking of the Soyuz capsule to the International Space Station that brought Kuipers, Fincke and Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka to the complex following their launch Monday from Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Regional variations in pediatric medication exposure: Spatial analysis of poison center utilization in western Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Margaret B; Pizon, Anthony F; Branas, Charles C; Fabio, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Medication drug exposures among young children continue to rise despite current poison prevention efforts. These exposures result in increased healthcare utilization and medical costs. New tactics are needed to reduce injuries related to pediatric drug exposures. We aimed to identify cluster patterns in: (1) calls for pediatric medication drug exposures and (2) a subset of calls that resulted in medical evaluation referrals. We identified and evaluated population characteristics associated with cluster patterns. We analyzed 26,685 pharmaceutical drug exposures involving children <5 years of age based on calls reported to the Pittsburgh Poison Center from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010. We performed spatial statistics to assess for clustering. We used logistic regression to estimate population characteristics associated with clustering. Spatial analysis identified 22 exposure clusters and five referral clusters. Sixty-five percent of 89 ZIP codes in the clusters of drug exposure with healthcare facility (HCF) referral were not identified in the exposure clusters. ZIP codes in the HCF referral clusters were characterized as rural, impoverished, and with high rates of unemployment and school dropouts. Our principal findings demonstrate pediatric drug exposures do exist in discrete geographic clusters and with distinct socioeconomic characteristics. This study offers a starting point for subsequent investigations into the geographic and social context of pediatric medication drug exposures. This is an important step in revising pediatric poison prevention strategies.

  18. The cost of employee turnover to a regional poison information center.

    PubMed

    Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1994-02-01

    The quality and effectiveness of a regional poison information center (RPIC) are directly related to the skills and experience of the professional staff of specialists in poison information and to having the appropriate number of individuals in order to accurately and concisely respond to the thousands of telephone calls concerning acute/chronic poisoning emergencies. Since RPICs are traditionally small departments, the loss of even 1 key staff member can cause devastating results. A realistic appraisal of the actual costs associated with employee turnover was done at our RPIC and considered the following items: Advertising and recruiting expenses; interviewing expenses; processing costs; orientation and training expenses; and overtime costs including fringe benefits and premium shift differentials. The over-all tangible costs related to turnover of an individual who is certified or qualified to be certified as a specialist in poison information is approximately $17,486. The specific cost categories included advertising/recruiting, $326; interviewing expenses, $360; orientation and training, $9,250; processing, $350; overtime monies, $7,200. The less tangible effects of turnover cannot be strictly measured in dollars, but can be reflected in reduced quality assurance factors, increased sick time, and decreased morale. While staff salaries and benefits usually account for 75% to 85% of a RPIC's operating budget, and since external sources of revenue do not offset the operational expenses, it is becoming increasingly difficult to remain competitive in today's current professional salary climate. While the loss of talent and its cumulative effect on quality is impossible to quantitatively measure, we have attempted to calculate the real financial burden associated with replacing personnel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Assessment of human exposures to animal vaccines using poison control records, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Edison, L; Schulte, J; Schauben, J; Kay, R; Rubin, C

    2014-05-01

    To characterize human exposures to vaccines intended for animals, evaluate the human risk due to these exposures and determine whether there is sufficient surveillance in place to monitor them. Retrospective analysis of surveillance data (2000-2009). Information collected by poison specialists during calls reporting human exposure to an animal vaccine product, made to one of the 57 United States Poison Control Centers. Data from the National Poison Data System were analysed to determine the number of calls due to human exposures to animal vaccines, and descriptive statistics were generated to characterize the exposures by age, gender, medical outcome, exposure site, exposure route, vaccine type and intended species, aetiologic agent, call date and exposure reason. Overall, the human health effects were minor, primarily due to unintentional parenteral exposure. Less than 15% of the reports were classified as occupational, and 80% of the exposures took place outside of a workplace or healthcare facility. Almost 60% of calls were due to exposure to the West Nile Virus vaccine; the others distributed among a variety of vaccines. Unintentional exposure to animal vaccines appears to occur almost exclusively among untrained individuals who may benefit from more effective education about the risks and benefits of administering vaccines. Improved reporting of adverse outcomes is essential to adequately define the extent of human exposure and risks associated with availability of new vaccines.

  20. Implementing a medication safety and poison prevention program at a senior center.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Jennifer A

    2013-10-01

    The Institute for Safe Medication Practices encourages pharmacists to assist in preventing medication misuse. The purpose of this article is to discuss a medication-safety education session conducted by a pharmacy professor, the faculty advisor to the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists university student chapter and students in a pharmacovigilance rotation, which was conducted at a local senior center. The author attended a train-the-trainer Webinar and then educated the pharmacy students. Participants at the senior center were taught about poison prevention, drug interactions, and appropriate drug disposal through an interactive format. We plan to continue the medication safety program at the senior center as a longitudinal project to promote patient safety. Pharmacists should be encouraged to play an active role in community outreach programs.

  1. Impact of the voluntary withdrawal of over-the-counter cough and cold medications on pediatric ingestions reported to poison centers.

    PubMed

    Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; Sorkin, John David; Doyon, Suzanne

    2010-08-01

    To assess the impact of a voluntary withdrawal of over-the-counter cough and cold medications (OTC CCMs) labeled for children under age 2 years on pediatric ingestions reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Trend analysis of OTC CCMs ingestions in children under the age 6 years resulting from therapeutic errors or unintentional poisonings for 27 months before (pre-) and 15 months after (post-) the October 2007 voluntary withdrawal was conducted. The rates and outcome severity were examined. The mean annual rate of therapeutic errors involving OTC CCMs post-withdrawal, in children less than 2-years of age, 45.2/100,000 (95%CI 30.7-66.6) was 54% of the rate pre-withdrawal, 83.8/100,000 (95%CI 67.6-104.0). The decrease was statistically significant p < 0.02. In this age group, there was no difference in the frequency of severe outcomes resulting from therapeutic errors post-withdrawal. There was no significant difference in unintentional poisoning rates post-withdrawal 82.1/100,000 (66.0-102.2) vs. pre-withdrawal 98.3/100,000 (84.4-114.3) (p < 0.21) in children less than 2-years of age. There were no significant reductions in rates of therapeutic errors and unintentional poisonings in children ages 2-5 years, who were not targeted by the withdrawal. A significant decrease in annual rates of therapeutic errors in children under 2-years reported to Poison Centers followed the voluntary withdrawal of OTC CCMs for children under age 2-years. Concerns that withdrawal of pediatric medications would paradoxically increase poisonings from parents giving products intended for older age groups to young children are not supported. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Serbia National Poison Control Centre: organization and current activities.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Dugan; Joksović, Dragan; Vucinić, Savica; Todorović, Veljko; Segrt, Zoran; Kilibarda, Vesna; Bokonjić, Dubravko

    2005-01-01

    Ministry of Health of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia established the National Poison Control Centre in 1995. However, that was only the formally solution since clinical, analytical and experimental services in toxicology had worked independently for at least 40 years. Besides the Headquarters, NPCC has currently 2 main units, the Clinic of Emergency and Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology and the Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology. The latter is consisted of Toxicological Information Department, Department of Analytical Toxicology and Department of Experimental Toxicology and Pharmacology. The Mobile Toxicological Chemical Unit is a separate department that is activated from personnel of the NPCC in a case of chemical accidents and/or disasters. Clinical, information and analytical parts of NPCC have a 365-day/24-hour working service. The Clinic of Emergency and Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology is a place where the intoxicated patients are treated, including those that need the intensive care measures. Toxicological Information Department uses the data from a self-made computer Database for different information purposes. Department of Analytical Toxicology is equipped with a lot of contemporary analytical equipment that is giving the opportunity of identification and quantification of chemicals/metabolites/degradation products in biological material, food, water, air and soil. Basic pharmacological and toxicological research of chemicals and pre-clinical investigations of antidotes are realized in the Department of Experimental Toxicology and Pharmacology. In terms of medical prevention and rational treatment of human poison exposures in Serbia, the current organization of NPCC has so far proven to be effective.

  3. Evaluation of U.S. Poison Center Data for Surveillance of Foodborne Disease.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Joann F; Bailey, Jennifer E; Kowalcyk, Barbara B

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing foodborne disease (FBD) surveillance and improving the timeliness of outbreak detection have been identified as public health priorities. Consumer complaint data have become increasingly useful for FBD surveillance and the detection of outbreaks. Calls to poison centers are a potential source of consumer complaint data. A retrospective analysis of data from the National Poison Data System (NPDS) (2000-2011) was undertaken to evaluate the value of data collected through the United States poison centers for detection of large national outbreaks and recalls. Demographic and clinical data were summarized. Prevalences of FBD calls were calculated and analyzed for time trends. Significant increases in daily call prevalences were identified, and dates of the increases were compared to the announcement of 18 national outbreaks/recalls. Over the 12-year period, there were 433,788 unique calls self-reporting a suspected FBD exposure in humans. Overall, daily call prevalences decreased over time. Only about half of callers reported common gastrointestinal clinical effects. Of the 42 identified significant increases in call prevalences, none occurred within 14 days before an outbreak announcement; 7 occurred within 14 days after an outbreak announcement. Based on this analysis, there are significant limitations to using self-reported FBD exposures to NPDS as a source of information for FBD surveillance of large national outbreaks and recalls; however, a syndromic approach may yield different results and should be explored. Improved data collection and coordination with public health agencies may improve the ability to use NPDS data to monitor FBD in near real-time, identify potential outbreaks, and improve situational awareness.

  4. Pattern of stingray injuries reported to Texas poison centers from 1998 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between selected factors and all human exposures involving stingray injuries reported to Texas poison centers. Cases were obtained retrospectively from calls to poison centers in Texas and included all reported human exposures involving stingray injuries from 1998 to 2004. The distribution of cases was determined for a variety of demographic and clinical parameters. A total of 153 cases were identified. The reported stingray injury penetrance increased during the 7-year period. Of the cases with a known patient age, 2% were <6 years, 25% were 6-19 years and 73% were >19 years. The stingray injuries occurred in public areas in 54% of the cases. In 61% of cases, the management site was reported not to be a health care facility. Of the cases with a known clinical outcome, none involved no effects and 53% involved minor effects. The highest proportion of stingray injuries occurred during the summer months, particularly August. In 60% of the cases, the calls originated from counties along the coast. This information can be used to identify those portions of the population most in need of education regarding the prevention and treatment of stingray injuries.

  5. The Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS): Risk assessment and real-time toxicovigilance across United States poison centers

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, William A.; Litovitz, Toby L. . E-mail: toby@poison.org; Belson, Martin G.; Kilbourne, Edwin

    2005-09-01

    The Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS) is a uniform data set of US poison centers cases. Categories of information include the patient, the caller, the exposure, the substance(s), clinical toxicity, treatment, and medical outcome. The TESS database was initiated in 1985, and provides a baseline of more than 36.2 million cases through 2003. The database has been utilized for a number of safety evaluations. Consideration of the strengths and limitations of TESS data must be incorporated into data interpretation. Real-time toxicovigilance was initiated in 2003 with continuous uploading of new cases from all poison centers to a central database. Real-time toxicovigilance utilizing general and specific approaches is systematically run against TESS, further increasing the potential utility of poison center experiences as a means of early identification of potential public health threats.

  6. Active surveillance of abused and misused prescription opioids using poison center data: a pilot study and descriptive comparison.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alice A; Bogdan, Gregory M; Dart, Richard C

    2007-01-01

    Prescription opioids are abused throughout the United States. Several monitoring programs are in existence, however, none of these systems provide up-to-date information on prescription opioid abuse. This article describes the use of poison centers as a real-time, geographically specific, surveillance system for prescription opioid abuse and compares our system with an existing prescription drug abuse monitoring program, the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Data were collected from eight geographically dispersed poison centers for a period of twelve months. Any call involving buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, and oxycodone was considered a case. Any case coded as intentional exposure (abuse, intentional misuse, suicide, or intentional unknown) was regarded as misuse and abuse. Comparative data were obtained from DAWN. Poison center rates of abuse and misuse were highest for hydrocodone at 3.75 per 100,000 population, followed by oxycodone at 1.81 per 100,000 population. DAWN emergency department (ED) data illustrate a similar pattern of abuse with most mentions involving hydrocodone and oxycodone. Poison center data indicate that people aged 18 to 25 had the highest rates of abuse. DAWN reported the majority of ED mentions among 35 to 44-year-olds. Geographically, Kentucky had the uppermost rates of abuse and misuse for all opioids combined at 20.69 per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS. Comparing poison center data to DAWN yielded mostly comparable results, including hydrocodone as the most commonly mentioned drug. Our results suggest poison center data can be used as an indicator for prescription opioid abuse and misuse and can provide timely, geographically specific information on prescription drug abuse.

  7. Buprenorphine prescribing practices and exposures reported to a poison center--Utah, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-12-14

    Buprenorphine is an effective medication for the treatment of opioid dependence. Its use has increased in the United States as a result of the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000, which allowed physicians to prescribe certain medications as part of office-based treatment for opioid addiction. In France, widespread use of medication-assisted therapy, primarily buprenorphine treatment, was associated with an 80% decrease in overdose deaths from heroin or cocaine from 465 in 1996 to 89 in 2003. With the expanded use of buprenorphine, an increase in exposures among children and adults has been reported in the United States. These exposures (including unintentional and intentional, therapeutic and nontherapeutic) have resulted in adverse effects and, in a small number of cases, death. To assess statewide increases in buprenorphine use and the number of reported exposures, the Utah Department of Health analyzed data from the Utah Controlled Substance Database (CSD) and the Utah Poison Control Center (PCC). The results of that analysis indicated a statewide increase in the annual number of patients prescribed buprenorphine from 22 in 2002 to 9,793 in 2011, and a concurrent increase in the annual number of prescribers writing buprenorphine prescriptions from 16 to 1,088. Over the same period, the number of exposures to buprenorphine reported annually to the PCC increased from six to 81. However, comparison of the ratios of buprenorphine exposures to patients and prescribers in 2002 with data for 2011 indicated substantial decreases from 6/22 for patients and 6/16 for prescribers in 2002 to 81/9,793 for patients and 81/1,088 for prescribers in 2011. Three of the total 462 buprenorphine exposures reported during 2002-2011 in Utah, in a teen and two adults, were associated with fatal outcomes. Increased buprenorphine prescribing in Utah during 2002-2011 likely represents expanded access to critically needed opioid addiction treatment; however, safeguards should be in place

  8. Methanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

  9. Canadian poison control centres: preliminary assessment of their potential as a resource for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Durigon, M; Elliott, C; Purssell, R; Kosatsky, T

    2013-11-01

    In the United States (US) and Europe, surveillance based on calls to poison control centres has identified new hazards and evolving exposure trends. In Canada, the value of poison control centre calls as a tool for health hazard surveillance is largely unrecognized. This preliminary survey was undertaken to describe current operational characteristics and surveillance capacities at Canadian poison control centres and to determine potential for developing a Canadian poison control centre collaborative network. A structured quantitative-qualitative survey was administered to medical directors and clinical supervisors at the five Canadian poison control centres between March and May, 2012. All five Canadian poison control centres operate 24/7 with each serving more than one province/territory. Annual call volumes range from 10,000 to 58,000. Data analysis is limited to detection of previously unrecognized hazards and short-term event-based adverse health monitoring. Currently no centre maintains systematic ongoing collection, integration and analysis of data. Constraints on personnel, resources and funding were identified as barriers to increasing capacity to provide and analyse call data. The potential exists to use Canadian poison control data as a novel source of public health surveillance. That they serve as sentinels for new or unexpected exposure events, have real-time electronic call-record capacity and demonstrate an interest in developing and sharing their call-record information supports their integration into existing public health networks.

  10. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  11. Regional variations in the use and awareness of the California Poison Control System.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E; Tharratt, R Steven; Alsop, Judy; Marquardt, Kathy; Heard, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    To investigate regional variations in public awareness and utilization of the services of Poison Control Centers (PCC) before and after an intervention. This study examines call rates of different California regions based on the final five regional PCCs prior to the consolidation of these services under a single statewide California Poison Control System (CPCS) and interventions to increase utilization. Awareness surveys were performed before and after a media campaign that was directed primarily to the Los Angeles basin and to a lesser extent other high Hispanic concentration areas. Focus groups were also utilized to better define specific areas of poison knowledge and awareness of CPCS services. Large differences in regional California call rates were seen, with the Los Angeles basin showing the lowest utilization of CPCS services compared with the rest of California. Significant seasonal variation in utilization was also found, with the highest average call rates observed in August and the lowest in February. Focus groups demonstrated that urban awareness of PCC was lower than suburban awareness, particularly in monolingual Hispanic households. An improvement was seen after the institution of a media education campaign that included use of Spanish language material and radio spots. Similar increases in call rates were also seen in Fresno county category, with a higher percentage of Hispanic population that was not as aggressively targeted by the awareness campaign. Significant regional variations in CPCS call rates were found and an increased awareness and utilization was seen in the Los Angeles basin after a directed media campaign compared with most areas of California. Further efforts to increase CPCS utilization in the Los Angeles region, primarily among urban monolingual Hispanics, are needed.

  12. Analysis of Gastric Lavage Reported to a Statewide Poison Control System.

    PubMed

    Donkor, Jimmy; Armenian, Patil; Hartman, Isaac N; Vohra, Rais

    2016-10-01

    As decontamination trends have evolved, gastric lavage (GL) has become a rare procedure. The current information regarding use, outcomes, and complications of GL could help refine indications for this invasive procedure. We sought to determine case type, location, and complications of GL cases reported to a statewide poison control system. This is a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System (CPCS) records from 2009 to 2012. Specific substances ingested, results and complications of GL, referring hospital ZIP codes, and outcomes were examined. Nine hundred twenty-three patients who underwent GL were included in the final analysis, ranging in age from 9 months to 88 years. There were 381 single and 540 multiple substance ingestions, with pill fragment return in 27%. Five hundred thirty-six GLs were performed with CPCS recommendation, while 387 were performed without. Complications were reported for 20 cases. There were 5 deaths, all after multiple ingestions. Among survivors, 37% were released from the emergency department, 13% were admitted to hospital wards, and 48% were admitted to intensive care units. The most commonly ingested substances were nontricyclic antidepressant psychotropics (n = 313), benzodiazepines (n = 233), acetaminophen (n = 191), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 107), diphenhydramine (n = 70), tricyclic antidepressants (n = 45), aspirin (n = 45), lithium (n = 36), and antifreeze (n = 10). The geographic distribution was clustered near regions of high population density, with a few exceptions. Toxic agents for which GL was performed reflected a broad spectrum of potential hazards, some of which are not life-threatening or have effective treatments. Continuing emergency physician and poison center staff education is required to assist in patient selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ingestions of hydrocodone, carisoprodol, and alprazolam in combination reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2011-04-01

    The combination of hydrocodone, carisoprodol, and alprazolam is subject to abuse. Ingestions of this drug combination reported to Texas poison centers during 1998-2009 were identified (totaling 1,295 cases) and the distribution of ingestions by selected factors was determined. The number of cases increased from 0 in 1998 to 200 in 2007, and then decreased to 132 in 2009. The counties in eastern and southeastern Texas accounted for 80.9% of the cases. Of the patients, 57.3% were women and 94.6% were age 20 or older. Suspected attempted suicide accounted for 59.3% of the cases and intentional misuse or abuse for 27.3%.

  14. Referral of pediatric laundry detergent pack exposure reported to poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2014-11-01

    Concentrated laundry detergent packs are new products that may be more likely to cause adverse effects and serious medical outcomes among young children than traditional laundry detergent products. The intent of this study was to examine whether certain factors might be associated with the referral of pediatric laundry detergent pack exposures by poison centers. Cases were laundry detergent pack exposures involving patients age 5 years or younger reported to Texas poison centers during February 2012 to August 2013. The health care facility referral rate was calculated for selected factors. Of 912 exposures, 720 were managed on site and 192 were referred to a health care facility. The referral rate was 16.1% for patients with not serious outcomes and 71.6% for serious outcomes. The referral rate was 32.0% for patients age younger than 1 year and 14.3% to 22.1% for the older age groups. 31.0% of Purex(TM), 25.5% of All(TM), and 19.3% of Tide(TM) product exposures were referred. The referral rate was 33.3% for ocular exposures, 19.4% for dermal contact, and 20.2% for ingestions. The most common clinical effects and their referral rates were vomiting (30.5%), cough or choke (45.1%), ocular irritation (34.6%), red eye (25.4%), nausea (25.4%), drowsiness or lethargy (67.5%), oral irritation (16.7%), and dermal edema (68.4%). Pediatric exposures to laundry detergent packs were more likely to be referred to health care facilities if the laundry detergent pack brand was Purex(TM), the exposure was ocular, or particular ocular, respiratory, dermal, or neurologic clinical effects were present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Unintentional Exposures to Codeine and Hydrocodone Reported to Texas Poison Centers.

    PubMed

    Day, Lindsay; Kleinschmidt, Kurt; Forrester, Mathias B; Feng, Sing-Yi

    2016-05-01

    Hydrocodone has recently been reclassified as a Schedule II drug by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration and Food and Drug Administration in order to curtail prescription drug abuse. There is concern that analgesic substitutes, such as codeine, will not be as safe or effective. The purpose of this study is to compare the demographics, adverse events, and medical outcomes of patients who had unintentional hydrocodone or codeine exposures through the use of a state's poison center database. The Texas Poison Center Network's database was utilized to find all reported unintentional ingestions or adverse reactions of products containing codeine or hydrocodone. Comparisons were made between the two medications by calculating the rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Children aged 5 years or younger were more exposed to codeine (51.6%). Hydrocodone exposures had more serious outcomes (11% vs. 9%; RR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.91) and had more nausea (7.1% vs. 2.8%; RR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.32-0.48) and vomiting (6.5% vs. 3.3%; RR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.43-0.62). Hydrocodone had a higher rate of intravenous fluids administration (2.4% vs. 1.7%; RR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.92) and antiemetics (0.4% vs. 0.1%; RR = 0.23; 95% CI 0.08-0.64). Codeine was more closely associated with dermal reactions and patients were given antihistamines (2.5% vs. 1.3%; RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.46-2.41) more frequently. Cardiovascular side effects, ataxia, and headache occurred equally between the groups. Both drugs had a wide array of reported side effects, but the overall incidence of serious outcomes was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of edible marijuana product exposures reported to United States poison centers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dazhe; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Bronstein, Alvin C; Hoyte, Christopher O

    2016-11-01

    Edible marijuana products are sold as brownies, cookies, and candies, which may be indistinguishable from counterparts without marijuana and are palatable to children and adults. The consumption of an entire product containing multiple dose-units may result in overdose. To characterize edible marijuana exposures reported to US poison centers with subgroup analysis by age. We analyzed single substance, human exposure calls coded to marijuana brownies, candies, cookies, beverages, or other foods reported to the National Poison Data System from January 2013 to December 2015. Calls were analyzed by state, age, gender, exposure route, clinical effect, therapies, and level of healthcare facility utilization. Four-hundred and thirty calls were reported: Colorado (N = 166, 1.05/100,000 population/year) and Washington (96, 0.46) yielded the highest number of exposures. Three hundred and eighty-one (91%) calls occurred in states with decriminalized medical/recreational marijuana. The number of calls increased every year of the study. The most common age groups were: ≤5 years (N = 109, 0.15/100,000 population/year) and 13-19 (78, 0.09). The most frequent clinical effects were drowsiness/lethargy (N = 118, percentage = 43%), tachycardia (84, 31%), agitated/irritable (37, 14%), and confusion (37, 14%). Children ≤5 years have more drowsiness/lethargy, ataxia, and red eye/conjunctivitis. No deaths were reported. The most common therapies administered were intravenous fluids (85, 20%), dilute/irrigate/wash (48, 11 %), and benzodiazepines (47, 11%). Three patients (ages 4, 10, and 57 years) received intubation. 97 (23%), 217 (50%), and 12 (3%) calls were managed at home, treated/released, admitted to a critical care unit, respectively. Although most clinical effects are minor, ventilatory support may be necessary for children and adults. We speculate the increasing exposures may be related to a combination of delayed absorption kinetics of Δ9

  17. The critical role of the Poison Center in the recognition, mitigation and management of biological and chemical terrorism.

    PubMed

    Krenzelok, E P

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism counter measures are a major priority with healthcare providers, municipalities, states and the federal government. Significant resources are being invested to enhance civilian domestic preparedness through training in anticipation of a NBC terroristic incident. The key to a successful response, in addition to education, is integration of efforts as well as thorough communication and understanding the role that each agency would play in an actual or impending NBC incident. In anticipation of a NBC event, a regional counter-terrorism task force was established in southwestern Pennsylvania to identify resources, establish responsibilities and coordinate the response to NBC terrorism. Members of the task force include first responders, hazmat, law enforcement (local, regional, national), government officials, health departments, the statewide emergency management agency and the regional poison information center. The poison center is one of several critical components of a regional counter-terrorism response force. It can conduct active and passive toxicosurveillance and identify sentinel events. To be responsive, the poison center staff must be knowledgeable about biological and chemical agents. The development of basic protocols and a standardized staff education program is essential. The use of the RaPID-T (R-recognition, P-protection, D-detection, T-triage/treatment) course can provide basic staff education for responding to this important but rare consultation to the poison center.

  18. Human bromethalin exposures reported to a U.S. Statewide Poison Control System.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Serena; Fenik, Yelena; Vohra, Rais; Geller, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Bromethalin is an increasingly used alternative to long-acting anticoagulant and cholecalciferol rodenticides. There are few reports of human exposures, and no existing professional society guidelines on medical management of bromethalin ingestions. The aim of this retrospective data review is to characterize bromethalin exposures reported to the California Poison Control System (CPCS) between 1997 and 2014. This is an observational retrospective case review of our statewide poison control system's electronic medical records. Following Institutional Board Review and Research Committee approvals, poison center exposures related to bromethalin were extracted using substance code and free text search strategies. Case notes of bromethalin exposures were reviewed for demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome information; inclusion criteria for the study was single-substance, human exposure to bromethalin. There were 129 calls related to human bromethalin exposures (three cases met exclusion criteria). The age range of cases was 7 months-90 years old, with the majority of exposures (89 cases; 70.6%), occurring in children younger than 5 years of age (median age of 2 years). Most exposures occurred in the pediatric population as a result of exploratory oral exposure. One hundred and thirteen patients (89.7%) had no effects post exposure, while 10 patients (7.9%) had a minor outcome. Adverse effects were minor, self-limited, and mostly gastrointestinal upset. There were no moderate, major, or fatal effects in our study population. The approximate ingested dose, available in six cases, ranged from 0.067 mg/kg to 0.3 mg/kg (milligrams of bromethalin ingested per kilogram of body weight), and no dose-symptom threshold could be established from this series. Exposures were not confirmed through urine or serum laboratory testing. The prognosis for most accidental ingestions appears to be excellent. However, bromethalin exposures may result in a higher number of

  19. Notes from the field: carbon monoxide exposures reported to poison centers and related to hurricane Sandy - Northeastern United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-11-09

    Hurricane Sandy made landfall as a post-tropical cyclone along the coast of southern New Jersey on Monday, October 29, 2012. In the wake of Sandy, state and federal public health agencies have observed an increase in the number of exposures to carbon monoxide (CO) reported to poison centers. CO is imperceptible and can cause adverse health effects ranging from fatigue and headache to cardiorespiratory failure, coma, and death. CO poisoning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in post-disaster situations, when widespread power outages occur and risky behaviors, such as improper placement of generators and indoor use of charcoal grills, increase.

  20. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Levesque, Marl; Williams, Randall; Mclaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Launch vehicles within the international community vary greatly in their configuration and processing. Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific launch vehicle configuration. Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site. Each launch site has a control center for launch operations; however flight operations support varies from being co-located with the launch site to being shared with the space vehicle control center. There is also a nuance of some having an engineering support center which may be co-located with either the launch or flight control center, or in a separate geographical location altogether. A survey of control center architectures is presented for various launch vehicles including the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures shares some similarities in basic structure while differences in functional distribution also exist. The driving functions which lead to these factors are considered and a model of control center architectures is proposed which supports these commonalities and variations.

  1. Exposure Calls to U. S. Poison Centers Involving Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes-September 2010-December 2014.

    PubMed

    Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; Law, Royal; Taylor, Ethel; Kieszak, Stephanie; Melstrom, Paul; Bunnell, Rebecca; Wang, Baoguang; Day, Hannah; Apelberg, Benjamin; Cantrell, Lee; Foster, Howell; Schier, Joshua G

    2016-12-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing, and the long-term impact on public health is unclear. We described the acute adverse health effects from e-cigarette exposures reported to U.S. poison centers. We compared monthly counts and demographic, exposure, and health effects data of calls about e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes made to poison centers from September 2010 through December 2014. Monthly e-cigarette calls increased from 1 in September 2010, peaked at 401 in April 2014, and declined to 295 in December 2014. Monthly conventional cigarette calls during the same period ranged from 302 to 514. E-cigarette calls were more likely than conventional cigarette calls to report adverse health effects, including vomiting, eye irritation, and nausea. Five e-cigarette calls reported major health effects, such as respiratory failure, and there were two deaths associated with e-cigarette calls. E-cigarette calls to U.S. poison centers increased over the study period, and were more likely than conventional cigarettes to report adverse health effects. It is important for health care providers and the public to be aware of potential acute health effects from e-cigarettes. Developing strategies to monitor and prevent poisonings from these novel devices is critical.

  2. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... new scientific knowledge and technological developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning...

  3. Pesticide-related poison center exposures in children and adolescents aged ≤19 years in Texas, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Trueblood, Amber B; Forrester, Mathias B; Han, Daikwon; Shipp, Eva M; Cizmas, Leslie H

    2016-11-01

    Although national poison center data show that pesticides were the 8th most commonly reported substance category (3.27%) for children aged ≤5 years in 2014, there is limited information on childhood and adolescent pesticide exposures. This study assessed pesticide-related poison center exposures in children and adolescents aged ≤19 years from 2000-2013 in Texas to characterize the potential burden of pesticides. Pesticide-related poison center exposures among children and adolescents aged ≤19 years reported to Texas poison centers were identified. The distribution of exposures was estimated by gender, age category, medical outcome, management site, exposure route, and pesticide category. From 2000 to 2013, there were 61,147 pesticide-related poison center exposures in children and adolescents aged ≤19 years. The prevalence was highest among males at 864.24 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of unintentional exposures was highest among children aged ≤5 years at 2310.69 per 100,000 population, whereas the prevalence of intentional exposures was highest among adolescents aged 13-19 years at 13.82 per 100,000 population. A majority of medical outcomes reported were classified as having no effect (30.24%) and not followed, but minimal clinical effects possible (42.74%). Of all the exposures, 81.24% were managed on site. However, 57% of intentional exposures were referred to or treated at a health-care facility. The most common routes of exposure were ingestion (80.83%) and dermal (17.21%). The most common pesticide categories included rodenticides (30.02%), pyrethrins/pyrethroids (20.69%), and other and unspecified insecticides (18.14%). The study found differences in the frequency of exposures by intent for sex and age categories, and identified the most common medical outcomes, management site, exposure route, and pesticide category. Through characterizing pesticide-related poison center exposures, future interventions can be designed to address groups

  4. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Inhalational mercury toxicity from artisanal gold extraction reported to the Oregon poison center, 2002-2015.

    PubMed

    Noble, Matthew J; Decker, Stewart L; Horowitz, B Z

    2016-11-01

    Mercury exposure has been described among small-scale gold mining communities in developing countries, but reports of inhalational mercury toxicity among home gold extractors in the US remain uncommon. We sought to identify inhalational mercury exposures and toxicity among artisanal gold extractors. This is an observational case series of a single Poison Center database from 2002-2015. We review all cases of "mercury" or "mercury inhalation" exposures, with detailed description of a recent representative case. Nine cases were reported, with patients' ages ranging 32-81 years. Eight (89%) patients were male. Seven of eight (88%) patients with acute exposures reported pulmonary symptoms consistent with mercury vapor inhalation such as dyspnea and cough; two (29%) patients had severe toxicity requiring intubation. Four of six (67%) patients had markedly elevated whole blood mercury concentrations up to 346 mcg/L; each received a different chelation regimen. Four (44%) patients used methamphetamines at the time of their exposure. The case report describes a patient with elevated mercury concentrations who required intubation for hypoxic respiratory failure. He received chelation therapy based on chelator availability, with decreasing 24-hour urine mercury concentrations. The house where he was exposed remains uninhabitable from elevated ambient mercury vapor concentrations. Artisanal gold extraction may be associated with inhalational mercury toxicity, including elevated blood mercury concentrations and acute hypoxic lung injury requiring intubation.

  6. Factors associated with adult poisoning in northern Malaysia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Fathelrahman, A I; Ab Rahman, A F; Zain, Z Mohd; Tengku, M A

    2006-04-01

    Data on adult risk factors associated with drug or chemical poisonings in Malaysia are scarce. The objective of the study was to identify possible risk factors associated with adult admissions to the Penang General Hospital (PGH) due to chemical poisoning and/or drug overdose. The present study was a case-control study, conducted over 18 weeks. One hundred acutely poisoned adult patients admitted to PGH during the period from September 2003 to February 2004 were considered as cases. Two hundred patients admitted to the same medical wards for other illnesses, during the same period, were matched for age and gender with the poisoned cases and thus selected as controls. McNemar test and binary logistic were used for univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis for multivariate analyses. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated for each predictor variable. Positive histories of psychiatric illness and previous poisoning, problems in boy/girl friend relationships, family problems, marital problems, Indian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity, living in rented houses and living in a household with less than five people were significant risk factors associated with adult admissions due to poisoning.

  7. [The role of poison information center in the health service structures].

    PubMed

    Targosz, Dorota; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mitrus, Małgorzata; Morawska, Jowanka; Satora, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Poison information centres (PIC) provide telephone advice on the treatment of poisonings to the lay public and medical professionals. The number of inquiries increases every year. Poison Information Centre of Collegium Medicum of Jagiellonian University in Krakow provided 1611 items of advice in 1999 and 2263--five years later--in 2004. Each incoming call is recorded and documented by standardized protocol. Another aspect of PIC activity of is prevention and education. Inquiries protocols' analysis shows the most frequent reasons and circumstances of poisonings. Thus, it is possible to conduct appropriate prophylactic campaigns. The above aspects of activity of PIC do not bring direct financial benefit. There is one index which shows that PIC saves the money. There were 335 cases in 2004 (above 50% consulted lay public) when unnecessary hospital admissions were prevent. It should be noted that the others were refer to proper specialist. This aspect of PIC's activity significantly decreases the costs which should be paid in any medical intervention.

  8. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  9. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  10. Occupational chemical exposures: a collaboration between the Georgia Poison Center and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Tustin, Aaron W; Jones, Alison; Lopez, Gaylord P; Ketcham, Glenn R; Hodgson, Michael J

    2017-06-26

    In the United States, regional poison centers frequently receive calls about toxic workplace exposures. Most poison centers do not share call details routinely with governmental regulatory agencies. Worker health and safety could be enhanced if regulators such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) had the ability to investigate these events and prevent similar incidents. With this goal in mind, the Georgia Poison Center (GPC) began referring occupational exposures to OSHA in July 2014. GPC began collecting additional employer details when handling occupational exposure calls. When workers granted permission, GPC forwarded call details to the OSHA Regional Office in Atlanta. These referrals enabled OSHA to initiate several investigations. We also analyzed all occupational exposures reported to GPC during the study period to characterize the events, detect violations of OSHA reporting requirements, and identify hazardous scenarios that could form the basis for future OSHA rulemaking or guidance. GPC was informed about 953 occupational exposures between 1 July, 2014 and 7 January, 2016. Workers were exposed to 217 unique substances, and 70.3% of victims received treatment in a healthcare facility. Hydrogen sulfide was responsible for the largest number of severe clinical effects. GPC obtained permission to refer 89 (9.3%) calls to OSHA. As a result of these referrals, OSHA conducted 39 investigations and cited 15 employers for "serious" violations. OSHA forwarded several other referrals to other regulatory agencies when OSHA did not have jurisdiction. At least one employer failed to comply with OSHA's new rule that mandates reporting of all work-related hospitalizations. This collaboration increased OSHA's awareness of dangerous job tasks including hydrofluoric acid exposure among auto detailers and carbon monoxide poisoning with indoor use of gasoline-powered tools. Collaboration with the GPC generated a useful source of referrals to OSHA. OSHA

  11. Adverse drug reactions reported to the drug and poison information center of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Saheb Sharif-Askari, Fatemeh; Saheb Sharif-Askari, Narjes; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2017-01-01

    Burden of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in home-environment and domestic settings, is unknown. To discuss the epidemiology of reported ADRs to 13-Aban drug and poison information center (DPIC) and to discuss the burden of hospitalization caused by these ADRs from commonly implicated therapeutic groups. A retrospective analysis of the yellow card schemes of suspected ADRs reported to the 13-Aban DPIC was conducted from 21 March 2013 to 21 November 2016 inclusive. Characteristics of the ADRs, such as the sex and age of the patient, the therapeutic group involved, and the medical outcome of the exposure, were examined. ADR Hospitalization (ADRH) index was calculated for each drug group by dividing the number of ADR-related hospitalizations with total number of reported ADR cases (n = 748), and then multiplying by 100. ADRs were reported for 748 patients representing 5 cases per 1000 enquiries to the 13-Aban DPIC over almost 4-years of the study period. Public were responsible for reporting every 4 out of 5 ADR cases (n = 651, 87%) and the remaining 1 out of 5 ADR cases was reported by the health care professionals (n = 97, 13%). Most of the ADRs had a medical outcome documented as having a minor effect or were minimally bothersome to the patients (n = 509, 68%), and less than 4.9% (n = 37) were documented as having a major effect or were life-threatening. Overall, 7.4% (n = 55) of ADRs were resulted in hospitalization. Antibacterials for systemic use represented the therapeutic group with the highest hospitalization index (1.7%). The study concluded that ADRs to antibiotics are common and some of them resulted in hospitalization.

  12. Sachet poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... Seek medical help right away. DO NOT make the person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to.

  13. Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Students at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY, monitor the progress of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) mission (STS-87, Nov. 19 - Dec. 5, 1997). Remote Operation Control Center (ROCC) like this one will become more common during operations with International Space Station. IDGE, flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. Photo credit: Renssenlaer Polythnic Institute (RPI)

  14. Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Undergraduate students Kristina Wines and Dena Renzo at Rensselaer Poloytech Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY, monitor the progress of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) mission (STS-87), Nov. 19 - Dec.5, 1997). Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC) like this one will become more common during operations with the International Space Station. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. Photo credit: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

  15. Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Matthew Koss (forground) and Martin Glicksman (rear), principal investigator and lead scientist (respectively), review plans for the next step in the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) mission (STS-87, Nov. 19 - Dec. 5, 1997). Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC) like this one, at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY, will become more common during operations with the International Space Station. IDGE, flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relavent metal and alloy forming operations. Photo credit: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

  16. Risk factors for salmonella food poisoning in the domestic kitchen--a case control study.

    PubMed

    Parry, S M; Palmer, S R; Slader, J; Humphrey, T

    2002-10-01

    Domestic kitchen food handling risk factors for sporadic salmonella food poisoning are largely unknown. We compared food consumption and food handling practices, opportunities for cross contamination and refrigerator temperature control, in 99 households in South East Wales in 1997/8 with a case of salmonella food poisoning, and control households matched for electoral ward. On univariate analyses, cases were significantly more likely than control respondents to have purchased free-range eggs in the preceding week, and more likely than control households to have handled frozen whole chicken in the previous week, and to handle raw chicken portions at least weekly. In multivariate analysis, only consumption of raw eggs and handling free-range eggs were significant risk factors, independent of the age structure of the family and of the season.

  17. Risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1–3 years in NSW Australia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unintentional poisoning in young children is an important public health issue. Age pattern studies have demonstrated that children aged 1–3 years have the highest levels of poisoning risk among children aged 0–4 years, yet little research has been conducted regarding risk factors specific to this three-year age group and the methodologies employed varied greatly. The purpose of the current study is to investigate a broad range of potential risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1–3 years using appropriate methodologies. Methods Four groups of children, one case group (children who had experienced a poisoning event) and three control groups (children who had been ‘injured’, ‘sick’ or who were ‘healthy’), and their mothers (mother-child dyads) were enrolled into a case–control study. All mother-child dyads participated in a 1.5-hour child developmental screening and observation, with mothers responding to a series of questionnaires at home. Data were analysed as three case–control pairs with multivariate analyses used to control for age and sex differences between child cases and controls. Results Five risk factors were included in the final multivariate models for one or more case–control pairs. All three models found that children whose mothers used more positive control in their interactions during a structured task had higher odds of poisoning. Two models showed that maternal psychiatric distress increased poisoning risk (poisoning-injury and poisoning-healthy). Individual models identified the following variables as risk factors: less proximal maternal supervision during risk taking activities (poisoning-injury), medicinal substances stored in more accessible locations in bathrooms (poisoning-sick) and lower total parenting stress (poisoning-healthy). Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that the nature of the caregiver-child relationship and caregiver attributes play an important role in

  18. Risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years in NSW Australia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah; Wilson, Leigh

    2013-05-24

    Unintentional poisoning in young children is an important public health issue. Age pattern studies have demonstrated that children aged 1-3 years have the highest levels of poisoning risk among children aged 0-4 years, yet little research has been conducted regarding risk factors specific to this three-year age group and the methodologies employed varied greatly. The purpose of the current study is to investigate a broad range of potential risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years using appropriate methodologies. Four groups of children, one case group (children who had experienced a poisoning event) and three control groups (children who had been 'injured', 'sick' or who were 'healthy'), and their mothers (mother-child dyads) were enrolled into a case-control study. All mother-child dyads participated in a 1.5-hour child developmental screening and observation, with mothers responding to a series of questionnaires at home. Data were analysed as three case-control pairs with multivariate analyses used to control for age and sex differences between child cases and controls. Five risk factors were included in the final multivariate models for one or more case-control pairs. All three models found that children whose mothers used more positive control in their interactions during a structured task had higher odds of poisoning. Two models showed that maternal psychiatric distress increased poisoning risk (poisoning-injury and poisoning-healthy). Individual models identified the following variables as risk factors: less proximal maternal supervision during risk taking activities (poisoning-injury), medicinal substances stored in more accessible locations in bathrooms (poisoning-sick) and lower total parenting stress (poisoning-healthy). The findings of this study indicate that the nature of the caregiver-child relationship and caregiver attributes play an important role in influencing poisoning risk. Further research is warranted to explore the

  19. Treatment of Severe Poison Ivy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Long Versus Short Course Oral Prednisone

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Gabrielle; Lewis, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxidendron (poison ivy, oak, and sumac) contact dermatitis is a common complaint in the outpatient primary care setting with little evidence-based guidance on best treatment duration. Methods This randomized, controlled trial examined the efficacy and side effects of a 5-day regimen of 40 mg oral prednisone daily (short course) compared to the same 5-day regimen followed by a prednisone taper of 30 mg daily for 2 days, 20 mg daily for 2 days, 10 mg daily for 2 days, and 5 mg daily for 4 days over a total of 15 days (long course) in patients with severe poison ivy dermatitis. Results In 49 patients with severe poison ivy, non-adherence rates, rash return, medication side effects, and time to improvement and complete healing of the rash were not significantly different between the two groups. Patients receiving the long course regimen were significantly less likely to utilize other medications (22.7% vs. 55.6%, P = 0.02, number needed to treat 3.05). Conclusions This study suggests that a longer course prescription may save patients’ time and exposure to excess medication in the treatment of severe poison ivy. Application of this information to clinical practice will save return visits and reduce excess non-prescription medication administration to individual patients. PMID:25247016

  20. Treatment of severe poison ivy: a randomized, controlled trial of long versus short course oral prednisone.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Gabrielle; Lewis, Amy C

    2014-12-01

    Toxidendron (poison ivy, oak, and sumac) contact dermatitis is a common complaint in the outpatient primary care setting with little evidence-based guidance on best treatment duration. This randomized, controlled trial examined the efficacy and side effects of a 5-day regimen of 40 mg oral prednisone daily (short course) compared to the same 5-day regimen followed by a prednisone taper of 30 mg daily for 2 days, 20 mg daily for 2 days, 10 mg daily for 2 days, and 5 mg daily for 4 days over a total of 15 days (long course) in patients with severe poison ivy dermatitis. In 49 patients with severe poison ivy, non-adherence rates, rash return, medication side effects, and time to improvement and complete healing of the rash were not significantly different between the two groups. Patients receiving the long course regimen were significantly less likely to utilize other medications (22.7% vs. 55.6%, P = 0.02, number needed to treat 3.05). This study suggests that a longer course prescription may save patients' time and exposure to excess medication in the treatment of severe poison ivy. Application of this information to clinical practice will save return visits and reduce excess non-prescription medication administration to individual patients.

  1. Refrigerant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Coolant poisoning; Freon poisoning; Fluorinated hydrocarbon poisoning; Sudden sniffing death syndrome ... the person will have a complete recovery. Sniffing Freon is extremely dangerous and can lead to long- ...

  2. Cutaneous poisoning syndromes in children: a review.

    PubMed

    Jao-Tan, Cindy; Pope, Elena

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review cutaneous poisoning syndromes in the pediatric population and to describe the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in the management of these conditions. In recent years, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Center for Disease Control have been continuously monitoring the lowest blood levels of numerous elements and nutrients associated with the slightest degree of toxicity. This review will focus on the clinical presentation, recognition and management of poisoning with cutaneous manifestations such as carotenoderma, mercury, dioxin and arsenic poisoning. Despite numerous efforts of federal and local government agencies to decrease poisoning incidents among consumers, sporadic cases of cutaneous poisoning still arise. Pediatricians should be familiar with the clinical presentation of various toxic syndromes and, more importantly, be able to teach prevention during regular medical encounters.

  3. Factors associated with healthcare visits by young children for nontoxic poisoning exposures.

    PubMed

    Polivka, Barbara J; Casavant, Marcel; Baker, S David

    2010-12-01

    Poison control centers have been shown to be a cost-effective alternative to healthcare visits for poisoning exposures, yet emergency departments (ED) and urgent care centers (UCC) continue to be frequently accessed for poisoning exposures in young children. We sought to identify predictors of young children who obtain healthcare for a nontoxic poisoning exposure. Poisoning exposure cases for children ≤5 years old who sought ED, UCC, or clinic care between 2001 and 2005 from an urban regional pediatric hospital system were identified from poisoning ICD-9 codes in the hospital administrative data and from a poisoning designation in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data. Cases (n = 2,494) were reviewed and categorized as either toxic or nontoxic. Toxic exposures were those with more than minimal potential for clinical effects. Most cases were between 1 and 2 years old, male, White, enrolled in Medicaid, sought ED care, had no referring physician, and brought to the facility by a parent/guardian. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of seeking healthcare for a nontoxic poisoning exposure were significantly greater if the child was African American, enrolled in Medicaid, had a non-medication related poisoning, and was brought to the healthcare site by a parent/guardian. Healthcare costs and unnecessary use of healthcare resources for nontoxic poisoning exposures could be reduced by educating parents and providers of children at high risk for inappropriate healthcare visits for nontoxic poisonings to initially contact the poison control center (1-800-222-1222).

  4. Intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan: a pilot study using the Emergency Departments surveillance project.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadeem; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Shamim, Nudrat; Khan, Uzma; Naseer, Naureen; Feroze, Asher; Razzak, Junaid; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning is one of the most common reasons for emergency department visits around the world. In Pakistan, the epidemiological data on poisoning is limited due to an under developed poison information surveillance system. We aim to describe the characteristics associated with intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan presenting to emergency departments. The data was extracted from the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) which was an active surveillance conducted between November 2010 and March 2011. All patients, regardless of age, who presented with poisoning to any of Pakistan's seven major tertiary care centers' emergency departments, were included. Information about patient demographics, type of poisoning agent, reason for poisoning and outcomes were collected using a standard questionnaire. Acute poisoning contributed to 1.2% (n = 233) of patients with intentional and unintentional injuries presenting to EDs of participating centers. Of these, 68% were male, 54% were aged 19 to 44 and 19% were children and adolescents (<18 years). Types of poisoning included chemical/gas (43.8%), drug/medicine (27%), alcohol (16.7%) and food/plant (6%). In half of all patients the poisoning was intentional. A total of 11.6% of the patients were admitted and 6.6% died. Poisoning causes more morbidity and mortality in young adults in Pakistan compared to other age groups, half of which is intentional. Improving mental health, regulatory control for hazardous chemicals and better access to care through poison information centers and emergency departments will potentially help control the problem.

  5. 3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES INCREASINGLY AUTOMATED, EAGLE ROCK WILL BECOME MORE AND MORE THE CENTRAL CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. - Eagle Rock Operations Control Center, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Poisoning - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - العربية (Arabic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Burmese (myanma bhasa) Expand ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - नेपाली (Nepali) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Pashto (Pax̌tō / پښتو ) Expand ...

  7. [Evaluation of the capacity of personal protection on poison emergency items in Chinese disease control and prevention institutes].

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-jing; Zhou, Jing; Meng, Cong-shen; Zhang, Shou-lin; Zhang, Hong-shun; Jiang, Shao-feng; Wang, Ming-liang; Sun, Cheng-ye

    2009-02-01

    To analyze the capacity of personal protection on poison emergency items in Chinese disease control and prevention institutes. Evaluation analysis based on data obtained from investigating personal protection equipments and professional knowledge quizzing about personal protection in poisoning control of 57 different level centers for disease control and prevention selected from China by a multi-stage stratified sampling. All 80.70% of the institutes possessed the protection equipments, provincial, municipal, county level institutes were 100.00%, 95.24%, 66.67%, respectively, with significant statistical difference (H = 7.94, P < 0.05). The average level of the type of individual protective equipments in disease control and prevention institutes was (5.42 +/- 4.00) kinds, the average points in category of provincial, municipal, county level institutes were (11.33 +/- 3.67), (6.52 +/- 3.16), (3.47 +/- 3.10) kinds, being statistically significant (F = 17.30, P < 0.05); type difference counts of disease control and prevention institutes in economic development, secondary, less-developed regions were (6.41 +/- 4.03), (3.55 +/- 3.35), (6.45 +/- 4.07) kinds, with statistical significance (F = 3.70, P < 0.05). Protection equipments chiefly possessed were latex gloves, gauze masks and C-protective clothing. Protective clothing and respiratory protective equipments were insufficient evidently. The average points in testing personal protection basic knowledge were (71.39 +/- 12.52) points; there were no differences between different institutes with different economic regions, levels, technical posts and title degrees. Certain advances have been achieved in recent years in personal protection capacity of institutes for disease control and prevention, but far from the actual demands, and maybe no enough effective response on emergency occurred.

  8. Clinical and laboratory findings in mad honey poisoning: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Yaylaci, S; Kocayigit, I; Aydin, E; Osken, A; Genc, A B; Cakar, M A; Tamer, A

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as the hematological-biochemical parameters of patients who admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of mad honey poisoning. A total of 16 patients who were admitted with mad honey intoxication symptoms and treated in Emergency Department of Sakarya Education and Research Hospital between January 2009 and December 2012 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and hematological, biochemical parameters were obtained from hospital records. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure on admission and at discharge were obtained retrospectively. Sixteen patients (10 males and 6 females, mean age 58.5 ± 10 years, range between 41 and 79) were included in our study. Heart rate was 42 ± 6 beats/min, systolic blood pressure was 73 ± 19 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure was 45 ± 17 mmHg on admission. In the evaluation of the patients' heart rhythms on admission to the emergency room, nine (56.3%) patients had sinus bradycardia, three (18.8%) patients had nodal rhythm, two (12.5%) patients had first degree atrioventricular block, and two (12.5%) patients had atrial fibrillation. Atropine 1.1 ± 0.4 mg and saline 1125 ± 465 ml were used to treat patients. Patients were discharged with a stable condition after an average 27.7 ± 7.2 h of follow-up. Heart rate was 75 ± 8 beats/min, systolic blood pressure was 132 ± 7 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure was 82 ± 6 mmHg at discharge. Mortality was not observed. Hematological and biochemical parameters measured at the time of admission were within normal ranges. Mad honey poisoning should be considered in previously healthy patients with unexplained symptoms of bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Therefore, diet history should carefully be obtained from the patients admitted with bradycardia and hypotension, and mad honey intoxication should also be considered in the

  9. Outcomes of patients with acetaminophen-associated toxic hepatitis at a far east poison center.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi-Chou; Lin, Ja-Liang; Huang, Wen-Hung; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Shen-Yang; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Wang, I-Kuan; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Lin, Wey-Ran; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    There is an overall paucity of data regarding the outcomes of patients with acetaminophen-associated toxic hepatitis in Taiwan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to recruit a larger number of patients and to examine the clinical features, the degrees of toxic hepatitis, the physiological markers, and the clinical outcomes after intentional acetaminophen poisoning, and to determine what association, if any, might exist between these findings. We examined the medical records of 187 patients with intentional acetaminophen poisoning who were examined at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2000 and 2011. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to hepatic complications, i.e. with (n = 15) or without (n = 172) toxic hepatitis. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected, and the mortality rate was analyzed. It was found that patients with toxic hepatitis had higher serum acetaminophen level (P = 0.007), but they also arrived to the hospital later (P < 0.001) than patients without toxic hepatitis. Furthermore, patients with toxic hepatitis showed higher incidences of acute respiratory failure (P = 0.012) than those shown by patients who did not have hepatitis. The laboratory examinations also revealed greater degrees of granulocytosis (P < 0.001) and poorer liver function tests (P < 0.001) in patients with hepatitis than in patients without hepatitis. Nevertheless, a univariate logistic regression model failed to identify any significant risk factors for toxic hepatitis complication after ingestion (P > 0.05). At the end of the analysis, 1 patient with toxic hepatitis died of liver failure. Finally, there was no significant difference in mortality between patients with and without hepatitis (P = 0.080). The analytical data revealed that toxic hepatitis was not uncommon (15/187 or 8.0%) after acetaminophen overdose. Further studies are warranted.

  10. Combining primary and secondary poison prevention in one initiative.

    PubMed

    Krenzelok, Edward; Mrvos, Rita; Mazo, Ellen

    2008-02-01

    Contrary to the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on Forging a Poison Prevention and Control System, a certified regional poison information center combined both primary and secondary education with another public health initiative to determine if there was an impact on poison center awareness. Poison Help stickers that contained the national toll-free poison center number were inserted into a quarterly publication from a children's hospital and mailed to 136,741 residents of a poison center service region. Benchmark data from a six-month period were used to compare call volume both before and after the initiative. Call volume increased by a mean of 8.8% from the counties where at least 5% of residents received the mailing. A single passive mass-mailing education program that combined primary and secondary poison prevention education may have had a small, but positive impact on poison center call volume when a threshold of 5% of the residents received the information.

  11. Pentachlorophenol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.; Rom, W.N.; White, G.L. Jr.; Logan, D.C.

    1983-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a pesticide commonly used as a wood preservative. Although exposure has been well controlled in large chemical manufacturing plants, over-exposures have recently becomes a concern at smaller facilities. Five cases of PCP poisoning, including two fatalities, occurred in two small wood preservative plants. All cases presented with fever, including severe hyperpyrexia in two; an increased anion gap and renal insufficiency were noted in two others. PCP may uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in a poisoning syndrome characterized by hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tachypnea, abdominal pain, nausea, and even death.

  12. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Space Center, presents Myrna Scott, widow of Randy Scott, with a replica of the emblem noting that the spaceport's Radiological Control Center has been named in honor of her husband who died last year. The ceremony in the center's Radiological Control Center honored the extensive contributions of Randy Scott. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016.

  13. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  14. Control of Lead Poisoning in Children. (Pre-Publication Draft).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Community Environmental Management.

    This document presents information about aspects of the lead pollution problem that relate to children, suggests a community action program for controlling lead hazards, estimates the staff and other costs involved in developing such a program, and tells how to synthesize the program components for maximum effectiveness. The seven parts of the…

  15. Chemically rich seaweeds poison corals when not controlled by herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Rasher, Douglas B.; Hay, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Coral reefs are in dramatic global decline, with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. It is unclear, however, whether seaweeds harm corals directly or colonize opportunistically following their decline and then suppress coral recruitment. In the Caribbean and tropical Pacific, we show that, when protected from herbivores, ~40 to 70% of common seaweeds cause bleaching and death of coral tissue when in direct contact. For seaweeds that harmed coral tissues, their lipid-soluble extracts also produced rapid bleaching. Coral bleaching and mortality was limited to areas of direct contact with seaweeds or their extracts. These patterns suggest that allelopathic seaweed-coral interactions can be important on reefs lacking herbivore control of seaweeds, and that these interactions involve lipid-soluble metabolites transferred via direct contact. Seaweeds were rapidly consumed when placed on a Pacific reef protected from fishing but were left intact or consumed at slower rates on an adjacent fished reef, indicating that herbivory will suppress seaweeds and lower frequency of allelopathic damage to corals if reefs retain intact food webs. With continued removal of herbivores from coral reefs, seaweeds are becoming more common. This occurrence will lead to increasing frequency of seaweed-coral contacts, increasing allelopathic suppression of remaining corals, and continuing decline of reef corals. PMID:20457927

  16. Chemically rich seaweeds poison corals when not controlled by herbivores.

    PubMed

    Rasher, Douglas B; Hay, Mark E

    2010-05-25

    Coral reefs are in dramatic global decline, with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. It is unclear, however, whether seaweeds harm corals directly or colonize opportunistically following their decline and then suppress coral recruitment. In the Caribbean and tropical Pacific, we show that, when protected from herbivores, approximately 40 to 70% of common seaweeds cause bleaching and death of coral tissue when in direct contact. For seaweeds that harmed coral tissues, their lipid-soluble extracts also produced rapid bleaching. Coral bleaching and mortality was limited to areas of direct contact with seaweeds or their extracts. These patterns suggest that allelopathic seaweed-coral interactions can be important on reefs lacking herbivore control of seaweeds, and that these interactions involve lipid-soluble metabolites transferred via direct contact. Seaweeds were rapidly consumed when placed on a Pacific reef protected from fishing but were left intact or consumed at slower rates on an adjacent fished reef, indicating that herbivory will suppress seaweeds and lower frequency of allelopathic damage to corals if reefs retain intact food webs. With continued removal of herbivores from coral reefs, seaweeds are becoming more common. This occurrence will lead to increasing frequency of seaweed-coral contacts, increasing allelopathic suppression of remaining corals, and continuing decline of reef corals.

  17. [Tasks and importance of the acute poisoning center at a multiprofile provincial hospital based on 10 years experience].

    PubMed

    Lata, Stanisław; Molczyk, Anna; Madej, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    The thesis presents a short history and way of organization of acute poisoning centre functioning within the internal diseases department in multiprofile provincial hospital. The data show the number of patients treated in particular years as well as the types of toxic substances that caused poisoning, and the number of analyses carried out for the needs of the poisoning centre and other hospital departments, as well as for the local hospitals. Based on the said data the conclusions were presented referring to the role of the centre in helping the people suffering from acute poisoning in number 0.5 million population.

  18. INFLIGHT (MISSION CONTROL CENTER) - STS-2 - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-11-12

    S81-39433 (12 Nov. 1981) --- Flight director Neil B. Hutchinson monitors data displayed on a cathode ray tube (CRT) at his console in the mission operations control room (MOCR) in the Johnson Space Center?s Mission Control Center (MCC) during the launch phase of STS-2. Launch of the Columbia occurred at 9:10 a.m. CST today with astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly aboard the Columbia. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Abuse and Intentional Misuse of Promethazine Reported to US Poison Centers: 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Tsay, M Ellen; Procopio, Gabrielle; Anderson, Bruce D; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Promethazine abuse has been reported. The objective was to investigate promethazine abuse/misuse in the United States. An 11-year retrospective review was conducted of promethazine abuse and intentional misuse cases without co-ingestants in persons 10 years and older reported to the National Poison Data System. Data were stratified by product (promethazine-alone [PA] or co-formulation [PC]) and evaluated for demographics, toxicity, management sites, and outcomes. There were 354 single product abuse or misuse exposures-95 PA and 259 PC. Over the 11-year timeframe, the annual exposure rate per 100,000 population doubled. Exposures were most prevalent among 10 to 19 years old and young adults (20s), accounting for 69.5% of PA and 57.5% of PC cases. Clinical effects due to PA included drowsiness (43.2%), tachycardia (7.4%), agitation (13.7%), confusion (13.7%), slurred speech (12.6%), hallucinations (7.4%), dizziness (7.4%), and hypertension (5.3%). Drowsiness (53.4%) and tachycardia (20.8%) were more frequent with PC. There were significant differences between PA and PC in management site (P = 0.0078). Management sites for PA and PC, respectively, were emergency department (37.9%, 55.6%), non-health care facility (33.7%, 14.7%), critical care unit (8.4%, 11.2%), non-critical care unit (7.4%, 7.3%), psychiatry (2.1%, 4.2%), and other/unknown (10.5%, 7.0%). Outcomes for PA and PC, respectively, were no effect (21.0%, 12.4%), minor (58.9%, 53.7%), moderate (17.9%, 32.0%), and major effects (2.1%, 1.9%). Promethazine-alone abuse/misuse most frequently resulted in minor outcomes, and less than 20% required medical admission. Abuse/misuse of PC resulted in a higher frequency of health care facility treatment and a trend toward more moderate outcomes. These differences are most likely attributed to the co-formulate.

  20. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... know what causes poison ivy rash? It’s the sap oil that’s made by poison ivy plants that’s ... poison ivy plant; stem, leaves, root, fruit, and sap can cause an allergic reaction or contact dermatitis ...

  1. Perceived Parental Care and Control among Israeli Female Adolescents Presenting to Emergency Rooms after Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Gary M.; Didner, Hila; Waniel, Ariela; Priel, Beatriz; Asherov, Jack; Arbel, Shosh

    2005-01-01

    Levels of perceived parental care and control among 24 female Israeli adolescents presenting at emergency rooms after a self-poisoning act of low lethality were compared to those found among 23 non-self-harming, community controls. Adolescents' perceived levels of parental care and control were measured via both adolescents' self-report and…

  2. Electro-centers control conveyors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K.L.; Brewer, B.K.; Kovach, J.; Brown, M.

    1981-06-01

    A suitable conveyor drive and control system has been developed for the shiftable conveyor systems at Arch Mineral Corp's Captain coal mine in southern Illinois, USA. It comprises of Westinghouse electrocenters and Numa-Logic solid state control, plus wound rotor motors for the higher horsepower and squirrel cage motors for lower horsepower applications.

  3. Comparison of lisdexamfetamine and dextroamphetamine exposures reported to U.S. poison centers.

    PubMed

    Kaland, Mingzohn Ellen; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2015-06-01

    Lisdexamfetamine is a pro-drug stimulant that requires the enzymatic hydrolysis of lysine from dexamphetamine for pharmacologic effects. There is limited information comparing non-therapeutic lisdexamfetamine and dextroamphetamine exposures. The objective was to compare lisdexamfetamine exposures with dextroamphetamine/amphetamine extended release and dextroamphetamine/amphetamine immediate release. A retrospective observational case series of single-substance exposures to lisdexamfetamine, dextroamphetamine/amphetamine extended release, or dextroamphetamine/amphetamine immediate release reported to the National Poison Data System from 2007 to 2012 was performed. Data were analyzed for demographics, reason, clinical effects, management site, and outcomes. There were 23,553 exposures: lisdexamfetamine (7,113), dextroamphetamine/amphetamine extended release (6,245), and dextroamphetamine/amphetamine immediate release (10,195). The most frequent clinical effects observed for lisdexamfetamine, dextroamphetamine/amphetamine extended release, and dextroamphetamine/amphetamine immediate release were agitation (19.8%, 21.7%, and 25.1%, respectively) and tachycardia (19.2%, 22.8%, and 23.9%, respectively). The reason was most often exploratory (93.4%) in children < 6 years and therapeutic error (65.6%) in children aged 6-12 years. In adolescents and adults most common reasons were suicide attempts (28.4%) followed by abuse (19.5%) and therapeutic errors (18.8%). Overall, 61.6% of cases were managed in a health care facility, with the majority treated in the emergency department only. The majority of cases (76.0%) experienced no or minor effects. More serious outcomes (moderate/major/death) occurred in 21.2% of lisdexamfetamine, 24.7% of dextroamphetamine/amphetamine extended release, and 25.5% of dextroamphetamine/amphetamine immediate release. There were 4 deaths (1 dextroamphetamine/amphetamine extended release and 3 dextroamphetamine/amphetamine immediate release). In

  4. Management Controls in Navy Computing Centers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    38 (.1 Use of Data ty Managesent and Decentralized Un its .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 6 3 II ii A. ICLI OP fnVAGEMEBI CONTROL SYSTEMS...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California 11 : 24 THESIS MANAGEMENT CONTROLS IN NAVY COMPUTING CENTERS by Dewey R. Collier...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (Amd SueitiI) S. TYPE Or REPORT a PERIOD COVERED Management Controls in Navy Computing Master’s Thesis Centers March

  5. [Exposure to liquid detergent capsules: a study of the cases reported to the Paris Poison Center, 2011-2012].

    PubMed

    Villa, A; Médernach, C; Arropetian, N; Lagrange, F; Langrand, J; Garnier, R

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of liquid detergent capsules for children. Analysis of 684 consecutive cases from the Paris Poison Center (2011-2012). Most enquiries (97 %) concerned children 5 years of age or younger. The main circumstances of exposure were ingestion alone (72.4 %) or together with eye or skin contact (7.5 % and 7.3 %, respectively). The effects observed were generally due to the irritating properties of concentrated detergents: minor digestive disturbances (particularly vomiting in nearly 50 % of cases) after ingestion and conjunctivitis and/or keratitis after eye contact. The main complications were 24 cases of keratitis and one case of pulmonary toxicity after ingestion. A rash was observed in nine patients; it was delayed in two. The effects observed with liquid detergent capsules were very similar to those resulting from exposure to other detergents. However, exposure to these agents are very frequent and often results in eye contact, which may be responsible for keratitis, and after ingestion detergent inhalation is a possible complication. All cases with eye symptoms or cough after liquid detergent capsule exposure deserve prompt medical examination and assistance. Greater awareness of both health professionals and consumers on the dangers and risks of these laundry detergent pods is required for better treatment of exposure accidents and for their prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of the brown recluse spider (Araneae: Sicariidae) in Georgia with comparison to poison center reports of envenomations.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S; Hinkle, Nancy C; Ames, Lisa M

    2009-01-01

    Georgia is on the southeastern margin of the native range of the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik. The brown recluse is not a common Georgia spider and has limited distribution in the state. Using recent submissions, previously published records, and examination of museum specimens, we document the spider's presence in 31 (19.5%) of Georgia's 159 counties, with almost all being found in the northern portion. The spider was collected almost exclusively north of the Fall Line (a transition zone separating the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain geological provinces). Only two locations in the southern Coastal Plain province produced L. reclusa specimens; these southern finds are considered spiders that were transported outside their range. There were six finds of the non-native world tramp species, L. rufescens (Dufour), three south of the Fall Line. In conspicuous contrast, over a 5-yr period, a Georgia poison center database recorded 963 reports of brown recluse spider bites from 103 counties. These figures greatly outnumber the historic verifications of brown recluses in the state for both specimen quantity and county occurrence, indicating improbable spider involvement and the overdiagnosis of bites. In the southern half of the state, medical diagnoses of brown recluse spider bites have virtually zero probability of being correct. Bite diagnoses should be made with caution in north Georgia given the spider's spotty distribution with low frequency of occurrence.

  7. Microcomputer-assisted telephone identification of plants in response to poison control calls.

    PubMed

    Metsger, D A

    1990-01-01

    Plant identification in response to poison control inquiries poses problems for medical staff and botanists alike. Lack of a specimen for verification combined with a limited description by an untrained lay person hinders confident identification of the plant. In view of these problems a computer identification system has been developed for use in answering poison control calls. A database has been compiled for 103 common houseplants described in lay terms, with respect to 56 features each possessing a number of possible states. The database is used with the MS-DOS polyclave program ONLIN6. Identifications are made by entering data for available features, so as to eliminate taxa until a single taxon remains. This system has been used in 112 mock calls in which the resulting identification could be checked. These trials resulted in correct identifications 65% of the time. Errors were attributed primarily to problems related to translation of character states into lay terminology. Revision of the database is planned that will eliminate these problems. Use of the system by hospital personnel is recommended only after graphics screens have been added to the database, and where staff have been specially trained in botanical terminology and in use of the ONLIN6 program.

  8. Collaborative Center of Control Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Jose B. Cruz • Prof. Hitay Özbay • Prof. Ümit Özgüner • Prof. Kevin M. Passino, Director • Dr. Keith Redmill • Prof. M. Samimy • Prof. Andrea Serrani...Navy/Army/SIBR): Cooperative vehicle control and pursuit-evasion games, J. Cruz , 2 phase 1, $210K + $225K (2 phase 2 contracts) • AFRL: Control and...Synergies (samples) • DARPA MICA Program: Strategies for Human- Automaton Resource Entity Deployment (SHARED), J. Cruz , PI, $2.4M • NASA Goddard: Solar

  9. 18. Station Service Control and Motor Control Center #2, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Station Service Control and Motor Control Center #2, view to the northeast. Note the circuit breaker switch on cart in left corner of photograph. This switch is part of the motor control center which has been temporarily removed from the slot marked with a tag that is visible at lower left end of control center. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  10. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning include: Carbon monoxide gas (from furnaces, gas engines, fires, space heaters) Certain foods Chemicals in the ... Center or a doctor. Use any "cure-all" type antidote. Wait for symptoms to develop if you ...

  11. PNNL’s Building Operations Control Center

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, Shan

    2015-09-29

    PNNL's Building Operations Control Center (BOCC) video provides an overview of the center, its capabilities, and its objectives. The BOCC was relocated to PNNL's new 3820 Systems Engineering Building in 2015. Although a key focus of the BOCC is on monitoring and improving the operations of PNNL buildings, the center's state-of-the-art computational, software and visualization resources also have provided a platform for PNNL buildings-related research projects.

  12. Process Control Research, Training Center for Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Tennessee have established a measurement and controls research center and a master's-level academic engineering program. A description of this university/industry cooperative research center is provided. Indicates that a doctoral program is planned when the master's program is well…

  13. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Family members of Randy Scott gather in the Radiological Control Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center following ceremonies to name the facility in his honor. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016.

  14. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Nancy Bray, director of Spaceport Integration and Services at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, speaks during ceremonies to name the Radiological Control Center in honor for Randy Scott. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016.

  15. Process Control Research, Training Center for Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Tennessee have established a measurement and controls research center and a master's-level academic engineering program. A description of this university/industry cooperative research center is provided. Indicates that a doctoral program is planned when the master's program is well…

  16. Center for Intelligent Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    for grey-level distributions, boundaries, textures, isotope concentration maps, and, more recently, for shapes in reconstruction and recognition...addressed a "dual" of the tomographic reconstruction problem: determining the radiation dosage and treatment design necessary to achieve or approximate...Discrete Event Dynamic Systems (DEDS) constitute an important topic of control system study. Examples of DEDS range from large international airports, to

  17. Control centers design for ergonomics and safety.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Leonardo; Lizarazo, Cesar; Bernal, Oscar; Cordoba, Jorge; Arias, Claudia; Monroy, Magda; Cotrino, Carlos; Montoya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the general design conditions about ergonomics and safety for control centers in the petrochemical process industry. Some of the topics include guidelines for the optimized workstation design, control room layout, building layout, and lighting, acoustical and environmental design. Also takes into account the safety parameters in the control rooms and centers design. The conditions and parameters shown in this paper come from the standards and global advances on this topic on the most recent publications. And also the work was supplemented by field visits of our team to the control center operations in a petrochemical company, and technical literature search efforts. This guideline will be useful to increase the productivity and improve the working conditions at the control rooms.

  18. Using poison center exposure calls to predict prescription opioid abuse and misuse-related emergency department visits.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathan M; Severtson, Stevan G; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Dart, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a critical problem in the USA and has been linked to more deaths than automobile accidents. Despite this growing epidemic, the USA lacks a timely early warning system. Poison centers (PCs) have the potential to act as sentinel reporting entities for prescription drug abuse and misuse due to near-real-time data reporting and abundant coverage in the USA. Data from the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS®) System PC program were compared with data from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) from 2004 through 2010. Population rates of PC call mentions regarding abuse and misuse of prescription opioids were compared with population rates of emergency department visit mentions of the same using linear regression. Products included in the analysis were the following: buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, and oxycodone. The strength of association between RADARS System PC data and DAWN emergency department visits regarding all opioids in aggregate was strong (R² = 0.81, p < 0.001). The correlations between the two programs at the drug class level also were strong for buprenorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, and oxycodone (all R² > 0.70, all p < 0.01), significant for fentanyl (p = 0.05), and moderate for morphine (p = 0.09). Data on prescription opioid drug abuse from the RADARS System PC program correlates well with emergency room data from DAWN. Due to timeliness of data, geographic coverage and strong associations with other warning systems, PC data can be used for sentinel reporting on prescription drug abuse and misuse in the USA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. SAMPEX payload operation control center implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel; Koslosky, Jack; Mahmot, Ron; Rackley, Michael; Lauderdale, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Anomolous and Magnetospheric Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite was launched in July 1992. It was the first in the NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) series. In building the real-time control center facility, several new mission support challenges had to be met: CCSDS telemetry and command format, 900 Kbps telemetry data, and shorter turn-around time for control center development than previous missions. The SAMPEX Payload Operations Control Ccnter (POCC) was also the first control center for a new satellite to be based on the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) system architecture and methodology. This approach has both guided the implementation of the SAMPEX control center and provided some of the building blocks. By using the TPOCC architecture to build the SAMPEX POCC, the real-time operations area was miniaturized into one room, whereas previous missions needed multiple large rooms. The development cost of the SAMPEX POCC was reduced from previous missions and will provide for further cost savings in the future SMEX satellites. This paper describes the system as built and some of the enhancements in progress to create this teleoperations environment.

  20. [Problems introducing a pediatric poisoning treatment set].

    PubMed

    Brockstedt, M

    2004-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1998 the Berlin poison center conducted a case-control study supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Berlin Medical Association, a health insurance company, and the Berlin Pediatric Society to test the efficacy of a pediatric poisoning treatment set. The aim of the study was to induce parents of small children to call the poison center immediately in cases of unintentional poisonings at home and to administer activated charcoal if advised to do so by the poison center specialist. This was achieved by handling over a so-called "emergency kit" to 24,000 parents during the regular pediatric office check-up when the children were 10-12 months of age. When an accident occurred, parents with an emergency kit at hand were able to give activated charcoal within 14 min compared to 51 min without this aid. Problems arose when attempts were undertaken to introduce the emergency kit into the routine counseling sessions throughout the country: restrictions imposed by the pharmaceutical law, lack of interest shown by pharmaceutical companies, and diverging responsibilities at county and federal political levels and between different health insurance companies have hitherto prevented the realization of this evidence-based method.

  1. Operating and Managing a Backup Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Angela L.; Pirani, Joseph L.; Bornas, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Due to the criticality of continuous mission operations, some control centers must plan for alternate locations in the event an emergency shuts down the primary control center. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is the Mission Control Center (MCC) for the International Space Station (ISS). Due to Houston s proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, JSC is prone to threats from hurricanes which could cause flooding, wind damage, and electrical outages to the buildings supporting the MCC. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the capability to be the Backup Control Center for the ISS if the situation is needed. While the MSFC Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) does house the BCC, the prime customer and operator of the ISS is still the JSC flight operations team. To satisfy the customer and maintain continuous mission operations, the BCC has critical infrastructure that hosts ISS ground systems and flight operations equipment that mirrors the prime mission control facility. However, a complete duplicate of Mission Control Center in another remote location is very expensive to recreate. The HOSC has infrastructure and services that MCC utilized for its backup control center to reduce the costs of a somewhat redundant service. While labor talents are equivalent, experiences are not. Certain operations are maintained in a redundant mode, while others are simply maintained as single string with adequate sparing levels of equipment. Personnel at the BCC facility must be trained and certified to an adequate level on primary MCC systems. Negotiations with the customer were done to match requirements with existing capabilities, and to prioritize resources for appropriate level of service. Because some of these systems are shared, an activation of the backup control center will cause a suspension of scheduled HOSC activities that may share resources needed by the BCC. For example, the MCC is monitoring a hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico. As the threat to MCC

  2. Mission Control Center (MCC) - Apollo 8

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-12-25

    S68-56007 (23 Dec. 1968) --- Overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, Building 30, on the third day of the Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission. Seen on the television monitor is a picture of Earth which was telecast from the Apollo 8 spacecraft 176,000 miles away.

  3. Multiple-dose activated charcoal in acute self-poisoning: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Juszczak, Edmund; Buckley, Nick A; Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Dissanayake, Wasantha; Hittarage, Ariyasena; Azher, Shifa; Jeganathan, K; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Warrell, David A

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background The case-fatality for intentional self-poisoning in the rural developing world is 10–50-fold higher than that in industrialised countries, mostly because of the use of highly toxic pesticides and plants. We therefore aimed to assess whether routine treatment with multiple-dose activated charcoal, to interrupt enterovascular or enterohepatic circulations, offers benefit compared with no charcoal in such an environment. Methods We did an open-label, parallel group, randomised, controlled trial of six 50 g doses of activated charcoal at 4-h intervals versus no charcoal versus one 50 g dose of activated charcoal in three Sri Lankan hospitals. 4632 patients were randomised to receive no charcoal (n=1554), one dose of charcoal (n=1545), or six doses of charcoal (n=1533); outcomes were available for 4629 patients. 2338 (51%) individuals had ingested pesticides, whereas 1647 (36%) had ingested yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seeds. Mortality was the primary outcome measure. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN02920054. Findings Mortality did not differ between the groups. 97 (6·3%) of 1531 participants in the multiple-dose group died, compared with 105 (6·8%) of 1554 in the no charcoal group (adjusted odds ratio 0·96, 95% CI 0·70–1·33). No differences were noted for patients who took particular poisons, were severely ill on admission, or who presented early. Interpretation We cannot recommend the routine use of multiple-dose activated charcoal in rural Asia Pacific; although further studies of early charcoal administration might be useful, effective affordable treatments are urgently needed. PMID:18280328

  4. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Myrna Scott holds a replica of the emblem noting that the Radiological Control Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center has been named in honor of her husband, Randy Scott who died last year. A ceremony honored the extensive contributions of Randy Scott. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016.

  5. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Nancy Bray, director of Spaceport Integration and Services at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, left, is joined by Myrna Scott, center, and Dr. David Tipton, chief of Aerospace Medicine and Occupational Health, in cutting a ceremonial ribbon dedicating the Randal E. Scott Radiological Control Center at the Florida spaceport. Myrna Scott is the widow of Randy Scott, who was a professional health physicist of more than 40 years. He served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016.

  6. [Cases of poisoning in Germany. Disease entity, documentation, and aspects of the event].

    PubMed

    Hahn, A; Begemann, K; Stürer, A

    2014-06-01

    majority of cases (67 %) were caused by poisoning accidents, followed by suicidal action (20 %), with abuse and industrial poisoning (4 %) in third position; 1 % of the cases of poisoning were attributed to adverse drug reactions (ADR) and mistaking a medicinal product for another one. Infants aged 1-2 years have the highest risk of poisoning. A panel of the BfR Committee for the Assessment of Poisonings has already developed proposals for a national monitoring scheme of poisoning incidents. The aim is to prepare annual reports similar to the report of the National Poison Data System (NPDS) maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) in the USA.

  7. 76 FR 78263 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead..., regarding new scientific knowledge and technological developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood...

  8. Dual control of low concentration CO poisoning by anode air bleeding of low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klages, Merle; Tjønnås, Johannes; Zenith, Federico; Halvorsen, Ivar J.; Scholta, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    Fuel impurities, fed to a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, can affect stack performance by poisoning of catalyst layers. This paper describes the dynamic behaviour of a stack, including state-of-the-art membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) of three different manufacturers, at different operating conditions. The voltage transients of the step responses to CO poisoning as well as air bleed recovery are compared, revealing differences in performance loss: slow poisoning versus fast recovery, incomplete recovery and voltage oscillation. The recorded behaviour is used to develop a model, based on Tafel equation and first order dynamic response, which can be calibrated to each MEA type. Using this model to predict voltage response, a controller is built with the aim of reducing the total amount of air bleed and monitoring upstream stack processes without the need of sensors measuring the poisoning level. Two controllers are implemented in order to show the concept from a heuristic, easy to implement, and a more technical side allowing more detailed analysis of the synthesis. The heuristic algorithm, based on periodic perturbations of the manipulated variable (air-bleed), is validated on a real stack, revealing a stabilized performance without the need of detailed stack properties knowledge.

  9. Poison Center Network Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2013-11-18

    Senate - 12/19/2013 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 281. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3527, which became Public Law 113-77 on 1/24/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Poison Center Network Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2013-11-18

    12/19/2013 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 281. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3527, which became Public Law 113-77 on 1/24/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Poison Center Network Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2013-11-18

    12/19/2013 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 281. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3527, which became Public Law 113-77 on 1/24/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. 78 FR 11889 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National..., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health...

  13. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  14. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  15. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

  16. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Poisoning Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  17. Foxglove poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foxglove poisoning most often occurs from sucking the flowers or eating the seeds, stems, or leaves of ... Where Found The poisonous substances are found in: Flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds of the foxglove plant ...

  18. Oleander poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Oleander poisoning occurs when someone eats the flowers or chews the leaves or stems of the ... found in all parts of the oleander plant: Flowers Leaves Stems Twigs Symptoms Oleander poisoning can affect ...

  19. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  20. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    A Mars Science Laboratory cap is displayed in the Randall E. Scott Radiological Control Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The facility was recently named in honor of Randy Scott, a professional health physicist of more than 40 years. He served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016. Launched Nov. 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory with the Curiosity lander was powered by a radioisotope thermalelectric generator. Located in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout building, the Randall E. Scott Radiological Control Center is staffed by technical and radiological experts from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Air Force 45th Space Wing and the state of Florida. The group performs data collection and assessment functions supporting launch site and field data collection activities during launces involving plutonium-powered spacecraft such as the Mars Science Laboratory.

  1. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    A portion of the Radiological Control Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center is seen during ceremonies to name the facility in honor of Randy Scott. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016. Located in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout building, the Randall E. Scott Radiological Control Center is staffed by technical and radiological experts from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Air Force 45th Space Wing and the state of Florida. The group performs data collection and assessment functions supporting launch site and field data collection activities.

  2. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Consoles in the Radiological Control Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center are seen during ceremonies to name the facility in honor of Randy Scott. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016. Located in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout building, the Randall E. Scott Radiological Control Center is staffed by technical and radiological experts from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Air Force 45th Space Wing and the state of Florida. The group performs data collection and assessment functions supporting launch site and field data collection activities.

  3. Characteristics and outcomes of e-cigarette exposure incidents reported to 10 European Poison Centers: a retrospective data analysis.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Girvalaki, Charis; Filippidis, Filippos T; Oder, Mare; Kastanje, Ruth; de Vries, Irma; Scholtens, Lies; Annas, Anita; Plackova, Silvia; Turk, Rajka; Gruzdyte, Laima; Rato, Fátima; Genser, Dieter; Schiel, Helmut; Balázs, Andrea; Donohoe, Elaine; Vardavas, Alexander I; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2017-01-01

    The use of e-cigarettes has increased during the past few years. Exposure to e-cigarette liquids, whether intentional or accidental, may lead to adverse events our aim was to assess factors associated with e-cigarette exposures across European Union Member States (EU MS). A retrospective analysis of exposures associated with e-cigarettes reported to national poison centers was performed covering incidents from 2012 to March 2015 from 10 EU MS. De-identified and anonymous raw data was acquired. In total, 277 incidents were reported. Unintentional exposure was the most frequently cited type of exposure (71.3%), while e-cigarette refill vials were responsible for the majority of the reported incidents (87.3%). Two-thirds of all exposures (67.5%) occurred as ingestion of e-liquids, which was more frequent among children (≤ 5 years, 6-18 years) compared to adults (87.0% vs. 59.3% vs. 57.6%, p < 0.001 respectively), exposure via the respiratory (5.4% vs. 22.2% vs. 22.2%, p < 0.001) were more frequent among paediatric patients while ocular routes (2.2% vs. 3.7% vs. 11.4%, p = 0.021) were more frequent among adults. Logistic regression analyses indicated that paediatric incidents (≤ 5 years) were more likely to be through ingestion (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] = 4.36, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.]: 1.87-10.18), but less likely to have a reported clinical effect (aOR = 0.41, 95% C.I.: 0.21-0.82). Our study highlighted parameters related to e-cigarette exposure incidents in 10 EU MS, the results of which indicate that consideration should be given to the design features which may mitigate risks, thereby protecting users, non-users and especially children.

  4. Advanced technologies for Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    Advance technologies for Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: technology needs; current technology efforts at GSFC (human-machine interface development, object oriented software development, expert systems, knowledge-based software engineering environments, and high performance VLSI telemetry systems); and test beds.

  5. 49 CFR 193.2441 - Control center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control center. 193.2441 Section 193.2441 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2441 - Control center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control center. 193.2441 Section 193.2441 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2441 - Control center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control center. 193.2441 Section 193.2441 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2441 - Control center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control center. 193.2441 Section 193.2441 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2441 - Control center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control center. 193.2441 Section 193.2441 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning after an ice storm in Kentucky, 2009.

    PubMed

    Lutterloh, Emily C; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H; Spiller, Henry A; Riggs, Margaret A; Sugg, Tennis J; Humbaugh, Kraig E; Cadwell, Betsy L; Thoroughman, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26-27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity.

  12. Serious adverse effects from single-use detergent sacs: report from a U.S. statewide poison control system.

    PubMed

    Huntington, S; Heppner, J; Vohra, R; Mallios, R; Geller, R J

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, serious adverse effects to children from exposure to single-use detergents sacs (SUDS) have been recognized. While most exposures result in minor symptoms, there have been serious outcomes. This study aims to classify which types of serious outcomes follow SUDS exposures, and to assess, if possible, differences in toxicity between various SUDS products. An observational case series with data collected retrospectively was performed for cases of SUDS exposures reported to a statewide poison system's records database from 1 January 2012 to 31 March 2013. Cases were identified and analyzed for clinical details and trends. A statewide database was queried for cases involving the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) product-specific codes for SUDS products using following search terms: laundry pods, the AAPCC product-specific codes for Tide Pods, Purex Ultrapacks, ALL Mighty Pacs, and a unique agent code (AAPCC ID: 6903138; Generic: 077900) created by AAPCC to track SUDS exposures. A total of 804 cases of exposures to SUDS were identified, the majority of which were exploratory ingestions in young children with a median age of 2 years. Serious adverse effects resulted from 65 (9%) exposures and 27 (3%) exposures resulted in admission to hospital. Binary logistic regression demonstrated that the presence of central nervous system (CNS) or respiratory system effects were associated with more severe outcomes, with a model accuracy of 96.4%. There were significant differences in morbidity among the three most common brand-name products: when compared with Tide Pods, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for severe outcome and admission rate were significantly greater following Purex Ultrapack exposures (severity OR 5.1 [CI: 2.13-12.23]; admission OR 10.36 [CI: 3.23-33.22]) and ALL Mighty Pac exposures (severity OR 11.22 [CI: 4.78-28.36]; admission OR 15.20 [CI: 5.01-46.12]). Serious complications from exposure to SUDS occur in

  13. Intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan: a pilot study using the Emergency Departments surveillance project

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute poisoning is one of the most common reasons for emergency department visits around the world. In Pakistan, the epidemiological data on poisoning is limited due to an under developed poison information surveillance system. We aim to describe the characteristics associated with intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan presenting to emergency departments. Methods The data was extracted from the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) which was an active surveillance conducted between November 2010 and March 2011. All patients, regardless of age, who presented with poisoning to any of Pakistan's seven major tertiary care centers' emergency departments, were included. Information about patient demographics, type of poisoning agent, reason for poisoning and outcomes were collected using a standard questionnaire. Results Acute poisoning contributed to 1.2% (n = 233) of patients with intentional and unintentional injuries presenting to EDs of participating centers. Of these, 68% were male, 54% were aged 19 to 44 and 19% were children and adolescents (<18 years). Types of poisoning included chemical/gas (43.8%), drug/medicine (27%), alcohol (16.7%) and food/plant (6%). In half of all patients the poisoning was intentional. A total of 11.6% of the patients were admitted and 6.6% died. Conclusion Poisoning causes more morbidity and mortality in young adults in Pakistan compared to other age groups, half of which is intentional. Improving mental health, regulatory control for hazardous chemicals and better access to care through poison information centers and emergency departments will potentially help control the problem. PMID:26691609

  14. Mission Control Center (MCC): Apollo XV - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-02

    S71-41759 (2 Aug. 1971) --- A partial view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center during the liftoff of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module "Falcon" ascent stage from the lunar surface. An RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle made it possible for people on Earth to watch the LM's spectacular launch from the moon. The LM liftoff was at 171:37 ground elapsed time. The LRV was parked about 300 feet east of the LM. The TV camera was remotely controlled from a console in the MOCR. Seated in the right foreground is astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, a spacecraft communicator. Mitchell was lunar module pilot of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission. Note liftoff on the television monitor in the center background.

  15. [Description of poisoning reported in Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region in Morocco between 1981 and 2008].

    PubMed

    Echahbi, N; Soulaymani, A; Hami, H; Benazzouz, B; Ouammi, L; Mokhtari, A; Achour, S; Semlali, I; Soulaymani-Bencheikh, R

    2013-02-01

    In Morocco, the Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region is one of the 16 regions most affected by poisoning. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological profile of poisoning recorded in the study region. A retrospective study of poisoning cases, declared between 1981 and 2008 in the Morocco Poison Control and Pharmacovigilance Center, was conducted. During the study period, 8517 poisoning cases were collected. The average age of patients was 22 ± 15 years. The male/female sex ratio was 0.85. Food poisoning was the most reported in the region, with 26.6% of cases. Among the 2,779 patients for whom the outcome was known, 65 died, with lethality rate of 23.4‰. The maximum lethality rate was recorded among those poisoned by paraphenylenediamine (170.7‰).

  16. Poisonous snakebite in Utah.

    PubMed Central

    Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. Images Figure 1. PMID:8553638

  17. The X-33 range Operations Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shy, Karla S.; Norman, Cynthia L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and features of the X-33 Range Operations Center at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. All the unprocessed data will be collected and transmitted over fiber optic lines to the Lockheed Operations Control Center for real-time flight monitoring of the X-33 vehicle. By using the existing capabilities of the Western Aeronautical Test Range, the Range Operations Center will provide the ability to monitor all down-range tracking sites for the Extended Test Range systems. In addition to radar tracking and aircraft telemetry data, the Telemetry and Radar Acquisition and Processing System is being enhanced to acquire vehicle command data, differential Global Positioning System corrections and telemetry receiver signal level status. The Telemetry and Radar Acquisition Processing System provides the flexibility to satisfy all X-33 data processing requirements quickly and efficiently. Additionally, the Telemetry and Radar Acquisition Processing System will run a real-time link margin analysis program. The results of this model will be compared in real-time with actual flight data. The hardware and software concepts presented in this paper describe a method of merging all types of data into a common database for real-time display in the Range Operations Center in support of the X-33 program. All types of data will be processed for real-time analysis and display of the range system status to ensure public safety.

  18. SPOT4 Operational Control Center (CMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaouche, G.

    1993-01-01

    CNES(F) is responsible for the development of a new generation of Operational Control Center (CMP) which will operate the new heliosynchronous remote sensing satellite (SPOT4). This Operational Control Center takes large benefit from the experience of the first generation of control center and from the recent advances in computer technology and standards. The CMP is designed for operating two satellites all the same time with a reduced pool of controllers. The architecture of this CMP is simple, robust, and flexible, since it is based on powerful distributed workstations interconnected through an Ethernet LAN. The application software uses modern and formal software engineering methods, in order to improve quality and reliability, and facilitate maintenance. This software is table driven so it can be easily adapted to other operational needs. Operation tasks are automated to the maximum extent, so that it could be possible to operate the CMP automatically with very limited human interference for supervision and decision making. This paper provides an overview of the SPOTS mission and associated ground segment. It also details the CMP, its functions, and its software and hardware architecture.

  19. SPOT4 Operational Control Center (CMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaouche, G.

    1993-03-01

    CNES(F) is responsible for the development of a new generation of Operational Control Center (CMP) which will operate the new heliosynchronous remote sensing satellite (SPOT4). This Operational Control Center takes large benefit from the experience of the first generation of control center and from the recent advances in computer technology and standards. The CMP is designed for operating two satellites all the same time with a reduced pool of controllers. The architecture of this CMP is simple, robust, and flexible, since it is based on powerful distributed workstations interconnected through an Ethernet LAN. The application software uses modern and formal software engineering methods, in order to improve quality and reliability, and facilitate maintenance. This software is table driven so it can be easily adapted to other operational needs. Operation tasks are automated to the maximum extent, so that it could be possible to operate the CMP automatically with very limited human interference for supervision and decision making. This paper provides an overview of the SPOTS mission and associated ground segment. It also details the CMP, its functions, and its software and hardware architecture.

  20. Renita Fincke at Russian Mission Control Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    Renita Fincke, wife of Expedition 9 Flight Engineer and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Michael Fincke, smiles with their two-year old son Chandra at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, following the successful docking of the Russian Soyuz capsule carrying Fincke, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Kind and estimated stocking amount of antidotes for initial treatment for acute poisoning at emergency medical centers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Chang Hwan; Ryoo, Seung Mok; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won; Lim, Hoon; Oh, Bum Jin

    2014-11-01

    Antidotes for toxicological emergencies can be life-saving. However, there is no nationwide estimation of the antidotes stocking amount in Korea. This study tried to estimate the quantities of stocking antidotes at emergency department (ED). An expert panel of clinical toxicologists made a list of 18 emergency antidotes. The quantity was estimated by comparing the antidote utilization frequency in a multicenter epidemiological study and the nation-wide EDs' data of National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). In an epidemiological study of 11 nationwide EDs from January 2009 to December 2010, only 92 (1.9%) patients had been administered emergency antidotes except activated charcoal among 4,870 cases of acute adult poisoning patients. Comparing with NEDIS data, about 1,400,000 patients visited the 124 EDs nationwide due to acute poisoning and about 103,348 adult doses of the 18 emergency antidotes may be required considering poisoning severity score. Of these, 13,224 (1.9%) adult doses of emergency antidotes (575 of atropine, 144 of calcium gluconate or other calcium salts, 2,587 of flumazenil, 3,450 of N-acetylcysteine, 5,893 of pralidoxime, 287 of hydroxocobalamin, 144 of sodium nitrite, and 144 of sodium thiosulfate) would be needed for maintaining the present level of initial treatment with emergency antidotes at EDs in Korea.

  2. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    PubMed

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results.

  3. Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study. PMID:24678256

  4. Host and environment factors for exposure to poisons: a case-control study of preschool children in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chatsantiprapa, K; Chokkanapitak, J; Pinpradit, N

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To identify host and environment characteristics associated with poison exposure among preschool children in Thailand. Setting—A matched case-control study in 20 public hospitals in Khon Kaen province. Methods—Cases comprised 100 consecutive preschool children attending hospital between September 1997 and February 1999 because of reported exposure to a poison. Controls were three children matched by age, sex and area of residence to each case, who had never attended a hospital for this reason. Risk factors were elicited by interviewing the children's caregivers at their homes using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Results—Number of siblings, whether the child was "medicine eating" and "rushing to explore new objects", the child's activities while the caregiver was working during the daytime, the child's distance from the caregiver while the caregiver was working, whether the child was taken to a non-agricultural worksite, and the number of used containers around the residence, were all statistically significant in univariate analyses. However, when all significant variables were included in a multivariate model, only "medicine eating" and the number of used containers around the residence remained statistically significant. Conclusion—Attention to "medicine eating" and used containers through increased supervision could be a protective factor against poison exposure for these children. To reduce risk, caregivers should not refer to medicines as foods and used containers should be systematically collected for disposal or recycling. PMID:11565987

  5. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given.

  6. [Poisonous plants].

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Kalle; Mustonen, Harriet; Pohjalainen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Approximately ten species of dangerously poisonous plants are found in Finland. Severe plant poisonings are very rare. Edible plants eaten raw or wrongly processed may cause severe symptoms. As first aid, activated charcoal should be given to the person who has eaten a plant causing a risk of significant poisoning. In case of exposure to topically irritating plant fluids, the exposed person's eyes must be irrigated and mouth or skin washed with copious amounts of water. In combination with solar UV radiation, light-sensitizing plants cause local burns. The diagnosis of plant poisoning is usually based on incidental information; the plant should be identified in order to make the correct treatment decisions.

  7. Seismometer readings studied in Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The seismometer reading from the impact made by the Apollo 15 Saturn S-IVB stage when it struck the lunar surface is studied by scientists in the Mission Control Center. Dr. Gary Latham (dark suit, wearing lapel button) of Columbia University is responsible for the design and experiment data analysis of the Passive Seismic Experiment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP). The man on the left, writing, is Nafi Toksos of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Looking on at upper left is Dave Lammlein, also with Columbia.

  8. Seismometer readings studied in Mission Control Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-07-29

    The seismometer reading from the impact made by the Apollo 15 Saturn S-IVB stage when it struck the lunar surface is studied by scientists in the Mission Control Center. Dr. Gary Latham (dark suit, wearing lapel button) of Columbia University is responsible for the design and experiment data analysis of the Passive Seismic Experiment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP). The man on the left, writing, is Nafi Toksos of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Looking on at upper left is Dave Lamneline, also with Columbia.

  9. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning. PMID:27433491

  10. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning.

  11. Toxic Bradycardias in the Critically Ill Poisoned Patient

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular drugs are a common cause of poisoning, and toxic bradycardias can be refractory to standard ACLS protocols. It is important to consider appropriate antidotes and adjunctive therapies in the care of the poisoned patient in order to maximize outcomes. While rigorous studies are lacking in regards to treatment of toxic bradycardias, there are small studies and case reports to help guide clinicians' choices in caring for the poisoned patient. Antidotes, pressor support, and extracorporeal therapy are some of the treatment options for the care of these patients. It is important to make informed therapeutic decisions with an understanding of the available evidence, and consultation with a toxicologist and/or regional Poison Control Center should be considered early in the course of treatment. PMID:22545217

  12. Baking soda misuse as a home remedy: case experience of the California Poison Control System.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, S A; Kearney, T

    2014-02-01

    Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases involving ingestion and misuse of a baking soda powder product that were reported to the California Poison Control System between the years 2000 and 2012. Of the 192 cases we identified, 55·8% were female, ages ranged 2 months to 79 years, and the most common reasons for misuse included antacid (60·4%), 'beat a urine drug test' (11·5%) and treat a UTI (4·7%). Most cases (55·2%) had significant symptoms warranting a medical evaluation, whereas 12 patients required hospital admission developed either electrolyte imbalances, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory depression. Misuse of baking soda can result in serious electrolyte and acid/base imbalances. Patients at highest risk of toxicity may include those who chronically use an antacid, those who use the method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnant women and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high-risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An 11-year retrospective review of venlafaxine ingestion in children from the California Poison Control System.

    PubMed

    Doroudgar, S; Perry, P J; Lackey, G D; Veselova, N G; Chuang, H M; Albertson, T E

    2016-07-01

    Venlafaxine is commonly used in the United States for approved and non-Food and Drug Administration-approved indications in adults. It is used off-label to treat children for psychiatric diagnoses. The aim of the study was to describe venlafaxine toxicities in children and to identify the venlafaxine dose per weight that correlates with toxicities. An 11-year retrospective study of venlafaxine ingestion in children was performed using the California Poison Control System (CPCS) database. Data was extracted from phone calls received by CPCS clinicians and follow-up phone calls made to assess the patient's progress in a health-care setting. Inclusion criteria were venlafaxine ingestion cases reported to CPCS between January 2001 and December 2011, children aged 20 years and under, venlafaxine as the only ingested substance, managed in a health-care facility, and followed to a known outcome. Two hundred sixty-two cases met the study criteria. Common presentations included gastrointestinal (14.9%), altered mental status (13.7%), and tachycardia (13.4%). The majority of the cases resulted in no effect (51.5%) or minor effect (19.9%). The average estimated dose per weight was 18.3 mg/kg in all patients and 64.5 mg/kg in those experiencing moderate-to-severe adverse effects. Seizures occurred in only 4 of the 262 cases at doses ranging from 1500 to 7500 mg. Although the estimated dose per weight exceeded 10 mg/kg for the majority of the cases, only 12 cases resulted in moderate or severe outcomes. The majority of venlafaxine ingestion cases in children resulted in either no clinical effects or minor clinical effects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Conditioned food aversion for control of poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conditioned food aversion is a technique that can be used to train livestock to avoid ingestion of poisonous plants. This study tested the efficacy and durability of conditioned food aversion to eliminate goat’s consumption of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa. We used 14 young Moxotó goats, which wer...

  15. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  16. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  17. [Parental education to reduce blood lead levels in children with mild and moderate lead poisoning: a randomized controlled study].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-ming; Yan, Chong-huai; Wu, Sheng-hu; Shi, Rong

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of parental education on reducing lead exposure of children by examining the changes in blood lead levels of children whose parents receiving or not receiving educational intervention. Two hundred children with confirmed blood lead levels beyond 100 microg/L were selected. They were randomized into two groups, 107 children in study group and 93 in control. At the beginning of the study, parents of both study and control groups were called for interview to complete KABP questionnaire and lead study questionnaire. The study group was provided with interventional measures while control group was not contacted until the end of study. Intervention of parental education was undertaken by means of a TV program, a set of slides and a brochure, and focused on the questions regarding harmful effects of lead poisoning, the sources of environmental lead and prevention of this preventable disease. Tests for blood lead level were repeated for both study and control groups 3 months after the determination of the initial blood lead level. All the relevant knowledge of health effect, lead sources and prevention of childhood lead poisoning of participating parents of study group were improved significantly (chi(2) = 14.06, 13.07, 10.08, 28.26, P < 0.01) after educational intervention while parents control group also were significantly improved in the sub-catalogs of concept and prevention (chi(2) = 7.69, 8.64, P < 0.01), but not the health effect and sources of childhood lead poisoning. Children and parents' behavior in study group was improved accordingly and significantly. Less children ate popcorn (chi(2) = 4.08, P < 0.05), less children drank tap-water in the morning (chi(2) = 23.04, P < 0.01), more kids washed their hands before eating (chi(2) = 5.82, P < 0.05), less kids played on road side (chi(2) = 9.60, P < 0.01), and more parents changed their coat or took shower or washed hands before going home after work (chi(2) = 4.00, P < 0.05). But in

  18. 4. INTERIOR, EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER. NOTE MAP ON WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER. NOTE MAP ON WALL SHOWING POWER AND WATER LINES, LOCATIONS OF ALL AQUEDUCT FACILITIES IN AREA, INCLUDING COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT SYSTEM. - Eagle Rock Operations Control Center, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 1. LOOKING SOUTH TO THE CONTROL CENTER FROM THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING SOUTH TO THE CONTROL CENTER FROM THE EAST SIDE OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 29. Launch Control Center, view looking in, alert crew mannequin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Launch Control Center, view looking in, alert crew mannequin at end of Launch Control Center. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  1. Poisoning by Herbs and Plants: Rapid Toxidromic Classification and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2016-03-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Centers has continued to report approximately 50,000 telephone calls or 8% of incoming calls annually related to plant exposures, mostly in children. Although the frequency of plant ingestions in children is related to the presence of popular species in households, adolescents may experiment with hallucinogenic plants; and trekkers and foragers may misidentify poisonous plants as edible. Since plant exposures have continued at a constant rate, the objectives of this review were (1) to review the epidemiology of plant poisonings; and (2) to propose a rapid toxidromic classification system for highly toxic plant ingestions for field use by first responders in comparison to current classification systems. Internet search engines were queried to identify and select peer-reviewed articles on plant poisonings using the key words in order to classify plant poisonings into four specific toxidromes: cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, cytotoxic, and gastrointestinal-hepatotoxic. A simple toxidromic classification system of plant poisonings may permit rapid diagnoses of highly toxic versus less toxic and nontoxic plant ingestions both in households and outdoors; direct earlier management of potentially serious poisonings; and reduce costly inpatient evaluations for inconsequential plant ingestions. The current textbook classification schemes for plant poisonings were complex in comparison to the rapid classification system; and were based on chemical nomenclatures and pharmacological effects, and not on clearly presenting toxidromes. Validation of the rapid toxidromic classification system as compared to existing chemical classification systems for plant poisonings will require future adoption and implementation of the toxidromic system by its intended users. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 12845 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Disease, Disability, and Injury... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (CDC/ATSDR... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) German (Deutsch) ... Amharic) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Arabic (العربية) Carbon Monoxide Poisoning English (Arabic) العربية PDF ...

  4. Ricin poisoning: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Audi, Jennifer; Belson, Martin; Patel, Manish; Schier, Joshua; Osterloh, John

    2005-11-09

    laboratories. Currently, no antidote, vaccine, or other specific effective therapy is available for ricin poisoning or prevention. Prompt treatment with supportive care is necessary to limit morbidity and mortality. Health care workers and public health officials should consider ricin poisoning in patients with gastrointestinal or respiratory tract illness in the setting a credible threat. Poison control centers and public health authorities should be notified of any known illness associated with ricin exposure.

  5. Effect of a brief outreach educational intervention on the translation of acute poisoning treatment guidelines to practice in rural Sri Lankan hospitals: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Senarathna, Lalith; Buckley, Nick A; Dibley, Michael J; Kelly, Patrick J; Jayamanna, Shaluka F; Gawarammana, Indika B; Dawson, Andrew H

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, including Sri Lanka, a high proportion of acute poisoning and other medical emergencies are initially treated in rural peripheral hospitals. Patients are then usually transferred to referral hospitals for further treatment. Guidelines are often used to promote better patient care in these emergencies. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN73983810) which aimed to assess the effect of a brief educational outreach ('academic detailing') intervention to promote the utilization of treatment guidelines for acute poisoning. This cluster RCT was conducted in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. All peripheral hospitals in the province were randomized to either intervention or control. All hospitals received a copy of the guidelines. The intervention hospitals received a brief out-reach academic detailing workshop which explained poisoning treatment guidelines and guideline promotional items designed to be used in daily care. Data were collected on all patients admitted due to poisoning for 12 months post-intervention in all study hospitals. Information collected included type of poison exposure, initial investigations, treatments and hospital outcome. Patients transferred from peripheral hospitals to referral hospitals had their clinical outcomes recorded. There were 23 intervention and 23 control hospitals. There were no significant differences in the patient characteristics, such as age, gender and the poisons ingested. The intervention hospitals showed a significant improvement in administration of activated charcoal [OR 2.95 (95% CI 1.28-6.80)]. There was no difference between hospitals in use of other decontamination methods. This study shows that an educational intervention consisting of brief out-reach academic detailing was effective in changing treatment behavior in rural Sri Lankan hospitals. The intervention was only effective for treatments with direct clinician involvement, such as administering activated

  6. Overall view of Mission Operations Control in Mission Control Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-05-18

    S69-34316 (18 May 1969) --- Overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, Building 30, on the first day of the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission. A color television transmission was being received from Apollo 10. This picture was made following Command and Service Module/Lunar Module/Saturn IVB (CSM/LM-S-IVB) separation and prior to LM extraction from the S-IVB. The CSM were making the docking approach to the LM/S-IVB.

  7. Menthol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  8. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver disease or AIDS — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response. Complications The most common serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and ...

  9. Aftershave poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... a more serious illness. Complications, such as pneumonia, muscle damage from lying on a hard surface for a prolonged period of time, or brain damage from lack of oxygen, may cause permanent disability. Aftershave poisoning is not usually deadly.

  10. Candles poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... of wax. Candle poisoning occurs when someone swallows candle wax. This can happen by accident or on purpose. ... Candle wax is considered nonpoisonous, but it may cause a blockage in the intestines if a large amount ...

  11. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from eating foods that contain germs like bad bacteria or toxins, which are poisonous substances. Bacteria ... But you can learn how to avoid those bad germs in food. Which Germs Are to Blame? ...

  12. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of lead in household dust. DRINKING WATER: Lead may get into drinking water when materials used in plumbing materials, such as ... and dishware. Lead may also be in contaminated water. Lead poisoning is harmful to human health and ...

  13. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  14. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  15. Merthiolate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... chance for recovery. Kidney dialysis (filtration) through a machine may be needed if the kidneys do not recover after acute mercury poisoning, Kidney failure and death can occur, even with small doses.

  16. Shellac poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can kill a child, while ...

  17. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... color with the seasons. They may produce whitish flowers or berries. Symptoms of poison ivy The main ... symptoms. They will also examine your rash to make sure it’s not caused by an allergy or ...

  18. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little or ...

  19. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Crayons poisoning ... This ingredient is found in: Crayons Candles Canning wax Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... If a child eats a small amount of crayon, the wax will pass through the child's system ...

  20. Mantle Heterogeneities and Crustal Processes of the Cascade Arc Represented by Basalts of the Poison Lake Chain, Lassen Volcanic Center, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenner, J. M.; Teasdale, R.; Hiebing, M. S.; Lenz, Q. A.; Kroeninger, K.

    2013-12-01

    Basalts in the Poison Lake chain (PLC) include eight chemically distinct groups of primitive calc-alkaline basalts (defined by major element geochemistry and mineralogy). Located east of the Lassen Volcanic Center, PLC primitive basalts span the range of basalt compositions exposed throughout the entire Cascade arc (e.g. Ba: 100-1000 ppm; (Sr/P)n: 1.3 - 3.8; La/Yb: 4-26). PLC groups have trace-element and isotope ratios that show little evidence of direct genetic relationships among groups or a common source. Major, trace element and isotope ratios show evidence of contributions from multiple mantle sources including MORB, fluid rich subduction component and subduction-related sediment. Some groups record compositional variations from multiple mantle sources with minimal crustal processing. Similarly, preliminary probe data for olivine-spinel pairs suggest that some PLC groups are derived from heterogeneous mantle sources. Geochemical evidence indicates that other groups have petrogenetic histories that include crustal processes such as fractional crystallization, mixing or crustal contamination. Isotope ratios, major and trace element compositions and crystal compositions provide insights into the extent of source heterogeneities versus the degree of crustal processing. The broad range of compositional variations in basalts of PLC provides the opportunity to examine the extent of mantle heterogeneities and crustal processing in a small geographic area (50km2) for rocks that are nearly the same age (100-110 ka). The diverse primitive compositions erupted in the constrained time and space of the Poison Lake chain and the lack of genetic relationship among groups make it the ideal place to investigate the small scale nature of mantle domains and the roles of subduction and modification processes in the generation of basaltic compositions in arcs such as the Cascades, Mexico, Japan.

  1. Effects of Teaching Health Care Workers on Diagnosis and Treatment of Pesticide Poisonings in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Sibani, Claudia; Jessen, Kristian Kjaer; Tekin, Bircan; Nabankema, Victoria; Jørs, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries is a considerable problem, requiring diagnosis and treatment. This study describes how training of health care workers in Uganda affects their ability to diagnose and manage acute pesticide poisoning. Method: A postintervention cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 326 health care workers in Uganda were interviewed on knowledge and handling of acute pesticide poisoning. Of those, 173 health care workers had received training, whereas 153 untrained health care workers from neighboring regions served as controls. Results: Trained health care workers scored higher on knowledge of pesticide toxicity and handling of acute pesticide poisoning. Stratification by sex, profession, experience, and health center level did not have any influence on the outcome. Conclusions: Training health care workers can improve their knowledge and treatment of pesticide poisonings. Knowledge of the subject is still insufficient among health care workers and further training is needed. PMID:28890656

  2. Effects of Teaching Health Care Workers on Diagnosis and Treatment of Pesticide Poisonings in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sibani, Claudia; Jessen, Kristian Kjaer; Tekin, Bircan; Nabankema, Victoria; Jørs, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries is a considerable problem, requiring diagnosis and treatment. This study describes how training of health care workers in Uganda affects their ability to diagnose and manage acute pesticide poisoning. A postintervention cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 326 health care workers in Uganda were interviewed on knowledge and handling of acute pesticide poisoning. Of those, 173 health care workers had received training, whereas 153 untrained health care workers from neighboring regions served as controls. Trained health care workers scored higher on knowledge of pesticide toxicity and handling of acute pesticide poisoning. Stratification by sex, profession, experience, and health center level did not have any influence on the outcome. Training health care workers can improve their knowledge and treatment of pesticide poisonings. Knowledge of the subject is still insufficient among health care workers and further training is needed.

  3. Proteomic Study of Differential Protein Expression in Mouse Lung Tissues after Aerosolized Ricin Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhendong; Han, Chao; Du, Jiajun; Zhao, Siyan; Fu, Yingying; Zheng, Guanyu; Sun, Yucheng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Wensen; Wan, Jiayu; Qian, Jun; Liu, Linna

    2014-01-01

    Ricin is one of the most poisonous natural toxins from plants and is classified as a Class B biological threat pathogen by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of U.S.A. Ricin exposure can occur through oral or aerosol routes. Ricin poisoning has a rapid onset and a short incubation period. There is no effective treatment for ricin poisoning. In this study, an aerosolized ricin-exposed mouse model was developed and the pathology was investigated. The protein expression profile in the ricin-poisoned mouse lung tissue was analyzed using proteomic techniques to determine the proteins that were closely related to the toxicity of ricin. 2D gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and subsequent biological functional analysis revealed that six proteins including Apoa1 apolipoprotein, Ywhaz 14-3-3 protein, Prdx6 Uncharacterized Protein, Selenium-binding protein 1, HMGB1, and DPYL-2, were highly related to ricin poisoning. PMID:24786090

  4. Proteomic study of differential protein expression in mouse lung tissues after aerosolized ricin poisoning.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhendong; Han, Chao; Du, Jiajun; Zhao, Siyan; Fu, Yingying; Zheng, Guanyu; Sun, Yucheng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Wensen; Wan, Jiayu; Qian, Jun; Liu, Linna

    2014-04-28

    Ricin is one of the most poisonous natural toxins from plants and is classified as a Class B biological threat pathogen by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of U.S.A. Ricin exposure can occur through oral or aerosol routes. Ricin poisoning has a rapid onset and a short incubation period. There is no effective treatment for ricin poisoning. In this study, an aerosolized ricin-exposed mouse model was developed and the pathology was investigated. The protein expression profile in the ricin-poisoned mouse lung tissue was analyzed using proteomic techniques to determine the proteins that were closely related to the toxicity of ricin. 2D gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and subsequent biological functional analysis revealed that six proteins including Apoa1 apolipoprotein, Ywhaz 14-3-3 protein, Prdx6 Uncharacterized Protein, Selenium-binding protein 1, HMGB1, and DPYL-2, were highly related to ricin poisoning.

  5. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  6. 75 FR 30409 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and..., Public Health Analyst, National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, Office of the...

  7. Plasma catecholamine activity in chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    deCastro, F.J.

    1990-04-01

    Plasma catecholamines where measured in 15 children with chronic lead poisoning and 15 matched controls by radioimmunassay. The data suggest that plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinphrine) were significantly elevated in chronic lead poisoning. Plasma catecholamine elevation may well be important in the clinical finding of hyperactivity and hypertension associated with chronic lead poisoning.

  8. Poison Ivy Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Page Content Article Body Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac commonly cause skin rashes in ... swampy areas of the Mississippi River region. Poison oak grows as a shrub, and it is seen ...

  9. Poisoning by carbon monoxide in Morocco from 1991 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Aghandous, Rachida; Chaoui, Hanane; Rhalem, Naima; Semllali, Ilham; Badri, Mohamed; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Ouammi, Lahcen; Soulaymani-Bencheikh, Rachida

    2012-04-01

    To describe the characteristics relating to the provenance of statements, patients and to evaluate the spatiotemporal evolution of carbon monoxide poisoning reported to Poison Control Center and Pharmacovigilance of Morocco (CAPM). This is a retrospective study over a period of 18 years from 1991 to 2008, for all cases of poisoning by carbon monoxide reported to CAPM. The epidemiological study focused on 12 976 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning reported to CAPM between 1991 and 2008. The average age of patients was 25.5 +/- 15.6 years, sex ratio was 0.5. The poisoning occurred by accident in 98.7% of cases, especially at home (96.7%) and in cold months. The urban population was the most affected (89.0%). The region of Meknes Tafilalt was the most concerned with 16.6% of cases. The symptomatology was characterized by the predominance of gastrointestinal tract diseases (37.1%). Deaths have reached a percentage of 0.9%. These qualitative and quantitative information is useful to highlight warnings and plan a strategy against carbon monoxide poisoning in Morocco.

  10. An overview of the Kaliningrad Spaceflight Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A general description is given of the Kaliningrad Spaceflight Center near Moscow, where Soviet orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft are monitored and controlled. Brief descriptions of the equipment used and the scope of work done at the center are included.

  11. 14. VIEW TO EAST. DETAIL, CENTER PIER, TURNTABLE ASSEMBLY, CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW TO EAST. DETAIL, CENTER PIER, TURNTABLE ASSEMBLY, CONTROL CABIN. (Photographed from boat) NOTE CUTWATER ON UPSTREAM SIDE OF CENTER PIER. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  12. Views of the mission control center during STS-9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The two backup payload specialists for Drs. Byron K. Lichtenberg and Ulf Merbold huddle in the mission control center during day three activity aboard Spacelab. Seated at the Console is Dr. Michael Lampton. Leaning over Lampton's shoulder is Dutch scientist Wubbo Ockels. The two are surrounded by a few of the flight controllers in the payload operations control center (POCC) portion of JSC's mission control center.

  13. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  14. Pesticide poisoning in Zhejiang, China: a retrospective analysis of adult cases registration by occupational disease surveillance and reporting systems from 2006 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meibian; Fang, Xinglin; Zhou, Lifang; Su, Liling; Zheng, Jiajia; Jin, Minjuan; Zou, Hua; Chen, Guangdi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite the rapid industrialisation and urbanisation over the past 30 years, agriculture is one of the largest economic sectors in China and the unregulated use of pesticides result in extensive pesticide poisoning. The objective of this study was to analyse pesticide poisoning cases registration received by Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China. Design Register-based study. Setting Cases registered regarding pesticide poisoning. Data were obtained from the Occupational Disease Surveillance and Reporting Systems in Zhejiang province from 2006 to 2010, which contains anonymous records representing general population of Zhejiang province, China. Participants All cases registered as pesticide poisoning were identified. Primary outcome Monthly and age-group pesticide poisoning death rates were calculated. Results A total of 20 097 pesticide poisoning cases with 1413 deaths were recorded during the study period. There were 10 513 male pesticide poisoning cases with 782 deaths, and 9584 females with 631 deaths. Pesticide poisoning occurred mostly in non-occupational exposure (79.86%), in which the majority (85.77%) of the cases was of intentional pesticide poisoning. The occupational exposure was most common in men during the farming season. The death rate increased stepwise with age, and the pesticide suicide rate was higher in the older age group. Conclusions Pesticide poisoning remains a major health problem in China, and further recommendations to reduce the pesticide poisoning are required. PMID:24270833

  15. A profile of unintentional poisoning caused by household cleaning products, disinfectants and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Presgrave, Rosaura de Farias; Camacho, Luiz Antônio Bastos; Villas Boas, Maria Helena Simões

    2008-12-01

    Unintentional poisoning occurred mainly among children. The leading cause of such poisoning in Brazil, among consumer products was household cleaning products. For this study 2810 calls made to two poison control centers in the State of Rio de Janeiro between January 2000 and December 2002 were analyzed. Children under five were the most vulnerable group. More boys under 10 suffered accidental poisoning than girls, although above this age, the distribution was inverted. The calls received by poison control centers were mainly from health services within the first two hours following poisoning. The most frequent exposure routes were ingestion (90.4%), followed by inhalation (4.3%), skin and eye contact (2.4% and 2% respectively). The products involved were bleach, petroleum derivates, rodenticides and pesticides. The main causes were products within the children's reach, storage in soft drink bottles, food mixed with rodenticides, incorrect product use, and kitchen utensils used for measured cleaning products. The most common outcome was that the patient was cured, although a lot of cases were lost to follow-up. Education programs are necessary in order to avoid these poisonings.

  16. 25. Corridor between the Launch Control Center and the Launch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Corridor between the Launch Control Center and the Launch Control Equipment Room, view from Launch Control Center. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  17. Atlanta Air Route Traffic Control Center's involvement in aviation weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of weather information throughout the Air Traffic Control System is discussed along with the development of meteorological radar, and the modifications to the Air Route Traffic Control Center radars for locating and determining the severity of storms' cells. The planned improvements in the availability of weather data to the control centers are listed.

  18. MISSION CONTROL CENTER (MCC) - CELEBRATION - CONCLUSION - APOLLO 11 MISSION - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-25

    S69-40023 (24 July 1969) --- Overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) in the Mission Control Center (MCC), Building 30, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), showing the flight controllers celebrating the successful conclusion of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  19. [Charcoal, cocaine and rattlesnakes: evidence-based treatment of poisoning].

    PubMed

    Schaper, A

    2013-10-01

    Since ancient times poisoning has been treated medicinally. Clinical toxicology, in the narrow sense of the term, developed from the foundation of specialized medical treatment units for poisoning and the formation of the first poison information centers in the second half of the twentieth century. Historically, the first poison information centers were often localized at pediatric clinics or departments of internal medicine. It became increasingly more obvious that this pooling of competences made sense. This article gives a general introduction in clinical toxicology and presents the functions and key activities of emergency poison centers. The organisation and work of a poisons centre is demonstrated on the basis of the Poisons Information Center (GIZ) North annual report for 2011. In a short summary the basic principles of clinical toxicology are elucidated: the primary removal of poisons by gastric lavage and administration of activated charcoal, secondary removal of poisons by enhanced elimination using hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, multi-dose activated charcoal and molecular adsorbent recirculating systems (MARS) and the indications for administration of specific antidotes or antivenins (antisera against poisoning by poisonous animals). Gastric lavage is indicated within 1 h after ingestion of a potentially life-threatening dose of a poison. In cases of poisoning with substances which penetrate the central nervous system (CNS) gastric lavage should be performed only after endotracheal intubation due to the risk of aspiration. The basic management of poisoned patients by emergency medicine personnel out of hospital and on the way to hospital is presented. The Bremen list, a compilation of the five antidotes, atropine, 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-DMAP), tolonium chloride, naloxone and activated charcoal for out of hospital treatment by emergency doctors is presented. In all, even questionable cases of poisoning consultation at emergency poison centers is

  20. Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the National Poison Data System.

    PubMed

    Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2015-04-01

    Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Amitraz poisoning].

    PubMed

    Caprotta, C Gustavo; Martínez, Marcelo; Tiszler, Martín; Guerra, Verónica

    2009-10-01

    Poisoning due to amitraz together with its solvent xilene, is an unusual condition although may be increasing in rural areas where it is used as insecticide-ectoparasiticide.1-3 At present, there is scare references to orient physicians concerning its handling in childhood. We present the case of a 2-year-old boy who suffered an accidental intake of amitraz and was admitted into our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit requiring mechanical ventilation. We consider the usefulness of informing the medical community about this case so as to be aware of this rare kind of poisoning in our community.

  2. Arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, W L; White, D R

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  3. Scombroid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.

    1978-01-01

    An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

  4. Remote Operations and Ground Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Barry S.; Lankford, Kimberly; Pitts, R. Lee

    2004-01-01

    The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center supports the International Space Station (ISS) through remote interfaces around the world. The POIC was originally designed as a gateway to space for remote facilities; ranging from an individual user to a full-scale multiuser environment. This achievement was accomplished while meeting program requirements and accommodating the injection of modern technology on an ongoing basis to ensure cost effective operations. This paper will discuss the open POIC architecture developed to support similar and dissimilar remote operations centers. It will include technologies, protocols, and compromises which on a day to day basis support ongoing operations. Additional areas covered include centralized management of shared resources and methods utilized to provide highly available and restricted resources to remote users. Finally, the effort of coordinating the actions of participants will be discussed.

  5. Remote Operations and Ground Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Barry S.; Lankford, Kimberly; Pitts, R. Lee

    2004-01-01

    The Payload Operations Integration Center at the Marshall Space Flight Center supports the International Space Station (ISS) through remote interfaces around the world. The POI$ was originally designed as a gateway to space for remote facilities; ranging from an individual user to a fullscale multi-user environment. This achievement was accomplished while meeting program requirements and accommodating the injection of modem technology on an ongoing basis to ensure cost operations. This paper will discuss the open POIC architecture developed to support similar and dissimilar remote operations centers. It will include technologies, protocols, and compromises which on a day to day basis support ongoing operations. Additional areas covered include centralized management of shared resources and methods utilized to provide highly available and restricted resources to remote users. Finally, the effort of coordinating the actions of participants will be discussed.

  6. MISSION CONTROL CENTER (MCC) ACTIVITY - GEMINI-12 SPLASHDOWN - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-15

    S66-64884 (15 Nov. 1966) --- Watching console activity in the Mission Control Center in Houston during the Gemini-12 splashdown (left to right), are Dr. Charles A. Berry, Director of Medical Research and Operations; astronaut John H. Glenn Jr.; James C. Elms, Director, NASA Electronics Research Center; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC) Director. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Metal polish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

  8. Use of a "Freak Out" Control Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casse, Robert M.

    1970-01-01

    A student staffed center, established to help those on bad trips", utilizes services of volunteer personnel for therapeutic support. A physician is on call to administer chemotherapy when needed. During the first year of operation, no cases of hepatitis or freak outs have been reported. (CJ)

  9. Use of a "Freak Out" Control Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casse, Robert M.

    1970-01-01

    A student staffed center, established to help those on bad trips", utilizes services of volunteer personnel for therapeutic support. A physician is on call to administer chemotherapy when needed. During the first year of operation, no cases of hepatitis or freak outs have been reported. (CJ)

  10. The characteristics of emergency department presentations related to acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in South Korea between 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo; Cho, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine epidemiologic data regarding acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in adults from 2011 to 2014 at the national level in South Korea. Further, the association between governmental regulations involving pesticides and changes in pesticide poisoning occurrences over time was determined. Data were obtained from the emergency department (ED)-based Injury In-depth Surveillance system conducted by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). Governmental regulations on pesticides were downloaded from the homepage of the Korea Rural Development Administration. Pesticides were classified according to guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the respective Resistance Action Committee (RAC). Trends in the number of ED presentations and case fatality rate (CFR) due to pesticide poisoning were investigated. The overall CFR due to poisoning from herbicides or insecticides in adults in South Korea was 16.8% during 2011-2014. However, CFR significantly decreased over the 4-year period. The ED presentations of paraquat (PQ) poisoning fell significantly, whereas poisoning due to glyphosate, glufosinate, or combined herbicides increased markedly over the 4 years. Between 2011 and 2013, PQ was the most common pesticide poisoning, whereas glyphosate became the most frequent in 2014. PQ produced the highest rate of fatality followed by endosulfan. Although the frequency of PQ poisoning decreased, which may be attributed to governmental regulations, the CFR and incidence of pesticide poisoning in adults remain a public health concern that needs to be addressed.

  11. POISONOUS BITES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Prevention of snakebite. Poisonous Arachnida: Painful sensations after the sting of a scorpion ; Clinical phenomena after the bite of a karakurt; Is the bite...of a tarantula dangerous. Hymenoptera: Clinical phenomena after a sting by wasps or bees; Treatment of stings of scorpions , karakurts, wasps and bees.

  12. Chlorine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chlorine reacts with water in and out of the body to form hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid. Both are extremely poisonous. ... chlorine) Throat swelling (may also cause breathing difficulty) ... Severe change in acid level of the blood (pH balance), which leads ...

  13. 86. Shock absorber, top of launch control center, southeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. Shock absorber, top of launch control center, southeast corner - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  14. 13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. 83. Shock absorber attaching "egg" to the launch control center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Shock absorber attaching "egg" to the launch control center, southwest corner - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. Acetylcysteine for Acetaminophen Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Heard, Kennon J.

    2009-01-01

    A 25-year-old man presents to the emergency department with a toothache. During the evaluation, the physician determines that the patient has been taking large doses of over-the-counter acetaminophen along with an acetaminophen–hydrocodone product for the past 5 days. His daily dose of acetaminophen has been 12 g per day (maximum recommended dose, 4 g per day). He has no other medical problems and typically consumes two beers a day. The patient has no symptoms beyond his toothache, is not icteric, and has no hepatomegaly or right-upper-quadrant tenderness. His serum acetaminophen concentration 8 hours after the most recent dose is undetectable. His serum alanine aminotransferase concentration is 75 IU per liter, his serum bilirubin concentration is 1.2 mg per deciliter (20.5 μmol per liter), and his international normalized ratio (INR) is 1.1. The emergency department physician contacts the regional poison-control center, which recommends treatment with acetylcysteine. PMID:18635433

  17. 77 FR 46096 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... No: 2012-18852] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned committee... and Human Services (HHS), the Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH), the Director, Centers for...

  18. 78 FR 25279 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 12... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L. Baker, Director...

  19. Fighting Fire with Fire: Establishment of a Rumor Control Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eich, Ritch K.; Weinberg, Sanford B.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the rationale for the creation of the rumor control center and identifies the few valuable models found in the literature. Examines the usefulness of the center as an additional channel of communication and considers the desirability of using such a mechanism. Suggests an approach to teaching rumor control. (JMF)

  20. Fighting Fire with Fire: Establishment of a Rumor Control Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eich, Ritch K.; Weinberg, Sanford B.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the rationale for the creation of the rumor control center and identifies the few valuable models found in the literature. Examines the usefulness of the center as an additional channel of communication and considers the desirability of using such a mechanism. Suggests an approach to teaching rumor control. (JMF)

  1. Collaboration, Control, and the Idea of a Writing Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Andrea

    1991-01-01

    Advocates the move to collaboration in writing centers. Describes three different ideas of writing centers (as "storehouse,""garret," and "Burkean parlor"). Discusses where the focus of control lies in each. Urges careful examination of what collaboration means and how definitions of it locate control, to avoid…

  2. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Schempf, H.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  3. Comparison of incidence of hospital utilization for poisoning and other injury types.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry A; Singleton, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the incidence of hospital utilization for injuries and compared poisoning with other forms of injury. Previous studies have suggested poison control centers reduce health-care costs by decreasing hospital utilization. We conducted a one-year retrospective study involving patients treated for injuries at acute-care hospitals in Kentucky in 2008. We also compared inpatient discharges with discharges directly from the emergency department (ED) to determine hospitalization rates. The primary data sources were the Kentucky Hospital Billing database and the Kentucky Regional Poison Control Center (KRPCC) database. In 2008, there were 377,642 hospital encounters for injuries in Kentucky. The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, struck by/against, motor vehicle traffic crashes, and overexertion. Three causes of injury were greater than one standard deviation above the mean in percentage of inpatient admissions: poisoning (41.3%), firearms (38.4%), and drowning (22.4%). During this same year, KRPCC reported 46,258 poisonings, with 76.5% of patients managed outside of a health-care facility, 11.4% of patients treated and released from the ED, 7.1% of patients admitted to inpatient care, 2.3% of patients admitted to psychiatric care, and 2.7% lost to follow-up. Three causes of injury had the greatest percentage of patients admitted for inpatient medical care--poisoning, firearms, and drowning--suggesting a high level of severity in these injuries presenting to the ED. We believe availability and use of a poison control center reduced hospital utilization for poisoning primarily by managing a large number of low-severity patients outside of the hospital system.

  4. Risk factors associated with purchasing pesticide from shops for self-poisoning: a protocol for a population-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael; Pearson, Melissa; Gunnell, David; Hawton, Keith; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Pabasara, Chathurani; Jayathilaka, Tharidu; Dissanayaka, Kalpani; Rajapaksha, Sandamali; Thilakarathna, Prasanna; Agampodi, Suneth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most frequently used methods of suicide worldwide, killing over 300 000 people annually. Around 15–20% of pesticide self-poisonings occur soon after the person has bought the pesticide from a shop. We aim to determine the characteristics of individuals who purchase pesticides directly from shops and how they differ from individuals who access pesticides from other sources such as home, home garden or farmland. This information will help inform possible vendor/shop-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing access to pesticides used for self-harm. Methods and analysis This study will investigate risk factors associated with purchasing pesticides for acts of self-poisoning from pesticide shops, including cases identified over a 9-month period using a population-based case–control group approach. Four interviewer-administered data collection tools will be used for this study: a semistructured questionnaire, Beck Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS), Clinical Interview Schedule—Sinhalese version (CIS-Sn) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Each case (expected n=33) will be compared with two groups of individuals: (1) those who have self-poisoned using pesticides from the home, home garden or farmland and (2) those who bought pesticides from the same shops as the above cases, but not did not self-poison. Logistic regression models will be used to identify risk factors of purchasing pesticides for self-poisoning from shops. Ethics and dissemination The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles. PMID:25995242

  5. Risk factors associated with purchasing pesticide from shops for self-poisoning: a protocol for a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael; Pearson, Melissa; Gunnell, David; Hawton, Keith; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Pabasara, Chathurani; Jayathilaka, Tharidu; Dissanayaka, Kalpani; Rajapaksha, Sandamali; Thilakarathna, Prasanna; Agampodi, Suneth

    2015-05-20

    Pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most frequently used methods of suicide worldwide, killing over 300,000 people annually. Around 15-20% of pesticide self-poisonings occur soon after the person has bought the pesticide from a shop. We aim to determine the characteristics of individuals who purchase pesticides directly from shops and how they differ from individuals who access pesticides from other sources such as home, home garden or farmland. This information will help inform possible vendor/shop-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing access to pesticides used for self-harm. This study will investigate risk factors associated with purchasing pesticides for acts of self-poisoning from pesticide shops, including cases identified over a 9-month period using a population-based case-control group approach. Four interviewer-administered data collection tools will be used for this study: a semistructured questionnaire, Beck Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS), Clinical Interview Schedule-Sinhalese version (CIS-Sn) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Each case (expected n=33) will be compared with two groups of individuals: (1) those who have self-poisoned using pesticides from the home, home garden or farmland and (2) those who bought pesticides from the same shops as the above cases, but not did not self-poison. Logistic regression models will be used to identify risk factors of purchasing pesticides for self-poisoning from shops. The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Customizing graphical user interface technology for spacecraft control centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Edward; Giancola, Peter; Gibson, Steven; Mahmot, Ronald

    1993-01-01

    The Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) project is applying the latest in graphical user interface technology to the spacecraft control center environment. This project of the Mission Operations Division's (MOD) Control Center Systems Branch (CCSB) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed an architecture for control centers which makes use of a distributed processing approach and the latest in Unix workstation technology. The TPOCC project is committed to following industry standards and using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components wherever possible to reduce development costs and to improve operational support. TPOCC's most successful use of commercial software products and standards has been in the development of its graphical user interface. This paper describes TPOCC's successful use and customization of four separate layers of commercial software products to create a flexible and powerful user interface that is uniquely suited to spacecraft monitoring and control.

  7. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  8. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  9. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  10. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  11. STS-26 Mission Control Center (MCC) activity at JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-10-02

    STS026-S-101 (2 Oct 1988) --- Flight controllers in the Johnson Space Center?s mission control center listen to a presentation by the five members of the STS 26 crew on the fourth day of Discovery?s orbital mission. Flight Directors Charles W. Shaw and James M. (Milt) Heflin (in the foreground) and other controllers view a television image of Earth on a screen in the front of the flight control room while each member relates some inner feelings while paying tribute to the Challenger crew.

  12. Efficacy of spirulina extract plus zinc in patients of chronic arsenic poisoning: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Misbahuddin, Mir; Islam, A Z M Maidul; Khandker, Salamat; Ifthaker-Al-Mahmud; Islam, Nazrul; Anjumanara

    2006-01-01

    Millions of people in Bangladesh, India, Taiwan, and Chile are consuming high concentration of arsenic through drinking water, and thousands of them have already developed chronic arsenic poisoning. There is no specific treatment. Some authors suggest the use of vitamins and minerals for more than 6 months. The present placebo-controlled double-blind study was conducted to evaluate effectiveness of spirulina extract plus zinc in the treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning. Forty-one patients of chronic arsenic poisoning were randomly treated orally by either placebo (17 patients) or spirulina extract (250 mg) plus zinc (2 mg) (24 patients) twice daily for 16 weeks. Each patient was supplied with arsenic-safe drinking water by installing a locally made water filter at household level. Effectiveness of spirulina extract plus zinc was evaluated by comparing changes in skin manifestations (clinical scores), arsenic contents in urine and hair, between the placebo- and spirulina extract plus zinc-treated groups. The concentrations of total arsenic in water (without filtration) of placebo- and spirulina extract plus zinc-treated groups were 150.1 +/- 18.3 and 161.7 +/- 23.9 microg/l, respectively. Intake of these high concentrations of arsenic lead to increased excretion of arsenic in urine (72.1 +/- 14.5 microg/l in placebo-treated group and 78.4 +/- 19.1 microg/l in spirulina plus zinc-treated group). After 2 weeks of using filtered water, there were significant reduction of both arsenic intake through water and urinary arsenic excretion (8.3 +/- 3.6 microg/l and 18.4 +/- 7.3 microg/l in placebo group; 9.7 +/- 5.4 microg/l and 21.6 +/- 5.8 microg/l) in spirulina extract plus zinc-treated group. There was a sharp increase in urinary excretion of arsenic (138 +/- 43.6 microg/l) at 4 weeks following spirulina plus zinc administration and the effect was continued for another 2 weeks. Spirulina extract plus zinc removed 47.1% arsenic from scalp hair. Spirulina extract had no

  13. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  14. Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

    1981-01-01

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates.

  15. Common front end systems for Space Shuttle and Space Station control centers at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljon, Linda; Muratore, John

    1993-01-01

    In the beginning of the fiscal year 1992, the development organizations of Johnson Space Center (JSC) were poised to begin two major projects: the Space Station Control Center and the refurbishment of the telemetry processing area of the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center. A study team established that a common front end concept could be used and could reduce development costs for both projects. A standard processor was defined to support most of the front end functions of both control centers and supports a consolidation of control positions which effectively reduces operations cost. This paper defines that common concept and describes the progress that has been made in development of the Consolidated Communications Facility (CCF) during the past year.

  16. [Cyanide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Møller, Søren; Hemmingsen, Claus

    2003-06-16

    Cyanide is a toxic compound which inhibits the cellular utilization of oxygen. A number of substances can give rise to cyanide intoxication, which in some cases may have a delayed onset. The symptoms are non-specific and reflect cellular hypoxia. Several strategies may be employed in the treatment. Hydroxycobalamine is an effective and non-toxic antidote. On the basis of a case story, the toxicology, symptoms and treatment of cyanide poisoning are discussed.

  17. The spectrum of accidental childhood poisoning in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas C; Brinkman, William

    2002-11-01

    To assess accidental poisoning in children in the Caribbean country of Antigua and Barbuda, including the incidence, the types of substances ingested, the age of the children involved, and the clinical outcomes. The results from Antigua and Barbuda were compared with the results of other reports from the English-speaking Caribbean and from the United States of America. We performed a retrospective review of the charts of all patients less than 13 years old admitted to the Children's Ward at Holberton Hospital in Antigua for accidental poisoning between March 1989 and March 1999. Those data were compared with data from earlier reports from Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and the United States of America. In Antigua and Barbuda there were 255 hospital admissions for accidental poisoning among children below 13 years old over that 10-year period. Of the 255 ingestions, 115 of them (45%) were in 1-year-old children, 69 (27%) were in 2-year-old children, and 26 (10%) were in 3-year-old children. These proportions in Antigua and Barbuda are similar to the age patterns seen in the other countries with which we made comparisons. In Antigua and Barbuda there was an annual average of 26 hospital admissions for poisoning for the roughly 20,000 children below 13 years of age, for a rate of 1.3 per 1,000. In comparing the patterns of childhood poisoning in all the countries we studied, we found that, as economic levels rose, there was a shift in the substances ingested, with hydrocarbon and plant ingestions decreasing and chemical and medication ingestions increasing. There is an increasing variety and complexity of poisonous substances ingested as economic conditions improve. This trend would make the establishment of a poison control center for the English-speaking Caribbean a logical step.

  18. Reduction of adverse effects from intravenous acetylcysteine treatment for paracetamol poisoning: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bateman, D Nicholas; Dear, James W; Thanacoody, H K Ruben; Thomas, Simon H L; Eddleston, Michael; Sandilands, Euan A; Coyle, Judy; Cooper, Jamie G; Rodriguez, Aryelly; Butcher, Isabella; Lewis, Steff C; Vliegenthart, A D Bastiaan; Veiraiah, Aravindan; Webb, David J; Gray, Alasdair

    2014-02-22

    Paracetamol poisoning is common worldwide. It is treated with intravenous acetylcysteine, but the standard regimen is complex and associated with frequent adverse effects related to concentration, which can cause treatment interruption. We aimed to ascertain whether adverse effects could be reduced with either a shorter modified acetylcysteine schedule, antiemetic pretreatment, or both. We undertook a double-blind, randomised factorial study at three UK hospitals, between Sept 6, 2010, and Dec 31, 2012. We randomly allocated patients with acute paracetamol overdose to either the standard intravenous acetylcysteine regimen (duration 20·25 h) or a shorter (12 h) modified protocol, with or without intravenous ondansetron pretreatment (4 mg). Masking was achieved by infusion of 5% dextrose (during acetylcysteine delivery) or saline (for antiemetic pretreatment). Randomisation was done via the internet and included a minimisation procedure by prognostic factors. The primary outcome was absence of vomiting, retching, or need for rescue antiemetic treatment at 2 h. Prespecified secondary outcomes included a greater than 50% increase in alanine aminotransferase activity over the admission value. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier NCT01050270). Of 222 patients who underwent randomisation, 217 were assessable 2 h after the start of acetylcysteine treatment. Vomiting, retching, or need for rescue antiemetic treatment at 2 h was reported in 39 of 108 patients assigned to the shorter modified protocol compared with 71 of 109 allocated to the standard acetylcysteine regimen (adjusted odds ratio 0·26, 97·5% CI 0·13-0·52; p<0·0001), and in 45 of 109 patients who received ondansetron compared with 65 of 108 allocated placebo (0·41, 0·20-0·80; p=0·003). Severe anaphylactoid reactions were recorded in five patients assigned to the shorter modified acetylcysteine regimen versus 31 who were allocated to the

  19. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or...

  20. [Household gas poisonings].

    PubMed

    Maloca, Ivana; Macan, Jelena; Varnai, Veda Marija; Turk, Rajka

    2006-12-01

    Exposure to toxic gases which can induce serious health effects, can occur in the working as well as in general environment, including home. The severity of gas poisoning is determined by its physical and chemical characteristics, intensity and duration of exposure, and concomitant diseases and injuries in the poisoned person. Manifestations of gas toxic action involve simple asphyxia, local irritation of respiratory mucosa, systemic toxicity, and a combination of these mechanisms. This article describes the characteristics, modes of exposure and health effects of most common gases causing poisoning at home. These include gas fuels, carbon monoxide, ammonia, chlorine, and fire gases such as nitrogen and sulphur oxides, hydrogen cyanide and phosgene. First aid as well as preventive measures to avoid exposure to toxic gases and prevent fire at home are also given. The Croatian Poison Control Centre gathered data on toxic gas exposures in households between November 2005 and July 2006. During this period 30 persons (3 % of the total number of cases) were exposed to toxic gases at home, including carbon monoxide, irritating vapours from cleaning agents and disinfectants, gas fuels, septic tank gases, tear-gas, and chlorofluorocarbons from refrigerators.

  1. PNNL’s Building Operations Control Center

    ScienceCinema

    Belew, Shan

    2016-07-12

    PNNL's Building Operations Control Center (BOCC) video provides an overview of the center, its capabilities, and its objectives. The BOCC was relocated to PNNL's new 3820 Systems Engineering Building in 2015. Although a key focus of the BOCC is on monitoring and improving the operations of PNNL buildings, the center's state-of-the-art computational, software and visualization resources also have provided a platform for PNNL buildings-related research projects.

  2. Jimsonweed poisoning associated with a homemade stew - Maryland, 2008.

    PubMed

    2010-02-05

    In the early morning hours of July 9, 2008, six adult family members were admitted to a hospital emergency department in Maryland with hallucinations, confusion, mydriasis, and tachycardia of approximately 3-4 hours duration. Approximately 4-5 hours earlier, all six family members had shared a meal of homemade stew and bread. Subsequent investigation by the Montgomery County Department of Health and Human Services (MCDHHS) and the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (MDHMH) determined that the stew contained jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), a plant in the nightshade family that contains atropine and scopolamine and has been associated with anticholinergic-type poisoning. This report describes the poisoning incident, which resulted in six hospitalizations, and the subsequent multidisciplinary investigation. Health-care providers and public health officials should be aware that jimsonweed poisoning can occur among many age groups, including younger persons, who typically consume the plant material for recreational purposes, or persons of any age group who might unknowingly ingest the plant. A prompt diagnosis of jimsonweed poisoning is complicated by the difficulties in eliciting exposure histories in persons with altered mental status and the variable presentations of affected persons. Consultation with horticulturalists, poison control centers, and specialized laboratories might be necessary to investigate cases and outbreaks.

  3. MCCx C3I Control Center Interface Emulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, James R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the project to develop and demonstrate alternate Information Technologies and systems for new Mission Control Centers that will reduce the cost of facility development, maintenance and operational costs and will enable more efficient cost and effective operations concepts for ground support operations. The development of a emulator for the Control Center capability will enable the facilities to conduct the simulation requiring interactivity with the Control Center when it is off line or unavailable, and it will support testing of C3I interfaces for both command and telemetry data exchange messages (DEMs).

  4. Comparison of a center and off-center BWR control rod drop accident

    SciTech Connect

    Cokinos, D.M.; Neogy, P.; Carew, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    A BWR control rod drop accident (RDA) induces a rapid core power transient involving strong neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupling, which requires a detailed multi-dimensional spatial kinetics analysis. Typical two-dimensional (r,z) RDA calculations require that the dropped rod be a center rod, as a result of geometric limitations, while in three-dimensional (x,y,z) calculations the dropped rod is generally taken to be the center rod in order to allow a quarter-core representation and limit computer running times. However, for typical BWR core loadings, the highest worth rod is not necessarily the center rod and it is not known, a priori, what effect this difference in spatial location has on the RDA dynamics. In order to evaluate the effects of this simplification, three-dimensional RAMONA-3B calculations have been performed for both a center and off-center control rod drop accident.

  5. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  6. Poisoning: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... about possible poisoning, call Poison Help at 800-222-1222 in the United States or your regional ... along with alcohol). Call Poison Help at 800-222-1222 in the United States or your regional ...

  7. Poison Ivy Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... to poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac: Farming Forestry Landscaping Gardening Firefighting Construction Camping Fishing from ... Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a ...

  8. 85. Command HQ. SAC control center (MOD) new work cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. Command HQ. SAC control center (MOD) new work cross section, drawing number AW-30-02-07, dated 7 February, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. Contemplating the plasmalemmal control center model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    An abundant epidermal mechanosensory calcium-selective ion channel appears able not only to detect mechanical stimuli such as those that initiate gravitropism but also to detect thermal, electrical, and various chemical stimuli. Because it responds to multimodal input with a second messenger output, this channel system seems likely to be an integrator that can engage in feedbacks with many other systems of the cell--and feedback is the hallmark of regulation. In general, the mechanical tension required for channel activation is likely transmitted from the relatively rigid cell wall to the plasma membrane system via linkage or adhesion sites that display antigenicities recognized by antibodies to animal beta-1 integrin, vitronectin, and fibronectin and which have mechanical connections to the cytoskeleton. Thus, functionally, leverage exerted against any given adhesion site will tend to control channels within a surrounding domain. Reactions initiated by passage of calcium ions through the channels could presumably be more effectively regulated if channels within the domains were somewhat clustered and if appropriate receptors, kinases, porters, pumps, and some key cytoskeletal anchoring sites were in turn clustered about them. Accumulating evidence suggests not only that activity of clusters of channels may contribute to control of cytoskeletal architecture and of regulatory protein function within their domain, but also that both a variety of regulatory proteins and components of the cortical cytoskeleton may contribute to control of channel activity. The emerging capabilities of electronic optical microscopy are well suited for resolving the spatial distributions of many of these cytoskeletal and regulatory molecules in living cells, and for following some of their behaviors as channels are stimulated to open and cytosolic calcium builds in their vicinity. Such microscopy, coupled with biochemical and physiological probing, should help to establish the nature of

  10. Contemplating the plasmalemmal control center model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    An abundant epidermal mechanosensory calcium-selective ion channel appears able not only to detect mechanical stimuli such as those that initiate gravitropism but also to detect thermal, electrical, and various chemical stimuli. Because it responds to multimodal input with a second messenger output, this channel system seems likely to be an integrator that can engage in feedbacks with many other systems of the cell--and feedback is the hallmark of regulation. In general, the mechanical tension required for channel activation is likely transmitted from the relatively rigid cell wall to the plasma membrane system via linkage or adhesion sites that display antigenicities recognized by antibodies to animal beta-1 integrin, vitronectin, and fibronectin and which have mechanical connections to the cytoskeleton. Thus, functionally, leverage exerted against any given adhesion site will tend to control channels within a surrounding domain. Reactions initiated by passage of calcium ions through the channels could presumably be more effectively regulated if channels within the domains were somewhat clustered and if appropriate receptors, kinases, porters, pumps, and some key cytoskeletal anchoring sites were in turn clustered about them. Accumulating evidence suggests not only that activity of clusters of channels may contribute to control of cytoskeletal architecture and of regulatory protein function within their domain, but also that both a variety of regulatory proteins and components of the cortical cytoskeleton may contribute to control of channel activity. The emerging capabilities of electronic optical microscopy are well suited for resolving the spatial distributions of many of these cytoskeletal and regulatory molecules in living cells, and for following some of their behaviors as channels are stimulated to open and cytosolic calcium builds in their vicinity. Such microscopy, coupled with biochemical and physiological probing, should help to establish the nature of

  11. Edible mushroom-related poisoning: A study on circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage.

    PubMed

    Gawlikowski, T; Romek, M; Satora, L

    2015-07-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Center (AAPCC) shows that in 2012 there were 0.3% of human exposures involving mushrooms. Only 17% of 6600 cases were then identified by the species. The present retrospective study was designed to identify the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in adults admitted to Krakow's Department of Clinical Toxicology (DCT) from 2002 to 2009. This study was conducted retrospectively after examining the files of 457 adult patients with wild mushroom poisoning. Mycological analysis was made and the species of the poisoning-inducing mushroom was determined. Furthermore, the circumstances related to the mushroom gathering, transport, storage, preparation, and consumption have been analyzed. The analysis revealed that in 400 (87.53%) out of 457 cases, the clinical symptoms were caused by ingestion of identified edible mushroom species. The main reason for edible mushroom poisoning is associated with their incorrect processing after harvest. The analysis of the circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage shows that the largest percentage of poisoning was connected with long-term storage of mushroom dishes, collecting, and storing them in plastic bags, and long storage of mushrooms. Based on spore analysis of the gastric content, edible mushrooms were responsible for the great majority of mushroom poisoning cases admitted to the DCT. The toxicity of edible mushroom is associated with proceeding with them during collection, transport, and storage. The medical history should be supplemented by questions concerning these circumstances. The identification of the mushroom by a mycologist is highly desirable. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. [Pesticide poisoning in Moroccan children: epidemiological and prognostic aspects (1990-2008)].

    PubMed

    Achour, Sanae; Khattabi, Asmae; Rhalem, Naïma; Ouammi, Lahcen; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the epidemiological profile of acute pesticide poisoning in children (APP) treated by the Moroccan Poison Control Center (CAPM) and to analyze death cases in order to determine factors predictive of severity. the study is based on a retrospective study of all cases of APP collected by the CAPM over a period of eighteen years (January 1990 to December 2008). Univariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors. 2,672 cases of childhood poisoning by pesticide were collected. The mean age was 5.6 ± 4.57 years. The sex ratio was 1.12. The cause of poisoning was accidental in 87.1% of cases, followed by attempted suicide (12.1%). Organophosphates were the most frequent poison (50.7%), followed by alpha-chloralose (26.5%). The case fatality rate was 3.3%. Mortality was attributed to organophosphates in 30 cases, followed by inorganic derivatives (7 cases) and carbamates (6 cases). A univariate analysis comparing survivors and groups who died showed that rural origin (p = 0.04), voluntary circumstances (p = 0.001), and the type of chemical class of pesticide (p < 0.001) significantly influence fatal poisoning. Acute pesticide poisoning among children is a reality in Morocco. Preventive measures may be needed.

  13. 28. Launch Control Center, view looking in from doorway. Thalheimer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Launch Control Center, view looking in from doorway. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  14. 10. Launch control center vents, view towards west. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Launch control center vents, view towards west. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  15. 38. Shock isolator at right of Launch Control Center entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Shock isolator at right of Launch Control Center entrance. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  16. 30. Launch Control Center, view looking out. Thalheimer Whiteman ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Launch Control Center, view looking out. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  17. 36. Launch Control Center, air vent above entrance. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Launch Control Center, air vent above entrance. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  18. 33. Launch Control Center, close view of launch key inserted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Launch Control Center, close view of launch key inserted in the launch panel. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  19. 37. Shock isolator at left of Launch Control Center entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Shock isolator at left of Launch Control Center entrance. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  20. 35. Launch Control Center, ERCS panel at left of commander's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Launch Control Center, ERCS panel at left of commander's console. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  1. 27. Launch Control Center, blast door at left, view from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Launch Control Center, blast door at left, view from tunnel junction. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  2. 32. Launch Control Center, commander's console. Note launch key at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Launch Control Center, commander's console. Note launch key at right. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  3. 31. Launch Control Center, deputy commander's console. Lyon Whiteman ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Launch Control Center, deputy commander's console. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  4. MISSION CONTROL CENTER (MCC) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-7 - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-07

    S65-60039 (7 Dec. 1965) --- Christopher C. Kraft Jr. (left), assistant director for Flight Operations, monitors his console in the Mission Control Center during the Gemini-7 spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  5. 140. HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT IN CENTER OF CONTROL ROOM (214), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140. HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT IN CENTER OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING SOUTH - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 24. DETAIL ELEVATION OF SECOND FLOOR AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL ELEVATION OF SECOND FLOOR AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL CEN-TER DOOR. - Newark International Airport, Administration Building, Brewster Road between Route 21 & New Jersey Turnpike Exchange No. 14, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  7. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chelating agent poisoning; Mineral deposit remover poisoning ... harmful chemicals in steam iron cleaner are: Chelating agents Hydroxyacetic acid Phosphoric acid Sodium hydroxide (dilute) Sulfuric ...

  8. Mission Control Center (MCC) - Celebration - Conclusion - Apollo XI Mission - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-24

    S69-40301 (24 July 1969) --- Overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) in the Mission Control Center (MCC), Building 30, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), at the conclusion of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The television monitor shows President Richard M. Nixon greeting the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the USS Hornet in the Pacific recovery area. Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. are inside the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF).

  9. View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Overall view of Mission Operations Control Room in Mission Control Center at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) during the ceremonies aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission. The Apollo 13 spacecraft, with Astronauts James Lovell, John Swigert, and Fred Haise aboard splashed down in the South Pacific at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970.

  10. Experience in estimating neutron poison worths

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, R.T.; Congdon, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Gadolinia, {sup 135}Xe, {sup 149}Sm, control rod, and soluble boron are five neutron poisons that may appear in light water reactor assemblies. Reliable neutron poison worth estimation is useful for evaluating core operating strategies, fuel cycle economics, and reactor safety design. Based on physical presence, neutron poisons can be divided into two categories: local poisons and global poisons. Gadolinia and control rod are local poisons, and {sup 135}Xe, {sup 149}Sm, and soluble boron are global poisons. The first-order perturbation method is commonly used to estimate nuclide worths in fuel assemblies. It is well known, however, that the first-order perturbation method was developed for small perturbations, such as the perturbation due to weak absorbers, and that neutron poisons are not weak absorbers. The authors have developed an improved method to replace the first-order perturbation method, which yields very poor results, for estimating local poison worths. It has also been shown that the first-order perturbation method seems adequate to estimate worths for global poisons caused by flux compensation.

  11. View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Dr. Thomas O. Paine (center), NASA Administrator, and other NASA Officials joined others in applauding the successful splashdown of the Apollo 13 crewmen. Others among the large crowd in the Mission Operations Control Room of the Mission Control Center, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) at the time of recovery were U.S. Air Force Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips (extreme left), who formerly served as Apollo program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters; Dr. Charles A. Berry (third from left), Director, Medical Research and Operations Directorate, MSC; and Dr. George M. Low, Associate NASA Administrator.

  12. View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Dr. Thomas O. Paine (center), NASA Administrator, and other NASA Officials joined others in applauding the successful splashdown of the Apollo 13 crewmen. Others among the large crowd in the Mission Operations Control Room of the Mission Control Center, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) at the time of recovery were U.S. Air Force Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips (extreme left), who formerly served as Apollo program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters; Dr. Charles A. Berry (third from left), Director, Medical Research and Operations Directorate, MSC; and Dr. George M. Low, Associate NASA Administrator.

  13. Open systems benefit energy control centers

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A. ); Green, T.A.

    1992-07-01

    The energy management system (EMS) industry is presenting the utility end-user a backdrop of competing choices and complex technology trends. Understanding new trends, such as open architecture computer configurations, local area networks, microcomputer EMSs, full graphics, and artificial intelligence requires a high level of experience and data gathering. This article conceptually describes the ability to migrate applications among computers of different vendors and different sizes (from PCs to supercomputers), as operating needs change and grow. The essential thrust of this article is to answer the questions many utility practitioners have been asking about open systems, standards, architectures, and available choices. These questions are fundamental to providing a computational application environment in which the tools required for intelligent and adaptive power system control can be operated. These tools are being designed for standards-driven, open-hardware platforms. Users are offered many choices of how to modify their EMS systems and must prepare their staffs to participate in the explosion of new technology.

  14. The growing impact of pediatric pharmaceutical poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bond, G Randall; Woodward, Randall W; Ho, Mona

    2012-02-01

    To understand which medications, under which circumstances, are responsible for the noted increase in pediatric medication poisonings, resource use, and morbidity. Patient records from 2001-2008 were obtained from the National Poison Data System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers for children aged ≤5 years evaluated in a health care facility following exposure to a potentially toxic dose of a pharmaceutical agent. Pharmaceutical agents were classified as over-the-counter or prescription and by functional category. Exposures were classified as child self-ingested the medication or as therapeutic error. For the 8-year period, emergency visits, admissions, significant injuries, and trends in these events were calculated for each substance category. We evaluated 453 559 children for ingestion of a single pharmaceutical product. Child self-exposure was responsible for 95% of visits. Child self-exposure to prescription products dominated the health care impact with 248 023 of the visits (55%), 41 847 admissions (76%), and 18 191 significant injuries (71%). The greatest resource use and morbidity followed self-ingestion of prescription products, particularly opioids, sedative-hypnotics, and cardiovascular agents. Prevention efforts have proved to be inadequate in the face of rising availability of prescription medications, particularly more dangerous medications. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. STS-26 Mission Control Center (MCC) activity at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A wide angle view shows flight controllers in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR) as they listen to a presentation by STS-26 crewmembers on the fourth day of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, orbital mission. Flight Director James M. (Milt) Heflin (standing at center) and astronaut and spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) G. David Low (standing at right) briefly look away from a television image of the crew on a screen in the front of the FCR. Heflin, Low, and other flight controllers listen as each member relates some inner feelings while paying tribute to the 51L Challenger crew.

  16. Perceived poisons.

    PubMed

    Nañagas, Kristine A; Kirk, Mark A

    2005-11-01

    Perceived poisoning may manifest in numerous ways; however, all cases share certain characteristics. All are fostered by the wide availability of unreliable information about chemical safety, poor understanding of scientific principles, and ineffective risk communication. Although this problem is still incompletely understood, some approaches have been demonstrated to be useful, such as education about risk, appropriate reassurance, and empathy on the part of the practitioner. Successful management may curtail the spread or exacerbation of symptoms, whereas unsuccessful treatment may cause the problems to escalate, with detrimental effects on both society and patient.

  17. Xuebijing for paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jin; Huo, Dongmei; Wu, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Lin; Liao, Yunhua

    2013-07-29

    At present, there is a lack of effective treatments for paraquat poisoning. Xuebijing injection is a complex traditional Chinese prescription consisting of Flos Carthami, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae and Radix Angelicae Sinensis. Although clinical experience suggests that Xuebijing injection might have potential in the management of paraquat poisoning, there is no conclusion on the effectiveness of this treatment. To assess the effects of Xuebijing injection in patients with paraquat poisoning. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded, ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, Chinese bio-medical literature and retrieval system (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database. The search was run on the 29th May 2013. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Xuebijing injection combined with conventional care against conventional care alone. Two or three authors independently selected studies, assessed study quality and extracted data. We calculated the mortality risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Data on all-cause mortality at the end of follow-up were summarised in a meta-analysis. We identified two trials including 84 people. Although there were fewer deaths in people treated with Xuebijing injection, meta-analysis showed that it did not provide a statistically significant benefit in reducing all-cause mortality in people with paraquat poisoning as compared to control (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.04; P = 0.08). Based on the findings of two small RCTs, Xuebijing injection did not have a statistically significant benefit on reducing all-cause mortality in people with paraquat poisoning. However, both

  18. The treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cummings, T F

    2004-03-01

    Cyanide has gained historical notoriety as a poison used with intent to cause fatality. Its occurrence in industry is confined to a small number of uses in a relatively narrow range of industries, including the manufacture of Perspex and nylon and in electroplating. With proper controls in these settings, episodes of poisoning are extremely rare. However, because of the potential for a fatal outcome, procedures for the treatment of acute poisoning are essential. Antidotes include methaemoglobin generators, direct binding agents and sulphur donors, but there is a lack of international consensus about the treatment of choice. This article reviews the mechanisms and treatment of cyanide intoxication and emphasizes the importance of having agreed local procedures for the emergency treatment of poisoning.

  19. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of melatonin on duration of delirium in organophosphorus compound poisoning patients: A double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, HN; Ramya, K; Duggappa, Devika Rani; Gowda, KM Veeranna; Sudheesh, K; Nethra, SS; Raghavendra Rao, RS

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Organophosphate compound poisoning (OPCP) is associated with high incidence of delirium. Melatonin has been tried in the treatment of delirium and has shown a beneficial effect in OPCP. This study was conducted to know the effect of melatonin on duration of delirium and recovery profile in OPCP patients. Methods: Double-blind randomised placebo control trial in which 56 patients of OPCP confirmed by history and syndrome of OPCP with low plasma pseudocholinesterase, aged >18 years and weighing between 50 and 100 kg, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of <20 were studied. Group M (n = 26) received tablet melatonin 3 mg and Group C (n = 30) received placebo tablet at 9 PM, every night throughout the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay. Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU, thrice a day. Sedation was provided with injection midazolam, fentanyl and lorazepam. Duration of mechanical ventilation, vital parameters, ICU stay, sedative and atropine requirement, were recorded. Results: The time taken to be delirium free was significantly lower in Group M (6 ± 2.92 days) compared to Group C (9.05 ± 2.75 days) (P = 0.001) and prevalence of delirium was significantly decreased in Group M compared to Group C from day 3 onwards. The requirement of midazolam (Group M - 2.98 ± 4.99 mg/day, Group C - 9.68 ± 9.17 mg/day, P < 0.001) and fentanyl (Group M - 94.09 ± 170.05 μg/day, Group C - 189.33 ± 156.38 μg/day, P = 0.03) decreased significantly in Group M. There was no significant difference in the average atropine consumption (P = 0.27), duration of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.26), ICU stay (P = 0.21) and the number of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (P = 0.50). Conclusion: Orally given melatonin in organophosphate compound poisoning patients reduces the duration of delirium and the requirement of sedation and analgesia. PMID:27942054

  1. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  2. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  3. [National poison information system: the challenge of the data standardization].

    PubMed

    de Santana, Rosane Abdala Lins; Bochner, Rosany; Guimarães, Maria Cristina Soares

    2011-01-01

    Human poisoning is a serious public health issue around the world. Readily available and reliable information in this field are essential to the full implementation of epidemiological and sanitary surveillance and to establish efficient and effective strategies of control. The continuous improvement of data quality and consistency % no doubt, a permanent challenge % has a key role in the definition of public policies. To assess the accuracy of Brazilian data on human poisonings, this study explores data from a network of Toxicological Information and Assistance Centers, one of the main sources of such data in Brazil. Data are consolidated by the National Poison Information System (SINITOX). Assuming that standardization is one of the main procedures that influence the data quality collected and analyzed by SINITOX, the study assesses the operations of the Centers affiliated to the SINITOX in charge to interpret and register the events reported to them and highlights the procedures used to standardize case reports. The results show an evident insufficient degree of standardization of the data received at SINITOX. We emphasize the need to design strategies to improve standardization, aiming to develop a reliable system and to minimize the harms associated to human poisoning in Brazil.

  4. STS-26 Mission Control Center (MCC) activity at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Flight controllers in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR) listen to a presentation by STS-26 crewmembers on the fourth day of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, orbital mission. Flight Directors Charles W. Shaw and James M. (Milt) Heflin (in the foreground) and other controllers view a television image of Earth on a screen in the front of the FCR while listening to crewmembers.

  5. STS-26 Mission Control Center (MCC) activity at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Flight controllers in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR) listen to a presentation by STS-26 crewmembers on the fourth day of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, orbital mission. Instrumentation and Communications Officers (INCOs) Harold Black (left foreground) and John F. Muratore and other controllers view a television (TV) transmission of the crew on a screen in front of the FCR as each member relates some inner feelings while paying tribute to the 51L Challenger crew.

  6. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  7. The Effectiveness of Yoga on Spiritual Intelligence in Air Traffic Controllers of Tehran Flight Control Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safara, Maryam; Ghasemi, Pejman

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of yoga on spiritual intelligence in air traffic controllers in Tehran flight control center. This was a quasi-experimental research and the study population includes all air traffic controllers in Tehran flight control center. The sample consisted of 40 people of the study population that were…

  8. Evaluation of variability and quality control procedures for a receptor-binding assay for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    PubMed

    Ruberu, S R; Langlois, G W; Masuda, M; Perera, S Kusum

    2012-01-01

    The receptor-binding assay (RBA) method for determining saxatoxin (STX) and its numerous analogues, which cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans, was evaluated in a single laboratory study. Each step of the assay preparation procedure including the performance of the multi-detector TopCount® instrument was evaluated for its contribution to method variability. The overall inherent RBA variability was determined to be 17%. Variability within the 12 detectors was observed; however, there was no reproducible pattern in detector performance. This observed variability among detectors could be attributed to other factors, such as pipetting errors. In an attempt to reduce the number of plates rejected due to excessive variability in the method's quality control parameters, a statistical approach was evaluated using either Grubbs' test or the Student's t-test for rejecting outliers in the measurement of triplicate wells. This approach improved the ratio of accepted versus rejected plates, saving cost and time for rerunning the assay. However, the potential reduction in accuracy and the lack of improvement in precision suggests caution when using this approach. The current study has recommended an alternate quality control procedure for accepting or rejecting plates in place of the criteria currently used in the published assay, or the alternative of outlier testing. The recommended procedure involves the development of control charts to monitor the critical parameters identified in the published method (QC sample, EC₅₀, slope of calibration curve), with the addition of a fourth critical parameter which is the top value (100% binding) of the calibration curve.

  9. Effectiveness of wetting method for control of konzo and reduction of cyanide poisoning by removal of cyanogens from cassava flour.

    PubMed

    Banea, Jean Pierre; Bradbury, J Howard; Mandombi, Chretienne; Nahimana, Damien; Denton, Ian C; Kuwa, N'landa; Tshala Katumbay, D

    2014-03-01

    Konzo is an irreversible paralysis of the legs that occurs mainly among children and young women in remote villages in tropical Africa and is associated with a monotonous diet of bitter cassava. Konzo was discovered in 1938 by Dr. G. Trolli in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It also occurs in Mozambique, Tanzania, Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Angola. It was first controlled in Kay Kalenge village, DRC, in 2011 with the use of a wetting method to remove cyanogens from cassava flour. Fourteen months later, another visit was made to Kay Kalenge. To determine whether Kay Kalenge women were still using the wetting method, whether there were new cases of konzo, and whether the wetting method had spread to other villages. Meetings were held with chiefs, leaders, and heads of mothers' groups, women from 30 households were interviewed, and three nearby villages were visited. Total cyanide and thiocyanate were analyzed in cassava flour and urine samples, respectively. The women in Kay Kalenge village still used the wetting method. There were no new cases of konzo. The mean cyanide content of the flour samples was 9 ppm, and no child had a mean urinary thiocyanate content greater than 350 micromol/L. The use of the wetting method had spread naturally to three adjacent villages. The wetting method has been readily accepted by rural women as a simple and useful method to control konzo by removing cyanide from cassava flour, and its use has spread to nearby villages. The wetting method should be promoted by health authorities to control konzo and reduce cyanide poisoning from high-cyanide cassava flour.

  10. Payload Operations Control Center During the Astro-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This photograph was taken during the Astro-1 mission (STS-35) showing activities at NASA's new Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The POCC was the air/ground communication charnel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crewmembers to resolve problems with their experiments.

  11. STS-9/Spacelab 1 mission control center activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Karl Knott, project scientist for Spacelab 1, communicates with a payload specialist aboard Spacelab in the Shuttle Columbia. Representing the European Space Agency (ESA), Dr. Knott is at a console in the payload operations control center (POCC) in JSC's mission control center (45265-7); Steve Noneman, Blue Shift mass memory unit (MMU) manager, listens to a payload specialist's response while other payload controllers busy themselves at their consoles (45268); Alternate Spacelab 1 payload specialist Michael L. Lampton communicates with onboard personnel during flight day 5 of STS-9. Dr. Lampton's console is in the POCC. In the background is William Bock, crew interface coordinator for the Blue Shift (45269).

  12. View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-04-17

    S70-35471 (17 April 1970) --- Two flight controllers man consoles in the Missions Operations Control Room (MOCR) of the Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), Houston, Texas, just before splashdown occurred in the south Pacific Ocean. Though the MOCR does not appear to be crowded in this photo, there was a very large crowd of persons on hand for the splashdown and recovery operations coverage. Most of the group crowded around in the rear of the room. Apollo 13 splashdown occurred at 12:07:44 p.m. (CST), April 17, 1970.

  13. Pediatric pain control practices of North American Burn Centers.

    PubMed

    Martin-Herz, Susanne Pelley; Patterson, David R; Honari, Shari; Gibbons, Janet; Gibran, Nicole; Heimbach, David M

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated pediatric pain control practices in North American Burn Centers using a mail-in survey. Questions were asked regarding pain control practices, pain assessment methods, and perceived treatment efficacy for inpatients and outpatients in four age groups. Eighty-two centers responded with 111 surveys. Intravenous morphine was the most frequently used analgesic for wound care pain. The most common background pain medications were intravenous morphine, acetaminophen with codeine, and acetaminophen alone. The use of long-acting medications increased with increasing age. Additional areas reported in the text include nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic adjuvants, treatment of itching, pain assessment, outpatient pain management, and efficacy of pain control and assessment practices. There have been great advances in pediatric burn pain control and assessment in recent years, but room for improvement remains. This study provides a basis for evaluation and comparison among burn centers. It further highlights areas that may warrant additional study and intervention.

  14. Mission Control Center (MCC) - Apollo 15 Launch - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-07-26

    S71-41357 (26 July 1971) --- An overall, wide-angle lens view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center minutes after the launch of the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission. Ground elapsed time was 45 minutes and 42 seconds when this photograph was taken.

  15. 60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at left, power distribution box at right, all at right of entrance to lcc. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  17. Small dose... big poison.

    PubMed

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  18. [Effect analysis on the two total load control methods for poisonous heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Firstly it should be made clear that implementation of source total load control for the first type of pollutants is necessary for environmental pollution control legislation and economic structure regulation. This kind of surveillance method has been more practical to be implemented since the Manual of the Industry Discharge Coefficient of First National Pollution Sources Investigation was published. The source total load control and water environment total load control are independent of each other and none of them is redundant, on the other side they can be complementary to each other. In the present, some local planning managers are blurring and confusing the contents and styles of the two surveillance methods. They just use the water total load control to manage all the pollutants, and source total load control is discarded, which results in the loss of control for the first type of pollutants especially for the drinking water source surveillance. There is a big difference between the water quality standards and the water environmental background concentration values for the first type of pollutants in the Environmental quality standard for surface water (GB 3838-88), which means that there are problems such as "relaxing the pollutant discharge permit" and "risk induced by valence state change". Taking an enterprise with 10t electrolytic lead production capacity as an example, there is a big difference between the allowable lead discharged loads by the two total load surveillance methods. In summary, it will bring a lot of harmful effects if the water total load control is implemented for the two types of pollutants, so the source total load control and water environmental total load control should be implemented strictly at the same time.

  19. View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-04-17

    S70-35148 (17 April 1970) --- Staff members from NASA Headquarters (NASA HQ), Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), and Dr. Thomas Paine (center of frame) applaud the successful splashdown of the Apollo 13 mission while Dr. George Low smokes a cigar (right), in the MSC Mission Control Center (MCC), located in Building 30. Apollo 13 crewmembers, astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., commander; John L. Swigert Jr., command module pilot; and Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar module pilot, splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m. (CST), April 17, 1970, in the south Pacific Ocean.

  20. Poisonings Associated with Intubation: US National Poison Data System Exposures 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, G A; Giffin, S L; Horowitz, B Z; Laurie, A L; Fu, R; Hendrickson, R G

    2016-06-01

    Patients may be intubated after exposure to a variety of substances because of respiratory failure, CNS sedation, pulmonary pathology, or cardiovascular instability. However, there is little data describing the types of substances that are associated with endotracheal intubation or the rates of intubation after these exposures. Evaluation of this association may inform future research on intubation after exposures to specific substances and guide poison prevention education. Our objective was to determine which exposures were commonly associated with intubation using the data from National Poison Data System (NPDS). The NPDS tracks data from potential exposures to substances reported to all American Association of Poison Control Centers. We performed a retrospective analysis of NPDS data from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2013 to identify human exposures to substances that were associated with endotracheal intubation. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. There were 93,474 single substance exposures and 228,507 multiple substance exposures that were associated with intubation. The most common exposures to substances that were associated with intubation were atypical antipsychotics (7.4 %) for single exposures and benzodiazepines (27.4 %) for multiple exposures. Within each age group, the most common known exposures to substances were for patients under 6 years, clonidine for single and multiple exposures; for patients aged 6-12 years, clonidine for single exposures and atypical antipsychotics for multiple exposures; for patients aged 13-19 years, atypical antipsychotics for single and multiple exposures; and for patients over 19 years, atypical antipsychotics for single exposures and benzodiazepines for multiple exposures. From 2000-2013, the exposures to substances most commonly associated with intubation varied by single versus multiple exposures and by age. This study helps clarify the exposures to substances that are associated with

  1. Kohl, Kajal, Al-Kahl, or Surma: By Any Name, Beware of Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to lead may lead to learning and behavior problems. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has ... Presse Médicale, 2012 Feb; 41(2):203-4. [article in French]. De Caluwé JP. “Lead poisoning caused ...

  2. 76 FR 65728 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead... INFORMATION: Claudine Johnson, Program Operation Assistant or Tiffany Turner, Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning...

  3. Technologies for the marketplace from the Centers for Disease Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid-Sanden, Frances L.; Greene, R. Eric; Malvitz, Dolores M.

    1991-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control, a Public Health Service agency, is responsible for the prevention and control of disease and injury. Programs range from surveillance and prevention of chronic and infectious diseases to occupational health and injury control. These programs have produced technologies in a variety of fields, including vaccine development, new methods of disease diagnosis, and new tools to ensure a safer work environment.

  4. Ciguatera poisoning.

    PubMed

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  5. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Sigurd A. Sjoberg, Director of Flight Operations at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), views the Apollo 13 liftoff from a console in the MSC Mission Control Center, bldg 30. Apollo 13 lifted off at 1:13 p.m., April 11, 1970 (34627); Astronaut Thomas F. Mattingly II, who was scheduled as a prime crewman for the Apollo 13 mission but was replaced in the final hours when it was discovered he had been exposed to measles, watches the liftoff phase of the mission. He is seated at a console in the Mission Control Center's Mission Operations Control Room. Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, a spacecraft communicator for the mission, looks on at right (34628).

  6. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Conservative Estimates of the Social and Economic Benefits of Lead Hazard Control

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Elise

    2009-01-01

    Background This study is a cost–benefit analysis that quantifies the social and economic benefits to household lead paint hazard control compared with the investments needed to minimize exposure to these hazards. Objectives This research updates estimates of elevated blood lead levels among a cohort of children ≤ 6 years of age and compiles recent research to determine a range of the costs of lead paint hazard control ($1–$11 billion) and the benefits of reduction attributed to each cohort for health care ($11–$53 billion), lifetime earnings ($165–$233 billion), tax revenue ($25–$35 billion), special education ($30–$146 million), attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder ($267 million), and the direct costs of crime ($1.7 billion). Results Each dollar invested in lead paint hazard control results in a return of $17–$221 or a net savings of $181–269 billion. Conclusions There are substantial returns to investing in lead hazard control, particularly targeted at early intervention in communities most likely at risk. Given the high societal costs of inaction, lead hazard control appears to be well worth the price. PMID:19654928

  7. Large screen display for the Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skudlarek, Martin J.

    1989-01-01

    The Mission Control Center (MCC), located at the Johnson Space Center near Houston, Texas, is the primary point of control and monitoring for National Space Transportation System (NSTS) flight activities. NSTS flight managers monitor and command spacecraft from one of two Flight Control Rooms (FCR). Each FCR is equipped with five large screen displays for group dissemination of spacecraft system status and vehicle position relative to Earth geography. The primary or center screen display is ten feet in height and twenty feet in width. The secondary or side screens are seven and one-hald feet high and ten feet wide. The center screen projection system is exhibiting high maintenance costs and is considered to be in wear-out phase. The replacement of the large center screen displays at the MCC is complicated by the unique requirements of the Flight Controller user. These requirements demand a very high performance, multiple color projection system capable of the display of high resolution text, graphics and images produced in near real time. The current system to be replaced, the replacement system requirements, the efforts necessary to procure the major element of this system (the projector) for the government, and how the new capabilities are to be integrated into the existing MCC operational configuration are discussed.

  8. Effectiveness of household lockable pesticide storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Asia: a community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Melissa; Metcalfe, Chris; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Gunnell, David; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pieris, Ravi; Priyadarshana, Chamil; Knipe, Duleeka W; Hawton, Keith; Dawson, Andrew H; Bandara, Palitha; deSilva, Dhammika; Gawarammana, Indika; Eddleston, Michael; Konradsen, Flemming

    2017-08-11

    Agricultural pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural Asia. The use of safer household pesticide storage has been promoted to prevent deaths, but there is no evidence of effectiveness. We aimed to test the effectiveness of lockable household containers for prevention of pesticide self-poisoning. We did a community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial in a rural area of North Central Province, Sri Lanka. Clusters of households were randomly assigned (1:1), with a sequence computer-generated by a minimisation process, to intervention or usual practice (control) groups. Intervention households that had farmed or had used or stored pesticide in the preceding agricultural season were given a lockable storage container. Further promotion of use of the containers was restricted to community posters and 6-monthly reminders during routine community meetings. The primary outcome was incidence of pesticide self-poisoning in people aged 14 years or older during 3 years of follow-up. Identification of outcome events was done by staff who were unaware of group allocation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT1146496. Between Dec 31, 2010, and Feb 2, 2013, we randomly assigned 90 rural villages to the intervention group and 90 to the control group. 27 091 households (114 168 individuals) in the intervention group and 26 291 households (109 693 individuals) in the control group consented to participate. 20 457 household pesticide storage containers were distributed. In individuals aged 14 years or older, 611 cases of pesticide self-poisoning had occurred by 3 years in the intervention group compared with 641 cases in the control group; incidence of pesticide self-poisoning did not differ between groups (293·3 per 100 000 person-years of follow-up in the intervention group vs 318·0 per 100 000 in the control group; rate ratio [RR] 0·93, 95% CI 0·80-1·08; p=0·33). We found

  9. Capaciflector-based virtual force control and centering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a novel concept of force control, called virtual force control. The virtual force concept avoids sudden step transition of position control to contact force control resulting in contact force disturbance when a robot end-effector makes contact with the environment. A virtual force/position control scheme consists of two loops: the force control loop and the position control loop. While the position control loop regulates the free motion, the force control loop regulates the contact force after making contact with the environment and the virtual force measured by a range sensor called capaciflector in the virtual environment. After presenting the concept of virtual force control, the report introduces a centering scheme in which the virtual force controller is employed to measure three points on a cone so that its center can be located. Experimental results of a one-degree-of-freedom virtual force control scheme applied in berthing an orbital replaceable unit are reported and compared with those of conventional pure contact force control cases.

  10. Role and functions of Poisons Information Centre.

    PubMed

    Lall, S B; Peshin, S S

    1997-01-01

    The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) is a specialized unit providing information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of poisoning and hazard management. Most of the developed and many developing countries have well established poison control centres with poisons information service, patient management facility and analytical laboratory. In India, the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) was established in February, 1995 in the Department of Pharmacology at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The centre provides toxicological information and advice on the management of poisoned patients adopted to the level of the enquirer. The basis of this service are the databases on poisoning, drug reactions and also the continuous and systematic collection of data from the library. This information service is available round the clock. The PIC has the training responsibility extending to medical and other health professionals and community. The NPIC organized two successive training courses for medical professionals and para professionals at all health levels. Further, NPIC is a participant of INTOX project of IPCS/WHO, receiving regular yearly training on the use of INTOX database. Laboratory service is an essential component of a poisons control programme, providing analytical services on emergency basis to help in diagnosis and management. The NPIC is developing facilities for quick diagnosis of poisoning cases. Toxicovigilance and prevention of poisoning is another major function of PIC. The Centre has prepared manuals and leaflets on prevention and management cards on treatment of various poisonings. Thus the Centre provides a service with considerable health benefits, reducing morbidity and mortality from poisoning and gives significant financial savings to the community.

  11. New control center for EPM in Medellin, Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, H.C. ); Zadeh, K.N.; Meyer, R.C. )

    1989-07-01

    The municipal electric utility of Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM) in Medellin, Colombia, has completed the installation and testing of their new control center. These facilities, which include all the functions expected from a modern control center, were implemented through carefully monitored and executed project stages, which are described in this article. EPM generates and transmits 1400 MW of exclusively hydroelectric energy to their service territory of the city of Medellin and nine neighboring cities and 77 smaller cities. The EPM system load ranges from 400 MW to 1200 MW.

  12. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves.

  13. Poisoning of Canada geese in Texas by parathion sprayed for control of Russian wheat aphid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Juenger, Gary; Roffe, Thomas J.; Smith, Milton R.; Irwin, Roy J.

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 200 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) died at a playa lake in the Texas Panhandle shortly after a winter wheat field in the basin adjacent to the lake was treated with parathion to control newly invading Russian wheat aphids (Diuraphis noxia). No evidence of infectious disease was diagnosed during necropsies of geese. Brain ChE activities were depressed up to 77% below normal. Parathion residues in GI tract contents of geese ranged from 4 to 34 ppm. Based on this evidence, parathion was responsible for the goose mortalities. Parathion applications to winter wheat will undoubtedly increase if parathion is applied for control of both Russian wheat aphids and greenbugs (Schizaphis graminum). Geese may potentially be exposed to widespread applications of parathion from fall to spring, essentially their entire wintering period.

  14. View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Overall view of Mission Operations Control Room in Mission Control Center at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) during the ceremonies aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission. Dr. Donald K. Slayton (in black shirt, left of center), Director of Flight Crew Operations at MSC, and Chester M. Lee of the Apollo Program Directorate, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, shake hands, while Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters (standing, near Lee), watches the large screen showing Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Apollo 13 commander, during the on-board ceremonies. In the foreground, Glynn S. Lunney (extreme left) and Eugene F. Kranz (smoking a cigar), two Apollo 13 Flight Directors, view the activity from their consoles.

  15. View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Overall view of Mission Operations Control Room in Mission Control Center at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) during the ceremonies aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission. Dr. Donald K. Slayton (in black shirt, left of center), Director of Flight Crew Operations at MSC, and Chester M. Lee of the Apollo Program Directorate, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, shake hands, while Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters (standing, near Lee), watches the large screen showing Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Apollo 13 commander, during the on-board ceremonies. In the foreground, Glynn S. Lunney (extreme left) and Eugene F. Kranz (smoking a cigar), two Apollo 13 Flight Directors, view the activity from their consoles.

  16. Views of the mission control center during STS-9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A group of payloads operation flight controllers follows early progress of the Spacelab 1 mission. Standing behind the row of consoles are European Space Agency's (ESA) Director General Erik Quistgaard and NASA Headquarters Dr. Michael J. Wiskerchen (44919); After opening of Spacelab in the cargo bay of Columbia, these flight controllers in the payloads operations control center (POCC) at JSC discuss agenda of experiments. Quistgaard, center, ESA's Director General, talks to ESA's Mel Brooks, left, and NASA headquarters Wiskerchen (44920); Flight controllers on duty in the POCC at JSC monitor day 1 activity aboard the Spacelab module. Behind them is a banner representing the West German state of Baden-Wurtenbug from which payload specialist Ulf Merbold hails (44921).

  17. Activity in the Mission Control Center during Apollo 14

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-04

    S71-17610 (4 Feb. 1971) --- Partial view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center at the time the Apollo 14 S-IVB stage impacted on the lunar surface. The flight director's console is in the foreground. Eugene F. Kranz, chief of the MSC Flight Control Division, is in the right foreground. Seated at the console is Glynn S. Lunney, head of the Flight Director Office, Flight Control Division. Facing the camera is Gerald D. Griffin, flight director of the Third (Gold) Team. A seismic reading from the impact can be seen in the center background. The S-IVB impacted on the lunar surface at 1:40:54 a.m. (CST), Feb. 4, 1971, about 90 nautical miles south-southwest of the Apollo 12 passive seismometer. The energy release was comparable to 11 tons of TNT.

  18. Future Concepts for Realtime Data Interfaces for Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, Mike W., III

    2004-01-01

    Existing methods of exchanging realtime data between the major control centers in the International Space Station program have resulted in a patchwork of local formats being imposed on each Mission Control Center. This puts the burden on a data customer to comply with the proprietary data formats of each data supplier. This has increased the cost and complexity for each participant, limited access to mission data and hampered the development of efficient and flexible operations concepts. Ideally, a universal format should be promoted in the industry to prevent the unnecessary burden of each center processing a different data format standard for every external interface with another center. With the broad acceptance of XML and other conventions used in other industries, it is now time for the Aerospace industry to fully engage and establish such a standard. This paper will briefly consider the components that would be required by such a standard (XML schema, data dictionaries, etc.) in order to accomplish the goal of a universal low-cost interface, and acquire broad industry acceptance. We will then examine current approaches being developed by standards bodies and other groups. The current state of CCSDS panel work will be reviewed, with a survey of the degree of industry acceptance. Other widely accepted commercial approaches will be considered, sometimes complimentary to the standards work, but sometimes not. The question is whether de facto industry standards are in concert with, or in conflict with the direction of the standards bodies. And given that state of affairs, the author will consider whether a new program establishing its Mission Control Center should implement a data interface based on those standards. The author proposes that broad industry support to unify the various efforts will enable collaboration between control centers and space programs to a wider degree than is currently available. This will reduce the cost for programs to provide realtime

  19. Suicide and unintentional poisoning mortality trends in the United States, 1987-2006: two unrelated phenomena?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Two counter trends in injury mortality have been separately reported in the US in recent times - a declining suicide rate and a rapidly rising unintentional poisoning mortality rate. Poisoning suicides are especially difficult to detect, and injury of undetermined intent is the underlying cause-of-death category most likely to reflect this difficulty. We compare suicide and poisoning mortality trends over two decades in a preliminary assessment of their independence and implications for suicide misclassification. Methods Description of overall and gender- and age-specific trends using national mortality data from WISQARS, the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Subjects were the 936,633 residents dying in the 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1987 and 2006 whose underlying cause of death was classified as suicide, unintentional poisoning, or injury mortality of undetermined intent. Results The official US suicide rate declined 18% between 1987 and 2000, from 12.71 to 10.43 deaths per 100,000 population. It then increased to 11.15 deaths per 100,000 by 2006, a 7% rise. By contrast to these much smaller rate changes for suicide, the unintentional poisoning mortality rate rose more than fourfold between 1987 and 2006, from 2.19 to 9.22 deaths per 100,000. Only the population aged 65 years and older showed a sustained decline in the suicide rate over the entire observation period. Consistently highest in gender-age comparisons, the elderly male rate declined by 35%. The elderly female rate declined by 43%. Unlike rate trends for the non-elderly, both declines appeared independent of corresponding mortality trends for unintentional poisoning and poisoning of undetermined intent. The elderly also deviated from younger counterparts by having a smaller proportion of their injury deaths of undetermined intent classified as poisoning. Poisoning manifested as a less

  20. MOD control center automated information systems security evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Rich

    1991-01-01

    The role of the technology infusion process in future Control Center Automated Information Systems (AIS) is highlighted. The following subject areas are presented in the form of the viewgraphs: goals, background, threat, MOD's AISS program, TQM, SDLC integration, payback, future challenges, and bottom line.