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Sample records for poland comparative results

  1. Comparative Analysis of Satellite Measurements Calculation Results Using the Postprocessing Services: Asg-Eupos (Poland), Apps (USA) and CSRS (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.

  2. Comparative analysis of nutrition data from national, household, and individual levels: results from a WHO-CINDI collaborative project in Canada, Finland, Poland, and Spain*

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Majem, L; MacLean, D; Ribas, L; Brule, D; Sekula, W; Prattala, R; Garcia-Closas, R; Yngve, A; Lalonde, M; Petrasovits, A

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: This project determined to what extent data on diet and nutrition, which were collected in a non-uniform manner, could be harmonised and pooled for international and national comparison. Design: Direct comparisons of dietary data between studies were made using food balance sheets (FBS), household budget surveys (HBS), and individual dietary data (IDS); comparisons were also made within countries. Differences in study design and methodological approaches were taken into consideration. Data from research projects from the following four World Health Organisation (WHO) Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Disease Intervention (CINDI) countries were included—Canada, Finland, Poland, and Spain. Main results: FBS overestimated food consumption and nutrient intake compared to IDS. Results between HBS and IDS were quite similar, except for fish, meat, pulses and vegetables, which were underestimated by HBS, and sugar and honey and cereals, which were overestimated. Percentages of energy from fat, carbohydrates and proteins were higher when estimated from FBS, HBS, and IDS respectively. Conclusions: Results suggest that estimations from these three sources of dietary data are difficult to compare because they are measuring different levels of dietary information. The understanding of their relations may be important in formulating and evaluating a nutrition policy. PMID:12490653

  3. Poland.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, Poland's population was 37.5 million and the annual population growth rate was 0.8%. The infant mortality rate was 19.3/1000 and life expectancy stood at 71.6 years. Of the labor force of 17.5 million, 30% were engaged in agriculture, 44% were in industry and commerce, 8% were government employees, and 11% were employed in services. Poland is a communist state. The economy is based on the Soviet model of state ownership of most of the country's productive assets, although the private sector predominates in agriculture. The rights of private farmers are now protected through a 1983 amendment to the constitution. Poland's economy has performed poorly in comparison with other Eastern European economies. The economic growth rate is 5% and inflation averages 20%. Per capita income is US$2000. Industries were centralized following World War II, and this systemic rigidity is considered to have contributed to the economy's poor performance. Another important factor has been low reliance of foreign trade, meaning that Poland's industries have failed to develop competitiveness. The government has committed itself to a so-called second-stage of economic reform, but to date there have been few concrete accomplishments.

  4. Self-reported health in Poland and the United States: a comparative analysis of demographic, family and socioeconomic influences.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Magdalena; Cubbins, Lisa A

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the social determinants of individual health between the United States, a capitalist society, and Poland, a 'post-communist' society. The effects of demographic factors, family characteristics and socioeconomic status on self-reported health are estimated with OLS regression using data from the 1994 American and Polish General Social Surveys. The results show lower self-reported health and more rapid declines in health for people over 60 in Poland than in the United States. Also, in Poland, women report worse health than do men while the opposite is found for the United States. The relationships between education, income and health were stronger in the United States than in Poland. Age, gender and SES may operate differently in the two countries because of a gap in social development (e.g. varying living standards and styles, health care systems and cultural attitudes) between the West and the former Eastern Europe.

  5. Direct healthcare costs and cost-effectiveness of acute coronary syndrome secondary prevention with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel: economic evaluation from the public payer's perspective in Poland based on the PLATO trial results.

    PubMed

    Pawęska, Justyna; Macioch, Tomasz; Perkowski, Piotr; Budaj, Andrzej; Niewada, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    , results indicated that ticagrelor was the more cost-effective option compared to generic clopidogrel, with an incremental cost per LYG estimated at 21,566 PLN and an incremental costper QALY estimated at 24,965 PLN. In a lifetime horizon, which should be used when comparing technologies with different impacts on mortality, cost-effectiveness evaluation resulted in more favourable economic outcomes for ticagrelor than for generic clopidogrel, with the cost per QALY well below the recommended willingness to pay threshold in Poland (24,965 PLN vs. 111,381 PLN).

  6. Gunshot wounds (resulting from execution) of exhumed victims of the communist regime in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Kawecki, Jerzy; Jurek, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    This study presents the results of the analysis of the remains of 23 executed male individuals aged between 21 and 63 years, recovered from Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw (Poland), field 83B, in 2012. In 1948 and 1949, prisoners sentenced to death by firing squad--most of them associated with the post-war anti-communist underground independence movement in Poland--were buried there. The aim of the study was to analyse fatal wounds and the method of execution, and to compare the results to data from archival documents. The results were also compared with studies concerning executions during a later period, i.e. 1949-1954. The research on the method of execution during this period of history carried out during the exhumations in Osobowicki Cemetery was the first conducted on such a scale in Poland. Forensic analysis revealed a wide variety of gunshot wounds inflicted during executions, revealing both gunshots to the head, especially single shots to the back of the head, and cases corresponding to the use of a firing squad, probably equipped with machine guns. The results of the research indicate that capital punishment by shooting was carried out in ways both similar to those the specified in the regulations and completely different. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of respiratory tract infections in primary care in Poland--results of the happy audit 2 project.

    PubMed

    Strumiło, Julia; Chlabicz, Sławomir; Ovhed, Ingvar; Zieliński, Andrzej; Pytel-Krolczuk, Barbara; Krzysztof, Buczkowski; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Gowin, Ewelina; Gugnowski, Zbigniew; Panasiuk, Lech; Makowiec-Dyrda, Małgorzata; Mierzecki, Artur; Sieberto, Janusz; Sławin, Agata; Tomiak, Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    The Polish results of the international Happy Audit 2 project are reported which objective was to present therapeutic decisions made by general practitioners (especially antibiotics prescribed) and diagnostic methods applied to patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI). [corrected] Following each visit of patient with respiratory tract infection, general practitioners participating in the study completed the questionnaire. The questionnaire included patient's data (age, gender), the duration of disease, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, prescribed antibiotics, additional testing as well as the influence of various factors on therapeutic decision. Having considered the results of HappyAudit in Poland, a total of 5,137 office visits of patients reporting symptoms of RTIs were analyzed. The average duration of symptoms before visiting GP was 4.8 days (compared to average 4.4 in other countries). Worth noting is that additional testing in diagnosis of RTIs was performed less frequently in Poland: rapid streptococcal test was conducted in 0.4% of cases (European average: 4.45%), CRP--in 2.2% of patients (average from other countries: 14.2%) and chest X-ray in 2.3% of cases compared to 14% in other project's participants. In Poland, the most frequently applied antibiotic was amoxicillin, which was used in 28.9% of cases ended with antibiotic prescribing (amoxicillin/pivampicillin were also predominant in other countries, excluding Sweden). In Poland, macrolides (22.4% of all prescriptions for antibiotic) and cephalosporins (12.1%) were frequently used. The results indicate that narrow-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed in Poland less frequently, with the example being penicillin V which was prescribed in 6.7% of patients with RTIs who were given antibiotic. Comparing the results of Happy Audit 2 in Poland and other project's participants, the major differences consist in rare use of phenoxymethylpenicillin in favour of amoxicillin and macrolides as well as infrequent

  8. [Comparative analysis of the genetic structure of Red Polish cattle in Poland and the Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Oblap, R V; Zvezhkhovski, L; Ivanchenko, E V; Glazko, V I

    2002-01-01

    Comparative analysis of genetic structure of two groups of Red Polish cattle, which reproduce in Poland and Ukraine, was made. Six molecular-genetic markers (kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, leptin, myostatin, growth hormone, and pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-I) were tested by PCR-RFLP. No significant differences between the considered intrabreed groups were found. High frequency of some alleles (Csn kappa B, Blg B, and Gh L) related to the important productivity traits were observed. The rare alleles in some genes were revealed. The obtained results are evidence of the unique characteristics of the investigated breed.

  9. Seismic monitoring of Poland - temporary seismic project - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanowski, J.; Plesiewicz, B.; Wiszniowski, J.; Suchcicki, J.; Tokarz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the project is to develop national database of seismic activity for seismic hazard assessment. Poland is known as a region of very low seismicity, however some earthquakes occur from time to time. The historical catalogue consists of less than one hundred earthquakes in the time span of almost one thousand years. Due to such a low occurrence rate, the study has been focussing on events at magnitudes lower than 2 which are more likely to occur during a few-year-long project. There are 24 mobile seismic stations involved in the project which are deployed in temporary locations close to humans neighbourhood. It causes a high level of noise and disturbances in recorded seismic signal. Moreover, the majority of Polish territory is covered by a thick sediments. It causes the problem of a reliable detection method for small seismic events in noisy data. The majority of algorithms is based on the concept of STA/LTA ratio and is designed for strong teleseismic events registered on many stations. Unfortunately they fail on the problem of weak events in the signal with noise and disturbances. It has been decided to apply Real Time Recurrent Neural Network (RTRN) to detect small natural seismic events from Poland. This method is able to assess relations of seismic signal in frequency domains as well as in time of seismic phases. The RTRN was taught by wide range of seismic signals - regional, teleseismic as well as blasts. The method is routinely used to analyse data from the project. In the firs two years of the project the seismic network was set in southern Poland, where relatively large seismicity in known. Since the mid-2010 the stations have been working in several regions of central and northern Poland where some minor historical earthquakes occurred. Over one hundred seismic events in magnitude range from 0.5 to 2.3 confirms the activity of Podhale region (Tatra Mountains, Carpathians), where an earthquake of magnitude 4.3 occurred in 2004. Initially three

  10. Fight against malnutrition (FAM): Selected results of 2006-2012 nutrition day survey in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Joanna; Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna

    Prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized patients is a common issue increasing the morbidity and mortality rate. In response to the aforementioned problem the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) stated an action plan to fight malnutrition and created in 2004 the global health project named NutritionDay (nD) - a single-day, population based, standardized, multinational cross-sectional audit which is performed worldwide in hospitals and nursing homes. To present selected NutritionDay (nD) results from Poland describing the nutritional situation of hospitalized patients in 2006 - 2012 compared to other countries participating in nD study. Data were collected in nD study through voluntary participation all over the world during seven years - from 2006 to 2012. Data collection was performed on ward level by staff members and patients using standardized questionnaires. The data were analyzed by the Vienna coordinating centre using the Structured Query Language ("my SQL") - an open source relational database management system as well as the Statistical Analysis System version 9.2 (SAS). In Poland 2,830 patients were included in the study during a 7-year survey, while 5,597 units recruited 103,920 patients in the world (nD reference). About 45% of the patients had a weight loss within the last 3 months prior to admission (same for nD references); 58.34% reported a decrease in eating during last week (54.85% in case of nD references). Food intake at nD illustrated that 60.55% of the patients ate half to nothing of the served meal (58.37% in the case of nD references). For both Poland and other countries participated in audit at the time of detection of malnutrition on the half of hospital wards wasn't reported any action aimed at combating this phenomenon. Malnutrition of hospitalized patients in Poland was found comparable to the rest of the world. These results reflects the fact that malnutrition is a common issue among hospitalized

  11. Challenges for Teachers of Religious Education in Catholic and State Schools in Poland: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makosa, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims at presenting and comparing challenges faced by religion teachers in Catholic and state schools in Poland. For that purpose, 10 religion teachers from Catholic and 10 from state high schools were interviewed. First of all, the concept of teaching religion was discussed, followed by an analysis of the Catholic schools'…

  12. Challenges for Teachers of Religious Education in Catholic and State Schools in Poland: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makosa, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims at presenting and comparing challenges faced by religion teachers in Catholic and state schools in Poland. For that purpose, 10 religion teachers from Catholic and 10 from state high schools were interviewed. First of all, the concept of teaching religion was discussed, followed by an analysis of the Catholic schools'…

  13. Comparative International Education: Institutions of Higher Education in Poland and Canadian Universities: A Comparison Using an Information Technology Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Herrington, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare institutions of higher learning in Poland and universities in Canada using an information technology conceptual framework consisting of three parts: participation, feedback and partnership. (Contains 15 notes.)

  14. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2013". In 2013 in Poland 3,116 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013 compared to 2012 did not change significantly.

  15. [Comparative study of pregnant women exposure to tobacco smoke: POLAND-MEXICO].

    PubMed

    Pirogowicz, Iwona; Pomorski, Michał; Jezowiecka, Maria; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate both active and passive pregnant women exposure to tobacco smoke. 154 women hospitalized at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department in Opole, Poland and at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of Hospital Universitario Monterey in Mexico have undergone the examination. The patients have been surveyed in order to obtain a subjective evaluation of their exposure. Then the exhaled carbon monoxide (ExhCO) measurement used for objective monitoring tobacco smoking has been performed. According to the results of the questionnaire 40 women (26% of the examined patients) confirmed smoking in pregnancy. 24 women (60% of smoking ones) have been smoking for the whole period of pregnancy. Though the rate of smoking among Polish and Mexican women was comparable, Polish mothers were less likely to quit after confirmation of pregnancy. Both Polish and Mexican smoking mothers were much younger than their non-smoking counterparts. The babies of the smoking mothers have been noticed to obtain the lower count in Apgar scale. The exhaled carbon monoxide (ExhCO) measurement has revealed that 14 Polish and 10 Mexican patients have been exposed to tobacco smoke. The results of their questionnaires have been thoroughly examined. 71% of them confirmed active smoking in pregnancy, 8.3% pointed to second-hand smoke exposure, 20.7% lied by denying the exposure. Thus the need to verify the questionnaires results has been confirmed. The mean value of ExhCO of both non-smoking women and those, who quit smoking after confirmation of pregnancy was equal. This may suggest that quitting smoking in the early stages of pregnancy reduce the risk of the harmful smoke impact on the unborn baby. Nearly doubled average concentration of ExhCO among passive smoking mothers in comparison to the non-smoking ones arises a serious concern.

  16. Soil and water assessment tool model calibration results for different catchment sizes in poland.

    PubMed

    Ostojski, Mieczyslaw S; Niedbala, Jerzy; Orlinska-Wozniak, Paulina; Wilk, Pawel; Gębala, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The watershed model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) can be used to implement the requirements of international agreements that Poland has ratified. Among these requirements are the establishment of catchment-based, rather than administrative-based, management plans and spatial information systems. Furthermore, Polish law requires that management of water resources be based on catchment systems. This article explores the use of the SWAT model in the implementation of catchment-based water management in Poland. Specifically, the impacts of basin size on calibration and on the results of the simulation process were analyzed. SWAT was set up and calibrated for three Polish watersheds of varying sizes: (i) Gąsawka, a small basin (>593.7 km), (ii) Rega, a medium-sized basin (2766.8 km), and (iii) Warta, a large basin (54,500 km) representing about 17.4% of Polish territory. The results indicated that the size of the catchment has an impact on the calibration process and simulation outputs. Several factors influenced by the size of the catchment affected the modeling results. Among these factors are the number of measurement points within the basin and the length of the measuring period and data quality at checkpoints as determined by the position of the measuring station. It was concluded that the SWAT model is a suitable tool for the implementation of catchment-based water management in Poland regardless of watershed size. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Comparative studies on promotion of health and life style of hospital staff in Sweden and Poland.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Edbom-Kolarz, Anna; Bajek, Anna; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Leppert, Jerzy; Zagożdżon, Paweł; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Bryl, Wiesław; Hoffmann, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    , e.g. common nordic walking for 30 min. during lunch, competition in the largest number of steps made. Promotion of healthy nutrition by the preparation of recipes for meals, several exemplary healthy meals in the form of a healthy alternative breakfast. During this event, a basket of fruit is provided, instead of cakes and sweets. 1) The life style of the staff of health care facilities is more health promoting in Sweden than in Poland. 2) It is possible to change the life style of employees of health care facilities into one that is more health promoting. Changes in this area have been made in Sweden with a great success; therefore, it is worthwhile implementing in Poland these Swedish experiences which may function also in Polish conditions. 3) The foundations of health promotion in enterprises have been known for a long time; however, considering the fact that the comparative studies show that these foundations are more advanced in Sweden, it is necessary that Polish employers devote more attention to this problem, and become interested in Swedish experiences in this area.

  18. The State of the Environmental Awareness of Students from Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine - Selected Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynk, Karolina

    2017-03-01

    In the article was presented results of international researches about environmental consciousness. The project was realized in 2015. The main purpose of this article is to describe the level of environmental knowledge, values and attitudes among university students from Central Eastern Europe. In introduction of article was defined concept of environmental awareness. The research problem is question: What are differences in the state of environmental awareness between respondents living in the Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine? In the first part text was presented methodology of the conducted research. The second part of the article concerns the analysis of the collected data. On the basis of the conducted research it can maintain that the students of Central and Eastern Europe generally declared interest the state of the environment. The overall outcome of the research leads to the conclusion that the highest proportion of the respondents who declared interest in the environmental protection came from Slovakia. The fact that in their opinion it should care about the environment more than the students from Poland and Ukraine may result from the higher level of the environmental awareness.

  19. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Campylobacter from broilers slaughtered in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Denis, Edyta; Osek, Jacek

    2015-10-01

    In the current study, the relationship of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated at slaughter was investigated using comparative analysis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), virulence gene (VG) and PFGE profiling. A total of 254 Campylobacter isolates from poultry caeca and corresponding carcasses, including 139 C. jejuni and 115 C. coli strains were tested. The most prevalent resistance profiles observed in C. jejuni were ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline (46 out of 139, 33.1% isolates) as well as ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and streptomycin among C. coli strains (34 out of 115, 29.6%). Multi-resistance was found more frequently among C. coli than C. jejuni (P<0.05). The presence of 11 virulence genes exhibited 19 different VG profiles in Campylobacter isolates tested. All Campylobacter strains were classified into 154 different PFGE types. Among them, 56 profiles (28 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli) were common for at least two isolates including 9 clusters covering from 4 to 9 strains. Campylobacter composite types generated by a combination of 154 PFGE types, 10 AMR profiles and 19 VG patterns divided 178 distinct types with 95% similarity. The majority of the composite profiles (76 for C. jejuni and 58 for C. coli; 75.3% in total) included only one bacterial isolate. Furthermore, 11 pairs of C. jejuni and 12 pairs of C. coli from caeca and the corresponding carcasses isolated from the same places possessed the identical PFGE, AMR and VG patterns. This study demonstrated that C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry in Poland showed to have a high genetic diversity and a weak clonal population structure. However, the composite analysis revealed a strong evidence for cross-contamination of chicken carcasses during the slaughter process. Additionally, our results confirm that Campylobacter may easily contaminate poultry carcasses at slaughter process and spread around country. More than half of Campylobacter strains

  20. The prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in Poland--current results (2009-2013).

    PubMed

    Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Sroka, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Różycki, Mirosław; Chmurzyńska, Ewa; Bilska-Zając, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Poland. Overall, 1,546 intestinal samples from 15 of the 16 provinces in Poland were examined by the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). The mean prevalence of E. multilocularis in Poland was 16.5% and was found in 14 of the 15 examined provinces. The mean intensity of infection was 2,807 tapeworms per intestine. Distinct differences in prevalence were observed between regions. In some provinces of eastern and southern Poland, the level of prevalence was 50.0% (Warmińsko-Mazurskie), 47.2% (Podkarpackie), 30.4% (Podlaskie) and 28.6% (Małopolskie), while in other provinces (west and south-west), only a few percent was found: 2.0% (Dolnośląskie), 2.5% (Wielkopolskie) and 0.0% (in Opolskie). The border between areas with higher and lower prevalence seems to coincide with a north-south line running through the middle of Poland, with prevalence from 17.5 to 50.0% in the eastern half and from 0.0 to 11.8% in the western half. The dynamic situation observed in the prevalence of this tapeworm indicated the necessity of continuing to monitor the situation concerning E. multilocularis in red foxes in Poland.

  1. Variation of molecular hydrogen tropospheric concentration over Southern Poland - results of the continuous chromatographic measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necki, J.; Chmura, L.

    2012-04-01

    Although hydrogen is one of the fundamental constituents of the earth's atmosphere its global balance is still poorly clarified. A few developed inventories diverging values for efficiency of sources and sinks of this gas. The European network for the hydrogen concentrations measurement is based on several unevenly spaced measurement points. While in 2009 MPI Jena has delivered accurate scale for hydrogen measurements and the techniques of analyses are well described, still large areas of Central Europe is uncovered by representative stations. The first measurement point, established under the EUROHYDROS EU program, on the territory of Poland was Kraków city. Different laboratory setups was tested there and compared to each other. The Kraków area has significant car traffic and its geographical location implies frequent temperature inversions in lower troposphere leading to the accumulation of trace gases in atmosphere of the city. Observations launched in 2007 revealed that the concentration of hydrogen fluctuates strongly within diurnal and seasonal timescales. Its average concentration is three times larger than this, observed at the other stations. The European "background" concentrations of hydrogen are not reflected in the Krakow record. An ideal place to carry out observation of the regional air composition for Central Europe is a research station located in the meteorological observatory at Kasprowy Wierch. Measurement point at the top of mountain peak with elevation of 2000m a.s.l. gives an access to the well mixed troposphere. The station delivers also the necessary facilities and logistics. Since year 1996 greenhouse gas measurement program has been operating at this point. The first measurements of atmospheric concentrations of hydrogen at Kasprowy Wierch were performed in year 2010, based on dedicated gas chromatograph using RGD detector installed at the station. Analysis of hydrogen content in the outside air is performed without any enrichment

  2. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview) among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p < 0.01). Former smokers declared concerns about the health hazard of smoking (60.8%) and the high price of cigarettes (11.6%) as primary reasons for smoking cessation. Older age, high education attainment, awareness of smoking health consequences was associated with long-term quitting among both genders. Also employed males had over twice the probability of giving up smoking compared with unemployed, and being religious did not contribute to successful smoking cessation. Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on

  3. National Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplant Registry in Poland: Nationwide Internet Reporting System and Results.

    PubMed

    Łęczycka, A; Dudkiewicz, M; Czerwiński, J; Malanowski, P; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, J; Danielewicz, R

    2016-06-01

    History of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in Poland begins in early 1980s; the 1st bone marrow allotransplantation was performed in 1983 in the Central Clinical Hospital of the Military Medical Academy in Warsaw. Following years brought the 1st autologous stem cell transplantations. Ten years later, unrelated bone marrow transplantation was performed for the 1st time by the team of the Hematology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation Unit in Katowice. Since then, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation developed to be standard procedure and one of the most important therapies applied in leukemia treatment. The number of allotransplantations in Poland has grown significantly in the past 2 decades, which generated new needs and problems. In 2005, based on a new Transplant Law, a National Transplants Registry was created. Its main role is to collect data (registration of procedures and follow-up data) related to every transplantation case for stem cells and tissues as well as for organs. We present statistics concerning stem cell transplantations performed in Poland, as collected in the National Transplants Registry in the years 2006-2014. There are 18 centers transplanting hematopoietic stem cells in Poland. The total number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations performed in 2006-2014 was 3,537, with allotransplantations from relatives accounted for 1,491 and from unrelated donors for 2,046. The main indication for allotransplantation in past years was acute leukemia.

  4. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Korytkowski, Przemysław; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Usidame, Bukola; Bąk-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Fronczak, Adam

    2012-11-22

    Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview) among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Data on former as well as current smokers' socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p < 0.01). Former smokers declared concerns about the health hazard of smoking (60.8%) and the high price of cigarettes (11.6%) as primary reasons for smoking cessation. Older age, high education attainment, awareness of smoking health consequences was associated with long-term quitting among both genders. Also employed males had over twice the probability of giving up smoking compared with unemployed, and being religious did not contribute to successful smoking cessation. Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for

  5. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A.; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors—including genetics, personality, and environment—affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers’ scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers’ activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers’ dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals’ needs. PMID:28134805

  6. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors-including genetics, personality, and environment-affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers' scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers' activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers' dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals' needs.

  7. Results From Poland's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Zembura, Pawel; Goldys, Aleksandra; Nalecz, Hanna

    2016-11-01

    Poland's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of child and youth physical activity (PA) in Poland using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance grading system. The main goal was to summarize and describe the current state of child and youth PA to increase awareness and surveillance. The systematic methodology that underpins the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card was adapted and applied to the Polish report card. The best available data were consolidated, reviewed by a group of experts, and used to assign the letter grades to 9 core PA indicators on a scale ranging from A (highest) to F (lowest). The 9 indicators were graded as such: 1) Overall Physical Activity (D), 2) Organized Sport Participation (C), 3) Active Play (INC), 4) Active Transportation (C), 5) Sedentary Behaviors (D), 6) Family and Peers (C), 7) School (B), 8) Community and the Built Environment (C), and 9) Government Strategies and Investments (C). The final grades show a strong role of school in providing PA for children and youth in Poland. However, promotion of school-based sport participation appears to be insufficient by itself to sustainably promote PA in this group.

  8. Comparative Soot Diagnostics: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Gard, Melissa Y.

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for the Comparative Soot Diagnostics (CSD) experiment lies in the broad practical importance of understanding combustion generated particulate. Depending upon the circumstances, particulate matter can affect the durability and performance of combustion equipment, can be a pollutant, can be used to detect fires and, in the form of soot, can be the dominant source of radiant energy from flames. The nonbuoyant structure of most flames of practical interest makes understanding of soot processes in low gravity flames important to our ability to predict fire behavior on earth. These studies also have direct applications to fire safety in human-crew spacecraft, since smoke is the indicator used for automated detection in current spacecraft. In the earliest missions (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo), the crew quarters were so cramped that it was considered reasonable that the astronauts would rapidly detect any fire. The Skylab module, however, included approximately 20 UV-sensing fire detectors. The Space Shuttle has 9 particle-ionization smoke detectors in the mid-deck and flight deck and Spacelab has six additional particle-ionization smoke detectors. The designated detectors for the ISS are laser-diode, forward-scattering, smoke or particulate detectors. Current plans for the ISS call for two detectors in the open area of the module, and detectors in racks that have both cooling air flow and electrical power. Due to the complete absence of data concerning the nature of particulate and radiant emission from incipient and fully developed low-g fires, all three of these detector systems were designed based upon l-g test data and experience. As planned mission durations and complexity increase and the volume of spacecraft increases, the need for and importance of effective, crew-independent, fire detection grows significantly. To provide this level of protection, more knowledge is needed concerning low-gravity fire phenomena and, in particular, how they might be

  9. Results of the severe sepsis registry in intensive care units in Poland from 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Andrzej; Adamik, Barbara; Durek, Grażyna; Mayzner-Zawadzka, Ewa; Gaszyński, Wojciech; Karpel, Ewa; Duszyńska, Wiesława

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis remains the most common cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs) according to many epidemiological studies. There are no data in Poland on the extent of severe sepsis cases treated in ICUs. The aim of the study was to analyse the course and outcome of severe sepsis patients treated in Polish ICUs. In 2003, the internet-based severe sepsis registry was created as a multicentre observational research project. An online questionnaire was made accessible to ICUs participating in the study. Questionnaires were completed after the discharge of patients and included demographic data, clinical and microbiological information about the cause, course, treatment and outcome of septic patients. All data were given voluntarily and anonymously. During the 7-year period (2003-2009), 4999 cases of severe sepsis were registered for analysis. The mean age of septic patients was 57 years, and the majority of the patients were men (58%). The mean length of stay in the ICU was 10 days. A significant decrease in the mortality rate was observed from 54% in 2003 and 56% in 2004 to 46% in 2009 (P < 0.05). Most of the patients were admitted to the ICU for surgical reasons (56%), and intra-abdominal infections predominated (49%). Severe sepsis patients were admitted to ICUs in critical condition, and the majority of them (89%) had 3 or more organs dysfunction. The APACHE II score on admission was 26 points. Community acquired infections were the most frequent cause of severe sepsis (53%). Most of the pathogens responsible for infection were Gram-negative bacteria (58%). Gram-positive bacteria were identified in 34% of patients and fungi in 16%. A positive blood culture was detected in 41% of patients. Vasopressors were administered to most of the patients (86%). There was a marked increase in the frequency of administering noradrenaline and a decrease in administering dopamine. Renal replacement therapy was applied in 22% of the patients, and there was a marked increase in

  10. Cost-effectiveness of heat and moisture exchangers compared to usual care for pulmonary rehabilitation after total laryngectomy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Retèl, Valesca P; van den Boer, Cindy; Steuten, Lotte M G; Okła, Sławomir; Hilgers, Frans J; van den Brekel, Michiel W

    2015-09-01

    The beneficial physical and psychosocial effects of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) for pulmonary rehabilitation of laryngectomy patients are well evidenced. However, cost-effectiveness in terms of costs per additional quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) has not yet been investigated. Therefore, a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of using HMEs versus usual care (UC) (including stoma covers, suction system and/or external humidifier) for patients after laryngectomy was performed. Primary outcomes were costs, QALYs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Secondary outcomes were pulmonary infections, and sleeping problems. The analysis was performed from a health care perspective of Poland, using a time horizon of 10 years and cycle length of 1 year. Transition probabilities were derived from various sources, amongst others a Polish randomized clinical trial. Quality of life data was derived from an Italian study on similar patients. Data on frequencies and mortality-related tracheobronchitis and/or pneumonia were derived from a Europe-wide survey amongst head and neck cancer experts. Substantial differences in quality-adjusted survival between the use of HMEs (3.63 QALYs) versus UC (2.95 QALYs) were observed. Total health care costs/patient were 39,553 PLN (9465 Euro) for the HME strategy and 4889 PLN (1168 Euro) for the UC strategy. HME use resulted in fewer pulmonary infections, and less sleeping problems. We could conclude that given the Polish threshold of 99,000 PLN/QALY, using HMEs is cost-effective compared to UC, resulting in 51,326 PLN/QALY (12,264 Euro/QALY) gained for patients after total laryngectomy. For the hospital period alone (2 weeks), HMEs were cost-saving: less costly and more effective.

  11. Predictors of smoking initiation--results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in Poland 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Fronczak, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Improving the access to information on determinants of the smoking epidemic is essential for increasing the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. While the statistics of smoking prevalence in Poland are available, data on smoking initiation and its social correlates are still poorly described. To investigate the association of socio-demographic indicators with regular smoking initiation among adults. Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) on socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics of respondents were used. GATS is a nationally representative household survey. GATS provided data on a representative sample of 7,840 adult individuals--2,207 male and 1,321 female ever smokers. Logistic regression analysis was performed and the χ2 test for relevant calculations. Among males, the regular smoking initiation rate was significantly higher compared to females (59.2% vs. 34.2%; p<0.01). Mean age of smoking initiation was lower in men compared to women (18.4±3.6 vs. 20.0± 4.7 p < 0.01). Lack of awareness on smoking health consequences was strongly associated with initiating of regular smoking among both genders (unaware vs. aware respondents: OR = 3.0 CI 2.3-4.0; p < 0.001 in men and OR = 3.07 CI 2.3-3.9; p<0.001 in women). Older age, vocational education and unemployment were associated with regular smoking initiation among men and women. Also, not being religious considerably contributed to increased likelihood of smoking initiation in women (OR = 4.4 CI 2.5-7.7; p<0.001). The results indicate that policies focused on preventing smoking onset among Poles are needed to reduce tobacco epidemic, with the ultimate goal of translating evidence into policy.

  12. Malaria in Poland in 2011.

    PubMed

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    To assess the epidemiological situation of malaria in Poland in 2011 as compared with previous years. evaluation of incidence of malaria registered in Poland in 2011, based on the results of the analysis of individual reports sent to the NIPH-NIH by the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations and on aggregate data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland." Case classification in the epidemiological surveillance based on case definition for malaria approved by EC in the EU countries in 2008. Only symptomatic laboratory-confirmed cases were recorded. In 2011 14 cases of malaria were registered in Poland. All were imported from malaria-endemic countries: 64% of the cases were brought from Africa, and 21% from Asia. In comparison with the previous year number of reported cases was smaller by 21 cases. No deaths were reported. In one person who did not leave Poland in the last year there was probably a recurrence of malaria, though Plasmodium species has not been established. Among the cases with species-specific diagnosis 7 (63%) were caused by P. falciparum, 2 (18%) by P. vivax and P. malariae in one. Also in one case the mixed invasion was found. In 50% of cases the infection occurred during work-related trips, 43% in tourist trips and in one case, the student fell ill, who was in Cameroon a year earlier. Chemoprophylaxis was applied to five people but only in one person appropriately. In 2011, in connection with an outbreak of malaria in Greece, restrictions on blood donation for returnees from certain regions of Greece were implemented. Despite marked fluctuations in the total annual number of reported cases, incidence in Poland remains low. The main problem for the Polish imported malaria remains seriousness of illness in many patients, most often as a result of delayed diagnosis.

  13. A new varved late Glacial and Holocene sediment record from Lake Jelonek (North Poland) - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, Mateusz; Filbrandt-Czaja, Anna; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Tjallingii, Rik; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Anually laminated (varved) lake deposits are suitable natural archives for reconstructing past climatic and environmental changes at seasonal resolution. A major advantage of such records is that varve counting allows constructing robust and independent chronologies, a key challenge for paleoclimate research. Recently, a new annually laminated sediment record has been obtained from Lake Jelonek, located in the eastern part of the Pomeranian Lakeland in northern Poland (Tuchola Pinewoods). The lake is surrounded by forest and covers an area of 19,9 ha and has a maximum depth of 13,8 m. Three overlapping series of 14,3 m - long sediment records have been cored with an UWITEC 90 mm diameter piston corer from the deepest part of the lake. A continuous master composite profile has been established comprising the entire postglacial lacustrine sediment infill. Preliminary analyses including micro-facies analyses on thin sections from selected intervals as well as X-ray fluorescence element scanning (µ-XRF) reveal that the sediments are to a large part annually laminated. Here we present detailed varve models for different sediment intervals and discuss high-resolution geochemical variation in the entire sediment record. A preliminary age model based on radiocarbon dating and major biostratigraphical boundaries based on pollen data will be presented as well. These data will form the fundament for the planned multi-proxy study for detailed reconstructions of climatic and environmental variability during the late glacial and Holocene in the southern Baltic. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre Poland NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Selected Demographic Parameters for Evaluating Parity of Women in Poland, Spain, England and Wales for the Period 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Strama, Agnieszka; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dudek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The Central Statistical Offices in Europe indicate an increase of women's parity age and extramarital births. The aim of this study was to analyze the chosen demographics of parity in European countries of Poland, Spain, England and Wales in 1996-2011. Statistical packet: women's average age at the time of their first and subsequent births, newborns' average body weight in relation to the age of mother; live marital and extramarital births. The age of mothers giving birth to their first and subsequent children in 1998-2011 in all of the researched countries is presented, and next compared in 1999, 2005 and 2011. An analysis of the births of children in marital and extramarital relationships as well as the body weight of live newborns is presented in detail in 1996-2006, and next in 6 year periods: 1999, 2005 and 2011. The average age of the mother giving birth to her first baby in 1996-2011 oscillates around: 26-27 years in England and Wales, 28-30 years in Spain and 23-26 years in Poland. In Poland, the highest average children's body weight, 3394 g, was achieved by children born by mothers at the age of 25-29. In Spain, however, at the mothers' age of 20-24, it was 3317 g. In England and Wales, at 30-34 years, it was 3262 g. The number of extramarital births in comparison to marital births is increasing. England and Wales has the lowest percentage of marital births, whereas Poland, the highest. In Spain, England and Wales we can observe an increase of extramarital births, while in Poland this number is stable at around 21.3%. The age of women having their first baby, the parity of later children, and extramarital births are increasing. In Poland, infant body weight is significantly bigger than in Spain, England and Wales.

  15. Preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: a comparative study of quality control adherence at two cancer hospitals in Spain and Poland

    PubMed Central

    Fundowicz, Magdalena; Macia, Miguel; Marin, Susanna; Bogusz-Czerniewicz, Marta; Konstanty, Ewelina; Modolel, Ignaci; Malicki, Julian; Guedea, Ferran

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed a clinical audit of preoperative rectal cancer treatment at two European radiotherapy centres (Poland and Spain). The aim was to independently verify adherence to a selection of indicators of treatment quality and to identify any notable inter-institutional differences. Methods A total of 162 patients, in Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO) 68 and in Greater Poland Cancer Centre (GPCC) 94, diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer and treated with preoperative radiotherapy or radio-chemotherapy were included in retrospective study. A total of 7 quality control measures were evaluated: waiting time, multidisciplinary treatment approach, portal verification, in vivo dosimetry, informed consent, guidelines for diagnostics and therapy, and patient monitoring during treatment. Results Several differences were observed. Waiting time from pathomorphological diagnosis to initial consultation was 31 (ICO) vs. 8 (GPCC) days. Waiting time from the first visit to the beginning of the treatment was twice as long at the ICO. At the ICO, 82% of patient experienced treatment interruptions. The protocol for portal verification was the same at both institutions. In vivo dosimetry is not used for this treatment localization at the ICO. The ICO utilizes locally-developed guidelines for diagnostics and therapy, while the GPCC is currently developing its own guidelines. Conclusions An independent external clinical audit is an excellent approach to identifying and resolving deficiencies in quality control procedures. We identified several procedures amenable to improvement. Both institutions have since implemented changes to improve quality standards. We believe that all radiotherapy centres should perform a comprehensive clinical audit to identify and rectify deficiencies. PMID:24991212

  16. Polish Stress Echocardiography Registry (Pol-STRESS Registry) - a multicenter study. Stress echo in Poland: numbers, settings, results and complications.

    PubMed

    Płońska-Gościniak, Edyta; Kasprzak, Jarosław D; Olędzki, Szymon; Rzucidło-Resil, Jolanta; Gościniak, Piotr; Kukulski, Tomasz; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Kosmala, Wojciech; Kosior, Dariusz; Marcinkiewicz-Siemion, Marta; Brzezińska, Barbara; Zaborska, Beata; Fijałkowski, Marcin; Świątkiewicz, Iwona; Szyszka, Andrzej; Błażejewski, Jan; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Gąsior, Zbigniew; Sorysz, Danuta; Olszanecka, Agnieszka

    2017-07-17

    Stress echocardiography (SE) is widely used in Europe. No collective data have been available on the use of SE in Poland until now. To evaluate the number of SE investigations performed in Poland, their settings, complications and results. In this retrospective survey, referral cardiology centers in Poland were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding SE examinations performed from May 01, 2014 to May 01, 2015. The study included data from 17 university hospitals and large community hospitals which performed 4611 SE examinations, including 4408 tests in patients investigated for coronary artery disease (CAD) and 203 tests to evaluate valvular heart disease (VHD). To evaluate CAD, all centers performed dobutamine SE (100%), 10 centers performed pacing SE (58.8%), while cycle ergometer SE and treadmill SE were performed by 6 (35.3%) and 5 (29.4%) centers, respectively. Dipyridamole SE was performed in one center. All evaluated centers (100%) performed SE to evaluate low-flow/low-gradient aortic stenosis (LFLG-AS), eight (47%) performed SE to evaluate asymptomatic aortic stenosis, and also eight (47%) performed SE to evaluate mitral regurgitation. The mean number of examinations per year was 271 per center. Most centers performed more than 100 examinations per year (11 centers, 64.7%). We did not identify any cardiac death during SE examination in any of the centers. Myocardial infarction occurred in 3 (0.07%) patients. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia occurred in 52 (1.1%) SE examinations. The rates of minor complications were low. SE to evaluate CAD was more commonly performed in hospital settings using cycle ergometer (72.6%), treadmill (87.6%), and low-dose dobutamine (68.0%), while a dipyridamole test was more frequently employed in ambulatory patients (77.6%). No significant differences between the rates of examinations performed in ambulatory and hospital settings were found for high-dose dobutamine and pacing SE. Examinations to evaluate VHD were

  17. Malaria in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    To describe the epidemiological situation of imported malaria in Poland in 2012 as compared with previous years. Evaluation of malaria epidemiological situation in Poland in 2012, based on the results of the analysis of individual reports sent to the NIPH-NIH by the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations and aggregate data published in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland". Cases were registered according to the case definition approved in the EU countries. In 2012, a total of 21 malaria cases were registered in Poland, including one fatal case. All cases were imported from malaria-endemic countries: 52% from Africa and remaining cases from Asia. Overall, compared to 2011, 7 more cases were reported. Given a median for the years 2006-2010, the number remained at the same level. In one patient the recurrence of malaria falciparum was observed following the failure of treatment undertaken in Cameroon. Plasmodium species was determined in 18 cases (86%); including 10 (61%) caused by P. falciparum, 6 (33%) by P. vivax and one by P. malariae. One patient was diagnosed with mixed invasion. Infections were occurred most frequently during work-related trips (43%) or tourist trips (38%), in other cases the purpose of the journey was to visit the country of origin (14%) or its purpose remained unknown. Only four people took any chemoprophylaxis; in one case, a drug matched inappropriately to the destination was applied, the remaining three persons applied drugs contrary to the recommended drug regimen. The number of cases of imported malaria in Poland remained at a low level, similar to that observed in previous years. A large number of delayed diagnoses (more than half of the reported cases) and another case of fatal outcome in the course of malaria indicate still low awareness of malaria threat among both travelers and primary care physicians.

  18. Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandra Madhur; Kumar, Shrawan; Meghwani, Manoj K; Agrawal, Ravi P

    2014-01-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  19. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  20. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+. In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of ageing

  1. Principles of social security and health insurance for farmers in Poland and Germany--a comparative assessment.

    PubMed

    Posturzyńska, Agnieszka; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Hans, Lucyna; Morawik, Iwona; Strzemecka, Joanna; Jabłoński, Mirosław

    2012-01-01

    As landowners occupied with agricultural production comprise a sizeable part of the populations in mid- and western European countries, it seemed reasonable to assess the organization of health care systems concerning farmers and their families in Poland and Germany. Both countries have similar geographical conditions and rural environments. It so happens that in Poland the principles of the system of agricultural insurance (KRUS) is based on the experiences of Germany and France. Basically, both in Poland and Germany, the agricultural health insurance companies provide the same insurance cover as other health insurance companies. In both countries, under certain conditions, in the case of illness, the insured farmers receive instead of sickness benefit operational assistance and home help. In spite of the similarities that characterize both administrations, many particular differences are to be noted, e.g. the farmers' social insurance in Poland is subject to only one ministry, in contrast to Germany where two ministries are responsible for farmers' social insurance. In Poland, KRUS is a monopolistic organization, whereas in Germany, nine similar independent structures fulfil the task of a health insurance company. Needless to say, many more funds are available for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation in Germany than in Poland, due to obvious differences in the overall national income.

  2. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  3. GNSS observations as a numerical weather prediction data source, first results for ZTD/IWV assimilation over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohm, W.; Guzikowski, J.; Kryza, M.; Wilgan, K. I.; Hordyniec, P.; Kaplon, J.

    2015-12-01

    The GNSS signal propagating from the satellite to the receiver is subjected to the phase delay due to the presence of the atmosphere. The signal's troposphere phase delay is linked with the density of all gaseous constituencies, including one of the most important - water vapour. Current GNSS processing methodology does not provide a framework for effective estimation of line-of-sight troposphere delay between satellite and receiver because of that a new functional and stochastic modelling should be introduced. The project founded by National Science Foundation is looking to fill that gap by providing both: effective estimation procedure and assimilation methodology for line-of-sight GNSS observations. This paper shows first results of the: validation and assimilation of GNSS data into NWP model. The investigated case studies cover severe weather events, such as : intensive storms, prolonged intensive rains, gusty winds. We applied the 3DVAR and 4DVAR assimilation schemes and used Integrated Water Vapour and Zenith Troposphere Delay from GNSS network in Poland The results show impact of the newly introduced data on the location and intensity of the rain field the correction to the temperature and water vapour field is visible. Obtained data are validated against radiosonde profiles, automatic weather stations ground-based measurements and radar images.

  4. Primary and Secondary Education in Canada and Poland--Compared: International Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Teresa Ann; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2007-01-01

    This article compares Polish and Canadian primary and secondary education in terms of systems, curriculum, governance and teacher education. It is motivated by the recent changes in Polish schooling. The theoretical framework for the work is supplied by the general notion of the school as an organization and social institution. Citizenship…

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Poland syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Poland anomaly Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (3 links) Children's ... my area? Other Names for This Condition Poland anomaly Poland sequence Poland syndactyly Poland's anomaly Poland's syndrome ...

  6. Comparing simulation results of SBML capable simulators

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Frank T.; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Simulations are an essential tool when analyzing biochemical networks. Researchers and developers seeking to refine simulation tools or develop new ones would benefit greatly from being able to compare their simulation results. Summary: We present an approach to compare simulation results between several SBML capable simulators and provide a website for the community to share simulation results. Availability: The website with simulation results and additional material can be found under: http://sys-bio.org/sbwWiki/compare. The software used to generate the simulation results is available on the website for download. Contact: fbergman@u.washington.edu PMID:18579569

  7. The Energy Efficiency Of Willow Biomass Production In Poland - A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczukowski, Stefan; Tworkowski, Józef; Stolarski, Mariusz J.; Krzyżaniak, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments with willow (Salix L.) coppice cultivation and Eko-Salix systems have been conducted at the University of Warmia and Mazury since 1992. In that wider context, the aim of the work described here was to compare energy inputs involved in setting up a plantation and producing biomass, and to assess the efficiency of willow-chips production under the coppice and Eko-Salix systems. The energy gain determined in the experiments was several to more than twenty times as great as the inputs needed to operate the plantation and to harvest willow biomass, this leaving both systems of willow cultivation under study attractive where setting up short-rotation coppices is concerned.

  8. Comparing air quality in Italy, Germany and Poland using BC indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Olha; Cameletti, Michela; Fassò, Alessandro; Schmid, Wolfgang

    In this paper we discuss air quality assessment in three Italian, German and Polish regions using the index methodology proposed by Bruno and Cocchi. This analysis focuses first of all on the air quality in each of the considered countries, and then adopts a more general approach in order to compare pollution severity and toxicity. In this context, air quality indexes are a powerful data-driven tool since they are easily calculated and summarize a complex phenomenon, such as air pollution, in indicators which are immediately understandable. The use of a unique index should be encouraged in a global European perspective where all countries are commonly involved in assessing air quality and taking proper measures for improving it. In particular, the main objective of this work is to evaluate the index performances in distinguishing different health risk related air pollution patterns.

  9. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The evaluation was carried out on the basis of the results of the analysis of data from the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013", the information from individual diseases forms and epidemiological investigations forms for hepatitis A outbreaks, sent by sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology of NIZP-PZH. In 2013, 48 cases of hepatitis A were registered in Poland. The incidence per 100,000 inhabitants was 0.12, and in particular provinces it ranged from 0.05 in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province to 0.26 in the Wielkopolska province. The incidence of hepatitis A for men and women was at a similar level and amounted to 0.13 and 0.12/100,000. In 2013 imported cases accounted for 45.8% of the total number of hepatitis A cases. There were three outbreaks, where the total of 13 people fell ill. 2013 saw a slight decrease in the number of cases compared to the previous year. Besides, there were no significant changes in the hepatitis A epidemiological situation. In Poland, there is still very low endemicity. Since several years, there has been a decline in the number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A. All of this affects the accumulation of a fairly large population of people susceptible to the infection, which may increase incidence. Although the current hepatitis A epidemiological situation in Poland is good, it still requires monitoring, analysis and constant observation within the structured epidemiological surveillance.

  10. Seismic anisotropy of the crust in the Trans-European Suture Zone, SE Poland - results of 3-D tomographic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroda, Piotr

    2010-05-01

    In the area of Trans-European Suture Zone at the East European Craton margin in southeastern Poland (Malopolska and Lysogory Blocks), wide-angle seismic data from CELEBRATION 2000 experiment show strong azimuthal variation of Pg traveltimes and of observed crustal velocity, suggesting considerable anisotropy of the upper crust in this area. The axis of the fast velocity, trending roughly NW-SE, is consistent with the strike of the main tectonic lineaments in Malopolska and Lysogory blocks. Previously published anisotropic model of the crustal structure was based on the delay-time method which allows for robust but simplified calculation of the anisotropy. Current work presents models obtained by three-dimensional tomography with more realistic raytracing and regularized inversion algorithm. The model of a transversally isotropic medium was assumed. To assess credibility of the results, modelling of several subsets of the data was performed, and synthetic tests were carried out to evaluate the spatial resolution of the model. Obtained results confirm existence of substantial upper crustal anisotropy and provide an image of horizontal variability of the anisotropy magnitude in the study area. The result is consistent with the geological structure of the investigated units. In the MB and LB, tightly folded (dip 40-80 deg) metapelitic rocks of Neoproterozoic and younger age occur at depths of few km and deeper, and are likely to cause the observed anisotropy. Fast axis direction coincides well with azimuth of outcropping folds axes and other deformational structures. Therefore, observed anisotropy is interpreted as the effect of collisional deformations at the EEC margin.

  11. National Transplants Registry in Poland: Early and Long-term Results of Organ Transplantations in the Years 1998 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, J; Antoszkiewicz, K; Grygiel, K; Karpeta, E; Górski, Ł; Dudkiewicz, M; Lewandowska, D

    2016-06-01

    In 2006, the National Transplants Registry, administered by the national transplant organization, was introduced in Poland for monitoring the results of organ transplantations. Statistical analysis is published yearly in Poltransplant Bulletin and publicly available on the website and reported to European institutions. The Transplants Registry cooperates with another registers functioning on-line, based on the web-net tool www.rejestry.net. We present the formal analysis of data collected for the years 1998 to 2014. Analysis covered the total number of organ transplantations in every transplant center; outcomes after 3 months and 1, 3, and 5 years; and if data were available after 10, 15, and 20 years from transplantation. Results presented are real, not extrapolated. Some examples are as follows. The total number of deceased kidney transplantations was 15,009; 1-year recipient survival was 95%, graft survival was 88% (data completeness of 81%), 5-year recipient survival was 87%, and graft survival was 74% (data completeness of 82%). The total number of deceased liver transplantations was 3143; 1-year recipient survival was 84%, graft survival was 81% (data completeness of 99%), 5-year recipient survival was 73%, and graft survival was 89% (data completeness of 99%). The National Transplant Registry is an important tool for quality and safety systems in the transplantation field on the national level. Nowadays, the Registry efficiently and effectively fulfills its tasks related to collecting records of all performed transplantations. Monitoring function for graft and recipient survival is also satisfied. Collected numbers are an important and unique source of information to be used by transplant institutions and referred to in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. IPE results as compared with NUREG-1150

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.T.; Lehner, J.; Camp, A.; Chow, E.

    1995-12-31

    In 1990, the NRC published NUREG-1150 which assessed the risks for five U.S. nuclear power plants. This paper provides a comparison of the results and perspectives obtained from the NUREG-1150 study to those obtained form the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) program. Specifically, results and perspectives on core damage frequency and containment performance are compared.

  13. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is evaluation of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2012. Assessment of epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was based on results from analysis of the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012", "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", reports from individual cases and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks linked to hepatitis A, sent by Epidemiological Departments in Sanitary Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-NIH. In Poland, 71 cases of hepatitis A were registered in 2012. The incidence of 0.17/ per 100 000 inhabitants was slightly higher than previous year. The incidence of hepatitis A ranged from 0.08/100 000 in Łódzkie and Podlaskie to 0.35/100 000 in Śląskie. The incidence of hepatitis A in men and women was at an approximate level and amounted to 0.19 and 0.18/100 000 respectively. The peak of incidence was recorded during the summer and autumn-winter months. In 2012 imported cases constituted 52.1% of all cases of hepatitis A. There were five outbreaks involving of 11 registered cases in 2012. In 2012, there was a slight increase in the incidence of hepatitis A in compared with the previous year. However, apart from that there were no significant changes in the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A. In Poland there is still very low endemicity for hepatitis A. Decreased incidence and the small number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A facilitates the accumulation of a fairly numerous population of persons susceptible to infection which is connected with the possibility to increase the number of cases of hepatitis A. Despite the fact that the current epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland is good, the disease still requires monitoring and analysis within the framework of epidemiological surveillance system.

  14. [Environmental dependence of cigarette smoking among adolescents of upper-secondary schools in Poland in 2005. Initial results].

    PubMed

    Tabak, Izabela; Małkowska, Agnieszka; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the current smoking status among adolescents of upper-secondary schools in Poland and to examine potential relationships between environmental factors (place of living and school type) and current cigarette smoking, smoking experimentation and age of first cigarette. Questionnaire survey was conducted in February - March 2005 as a project: "Health perception, life satisfaction and health behavior of upper-secondary school pupils in Poland in psychosocial and economical determinants' context". The data was collected from representative sample of pupils in Poland (N=3123), Ist and IIIrd grade students at upper-secondary schools of different school types. Almost 3/4 adolescents had reported the attempts of smoking, 1/4 declared current smoking. The smoking prevalence among boys was higher than among girls, among older pupils (18 y.) than younger (16y.) and among students living in towns. Especially there was a significant difference of rate of smoking among young women from towns than from rural areas. Special risk group of cigarette smoking were pupils of basic vocational schools. Risk of current smoking was more than 4 times higher among them, than among pupils from general secondary schools. Strategies aimed at influencing smoking behavior need to be directed especially to basic vocational schools students and girls in towns.

  15. Comparative Measurements of Condensation and Evaporation In The Alpine Regions of Thegiant Mountains, Poland and The Dischma, E. Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, C.; Mundelius, M.; Migala, K.

    During the summers of 1998, 1999 and 2001, two basins were instrumented for detailed comparative measurements of evaporation, transpiration and condensation. The catchments of the Reifträger, situated in the Giant Mountains of Poland and the Dischma, situated in the Kanton Graubünden in Eastern Switzerland range in altitude between 850 - 1410 m and 1600 - 3100 m respectively. All hydrological and meteorological measurements were carried out above the treeline. Both regions consist mainly of dwarf shrubs with dwarf pines, ferns, and moors dominating in the Reifträger and alpine pasture and dwarf shrubs in the Dischma. Automatic we ighing lysimeters and evaporation pans recorded evaporation, transpiration, condensation and rainfall data at 10 minute intervals over different slope profiles. On the Reifträger, condensation occurs between 05:00-07:00 and is followed by the onset of evaporation. Evaporation stagnates nearly entirely between 11:00-12:00 but it is subsequently reinitiated due to rapidly increasing wind speeds, reaching a maximum at 14:00. Evaporation continues until 18:00, followed by some nighttime evaporation in the early morning hours. Unlike the Reifträger, the Dischma has two daily maxima for evaporation and transpiration, again preceded in the morning hours by intensive condensation. In the Dischma, evaporation and transpiration is variable according to valley side but the first maximum usually occurs at 15:00 followed by a second maximum between 18:00-19:00 after sunset. The differences in the timing and pattern of evaporation and transpiration of the two catchments can be explained by influence of fog on the Reifträger compared to the regular exchange of moist and dry air from the glacier in the Dischma. In both cases, evaporation is delayed relative to radiation so that there is an evaporation lag of approximately 30 - 50 minutes on the Reifträger and up to 2 hours in the Dischma. Evaporation should therefore be modelled through a function

  16. Preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: a comparative study of quality control adherence at two cancer hospitals in Spain and Poland.

    PubMed

    Fundowicz, Magdalena; Macia, Miguel; Marin, Susanna; Bogusz-Czerniewicz, Marta; Konstanty, Ewelina; Modolel, Ignaci; Malicki, Julian; Guedea, Ferran

    2014-06-01

    We performed a clinical audit of preoperative rectal cancer treatment at two European radiotherapy centres (Poland and Spain). The aim was to independently verify adherence to a selection of indicators of treatment quality and to identify any notable inter-institutional differences. A total of 162 patients, in Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO) 68 and in Greater Poland Cancer Centre (GPCC) 94, diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer and treated with preoperative radiotherapy or radio-chemotherapy were included in retrospective study. A total of 7 quality control measures were evaluated: waiting time, multidisciplinary treatment approach, portal verification, in vivo dosimetry, informed consent, guidelines for diagnostics and therapy, and patient monitoring during treatment. Several differences were observed. Waiting time from pathomorphological diagnosis to initial consultation was 31 (ICO) vs. 8 (GPCC) days. Waiting time from the first visit to the beginning of the treatment was twice as long at the ICO. At the ICO, 82% of patient experienced treatment interruptions. The protocol for portal verification was the same at both institutions. In vivo dosimetry is not used for this treatment localization at the ICO. The ICO utilizes locally-developed guidelines for diagnostics and therapy, while the GPCC is currently developing its own guidelines. An independent external clinical audit is an excellent approach to identifying and resolving deficiencies in quality control procedures. We identified several procedures amenable to improvement. Both institutions have since implemented changes to improve quality standards. We believe that all radiotherapy centres should perform a comprehensive clinical audit to identify and rectify deficiencies.

  17. Barriers and Factors Affecting the Scientific Careers of Women Physicists in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwosz, Elzbieta; Leliwa-Kopystynska, Aleksandra; Suchanska, Malgorzata

    2009-04-01

    We present the results of a 2007 study comparing the status of 25 male and 23 female physicists in Poland's largest universities. We offer ideas to help equalize the career paths of male and female scientists.

  18. Comparing Ultraviolet Spectra Against Calculations: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2003-01-01

    The five-year goal of this effort is to calculate high fidelity mid-UV spectra for individual stars and stellar systems for a wide range of ages, abundances, and abundance ratios. In this first year, the emphasis was placed on revising the list of atomic line parameters used to calculate mid-UV spectra. First, new identifications of atomic lines and measurements of their transition probabilities were obtained for lines of the first and second ionization stages of iron-peak elements. Second, observed mid-UV and optical spectra for standard stars were re-analyzed and compared to new calculations, to refine the determination of transition probabilities and to estimate the identity of lines still missing from the laboratory lists. As evidenced by the figures, a dramatic improvement has resulted in the reproduction of the spectra of standard stars by the calculations.

  19. “What kind of general practitioner do I need for smoking cessation?” Results from a qualitative study in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death and disease. Thus, all activities aiming to reduce smoking play an important role in improving population health. The positive role of the general practitioner (GP) in smoking cessation could increase the success rate for quitting smoking, if compared with unassisted cessation. The aim of this study was to determine what kind of general practitioner smokers need in order to stop smoking. Methods Four focus groups with 12 current and 12 former smokers (aged 20-59, 11 women and 13 men), were arranged in the city of Toruń, Poland, with a view to describe their opinions on the GP’s role in smoking cessation. The data were subjected to descriptive qualitative content analysis. Results Two major themes emerged in the analysis: the smokers’ positive and negative experiences of the GP in smoking cessation and their expectations regarding the role of the GP in smoking cessation. The first theme embraced the following subthemes: (1) GP’s passivity, (2) routine questions about the patient’s smoking during the visit, (3) lack of time during the visit, and (4) the role model of the GP in smoking cessation. Within the second theme, the respondents identified the following subthemes: (1) bringing up the topic of smoking cessation, even in situations when the patient is unprepared for this; (2) the necessity of a tailored approach to the patient; (3) access to information and evidence confirming the harms of smoking tobacco; (4) prescription of pharmacological and other treatment; and (5) referral to specialists in smoking cessation. Conclusions Patients expect their GP to actively participate in smoking cessation through a more tailored approach to the patient’s needs. The patients’ experiences did not match their expectations: the smokers rarely got advice on smoking cessation from their GPs. Finally, they emphasized the importance of the GP as a role model in smoking cessation. PMID

  20. Malaria in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of imported malaria in Poland in 2013 compared to the data from previous years. The assessment was performed based on the results of the analysis of individual reports sent to the NIPH-NIH by sanitary-epidemiological stations and aggregated data published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland". Cases were registered according to the case definition criteria applicable in the EU countries. In 2013, a total of 36 imported malaria cases were registered in Poland, 15 more than in 2012. No deaths were recorded. As much as 80% of all cases were imported from African countries, of whom the majority came from Nigeria, 14% from Asia and 6% from South America. Concurrent infection with dengue virus was confirmed in one person coming back from Philippines. Plasmodium species was determined in 35 of 36 cases by blood film or PCR test. Invasion with P. falciparum and P. vivax was found in 23 (66%) and 9 (26%) cases, respectively. There was also one case of each of the following: P. ovale, P. malariae and mixed invasion. As in previous years, in most cases, the invasion was associated with tourist trips (47%) or work-related travels (36%). Immigrants or students visiting the country of origin accounted for 11% of patients, in two cases (6%) purpose of the journey was not determined. As many as 7 patients used chemoprophylaxis, including two persons who took drugs in compliance with the recommendations. Despite a significant increase in the number of cases compared to previous years, the total number of imported malaria remains low. Persistent large number of delays in the diagnosis and a high percentage of severe malaria cases indicate the need to raise doctors awareness of the possibility of malaria incidence. Travelers should be also constantly reminded of the need to inform their GPs about the stay in the malaria endemic areas in the event of fever after returning.

  1. Daily tobacco smoking patterns in rural and urban areas of Poland--the results of the GATS study.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Andrzej; Raciborski, Filip; Opoczyńska, Dagmara; Samoliński, Bolesław

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the main causes of premature death worldwide. Tobacco smoking is influenced by social and economic factors such as age, gender, level of education and place of residence. The objective of this paper is to describe the occurrence of daily tobacco use in urban and rural populations in Poland. The data was collected between 2009-2010 as part of the International Global Adult Tobacco Survey project. The study was conducted based on population of age 15 and older. 7,840 full individual interviews were conducted (51.2% in rural and 48.8% in urban areas). The total response rate was equal to 65.1%. 25.4% of rural residents at the age of 15 and above smoke tobacco daily (32.5% men and 17.9% women). In cities, this percentage corresponds to 30.3% (35.4% males and 25.8% females, respectively). Among the males and females, the highest percentage of daily tobacco smokers was found among respondents with vocational education (males 47.3% in urban and 41.8% in rural areas; females 36.8% and 23.5%, respectively). In both the rural and urban areas the lowest percentage of daily cigarette smokers among male respondents were those with higher education (24.9% in urban and 16.1% in rural areas). In the group of female respondents, the lowest incidence was observed among those with primary education (16.4% in urban, 11.7% in rural areas). Daily smoking patterns in Poland differ according to the place of residence (urban/rural) and gender. A decrease in the percentage of daily tobacco users should be observed in the next few years. Along with age exceeding 60 years, the percentage of daily cigarette smokers is clearly on the decline.

  2. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  3. [Socio-demographic differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among women and men in Poland--results from the Courage in Europe Project].

    PubMed

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Gałaś, Aleksander; Zawisza, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (hypertension, coronary artery disease - CAD, stroke) in women and men in relation to demographic and social characteristics in adult population in Poland. Study was performed in the representative group of 4071 individuals (18+) in Poland. Face to face interviews were done using structured questionnaire. Chi-squared test and decision tree analysis have been used to assess the presence of difference between groups and to determine characteristics typical for the ill. Age was a factor significantly associated with the diversity of CVD prevalence in women and men. Similar role played the level of education and marital status. Low income was additional significant determinant of the CVD for both women and men. Analysis based on decision trees additionally confirmed the differences in characteristics of ill persons in younger age groups. Our results indicate that especially in younger age groups it may be more than expected number of women suffering from early stage ischemic heart disease. Due to atypical or less severe symptoms some cases remain probably undiagnosed on the level of health care system. Our finding is supported by the consistency between the frequency of physician diagnosed CAD and WHO algorithm in 60-79 age category.

  4. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  5. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting.

  6. [Tobacco smoking among girls in Poland between 1998 and 2008].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous researches referring to tobacco smoking among girls in Poland. Unfortunately comparing their results and trends tracking is prevented by methodological differences, such as: sample selection, use of different research tools, way of conducting researches and analyzing their results. In this paper, on the basis of data collected from periodical studies conducted in Poland in the years 1998-2009 on the representative samples of adolescents, the estimation of tobacco smoking frequency among girls at the age of 15-18 years in Poland was performed. Moreover, the general trend referring to smoking among this group was analyzed. In this article the results were used form such a research projects as: HBSC (Heath Behavior in School-aged Children. A WHO Cross-national Collaborative Study); ESPAD (The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) and "Mokotowskie Research", leaded by Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. International comparability of chemical measurement results.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, R I

    2002-11-01

    The international system of units (SI) is an internationally recognized system based on standards of long-term stability; by the use traceable measurements it provides an international infrastructure for realizing comparable measurements. The work of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM) and the implementation of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) are facilitating an international programme for metrology in chemistry to extend this infrastructure to the field of chemical measurements. The major points of this programme, which include the execution of international comparisons and the construction of a key comparison and calibration database at the BIPM, are described.

  8. Comparative results of 327 chemical carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed Central

    Haseman, J K; Huff, J E; Zeiger, E; McConnell, E E

    1987-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) have carried out a number of laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies and presented the results of these experiments in a series of Technical Reports. This paper tabulates the results of the 327 NCI/NTP studies carried out to date on 308 distinct chemicals, and discusses certain issues relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenicity in these experiments. This compilation of results from NCI/NTP carcinogenicity experiments provides a large database that can be used to study structure-activity correlations, interspecies concordance, and associations between laboratory animal carcinogenicity and other toxicological effects. PMID:3691430

  9. Manual and Automatic Lineament Mapping: Comparing Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, D. A.; di Achille, G.; Barata, M. T.; Alves, E. I.

    2008-03-01

    A method for automatic lineament extraction using topographic data is applied on the Thaumasia plateau. A comparison is made between the results that are obtained from the automatic mapping approach and from a traditional tectonic lineament mapping.

  10. Technical and practical aspects of remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients in Poland - preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Andrzej; Zakrzewska-Koperska, Joanna; Maciag, Aleksander; Derejko, Paweł; Orczykowski, Michał; Szumowski, Lukasz; Walczak, Franciszek

    2009-05-01

    The aim of remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) is to increase the patient's safety by early detection of technical or medical malfunctions and decrease the number of follow-up visits. To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of internet-based home monitoring of ICD recipients in Poland. Twenty-seven patients with ICD with remote monitoring options were evaluated; 20 (74%) patients had a single chamber ICD, 6 (22%) patients had a dual chamber ICD and one had an ICD with a resynchronisation therapy option. Medical and technical events reported by the remote monitoring system as well as interruptions in monitoring longer than 14 days were analysed. The patients were followed for 12.7 +/- 10.5 months. Two of them died because of heart failure (6 and 13 months after ICD implantation, respectively). The remote monitoring system reported medical events in 13 (48%) patients. In total, we received 32 event reports (from 1 to 19 per patient, mean 2.6) which were generated due to the detection of ventricular tachycardia (VT) (17 events in 9 patients), ventricular fibrillation (VF) (9 episodes in 6 patients), ineffective defibrillation with the maximal energy (5 reports in 3 patients) and supraventricular tachycardia in the VT detection window (1). Two patients had more than 3 VT/VF episodes during 24 h. There were no reports on technical abnormalities of the ICD system. Interruptions in home monitoring longer than 14 days occurred in 5 (18.5%) patients and lasted 2 to 14 weeks (mean 2.8 +/- 7.1). The longest break was caused by the patient's stay abroad. The remaining interruptions were caused by: journeys (5 episodes), hospitalisations (4), and a temporary stay in a place without sufficient GSM coverage (3). During the follow-up period there were no interruptions in monitoring caused by transmitter or ICD failure. All data received by the home monitoring system were confirmed during the follow-up visits. Remote monitoring of ICD recipients

  11. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  12. Pedagogy--How Is It Influenced in Primary Schools? A Comparative Study of Literature about Pedagogical Influences in Primary Schools in England and Poland, with a Focus on English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Ewa Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article is a critical review of recent literature comparing pedagogical influences in primary schools in England and Poland. It identifies curriculum, assessment, leadership, teacher perceptions and personal fears as immense influences on pedagogy and considers how these factors influence pedagogy. Comparison of England's prescriptive…

  13. Pedagogy--How Is It Influenced in Primary Schools? A Comparative Study of Literature about Pedagogical Influences in Primary Schools in England and Poland, with a Focus on English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Ewa Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article is a critical review of recent literature comparing pedagogical influences in primary schools in England and Poland. It identifies curriculum, assessment, leadership, teacher perceptions and personal fears as immense influences on pedagogy and considers how these factors influence pedagogy. Comparison of England's prescriptive…

  14. Projets et Resultats des Recherches sur l'Histoire des Bibliotheques en Pologne (Projects and Results of Research on the History of Libraries in Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubow, Stefan

    The history of library science in Poland and a number of Polish research projects are reviewed in this paper. It is concluded that a considerable amount of research has been done on the history of libraries in Poland, but that this research is fragmented and separated by its focus on theory or methodology. The methodology of scientific research in…

  15. Lichen recolonisation in an urban-industrial area of southern Poland as a result of air quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Lisowska, Maja

    2011-08-01

    Dynamics of epiphytic lichen distribution and diversity in the town of Skawina, one of the major industrial centres of southern Poland, over the last 30 years, was documented in relation to air quality changes. Fieldwork was conducted in 2006-2007. A total of 34 species were recorded at 202 sites, which is similar to the historical data, however, significant qualitative changes occurred. Nitrogen- and dust-tolerant species have expanded and dominate, while some acidophytes, such as Lecanora conizaeoides, are in decline. Lichens have recolonised the former 'lichen desert' in the town centre. Species richness at study sites has increased; and an improvement in the health of lichen thalli was noted. These trends reflect air quality improvement, mainly SO(2) decline in the last few decades and transport-related compounds, mainly NO(x) and dust that have became the main pollutants. Host tree species and diameter diversity also contribute significantly to lichen species diversity in the study area. The recolonisation process seems far from complete and further changes in the lichen distribution and diversity in the study area are expected.

  16. Abortion in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.

  17. [Occupational diseases in Poland in 1978].

    PubMed

    Starzyński, Z; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N

    1980-01-01

    The authors analyse all occupational disease cases found in Poland in 1978. Individual occupational diseases certificates sent to the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź by provincial sanitary-epidemiological stations are information sources. The collected material makes us draw the following concusions: 1. Occupational diseases incidence in Poland in 1978 got increased by 8.7%, compared to 1977. This increase is mainly related to occupational hearing impairment, infectious diseases, diseases of skin and mucous membranes. 2. Occupational intoxications prevalence was decreased. In 1978 the case rate in this group of diseases was lowered by 24%. 3. Among occupational diseases the following were most frequent: hearing impairments, infectious and invasive diseases, conioses, diseases of skin and mucous membranes, vibration disease and poisonings. 4. Most occupational diseases cases in 1978 resulted from many-years occupational exposure to hazardous agents.

  18. Chickenpox in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children between 0-14 years old and among those who are not vaccinated, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. AIM. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1;2). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used (3). In 2014, 221 628 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 575.9 and was lower than in 2013 (463.6). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship (35 321), the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship (5 346). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years. The chickenpox incidence among men was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (543.4). The incidence among rural residents (595.0) was higher by 9.8 % than among urban residents. Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 467. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 63 608. In 2014, there was increase in the incidence of chickenpox in Poland. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  19. Chickenpox in Poland in 2011.

    PubMed

    Lipke, Małgorzata; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases which occur in children indicate the rationality of the use of preventive vaccination. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is recommended. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2011 and to compare with the situation in the previous years. Assessment of the epidemiological situation chickenpox in 2011 in Poland was based on analysis of the data published in the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2011." and "Immunization Safety in Poland in 2011 (Czarkowski MP. Et al., Warsaw, NIPH-NIH, GIS). In addition, on data from the "Immunization Program for 2011" (Annex to the Statement of the Chief Sanitary Inspector on Oct. 28, 2010). In 2011. 172 855 registered cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland n 2011. Incidence was 448.7/100. It was lower than in 2010. (480.4/100,000). Highest incidence was in Mazowieckie, the lowest in Podlaskie. Across the age groups the highest incidence (3708.7/100,000) was reported in age group 5-9. The incidence of chickenpox in men (472.3/100,000) was higher than in women (426.5/100,000). In inhabitants of rural areas it was higher (473.5) than among urban residents (432.7/100,000). Number of hospitalized cases was 1 016. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox amounted to 38 943 people. In 2011 there was small decrease in the incidence of chickenpox. But the rising trend is continuing in Poland since 2004. It can be partly be explained by improved surveillance of the disease. Overall high incidence of chickenpox brings problem of widespread vaccination of children.

  20. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  1. [Results of studies on the effect of radiologic contamination after the Czernobyl catastrophe and prophylactic iodine on thyroid morphology and function of inhabitants of North-East Poland].

    PubMed

    Kinalska, I; Zarzycki, W; Zonenberg, A; Rybaczuk, M; Zimnicki, P; Hołowaczyk, H; Gosiewska, A; Kulikowski, M; Dzierzanowski, E; Modzelewski, A

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigations of radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl catastrophe and subsequent iodine prophylaxis on the thyroid gland function and morphology in Northeast Poland. The aim of the study was to determine whether kalium iodine in one dose during radioactive contamination in Poland limited the radioactive dose in the thyroid gland and if significant disadvantageous side-effects in the intrathyroid and extrathyroid occurred. Additionally during the studies we tried to determine if radioactive iodine contamination which occurred in the region of the Medical Academy in Białystok caused an increase in thyroid disease. It is interesting to note the different results obtained after radioactive contamination with the results from the investigations in this same territory in 1983-1985. In 1983-1985, before the Chernobyl catastrophe, 6,921 persons in Northeast Poland were investigated. In 1986-1988, immediately after the disaster 4,010 persons were investigated. The main study according to grant No MZ-XVII was carried out in three provinces: Białystok, Suwałki and Olsztyn. In this investigation 10,011 persons born before April 26, 1986 and after January 1, 1936 participated, 5,789 townspeople and 4,222 villagers, 3,987 children up to 16 years of age it the time of the disaster 1,973 boys and 2,009 girls; 6,024 adults 2,509 men and 3,516 women were drawn from a register. Committed doses to the thyroid in the investigated region were one of the highest in Poland and depended on age group and were depended on time of prophylaxis non proportional. Iodine prophylaxis was provided mainly with one dose of Lugol solution about 90%, 95% children and 30% adults took iodine. The majority of the population (53.3%-74%) were given iodine in April. From May 1st to 5th 23.0-43.4% received iodine, but after May 5th very few persons. Iodine was well tolerated, but Lugol Solution was better tolerated than other kinds of iodine. Only 241 (4.4%) cases had side

  2. Isotope methods as a tool to characterize nitrate origin and transport in Kocinka catchment (central Poland): preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Anna; Wachniew, Przemyslaw; Witczak, Stanislaw; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Kania, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    Kocinka catchment with 258 km2 of surface area is one of the Soils2Sea project (BONUS programme) case studies. One of the main scientific objectives of this project is to analyze how changes in land use and climate may affect the nutrient load to the Baltic Sea. Hydrogeological conditions in the Kocinka catchment are determined by Quaternary glacial till and glacifluvial sands and gravels underlain by karstic-fractured limestones which compose the Upper Jurassic Major Groundwater Basin (MGWB 326), one of four most important groundwater reservoirs in Poland. Pollution with nitrates is the most important threat to groundwater quality in this groundwater body. The concentration of nitrate in some wells, in the southern part of Kocinka catchment where outcrops of Jurassic limestones occur, exceeds the maximum permissible level of 50 mgNO3/L and constantly increases. A prerequisite for measures to reduce NO3 loads to the groundwater body is identification of sources of nitrate pollution. The working hypothesis links the high nitrate concentrations with the leaking sewage system in Czestochowa city and its surroundings but agricultural sources cannot be excluded as 66% of Kocinka catchment area is used agriculturally. A dedicated study employing environmental tracers was launched with the main aim of quantifying the pathways and dynamic of groundwater flow in the aquifer. Tritium was found throughout the system but its concentrations vary considerably. Decrease of tritium contents with depth in the aquifer was observed in one of wells. This points to active recharge and characteristic time scales of groundwater flow in order of years to several decades. To identify the origin of nitrate pollution nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of dissolved nitrate was analyzed in a number of wells with high nitrate concentrations. The isotopic composition of dissolved nitrates does not confirm the hypothesis on the decisive role of urban sewage in nitrate pollution. The isotope date

  3. The Lyme disease as the increasing health problem in Małopolskie voivodeship compared with Poland in 1998-2014

    PubMed

    Bandoła, Katarzyna; Koperny, Magdalena; Seweryn, Michał; Żak, Jacek; Bała, Małgorzata M

    Lyme disease is one of the most known tick borne diseases in Poland caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia burgdorferi. Most cases of Lyme disease are diagnosed in the northeastern Poland and the south of Poland, in Śląskie, Małopolskie, Podkarpackie voivodeship. The aim of the study was to evaluate epidemiological data of Lyme disease in Małopolskie voivodeship and other voivodeships in Poland and frequency analysis of the Lyme disease as an occupational disease. The authors analyzed prevalence from 1998 to 2014. Incidence of the Lyme disease was evaluated through review data from „Choroby zakaźne i zatrucia” Bulletin and Lyme disease as an occupational disease obtained data from the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź. It is estimated that the number of Lyme disease cases in Poland increased 18 times between 1998 and 2014 year (2,0 to 36 per 100,000 population), in the same period it was over 35 times of sudden rise in Lyme disease incidence in Małopolskie voivodeship. In years 2005-2014 the number of cases of Lyme disease as an occupational disease fluctuated with a slight upward trend both in Poland and Małopolskie voivoideship. In Poland number of reported cases is systematically increasing. Podlaskie and Warmińsko- Mazurskie voivodeships are areas of high prevalence. Exponential increase in the number of cases is observed in southern Poland, especially in Małopolskie voivodeship from 2013.

  4. An excerpt from an eye-tracking comparative study between Poland and Japan with the use of Force Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosiek, Roman; Sajka, Mirosława; Ohno, Eizo; Shimojo, Atsushi; Iwata, Michiru; Wcisło, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a comparative Polish-Japanese study. The research was conducted at the Department of Mathematics, Physics and Technical Science at the Pedagogical University of Cracow and at the University of Hokkaido. The participants of the study were university students of humanistic courses. The research concerns the comparison of the respondents' knowledge and understanding of the concept of force in mechanics and their ways of solving problems in the field of a basic mechanics course. A special theoretical tool was used. It was the standardized, international test diagnosing the understanding of the concept of force - the so-called "Force Concept Inventory" (FCI), in its official Polish and Japanese translations. The eye-tracking method was combined with structured interviews and discussions with all the respondents.

  5. Postpartum depression: identifying associations with bipolarity and personality traits. Preliminary results from a cross-sectional study in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Dominika; Jaeschke, Rafał; Siwek, Marcin; Mączka, Grzegorz; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2014-01-30

    The goals of this study have been to determine the prevalence of the bipolar spectrum features in the population of women with postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms, as well as to analyze the personality differences between putative 'unipolar' and 'bipolar' PPD subjects. The sample enrolled into the cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women at 6-12 weeks postpartum. The authors used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; cut-off score: 13 pts.) for the assessment of the PPD symptoms, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ; cut-off scores: 7 or 8 pts.) for diagnosing the bipolar features, and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) for the assessment of personality traits. The EPDS-positive subjects were more likely to score positively on the MDQ, as compared to the EPDS-negative ones. The EPDS-positive subjects who also scored ≥8 pts. on the MDQ were characterized by higher index of neuroticism, as compared to those who scored positively on the EPDS only. The results suggest that the presence of PPD symptoms is related to significantly higher scores of bipolarity and neuroticism. The more robust trait of neuroticism might be a marker of the 'bipolar' PPD, as compared to the 'unipolar' form of the disorder.

  6. Chickenpox in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2013 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In 2013, 178 501 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 463.6 and was lower than in 2012 (540.5). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship. The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (6 545.1 per 100,000). The chickenpox incidence among men (491.7) was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (437.3). The incidence among rural residents (497.2) was higher than among urban residents (441.7). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 184. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 57 168. In 2013, there was decrease in the incidence of chickenpox [corrected] in Poland with small fluctuations. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  7. Mumps in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common disease among the children. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used. In total, there were 2 508 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2014. Incidence of mumps was 6.5 per 100,000 and it was higher by 3.1 % in comparison with 2013 and lower by 9.7 % in comparison with median for the years 2008-2012. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 4 years (61.3 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.8 per 100,000) was higher than in women (5.3). In 2014, 31 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.0% and it was lower by 0.5 % in comparison with year 2013 (97.5 %). Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  8. Mumps in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In total, there were 2 436 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2013. Incidence of mumps was 6.3 per 100,000 and it was lower by 12.5% in comparison with 2012 and lower by 18.2% in comparison with median for the years 2007-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (54.0 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.5) was higher than in women (5.2). In 2013, 38 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.5% and it was lower by 0.4% in comparison with year 2012. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  9. Eddy covariance measurements of the net turbulent methane flux in the city centre - results of 2-year campaign in Łódź, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    To investigate temporal variability of methane (CH4) fluxes in an urban environment, air-surface exchange fluxes of CH4 were continuously measured using eddy covariance techniques at a city-centre site in Łódź, Poland, from July 2013 to August 2015. In the immediate vicinity of the measurement site, potential methane sources include vehicle traffic, dense sewerage infrastructure and natural gas networks. Sensible and latent heat fluxes have also been measured since 2000 and carbon dioxide fluxes since 2007 at this site. Upward CH4 fluxes dominated during the measurement period, indicating that the city centre is a net source of CH4 to the troposphere. The highest monthly fluxes were observed in winter (2.0 to 2.7 g m-2 month-1) and the lowest in summer (0.8 to 1.0 g m-2 month-1). Fluxes on working days were around 6 % higher than on weekends. The cumulative flux indicates that the city centre emitted a net quantity of nearly 18 g m-2 of CH4 in 2014. Stable values of the FCO2/ FCH4 ratio in months (minimum 2.41 × 10-3, maximum 5.3 × 10-3) and the lack of a clear annual course suggest comparable magnitude of both fluxes.

  10. Source regions of ragweed pollen arriving in south-western Poland and the influence of meteorological data on the HYSPLIT model results.

    PubMed

    Bilińska, Daria; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Werner, Małgorzata; Kryza, Maciej; Malkiewicz, Małgorzata; Krynicka, Justyna; Drzeniecka-Osiadacz, Anetta

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the relationship between the inflow of air masses and the ragweed pollen concentration in SW Poland (Wrocław) for a 10-year period of 2005-2014. The HYSPLIT trajectory model was used to verify whether episodes of high concentrations can be related to regions outside of the main known ragweed centres in Europe, like Pannonian Plain, northern Italy and Ukraine. Furthermore, we used two different meteorological data sets (the global GDAS data set and from the WRF mesoscale model; the meteorological parameters were: U and V wind components, temperature and relative humidity) into HYSPLIT to evaluate the influence of meteorological input on calculated trajectories for high concentration ragweed episodes. The results show that the episodes of high pollen concentration (above 20 pm(-3)) represent a great part of total recorded ragweed pollen in Wrocław, but occur rarely and not in all years. High pollen episodes are connected with air masses coming from south and south-west Europe, which confirms the existence of expected ragweed centres but showed that other centres near Wrocław are not present. The HYSPLIT simulations with two different meteorological inputs indicated that footprint studies on ragweed benefit from a higher resolution meteorological data sets.

  11. Air protection strategy in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  12. Aging in Poland.

    PubMed

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults.

  13. [Results of the treatment of acute renal failure in 3 selected dialysis units in southern Poland 1981-1990].

    PubMed

    Hanicki, Z; Sułowicz, W; Kuźniewski, M; Drozdz, M; Miłkowski, A; Ignacak, E; Mazanek, M; Sydor, A

    1992-01-01

    The results of the treatment of patients with acute renal failure (ARF) in dialysis units of Kraków, Nowy Sacz and Tarnów were estimated on the basis of prepared questionnaire. The increased number of patients treated because of ARF was demonstrated in the successive years of the study. The mortality rate in the tested group of patients remained about 27%. It depended on the cause of ARF and equalled to 26.7% in medical, 36.7% in surgical, 8% in obstetrical and 6.7 in urological patients, respectively.

  14. [The results of cytogenetic investigations in 107 couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions from Pomerania-Kujawy region of Poland].

    PubMed

    Pasińska, Magdalena; Haus, Olga; Adamczak, Rafał; Mucha, Barbara; Szymański, Wiesław; Ferenc, Aleksandra; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Duszeńko, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    About 10-15% of clinically diagnosed pregnancies end by spontaneous abortion. One of the causes of recurrent abortions is the presence of chromosome aberrations in a parent. The paper presents the results of cytogenetic investigations in 107 couples referred to genetic council clinic because of at least 2 spontaneous abortions. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes after standard 72h PHA-stimulated culture. At least 20 GTG- and CBG-banded metaphases were analyzed in each patient. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used as to precisely define cytogenetic results. Chromosome aberrations were found in 7 couples (6.54%), exclusively in women. Numerical aberration (47,XXX) was present in 1 woman, and balanced structural aberrations in 6 (5.61%). In 3 of them balanced translocations were disclosed: t(7; 19)(p13;p13.3), t(8;16)(q24;q22), and t(3;8)(q21;p21), in 2--inversions: inv(2)(p25q31), inv(17)(p12p13.3), and in 1--der(20). Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 was found in 3 men. The analysis of nongenetic factors showed that neither age, nor congenital anomalies of uterus could be an important factor causing abortions in analyzed couples with aberrations. However, infections and muta- or teratogenic exposure could contribute to loss of pregnancies in some cases. Authors conclude that karyotype analysis should be an integral part of diagnostics in couples with recurrent abortions.

  15. [Chickenpox in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, 140.115 cases of chickenpox were reported in Poland. The incidence 367.2 per 100,000 was higher compared to 2008 (340.2). Children 5-9 years old were the most affected age group--3252.8 per 100 000. Of 140.115 cases, 969 (0.69%) were hospitalized and 4 deaths attributed to chickenpox were reported.

  16. [Chickenpox in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 129.662 cases ofchickenpox were reported in Poland. The incidence 340.2 per 100,000 was lower compared to 2007 (420.2) and to the median incidence in 2002-2006 (370.7). Children 5-9 year old were the most affected age group - 3057.1 per 100 000. Of 129 662 cases, 800 (0.62%) were hospitalized and no deaths attributed to chickenpox were reported.

  17. Treatment of defective newborns--a survey of paediatricians in Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Szawarski, Z; Tulczyński, A

    1988-01-01

    We report the results of a survey of the attitudes and practices of paediatricians in Warsaw, Poland, with respect to the treatment of infants born with severe handicaps. The results are compared with a similar survey conducted by Australian researchers (1). In the Polish medical community surveyed, unconditional respect for life is a dominant attitude. Our study has revealed a deeply-entrenched paternalistic attitude among Polish doctors and a strong unwillingness to distinguish between 'ordinary and extraordinary means' of prolonging life, as well as an ambivalent attitude towards legal regulations binding in Poland. PMID:2965245

  18. Astronomy in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarna, M.; Stępień, K.

    2015-09-01

    Polish post-war astronomy was built virtually from nothing. Currently, about 250 astronomers are employed in seven academic institutes and a few smaller units across Poland. Broad areas of astrophysics are covered and the level of astronomical research in Poland is higher than the world average. Joining ESO has created an atmosphere that is conducive to further improvements in the quality of Polish research, and it marks an important step towards the full integration of Polish astronomers into the international scientific community.

  19. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  20. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  1. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  2. Lyme disease in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    In Poland registration of all cases of Lyme disease is conducted by the Epidemiological Unit of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Most cases of Lyme disease occur in the North- East region of Poland; however, it is important to note that the disease is no longer solely a problem of this region of Poland. The aim of this work is to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2012 as compared to the situation in the previous years. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland was made on the basis of an analysis of individual notifications of suspected Lyme disease submitted to NIZP-NIH by the Provincial Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations; as well as data from "Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2012" bulletin, and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" bulletin (MP Czarkowski and Co, Warsaw 2013, NIPH-NIH, NCI). In 2012 there were 8 782 registered cases of Lyme disease and it is 4.3% higher than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country amounted to 23.8 per 100 000 people. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie province - 75.5 per 100 000 people. 2 063 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2012 incidence rate of Lyme disease was gradually dropping down. The registered number of cases was reduced by 4.1% in comparison to the previous year. There is still a fairly low percentage of cases detected with diagnostic test called Western blot method.

  3. Differentiation of flea communities infesting small mammals across selected habitats of the Baltic coast, central lowlands, and southern mountains of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Krzysztof; Eichert, Urszula; Bogdziewicz, Michał; Rychlik, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    Only a few studies comparing flea composition on the coast and in the mountains have been conducted. We investigated differences in flea communities infesting small mammals in selected habitats in northern, central, and southern Poland. We predicted (1) a greater number of flea species in the southeastern Poland and a lower number in the north, (2) a greater number of flea species in fertile and wet habitats than in poor and arid habitats, and (3) a low similarity of flea species between flea communities in western and eastern Poland. We found a negative effect of increasing latitude on flea species richness. We suppose that the mountains providing a variety of environments and the limits of the geographic ranges of several flea subspecies in southeastern Poland result in a higher number of flea species. There was a positive effect of increasing wetness of habitat on flea species richness. We found a high diversity in flea species composition between western and eastern Poland (beta diversity = 11) and between central and eastern Poland (beta diversity = 12). Re-colonization of Poland by small mammals and their ectoparasites from different (western and eastern) refugees can affect on this high diversity of flea species.

  4. Poland: Children's Fiction in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povsic, Frances F.

    1980-01-01

    Lists and annotates children's books that present Polish folklore and legends, biographies of famous Polish people, personal accounts of life in Poland, and stories about Polish Americans and people living in Poland. (ET)

  5. Clustering of geriatric deficits emerges to be an essential feature of ageing - results of a cross-sectional study in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karolina, Piotrowicz; Agnieszka, Pac; Barbara, Skalska Anna; Jerzy, Chudek; Alicja, Klich-Rączka; Aleksandra, Szybalska; Jean-Pierre, Michel; Tomasz, Grodzicki

    2016-01-01

    The majority of old people suffer from various clinical conditions that affect health, functioning and quality of life. This research is a part of a cross-sectional, nationwide PolSenior Study that provides a comprehensive assessment of eight geriatric impairments and their co-occurrence in a representative sample (3471 participant aged 65-104 years, mean age 78.3 years) of the old adults living in the community in Poland. The participants were recruited randomly from all administrative regions of Poland by a three-stage, proportional, stratified-by-age group selection process. Eight geriatric conditions were assessed: falls, incontinences, cognitive impairment, mood disorders, vision and hearing impairments, malnutrition, and functional dependence. We showed that the most common deficits causing disability were vision and hearing impairments, and mood disorders, with more than two thirds of the participants presented at least one geriatric deficit. We showed that presence any of the analyzed conditions significantly increased the risk for co-occurrence of other examined weaknesses. The highest prevalence odds ratios were for functional dependence and, respectively: malnutrition (8.61, 95%CI: 4.70-15.80), incontinences (8.0, 95%CI:5.93-10.70), and cognitive impairment (7.22; 95%CI:5.91-8.83). We concluded that the majority of the old people living in the community present various clinical conditions that prompt disability. PMID:27794563

  6. New results on ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland) obtained during the DORIS Project (EU-FP 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graniczny, Marek; Colombo, Davide; Kowalski, Zbigniew; Przyłucka, Maria; Zdanowski, Albin

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of satellite interferometric methods (persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR™) and differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)) for observation of ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Southern Poland. The presented results were obtained during the DORIS project (EC FP 7, Grant Agreement n. 242212, www.doris-project.eu). Several InSAR datasets for this area were analysed. Most of them were processed by Tele-Rilevamento Europa - T.R.E. s.r.l. Italy. Datasets came from different SAR satellites (ERS 1 and 2, Envisat, ALOS- PALSAR and TerraSAR-X) and cover three different SAR bands (L, C and X). They were processed using both InSAR techniques: DInSAR, where deformations are presented as interferometric fringes on the raster image, and PSInSAR, where motion is indentified on irregular set of persistent scatterer (PS) points. Archival data from the C-band European Space Agency satellites ERS and ENVISAT provided information about ground movement since 1992 until 2010 in two separate datasets (1992-2000 and 2003-2010). Two coal mines were selected as examples of ground motion within inactive mining areas: Sosnowiec and Saturn, where mining ceased in 1995 and 1997, respectively. Despite well pumping after closure of the mines, groundwater rose several dozen meters, returning to its natural horizon. Small surface uplift clearly indicated on satellite interferometric data is related to high permeability of the hydrogeological subregion and insufficient water withdrawal from abandoned mines. The older 1992-2000 PSInSAR dataset indicates values of ground motion ranging from -40.0 to 0.0 mm. The newer 2003-2010 dataset shows values ranging from -2.0 to +7.0 mm. This means that during this period of time subsidence was less and uplift greater in comparison to the older dataset. This is even more evident in the time series of randomly selected PS points from both coal

  7. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU)

    PubMed Central

    Pelikan, Jürgen M.; Röthlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. Methods: The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. Results: The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29–62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Discussion: Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. PMID:25843827

  8. Predictions for diffraction at the LHC compared to experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2014-04-01

    Diffractive proton-proton cross sections at the LHC, as well as the total and total-inelastic proton-proton cross sections, are predicted in a simple model obeying all unitarity constraints. The model has been implemented in the PYTHIA8-MBR event generator for single diffraction, double diffraction, and central diffraction processes. Predictions of the model are compared to recent LHC results.

  9. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Key, Brian P; Zerkle, David K; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  10. Preferences regarding genetic research results: comparing veterans and nonveterans responses.

    PubMed

    Arar, N; Seo, J; Lee, S; Abboud, H E; Copeland, L A; Noel, P; Parchman, M

    2010-01-01

    Communicating genetic research results to participants presents ethical challenges. Our objectives were to examine participants' preferences in receiving future genetic research results and to compare preferences reported by veteran and nonveterans participants. Secondary analysis was performed on data collected in 2000-2004 from 1,575 consent forms signed by Mexican-American participants enrolled in 2 genetic family studies (GFS) in San Antonio: The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) and the Extended FIND (EFIND). The consent forms for these studies contained multiple-choice questions to examine participants' preferences about receiving their (1) clinical lab results and (2) future genetic research results. The FIND and EFIND databases had information on subjects' demographic characteristics and some selected clinical variables. We identified veterans using the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's) centralized data repository. We compared veterans' and nonveterans' preferences using Student's t test for continuous variables and χ² test for discrete variables. A logistic regression analyzed subjects' preference for receiving their research results, controlling for other socio-demographic and clinical variables. The sample included 275 (18%) veterans and 1,247 (82%) nonveterans. Our results indicated a strong desire among the majority of participants 1,445 (95%) in getting their clinical lab research results. Likewise, 93% expressed interest in being informed about their future genetic results. There was no significant difference in veterans' and nonveterans' preference to disclosure of the research results (χ² test; p > 0.05). Regression analysis showed no significant relationship (p = 0.449) between the outcome (receiving research results) and veterans' responses after controlling for demographics and educational levels. Participants believed they would prefer receiving their genetic research results. Veterans are similar to nonveterans

  11. Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A.

    2011-06-07

    The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

  12. The southern margin of the East European Craton: new results from seismic sounding and potential fields between the North Sea and Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, U.; Grad, M.; Pharaoh, T. C.; Thybo, H.; Guterch, A.; Banka, D.; Lamarche, J.; Lassen, A.; Lewerenz, B.; Scheck, M.; Marotta, A.-M.

    2002-12-01

    The extension of eastern Avalonia from Britain through the NE German Basin into Poland is, in some sense, a virtual structure. It is covered almost everywhere by late Paleozoic and younger sediments. Evidence for this terrane is only gathered from geophysical data and age information derived from magmatic rocks. During the last two decades, much geophysical and geological information has been gathered since the European Geotraverse (EGT), which was followed by the BABEL, LT-7, MONA LISA, DEKORP-Basin'96, and POLONAISE'97 deep seismic experiments. Based on seismic lines, a remarkable feature has been observed between the North Sea and Poland: north of the Elbe Line (EL), the lower crust is characterised by high velocities (6.8-7.0 km/s), a feature which seems to be characteristic for at least a major part of eastern Avalonia (far eastern Avalonia). In addition, the seismic lines indicate that a wedge of the East European Craton (EEC) (or Baltica) continues to the south below the southern Permian Basin (SPB)—a structure which resembles a passive continental margin. The observed pattern may either indicate an extension of the Baltic crust much farther south than earlier expected or oceanic crust of the Tornquist Sea trapped during the Caledonian collision. In either case, the data require a reinterpretation of the docking mechanism of eastern Avalonia, and the Elbe-Odra Line (EOL), as well as the Elbe Fault system, together with the Intra-Sudedic Faults, appear to be related to major changes in the deeper crustal structures separating the East European crust from the Paleozoic agglomeration of Middle European terranes.

  13. Higher Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluczynski, J.

    The current problems of higher education in Poland are addressed, with focus on its variety, operation, and history. The emphasis is on the development of events during the past decade and particularly since 1980. One in a series of monographs on national systems of higher education in Europe, this report covers the following: (1) introduction;…

  14. Pharmaceutical Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmanowa, Miroslawa; Borke, Mitchell L.

    1978-01-01

    The content and organization of Poland's system of pharmaceutical education is described. Tables are presented of the subjects of the basic studies curriculum and the following areas of specialization: applied pharmacy, pharmaceutical analysis, clinical analysis, drug technology, herbal pharmacy, and bioanalysis and environmental studies. (SW)

  15. Income Affluence in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of income affluence (richness) in Poland during 1998-2007. Using household survey data, the paper estimates several statistical indices of income affluence including income share of the top percentiles, population share of individuals receiving incomes higher than the richness line, and measures that take into…

  16. Comparing the results of five lifting analysis tools.

    PubMed

    Russell, Steven J; Winnemuller, Lori; Camp, Janice E; Johnson, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of the NIOSH, ACGIH TLV, Snook, 3DSSPP and WA L&I lifting assessment instruments when applied to a uniform task (lifting and lowering milk cases with capacities of 15 and 23l). To enable comparisons between the various lifting assessment instruments, the outputs of each method were converted to an exposure index similar to the NIOSH Lifting Index. All instruments showed higher exposures associated with lifting the 23l cases versus the 15l cases. The NIOSH, ACGIH TLV and Snook methods were similar in their results with respect to the pattern of exposure over various height levels and the differences in exposures associated with lifting 15 and 23l cases. However, the WA L&I and 3DSSPP predicted substantially lower exposures. The reasons for instrument differences are presented so that practitioners can better select the methods they need and interpret the results appropriately.

  17. Treatment of pediatric epilepsy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dunin-Wąsowicz, Dorota; Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska, Maria; Steinborn, Barbara; Wheless, James; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz

    2015-05-01

    The many types of childhood epilepsies make the diagnosis and treatment difficult and the outcomes frequently poor. Furthermore, there are few clinical trials in pediatric epilepsy that provide useful results to guide daily practice. Therefore for pediatric neurologists expert opinion may be useful. To provide an overview of current practice in Poland and compare results with European and US clinical guidelines. Polish specialists in pediatric neurology were asked to participate in a survey about pediatric epilepsy. The focus of the questions was on the overall strategy and treatment options for different syndromic diagnoses. The survey was developed and performed according to a previous European survey (Wheless et al., 2007). Fifty-one Polish specialists, working in academic or clinical settings, completed the questionnaire. They limited combination therapy to two or three antiepileptic drugs. Valproate was the treatment of choice for myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. For infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis and of symptomatic etiology, vigabatrin was treatment of choice; valproate and ACTH were other first line options. Valproate and ethosuximide were chosen for childhood absence epilepsy and valproate for juvenile absence epilepsy. Carbamazepine was the first-line treatment option for benign partial epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes and complex partial seizures. In the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy for males valproate, for females lamotrigine were chosen. Polish pediatric neurologists agreed on the majority of questions. Their views reflect the clinical utility and availability of treatment options in Poland. Results may provide direction for clinicians. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Comparative data compression techniques and multi-compression results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. R.; Ibrahimy, M. I.; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ferdaus, M. M.; Khan, M. N. H.

    2013-12-01

    Data compression is very necessary in business data processing, because of the cost savings that it offers and the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. It is a method or system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication, we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise freely. This paper will provide some compression techniques for lossless text type data compression and comparative result of multiple and single compression, that will help to find out better compression output and to develop compression algorithms.

  19. Education in Poland. Bulletin, 1922, No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Teresa

    1923-01-01

    Poland, reconstituted as a result of the war, comprises the territory formerly divided among the great powers of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Prussia. Its area extends over 149,140 square miles and its population, according to the census of September 30, 1921, is estimated at 27,160,163, of which two-thirds are Poles. The remainder comprises…

  20. Parents' Perceptions of Integrated Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragiel, Józefa

    2016-01-01

    Integrated education in Poland has been implemented since 1993. This alternative form of education very quickly resulted in an increased number of integrated classes in mainstream schools and a decreased percentage of students with disabilities in segregated education. Research indicates that the process of "opening of society to…

  1. Lyme disease in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease, caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia genus transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes genus. Infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi occur throughout Poland and therefore, according also to ECDC description, the whole country should be considered as an endemic area. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” (MP Czarkowski et al., Warsaw 2015, NIZP-PZH, GIS). The number of cases of Lyme disease in recent years is steadily increasing. In total, 13.870 cases of Lyme disease registered in Poland in 2014, i.e. 8% more cases than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 36.0 per 100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie voivodeship – 106.8 per 100,000. In 2014, 2.236 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2014, the growth rate of incidence decreased significantly. 8% more cases were registered compared with the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations.

  2. Oral health needs of athletes with intellectual disability in Eastern Europe: Poland, Romania and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Rojas, Carla; Wichrowska-Rymarek, Kaja; Pavlic, Alenka; Vinereanu, Arina; Fabjanska, Katarzyna; Kaschke, Imke; Marks, Luc A M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the oral condition and treatment needs of Special Olympics (SO) athletes from Poland, Romania and Slovenia. A cross-sectional study was performed with data collected through standardised oral screening of athletes who participated in the annual SO events held in Poland, Romania and Slovenia, between 2011 and 2012. The data were compiled and transferred to an SPSS data file for analysis using descriptive statistics. A total of 3,545 athletes participated in the study. Among the main findings, the prevalence of untreated decay was 41% in Poland and 61% in Slovenia, whilst 70% of the Romanian athletes had signs of gingival disease and only 3.8% presented molar fissure sealants. In addition, 47% of Polish athletes were in need of urgent treatment. Analysis of the results obtained following screening showed comparable oral health needs of athletes with intellectual disability among countries. Exploration of the oral health systems of the countries revealed similar significant co-payments and lack of incentive for dentists to treat patients with special needs. The results from Romania, Poland and Slovenia demonstrated the need for a structured system in which a special population is a target for oral-health-related education programmes and system-included preventive, restorative and maintenance interventions. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  4. Space-based estimation of the solar UV-B doses for psoriasis heliotherapy in Poland using OMI data for the period 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, J W; Jarosławski, J; Rajewska-Więch, B; Sobolewski, P S; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Pawlaczyk, M; Janouch, M

    2012-12-05

    A UV model is proposed to reconstruct the biologically weighted doses at the ground-level, erythemal, vitamin D(3), and antipsoriatic effective doses, based on the space data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on board of NASA EOS Aura spacecraft for the period 2005-2011. The model is training using the results of spectral UV measurements carried out at Belsk, Poland. The model outcome is verified using the UV spectra measured at Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. The model uncertainty is almost the same for all examined action spectra and comparable to that found in earlier studies on differences between the satellite overpasses and ground-based erythemal data. Antipsoriatic doses, taken during 2h exposure periods near local noon, are reconstructed for selected sites in Poland to find if heliotherapy would be an alternative to standard treatment of psoriasis by tube irradiation in medical cabinets. Mountain-resort in the southern Poland, Zakopane, and rural-site in Central Poland, Belsk, are among the best location of potential heliotherapy centers in Poland for late spring/summer season. Łeba, resort on the Baltic Sea coast, is a potential heliotherapy center in June and July. The methodology to disclose possible heliotherapy periods over the territory of Poland could be extended to any region. It would help to prepare an optimal schedule of antipsoriatic heliotherapy that accounts for local weather conditions and medical standards of using UV cabinets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of factors influencing patient choice of community pharmacy in Poland and in the UK, and identification of components of pharmaceutical care

    PubMed Central

    Merks, Piotr; Kaźmierczak, Justyna; Olszewska, Aleksandra Elzbieta; Kołtowska-Häggström, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Several factors, which are components of pharmaceutical care, can influence a patient’s choice of a community pharmacy store and contribute to frequent visits to the same pharmacy. Objectives To compare factors that influence a patient’s choice of pharmacy in Poland and in the UK, to identify which of them are components of pharmaceutical care, and to relate them to patient loyalty to the same pharmacy. Methods A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to clients visiting pharmacies in Poland and the UK January–August 2011. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0. Results The response rate was 55.6% (n=417/750; 36 pharmacies) and 54.0% (n=405/750; 56 pharmacies) in Poland and in the UK, respectively. The most frequently reported factors, as defined by a percentage of responders, were in Poland: 1) location (84%); 2) professional and high-quality of service (82%); 3) good price of medicines (78%); and 4) promotions on medicines (66%). In the UK, the most commonly reported factors were: 1) professional and high quality of service (90%); 2) location (89%); 3) good advice received from the pharmacist (86%); and 4) option of discussing and consulting all health issues in a consultation room (80%). Good advice and an option of discussing personal concerns with a pharmacist are components of pharmaceutical care. Thirty-eight percent of patients in Poland and 61% in the UK declared visiting the same pharmacy. Conclusion Components of pharmaceutical care are important factors influencing the patient’s choice of pharmacy in the UK and, to a lesser degree, in Poland. Additionally, more patients in the UK than in Poland are committed to a single pharmacy. Therefore, implementing the full pharmaceutical care in Poland may contribute to an increase in patient loyalty and thus strengthen competitiveness of pharmacy businesses. PMID:24868150

  6. Is lamination in inoceramid shells as a result of paleoenvironment changes in the Late Cretaceous? Study case from the Skole Unit (Eastern Carpathians, Poland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicki, Adam; Kędzierski, Mariusz

    2017-04-01

    According to modern paleoenvironmetal analysis, in the Late Cretaceous climate in the area of average geographical lattitiudes was rather stable, without seasons and seasionality influence. Additionally there was no sea currents and deep water circulation in the northern Tethys or smaller basins connected to it, like Skole Basin. These conditions supposed to be reflected by structure or chemical composition in shells or skeletons of marine organisms as a continuous record. The aim of presented study is to find a reason of presence of heterogeneous lamination characterized by different laminae thickness in inoceramid shells. Samples of benthic bivalves were collected from the Inoceramid Layers from the profile located near Rybotycze village, South-East of Poland. This profile consists of flysch rocks of the Upper Cretaceous - Paleogene (Turonian - Thanetian) Ropianka Formation (fm). Research is based on the analysis of cross sections of shells by polarized microscope, cathodolouminescence (CL), and Scanning Electron Miscroscope (SEM) with microanalysis using energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). All the collected bivalve samples scrutinized under CL represent low to medium - low influence of diaganetic processes. CL reveals variety of lamination occurring in cross sections. SEM observations indicate no differences in crystal structures in reference to shells lamination. Additionally no presence of bacterial relicts in laminae were observed using SEM. Anlysis shows evident reduction of calcite prism sizes and lenghts from the inner shell layer to the outer shell layer in a cross-section. The lamination is not connected with location in a cross-section of shell and size of prisms. The EDS analyses do not indicate significant changes between layers. The intensity and occurrence of lamination shows no connection with chemical composition, presence of bacteria or diagenetic influence.

  7. Refractive results after phacoemulsification and ECCE. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Dam-Johansen, M; Olsen, T

    1993-06-01

    The refractive results were evaluated in 79 patients undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification using a 6-7 mm tunnel incision, and compared with a group of 77 patients undergoing planned extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) by the same surgeon. A mean increase in the keratometric cylinder of 0.05D and 0.52D was found in the phacoemulsification and the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively. This was significantly different from zero for the extracapsular cataract extraction group (p < 0.05) but not for the phacoemulsification group (p > 0.05). By vector analysis, the mean surgically induced astigmatism was 0.91D and 1.36D in the phacoemulsification and the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively (p < 0.01). The IOL power prediction error (spectacle plane) was found to be 0.17D (+/- 0.69 SD) in the phacoemulsification group and 0.02 D (+/- 0.79 SD) in the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively. We conclude that phacoemulsification improves the surgical control of the refractive outcome of cataract surgery.

  8. Helminth infections in faecal samples of wolves Canis lupus L. from the western Beskidy Mountains in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Popiołek, Marcin; Szczesnaa, Justyna; Nowaka, Sabina; Mysłajeka, Robert W

    2007-12-01

    Eighty-nine samples of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) faeces were collected between 2002 and 2004 from two areas in the western Beskidy Mts (south Poland). Helminth eggs were observed in 56.2% of faeces examined. These included: Alaria alata (2.2%), taeniid eggs (11.2%), Toxocara canis (5.6%), Toxascaris leonina (1.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (14.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (12.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (37%) and unidentified roundworm eggs of the family Strongyloididae (1.1%). Eucoleus aerophilus is recorded for the first time from Poland. The results are compared with the helminth fauna of other wolf populations in Europe.

  9. Comparative risk assessment: an international comparison of methodologies and results.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, R D; Shih, J; Sessions, S L

    2000-11-03

    Comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a systematic procedure for evaluating the environmental problems affecting a geographic area. This paper looks beyond the U.S. border and examines the experience with CRAs conducted in various developing countries and economies in transition, including Bangkok, Thailand, Cairo, Egypt and Quito, Ecuador, as well as other locations in Eastern Europe, Asia and Central and South America. A recent pilot CRA conducted in Taiwan is also considered. Comparisons are made of both the methodologies and the results across the relatively diverse international literature. The most robust finding is that conventional air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter and lead) consistently rank as high health risks across all of the CRAs examined. Given the varied nature of the settings studied in the CRAs, including level of economic development, urban-rural differences, and climate, this finding is particularly significant. Problems involving drinking water are also ranked as a high or medium health risk in almost all the countries studied. This is consistent with the results of analyses conducted by the World Bank suggesting contamination, limited coverage and erratic service by water supply systems. Beyond the major air pollutants and drinking water, the CRA results diverge significantly across countries. A number of problems involving toxic chemicals, e. g., hazardous air pollutants, rank as high health risks in the US but do not appear as consistent areas of concerns in the other countries studied. This likely reflects the so-called "risk transition" - the shift from sanitation and infection disease problems to those involving industry, vehicles and toxic substances - that often occurs with economic development. It may also reflect the greater information about sources of toxic pollutants in the U.S. For other problems, there are important differences across the developing countries and economies in transition. For example, hazardous and

  10. A U.S. Partnership with India and Poland to Track Acute Chemical Releases to Serve Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Dewan, Aruna; Kapil, Vikas

    2009-01-01

    We describe a collaborative effort between the U.S., India, and Poland to track acute chemical releases during 2005–2007. In all three countries, fixed facility events were more common than transportation-related events; manufacturing and transportation/warehousing were the most frequently involved industries; and equipment failure and human error were the primary contributing factors. The most commonly released nonpetroleum substances were ammonia (India), carbon monoxide (U.S.) and mercury (Poland). More events in India (54%) resulted in victims compared with Poland (15%) and the U.S. (9%). The pilot program showed it is possible to successfully conduct international surveillance of acute hazardous substances releases with careful interpretation of the findings. PMID:19826549

  11. Poland syndrome associated with ipsilateral lipoma and dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenya; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Qigang; Du, Jiang; Zhang, Shuguang; Liu, Xiangli

    2011-12-01

    A 22-year-old man was admitted with a rapidly enlarging soft mass on the left chest wall, which was diagnosed as lipoma by postoperative pathology. A chest roentgenogram revealed a defect of the fourth rib, scoliosis, dextrocardia, and diaphragmatic hernia. A computed tomographic scan showed maldevelopment of the pectoralis major and minor muscles. This is the first reported case of Poland syndrome with ipsilateral lipoma of the chest wall. Dextrocardia associated with Poland syndrome may be considered dextroposition, rather than a dextroinversion, and it may arise as a result of Poland syndrome. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

  13. [Mumps in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Rogalska, Justyna

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, 15,115 cases of mumps were reported in Poland. The incidence (39.6 per 100,000) was considerably lower compared to 2005 (188.5) and to the median incidence in 2000-2004 (104.6). The decrease of mumps incidence in 2006 is related to high coverage of routine two-dose immunisation against measles, mumps and rubella, maintained since its implementation in 2003. Children 5-9 year old were the most affected age group (incidence 328.7 per 100,000). Since the immunisation schedule during 2003-2006 involved administration of MMR doses at the ages of 2 and 10 years, a stable decrease of mumps incidence is expected after routine immunisation will cover the school age birth cohorts (6-14 year olds). Of 15,115 cases, 656 (4.3%) were hospitalized and no deaths attributed to mumps were reported.

  14. Objectives and methodology of Romanian SEPHAR II Survey. Project for comparing the prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two East-European countries: Romania and Poland

    PubMed Central

    Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. Material and methods SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. Results From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18–79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Conclusions Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region. PMID:26322082

  15. Objectives and methodology of Romanian SEPHAR II Survey. Project for comparing the prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two East-European countries: Romania and Poland.

    PubMed

    Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Darabont, Roxana; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2015-08-12

    Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18-79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region.

  16. An attempt to estimate the minimal number of Poles infected and treated for malaria in Poland and abroad.

    PubMed

    Kuna, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Nahorski, Wacław L; Stępień, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Stańczak, Joanna; Myjak, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is one of the three most dangerous infectious diseases in the world. According to official statistics, there are a few dozen cases in Poland annually while the number of Poles treated abroad or self-treating remains unknown. Poland has been declared to be malaria-free since 1963 and nowadays all cases are imported. The aim of the study is to determine the minimal number of malaria cases in Poles at home and abroad in the last decade. The medical records of 4,710 patients tested for malaria in the Department of Tropical Parasitology in the years 2003-2012 were analysed. Two spreadsheets were created, which only included people with a history of malaria diagnosed in the reference centre where indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) for Plasmodium falciparum antigen proved positive. The minimum number of Poles who have had malaria at home and abroad was calculated on the basis of positive IFA results; the rate of all treated malaria patients in Poland in relation to those treated in the reference centre and the actual number of Poles with malaria diagnosed at home was calculated. A group of 376 people with positive serologic tests results in indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay with titre ≥ 1:20 were received, including 227 patients with positive serologic results with titre ≥ 1:80. The rate of the overall number of malaria cases in Poland compared to the number of malaria cases in the University Centre for Maritime and Tropical Medicine Hospital was determined as 3.47:1. It was demonstrated that every year at least 174 to 211 Poles staying abroad may suffer from malaria. This is the first attempt to estimate the minimal number of Poles infected and treated for malaria in Poland and abroad. The estimated number is 8-10 times greater than the number of registered cases in Poland.

  17. Poland's other Thirty Years' War.

    PubMed

    Kozakiewicz, M

    1990-06-01

    The Polish Family Development Association (Towarzystwo Rozwoju Rodziny (TRR)) was founded in 1957. At the end of 1988, TRR owned and ran 89 medical clinics, 5 youth centers, 25 premarital and family counseling centers, and 6 prenatal training schools. 140,000 patients were served in 1988, and 140,000 in 1989. But there was a decline in the number of family counseling and premarital centers. It fell to 22 at the end of 1989 and 16 in the 1/4 of 1990. The nonCommunist government took crisis measures. From January 1 onward, the government suspended all kinds of subsidies for nongovernmental organizations in Poland. The TRR was compelled to dissolve 12 local branches. Nothing is certain anymore, even the Minister of Health has changed. Poland's Catholic Church has been in conflict with TRR. The Church is against abortions, contraception, and secular, modern sex education. Because of Church opposition to contraception, the abortion rate is very high. Official statistics tell only the number of abortions done in hospitals. The real abortion numbers are subject to controversy. The Church claims that the real number of is 1 million a year. However, the real estimate is about 400,00 to 600,000 a year, resulting in a ratio of 70 to 100 abortions/100 live births. The powerful Pro-Life movement is partly supported and financed by American "Pro-Life" interests and partly by Solidarity (which is split on the issue). Pro-Life campaigns for declaring the 1957 abortion law illegal. 76% of the people in towns and 87% in villages rely solely on the natural methods accepted by the Church. The supply and demand of modern contraceptives is unreliable. Political changes in Poland may have a negative effect on family planning and sex education. Sex education (from age 11) in the narrow sense of telling where babies come from has been compulsory since 1972. But real sex education has only been compulsory since 1987. It is taught in all secondary schools (ages 15-19) for 1 hour every other

  18. [Rubella in Poland in 2010].

    PubMed

    Karasek, Ewa; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Rubella is the disease subject to the elimination programme coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Generally, rubella is an infection of mild course among children but in the case of pregnant women, who are not immunized, it may contribute to the occurrence of severe congenital abnormalities (congenital rubella syndrome) may amount to 95%. The strategy of the countries belonging to the WHO European Region is directed to the interruption of the rubella virus transmission in the environment in order to prevent the cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The aims of the present article are to analyze the epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2010 and to discuss the rubella vaccination coverage. [corrected] The epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland was analyzed on the basis of publications: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2010" (Czarkowski MP et al. Warsaw 2011, NIPH-NIH and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2010". The classification of the rubella cases is based on the definition of the infectious diseases developed by the Department of Epidemiology (NIPH - NIH): "Definitions of the cases of infectious diseases for the purposes of the epidemiological surveillance". Comparing the epidemiological situation in 2009 and 2010, in 2010 a decline in the incidence of rubella was observed--from 19.0 per 100 000 population to 11.0 per 100 000 population. Overall, 4 197 cases of rubella were reported. While analyzing the definition of the rubella case for the purposes of the epidemiological surveillance, none of the cases was reported as the confirmed case, 29 (0.7%) were classified as the probable and the remaining cases were classified only on the basis of clinical criteria. In 2010, one congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) was registered. The rubella incidence among girls and women (9.0) was lower than the incidence observed among boys and men (13.1). The highest incidence--regardless of the gender and surroundings--was reported in

  19. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  20. Poland and Global Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  1. COMPARING MODEL RESULTS TO NATIONAL CLIMATE POLICY GOALS: RESULTS FROM THE ASIA MODELING EXERCISE

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Jiang, Kejun

    2012-12-01

    While the world has yet to adopt a single unified policy to limit climate change, many countries and regions have adopted energy and climate policies that have implications for global emissions. In this paper, we discuss a few key policies and how they are included in a set of 24 energy and integrated assessment models that participated in the Asia Modeling Exercise. We also compare results from these models for a small set of stylized scenarios to the pledges made as part of the Copenhagen Accord and the goals stated by the Major Economies Forum. We find that the targets outlined by the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Korea require significant policy action in most of the models analyzed. For most of the models in the study, however, the goals outlined by India are met without any climate policy. The stringency of climate policy required to meet China’s Copenhagen pledges varies across models and accounting methodologies.

  2. Diffusion of emergency warning: Comparing empirical and simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1988-10-01

    As officials consider emergency warning systems to alert the public to potential danger in areas surrounding hazardous facilities, the issue of warning system effectiveness is of critical importance. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an analysis on the timing of warning system information dissemination including the alert of the public and delivery of a warning message. A general model of the diffusion of emergency warning is specified as a logistic function. Alternative warning systems are characterized in terms of the parameters of the model, which generally constrain the diffusion process to account for judged maximum penetration of each system for various locations and likelihood of being in those places by time of day. The results indicate that the combination of either telephone ring-down warning systems or tone-alert radio systems combined with sirens provide the most effective warning system under conditions of either very rapid onset, or close proximity or both. These results indicate that single technology systems provide adequate warning effectiveness when available warning time (to the public after detection and the decision to warn) extends to as much as an hour. Moreover, telephone ring-down systems provide similar coverage at approximately 30 minutes of available public warning time. 36 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. [Ductus closure in adults with the Rashkind device: comparative results].

    PubMed

    Novo García, E; Bermúdez, R; Herraiz, I; Salgado, A; Balaguer, J; Moya, J L; Pinto, J

    1999-03-01

    Catheter occlusion of the persistent ductus arteriosus with Rashkind device is an alternative to the surgical closure demonstrated in children, however a few results have been reported of occlusion in adults. From 1990 to 1996 in 127 patients with persistent ductus arteriosus undergoing occlusion by Raskind device. Two groups according age: 105 children (< 14 years) and 22 adults (> 14 years), were studied retrospectively. The results were analysed by immediate aortogram and follow-up at 24 hours, 6 and 12 months by color-Doppler echocardiograms. The adults were frequently asymptomatic (86%) and with high incidence (59%) of silent ductus. Similar QP/QS (1.61 +/- 0.47 in adults vs 1.49 +/- 0.51) was calculated although pulmonary pressure was superior in children (12.50 +/- 2.97 vs 16.84 +/- 5.88 mmHg; p = 0.003). In group > 14 years the ductal anatomy favorable (Krichenko type A or B) was more frequent (91% vs 73%; p = 0.06) and ductal diameter significantly higher (3.03 +/- 1.50 vs 2.41 +/- 0.96 mm; p = 0.009). In adults 17 mm umbrella were used more frequently (91 vs 61%; p = 0.02). Absence complications (embolization, bacteremia, haemolysis, proximal stenosis of the left pulmonary artery) were found in adults against 4.72% in children. The occlusion were more effective in adults specially in early controls: 55% vs 34% (p = 0.09), 82% vs 69%, 91% vs 77% and 95% vs 83% (p > 0.10). Multivariate analysis identified age as an independent predictor of complete occlusion. Our experience in transcatheter occlusion of persistent ductus arteriosus with Rashkind device in adults support the efficacy, safety and excellent early results despite higher incidence of silent asymptomatic ductus.

  4. XV-15 flight test results compared with design goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernicke, K. G.; Magee, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    Aircraft No. 2 is presently in the midst of flight envelope expansion. Noise and safety design goals have been demonstrated; preliminary results indicate that performance and component life goals may also be met. Hovering power indicates a standard hover ceiling of 7,000 feet. After 18.0 hours of flight, a true airspeed of 207 knots has been reached. The goal is a 300-knot cruise speed. So far, XV-15 flight tests indicate no reason why the tilt rotor concept should not fulfill its promise to provide a major step forward in air vehicle flexibility and in rotary wing performance.

  5. Metrological Traceability of Assays and Comparability of Patient Test Results.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, David

    2017-03-01

    At the start of the twenty-first century, a dramatic change occurred in the clinical laboratory community. Concepts from Metrology, the science of measurement, began to be formally applied to clinical laboratory field methods, resulting in a new appreciation of metrological calibrator traceability. It is a change because clinical laboratories test complex patient samples, for example, whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, and so forth, using commercial assay systems, not reference methods, and patient samples are tested once, not in replicate. Analytical harmonization is necessary for optimal patient care but is challenging to achieve.

  6. Hepatitis C in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Parda, Natalia; Stępień, Małgorzata

    . Currently, hepatitis C (HCV infection) is one of the public health priorities worldwide. It is associated with a considerable improvement of methods undertaken to eliminate this disease. Due to the predominance of chronic infections of long asymptomatic course, the number of cases detected in successive years does not reflect the actual dynamics of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis C. To a large extent, it depends on current testing practices. The modifications in the provisions on the notification of diagnosed cases may also have an effect on the number of HCV infections registered in successive years. This article aims at evaluating the epidemiological situation of HCV infections in Poland in 2014 in reference to the data from previous years. Analysis of epidemiological situation of hepatitis C in Poland was carried out on a basis of aggregated data from routine surveillance system published in annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland”. Data on hepatitis C mortality from the Demographic Surveys and Labour Market Department of the Central Statistical Office were also employed. In 2014, a total of 3 076 HCV infections (incidence – 7.99 per 100,000) meeting 2005 definition were registered. Compared to 2013 and median as of 2008-2012, there was an increase of the incidence by 14% (2 705; 6.03) and 34% (2 294; 5.85), respectively. In 2014, a total of 3 551 (9.23) HCV infections meeting 2009 definition were reported (the definition was modified in 2014). Compared to 2013 (2 268; 6.86), it was an increase by 35%. In 2014, 241 deaths due to hepatitis C were registered which is the highest mortality noted so far. In recent years, a burden resulting from undiagnosed or untreated HCV infections is on the increase. It is demonstrated by increasing hepatitis C mortality and increasing trend of incidence according to 2005 definition (presence of symptoms). Increase of incidence according to 2009/2014 definition may be associated with the

  7. Comparative Results of Tests on Several Different Types of Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisenko, M. S.

    1944-01-01

    This paper presents the results of tests conducted to determine the effect of the constructional elements of a Laval nozzle on the velocity and pressure distribution and the magnitude of the reaction force of the jet. The effect was studied of the shapes of the entrance section of the nozzle and three types of divergent sections: namely, straight cone, conoidal with cylindrical and piece and diffuser obtained computationally by a graphical method due to Professor F. I. Frankle. The effect of the divergence angle of the nozzle on the jet reaction was also investigated. The results of the investigation showed that the shape of the generator of the inner surface of the entrance part of the nozzle essentially has no effect on the character of the flow and on the reaction. The nozzle that was obtained by graphical computation assured the possibility of obtaining a flow for which the velocity of all the gas particles is parallel to the axis of symmetry of the nozzle, the reaction being on the average 2 to 3 percent greater than for the usual conical nozzle under the same conditions, For the conical nozzle the maximum reaction was obtained for a cone angle of 25deg to 27deg. At the end of this paper a sample computation is given by the graphical method. The tests were started at the beginning of 1936 and this paper was written at the same time.

  8. Results from comparing THEMIS satellite and ground based observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, Stephen; Frey, Harald; Donovan, Eric; Jackel, Brian; Angelopoulos, V.

    The NASA Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) project is intended to investigate the major controversy in substorm science, the uncertainty whether the instability leading to the substorm is initiated near the Earth or in the more distant >20 Re magnetic tail. THEMIS will use the timing of the occurrence of substorm signatures at five satellites and at ground based all-sky imagers and magnetometers to infer the propagation direction. The array of stations consists of 20 all-sky imagers and 30 plus magnetometers deployed in the North American continent from Alaska to Labrador. Each ground based observatory contains a white light imager taking auroral images at a 3 second repetition rate and a magnetometer that records the 3 axis variation of the magnetic field at 2 Hz frequency. During the winter of 2007-08 the THEMIS satellites achieved their intended strategic locations to monitor substorms. For example in the time period between 06 and 09 UT on the 2nd of February 2008 several substorms occurred while the THEMIS satellites P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 were located in the tail of the magnetosphere at approximately 29.6, 18.5, 11, 11 and 8Re downtail distance (GSM) respectively. The weather was relatively clear permitting the recording of the auroral features while the particle and field measurements were taken. In this paper we will discuss the preliminary results drawn from the data taken during substorms that occur during THEMIS conjunctions.

  9. HIV and AIDS in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Niedźwiedzka-Stadnik, Marta; Pielacha, Magdalena; Rosińska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    From 1985 until the end of 2013, 17 565 cases of HIV infection, 3 062 AIDS cases and 1 246 deaths due to AIDS were registered in Poland. In this paper we aim to analyze the epidemiological situation of newly diagnosed HIV infections and AIDS cases in Poland in 2012. Descriptive analysis of newly detected HIV cases and incident AIDS cases was performed based on routine notifications by clinicians and laboratories. Data on the number of HIV tests from annual survey among laboratories were also used. In 2012 there were 1 093 HIV cases diagnosed in Poland (detection rate 2.84 per 100 000 population), including 27 non-Polish citizens. The detection rate remained comparable to 2011, but approximately 30% higher than in 2006-2010. The total number of AIDS cases was 155 (incidence 0.40 per 100 000) and 57 AIDS patients died (0.15 per 100 000). HIV infection is mainly detected among people aged 20-39 years (72.6%) and males (83.5%). As many as 70% of newly diagnosed infections with known route of transmission occurred among men who have sex with men (MSM). The number of infections in this group increased by 9% from 2011 and over 3 times compared to 2006-2010 average. The percentage of late presenters (defined by the time between HIV and AIDS diagnoses of less than 3 months) decreased in comparison with 2011 (7.9% of newly diagnosed HIV infections). HIV epidemic is still spreading among MSM in Poland. However, assessment of epidemiological situation is limited by the lack of data on the probable transmission route in a large percentage of reports of newly diagnosed HIV cases.

  10. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 85Sr to include the 2009 result of the POLATOM (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Dziel, T.; Listkowska, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1975, ten laboratories have submitted 27 samples of known activity of 85Sr to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.2 MBq and 19 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the primary standardization result for the POLATOM, Poland. There are now four results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. [Emigration from Poland].

    PubMed

    Fassmann, H

    1998-01-01

    "Apart from Ireland and Italy Poland belongs to the ¿classical' emigration countries of the 19th and 20th century. Due to economical and political factors a considerable number of Poles left their country.... Spread over many countries on several continents the emigrants established a Polish diaspora and developed a national feeling that is...[connected] with the Polish culture and the Polish ¿community'. The existence of ethnic networks structures characterized the Polish emigration also after 1989/90. Political and ethnic factors become thereby less important in comparison with economical push- and pull-factors. This leads to an emigration of qualified people who get jobs in the urban labour markets of Western Europe in private households, and in the building trade, sometimes under precarious circumstances." (EXCERPT)

  12. Tetanus in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    For many years the number of tetanus cases reported in Poland remaing below fifty with marked random variations. Almost all disease occur in people unvaccinated. Some of them, especially in people over age 60, are fatal.

  13. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2012 compared to previous years, using national surveillance data. We reviewed surveillance data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and in previous publications, and botulism case reports for 2012 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2012, a total of 22 foodborne botulism cases (including 9 laboratory confirmed cases) was reported, corresponding to the lowest annual incidence rate (0.06 per 100 000 population) since the introduction of botulism as mandatory notifiable disease. The highest incidence in the country was reported in Lubelskie (0.23) and Wielkopolskie (0.20). Incidence in rural areas (0.07 per 100 000 population) was slightly higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.05). Men had more than 2 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.20 per 100 000 population) was observed among men in the age group of 30-39 years. Most cases were associated with consumption of different types of commercially canned meat. Commercially canned fish was also a common vehicle. All cases were hospitalized. One death related to the disease was reported. In 2012, in Poland a downward trend in the incidence of foodborne botulism was maintained. From the point of view of national surveillance, it is necessary to increase the percentage of cases investigated with laboratory tests.

  14. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  15. Petrophysical examination of CO₂-brine-rock interactions-results of the first stage of long-term experiments in the potential Zaosie Anticline reservoir (central Poland) for CO₂ storage.

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Radosław; Wdowin, Magdalena; Manecki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was determination of experiment-induced alterations and changes in the properties of reservoir rocks and sealing rocks sampled from potential reservoir for CO₂. In the experiment, rocks submerged in brine in specially constructed reactors were subjected to CO₂ pressure of 6 MPa for 20 months at room temperature. Samples of Lower Jurassic reservoir rocks and sealing rocks (sandstones, claystones, and mudstones) from the Zaosie Anticline (central Poland) were analysed for their petrophysical properties (specific surface area, porosity, pore size and distribution) before and after the experiment. Comparison of the ionic composition the brines before and after the experiment demonstrated an increase in total dissolved solids as well as the concentration of sulphates and calcium ions. This indicates partial dissolution of the rock matrix and the cements. As a result of the reaction, the properties of reservoir rocks did not changed significantly and should not affect the process of CO₂ storage. In the case of the sealing rocks, however, the porosity, the framework density, as well as the average capillary and threshold diameter increased. Also, the pore distribution in the pore space changed in favour of larger pores. The reasons for these changes could not be explained by petrographic characteristics and should be thoroughly investigated.

  16. Quality of pregnant women's diet in Poland - macro-elements.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Humeniuk, Ewa; Fronczak, Adam; Walecka, Irena

    2014-05-12

    The objective was to assess the quality of pregnant women's diet in Poland concerning macro-elements and to analyze reasons for low or high quality diets. Five hundred and twelve pregnant women in their 20(th) to 30(th) week of pregnancy took part in the research conducted by means of a 7-day observation of diet. Consumed products were analyzed by means of DIETETYK software developed by the Polish National Food and Nutrition Institute. Obtained macro values were averaged. The results were compared with the recommendations from the World Health Organization, European Union and Polish National Food and Nutrition Institute and analyzed statistically (χ(2) test). The pregnant women consumed an average of 1898 ±380 kcal daily. Average value of macro components supplied with the diet did not deviate from EU and NFNI nutrition recommendations: protein - 72.1 g/person daily, fats overall - 72.8 g, polyunsaturated fatty acids - 10.93 g, cholesterol - 283 mg, carbohydrates - 257 g. The study proved a significant relation between a higher quality diet of pregnant women and tertiary or secondary education (p = 0.05) as well as urban residence (p = 0.01). Pregnant women's diet in Poland is not significantly different from diet quality of pregnant women from other countries. A lower quality diet was observed among women who smoked during pregnancy and lived in rural areas.

  17. Poland health system review.

    PubMed

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  18. Length and terms of occurrence of thermal seasons in Poland - are any changes observed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choryński, Adam; Graczyk, Dariusz; Szwed, Małgorzata

    2014-05-01

    While thinking of seasons, one mostly has in mind astronomical seasons which are very often mentioned by media. These are set using Sun's position above the equator and the tropics. Seasons defined by these manners very frequently do not match with prevailing climatic conditions in Poland. Therefore, especially in scientific research, different ways of setting the beginning and ending of seasons in Poland are employed. Climatic seasons are used very broadly. They divide the year into four parts of almost equal duration. Nevertheless, for Poland, this method is also not fully representative, because it does not take into account regional differentiation of climatic conditions. More objective criteria are used in phenological seasons, where their duration is set by, for example the terms of florescence and maturation of plants. In this research, thermal criterion is applied for setting the duration of seasons - terms of persistent exceedances of characteristic thresholds of mean daily air temperature (5 degrees C for autumn and spring, 0 degrees C for winter and 15 degrees C for summer). The climate of Poland is characterised by large long-term variability of thermal conditions. It results in the possibility of evident differences in the length and terms of seasons beginning and ending between years. The winter season 2012/2013 in Poland was exceptionally long, and very low temperatures occurred during the whole March, even in the first decade of April in some parts of the country. At the same year at the end of April temperatures exceeded 20 degrees C (summer conditions). It resulted in another wide discussion on evident changes of length or even fading of some seasons in the media. Based on meteorological data from 10 Polish meteorological stations, that represent different regions of the country, authors are researching how the length of thermal seasons changed between years 1951 and 2013 in Poland. The length of seasons in three multiannual periods (1951

  19. Estimated dietary intakes of nitrates in vegetarians compared to a traditional diet in Poland and acceptable daily intakes: is there a risk?

    PubMed

    Mitek, Marta; Anyzewska, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Vegetarian diets, by definition, are rich in vegetables and so may have high levels of nitrates, that can elicit both positive or negative effects on the human body. Exposure to nitrates can thus be potentially higher for this population group. To estimate dietary nitrates intakes in Polish vegetarians and compare these with the Polish average. A sample of 86 vegetarians were surveyed via a questionnaire to determine nitrate intake for those adopting a vegetarian diet. Nitrate intakes for the average Pole were obtained from the Central Statistical Office. The domestic intake of nitrate, per average person, during 2000-2009, ranged from 115.5 to 133.7 mg NaNO3 with a mean of 125 mg NaNO3 of which 35.4% constituted the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). For vegetarians, the corresponding levels ranged from 37.3 to 2054.3 mg NaNO3 with a mean intake of 340.1 mg NaNO3 of which 95.8% represented the ADI. This was almost twice more than values obtained from calculating nitrate intakes of a typical 7-day vegetarian menu; 104.5 to 277.6 mg NaNO3, with a mean 175.9 mg NaNO3 with the 49.1% making up the ADI. The nitrate intakes in the tested vegetarians were 140 to 270% higher than ones for the average Pole, however in both cases the ADI was not exceeded. Nevertheless, the higher intake of nitrates so observed in vegetarians can be hazardous to some from this population group.

  20. A comparative study on composition and antioxidant activities of supercritical carbon dioxide, hexane and ethanol extracts from blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Bonikowski, Radosław; Krajewska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Magdalena; Kula, Józef

    2017-08-01

    Large quantities of blackberry seeds are produced as a pomace during the processing of juice and jam production; this by-product is a very interesting raw material both for oil manufacturing and as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work the composition, yield and antioxidant activity of three types of Rubus fructicosus pomace extracts isolated by liquid extraction using solvents of different polarity, as well with supercritical CO2 fluid extraction have been compared. The highest extract yield was reported for Soxhlet extraction using ethanol as a solvent (14.2%). Supercritical carbon dioxide and hexane extracts were characterised by the highest content of phytosterols (1445 and 1583 mg 100 g(-1) of extract, respectively) among which β-sitosterol was the main one, while the concentration of tocopherols, with predominant γ-isomer, was the highest for both hexane and ethanol extracts, being 2364 and 2334 mg 100 g(-1) , respectively. Using a GC-MS method 95 volatiles, in which non-saturated aldehydes were predominant, were identified in the essential oil of seed pomace and in the volatile oil isolated from supercritical extract. The ethanolic extract which is characterised by the highest phenolic content (9443 mg GAE 100 g(-1) ) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (according to the ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•) assays). All pomace extracts examined were of high quality, rich in essential omega fatty acids and with a very high content of bioactive compounds, such as phytosterols and tocopherols. The high nutritional value of extracts from berry seed pomace could justify the commercialisation of specific extracts not only as food additives but also as cosmetic components. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. An attempt to compare variations of carbon stable isotopes composition in two replicate cores from a Baltic bog in N Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlyta, Jacek; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Goslar, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    Two one-meter long monolith cores were taken from Stążki mire. Stążki mire is well preserved Baltic type raised bog with a very small evidence of exploitation. Stable isotopic composition of carbon (13C) was investigated in the bulk organic matter of Sphagnum. One centimetre resolution sampling was chosen for the investigation. Only carefully selected, leaf-free Sphagnum stems were collected for the study. Isotopic composition was determined using elemental analyser coupled to isotopic ratio mass spectrometer. For the correlation purposes age-depth models were established for both monoliths. Radiocarbon dating and 210Pb dating results were used to obtain the age-depth model for one monolith. Age-depth model for the second monolith was based on radiocarbon dating only. Both cores covered the last 1200 years of Stążki mire history. We will present a detailed comparison of correlate isotopic signal from Sphagnum in both cores.

  2. Avian influenza in Poland.

    PubMed

    Smietanka, Krzysztof; Minta, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    Poland has experienced four episodes of avian influenza (AI) outbreaks over the past two decades. The first epidemic was caused by a low pathogenicity (LPAIV) H7N7 subtype and occurred in fattening and breeder turkeys in 1995. Two waves of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) took place in 2006 and 2007. In spring 2006, 64 cases of the H5N1 virus were detected, mostly in mute swans. In December 2007, ten outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI were detected in commercial poultry (n = 9) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 1). The outbreaks in 2006 and 2007 were caused by genetically similar but clearly distinguishable viruses of the 2.2 clade. In 2013, an H9N2 avian influenza virus was detected in 4 fattening turkey holdings. The virus was low pathogenic and a phylogenetic study has shown a close relatedness to the Eurasian lineage of AIV of the wild bird origin. Neither preventive nor prophylactic vaccinations have ever been used in poultry or other birds. Emergency vaccinations using autogenous vaccine were introduced only to control the H7N7 LPAI outbreaks in 1995. The baseline surveillance for AI in live migratory birds and poultry provides a valuable insight into the ecology of AIV at the wild and domestic bird interface. Passive surveillance is in place of early detection of HPAIV infection in dead or moribund birds.

  3. Nurse prescribing in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Więch, Paweł; Bazaliński, Dariusz; Marć, Małgorzata; Bartosiewicz, Anna; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to identify and examine the differences in opinions held by health care professionals and the general public concerning the right to administer and prescribe medication which has been awarded to nurses and midwives in Poland. The study was conducted from December 1, 2014 to July 1, 2015, in randomly selected primary health care clinics, among 2227 individuals, including 849 subjects representing medical personnel of primary health care and 1378 patients receiving primary care services. The study used 2 versions of a questionnaire. The relationships were examined with χ2 test for independence and Kruskal–Wallis test. Health professionals do not believe the new rights awarded to nurses and midwives will reduce the waiting time for medical consultations (P < 0.001). Nurses’ qualifications for the new tasks were most highly rated by patients, whereas the least favorable opinion was expressed by doctors (P < 0.001). To introduce nurse prescribing it is necessary to develop a suitable strategy enabling implementation of the government's initiative and facilitating the process of taking up the new task by nurses. PMID:27537573

  4. Association between tea and coffee consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Poland - results from the WOBASZ II study (2013-2014).

    PubMed

    Micek, Agnieszka; Grosso, Giuseppe; Polak, Maciej; Kozakiewicz, Krystyna; Tykarski, Andrzej; Puch Walczak, Aleksandra; Drygas, Wojciech; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Pająk, Andrzej

    2017-08-09

    The study aimed to assess a relationship between tea and coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cross-sectional study of a random sample of total Polish population was done (The WOBASZ II Study), and the present analysis included 5146 participants at age 20 years and above. Tea and coffee consumption was assessed by 24-h recall method. MetS was defined according to IDF/NHLBI/AHA criteria. After adjustment for covariates, coffee consumption was related to blood pressure and HDL cholesterol, and moderate drinkers had 17% lower odds of MetS compared with non-drinkers (OR = 0.83, 95%CI = 0.72-0.97). Tea consumption was related to some components but not to MetS in general. Inverse association between coffee consumption and MetS may reflect the content of the antioxidants that offer cardiovascular protection. However, weak relation of tea with components of MetS points toward the potential importance of composition of polyphenols and the types of tea consumed.

  5. The influence of variability of calculation grids on the results of numerical modeling of geothermal doublets - an example from the Choszczno area, north-western Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachowicz-Pyzik, A.; Sowiżdżał, A.; Pająk, L.

    2016-09-01

    The numerical modeling enables us to reduce the risk related to the selection of best localization of wells. Moreover, at the stage of production, modeling is a suitable tool for optimization of well operational parameters, which guarantees the long life of doublets. The thorough selection of software together with relevant methodology applied to generation of numerical models significantly improve the quality of obtained results. In the following paper, we discuss the impact of density of calculation grid on the results of geothermal doublet simulation with the TOUGH2 code, which applies the finite-difference method. The study area is located between the Szczecin Trough and the Fore-sudetic Monocline, where the Choszczno IG-1 well has been completed. Our research was divided into the two stages. At the first stage, we examined the changes of density of polygon calculation grids used in computations of operational parameters of geothermal doublets. At the second stage, we analyzed the influence of distance between the production and the injection wells on variability in time of operational parameters. The results demonstrated that in both studied cases, the largest differences occurred in pressures measured in production and injection wells whereas the differences in temperatures were less pronounced.

  6. Can consumption of raw vegetables decrease the count of sister chromatid exchange? Results from a cross-sectional study in Krakow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Galas, Aleksander; Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina

    2015-03-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is a widely used sensitive cytogenetic biomarker of exposure to genotoxic and cancerogenic agents. Results of human monitoring studies and cytogenetic damage have revealed that biological effects of genotoxic exposures are influenced by confounding factors related to life-style. Vegetable and fruit consumption may play a role, but available results are not consistent. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of consumption of raw and cooked vegetables and fruits on SCE frequency. A total of 62 participants included colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, hospital-based controls and healthy laboratory workers. SCE frequency was assessed in blood lymphocytes. Frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was gathered by structured semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. SCE frequency was lowest among hospital-based controls (4.4 ± 1.1), a bit higher in CRC patients (4.5 ± 1.0) and highest among laboratory workers (7.4 ± 1.2) (p < 0.05). Multivariable linear regression showed a significant inverse effect (b = -0.20) of raw vegetable consumption, but not so for intake of cooked vegetables and fruits. The results of the study have shown the beneficial effect of consumption of raw vegetables on disrupted replication of DNA measured by SCE frequency, implying protection against genotoxic agents. Further effort is required to verify the role of cooked vegetables and fruits.

  7. HIV and AIDS in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Niedźwiedzka-Stadnik, Marta; Pielacha, Magdalena; Rosińska, Magdalena

    The aim was to analyze the epidemiological situation of newly diagnosed HIV infections and AIDS cases in Poland in 2014 and years earlier. Descriptive analysis of newly detected HIV cases and AIDS cases was performed based on routine notifications by clinicians and laboratories. Data on the number of HIV tests from annual survey among laboratories were also used. In 2014 there were 1,157 HIV cases diagnosed in Poland (incidence rate 3.01 per 100,000 population), including 14 among non-Polish citizens. The rate of new cases rose by 4.4% compare to last year and increased by 20% compare to median in 2008 - 2012. The total number of AIDS cases was 148 (incidence 0.38 per 100,000) and 40 AIDS patients died (0.10 per 100,000). HIV infection was mainly detected among people aged 20 to 39 years (72.0%) and among males (82.2%). Among men 64.5% of newly diagnosed infections with known transmission category were acquired by men who have sexual contacts with men (MSM). The percentage of infected men in this group decreased by 4.1% compare to previous year, but there were the increase in the percentage of infected person who take heterosexual contacts, from 20.4% to 24.7% (person with known transmission category). The percentage of late presenters (defined by the time between HIV and AIDS diagnoses of less than 3 months) increased in comparison with year 2013 by almost one percentage (from 8.4% to 9.2% of newly diagnosed HIV infections). HIV epidemic continues to develop among MSM in Poland. However, assessment of epidemiological situation is limited by the missing data on the probable transmission route in a large percentage of reported newly detected HIV infection.

  8. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, People's Republic of China, Poland, Republic of Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777... China and Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Reviews of the Antidumping Duty Orders... Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's Republic of China and Ukraine. The Department...

  9. Comparison between results of detailed tectonic studies on borehole core vs microresistivity images of borehole wall from gas-bearing shale complexes, Baltic Basin, Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobek, Kinga; Jarosiński, Marek; Pachytel, Radomir

    2017-04-01

    Structural analysis of borehole core and microresistivity images yield an information about geometry of natural fracture network and their potential importance for reservoir stimulation. Density of natural fractures and their orientation in respect to the maximum horizontal stress has crucial meaning for hydraulic fractures propagation in unconventional reservoirs. We have investigated several hundred meters of continuous borehole core and corresponding microresistivity images (mostly XRMI) from six boreholes in the Pomeranian part of the Early Paleozoic Baltic Basin. In general, our results challenge the question about representatives of statistics based on structural analyses on a small shale volume represented by borehole core or borehole wall images and credibility of different sets of data. Most frequently, fractures observed in both XRMI and cores are steep, small strata-bound fractures and veins with minor mechanical aperture (0,1 mm in average). These veins create an orthogonal joint system, locally disturbed by fractures associated with normal or by gently dipping thrust faults. Mean fractures' height keeps in a range between 30-50 cm. Fracture density differs significantly among boreholes and Consistent Lithological Units (CLUs) but the most frequent means falls in a range 2-4 m-1. We have also payed an attention to bedding planes due to their expected coupling with natural fractures and their role as structural barriers for vertical fracture propagation. We aimed in construction for each CLU the so-called "mean brick", which size is limited by an average distance between two principal joint sets and between bedding fractures. In our study we have found out a discrepancy between structural profiles based on XRMI and core interpretation. For some CLUs joint fractures densities, are higher in cores than in XRMI. In this case, numerous small fractures were not recorded due to the limits of XRMI resolution. However, the most veins with aperture 0,1 mm

  10. Assessing the ability of WRF-Chem to forecast aerosol optical depth over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Małgorzata; Kryza, Maciej; Markowicz, Krzysztof

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol particles affect Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and by altering cloud properties and also influence weather and air quality. The ability of models to describe aerosol optical properties is relevant to reduce uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing and further improve forecasts of meteorology and air quality. Here we evaluate the performance of high-resolution simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) in capturing temporal distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD at 550 nm) over Poland. The simulations are run operationally for this area to forecast air quality since June 2016. The model is run with two domains - mother domain over Europe at 12 km x 12 km and inner domain over Poland at 4 km x 4 km. The model results were compared with ground-based observations from 2 stations from Aerosol Research Network Poland-AOD. The results show that the model can reproduce the variability of observed AOD, however in general overestimates measured values.

  11. Congruence of the current practices in Hymenoptera venom allergic patients in Poland with EAACI guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Diwakar, Lavanya; Brzyski, Piotr; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Lis, Grzegorz; Pietrzyk, Jacek J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Venom immunotherapy (VIT) practice is the definitive treatment for patients with potentially fatal allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings. The aim is assesing compliance of VIT practice in Poland with the current European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) guidance. Material and methods A multicentre study was carried out using a structured questionnaire which was sent by post to all VIT practitioners in Poland. Some questionnaire items were altered, in comparison to original version by adding additional answer options or alowing multiple answer option. The response rate was 100%. The obtained results were compared with the published EAACI guidelines. Results Twenty-six Polish centres took part in the survey. SSIgE and skin prick tests (SPT) are together used as the first line of investigation, whereas confirmatory intradermal tests (IDT) are applied in half of centres. Only a few centres measure baseline serum tryptase levels. The ultra-rush protocol is preferred. Antihistamine pre-medication is routinely practiced. A target dose equal to 100 µg is used in most centres. A 6-week interval between booster doses is the most frequent. Five years is considered as an optimal VIT duration. Before the VIT completion, SSIgE is evaluated in fifty percent of centres, whereas sting challenge is considered by half of responders. Conclusions There are some differences between current practice in Poland and the EAACI recommendations, indicating areas requiring better compliance. Comparision between Poland and the United Kingdom revealed that health service organization and health care funding may play a major role in the provision of allergy services. This may affect the extent to which international guidance may be applied in individual countries. It is worth considering conducting the same survey in other European countries. PMID:22291828

  12. Rubella in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella to be confirmed with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012". In 2012, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of rubella - 6 263 cases (in 2011, 4 290 cases) - and the increase in incidence (from 11.1 per 100 thousand. 16.3). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (118.0 per 100 000). As in 2011, the incidence of rubella in boys and men was higher than the incidence in girls and women (25.6 versus 7.5). In 2012, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2012, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  13. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  14. Seismic event near Jarocin (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizurek, Grzegorz; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiejacz, Paweł; Wiszniowski, Jan; Trojanowski, Jacek

    2013-02-01

    The earthquake of magnitude M L = 3:8 (EMSC) took place on Friday, 6 January 2012, north-east of the town of Jarocin in Wielkopolska Region, Poland. The only historical information about past earthquakes in the region was found in the diary from 1824; apart of it, there was a seismic event noticed in the vicinity of Wielkopolska in 1606 (Pagaczewski 1982). The scope of this paper is to describe the 6 January 2012 event in view of instrumental seismology, macroseismic data analysis and known tectonics of the region, which should be useful in future seismic hazard analysis of Poland.

  15. Poland's syndrome and recurrent pneumothorax: is there a connection?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the possible connection of Poland's syndrome with the presence of lung bullae and, thus, with an increased risk for recurrent pneumothorax. Patients-methods. Two male patients, aged 19 and 21 years respectively were submitted to our department after their second incident of pneumothorax. Both had Poland's syndrome (unilaterally hypoplastic chest wall with pectoralis major muscle atrophy) and both had multiple bullae to the ipsilateral lung based on CT findings. The patients were treated operatively (bullectomy, lung apicectomy, partial parietal pleurectomy and chemical pleurodesis) due to the recurrent state of their pneumothorax. Results. The patients had good results with total expansion of the affected lung. Conclusions. Poland's syndrome can be combined with ipsilateral presence of lung bullae, a common cause of pneumothorax. Whether this finding is part or a variation of the syndrome needs to be confirmed by a larger number of similar cases. PMID:21418595

  16. Phylogenetic and geographic analysis of fowl adenovirus field strains isolated from poultry in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta

    2016-01-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are widely distributed in chickens in Poland and throughout the world. FAdV infections have been reported in the United States, Australia, Europe, and the Mediterranean basin. Detection of FAdVs strains is very important from the epidemiological point of view and for monitoring disease outbreaks and developing strategies for vaccine development. Several molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic studies have been performed, but the results obtained are still limited, because FAdV strains, even of the same serotype, have very diverse characteristics. Some strains are pathogenic and some are nonpathogenic. This report describes the successful isolation of 96 FAdV field strains from chickens in Poland. A PCR assay specific for the L1 loop region of the hexon gene was conducted, and the products were subjected to sequence analysis. The sequences were analysed using BLAST and Geneious 6.0 software and compared to adenovirus field and reference strain sequences from different parts of the world that are accessible in the NCBI GenBank database. The sequences of the adenovirus strains indicated that they belonged to five species, Fowl aviadenovirus A-E, represented by eight serotypes FAdV-1, FAdV-4, FAdV-5, FAdV-7, FAdV-8a, FAdV-8b, and FAdV-2/11 (FAdV-D). The relationships between FAdVs isolated in Poland and isolates from other regions of the world were determined.

  17. Motherhood after the age of 35 in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Rybińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Postponing motherhood is a widespread phenomenon across developed countries, however only few studies look into very late motherhood in post-socialist countries using individual level data. In this study, I look at the context of the first childbirth in Poland in the midst of the political transformation of 1989. Employing sequence analysis I reconstructed life trajectories of women who experienced the transition to adulthood during the late 1980's and the early 1990's and have just completed their fertility histories. Individual data from the 2011 GGS-PL and the 2011 FAMWELL Survey were used. Comparing paths of mothers’ lives, I searched for differences in educational, professional and conjugal careers between women who gave birth before the age of 30 and after the age of 35. The results show how various life careers crisscross over the life course leading women to late motherhood. PMID:25641993

  18. Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cat - first detection in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Jędryczko, Roman; Cencek, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite of cattle reproductive system, has been recently discovered as a cause of disease in cats in many countries. T. foetus infects and colonizes cat's ileum, caecum, colon and can lead to enteritis. This paper presents the first clinical case of cat intestinal trichomonosis caused by T. foetus in Poland. The material for this study was a smear collected from a 6-month-old male British Shorthair cat. The presence of parasitic protozoan was determined via microscopic examination and confirmed by amplification of T. foetus rDNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In the first PCR reaction, a DNA of Trichomonadidae was identified and in the second PCR, T. foetus was detected. The T. foetus positive products from the second PCR reaction were sequenced. Interpretation of the sequencing results of obtained amplicons by comparing them with the GenBank database proved that the causative agent, in this case, was T. foetus.

  19. Sex ratio of White Stork Ciconia ciconia in different environments of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Piotr; Grochowska, Ewa; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Koim-Puchowska, Beata; Woźniak, Alina; Ciebiera, Olaf; Markulak, Damian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the variation in sex ratio of White Stork Ciconia ciconia chicks from differentiated Poland environments. We took under a consideration the impact of Cd and Pb for establish differences among sex ratio in chicks. We also study multiplex PCR employment for establish gender considerations. We collected blood samples via venipuncture of brachial vein of chicks during 2006-2008 breeding seasons at the Odra meadows (SW-Poland; control), which were compared with those from suburbs (SW-Poland), and from copper smelter (S-Poland; polluted) and from swamps near Baltic Sea. We found differences among sex ratio in White Stork chicks from types of environment. Male participation in sex structure is importantly higher in each type of environment excluded suburban areas. Differences in White Stork sex ratio according to the degree of environmental degradation expressed by Cd and Pb and sex-environment-metal interactions testify about the impact of these metals upon sex ratios in storks. Simultaneously, as a result of multiplex PCR, 18S ribosome gene, which served as internal control of PCR, was amplified in male and female storks. It means that it is possible to use primers designed for chicken in order to replicate this fragment of genome in White Stork. Moreover, the use of Oriental White Stork Ciconia boyciana W- chromosome specific primers makes it possible to determine the sex of C. ciconia chicks. Many factors make sex ratio of White Stork changes in subsequent breeding seasons, which depend significantly on specific environmental parameters that shape individual detailed defense mechanisms.

  20. [Treatment in XIIth c. Poland according to medical writings of Nicholas of Poland].

    PubMed

    Batog, W; Jonczyk, M

    1998-01-01

    The authors present the person of Mikolaj of Poland, a thirteenth century doctor, connected with the Princes of Pomerania and Greater Poland, educated in France, and known from his two major writings, Antipocras (Anti-Hypocrates) and Experimenta. On the background of medieval medicine, the methods of healing he suggested appear as unusual and unconventional. He healed with amulets, mud, dung, river and sea water, frogs, moles, vipers, flies and worms. Using them, he produced powders, pills, ointments and oils which were to have outstanding healing results. They were to be used in lithiasis, skin irritations, nephritis, hepatitis, deafness, epilepsy, and toothache. Women might use them as cosmetics, too. Considering thirteenth century medicine, Mikolaj with no doubts represents medieval medical "empiry", creating an interesting alternative against official standards binding doctors of that time.

  1. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2111.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2011, using national surveillance data. We reviewed surveillance data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland" from 2005 to 2011, and botulism case reports from 2011 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2011, a total of 35 foodborne botulism cases (including 21 laboratory confirmed cases) was reported, corresponding to the one of the lowest annual incidence rate (0.09 per 100,000 population) since the introduction of botulism as mandatory notifiable disease. The higher incidence rates compared to the previous year were in the Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Mazowieckie and Dolnoślaskie. Incidence in rural areas (0.13 per 100,000 population) was higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.07). Men, had more than 3,5 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.23 per 100,000 population) was observed among men in the age group of 60 + years. Most cases were associated with consumption of commercially canned meat (including pork and other types of meat). Home canned foods containing meats or vegetables and meats were also a common vehicle. Almost all cases were hospitalized (33 cases). One death related to the disease was reported. In 2011, in Poland epidemiology of the foodborne botulism remains stable. From the point of view of national surveillance, it is necessary to increase the percentage of cases investigated with laboratory tests.

  2. Echinococcosis and cysticercosis in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Gołąb, Elżbieta; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of echinococcosis and cysticercosis in 2012 as compared to previous years. The assessment of the epidemiological situation was based on data contained in the individual reports on cases sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by the Regional Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations and on the pooled data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland". In 2012, the total number of reported cases of echinococcosis in Poland was 28. This included: 11 undefined cases (39% of all cases), 7 alveolar echinococcosis cases (41% out of l7 cases in which the species of Echinococcus was recognized) and 10 cystic echinococcosis (59% of all defined cases). The total incidence of echinococcosis was 0.073/100 000. Cases were registered in 8 provinces. Most cases (9) and the highest incidence (0.620) was recorded in Warmińsko-Mazurskie. Echinococcus infections were reported in people aged 15 to 82 years, mostly adults (mean age 49.2 years, median 54.0). Echinococcosis was more frequent among women (incidence 0.096) than among men (incidence 0.048). The incidence of echinococcosis in rural areas was higher than in the city (0.125 vs. 0.039). Cysticercosis, which occurs sporadically in Poland, was not reported in 2012. For the purposes of epidemiological surveillance it would be advisable to introduce the obligatory differentiation of alveococcosis and hydatidosis, as well as a case definition for cysticercosis. In order to reduce the risk of contracting tapeworm infections, it is advisable to intensify educational efforts.

  3. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  4. Making Media Policy in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goban-Klas, Tomasz

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the creation of the new media policy in Poland formed at the 1989 "round table" negotiations between the Polish leadership and Solidarity, a Polish trade union. Discusses the issues of censorship, access to newsprint and to the airwaves (primarily to television), and the legalization of underground publications. (KEH)

  5. Female sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1996-01-01

    It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).

  6. Unilateral hypertransparency on chest radiograph: the congenital Poland Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomos, Ioannis; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Vlami, Aikaterini; Apollonatou, Vasiliki; Manali, Effrosyni D; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral hypertransparent hemithorax requires a particular diagnostic approach as it can be the result of diverse pulmonary diseases, including pneumothorax, large pulmonary embolus, unilateral large bullae, mucous plag, airway obstruction and contralateral pleural effusion. Congenital syndromes with chest wall abnormalities, are rare, but often underdiagnosed causes. Poland Syndrome consists of such a rare, congenital anomaly and is characterized by the absence of the pectoralis major muscle and upper limb ipsilateral abnormalities. We present a case of a patient with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a unilateral hypertransparency on chest radiology, attributed to the underlying Poland Syndrome.

  7. [Occurrence of occupational diseases in Poland, 2014].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    The aim of the annual analysis of the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland is to evaluate the extent of the incidence and to identify its causes as well as activities involving factors that are harmful or annoying to such an extent that they result in occupational diseases. Occupational diseases reporting forms supplied to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases were used as the study material. In 2014, there were 2351 cases of occupational diseases recorded, i.e., 16.5 cases per 100 thousand of employees. The most numerous categories comprised infectious or parasitic diseases (borreliosis), pneumoconiosis, voice disorders and hearing loss (in total 79.7% of cases). The main causative factors of occupational diseases were as follows: industrial dust containing free silica, tick-transmitted Borrelia spirochete, and the way the work is done, including excessive vocal effort, and noise. The highest incidence per 100 thousand workers were recorded in mining and quarrying (296), manufacturing (24.9), education (24.6), agriculture and forestry (24.2) sectors. Compared with the previous year, there was a slight increase in the number of cases of certified occupational diseases (6.2%), primarily due to the increased incidence of Lyme disease. The incidence of voice disorders among teachers continues to vary considerably in individual provinces (0-11.3/10 000), reflecting the use of non-uniform diagnostic and certification methods. Med Pr 2016;67(3):327-335. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2013. We reviewed surveillance data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and in previous publications, and botulism case reports for 2013 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2013, a total of 24 foodborne botulism cases (including 8 laboratory confirmed cases) was reported, corresponding to the lowest annual incidence rate (0.06 per 100,000 population) since the introduction of botulism as mandatory notifiable disease. The highest incidence in the country was reported in Kujawsko-Pomorskie (0.19). Incidence in rural areas (0.09 per 100,000 population) was more than 2-fold higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.04). Men, had more than 3 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.29 per 100,000 population) was observed among men in the age group of 40-49 years. Most cases were associated with consumption of different types of commercially canned meat. Commercially canned fish was also a common vehicle. All cases were hospitalized. No deaths related to the disease were reported. In 2013, in Poland a downward trend in the incidence of foodborne botulism was maintained. Insufficient laboratory capacity remains a major weakness in national surveillance resulting in disproportionate reporting of cases meeting only clinical criteria and an epidemiological link. This situation clearly speaks for the need to improve laboratory capacity for surveillance.

  9. Years of life lost due to infectious diseases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Bryla, Marek; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bryla, Pawel; Pikala, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Purpose An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999–2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases. Methods The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR), Standardized Death Rates (SDR) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd). Time trends were evaluated with the application of joinpoint models and an annual percentage change in their values. Results Death certificates report that 38,261 people died due to infectious diseases in Poland in the period 1999–2012, which made up 0.73% of the total number of deaths. SDR caused by these diseases decreased, particularly in the male group: Annual Percentage Change (APC = -1.05; 95% CI:-2.0 to -0.2; p<0.05). The most positive trends were observed in mortality caused by tuberculosis (A15-A19) (APC = -5.40; 95% CI:-6.3 to -4.5; p<0.05) and also meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis (G03-G04) (APC = -3.42; 95% CI:-4.7 to -2.1; p<0.05). The most negative mortality trends were observed for intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09) Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC = 7.3; 95% CI:3.1 to 11.7; p<0.05). SDR substantially decreased in the first half of the study period, but then significantly increased in the second half. Infectious and parasitic diseases contributed to a loss of around 37,000 standard expected years of life in 1999 and more than 28,000 in 2012. During the study period, the SEYLLp index decreased from 9.59 to 7.39 per 10,000 population and the SEYLLd index decreased from 14.26 to 10.34 years (AAPC = 2.3; 95% CI:-2,9 to -1.7; p<0

  10. Spatial Interpolation of Ewert's Index of Continentality in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanowski, Mariusz; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Kryza, Maciej; Nowosad, Marek

    2017-02-01

    The article presents methodological considerations on the spatial interpolation of Ewert's index of continentality for Poland. The primary objective was to perform spatial interpolation and generate maps of the index combined with selection of an optimal interpolation method and validation of the use of the decision tree proposed by Szymanowski et al. (Meteorol Z 22:577-585, 2013). The analysis involved four selected years and a multi-year average of the period 1981-2010 and was based on data from 111 meteorological stations. Three regression models: multiple linear regression (MLR), geographically weighted regression (GWR), and mixed geographically weighted regression were used in the analysis as well as extensions of two of them to the residual kriging form. The regression models were compared demonstrating a better fit of the local model and, hence, the non-stationarity of the spatial process. However, the decisive role in the selection of the interpolator was assigned to the possibility of extension of the regression model to residual kriging. A key element here is the autocorrelation of the regression residuals, which proved to be significant for MLR and irrelevant for GWR. This resulted in exclusion of geographically weighted regression kriging from further analysis. The multiple linear regression kriging was found as the optimal interpolator. This was confirmed by cross validation combined with an analysis of improvement of the model in accordance with the criterion of the mean absolute error (MAE). The results obtained facilitate modification of the scheme of selection of an optimal interpolator and development of guidelines for automation of interpolation of Ewert's index of continentality for Poland.

  11. Spatial Interpolation of Ewert's Index of Continentality in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanowski, Mariusz; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Kryza, Maciej; Nowosad, Marek

    2016-10-01

    The article presents methodological considerations on the spatial interpolation of Ewert's index of continentality for Poland. The primary objective was to perform spatial interpolation and generate maps of the index combined with selection of an optimal interpolation method and validation of the use of the decision tree proposed by Szymanowski et al. (Meteorol Z 22:577-585, 2013). The analysis involved four selected years and a multi-year average of the period 1981-2010 and was based on data from 111 meteorological stations. Three regression models: multiple linear regression (MLR), geographically weighted regression (GWR), and mixed geographically weighted regression were used in the analysis as well as extensions of two of them to the residual kriging form. The regression models were compared demonstrating a better fit of the local model and, hence, the non-stationarity of the spatial process. However, the decisive role in the selection of the interpolator was assigned to the possibility of extension of the regression model to residual kriging. A key element here is the autocorrelation of the regression residuals, which proved to be significant for MLR and irrelevant for GWR. This resulted in exclusion of geographically weighted regression kriging from further analysis. The multiple linear regression kriging was found as the optimal interpolator. This was confirmed by cross validation combined with an analysis of improvement of the model in accordance with the criterion of the mean absolute error (MAE). The results obtained facilitate modification of the scheme of selection of an optimal interpolator and development of guidelines for automation of interpolation of Ewert's index of continentality for Poland.

  12. [Chickenpox in Poland in 2010].

    PubMed

    Głuchowska, Małgorzata; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Chickenpox is a common childhood disease. It occurs sporadically in persons over the age of 15. Regardless of the fact that chickenpox is considered to be a disease of benign course, it may cause complications of different severity levels and with necessity of hospitalization. Since 2004, a high incidence of chickenpox is observed in Poland. The aim of the present article was to analyze the epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2010 with its comparison to the situation observed in the previous years. The epidemiological situation ofchickenpox in Poland in 2010 was analyzed on the basis of aggregated data on infectious diseases published in the annual bulletins, i.e.: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2010" (Czarkowski MP. et al., Warsaw, NIPH-NIH, Chief Sanitary Inspectorate) and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2010" (Czarkowski MP. et al., Warsaw, NIPH-NIH, Chief Sanitary Inspectorate). In the present article the authors also referred to the Polish Immunization Programme for 2010 (annex to the statement of the Chief Sanitary Inspector of 22 October 2009). The data on the number of hospitalized persons and complications due to the chickenpox was derived from the Department - Centre for Monitoring and Analyses of Population Health Status and Health Care System (NIPH-NIH). In 2010, 183 446 cases of chickenpox were reported. The highest number of chickenpox cases was registered in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest--in podlaskie voivodeship. The incidence was estimated at 480.04 per 100 000 population and was significantly higher than the incidence observed in 2009 (367.2). The highest chickenpox incidence, which amounted to 4298.4 per 100 000, was reported in children aged 5-9 years. The highest number ofchickenpox cases (the peak) was reported in the period from January to June. The lowest number of cases was registered in September. The chickenpox incidence was higher in men than women and in the inhabitans of villages (498.6 per 100 000

  13. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for…

  14. Deep reflection seismic imaging in SE Poland using extended correlation method applied to PolandSPAN™ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, M.

    2016-10-01

    Here I apply the extended correlation technique to a 156-km long regional seismic profile, PL1-5100, from the PolandSPAN™ survey located in SE Poland. This method allows the extension of the nominal record length of the survey (12 s in this case) to much longer times (22 s tested here), given that in the field the raw uncorrelated data were stored and a broadband sweep was used. Processing of the ground force correlated data compared to pilot sweep correlated one produced qualitatively similar results. Based on the consistency of the ground force measured along the profile, data were correlated with the mean of the ground force estimates. Results of the processing were validated against the coincident wide-angle reflection/refraction (WARR) profile (CELEBRATION 2000 CEL05 profile) and a deep reflection profile located further to the SE (POLCRUST-01 profile). I found a good correspondence between the wide-angle Moho signature and the near-vertical incidence (NVI) Moho reflectivity, both in terms of the depth and the reflection strength, with the exception of the area of the crustal keel (Moho > 50 km) interpreted from the WARR data, where the NVI reflectivity is observed at depth ca. 47 km. Similarly to POLCRUST-01, line PL1-5100 is portraying the attenuated crust of the East European Platform margin with the dipping crystalline basement down to ca. 20 km depth and the reflective lower crust. Two important fault zones: Izbica-Zamość Fault and Wilczopole Fault Zone are interpreted as the deeply-rooted crustal features, but there is no evidence for the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone itself.

  15. Application of ICT by Students at Selected Universities in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorencowicz, Edmund; Kocira, Slawomir; Uziak, Jacek; Tarasinska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate access and use of computers and internet by students during their studies. The results are based on a survey conducted in 2009-2012 on groups of 320 to 405 students (each year) from two universities in eastern Poland. It was concluded that during the period under study access of students to computers and…

  16. Atmospheric deposition in coniferous and deciduous tree stands in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Anna; Astel, Aleksander; Boczoń, Andrzej; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the transformation of precipitation in terms of quantity and chemical composition following contact with the crown layer in tree stands with varied species composition, to investigate the effect of four predominant forest-forming species (pine, spruce, beech, and oak) on the amount and composition of precipitation reaching forest soils, and to determine the sources of pollution in atmospheric precipitation in forest areas in Poland. The amount and chemical composition (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, and chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron aluminum, manganese, zinc, copper, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon contents) of atmospheric (bulk, BP) and throughfall (TF) precipitation were studied from January to December 2010 on twelve forest monitoring plots representative of Polish conditions. The study results provided the basis for the determination of the fluxes of pollutants in the forest areas of Poland and allowed the comparison of such fluxes with values provided in the literature for European forest areas. The transformation of precipitation in the canopy was compared for different tree stands. The fluxes of substances in an open field and under canopy were influenced by the location of the plot, including the regional meteorological conditions (precipitation amounts), vicinity of the sea (effect of marine aerosols), and local level of anthropogenic pollution. Differences between the plots were higher in TF than in BP. The impact of the vegetation cover on the chemical composition of precipitation depended on the region of the country and dominant species in a given tree stand. Coniferous species tended to cause acidification of precipitation, whereas deciduous species increased the pH of TF. Pine and oak stands enriched precipitation with components that leached from the canopy (potassium, manganese, magnesium) to a higher degree than spruce and

  17. How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why

  18. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. ); Balandynowicz, H.W. . Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  19. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed

    David, T J

    1982-06-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated.

  20. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    David, T J

    1982-01-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated. PMID:7092316

  1. Descendant of daughter Brazilian BCG Moreau substrain in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Brzezińska, Sylwia; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Polak, Maciej; Augustynowicz, Ewa; Lutyńska, Anna

    2012-08-10

    In this study we assessed the genomic stability of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau seed lots used in Poland for BCG vaccine production since 1955 by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). BCG vaccine lots were more closely related the original lot -M. bovis BCG Rio de Janeiro Moreau compared with seeds used before 1980, which is consistent with seed lot distribution recorded in the archives. We confirmed the presence of RD8, RD2, senX3-regX3, RD14, DU2-I, whiB3, trcR, the second copy of IS6110 inserted in the promoter region of phoP, mutation D322G in phoR, ΔRD1, and ΔfadD26-ppsA in M. bovis BCG Moreau used for BCG production in Poland. However, unlike the Rio de Janeiro parent BCG, the BCG Moreau substrain used in Poland does not harbour a deletion in Rv3887c, a region that is involved in the membrane transport protein that is part of the ESX-2 type VII secretion system. Differences in the distribution of BCG Moreau for its subsequent use for manufacturing influenced the microevolution of BCG Moreau used in Brazil and Poland.

  2. Urgent emergency issue in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Piotr

    2006-10-01

    The paper refers to the problem of emergency medical service in Poland, which is the only European Union Member State not having activated the emergency phone number 112. This fact has caused the threat of European Union sanctions. In this context, we try to discuss the chances of finalizing reform of the dramatically inefficient Polish emergency services. Except for the lack of the integrated emergency call centres, there is no appropriate network of emergency hospital departments in Poland and no clear regulations concerning emergency professions. The necessary law was enacted in 2001, but it did not come into force. The threat of European Union sanctions may hasten its implementation; however, the weak position of the present government may cause a further delay of the reform.

  3. Preliminary results of the monumental tree monitoring based on terrestrial laser scanning - a case study of the Oak Bartek in Zagnańsk (Poland). (Polish Title: Wstepne wyniki monitorowania drzewa pomnikowego - Debu Bartek w Zagnansku z wykorzystaniem chmur punktow naziemnego skanowania laserowego)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wężyk, P.; Szostak, M.; Zięba, K.; Rysiak, P.; Hawryło, P.; Ratajczak, M.

    2015-12-01

    In April 2013, the Laboratory of Geomatics launched the project under the acronym "Bartek 3D" in cooperation with the Research Section of Students from the AGH in Krakow, Pedagogical University and the Jagiellonian University as well. The main aim of the project is to monitor the biggest and probably one of the oldest trees in Poland - Oak Bartek in Zagnańsk (N 50o59'14"; E 20o38'59"), based on multi-temporal Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technology. One of the results of the project should be a 3D model of Oak Bartek and detection of the changes in the shape of the tree. Terrestrial Laser Scanning and the traditional forest inventory measurements were performed during the Leaf-OFF season in April 2013 and April 2014 and repeated in Leaf-ON period in July 2013 and October 2014 with using scanners: FARO FOCUS 3D, RIEGL VZ-400, LEICA C10 and RevScan (HandyScan). The results based on TLS technology showed some differences comparing to existing data obtained by traditional measurements for forestry inventory: Height (H) of the tree: altimeter Vertex (Haglˆf) H = 29.31 m; HTLS = 28.49 m; Trunk circumference (L) measured with stretched tape: LST = 9.80 m; adjacent along the shape of bark: LT = 13.70 m; TLS measurments: LTLS1/4 = 9.97 m oraz LRevScan = 13.54 m, The average diameter at breast height (DBH130cm) calculated on the basis of 3D basal area of stem DBHTLS1/4 = 3.03 m (DBHT = 3.12 m).

  4. Poland syndrome with dextrocardia: case report.

    PubMed

    Galiwango, G W; Swan, M C; Nyende, R; Hodges, A M

    2010-11-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital condition presentingwith typical features including an absent costosternal head of pectoralis major andipsilateral brachysyndactyly. There are many clinical variations of the syndrome including rib defects, absence of shoulder girdle muscle and breast hypoplasia or agenesis. Dextrocardia is rarely associated with Poland Syndrome with only 22 cases being previously reported in the worldwide literature. Whereas 'classical' Poland syndrome is predominantly right sided, all cases associated with dextrocardia have been left sided. We report a further case of left sided Poland syndrome with dextrocardia which might have important implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of this unusual condition.

  5. Poland syndrome: rare presentation in two cases.

    PubMed

    Gocmen, Hayrettin; Akkas, Yucel; Doganay, Selim

    2010-08-27

    Poland syndrome was first described in 1840 by Alfred Poland while still a medical student and the other components of the syndrome were described at London Guy's Hospital following the dissection of a cadaver's hand, which had hypoplasia and syndactyly. The incidence of Poland syndrome has been reported to be 1 in 30,000 live births. In the present case report, two Poland syndrome patients with ipsilateral hypomastia and a reduction in the axillary/pectoral hairs diagnosed during adulthood are presented; one patient was affected on the left side and had widespread cafe au lait spots, and the other patient had respiratory dysfunction due to multiple rib anomalies.

  6. Green tobacco sickness in Poland.

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Goszcz, Halina; Gomółka, Ewa; Biedroń, Witold

    2009-03-01

    Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is an illness associated with exposure to nicotine originating directly from the growing tobacco plant. The exposure takes place in the course of activities during tobacco farming. Nausea, vomiting, headache and dizziness are the symptoms typical of GTS. The GTS cases have been most commonly reported in the USA, Japan, India and Italy. The first case of GTS in Poland has been diagnosed in a young man working on a Virginia bright tobacco plantation. The patient had symptoms typical of GTS. The toxicological analysis of urine demonstrated the presence of cotinine at the level of 869 ng/ml. Intravenous fluids, anticholinergic agents and potassium supplementation were used in the treatment. Interestingly, diplopia at the initial stage of tobacco poisoning and horizontal nystagmus, which resolved on the 2nd day of hospital stay were observed. We believe that cases of GTS occur in Poland; however patients do not seek medical care. Given that the majority of activities during tobacco farming in Poland are performed manually, it seems necessary to launch a public awareness campaign on GTS and decontamination methods.

  7. Poland-AOD aerosol research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna; Markowicz, Krzysztof

    2017-04-01

    Poland-AOD research network (www.polandaod.pl) was formed in 2011. It is a consortium of Polish institutions that are involved in studies of the atmospheric aerosol impact on the climate system. In 2016 the Poland-AOD network comprised of five stations: Radiative Transfer Laboratory, University of Warsaw (urban station), the research station of the Institute of Oceanology, in Sopot (coastal station), Radiative Transfer Station SolarAOT in Strzyzow (background station in the Carpathian mountains), Meteorology and Climatology Observatory at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (urban station), and the Research station in Rzecin at Poznan University of Life Sciences (rural station). The primary goal of the network is to carry out measurements of aerosol single scattering properties, radiation budget, simulate radiative transfer and aerosol transport, validate aerosol transport and transformation models such as NAAPS and GEM-AQ, as well as carry out instrument calibration and intercomparison. We will present observations of aerosol properties collected by the network as well as results from the GEM-AQ model simulations for selected episodes of biomass burning and urban aerosol.

  8. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  9. [Poland syndrome: about a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Benzalim, Meriam; Berghalout, Laila; Elfakir, Sophia; Jalal, Hicham

    2017-01-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation associated with various degrees of thoracic and homolateral upper limb abnormalities. We report the case of a 7-year old girl who underwent exploration for depression of the left hemithorax associated with homolateral subclavicular mass. CT scan showed that the deformation of the thoracic wall was related to the absence of left pectoralis major muscle sterno-costal heads insertion associated with agenesis of the pectoralis minor muscle and hypoplasia of the anterior arches of the first six corresponding ribs. These abnormalities were related to Poland syndrome. General assessment was based on abdominal ultrasound, X-rays of both hands and did not show any associated malformation. Poland syndrome results from a deficit of blood flow to musculoskeletal elements of the chest wall during fetal life. There are many variants of Poland syndrome that can be best detected by CT scan and which must be performed whenever necessary, without omitting the role of general radiology in the detection of associated malformations. This syndrome is characterized by the agenesis of the sternocostal bundles of the pectoralis major muscle. Its etiology remains unknown and discussed. It can be caused by a vascular anomaly, without the primum movens of this vascular anomaly being known.

  10. Poland syndrome: from embryological basis to plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cingel, Vladimir; Bohac, Martin; Mestanova, Veronika; Zabojnikova, Lenka; Varga, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly described by Sir Alfred Poland over 170 years ago. Combination of unilateral aplasia of the sternocostal head of musculus pectoralis major, and an ipsilateral hypoplastic hand with simple syndactyly and short fingers is typical for this condition. It occurs more frequent among males, and is usually situated on the right hemithorax in the unilateral form. The pathogenesis of Poland syndrome is not clear. Most of the authors assume that the etiologic insult is vascular in nature. During the sixth week of gestation, not only the pectoral mass splits (future muscles of the thorax) and intervening tissue between the finger rays of hands starts to disappear but also the vascular differentiation from six aortic arches begins. In our paper we report two cases of children with Poland syndrome, who underwent surgical procedure in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Our case reports are focused on pre-operatively and also post-operatively imaging (RTG, CT, and 3D CT imaging) of the affected thorax and arm, as well as the operative reconstruction technique of abnormal ribs. We also discussed the possible embryonic backgrounds of this anomaly as well as the importance of plastic surgery resulting in patients' normal life.

  11. [Waterpipe smoking among adolescents in Silesia region of Poland].

    PubMed

    Mach, Paulina; Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Goniewicz, Maciej Ł; Koszowski, Bartosz; Czogała, Jan; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Waterpipe has been used for many centuries in Asia and Africa regions to smoke tobacco leaves. In recent years it has been gaining popularity also among adolescents and youths in Poland. The aim of the study was to examine waterpipe smoking prevalence among adolescents living in Silesia region of Poland. We investigated if waterpipe is used as alternative way to smoke tobacco and awareness among adolescents about heath risk of waterpipe smoking. We surveyed 769 students of high schools located in Silesia region of Poland. Mean age of surveyed students was 16.5 years, and 52.5% were females. Our results showed that prevalence of waterpipe was higher than cigarette smoking (46.7% vs. 34.6%). Prevalence of waterpipe smoking among girls was almost the same as among boys. Most of the surveyed students used waterpipe as an alternative tool to smoke tobacco. The prevalence of waterpipe smoking among Polish adolescents is very high. There is an urgent need for education about health risks of waterpipe use in Poland.

  12. Alcohol and injury in Poland: review and training recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Piotr; Kamat, Sonia; Barry, Kristen L.; Blow, Frederic C.; Zawadzki, Andrzej S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol plays a significant role in accidents, injuries, and their outcomes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 76.3 million people with alcohol use disorders worldwide; in 2000, 1.8 million deaths and loss of 58.3 million disability-adjusted life years were attributed to alcohol. Methods Although the association between alcohol consumption and trauma-related morbidity and mortality is well-documented, particularly in the US, there is much less information on trauma and alcohol in Poland, a country undergoing unprecedented economic and cultural changes stemming from entry into the European Union (EU) in the midst of a global recession. Results Injury is the third leading cause of death in Poland. Rates for all injuries in Poland are higher than in the rest of the EU. Alcohol is one of the greatest risk factors for disease and injury among men and one of the top ten health and injury risk factors for women. In this paper we review the last 10 years of research on injury and alcohol in Poland. Conclusion Recommendations are provided for next steps with regard to training health care professionals in emergency medical settings to address this serious and growing problem. PMID:20606821

  13. Exhumation research concerning the victims of political repressions in 1945-1956 in Poland: A new direction in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Lukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Konczewski, Paweł; Kawecki, Jerzy; Swiątek, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland), the bodies of 223 prisoners were exhumed, including the victims of political repressions and prosecutions in the period 1949-1954, during which people fighting for the independence of Poland were executed and buried in unidentified graves in various graveyards. It was the first exhumation conducted in Poland on such a large scale. The aim of the present publication is to describe the new direction in forensic medicine employed in these exhumations, which resulted from the new opportunities created by the opening of the state archives after the political transformation of 1989. The authors describe the difficulties they encountered during their exploration of prisoners' burial grounds. The graveyards included in the investigation bear the marks of an intentional policy of confusion and secret burial methods. First, significant disorder in the logical (based on time of death) sequence of burials was observed. This made identification difficult. A substantial time lapse between death and burial in each case, along with the unavailability of comparative data, limited the use of identification methods widely employed in forensic medicine. For this reason, initial analysis had to be based on observations and confirmations made by forensic medicine about the sequence of burials as compared to cemetery documentation. Situations such as this clearly call for the cooperation of historians, archaeologists, anthropologists and forensic pathologists. Political transformations in Eastern Europe in the 1990s gave rise to hopes of exchanging experiences in this type of research as conducted in other countries of the former Eastern Bloc.

  14. Rheumatology training in Poland vs. United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lazarewicz, Karina; Chinoy, Hector

    2017-01-01

    When evaluating the quality of Rheumatology specialty training, it can be useful to explore similarities and differences between countries. In this article we compare the training in the UK and Poland. The two training programmes are similar in length and in the competencies that must be achieved, although they do have significant differences in the way the training is structured. The UK-based system is more out-patient based, which can be advantageous, as after completion of training the doctor is more confident in treating common rheumatological problems. On the other hand, having exposure to paediatric rheumatology and orthopaedics like one has in Polish-based training, despite a short placement time, is definitely beneficial for the trainee in gaining all-round knowledge. In conclusion, each system has its merits and can be further enhanced by observing how junior doctors are sub-speciality trained in different countries.

  15. Hospital use by the elderly in Poland and the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, W E; Wotjyniak, B; Krzyzanowski, M

    1984-01-01

    Hospital use by elderly patients in Poland and the United States was compared using data from the 1980 General Hospital Morbidity Study (Poland) and the National Hospital Discharge Survey (US). Discharge and days-of-care rates were higher in the US but average lengths of stay were longer in Poland. All three measures increased with advancing age in the US but remained relatively constant or decreased with age in Poland. Although the most frequent causes of hospitalization were similar in the two countries, the characteristic use patterns across age were evident for most frequently occurring disease conditions. The greater use of hospitals in the US is not associated with marked differences between the two countries in health status of the elderly. PMID:6388364

  16. Demographic trends and the pension system in Poland--a model approach.

    PubMed

    Fratczak, E; Jozwiak, J

    1991-01-01

    This "article presents the results of projections of the population of Poland by age, sex and marital status till 2050 under different scenarios of fertility, mortality and nuptiality. These results are used for the analysis of future pension expenditures, the number of retirees, the labour force, and the relation between contributions and benefits. Past demographic trends and the development of social security in the post-war period in Poland are discussed as well." excerpt

  17. [Infectious diseases in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2009-01-01

    The fact that incidence of infectious diseases in Poland is quite stable and, as compared with many noninfectious diseases relatively better, should not lead to underestimation of the problem. Despite in many diseases long term trends indicate decreasing incidence, in some important diseases increase of incidence was noted. Significant decrease was noted in incidence of some diseases for which vaccination program was modified. It concerns mumps, Hib infections, and to some extend also pertussis. Serious problem remains with accumulated through several years high prevalence of hepatitis B and C. Also low vaccine coverage of influenza is a measure of weakness of prevention against this disease, which is one of the most important causes of job and school absence and despite low mortality, is one of important caused of increased mortality in winter season. Next important epidemiological problem cause bacterial and viral foodborne infections, which despite some improvement place Poland below average of EU. Also relative stabilization of the incidence of tuberculosis does not look good if compared with leading countries of EU. With HIV infections particular concern is brought by the number of late diagnoses and drastic decline of data on the probable risk factor of infection. Infectious diseases mortality in 2007 was 6.6/100,000 (3.5 in Podlaskie Voivodeship and 9.3 in Slaskie) and it was higher in cities (7.1) then in rural areas. As in previous years i man mortality (8.6) was higher then in women (4.9). Highest mortality from infectious diseases was noted among elderly people above 74 (30.6).

  18. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  19. Agroforestry Systems In Poland A Preliminary Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to use state-of-the-art knowledge to depict the foundations and prospects for agroforestry systems in Poland to develop, in line with political, legal, historical and environmental conditions pertaining in the country. The main legal provisions concerning the presence of trees in agriculture are presented prior to a first-ever defining of key traditional agroforestry systems in Poland.

  20. A neonate with Poland-Mobius syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Rabia; Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid; Ahmad, Tahir Masood; Butt, Taeed Ahmad

    2011-10-01

    Poland-Mobius syndrome is a combination of two rare congenital syndromes characterized by congenital facial weakness, loss of abduction of eyes, limb defects, and absence or hypoplasia of the pectoral muscles. A patient with features of both the Mobius syndrome and the Poland syndrome is presented in this case report.

  1. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  2. Occupational ceramic fibres dermatitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, M; Wojtczak, J

    2000-07-01

    Recently, the use of asbestos has been considerably limited in Poland, with the simultaneous increase in the manufacture, processing and application of man-made mineral fibres, which includes ceramic fibres. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the type and frequency of dermal changes caused by the irritant activity of ceramic fibres among workers at the plants that manufacture packing and insulation products; and (2) to compare the irritant activity of Polish-made L-2 and L-3 ceramic fibres with that of the Thermowool ceramic fibres made in England. Workers (n = 226) who were exposed to ceramic fibres underwent dermatological examination. Patch tests with the standard allergen set, together with samples of the fibres L-2, L-3, and Thermowool fibres, were applied to all the workers. It has been shown that the Polish-made L-2 and L-3 fibres differed from Thermowool fibres in that the L-2 and L-3 fibres contained zirconium and were coarser. The proportion of filaments with diameters above 3 microns was 11.1% in the L-3 fibre and 6.3% in the L-2 fibre samples. The Thermowool fibre did not contain filaments thicker than 3 microns. Evident dermal changes, resulting from strong irritant activity of the fibres, were detected in 109 (48.2%) of the workers examined. Irritant contact dermatitis acuta (maculae, sometimes papulae and small crusts on the upper extremities, trunk, and lower extremities), disappearing after 2-3 days, was found in 50 (22.1%) workers. Irritant contact dermatitis chronica (diffuse permanent erythema with numerous telangiectasiae on the lateral portions of the face and neck, on the trunk, behind the auricles) was detected in 40 (17.7%) workers. The remaining 19 (8.4%) workers had both types of dermal change. All examined workers complained of very strong itching. The results of the patch tests confirmed the irritant activity of the ceramic fibres. Erythema without oedema, persisting for up to 96 h, appeared at the places where the fibres had

  3. Poland action plan for water and wastewater: Bielsko-biala and Warsaw, Poland. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-09

    The Goczalkowice Reservoir in the Katowice voivodeship in the Upper Silesia area of Poland. It serves as a major source of water for the population of the Upper Selesia region. In 1987 a major shift took place in the ecology of the reservoir. The shift resulted in major algae blooms which caused problems at the water treatment plant. The primary purpose of the study was to more specifically define the water quality problem of the Goczalkowice Reservoir, to determine it causes and to develop a set of recommendations leading to a solution. The report would then become the basis for proposals for financing of one or more projects needed to implement its recommendations.

  4. Optic disc dysplasia in poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Steven D; Strominger, Mitchell B

    2014-06-01

    To report optic disc dysplasia in a case of Poland syndrome. Non-interventional case report. A 2-year-old boy with Poland syndrome was referred for ophthalmic evaluation after abnormal optic discs were found on exam. Physical exam at birth revealed right-sided aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, symbrachydactyly, hypoplastic scapula, and an abnormal third rib. On dilated examination the optic nerve heads were dysplastic. The findings included multiple cilioretinal vessels, situs inversus, inferotemporal excavation, and surrounding pigmentary disturbances. Only one case of optic disc anomaly has been reported in Poland syndrome and was described as morning glory syndrome. The optic discs in our patient do not fit well with other optic disc excavation syndromes but are most reminiscent of those in papillorenal syndrome. As both Poland syndrome and papillorenal syndrome share vascular dysfunction as a possible etiology, this case adds to the literature of vascular dysgenesis in Poland syndrome.

  5. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  6. Sequence variation in virulence-related genes of Bordetella pertussis isolates from Poland in the period 1959-2013.

    PubMed

    Mosiej, E; Zawadka, M; Krysztopa-Grzybowska, K; Polak, M; Augustynowicz, E; Piekarska, K; Lutyńska, A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise Bordetella pertussis isolates circulating in Poland since 1959. Sequence analysis of ptxA, ptxC, prn, tcfA, fim2, fim3 and ptxP for 175 clinical isolates and currently and previously used vaccine strains was performed. Clinical isolates from the period 1995-2013 were found to be different to three currently used vaccine strains harbouring the allelic combination ptxA2-ptxC1-ptxP1-prn1-tcfA2-fim2-1-fim3-1, seen frequently in Poland in the early pertussis vaccination period but not found after 1995. Generally, among B. pertussis isolates from the period 2000-2013, two genotypes predominated, ptxA1-ptxC1-ptxP1-prn1-tcfA2-fim2-2-fim3-1 and ptxA1-ptxC1-ptxP1-prn2-tcfA2-fim2-1-fim3-1, with frequencies of 45% and 32.5%, respectively. The isolates harbouring ptxA1-ptxC2-ptxP3-prn2-tcfA2-fim2-1-fim3-2 and ptxA1-ptxC2-ptxP3-prn2-tcfA2-fim2-1-fim3-1 profiles, currently highly prevalent within other European Union (EU) countries, were rarely found in Poland, as they circulated in the period 2000-2013 with frequencies of 10% and 5%, respectively. We hypothesise that several previous changes of strain composition in whole-cell pertussis vaccine produced locally and used since 1960 in Poland resulted in a more diverse immune pressure in the population, resulting in different prevalence of alleles compared to elsewhere.

  7. [Botulism in Poland in 2010].

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2010, using national surveillance data. In Poland, botulism is a mandatory notifiable disease based on the European Union case definition (probable or confirmed), however given limited laboratory capacity, in national surveillance we also use "possible" case definition for cases reported by physicians based on clinical symptoms (with no laboratory confirmation). The number of botulism cases reported has decreased over the past years. Between 2004-2008 the median annual number of cases in years 2004-2008 was 49, whereas in 2009 alone, was only 31 cases. In 2010 a total 32 botulism cases (0.08 per 100,000 inhabitants)--including 22 confirmed cases (in 20 cases--toxin type B, and in 2 -toxin type B / E was found) were reported. There was only one--'probable case'--reported on the basis of clinical symptoms and the presence of an 'epidemiological link' (exposure from the same source). Other cases (9 patients) were reported, on the basis of clinical diagnosis without laboratory confirmation and registered as 'possible cases'. Incidence in rural areas (0.18) was 9-fold higher than the incidence in urban areas. Men had higher (0.12) incidence than women (0.05); the highest incidence (0.17) was observed among people aged 50-59 years. All cases were people aged over 25 years of age. In 28% of all cases--homemade canned pork was implicated. Canned fish were also a common vehicle. All patients were hospitalized--for between 5 and 35 days (median 11 days). No deaths related to the disease were reported. Botulism in Poland is still an important epidemiological problem. A large number of poisonings is primarily due to consumption of homemade canned foods.

  8. Poland across the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    Okolski, M

    1991-01-01

    The rapid increase in international migration from Eastern to Western Europe that occurred in 1989-1990 is described, with particular attention to the effect of this trend on Poland. The author notes that the relaxation of migration laws in Eastern Europe has allowed migration that would have previously been banned. In addition to the migration stream from east to west, the author also observes that Eastern Europe may become a major destination of refugees from the former Soviet Union as well as from developing countries.

  9. Results from a randomized controlled study between total disc replacement and fusion compared with results from a spine register

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Svante; Tropp, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background Difficulties in performing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate new treatment options are increasing. Higher costs and patient unwillingness are the main obstacles. A spinal surgery register has been in use in Sweden for 11 years. Our aim was to determine whether this register can provide the same information as an RCT and whether register data compare favorably with RCT data, making RCTs unnecessary. If not the case, was patient selection or follow-up frequency the cause of any differences? Materials and methods We compared baseline data and outcome, retrieved from our register, between 2 surgical groups, total disc replacement (TDR) and fusion at 1 or 2 levels, performed for degenerative disc disease. One hundred fifty-two patients were part of an RCT, whereas four hundred fifty-five patients had been treated according to an active decision. These 2 subgroups were the subjects for comparison. Results The 2 subgroups were not similar at baseline. Patients who were fused in the non-RCT subgroup were older, had a higher Oswestry Disability Index, and were more frequently smokers than the other patients. The outcome for the non-RCT group showed larger differences in favor of TDR than the RCT did. The nonresponders in the non-RCT group showed worse life quality and disability at baseline, and patients who answered the 1-year follow-up questionnaire but not the 2-year follow-up questionnaire had an inferior clinical result compared with the other patients at 1 year. Conclusion Data from our register showed results similar to the RCT, but a register cannot fully replace an RCT study when evaluating a new treatment option if the RCT has narrower selection than just the diagnosis. In this RCT comparing TDR with posterior fusion, the normal exclusion criteria for TDR were used. These were not registered, so the register could not prevent a possible selection bias, which might also be caused by the nonresponders. PMID:25802653

  10. Poland syndrome with intracranial germ cell tumor in a child.

    PubMed

    Elli, Murat; Oğur, Gönül; Dağdemir, Ayhan; Pinarli, Güçlü; Ceyhan, Meltem; Dağçinar, Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Poland syndrome is an uncommon unilateral deformity of chest wall and upper extremity with variable manifestations. Although numerous case reports of Poland syndrome associated with malignancies have been published, intracranial germ cell tumor in Poland syndrome has not been previously reported. The authors describe a 15-year-old male patient with intracranial germ cell tumor and Poland syndrome.

  11. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2014 compared to previous years. We reviewed (1) surveillance data published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and in previous publications, and (2) unpublished data retrieved from botulism case reports for 2014 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2014, a total of 29 foodborne botulism cases (including 17 laboratory confirmed) was reported; the annual incidence rate (0.08 per 100,000 population) increased slightly in comparison to previous year, but was similar to the median incidence for years 2008 to 2012. The highest incidence in the country was reported in Lubelskie province (0.33). Incidence in rural areas (0.09) was only slightly higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.06). Men, had more than 4 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.31) was observed among men in the age group of 20-24 years. Most cases were associated with consumption of different types of commercially canned meat. Home-made vegetable meat preserves were also a common vehicle. All cases were hospitalized. Two deaths related to the disease were reported. Since 2008, the epidemiological situation of foodborne botulism in the country remains stable with an average 30 cases per year and corresponding incidence rate of 0.08 per 100,000 population. However, in 2014 draws attention a significant number of cases with undetermined food vehicle and relatively high percentage of cases with no laboratory confirmation. Therefore, it is important to enhance epidemiological investigation as well as laboratory capacity for surveillance.

  12. Projections of changes of areal evapotranspiration for different land-use units in the Wielkopolska Region (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwed, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Strong global warming has been observed in the last three decades. Central Europe, including Poland, is not an exception. Moreover, climate projections for Poland foresee further warming as well as changes in the quantity as well as spatial and seasonal distribution of precipitation. This will result in changes in all elements of the water balance, including the areal evapotranspiration. For estimating the areal evapotranspiration, the heat balance method (HBM) is used in this paper for the growing season (March-October), whereas for the remaining months (November-February), evaporation is calculated according to the Ivanov equation. Values of areal evapotranspiration from selected land units are examined and compared for the average conditions in two time horizons, i.e. 1961-1990 (control period) and 2061-2090 (projection horizon) over the Wielkopolska Region in Poland, based on multi-model ensemble climate projections. Projections for the future, based on the MPI-M-REMO model, indicate that the regional average increases of the annual sum of areal evapotranspiration (connected mainly with an increase of air temperature) is equal to 45 mm, with the biggest changes during winter. In the growing season, the highest increases are expected to appear in July and June. As regards the spatial distribution, the highest increases are projected for the areas with presently highest evapotranspiration, e.g. the southwestern parts of the region.

  13. Poland’s Role in European and World System of States 1979-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    with a “plastic ballpoint pen , decorated with a photograph of the Pope.” 5 It was an unprecedented situation, because for the first time in the history...pressing national interest in the specific campaign in Iraq.”21 The third set of rationales regarded moral issues such as the humanitarian promotion of...resulting from it. 111 The United States of America should specifically promise Poland to respond militarily, if Poland were to become the target of

  14. Pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland (2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Matyaszek, Aneta; Szpyrka, Ewa; Podbielska, Magdalena; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Kurdziel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a leading grower/producer of berries in Europe that are either eaten raw or processed. As well as berries this includes fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other small fruits. Testing for the presence of active substances in Plant Protection Products, (PPP), in such fruit is however important, as part of measures taken to minimise human intake. To determine the incidence of pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland in 2009-2011. . Chromatographic separation followed by analytical detection was performed on 250 samples of various test fruits using an accredited methodology: GC/ECD/NPD, together with spectrophotometric detection wherever necessary, according to PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025. As part of previous monitoring, 126 active substances were identified in 2009, 132 in 2010 and 153 in 2011; levels were compared to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). RESULTS;. Analyses showed that 46.4% of samples contained PPPs of which 4% exceeded the MRL. The most were found in raspberries, (58.8% of all tested), followed by 58.3% redcurrants, and gooseberries as well as 50% grapes. The most frequently found active substances of PPPs were pyrimethanil (15.6%), dithiocarbamates (12.4%), procymidone (8%), cyprodinil (5.6%) and difenoconazole (5.2%). The highest MRL exceedances were found in blackcurrants. Testing also revealed many examples of pesticides not recommended for the protection of specific crops: propiconazole in gooseberries, cyprodinil, flusilazole, iprodione, pyrimethanil in blackcurrants and folpet and captan in raspberries. Furthermore, active substances whose use in PPPs have been forbidden since 2008 were also detected, ie. endosulfan in blackcurrants and strawberries, fenitrothion in black and red currants as well as procymidone in raspberries, blackcurrants and strawberries. These data are consistent to those obtained from the whole of Poland and the European Union (EU). Most pesticides were present in raspberries, redcurrants

  15. The Polish Interventional Cardiology TAVI Survey (PICTS): adoption and practice of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Parma, Radosław; Dąbrowski, Maciej; Ochała, Andrzej; Witkowski, Adam; Dudek, Dariusz; Siudak, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have assessed the development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in Poland since its introduction in 2008, and data on current TAVI activity or practice are missing. Aim To assess the dynamics of TAVI adoption in Poland and to detect differences among Polish centres in TAVI practice and decision-making. Material and methods The Polish Interventional Cardiology TAVI Survey (PICTS) was approved by the Polish Association of Cardiovascular Interventions and presented to all 21 national TAVI centres. Between 2008 and 2015 the cumulative number of TAVI performed in Poland was 2189. The annual number of TAVI rose from 8 in 2008 to 670 in 2015 (0.21 to 17.4 implants per million inhabitants, respectively). Results The median TAVI experience per centre was 80 procedures (95% CI: 38.1–154.6). In 2015 the TAVI penetration rate reached 5.12% of the estimated eligible Polish population. Inoperable and high-risk patients are treated with TAVI in all centres, with 52% of Heart Teams also qualifying medium-risk patients. The rate of transfemoral implantations increased to 83.2% of all procedures in 2015, while transapical implantations decreased to 12%. The frequency of subclavian, direct aortic or transcarotid routes in 2015 was below 3% each. Conclusions The PICTS survey observed a positive but slow rate of adoption of TAVI in Poland. When compared to Western European countries, our findings highlight a significant treatment gap in high or prohibitive surgical risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Remarkable variations in TAVI practices among Polish TAVI centres warrant publication of joint national guidelines and recommendations. PMID:28344612

  16. Greetings from Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burczyk, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the creativity of origami and discusses a model she designed in May 2008 in Freiburg at the 20th International Origami Convention of Origami Deutschland. The model resulted from her investigation of a geometric model that exposes the centre part of a square paper sheet. The base model of the series called…

  17. Greetings from Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burczyk, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the creativity of origami and discusses a model she designed in May 2008 in Freiburg at the 20th International Origami Convention of Origami Deutschland. The model resulted from her investigation of a geometric model that exposes the centre part of a square paper sheet. The base model of the series called…

  18. Dairy farm cost efficiency in leading milk-producing regions in Poland.

    PubMed

    Sobczyński, T; Klepacka, A M; Revoredo-Giha, C; Florkowski, W J

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the cost efficiency of dairy farms in 2 important regions of commercial milk production in Poland (i.e., Wielkopolskie and Podlaskie). Both regions gained importance following the market-driven resource allocation mechanism adopted after Poland's transition to the market economy in 1989 and accession to the European Union (EU) in 2004. The elimination of the dairy quota system in the EU in 2015 offers new expansion opportunities. The analysis of trends in cow numbers, milk production, and yield per cow shows different patterns of expansion of the dairy sector in the 2 regions. We selected dairy farm data from the Farm Accounts Data Network database for both regions and applied the cost frontier estimation model to calculate the relative cost-efficiency index for the period 2004 to 2009. The indexes compare each farm in the sample to the most efficient dairy farm in each region separately. Additionally, the top 5% of dairy farms with the highest relative cost efficiency index from each region were compared in terms of production costs with published results from a study using the representative farm approach. The comparison of results from 2 different studies permits a conclusion that Wielkopolskie and Podlaskie dairy farms are able to compete with farms from the 4 largest milk-producing countries in the EU. Although both regions can improve yields per cow, especially Podlaskie, both regions are likely to take advantage of the expansion opportunities offered by the 2015 termination of the milk quota system.

  19. Students' Difficulties in Reading Images. Comparing Results from Four National Research Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Roser; Ametller, Jaume

    2002-01-01

    Compares the results of four studies made under the auspices of the Science Teacher Training in an Information Society (STTIS) project researching the difficulties students have in reading images. The studies are compared under such categories as pre-eminence of narrative readings, real-world versus symbolic elements, verbal elements, and…

  20. Biobank concept in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, J

    2012-09-01

    Possible adverse events and reactions associated with organ procurement and transplantation from deceased donors require compliance with quality and safety standards. Shortage of organs for transplantation makes it necessary to obtain organs from nonstandard (expanded-criteria) donors. This increases the risk of disease transmission with the graft which is difficult or impossible to identify before transplantation. The long-term access to biologic material of organ donors and recipients proffers the possibility to evaluate serious adverse reactions as well as to improve the quality and safety in transplantation medicine. Implementation of the above-mentioned tasks requires a Biobank whose aims are: to gather and long-term storage sera, lymph nodes, and other tissues of deceased organ donors for analysis of their biologic properties; to gather and store organ recipient sera; to determine methods to store biologic material in a manner enabling identification of the donor, organ, and recipients; and to provide electronic record keeping. Tactical tasks of a Biobank are: to carry out new or verify results of previously performed testing of deceased donors and recipients as controls to evaluate transmission of infection; to perform genetic material testing (NAT) to verify and confirm serologic tests, eg, determination of HIV RNA/DNA in donors at risk of infections; to discover rare diseases in donors and recipients whose detection before transplantation is difficult because of the time constraints related to organ storage or the lack of available methods (eg, sponge encephalopathies); to perform biochemical or genetic tests to evaluate neoplasia transfer from donor to recipient; and to reexamine HLA typing in cases of immunologic complications.

  1. A small scale survey of Leptospira in mammals from eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sroka, Jacek; Piskorski, Michał; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Samples of 30 dead small mammals each were collected on area 'A' located in eastern Poland and exposed to floods by the Vistula river, and on area 'B', also located in eastern Poland, but not exposed to floods. Kidneys and livers of the mammals were examined by the PCR and nested PCR methods for the presence of Leptospira DNA. From 7 species of small mammals examined, the presence of Leptospira DNA was detected in 2 of them. The prevalence of positive results was greatest in Apodemus agrarius which was the mostly numerous mammal species (14 out of total 39 specimens, 35.9%). The presence of Leptospira DNA was also found in Microtus arvalis (1 out of 1 specimen, 100%), whereas the remaining 5 species (Apodemus flavicollis , Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus agrestis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus) were negative. No significant difference in the prevalence of positive findings was found between the small mammals from areas 'A' exposed to flooding, compared to those from area 'B' not exposed to flooding (20.0% vs. 30.0%, p=0.3748). The overall positivity of the examined small mammals population from areas 'A' and 'B' was 25.0%. The prevalence of dual positivity (leptospiral DNA found both in kidney and liver) was greater in the mammals from areas exposed to flooding compared to those from areas not exposed to flooding (16.7% vs. 6.7%), but this dependence was also not significant (p=0.2382).

  2. Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and natural forested areas of Poland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is a major vector for a range of microbial pathogens and the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species on the European continent, occurring in both natural and urban habitats. Nevertheless, little is known about the relative density of ticks in these two ecologically distinct habitats and the diversity of tick-borne pathogens that they carry. Methods We compared densities of questing I. ricinus nymphs and adults in urban and natural habitats in Central and Northeastern Poland, assessed the prevalence and rate of co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and ‘Ca. Neoehrlichia spp.’ in ticks, and compared the diversity of tick-borne pathogens using molecular assays (PCR). Results Of the 1325 adults and nymphs, 6.2% were infected with at least one pathogen, with 4.4%, 1.7% and less than 0.5% being positive for the DNA of Rickettsia spp., A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and Ca. N. mikurensis, respectively. Although tick abundance was higher in natural habitats, the prevalence of the majority of pathogens was higher in urban forested areas. Conclusion We conclude that: (i) zoonotic genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum are widely distributed in the Polish tick population, (ii) although the diversity of tick borne pathogens was higher in natural habitats, zoonotic species/strains were detected only in urban forests, (iii) and we provide the first description of Ca. N. mikurensis infections in ticks in Poland. PMID:24661311

  3. XCluSim: a visual analytics tool for interactively comparing multiple clustering results of bioinformatics data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Though cluster analysis has become a routine analytic task for bioinformatics research, it is still arduous for researchers to assess the quality of a clustering result. To select the best clustering method and its parameters for a dataset, researchers have to run multiple clustering algorithms and compare them. However, such a comparison task with multiple clustering results is cognitively demanding and laborious. Results In this paper, we present XCluSim, a visual analytics tool that enables users to interactively compare multiple clustering results based on the Visual Information Seeking Mantra. We build a taxonomy for categorizing existing techniques of clustering results visualization in terms of the Gestalt principles of grouping. Using the taxonomy, we choose the most appropriate interactive visualizations for presenting individual clustering results from different types of clustering algorithms. The efficacy of XCluSim is shown through case studies with a bioinformatician. Conclusions Compared to other relevant tools, XCluSim enables users to compare multiple clustering results in a more scalable manner. Moreover, XCluSim supports diverse clustering algorithms and dedicated visualizations and interactions for different types of clustering results, allowing more effective exploration of details on demand. Through case studies with a bioinformatics researcher, we received positive feedback on the functionalities of XCluSim, including its ability to help identify stably clustered items across multiple clustering results. PMID:26328893

  4. Productivity losses and public finance burden attributable to breast cancer in Poland, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Łyszczarz, Błażej; Nojszewska, Ewelina

    2017-10-10

    Apart from the health and social burden of the disease, breast cancer (BC) has important economic implications for the sick, health system and whole economy. There has been a growing interest in the economic aspects of breast cancer and analyses of the disease costs seem to be the most explored topic. However, the results from these studies are hardly comparable. With this study we aim to contribute to the field by providing estimates of productivity losses and public finance burden attributable to BC in Poland. We used retrospective prevalence-based top-down approach to estimate the productivity losses (indirect costs) of BC in Poland in the period 2010-2014. Human capital method (HCM) and societal perspective were used to estimate the costs of: absenteeism of the sick and caregivers, presenteeism of the sick and caregivers, disability, and premature mortality. We also used figures illustrating public finance burden attributable to the disease. Deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the stability of the estimates. A variety of data sources were used with the social insurance system and Polish National Cancer Registry being the most important ones. Productivity losses associated with BC in Poland were €583.7 million in 2010 and they increased to €699.7 million in 2014. Throughout the period these costs accounted for 0.162-0.171% of GDP, an equivalent of 62,531-65,816 per capita GDP. Losses attributable to disability and premature mortality proved to be the major cost drivers with 27.6%-30.6% and 22.0%-24.6% of the total costs respectively. The costs due to caregivers' presenteeism were negligible (0.1% of total costs). Public finance expenditure for social insurance benefits to BC sufferers ranged from €50.2 million (2010) to €56.6 million (2014), an equivalent of 0.72-0.79% of expenditures for all diseases. Potential losses in public finance revenues accounted for €173.9 million in 2010 and €211.0 million in 2014. Sensitivity

  5. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2001.

    PubMed

    Pepłońska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2002-01-01

    The Central Register of Occupational Diseases keeps the records of all reported and certified occupational diseases in Poland. In this paper the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland in 2001 is discussed on the basis of the data provided by the Register. The changes in the incidence pattern over the recent 30 years are also shown. In 2001, 6,007 cases of occupational diseases were registered, with the incidence rate of 63.2 per 100,000 employees. The highest incidence rates were noted for seven categories of diseases: the vocal organ diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, pneumoconioses, contagious and invasive diseases, dermatoses, chronic diseases of bronchi, and vibration syndrome. Altogether these diseases covered 5,239 cases (87.2% of all registered cases). Mining and quarrying, agriculture, hunting and forestry, education, health and social works were the economy activities with the highest incidence of occupational diseases. The majority of occupational diseases (93.9%) have developed after a long-term (over 10 years) exposure to particular harmful factors. As much as 58.5% of cases were recorded in males. The predominant occupational diseases in males were occupational hearing lesions, while in females chronic vocal organ diseases, most common in teachers, were most frequently recognized. In Poland, the diseases of the vocal organ poses a serious problem from the medical and socio-economic points of view. These pathologies show the highest dynamics of the incidence among all registered occupational diseases. Over the last five years the vocal organ diseases have moved upwards to the top in the ranking, both with respect to the number of cases and the incidence rate. Since 1998, the incidence of occupational diseases has been continuously showing a downward tendency. Four categories of occupational diseases have accounted mostly for this decline: noise-induced hearing loss, chronic diseases of vocal organ, contagious and invasive diseases, and

  6. KAMEDO Report No. 76: Floods in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000.

    PubMed

    Wahren, Håkans; Ridez, Louis; Riddez, Louis; Dellgar, Uno

    2005-01-01

    Extensive flooding occurred in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000. These events and their management are reviewed in this Report. The floods in Poland were more extensive than in Sweden as they covered some 10% of Poland's landmass. An estimated 55 persons died as a direct result of the floods in Poland and none were reported due to the flood in Sweden. No epidemics were encountered in either country, presumably related to the extensive use of bottled water and radio instructions to boil all water before its use. The water supply was interrupted and untreated water was taken into the water distribution systems. Chlorination of the water supplies was added in Sweden. Sewage and refuse management was problematic. The heathcare system was impacted profoundly in Poland both by direct damage to hospitals and/or loss of essential services such as electricity and water supplies. Government responses are described with the needs in Poland being extensive including the need for outside assistance. Some pathways used for obtaining aid were outside of government coordination. Comprehensive conclusions and recommendations derived from the observations are provided.

  7. XCluSim: a visual analytics tool for interactively comparing multiple clustering results of bioinformatics data.

    PubMed

    L'Yi, Sehi; Ko, Bongkyung; Shin, DongHwa; Cho, Young-Joon; Lee, Jaeyong; Kim, Bohyoung; Seo, Jinwook

    2015-01-01

    Though cluster analysis has become a routine analytic task for bioinformatics research, it is still arduous for researchers to assess the quality of a clustering result. To select the best clustering method and its parameters for a dataset, researchers have to run multiple clustering algorithms and compare them. However, such a comparison task with multiple clustering results is cognitively demanding and laborious. In this paper, we present XCluSim, a visual analytics tool that enables users to interactively compare multiple clustering results based on the Visual Information Seeking Mantra. We build a taxonomy for categorizing existing techniques of clustering results visualization in terms of the Gestalt principles of grouping. Using the taxonomy, we choose the most appropriate interactive visualizations for presenting individual clustering results from different types of clustering algorithms. The efficacy of XCluSim is shown through case studies with a bioinformatician. Compared to other relevant tools, XCluSim enables users to compare multiple clustering results in a more scalable manner. Moreover, XCluSim supports diverse clustering algorithms and dedicated visualizations and interactions for different types of clustering results, allowing more effective exploration of details on demand. Through case studies with a bioinformatics researcher, we received positive feedback on the functionalities of XCluSim, including its ability to help identify stably clustered items across multiple clustering results.

  8. Comparative results of non-operative multi-modal therapy for filarial lymphoedema

    PubMed Central

    Gogia, S. B.; Appavoo, N. C.; Mohan, A.; Kumar, M. Burney

    2009-01-01

    A comparative analysis of different conservative modes of therapy for lymphoedema, largely of Filarial origin, was conducted in a trial therapy unit in Chengalpattu, a Filarial endemic district in Tamil Nadu. Results were compared using a single chambered intermittent pneumatic compression pump, heat therapy, and interferential therapy machines. The results showed improvement of limb size between 20% and 60% of possible reduction (where 100% would mean return of limb circumference to the same as that of the normal side). Pneumatic compression therapy, when used alone, showed the best results, which were significantly better than all others whether alone or in combination. PMID:19881016

  9. Trees Outside Forest In Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajączkowski, Jacek; Zajączkowski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Increasing environmental threats to agricultural production and the stability of ecosystems have been observed on the Polish lowlands since the 1970s. Several hundred million trees and shrubs have been planted on farmland, mostly along roads and with the involvement of public agencies, with a view to timber being produced, and soil erosion and the water deficit mitigated. On the basis of over 50 years of practical observations and scientific experiments, recommendations have been drawn up as regards the structural and spatial features of new tree planting outside forests that maximize environmental, production-related and social benefits. This paper gives a brief description of the history of the active establishment of woody vegetation across agricultural landscapes in Poland, along with best practices elaborated for this at several scientific centres.

  10. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  11. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  12. A Fulbright Specialist in Poland.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Arthur M; Tarkowski, Radoslaw

    2017-02-10

    One of the greatest rewards in cancer education is working with colleagues from around the world. This manuscript reports on the development and conduct of a cancer research training program in Wroclaw, Poland, supported by the Fulbright Commission. The precipitating need for this program was the desire and lack of opportunity for medical trainees to develop skills necessary to conduct cancer education research. A 2-week program was developed consisting of didactic, Socratic, and individual/group consultations. Support from the Fulbright Commission was essential to the success of this program. Information will be presented in this paper on the completion of the funding application as well as lessons learned in the development and implementation of this program.

  13. Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and application of fertilizers: an example from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, M.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Kryza, M.; Dore, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    A Europe-wide dynamic ammonia (NH3) emissions model has been applied for one of the large agricultural countries in Europe, and its sensitivity on the distribution of emissions among different agricultural functions was analysed by comparing with observed ammonia concentrations and by implementing all scenarios in a chemical transport model (CTM). The results suggest that the dynamic emission model is most sensitive to emission from animal manure, in particular how animal manure and its application on fields is connected to national regulations. In contrast, the model is most robust with respect to emission from buildings and storage. To incorporate the national regulations, we obtained activity information on agricultural operations at the sub-national level for Poland, information about infrastructure on storages, and current regulations on manure practice from Polish authorities. The information was implemented in the existing emission model and was connected directly with the NWP calculations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-ARW). The model was used to calculate four emission scenarios with high spatial (5 km × 5 km) and temporal resolution (3 h) for the entire year 2010. In the four scenarios, we have compared the Europe-wide default model settings against (1) a scenario that focuses on emission from agricultural buildings, (2) the existing emission method used in WRF-Chem in Poland, and (3) a scenario that takes into account Polish infrastructure and agricultural regulations. The ammonia emission was implemented into the CTM FRAME and modelled ammonia concentrations was compared with measurements. The results suggest that the default setting in the dynamic model is an improvement compared to a non-dynamical emission profile. The results also show that further improvements can be obtained on the national scale by replacing the default information on manure practice with information that is connected with local practice and national

  14. Drug addiction in Poland and criminalistic traces.

    PubMed

    Kała, M; Borkowski, T

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the most popular drugs and their substitutes being used in Poland. The paper also presents the problem of developing and examining criminalistic traces in biological and some non-organic materials.

  15. Comparison of geoid models used in Poland - analysis associated with the introduction of EVRS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszak, Tomasz; Andrasik, Ewa; Barlik, Marcin

    2013-04-01

    In Poland several of local quasi-geoid models are used in practice, mainly in context of satellite leveling measurements. Since 1993 were created gravimetric geoid models based on the solution to the Stokes problem and remove-restore technique (eg. "quasi97", "Geoida2001"). These models are nowadays widely used in engineering applications. In 2012, has been developed geoid model "Geoid2008-PL", based on discrete EGM2008 grid and its transformation into undulations defined by precise satellite and leveling measurements (integrated satellite and leveling networks). All these models tie geocentric ellipsoid height with Kronsztadt normal heights system. From 2019 in Poland will be introduced the new heights reference system, common for European countries EVRS system. As an integral part of the system will be implemented the European geoid model (EGG) with NAP definition as reference point. Poster contains the results of a comparison of these models, the reference surface for the Polish territory. Will be presented the results of a comparison between the models and to compare them with measured undulations on Polish integrated networks.

  16. Internal parasitic fauna of elk (Alces alces) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Filip, Katarzyna J; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W

    2016-12-01

    The abundance of elk (Alces alces) in Poland at the beginning of 2016 reached over 28 000 individual animals. However, little is still known about health status of elk population in the country. In particular, important health issue tend to be parasitic diseases which are the most common diseases in wild animals. Special emphasis should be given to the parasitofauna of elks. Their ability to move over great distances increases the chance of parasitic infestations in new areas and transmission to other wild animals and livestock. The aim of this article is to describe the parasites occurring in elk in Poland on the basis of previous studies from the country and to compare them with data from neighboring countries. The presented review reveals that elk populations have not been examined for the presence of parasites for decades, and no recent studies in Poland have examined the parasitofauna of this animal. As such, our study shows that assessing the parasites present in elk populations remains an important area of research.

  17. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  18. Poland syndrome a rare congenital anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Aliyu; Ramatu, Abdallah; Helen, Akhiwu

    2013-07-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly classically consisting of unilateral hypoplasia of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral brachysyndactyly. It was first described by Alfred Poland in 1840 and may occur with different gravity. Our patient is an eight-year-old Nigerian girl with left-sided anterior chest wall defect with no detectable structural heart abnormality but presented with repeated episodes of syncopal attacks following minor trauma to the anterior chest wall.

  19. Poland: facing the hidden costs of development

    SciTech Connect

    Kabala, S.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Polish People's Republic is the eleventh-ranked industrial nation in the world. The by-product of this achievement is some of the worst water, air, and soil pollution in the world. Poland has miles of river water that is unfit for any use and the air pollution in most of the major cities far exceeds any permissible limits. This paper discussed Poland's major ecological problems and its government's desire to deal with these problems.

  20. Contaminant trends derived by comparing archived samples with results of a current estuarine monitoring project

    SciTech Connect

    Lauenstein, G.

    1995-12-31

    Organic contaminant concentrations in mussels and oysters were compared between archived samples of a Mussel Watch Program of the 1970s and samples collected in the 1980s and the 1990s by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s (NOAA`s) National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Project. These comparisons are possible because 51 sites of the current Mussel Watch Project were co-located with sites of the 1970s program. Archived samples were analyzed using current analytical techniques and were analyzed concurrently with the 1992 samples of NOAA`s Mussel Watch Project. Chlorinated pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, displayed significant decreases between the 1970s and the 1990s. Polychlorinated biphenyls and butyltins were found in higher concentrations in the first year that they were quantified by NOAA`s Mussel Watch Project (1986 and 1989, respectively) than in the 1970s samples. Concentrations for both have decreased since then. The original 1970s analytical results were also compared to current analytical results from archived samples. Results were comparable for the quantification of DDE. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analyses were generally comparable for the greater than 3-ring molecules. When a conversion factor was applied, results were also comparable for the quantification of PCBs even though the early methods quantified Aroclor 1254 and the more recent method quantifies PCBs by congener.

  1. Globular-cluster stars - Results of theoretical evolution and pulsation studies compared with the observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Survey of recently published studies on globular clusters, and comparison of stellar evolution and pulsation theory with reported observations. The theory of stellar evolution is shown to be capable of describing, in principle, the behavior of a star through all quasi-static stages. Yet, as might be expected, estimates of bulk properties obtained by comparing observations with results of pulsation and stellar atmosphere theory differ somewhat from estimates of these same properties obtained by comparing observations with results of evolution theory. A description is given of how such estimates are obtained, and suggestions are offered as to where the weak points in each theory may lie.

  2. Hospitalization of injured immigrants in Poland - Demographic profile and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Goryński, Paweł; Seroka, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    More and more immigrants gradually come to Poland. Little is known, however, about their health situation or their injuries. The objective of this study was to analyse the cases of hospitalization of immigrants due to injuries in 2008-2010, including the number and demographic characteristics of the patients, as well as the nature of injury according to ICD-10 (S00-T98). The analysis was conducted on the basis of data from the General Hospital Morbidity Study. All the cases of hospitalization due to injuries were covered by the analysis, and a group of foreigners was compared to the general population. The number of foreigners hospitalized due to injuries ranged from 4.6-21.2 thousand in the subsequent years. The share of hospitalization due to injuries equalled 8.2-11.9% of all foreigners' hospital stay. The majority were males, but the proportion of females gradually increased up to 36.7% in 2010. The average age of the hospitalized gradually decreased to the age of 35.2 in 2010. The structure of the nature of injury was different from that of the general population. Prevailing types of injuries were minor injuries of wrist, hand, ankle and foot. Open wounds of the head were also common. Results of the analysis indicate the most important tendencies related to immigrants' injuries. Further research, as well as monitoring the foreigners' health status is necessary. Taking preventive measures is essential among the most vulnerable group - male immigrants aged 15-19.

  3. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zatoński, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2016-12-23

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation.

  4. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000)…

  5. Gestational weight gain: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reporte...

  6. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000)…

  7. Results of loading doses of aspartame by two phenylketonuric (PKU) children compared with two normal children.

    PubMed

    Koch, R; Schaeffler, G; Shaw, N F

    1976-11-01

    Separate tolerance tests with aspartame at 34 mg/kg-day and phenylalanine at 19 mg/kg-day were compared. The results reveal that slight serum elevation of phenylalanine and tyrosine occurred in the two PKU and the normal healthy adolescents. It would appear that the phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame is small enough to be of little clinical significance.

  8. Comparing Two Examination Results Using Means of Sample Means and Control Charts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi-Labaika, A. Bisi; Ahani, E.

    2015-01-01

    Some examination candidates submit their scripts first, sometimes, for recognition as being brilliant, and some do for not knowing what to write. However, some equally submit last because they want to dot i's and cross t's. The objective of this research is to compare the results of both the earliest and latest submissions with the aim of finding…

  9. [Criteria for evaluating exposure to chemical substances in Poland: procedures for suppression and applications].

    PubMed

    Gromiec, Jan P; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2002-01-01

    The major objective of setting values of chemical concentrations in the work environment is to reduce the risk of occupation-related exposure to levels regarded as safe to humans. In the standard setting process, a critical assessment of the available literature data on toxicity of a given chemical and related health effects in the population exposed, depending on concentrations and exposure duration, is essential. Such an assessment performed by a group of experts is a difficult and responsible task since the available data are frequently incomplete and extrapolation of the results of animal experiments aimed at setting limits of concentrations safe to humans raises multiple doubts. The aim of this paper was to compare the procedures of setting permissible values for chemical factors in Poland and throughout the world and to highlight differences in their interpretation. In addition, a brief history of setting admissible limits, as well as definitions of hygiene standards used in Poland, the USA, Germany, the UK and in the former Soviet Union together with the ways of their formulation are presented. The country-to-country variations of attitudes towards setting admissible levels of exposure to carcinogenic agents are worthy of special mention. Maximum admissible concentrations of chemicals in the work environment suggested by experts and adopted by the state administration should not be regarded as constant and completely safe to the human health, thus the existing systems should take account of the need to verify these values with an inflow of updated information on chemical toxicity.

  10. Pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Alicja; Markowska-Gosik, Dorota; Widomska, Dorota; Kawa, Iwona Monika

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of head pediculosis in the rural and urban environments of Lublin Province (eastern Poland) in 1996-2000 and to examine socioeconomic factors influencing distribution among schoolchildren. A total of 95,153 schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas were examined twice yearly by school nurses. The overall rate of head pediculosis differs significantly between rural (1.59%) and urban (0.48%) schools in eastern Poland. Children between 8 and 12 years old were most frequently infested. Pediculosis was observed most frequently in girls both in the urban (63.5%) and rural (75.3%) schools and this was related with hairstyles. The prevalence of pediculosis decreased with increasing life standards, i.e. with high income, accessibility and consumption of water and better health care systems. Our findings showed that prevalence of pediculosis capitis depends on the age and sex of the schoolchildren and their living conditions. Hygienic controls of schoolchildren by nurses are important in the elimination of Pediculus humanus capitis. Our results confirmed pediculosis capitis is still a problem in different environments, particularly with lower life standards and poorer economic conditions of health care.

  11. Emigration preferences and plans among medical students in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared. PMID:22546006

  12. First molecular evidence for Puumala hantavirus in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Drewes, Stephan; Sadowska, Edyta T; Mikowska, Magdalena; Groschup, Martin H; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Pawel; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-01-23

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and is responsible for the majority of hantavirus infections of humans in Fennoscandia, Central and Western Europe. Although there are relatively many PUUV sequences available from different European countries, little is known about the presence of this virus in Poland. During population studies in 2009 a total of 45 bank voles were trapped at three sites in north-eastern Poland, namely islands on Dejguny and Dobskie Lakes and in a forest near Mikołajki. S and M segment-specific RT-PCR assays detected PUUV RNA in three animals from the Mikołajki site. The obtained partial S and M segment sequences demonstrated the highest similarity to the corresponding segments of a PUUV strain from Latvia. Analysis of chest cavity fluid samples by IgG ELISA using a yeast-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein resulted in the detection of two seropositive samples, both being also RT-PCR positive. Interestingly, at the trapping site in Mikołajki PUUV-positive bank voles belong to the Carpathian and Eastern genetic lineages within this species. In conclusion, we herein present the first molecular evidence for PUUV in the rodent reservoir from Poland.

  13. First Molecular Evidence for Puumala Hantavirus in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh Ali, Hanan; Drewes, Stephan; Sadowska, Edyta T.; Mikowska, Magdalena; Groschup, Martin H.; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Pawel; Ulrich, Rainer G.

    2014-01-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and is responsible for the majority of hantavirus infections of humans in Fennoscandia, Central and Western Europe. Although there are relatively many PUUV sequences available from different European countries, little is known about the presence of this virus in Poland. During population studies in 2009 a total of 45 bank voles were trapped at three sites in north-eastern Poland, namely islands on Dejguny and Dobskie Lakes and in a forest near Mikołajki. S and M segment-specific RT-PCR assays detected PUUV RNA in three animals from the Mikołajki site. The obtained partial S and M segment sequences demonstrated the highest similarity to the corresponding segments of a PUUV strain from Latvia. Analysis of chest cavity fluid samples by IgG ELISA using a yeast-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein resulted in the detection of two seropositive samples, both being also RT-PCR positive. Interestingly, at the trapping site in Mikołajki PUUV-positive bank voles belong to the Carpathian and Eastern genetic lineages within this species. In conclusion, we herein present the first molecular evidence for PUUV in the rodent reservoir from Poland. PMID:24452006

  14. Pesticide residues in cereal crop grains in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz; Sosnowski, Jacek; Wiśniewska-Kadżajan, Beata

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the audit on pesticide residues in cereal grains throughout Poland in 2013. The number of all samples of cereal grains was 380. Altogether 292 active substances of plant protection products were checked in the audit. Qualitative and quantative analyses were done according to Polish Standard PN-EN 15562:2008, using the LC-MS/MS technique. The methods (QuEChERS) is based on extraction of residues of plant protection products from a sample using acetonitrile. In the samples analyzed, 62 % of them did not contain any pesticide residues, 34 % of samples of cereal grains contained such residues but below the maximum residue limit, 3 % contained residues over the maximum limit, whereas 1 % of the samples contained illegal substances. The lowest amounts of pesticide residues were found in cereal grains coming from fields with cereal mixtures and in Avena grains, while the highest amounts were in Hordeum and Triticum grains. The substances found most often were fungicide residues. In northern and southern regions of Poland (Silesian, Pomeranian, and Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeships), cereal grains with pesticide residues were much more common than in other regions of Poland.

  15. Present state of the telecommunications market in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Andrzej

    2003-10-01

    This statement shortly describes the changes in the telecommunication market that have taken place in the last 12 years, during the socio-economical transformation in Poland. It concerns economical, legal and technical problems related to the development of the telecommunications in Poland based on the principles of the market economy. Especially it is related to the commercialization of this sector, what has been a result of the changes of the principal law ruling the national economy including changes ot the telecommunication law. Changes of the law enabled the creation of the commercial company Polish Telecom and opened the way to the privatization of this company. Due to the changed law the way to the step-by-step liberalization and de-monopolization process has been also opened in Poland. It has caused fully digital modernization of telecommunication network, introduction new services such as cellular communications and Internet services, as well as rapid development of the market, what has expressed in multiplication of number of subscribers of stationary telephony, creation of the big cellular market and new increasing Internet market. The statemnet also refers to present difficulties in development of this market and as well as to the prospects for the future developments.

  16. Comparing costing results in across country economic evaluations: the use of technology specific purchasing power parities.

    PubMed

    Wordsworth, Sarah; Ludbrook, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The number of economic evaluations conducted on a multinational basis is increasing. Therefore, techniques are required to compare the results of such studies in a meaningful manner. This paper explores different approaches to comparing across country cost data applied to a European study of dialysis therapy for end-stage renal disease. A price and volume index is created at the level of the individual health care technology and compared to an exchange rate conversion and published purchasing power parities (PPPs). Both exchange rate and PPP conversions when published rates are used fail to accurately reflect the true resource use of the applied health care example. These differences can be related to specific issues of input mix and price variation. Alternatively, the use of technology specific PPPs provided a more robust approach for international comparisons and also have the potential for use in multi-centre economic evaluations within the same country. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Comparable long-term results for porcine and pericardial prostheses after isolated aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Martin; Wallner, Stephanie; Ruetzler, Kurt; Wiedemann, Dominik; Ehrlich, Marek; Heinze, Georg; Binder, Thomas; Moritz, Anton; Hiesmayr, Michael J.; Kocher, Alfred; Laufer, Guenther

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Outcome of aortic valve replacement may be influenced by the choice of bioprosthesis. Pericardial heart valves are described to have a favourable haemodynamic profile compared with porcine valves, although the clinical notability of this finding is still controversially debated. Herein, we compared the long-term results of two commonly implanted bioprosthesis at a single centre. METHODS All consecutive patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement with either a Carpentier-Edwards Magna pericardial prosthesis or a Medtronic Mosaic porcine prosthesis between 2002 and 2008 were analysed regarding preoperative characteristics, short- and long-term survival, valve-related complications and echocardiographic findings. RESULTS The Medtronic Mosaic was implanted in 163 patients and the Carpentier-Edwards Magna in 295 patients. The sizes of implanted valves were 22.4 ± 1.5 mm for the Mosaic and 21.8 ± 1.8 mm for the Magna (P = 0.001). The long-term survival rate was 76 and 56% after 5 and 10 years for the Medtronic Mosaic, which was comparable with the Carpentier-Edwards Magna (77 and 57%; P = 0.92). Overall long-term survival was comparable with an age- and sex-matched Austrian general population for both groups. Valve-related adverse events were similar between groups. The postoperative mean transvalvular gradient was significantly increased in the Mosaic group (24 ± 9 mmHg vs 17 ± 7 mmHg; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Both types of aortic bioprostheses offer excellent results after isolated aortic valve replacement. Despite relevant differences in gradients, long-term survival was comparable with the expected normal survival for both bioprostheses. Patients with a porcine heart valve had a higher postoperative transvalvular gradient. PMID:25527170

  18. Comparing Time-Distance Results within a Coronal Hole to the Quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess Webber, Shea A.; Pesnell, W. Dean; Duvall, Thomas, Jr.; Birch, Aaron; Cameron, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Time-distance helioseismology studies perturbations in solar wave modes. We use these techniques with SDO/HMI time distance velocity-tracked dopplergram data to investigate differences between f-mode wave propagation within a coronal hole feature and without. We use symmetry arguments to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlation results. We then look for phase and amplitude discrepancies between the coronal hole and quiet sun by comparing statistically significant differences between the regions.

  19. Relationships between individualism-collectivism, gender, and direct or indirect aggression: a study in China, Poland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Gordon; Zhang, Xiaoying; Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Haas, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Direct and indirect aggression were studied in college students from China (women n=122; men n=97), a highly collectivistic culture; the US (women n=137; men n=136), a highly individualistic culture; and Poland (women n=105; men n=119), a culture with intermediate levels of collectivism and individualism. Consistent with a hypothesis derived from national differences in relative levels of collectivism and individualism, both direct and indirect aggression were higher in the US than in Poland and higher in Poland than in China. The theoretical implication of these results and directions for future research were discussed.

  20. A multi-scale methodology for comparing GCM and RCM results over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Rana; Krichak, Simon; Breitgand, Joseph; Alpert, Pinhas

    2010-05-01

    The importance of skillful climate modeling is increasingly being realized as results are being incorporated into environmental, economic, and even business planning. Global circulation models (GCMs) employed by the IPCC provide results at spatial scales of hundreds of kilometers, which is useful for understanding global trends but not appropriate for use as input into regional and local impacts models used to inform policy and development. To address this shortcoming, regional climate models (RCMs) which dynamically downscale the results of the GCMs are used. In this study we present first results of a dynamically downscaled RCM focusing on the Eastern Mediterranean region. For the historical 1960-2000 time period, results at a spatial scale of both 25 km and 50 km are compared with historical station data from 5 locations across Israel as well as with the results of 3 GCM models (ECHAM5, NOAA GFDL, and CCCMA) at annual, monthly and daily time scales. Results from a recently completed Japanese GCM at a spatial scale of 20 km are also included. For the historical validation period, we show that as spatial scale increases the skill in capturing annual and inter-annual temperature and rainfall also increases. However, for intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics important for hydrological and agricultural planning (eg. dry and wet spells, number of rain days) the GCM results (including the 20 km Japanese model) capture the historical trends better than the dynamically downscaled RegCM. For future scenarios of temperature and precipitation changes, we compare results across the models for the available time periods, generating a range of future trends.

  1. Treatment persistence in the use of basal insulins in Poland and Germany
.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Wolfgang; Czech, Marcin; Franek, Edward; Kostev, Karel

    2017-02-01

    To compare short-term basal insulin therapy persistence and its predictors in Poland and Germany. Persistence was defined as proportions of patients remaining on the initial basal insulin (analogs: Poland: n = 6,889, Germany: n = 454,067; neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulins: Poland: n = 50,761, Germany: n = 226,064) over 2 years based on nationwide prescription databases (LRx; IMS Health) in Poland and Germany from 2013 to 2015. Persistence was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves (log-rank tests). Risk of discontinuation of initial basal insulin was investigated using Cox regression models adjusting for age, sex, comedication with other glucose-lowering agents and baseline or comedication with antihypertensives, lipid-lowering drugs, antidepressants, and antiepileptics. In Poland, 2-year persistence was 83.0% in analog insulin and 73.3% in NPH users (p < 0.001). In Germany, persistence was also higher in patients with analog insulins (92.6% vs. 79.0%; p < 0.001). Analog insulin users were less likely to discontinue basal insulin compared with NPH users (adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI): Poland: 0.73 (0.67 - 0.79); Germany: 0.27 (0.27 - 0.28)). Higher age (> 75 vs. ≤ 60 years: Poland: 1.24 (1.16 - 1.33), Germany: 1.09 (1.07 - 1.11)) and GLP-1 receptor agonist use (Poland: 2.76 (1.38 - 5.53), Germany: 1.21 (1.16 - 1.26)) were related to higher risk of discontinuation. Male sex, metformin, sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, and short-acting insulin prescriptions as well as antihypertensive, anti-epileptic, and lipid-lowering drug use were associated with lower risk of discontinuation in both countries (all p < 0.05). This real-world study shows that both in Poland and Germany treatment persistence of newly-prescribed basal insulin is influenced by type of insulin (analog vs. NPH) and by glucose-lowering and other comedications.
.

  2. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  3. Spinal cord injury resulting from gunshot wounds: a comparative study with non-gunshot causes.

    PubMed

    Güzelküçük, Ü; Demir, Y; Kesikburun, S; Aras, B; Yavuz, F; Yaşar, E; Yılmaz, B

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective, comparative 7-year study. To identify the clinical characteristics of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting from gunshot wound (GSW). Turkish Armed Forces Rehabilitation Center, Ankara, Turkey. The study included 1043 consecutive patients with SCI who were divided into two groups according to etiology: patients with gunshot-induced spinal cord injury (GSWSCI) constituted the study group, and randomly selected patients with non-gunshot-induced spinal cord injury (NGSWSCI) who were matched for gender and for week of admission constituted the control group. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were recorded, compared and analyzed. The study group included 102 patients (mean age: 26.93±9.11 years). The vast majority of the patients were aged 16-30 years (68.6%) and 90.2% were male. The majority of the lesions were at the thoracic level (58.8%) and a complete injury (60.8%). Surgical stabilization of the spine was performed in 50 patients (49%). The most prevalent associated injury was intra-abdominal injury followed by chest injury. Compared with the NGSWSCI group, the GSWSCI patients were more likely to have a complete lesion (60.8% vs 45.1%, P=0.025), had a lower rate of surgical stabilization (49 vs 88.2%, P=0.0001) and had a higher rate of associated injuries (54.9% vs 25.5%, P=0.0001). Compared with the civilian GSWSCI group, the military GSWSCI patients had a higher rate of surgical stabilization and associated injuries (60% vs 40%, P=0.049, 68.9% vs 43.9%, P=0.012, respectively). The results revealed that GSWSCI and military GSWSCI patients may have different demographic and clinical features compared with NGSWSCI and civilian GSWSCI patients, respectively.

  4. Comparing Simulation Results with Traditional PRA Model on a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhegang Ma; Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    A previous study used RELAP and RAVEN to conduct a boiling water reactor station black-out (SBO) case study in a simulation based environment to show the capabilities of the risk-informed safety margin characterization methodology. This report compares the RELAP/RAVEN simulation results with traditional PRA model results. The RELAP/RAVEN simulation run results were reviewed for their input parameters and output results. The input parameters for each simulation run include various timing information such as diesel generator or offsite power recovery time, Safety Relief Valve stuck open time, High Pressure Core Injection or Reactor Core Isolation Cooling fail to run time, extended core cooling operation time, depressurization delay time, and firewater injection time. The output results include the maximum fuel clad temperature, the outcome, and the simulation end time. A traditional SBO PRA model in this report contains four event trees that are linked together with the transferring feature in SAPHIRE software. Unlike the usual Level 1 PRA quantification process in which only core damage sequences are quantified, this report quantifies all SBO sequences, whether they are core damage sequences or success (i.e., non core damage) sequences, in order to provide a full comparison with the simulation results. Three different approaches were used to solve event tree top events and quantify the SBO sequences: “W” process flag, default process flag without proper adjustment, and default process flag with adjustment to account for the success branch probabilities. Without post-processing, the first two approaches yield incorrect results with a total conditional probability greater than 1.0. The last approach accounts for the success branch probabilities and provides correct conditional sequence probabilities that are to be used for comparison. To better compare the results from the PRA model and the simulation runs, a simplified SBO event tree was developed with only four

  5. Toxic elements and bio-metals in Cantharellus mushrooms from Poland and China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Hanć, Anetta

    2017-04-01

    Data on multi-trace element composition and content relationships have been obtained for Cantharellus cibarius, C. tubaeformis, and C. minor mushrooms from Poland and China by inductive coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectroscopy. There is no previous data published on As, Li, V, Tl, and U in chanterelles from Poland and on Ba, Co, Cr, Ni, Rb, and Sr in chanterelles from China. The results implied a role of the soil background geochemistry at the collection site with the occurrence of Ag, As, Ba, Cr, Cs, Li, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, U, and V in the fruiting bodies. Both geogenic Cd and anthropogenic Cd can contribute in load of this element in chanterelles from the Świetokrzyskie Mts. region in Poland, while geogenic source can be highly dominant in the background areas of Yunnan. An essentiality of Cu and Zn and effort by mushroom to maintain their physiological regulation could be reflected by data for Cantharellus mushrooms from both regions of the world, but its geogenic source (and possibly anthropogenic) can matter also in the region of the Świetokrzyskie Mountains in Poland. The elements Co, Ni, and Tl were at the same order of magnitude in contents in C. cibarius in Poland and Yunnan, China. C. tubaeformis differed from C. cibarius by a lower content of correlated Co, Ni, and Zn. Soil which is polymetallic and highly weathered in Yunnan can be suggested as a natural geogenic source of greater concentrations of As, Ba, Cr, Li, Pb, Sr, U, and V in the chanterelles there while lower of Mn and Rb, when related to chanterelles in Poland. A difference in Cs content between the sites can be attributed as an effect of the (137)Cs release from the Chernobyl accident, in which Poland was much more affected than Yunnan, where deposition was negligible.

  6. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  7. Visual test results compared with flying performance in telemetry-tracked aircraft.

    PubMed

    Kruk, R; Regan, D

    1983-10-01

    We compared flying performance with the results of laboratory and airborne visual tests. Pilots flew high-performance, telemetry-tracked A4 and F-14 aircraft. In the low-level task, the index of performance was bombing accuracy; in air-to-air combat, performance was assessed by the number of missile hits scored per hit received (win/loss ratio). The chief laboratory tests comprised discrimination between two speeds of a radially-expanding flow pattern, and manual tracking of a visual target. Airborne tests comprised visual acquisition distance of an A4 aircraft, and visual sensitivity to a change in the course of an approaching A4 aircraft. We found that the flow pattern and movement-in-depth tracking test results correlated with bombing accuracy, confirming previously reported simulator findings. The results of airborne visual tests correlated with the win/loss ratio in combat, and tracking test results correlated with the number of missiles fired per combat engagement. Subsidiary tests of motion, grating contrast, and visual acuity thresholds were carried out for comparability with other studies, but these measures did not predict flying performance.

  8. Quaternary stratigraphy and palaeogeography of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Leszek; Dzierżek, Jan; Janiszewski, Robert; Kaczorowski, Jarosław; Lindner, Leszek; Majecka, Aleksandra; Makos, Michał; Szymanek, Marcin; Tołoczko-Pasek, Anna; Woronko, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Though the stratigraphical and palaeogeographical framework of the Quaternary in Poland is still to be completed, several crucial points have been confirmed recently. The preglacial series, accepted for years as belonging to the Lower Pleistocene, is undoubtedly of Early Pliocene age, with a huge hiatus above almost until the uppermost Lower Pleistocene. The earliest glaciation in Poland (Nidanian) occurred at about 900 ka BP when the ice sheet reached the mid-southern part of the country. The following Podlasian Interglacial embraced the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary in the middle, in a similar fashion to the corresponding Cromerian Complex in Western Europe. The late Early and early Middle Pleistocene interglacials in Poland comprised 2-3 optima each, whereas every one of the younger interglacials was characterised by a single optimum only. The Late Vistulian ice sheet was most extensive in the western part of Poland (Leszno Phase) whereas the younger Poznań Phase was more extensive in the central and eastern part of the country. This was due to the varied distance from the glaciation center in Scandinavia, making the ice sheet margin reach a terminal position in different times. Palaeoclimatological research in the Tatra Mountains has provided new evidence for the atmospheric circulation over Europe. During cold phases of the Pleistocene in Poland a continental climate extended further westwards, quite the opposite that occurring during warmer intervals.

  9. [Comparative analysis of the treatment results of the nasal obstruction using septoplasty and septokonchoplasty].

    PubMed

    Balcerzak, Jarosław; Łukawska, Izabela; Grzanka, Antoni; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The nasal septal deviation coexistent with turbinate hypertrophy is considered one of the most common causes of nasal patency disorders. There is no doubt that septoplasty in most such cases is a proper treatment method. It is more difficult to clearly identify indications and predict the consequences of septoconchoplasty. The main aim of this study is to compare the impact of each of these procedures on subjective and objective measures of nasal patency. The authors retrospectively reviewed 132 medical records of patients treated in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw in the period from March 2012 to January 2013 due to nasal obstruction. Each patient had septoplasty or septoconchoplasty performed. Before treatment, each patient responded to questions in a standardized questionnaire SNOT 20. In addition, each patient was performed upon for anterior rhinomanometry before and after shrinking the nasal mucosa. Finally, the study involved a group of 30 people - 15 after septoplasty (group A) and the same number after septoconchoplasty (group B), who attended control examination carried out by the same scheme 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery. SNOT 20 poll was repeated 6 months after surgery. Analysis of the rhinomanometry results showed no statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups. Average values of the nasal resistance after surgery as compared to their baseline values in all measurements were smaller in each of the groups but the differences were also not statistically significant. However, comparing the results of the subjective assessment of nasal patency and associated signs and symptoms showed statistically significant differences between pre and postoperative results in both groups and the patients of group B felt more improvement than patients in group A. The study authorizes the conclusion that in justified cases septoconchoplasty gives better results than septoplasty.

  10. Comparative analysis of INTOR-like designs: Status and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Peng, P.K.M.; Reid, R.L.; Strickler, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    This document provides an interim status report on the INTOR tasks related to the critical analysis of INTOR-like designs. At the INTOR Workshop in December 1986, and updated at the INTOR related Specialists' Meeting in March 1987, a series of comparative analysis studies was established. Initial results were targeted for completion for the July INTOR meeting and final results completed for the November INTOR meeting. The goal of the analytic comparisons is to evaluate and determine the specific impact of how different choices affect the design. The results of such an analytic determination should allow the international community to identify and agree upon which aspects of choice have what influence on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design.

  11. The lunar interior. [compressional velocities of interior materials compared with lunar seismic results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials thought to be important in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower lunar crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. Anorthosite is preferred if lunar basalts result from a small degree of partial melting. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Ca- and Al-rich minerals are important components of both the lower crust and the upper mantle. Most of the moon may have accreted from refractory material rich in Ca, Al, U, and the rare-earth elements. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high-velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high-pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite.

  12. Observation of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Kowalczyk, J.; Rozwadowska, A.; Drozdowska, V.; Markowicz, K.; Malinowski, S.; Kardas, A.; Posyniak, M.; Jagodnicka, A. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Piskozub, J.

    2010-05-01

    The plume of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash has been identified over Poland using three instruments (two lidars and a ceilometer) stationed in two locations: Sopot in northern Poland and Warsaw in central-eastern Poland. The observations made it possible to establish the base of the ash layer. However ash concentration could not be determined.

  13. Generation Changes over the Period of 1986-2006 in the Physical Fitness of Boys Aged 7-19 from Eastern Poland at Particular Stages of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saczuk, Jerzy; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Zalech, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the size of secular trends in the physical fitness of boys from eastern Poland taking into consideration stages of education. Material and methods: The physical fitness results of boys aged 7-19 years living in eastern regions of Poland were analyzed: 3188 students were examined in 1986 while in 2006 the research included 10…

  14. Inflammatory gene expression in whole blood cells after EPA vs. DHA supplementation: Results from the ComparED study.

    PubMed

    Vors, Cécile; Allaire, Janie; Marin, Johanne; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Charest, Amélie; Tchernof, André; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-02-01

    Whether EPA and DHA exert similar anti-inflammatory effects through modulation of gene expression in immune cells remains unclear. The aim of the study was to compare the impact of EPA and DHA supplementation on inflammatory gene expression in subjects at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. In this randomized double-blind crossover trial, 154 men and women with abdominal obesity and low-grade inflammation were subjected to three 10-wk supplementation phases: 1) EPA (2.7 g/d); 2) DHA (2.7 g/d); 3) corn oil (3 g/d), separated by a 9-wk washout. Pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression was assessed in whole blood cells by RT-qPCR after each treatment in a representative sample of 44 participants. No significant difference was observed between EPA and DHA in the expression of any of the genes investigated. Compared with control, EPA enhanced TRAF3 and PPARA expression and lowered CD14 expression (p < 0.01) whereas DHA increased expression of PPARA and TNFA and decreased CD14 expression (p < 0.05). Variations in gene expression after EPA and after DHA were strongly correlated for PPARA (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001) and TRAF3 (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001) and less for TNFA (r = 0.46, p < 0.005) and CD14 (r = 0.16, p = 0.30). High-dose supplementation with either EPA or DHA has similar effects on the expression of many inflammation-related genes in immune cells of men and women at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The effects of EPA and of DHA on anti-inflammatory gene expression may be more consistent than their effects on expression of pro-inflammatory genes in whole blood cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical application of Nuss procedure for chest wall deformity in Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Tomoe; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2014-12-01

    A 6-year-old girl with Poland syndrome was diagnosed with loss of hard and soft tissue on her affected chest. She required chest reconstruction to protect her thorax and improve her developmental delay. We applied a titanium device used for children with funnel chest to her, resulting in good shape. By using this device, we avoided sacrificing healthy rib and muscle; she could save the tissue for secondary surgery in puberty. The device made it possible to support the growth of her thoracic frame and has kept it in good shape. Also, 66 months after removing the device, her chest contour has been maintained. We evaluated the change of her chest frame by comparing the preoperative and postoperative CT index and found the result quite an improvement. We suggest that our technique would be easy, of low invasiveness, and safe for treatment of thoracic deformity in school age.

  16. Risk of exposure to ticks (Ixodidae) and the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in ticks in Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Cuber, Piotr; Andreassen, Åshild; Vainio, Kirsti; Asman, Marek; Dudman, Susanne; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa; Ottesen, Preben; Ånestad, Gabriel; Cieśla-Nobis, Sabina; Solarz, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the results of the first study on seasonal activity of ticks and prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in nymphs from the Silesian Province (Southern Poland). Previous studies on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in Poland have been conducted mostly in northern and eastern regions, but none in the Silesian Province itself. The aims of this study were to analyse the seasonal variation in tick populations and compare TBEV prevalence in nymphs from different geographical locations in the Silesia. A total of 5160 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected by the flagging method from 23 localities in southern Poland in 2010. Micro-climatic parameters (air temperature and humidity) were measured in order to estimate their influence on tick population. The highest tick activity was recorded in spring and was positively correlated with relative air humidity (RH). TBEV in the Silesian Province was analysed in 1750 nymphs and an overall prevalence was 0.11% (2 pools out of 175 analysed). The results of this study show that TBEV pool prevalence in nymphs is low in accordance with the low number of TBE cases reported within the region.

  17. Radiographic Results of Minimally Invasive (MIS) Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LIF) Compared with Conventional Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the radiographic results of minimally invasive (MIS) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Methods Twelve and nineteen patients who underwent MIS-ALIF, MIS-TLIF, respectively, from 2006 to 2008 were analyzed with a minimum 24-months' follow-up. Additionally, 18 patients treated with single level open TLIF surgery in 2007 were evaluated as a comparative group. X-rays and CT images were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the final follow-up. Fusion and subsidence rates were determined, and radiographic parameters, including lumbar lordosis angle (LLA), fused segment angle (FSA), sacral slope angle (SSA), disc height (DH), and foraminal height (FH), were analyzed. These parameters were also compared between the open and MIS-TLIF groups. Results In the MIS interbody fusion group, statistically significant increases were observed in LLA, FSA, and DH and FH between preoperative and final values. The changes in LLA, FSA, and DH were significantly increased in the MIS-ALIF group compared with the MIS-TLIF group, but SSA and FH were not significantly different. No significant differences were seen between open and MIS-TLIF except for DH. The interbody subsidence and fusion rates of the MIS groups were 12.0±4% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion Radiographic results of MIS interbody fusion surgery are as favorable as those with conventional surgery regarding fusion, restoration of disc height, foraminal height, and lumbar lordosis. MIS-ALIF is more effective than MIS-TLIF for intervertebral disc height restoration and lumbar lordosis. PMID:24757461

  18. Comparing functional analysis and paired-choice assessment results in classroom settings.

    PubMed

    Berg, Wendy K; Wacker, David P; Cigrand, Karla; Merkle, Steve; Wade, Jeanie; Henry, Kim; Wang, Yu-Chia

    2007-01-01

    The results of a functional analysis of problem behavior and a paired-choice assessment were compared to determine whether the same social reinforcers were identified for problem behavior and an appropriate response (time allocation). The two assessments were conducted in classroom settings with 4 adolescents with mental retardation who engaged in severe problem behavior. Each student's classroom teacher served as the therapist for all phases of assessment. The two assessment procedures identified the same social reinforcers for problem and appropriate behavior for 3 of 4 participants.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Different Measurement Techniques for MLC Characterization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-08-11

    Radiation transmission, leakage and beam penumbra are essential dosimetric parameters related to the commissioning of a multileaf collimation system. This work shows a comparative analysis of commonly used film detectors: X-OMAT V2 and EDR2 radiographic films, and GafChromic EBT registered radiochromic film. The results show that X-OMAT over-estimates radiation leakage and 80-20% beam penumbra. However, according to the reference values reported by the manufacturer for these dosimetric parameters, all three films are adequate for MLC dosimetric characterization, but special care must be taken when X-OMAT V2 film is used due to its low energy photon dependence.

  20. [Tobacco withdrawal. Comparison of the efficacy of various methods. Intermediate results of a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Clavel, F; Benhamou, S

    1984-04-14

    A comparative study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of different methods of detoxication for dependent smokers is currently in progress. In this study, the percentage of subjects who gave up smoking after 1 month and changes in this percentage over a 12-month period are determined in 3 groups of subjects: one group treated with acupuncture, one group treated with a chewing-gum containing nicotine, and a control group. The intermediate analysis results include 45% of the total number of subjects required. They show no statistically significant difference between the control group and the two treated groups. Volunteers are still being recruited.

  1. ESOPHAGEAL MUCOSAL RESECTION VERSUS ESOPHAGECTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SURGICAL RESULTS IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED MEGAESOPHAGUS

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Gustavo Carvalho; da ROCHA, Rodrigo Lima Bastos; COELHO-NETO, João de Souza; TERCIOTTI-JUNIOR, Valdir; LOPES, Luiz Roberto; ANDREOLLO, Nelson Adami

    2015-01-01

    Background The surgical treatment of advanced megaesophagus has no consensus, being esophagectomy the more commonly used method. Since it has high morbimortality - inconvenient for benign disease -, in recent years an alternative has been introduced: the esophageal mucosal resection. Aim To compare early and late results of the two techniques evaluating the operative time, length of ICU stay; postoperative hospitalization; total hospitalization; intra- and postoperative complication rates; mortality; and long-term results. Methods Were evaluated retrospectively 40 charts, 23 esophagectomies and 17 mucosectomies. In assessing postoperative results, interviews were conducted by using a specific questionnaire. Results Comparing the means of esophagectomy and mucosal resection, respectively, the data were: 1) surgical time - 310.2 min and 279.7 min (p> 0.05); 2) length of stay in ICU - 5 days and 2.53 days (p <0.05); 3) total time of hospitalization - 24.25 days and 20.76 days (p> 0.05); 4) length of hospital stay after surgery - 19.05 days and 14.94 days (p> 0.05); 5) presence of intraoperative complications - 65% and 18% (p <0.05); 6) the presence of postoperative complications - 65% and 35% (p> 0.05). In the assessment of late postoperative score (range 0-10) esophagectomy (n = 5) obtained 8.8 points and 8.8 points also got mucosal resection (n = 5). Conclusions Esophageal mucosal resection proved to be good alternative for surgical treatment of megaesophagus. It was advantageous in the immediate postoperative period by presenting a lower average time in operation, the total hospitalization, ICU staying and complications rate. In the late postoperative period, the result was excellent and good in both operations. PMID:25861065

  2. Determinants of health policy impact: comparative results of a European policymaker study.

    PubMed

    Rütten, Alfred; Lüschen, Günther; von Lengerke, Thomas; Abel, Thomas; Kannas, Lasse; Rodríguez Diaz, Josep A; Vinck, Jan; van der Zee, Jouke

    2003-01-01

    This article will use a new theoretical framework for the analysis of health policy impact introduced by Rütten et al. (2003). In particular, it will report on a comparative European study of policymakers' perception and evaluation of specific determinants of the policy impact, both in terms of output (implemented measures) and outcome (health behaviour change). Policy determinants investigated are goals, resources, obligations and opportunities as related to the policymaking process. Theory is applied to a comparative analysis of prevention and health promotion policy in Belgium, Finland, Germany. The Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. The study is MED2-part of a project that has developed a Methodology for the Analysis of the Rationality and Effectiveness of Prevention and Health Promotion Strategies (MAREPS) within the EU-BIO-program. A mail survey of 719 policymakers on the executive and administrative level selected by a focused sample procedure was conducted. This survey used policymakers' experience and evaluative expertise to analyse determinants of policy output and outcome. Regression analyses reveal differential predictive power of policy goals, resources, obligations, as well as of political, organisational and public opportunities. For instance, whereas resources, concreteness of goals, and public opportunities have significant importance for health outcome of policy, obligations and organisational opportunities significantly predict policy output. Results are discussed in terms of rationality and effectiveness of health policy. They indicate that six sensitising constructs derived from the theoretical framework represent equivalent structures across nations. They comprise a validated instrument that can be used for further comparative health policy research.

  3. Joseph F. Poland (1908-1991)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. Ivan

    On June 4, 1991, AGU Fellow Joseph Fairfield Poland died in a Sacramento, Calif., hospital at the age of 83 after a long fight with Parkinson's Disease. A recognized expert on land subsidence and a retiree from the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division, his death occurred only 2 weeks after the end of the 4th International Symposium on Land Subsidence, held in Houston, Tex. Frequently known as “Mr. Land Subsidence,” it was appropriate that the proceedings of that symposium had been dedicated to him.Born in Boston, Poland earned a bachelor's degree in geology from Harvard University in 1929. He was resident geologist for Tropical Oil Company in Colombia from 1929 to 1931. After returning to the United States, Poland earned his master's degree in geology from Stanford University in 1935, taught groundwater hydrology, and consulted on groundwater and geophysical problems in the West and Southwest.

  4. [Acrylamide content in potato crisps in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Szponar, Lucjan; Chajewska, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    The main source of acrylamide in the diet are thermally processed carbohydrate-rich products, mainly those obtained from potatoes. Acrylamide is a substance with neurotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified it as a potential human carcinogen in 1994. The purpose of this study was to assess acrylamide content in 24 samples of crisps randomly collected in Poland in 2004. Acrylamide was determined in the form of brominated derivatives by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The average acrylamide content in the crisp samples examined was 998 mg/kg of the product, ranging from 352 to 3647 microg/kg, depending on the type of the crisps. The factor determining the differences in acrylamide content in the product was also the manufacturer. The average content of acrylamide in the crisps produced by three different manufacturers (manufacturers 1-3) was ca. 600-900 microg/kg, and in the crisps produced by manufacturer 4 was ca. 3 times higher. Moreover, substantial differences were found between the same types of crisps produced by the same manufacturers but originating from different manufacturing batches. The results obtained suggest the effects of various technological processes and raw material types on the level of acrylamide in crisps.

  5. Comparative Results on 3D Navigation of Quadrotor using two Nonlinear Model based Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzid, Y.; Siguerdidjane, H.; Bestaoui, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Recently the quadrotors are being increasingly employed in both military and civilian areas where a broad range of nonlinear flight control techniques are successfully implemented. With this advancement, it has become necessary to investigate the efficiency of these flight controllers by studying theirs features and compare their performance. In this paper, the control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) quadrotor, using two different approaches, is presented. The first controller is Nonlinear PID (NLPID) whilst the second one is Nonlinear Internal Model Control (NLIMC) that are used for the stabilization as well as for the 3D trajectory tracking. The numerical simulations have shown satisfactory results using nominal system model or disturbed model for both of them. The obtained results are analyzed with respect to several criteria for the sake of comparison.

  6. Bipolar mixed features - Results from the comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study.

    PubMed

    Tohen, Mauricio; Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G; Montana, Rebecca E; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Friedman, Edward S; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; Bobo, William V; McInnis, Melvin G

    2017-08-01

    DSM-5 changed the criteria from DSM-IV for mixed features in mood disorder episodes to include non-overlapping symptoms of depression and hypomania/mania. It is unknown if, by changing these criteria, the same group would qualify for mixed features. We assessed how those meeting DSM-5 criteria for mixed features compare to those meeting DSM-IV criteria. We analyzed data from 482 adult bipolar patients in Bipolar CHOICE, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Bipolar diagnoses were confirmed through the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Presence and severity of mood symptoms were collected with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and linked to DSM-5 and DSM-IV mixed features criteria. Baseline demographics and clinical variables were compared between mood episode groups using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. At baseline, the frequency of DSM-IV mixed episodes diagnoses obtained with the MINI was 17% and with the BISS was 20%. Using DSM-5 criteria, 9% of participants met criteria for hypomania/mania with mixed features and 12% met criteria for a depressive episode with mixed features. Symptom severity was also associated with increased mixed features with a high rate of mixed features in patients with mania/hypomania (63.8%) relative to those with depression (8.0%). Data on mixed features were collected at baseline only and thus do not reflect potential patterns in mixed features within this sample across the study duration. The DSM-5 narrower, non-overlapping definition of mixed episodes resulted in fewer patients who met mixed criteria compared to DSM-IV. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Comparative cost analysis of inpatient integrative medicine-Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Thomas; Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Dobos, Gustav

    2017-06-01

    Costs of integrative treatment alone and in comparison with other treatment approaches have scarcely been reported in the past. This study presents results of a comparative cost analysis of an inpatient integrative medicine treatment costs. Data from 2006 for inpatients referred to a Department of Integrative Medicine in Germany were used. Case-related treatment costs were calculated, and transformed into Casemix-Indices and revenues per DRG. Costs were compared between departments at the same hospital and between different hospitals using univariate statistics and Chi-Square tests. In total 1253 inpatients (81.4% female, 61.1±14.4years) were included in the current analysis. Most patients were treated for diseases of the musculoskeletal system (57.2%), followed by diseases of the digestive system (11.4%), and diseases of the nervous system (10.4%). The department received an additional payment for most of the patients (88.0%), which led to an effective appreciation of 10.8% per case compared to the standardized Casemix-Index. In-house comparisons with other departments found the department in close vicinity to the departments of Internal medicine with regards to CMI and mean revenue, however the Patient Clinical Complexity Level was significantly lower in the Integrative medicine department. The interhospital comparison revealed comparable Casemix-Index and DRG-revenue, however the additional payment increased the mean revenue significantly. Modern integrative in-patient treatment is mostly cost-equivalent to conventional treatment. Cost effectiveness studies should be considered to further investigate the potential of integrative in patient treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Temperature changes in Poland from the 16th to the 20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylak, Rajmund; Majorowicz, Jacek; Wójcik, Gabriel; Zielski, Andrzej; Choryczewski, Waldemar; Marciniak, Kazimierz; Nowosad, Wiesaw; Oliski, Piotr; Syta, Krzysztof

    2005-05-01

    A standardized tree-ring width chronology of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) along with different types of documentary evidence (e.g. annals, chronicles, diaries, private correspondence, records of public administration, early newspapers) have been used to reconstruct air temperature in Poland. The ground surface temperature (GST) history has been reconstructed based on the continuous temperature logs from 13 wells, using a new method developed recently by Harris and Chapman (1998; Journal of Geophysical Research 103: 7371-7383) which is compared with the functional space inversion (FSI) method applied to all available Polish temperature-depth profiles analysed before.Response function calculations conducted for trees growing in Poland (except in mountainous regions) reveal a statistically significant correlation between the annual ring widths of the Scots pine and the monthly mean air temperatures, particularly from February and March, but also from January and April. Therefore, it was only possible to reconstruct the mean January-April air temperature.The following periods featured a warm late winter/early spring: 1530-90, 1656-70 (the warmest period), 1820-50, 1910-40, and after 1985. On the other hand, a cold January-April occurred in the following periods: 1600-50, 1760-75, 1800-15, 1880-1900, and 1950-80.Reconstructions of thermal conditions using documentary evidence were carried out for winter (December-February) and summer (June-August) from 1501 to 1840 and, therefore, their results cannot be directly compared with reconstructions based on tree-ring widths. Winter temperatures in this period were colder than air temperature in the 20th century. On the other hand, historical summers were generally warmer than those occurring in the 20th century. Such situations dominated in the 16th and 17th centuries, as well as at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Throughout almost the entire period from 1501 to 1840, the thermal continentality of the climate

  9. Prospective study comparing laparoscopic and open adenomectomy: Surgical and functional results.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Segui, A; Angulo, J C

    Open adenomectomy (OA) is the surgery of choice for large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia, and laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) represents a minimally invasive alternative. We present a long-term, prospective study comparing both techniques. The study consecutively included 199 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate volumes>80g who were followed for more than 12 months. The patients underwent OA (n=97) or LA (n=102). We recorded and compared demographic and perioperative data, functional results and complications using a descriptive statistical analysis. The mean age was 69.2±7.7 years (range 42-87), and the mean prostate volume (measured by TRUS) was 112.1±32.7mL (range 78-260). There were no baseline differences among the groups in terms of age, ASA scale, prostate volume, PSA levels, Qmax, IPSS, QoL or treatments prior to the surgery. The surgical time (P<.0001) and catheter time (P<.0002) were longer in the LA group. Operative bleeding (P<.0001), transfusion rate (P=.0015) and mean stay (P<.0001) were significantly lower in the LA group. The LA group had a lower rate of complications (P=.04), but there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of major complications (Clavien score≥3) (P=.13) or in the rate of late complications (at one year) (P=.66). There were also no differences between the groups in the functional postoperative results: IPSS (P=.17), QoL (P=.3) and Qmax (P=.17). LA is a reasonable, safe and effective alternative that results in less bleeding, fewer transfusions, shorter hospital stays and lower morbidity than OA. LA has similar functional results to OA, at the expense of longer surgical times and longer catheter times. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Sensitivity to change of questionnaires measuring subjective health--results of a prospective comparative study].

    PubMed

    Igl, W; Zwingmann, C; Faller, H

    2006-08-01

    Questionnaires measuring patients' subjective health or health-related quality of life are indispensable tools for the evaluation of effects revealed by intervention studies in the field of medical rehabilitation. These patient-reported outcomes should appropriately reflect change over time. Unfortunately, "sensitivity to change" has so far not been adequately examined for German health-related quality of life questionnaires, especially not in a comparative way. Therefore, indices of sensitivity to change for three widespread generic assessment tools have been determined: IRES-3, SF-36, scales of the SCL-90-R. A prospective comparative study was conducted in n = 1145 inpatients with orthopaedic/rheumatologic and cardiac diseases from 16 rehabilitation clinics. All patients received usual care. Their subjective health-status was assessed at two to four weeks before admission (t0), admission (t1), discharge (t2), and three months after discharge (t3). At each time point, they completed the IRES-3, SF-36, and relevant scales of the SCL-90-R. For the time interval t1-t2, Guyatt's responsiveness index (GRI) was calculated and compared across scales and instruments. Virtually all GRI coefficients for scales and aggregated scores, respectively, reached statistical significance. With respect to the GRI distributions of the diagnostic groups, most coefficients were located in a middle to upper range. While the results for the scales do not clearly indicate which assessment instrument should be preferred, GRI coefficients for higher aggregated scores suggest the IRES-3 to be most sensitive to change. These results can be helpful in selecting a health-related quality of life instrument or certain subscales for evaluation studies in the field of medical rehabilitation.

  11. Radiographic Results of Minimally Invasive (MIS) Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LIF) Compared with Conventional Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Kwan; Kim, Sung Min

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the radiographic results of minimally invasive (MIS) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Twelve and nineteen patients who underwent MIS-ALIF, MIS-TLIF, respectively, from 2006 to 2008 were analyzed with a minimum 24-months' follow-up. Additionally, 18 patients treated with single level open TLIF surgery in 2007 were evaluated as a comparative group. X-rays and CT images were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the final follow-up. Fusion and subsidence rates were determined, and radiographic parameters, including lumbar lordosis angle (LLA), fused segment angle (FSA), sacral slope angle (SSA), disc height (DH), and foraminal height (FH), were analyzed. These parameters were also compared between the open and MIS-TLIF groups. In the MIS interbody fusion group, statistically significant increases were observed in LLA, FSA, and DH and FH between preoperative and final values. The changes in LLA, FSA, and DH were significantly increased in the MIS-ALIF group compared with the MIS-TLIF group, but SSA and FH were not significantly different. No significant differences were seen between open and MIS-TLIF except for DH. The interbody subsidence and fusion rates of the MIS groups were 12.0±4% and 96%, respectively. Radiographic results of MIS interbody fusion surgery are as favorable as those with conventional surgery regarding fusion, restoration of disc height, foraminal height, and lumbar lordosis. MIS-ALIF is more effective than MIS-TLIF for intervertebral disc height restoration and lumbar lordosis.

  12. [Comparability study of analytical results between a group of clinical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Alsius-Serra, A; Ballbé-Anglada, M; López-Yeste, M L; Buxeda-Figuerola, M; Guillén-Campuzano, E; Juan-Pereira, L; Colomé-Mallolas, C; Caballé-Martín, I

    2015-01-01

    To describe the study of the comparability of the measurements levels of biological tests processed in biochemistry in Catlab's 4 laboratories. Quality requirements, coefficients of variation and total error (CV% and TE %) were established. Controls were verified with the precision requirements (CV%) in each test and each individual laboratory analyser. Fresh serum samples were used for the comparability study. The differences were analysed using a Microsoft Access® application that produces modified Bland-Altman plots. The comparison of 32 biological parameters that are performed in more than one laboratory and/or analyser generated 306 Bland-Altman graphs. Of these, 101 (33.1%) fell within the accepted range of values based on biological variability, and 205 (66.9%) required revision. Data were re-analysed based on consensus minimum specifications for analytical quality (consensus of the Asociación Española de Farmacéuticos Analistas (AEFA), the Sociedad Española de Bioquímica Clínica y Patología Molecular (SEQC), the Asociación Española de Biopatología Médica (AEBM) and the Sociedad Española de Hematología y Hemoterapia (SEHH), October 2013). With the new specifications, 170 comparisons (56%) fitted the requirements and 136 (44%) required additional review. Taking into account the number of points that exceeded the requirement, random errors, range of results in which discrepancies were detected, and range of clinical decision, it was shown that the 44% that required review were acceptable, and the 32 tests were comparable in all laboratories and analysers. The analysis of the results showed that the consensus requirements of the 4 scientific societies were met. However, each laboratory should aim to meet stricter criteria for total error. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Mercury's plasma belt: hybrid simulations results compared to in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hercik, D.; Travnicek, P. M.; Schriver, D.; Hellinger, P.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of plasma belt and trapped particles region in the Mercury's inner magnetosphere has been questionable due to small dimensions of the magnetosphere of Mercury compared to Earth, where these regions are formed. Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with Mercury's magnetic field suggested that such a structure could be found also in the vicinity of Mercury. These results has been recently confirmed also by MESSENGER observations. Here we present more detailed analysis of the plasma belt structure and quasi-trapped particle population characteristics and behaviour under different orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field.The plasma belt region is constantly supplied with solar wind protons via magnetospheric flanks and tail current sheet region. Protons inside the plasma belt region are quasi-trapped in the magnetic field of Mercury and perform westward drift along the planet. This region is well separated by a magnetic shell and has higher average temperatures and lower bulk proton current densities than surrounding area. On the day side the population exhibits loss cone distribution function matching the theoretical loss cone angle. Simulations results are also compared to in-situ measurements acquired by MESSENGER MAG and FIPS instruments.

  14. Poland syndrome with a rare association.

    PubMed

    Gude, Dilip; Rayudu, Batta Ramasubba; Bansa, Dharam; Sashidhar, Chennamsetty

    2012-09-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly typically characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. Occasionally functionally debilitating, the disorder is mostly benign in nature with the severe deformities requiring surgical correction. A need to watch for possible malignant associations is also warranted. We present a case of a young female with the quintessential features of Poland syndrome with a relatively rare association of ipsilateral renal hypoplasia. We review the literature and discuss the possible renal complications that may arise and their management.

  15. Poland syndrome: an algorithm to select the appropriate chest wall surgical reconstructive treatment.

    PubMed

    Chiummariello, Stefano; Pica, Alessandra; Guarro, Giuseppe; Arleo, Sergio; Alfano, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Poland syndrome is a constellation of rare congenital anomalies of the chest wall, with or without alterations to the ipsilateral superior extremity. Actually Foucras' classification is commonly used to choose the most appropriate surgical treatment, but often only a radiological classification proves unsatisfactory in order to achieve the best aesthetic result. Since November 2006 in our institute have been treated 6 patients (3 M, 3 F) with Poland Syndrome affected by only chest wall and/or breast deformities. We treated 6 patients opting for different surgical procedures, depending on the deformity detected. We experienced only one procedural complication, a fat necrosis with superior migration of the prosthesis, successfully managed. Surgical alternative treatments of the Poland's abnormalities of the chest wall are independent from the corrective surgery of the ipsilateral affected forearm ad hand. Surgeons should be able to develop an operative plan to address aesthetic goals while preserving muscular functionality. Indeed surgical techniques should be minimally invasive and possible available in every hospital structure. This study has been designed to review a series of surgical options of breast reconstruction in patients with Poland Syndrome in order to develop a new flow chart to plan the best surgical choice analyzing only breast/chest wall deformities according to Blondeel's point of view about reconstruction of the new breast and thoracic wall. Breast reconstruction, Poland syndrome.

  16. Short-term results after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy compared to open radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Wallerstedt, Anna; Tyritzis, Stavros I; Thorsteinsdottir, Thordis; Carlsson, Stefan; Stranne, Johan; Gustafsson, Ove; Hugosson, Jonas; Bjartell, Anders; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Wiklund, N Peter; Steineck, Gunnar; Haglind, Eva

    2015-04-01

    radical prostatectomy is a safe procedure with some short-term advantages compared to open surgery. Whether these advantages also include long-term morbidity and are related to acceptable costs remain to be studied. We compare patient-reported outcomes between two commonly used surgical techniques. Our results show that the choice of surgical technique may influence short-term outcomes. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative assessment of scoring functions on an updated benchmark: 2. Evaluation methods and general results.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Han, Li; Liu, Zhihai; Wang, Renxiao

    2014-06-23

    Our comparative assessment of scoring functions (CASF) benchmark is created to provide an objective evaluation of current scoring functions. The key idea of CASF is to compare the general performance of scoring functions on a diverse set of protein-ligand complexes. In order to avoid testing scoring functions in the context of molecular docking, the scoring process is separated from the docking (or sampling) process by using ensembles of ligand binding poses that are generated in prior. Here, we describe the technical methods and evaluation results of the latest CASF-2013 study. The PDBbind core set (version 2013) was employed as the primary test set in this study, which consists of 195 protein-ligand complexes with high-quality three-dimensional structures and reliable binding constants. A panel of 20 scoring functions, most of which are implemented in main-stream commercial software, were evaluated in terms of "scoring power" (binding affinity prediction), "ranking power" (relative ranking prediction), "docking power" (binding pose prediction), and "screening power" (discrimination of true binders from random molecules). Our results reveal that the performance of these scoring functions is generally more promising in the docking/screening power tests than in the scoring/ranking power tests. Top-ranked scoring functions in the scoring power test, such as X-Score(HM), ChemScore@SYBYL, ChemPLP@GOLD, and PLP@DS, are also top-ranked in the ranking power test. Top-ranked scoring functions in the docking power test, such as ChemPLP@GOLD, Chemscore@GOLD, GlidScore-SP, LigScore@DS, and PLP@DS, are also top-ranked in the screening power test. Our results obtained on the entire test set and its subsets suggest that the real challenge in protein-ligand binding affinity prediction lies in polar interactions and associated desolvation effect. Nonadditive features observed among high-affinity protein-ligand complexes also need attention.

  18. Searching for ivermectin resistance in a Strongylidae population of horses stabled in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zak, A; Siwinska, N; Slowikowska, M; Borowicz, H; Kubiak, K; Hildebrand, J; Popiolek, M; Niedzwiedz, A

    2017-07-03

    There are no available studies describing the possible resistance of strongyles to ivermectin in horses in Poland. One hundred seventy three horses from nine stud farms from South-Western Poland were studied. The effectiveness of ivermectin was studied on the 14th day after ivermectin administration using the fecal egg count reduction test, and a long-term observation of the egg reappearance period was carried out. The fecal study was carried out using a modified McMaster method, which typically detects 20 eggs per gram of stool. The results were subjected to statistical analysis that enabled quantification of the eggs in the stool samples. The study revealed high efficacy of ivermectin on the 14th day after administration without a shortening of the egg reappearance period. The results indicate that strongyles resistance to ivermectin in Poland is not a serious problem.

  19. How does the long range transport of aerosols from biomass burning affect air quality in Poland - a case study with the WRF-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryza, Maciej; Werner, Małgorzata; Szkop, Artur; Guzikowski, Jakub; Pietruczuk, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    Episodes of wildfires and related emission of the pollutants are reported every year in Eastern Europe. They usually occur in late summer and may strongly influence the air quality in Central and Western Europe. In this work we use the WRF-Chem model to study the long range transport of wildfires pollution from the Ukraine and Russia to Poland. The model is run two times, first using anthropogenic emission alone, second with the FINN fire emission inventory included for the heavy wildfires episode observed in August 2015. The model was run for the entire Europe with 12km x 12km grid cell and 48 vertical levels. The difference between two model runs shows strong advection of PM10 and PM2.5 aerosols from Eastern Europe to Poland. This long range transport increases the concentrations of PM10 by up to 10 ug m-3. The model run that includes emission from wildfires is in better agreement with surface measurements, if compared to the base run with only anthropogenic emission considered. These results clearly show the importance of remote wildfire episodes on summertime air quality in Poland.

  20. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) model can provide results comparable to cadaveric models.

    PubMed

    Haher, Thomas R; Ottaviano, Danielle; DeFrancis, Jason G; Merola, Andrew; Valdevit, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro biomechanical models using a cadaveric spine specimen have long been used in understanding normal and abnormal functions of spines as well as for strength and stability testing of the spine specimen or spinal construct. Little effort has been made to describe the similarities or differences between UHMWPE and cadaveric models. Eight cadaveric lumbar spines were harvested generating six FSU and three corpectomy models. Six UHMWPE blocks were fabricated to form FSU and corpectomy models. All were tested intact, with posterior instrumentation, and with anterior instrumentation consisting of Moss-Miami 4.0 mm stainless steel rods, uni-axial stainless steel screws and DePuy Harm's cages. All models were tested in axial compression. The cadaveric model and UHMPWE model yielded axial stiffness values of comparable magnitude with respect to instrumentation applied using the posterior approach (P>0.05). Under an FSU configuration, only in the case of anterior instrumentation without the addition of a Harm's cage did both the cadaveric and UHMPWE models provide comparable axial stiffness results (P>0.05). While in vitro cadaveric models are considered the gold standard for biomechanical testing of the spine, the data suggests that under specific approaches and surgical models UHMWPE can be used to infer mechanical performance of instrumentation in cadaveric material.

  1. [Results of arthrodiastasis in postraumatic ankle osteoarthritis in a young population: prospective comparative study].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Pérez, M; Pais-Brito, J L; de Bergua-Domingo, J; Aciego de Mendoza, M; Guerra-Ferraz, A; Cortés-García, P; Déniz-Rodríguez, B

    2013-01-01

    The most common cause of osteoarthritis of the ankle is post-traumatic, and although tibiotalar arthrodesis remains the surgical gold standard, a number of techniques have been described to preserve joint mobility, such as joint distraction arthroplasty or arthrodiastasis. To evaluate the functional outcome and changes in Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain after the application of the distraction arthroplasty for post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis. A prospective comparative study of a group of 10 young patients with post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis treated by synovectomy and arthrodiastasis, compared to a control group of 10 patients treated by isolated synovectomy. Results were calculated using the AOFAS scale and the VAS for pain before and after treatment. As regards the pain measured by VAS, no difference was observed between the two groups before surgery (P=.99), but there was a difference at 3 months (P<.001), 6 months (P=.005), and 12 months (P=.006). No differences were observed in the AOFAS scale between the two groups before surgery (P=.99), or at 3 months (P<.99), but there was a difference at 6 months (P<.001). Ankle arthrodiastasis is effective in reducing pain in post-traumatic ankle arthropathy, and is superior to isolated synovectomy. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypothesis-Driven Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia Compared to Genome-Wide Association Results

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Ann L.; Kim, Yunjung; Sklar, Pamela; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Sullivan, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Candidate gene studies have been a key approach to the genetics of schizophrenia. Results of these studies have been confusing and no genes have been unequivocally implicated. The hypothesis-driven candidate gene literature can be appraised via comparison with the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Methods We described the characteristics of hypothesis-driven candidate gene studies from SZGene, and used pathway analysis to compare hypothesis-driven candidate genes with GWAS results from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Results SZGene contained 732 autosomal genes evaluated in 1,374 studies. These genes had poor statistical power to detect genetic effects typical for human diseases, assessed only 3.7% of genes in the genome, and had low marker densities per gene. Most genes were assessed once or twice (76.9%), providing minimal ability to evaluate consensus across studies. The ISC had power of 89% to detect a genetic effect typical for common human diseases and assessed 79% of known autosomal common genetic variation. Pathway analyses did not reveal enrichment of smaller ISC p-values in hypothesis-driven candidate genes nor did a comprehensive evaluation of meta-hypotheses driving candidate gene selection (schizophrenia as a disease of the synapse or neurodevelopment). The most studied hypothesis-driven candidate genes had no notable ISC results (COMT, DRD3, DRD2, HTR2A, NRG1, BDNF, DTNBP1, and SLC6A4). Conclusions We did not find support for the idea that the hypothesis-driven candidate genes studied in the literature were enriched for common variation involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Larger samples are required definitively to evaluate this conclusion. PMID:21854684

  3. Platelet rich plasma therapy: A comparative effective therapy with promising results in plantar fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Mukesh; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Chronic muscle & tendon injuries are one of the problems which are encountered by human being since last long time. These injuries are generally repetitive strain injuries, commonly found in athletes. There are various treatments which include conservative methods in initial stages to surgery in later stages. On minimal invasive aspect Ultrasound-guided fenestration and tenotomy surgery has been used with good results as an effective treatment of chronic tendinopathies.1,2 There are various injectable agents which were also researched including simple solutions such as hyperosmolar dextrose3 (prolotherapy) to complex orthobiologic agents such as bone morphogenic protein,4 but none have achieved uniform success. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection has emerged as a treatment alternative for many musculoskeletal conditions. We have done this study on sixty patients to evaluate & compare the effects of platelet rich plasma & steroid injection on patients with planter fasciitis. The results at the 1, 3 & 6 months were evaluated, which showed the good results with platelet rich plasma in comparison to steroid injections. PMID:26403772

  4. Comparative analysis and exprimental results of advanced control strategies for vibration suppression in aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birs, Isabela R.; Folea, Silviu; Copot, Dana; Prodan, Ovidiu; Muresan, Cristina-I.

    2017-01-01

    The smart beam is widely used as a means of studying the dynamics and active vibration suppression possibilities in aircraft wings. The advantages obtained through this approach are numerous, among them being aircraft stability and manoeuvrability, turbulence immunity, passenger safety and reduced fatigue damage. The paper presents the tuning of two controllers: Linear Quadratic Regulator and Fractional Order Proportional Derivative controller. The active vibration control methods were tested on a smart beam, vibrations being mitigated through piezoelectric patches. The obtained experimental results are compared in terms of settling time and control effort, experimentally proving that both types of controllers can be successfully used to reduce oscillations. The analysis in this paper provides for a necessary premise regarding the tuning of a fractional order enhanced Linear Quadratic Regulator, by combining the advantages of both control strategies.

  5. Barred Galaxy Photometry: Comparing results from the Cananea sample with N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.; Gadotti, D. A.; Carrasco, L.; Bosma, A.; de Souza, R. E.; Recillas, E.

    2009-11-01

    We compare the results of the photometrical analysis of barred galaxies with those of a similar analysis from N-body simulations. The photometry is for a sample of nine barred galaxies observed in the J and K[s] bands with the CANICA near infrared (NIR) camera at the 2.1 m telescope of the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro (OAGH) in Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. The comparison includes radial ellipticity profiles and surface brightness (density for the N-body galaxies) profiles along the bar major and minor axes. We find very good agreement, arguing that the exchange of angular momentum within the galaxy plays a determinant role in the evolution of barred galaxies.

  6. Comparative results of the conservative treatment in clubfoot by two different protocols.

    PubMed

    Cosma, Dan; Vasilescu, Dana; Vasilescu, Dan; Valeanu, Madalina

    2007-09-01

    The current study aims at presenting the results of the two methods of conservative treatment in clubfoot: the Romanian traditional method and the Ponseti method. The study population included 103 children (148 clubfeet) treated in our department between 1998 and 2005. Between 1998 and 2003, the conservative treatment protocol was based upon the Romanian method. The Ponseti method has been used since 2004. The main criterion for the assessment of the efficiency of the two conservative methods in clubfoot is the number of feet requiring surgical treatment - posteromedial release at 18 months. This criterion is clearly in favor of the Ponseti method: four feet (5%) needed posteromedial release in Ponseti group patients versus 13 feet (18%) in Romanian group patients (P=0.0193). The Ponseti method is safe, efficient in the conservative treatment of clubfoot and decreases the number of surgical interventions needed for the correction of the deformation compared with our traditional method.

  7. A comparative study for results obtained using biomonitors and PM10 collectors in Sado Estuary.

    PubMed

    Costa, C J; Marques, A P; Freitas, M C; Reis, M A; Oliveira, O R

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 a program was started, financed by the Environmental Ministry of Portugal and IAEA, aiming to study the inorganic atmospheric pollutant dispersion in Sado Estuary. Gent PM10 air samplers were used for air particulate matter sampling. Three sampling sites were chosen, forming a triangle around the fuel power station of Setúbal. Transplants of Parmelia sulcata Taylor were suspended in nylon bags within a rectangle 15 km wide and 25 km long on a 2.5 x 2.5 km grid. Two sets of four transplants were hung in each of the 47 locations, one set facing the wind and the other set opposing the wind. The transplants were suspended in December 1997 for a 1-year period; every 3 months, one transplant of each set was collected. Both lichen transplants and PM10 filters were analysed by INAA and PIXE. A comparative study of results obtained for the two sampling procedures is presented in this work.

  8. The Role of Urban Green Areas in the Education for Sustainable Development: Focus on Krakow, Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Aleksandra; Orlewicz-Musial, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Four selected green areas in Krakow (Poland) were compared, including: (1) the historical centre of Krakow with the green belt of Planty; (2) Blonia--grassland situated near the city centre; (3) the Park of Aviators, situated between the old part of Krakow and the industrial district of Nowa Huta and (4) the Nowa Huta Meadows. All these areas have…

  9. Perspectives from Past and Present on Moral and Citizenship Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemczynski, Malgorzata; Niemczynski, Adam

    1992-01-01

    Compares contemporary issues related to moral and citizenship education in Poland with similar era in late eighteenth century. Describes an educational reform effort that began in 1773 and was based on nationalistic and romantic literature of the time. Contends that the moral values that were derived from this literature are essential for the…

  10. Determinants and Options in the Development of Higher Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozefowicz, Adam; Kluczynski, Jan

    Trends affecting the future development of higher education in Poland are considered. It is projected that the demographic pool of higher education enrollment will in 1995-2000 return to a level roughly comparable with the peak pressures for college entry in the years 1971-75. It is suggested that demographic changes alone can explain but a…

  11. Mass Media in Transition in Hungary and Poland. Fulbright Seminars Abroad Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Tim

    These materials were developed by a participant in the Fulbright Summer Seminar to Poland and Hungary. The materials provide information for teaching about comparative media systems. The following information is included: (1) general characteristics of media in Eastern Europe; (2) role of the Catholic Church in media and political life; (3) media…

  12. Determinants and Options in the Development of Higher Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozefowicz, Adam; Kluczynski, Jan

    Trends affecting the future development of higher education in Poland are considered. It is projected that the demographic pool of higher education enrollment will in 1995-2000 return to a level roughly comparable with the peak pressures for college entry in the years 1971-75. It is suggested that demographic changes alone can explain but a…

  13. Characterization and comparison of invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from France and Poland.

    PubMed

    Farfour, E; Badell, E; Zasada, A; Hotzel, H; Tomaso, H; Guillot, S; Guiso, N

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the agent of diphtheria, is rarely responsible for bacteremia. However, high numbers of bacteremia have been reported in countries with extensive immunization coverage. Here, we used molecular and phenotypic tools to characterize and compare 42 invasive isolates collected in France (including New Caledonia) and Poland over a 23-year period.

  14. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olender, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n = 82), enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012. PMID:27595023

  15. Ion cyclotron instability at Io: Hybrid simulation results compared to in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šebek, Ondřej; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Walker, Raymond J.; Hellinger, Petr

    2016-08-01

    We present analysis of global three-dimensional hybrid simulations of Io's interaction with Jovian magnetospheric plasma. We apply a single-species model with simplified neutral-plasma chemistry and downscale Io in order to resolve the ion kinetic scales. We consider charge exchange, electron impact ionization, and photoionization by using variable rates of these processes to investigate their impact. Our results are in a good qualitative agreement with the in situ magnetic field measurements for five Galileo flybys around Io. The hybrid model describes ion kinetics self-consistently. This allows us to assess the distribution of temperature anisotropies around Io and thereby determine the possible triggering mechanism for waves observed near Io. We compare simulated dynamic spectra of magnetic fluctuations with in situ observations made by Galileo. Our results are consistent with both the spatial distribution and local amplitude of magnetic fluctuations found in the observations. Cyclotron waves, triggered probably by the growth of ion cyclotron instability, are observed mainly downstream of Io and on the flanks in regions farther from Io where the ion pickup rate is relatively low. Growth of the ion cyclotron instability is governed mainly by the charge exchange rate.

  16. From carbon numbers to ecosystem services: usable results comparing natural versus managed lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, D. M.; Ferschweiler, K.; Sheehan, T.; Sleeter, B. M.; Zhu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    We ran the MC2 dynamic vegetation model for the conterminous US at 30 arc sec with and without land use and fire suppression for several climate change scenarios. We translated model results into key ecosystem services (ES) such as climate regulation through carbon uptake and sequestration (global climate) or through transpiration (regional climate) as well as water provision through runoff and throughflow. We also projected timber production and gauged the risk of production lost to fire and/or drought by simulating fuel loads and forest vigor annually through the 21st century. We calculated the rising irrigation demand for agricultural land which, coupled with available information on groundwater resources, could help plan for future cropping systems. By combining these results we can evaluate land cover value across the country in terms of quantity and quality of services rendered. By comparing projections with and without landuse and fire suppression we can illustrate differences in regulating and provisioning services between managed and natural lands.

  17. Comparative lifetesting results for microchannel plates in windowless EUV photon detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malina, R. F.; Coburn, K. R.

    1984-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) from seven manufacturers were subjected to a series of tests to determine their suitability for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. Comparative data are presented for sixteen MCP tandem pairs with channel length to diameter ratios (l/d) ranging from 40:1 to 60:1 and for two saturable (curved channel) MCPs with l/d's of 80:1. Results for MCPs with funnelled channel throats are also discussed. Properties of the MCPs which were monitored include: background count rate, output charge pulse height distribution (PHD), modal gain, PHD full width half maximum (FWHM), and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photon quantum efficiency. Five detectors were chosen for further lifetime testing consisting of a mild bake to 100 C, and charge extraction to 0.01 coulombs, repeated high voltage cycling and reexposure to one atmosphere conditions. The results of these tests and their implications for the flight detectors are discussed. Erratic events in the detector background were recorded, probably due to field emission from high voltage surfaces or the absorption of water vapor into the electrode following exposure to air. The steps taken to control the detector background are discussed.

  18. Seasonal stability of snow cover in Poland in relation to the atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falarz, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal stability of snow cover (ISS) was defined as a percentage ratio of the real and the potential snow cover duration in a winter season. Main results of the study are as follows: (1) alternately occurring periods of high and low values of the index of snow cover stability did not appeared simultaneously in mountainous and non-mountainous areas; (2) in the majority of Poland area both zonal and meridional components of the atmospheric circulation influence the ISS; however, in south the meridional air flow reveals the stronger impact, mostly due to the intensification of the southern advection by the foehn effect; and (3) changes of two or three indices describing atmospheric circulation explain up to 50 % of the ISS in Poland. The diminishing stability of snow cover in Poland corresponds with an increasing intensity of the advection from the western sector in winter in the second half of the twentieth century in Europe.

  19. Demographic and settlement transformations in peripheral regions (based on the example of eastern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszczuk, Andrzej; Wesołowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show specific demographic processes and accompanied transformations of settlement structure in eastern Poland at the turn of the 21st cent. Eastern Poland, covering Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Świętokrzyskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeships, acquired the features of peripheral area in terms of communication and socio-economic aspects as a result of long-lasting historical processes. Unfavourable demographic processes can be observed in eastern Poland. They are accompanied by changes in settlement structure. Depopulation has significant social and economic consequences. The process increases social polarization between different regions in the country and between rural and urban areas. Moreover, the outflow of young and most active population to other regions or abroad is an important barrier for economic revival in peripheral regions. Consequently, unfavourable socio-economic structure in these areas is consolidated or even strengthened. This primarily concerns Lubelskie and Podlaskie voivodeships.

  20. [Epidemiological situation of malaria in Poland--past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Dzbeński, Tadeusz H

    2008-01-01

    In Poland malaria was endemic up to the middle of 60th years of the 20th century. After eradication a total of 11 to 38 imported cases are reported each year, however, no secondary cases or airport malaria have ever been observed in Poland. Is the present favourable epidemiological situation likely to change as a result of global warming and predicted risk of uncontrollable resurgence of malaria in Europe? An epidemiological analysis of past and present malaria situation in Poland allows to conclude, that global warming alone will not be enough to reintroduce malaria into this country. However, re-establishment of endemic malaria will be possible under condition of mass disorganization of public services and mass migration caused usually by wars or natural calamities.

  1. The Presence of Stimulant Drugs in Wastewater from Krakow (Poland): A Snapshot.

    PubMed

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Dudarska, Agnieszka; Zuba, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of wastewater from Krakow (Poland) for the presence of controlled and uncontrolled stimulant drugs of abuse was performed. Samples were collected from the Plaszow wastewater treatment plant, Krakow, Poland, and prepared by solid phase extraction. The LC-QTOFMS method was applied for identification and quantification of popular stimulants: MDMA, mephedrone, 4-MEC, MDPV and mCPP. Environmental loads of illicit drugs were calculated; the WWTP discharged loads ranging from 3.6 to 6.7 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of MDMA, 3.6 to 7.1 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of mephedrone and 4.8 to 5.8 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of 4-MEC. The results confirmed the growing popularity of new psychoactive substances in Poland.

  2. [Results of percutaneous cryoablation for malignant lung tumors compared with radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yoshikane; Kawamura, Masafumi; Inoue, Masanori; Yashiro, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Seishi

    2014-07-01

    Radiotherapy has been regularly applied mainly for inoperable patients with non- small cell lung cancer, and various clinical trials have been performed. On the other hand, we have applied percutaneous cryoablation for lung tumors (PCLT) since 2002. In this paper, we describe our experience of PCLT compared to the results of radiation treatment. Three-year local progression-free rates with stereotactic body radiotherapy were 79-92% in stage I A and 30-79% in stage I B. Those with proton radiotherapy were 82-89% in stage I A and 49-62% in stage I B. CTCAE grade ≥3 complications occurred in 3-28% cases, such as radiation pneumonitis. As for PCLT, 1-, 2- and 3-year local progression-free rates were 80.4%, 69.0% and 67.7%, respectively. Pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and hemoptysis occurred after 61.7%, 70.5%, and 36.8% sessions, respectively. Of all cases with pneumothorax, 17.6% required chest tube insertion and 1.7% required pleurodesis. Delayed and recurrent pneumothorax occurred in 7.8% each. CTCAE grade ≥3 complications occurred in 1.5% cases. The biggest advantage of PCLT compared with radiotherapy is the possibility to treat local recurrence at the same site as treated before. In addition, no radiation pneumonitis occurs in PCLT. Moreover, less space or budget is needed when PCLT is newly introduced in a hospital. Although high reliable clinical data is not achieved yet, PCLT is one of the promising methods in local treatment.

  3. Comparing sampling strategies to recruit migrants for an epidemiological study. Results from a German feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Katharina; Dragano, Nico; Ellert, Ute; Fricke, Julia; Greiser, Karin Halina; Keil, Thomas; Krist, Lilian; Moebus, Susanne; Pundt, Noreen; Schlaud, Martin; Yesil-Jürgens, Rahsan; Zeeb, Hajo; Zimmermann, Heiko; Razum, Oliver; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Becher, Heiko

    2014-10-01

    In 2011, almost 20.0% of the population of Germany had a migration background. Studies on their health tend to have low participation rates. The aim of our study was to compare different sampling strategies and to test different approaches to recruit migrants for an epidemiological study. Four recruitment centres of the German National Cohort recruited persons of Turkish origin and ethnic German immigrants from former Soviet Union countries. A register-based (random samples from residents' registration offices) and a community-orientated strategy were applied. Participants underwent a medical examination and self-completed a questionnaire. Used approaches: The community-orientated strategies comprised the acquisition of key persons from migrant networks to support the recruitment, invitation talks and distribution of study materials in migrant settings, etc. The identifying variables in the registry data were name, nationality or country of birth. All but one centres used bilingual study material and study staff. When comparing the two strategies, the register-based participation rates ranged from 10.1 to 21.0% (n = 668 participants) and the community-oriented recruitment resulted in 722 participants. Register-based recruitment should use a combination of name, nationality and country of birth in order not to be limited to identifying persons with a foreign nationality. However, according to the study staff, the community-oriented approach involving key persons of the same cultural background leads to a better acceptance by the participants. Also, it covers a more heterogeneous group. Yet, it is time-consuming and needs considerably more staff. Further research should establish the effectiveness of a combination of both strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Similar results comparing early and late surgery in open repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Zhaeentan, Soheila; Von Heijne, Anders; Stark, André; Hagert, Elisabet; Salomonsson, Björn

    2016-12-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether surgical repair earlier or later than 3 months after injury may result in similar outcomes and patient satisfaction. Seventy-three patients (75 shoulders, 58 males, mean age 59) who had undergone surgical intervention for traumatic rotator cuff tears from 1999 to 2011 were assessed by MRI, clinical examination and Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) as a primary outcome measure and Oxford Shoulder score (OSS), Constant-Murley score (CS) and EQ-5D as secondary. The patients treated less than 3 months after injury (n = 39) were compared with patients treated more than 3 months after injury (n = 36). The average follow-up time was 56 months (range 14-149), and the average time from injury to repair for all patients was 16 weeks (range 3-104). A single senior radiologist performed a blinded evaluation of all the MRIs. Rotator cuff integrity, presence of arthritis, fatty degeneration and muscle atrophy were evaluated. No differences were found for any of the assessed outcomes (WORC, OSS, CS and EQ-5D) between the two groups. The mean WORC % was 77 % for both groups. Re-tear frequency was 24 %, nine in both groups. Patients with re-tear reported less satisfaction with their outcome. The surgical treatment of symptomatic traumatic rotator cuff tears repairable later than 3 months after injury yields a good functional outcome, a high level of subjective patient satisfaction, and at the same level for patients receiving earlier treatment. Based on our findings, surgical repair could be encouraged whenever technically possible. Retrospective Comparative Study, Level III.

  5. Compressor calorimeter performance of refrigerant blends: Comparative methods and results for a refrigerator/freezer application

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C K; Sand, J R

    1993-01-01

    A protocol was developed to define calorimeter operating pressures for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) which corresponded with the saturated evaporator and condenser temperatures commonly used for pure refrigerants. Compressor calorimeter results were obtained using this equivalent-mean-temperature (EMT) approach and a generally applied Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) procedure at conditions characteristic of a domestic refrigerator-freezer application. Tests with R-12 and two NARMs indicate that compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiencies are nearly the same for refrigerants with similar capacities and pressure ratios. The liquid-line temperature conditions specified in the AHAM calorimeter rating procedure for refrigerator-freezer compressors were found to preferentially derate NARM performance relative to R-12. Conversion of calorimeter data taken with a fixed liquid-line temperature to a uniform minimal level of condenser subcooling is recommended as a fairer procedure when NARMs are involved. Compressor energy-efficiency-ratio (EER) and capacity data measured as a result of the EMT approach were compared to system performance calculated using an equivalent-heat-exchanger-loading (EHXL) protocol based on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator-freezer modeling program. The EHXL protocol was used to transform the calorimeter results into a more relevant representation of potential L-M cycle performance. The EMT method used to set up the calorimeter tests and the AHAM liquid-line conditions combined to significantly understate the cycle potential of NARMs relative to that predicted at the more appropriate EHXL conditions. Compressor conditions representative of larger heat exchanger sizes were also found to give a smaller L-M cycle advantage relative to R-12.

  6. Compressor calorimeter performance of refrigerant blends: Comparative methods and results for a refrigerator/freezer application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, C. K.; Sand, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    A protocol was developed to define calorimeter operating pressures for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARM's) which corresponded with the saturated evaporator and condenser temperatures commonly used for pure refrigerants. Compressor calorimeter results were obtained using this equivalent-mean-temperature (EMT) approach and a generally applied Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) procedure at conditions characteristic of a domestic refrigerator-freezer application. Tests with R-12 and two NARM's indicate that compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiencies are nearly the same for refrigerants with similar capacities and pressure ratios. The liquid-line temperature conditions specified in the AHAM calorimeter rating procedure for refrigerator-freezer compressors were found to preferentially derate NARM performance relative to R-12. Conversion of calorimeter data taken with a fixed liquid-line temperature to a uniform minimal level of condenser subcooling is recommended as a fairer procedure when NARM's are involved. Compressor energy-efficiency-ratio (EER) and capacity data measured as a result of the EMT approach were compared to system performance calculated using an equivalent heat exchanger loading (EHXL) protocol based on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator-freezer modeling program. The EHXL protocol was used to transform the calorimeter results into a more relevant representation of potential L-M cycle performance. The EMT method used to set up the calorimeter tests and the AHAM liquid-line conditions combined to significantly understate the cycle potential of NARM's relative to that predicted at the more appropriate EHXL conditions. Compressor conditions representative of larger heat exchanger sizes were also found to give a smaller L-M cycle advantage relative to R-12.

  7. ENVISAT ASAR satellite offshore wind resource statistics in Iceland compared to NORA10 model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Badger, Merete; Rugaard Furevik, Birgitte; Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Björnsson, Halldór; Ferhat Bingol, Ferhat; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-05-01

    In Iceland the offshore regions have been investigated from satellite images from the Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from the European Space Agency. The data have been retrieved from 2002 to 2012. Each satellite image has been calibrated and thereafter the CMOD5.N geophysical model function has been used to calculate the wind speed. Each resulting pixel is 1 km by 1 km. The wind direction is taken from the US Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) model. It has much lower spatial resolution and therefore the model wind directions are interpolated in space and time before performing the SAR-based wind retrieval. In total 2,500 images have been processed. This results in average 300 overlapping images. More data were available in the northern part of Iceland; therefore the number of overlapping samples is around 400 here and only 200 at the southern coast. The wind resource statistics of mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and energy density have been calculated using the Satellite-WAsP (S-WAsP) program. The coastline of Iceland is complex. The individual wind maps from SAR reveal a multitude of atmospheric phenomena including lee effects and gap flows in the fjords. The wind resource statistics shows the mean wind speed to range from 5 to 8 m/s at 10 m height above the sea level. Selected case study areas are being defined for further investigation. SAR-derived wind maps have the advantage of covering the coastal zone. Further offshore the SAR-derived winds will be compared to the NORA10 atmospheric model results and scatterometer winds. In Iceland the wind resources on land are promising for wind energy application but it is not yet exploited. The study on the offshore wind resource is useful as pre-feasibility in case this clean energy resource is to be exploited at a later stage. The work is part of the Nordic Icewind project.

  8. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign…

  9. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Poland is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  10. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-03-01

    The burgeoning private sector is perhaps the most tangible of the changes in education which followed the upheavals of 1989/90 in Central and Eastern Europe. This article sets out to analyse the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratisation and educational development. The authors argue that the euphoria of the period immediately following the overthrow of one-party communism encouraged unrealistic expectations of educational reform. Their analysis of private sector schooling in Poland suggests that its development has occurred in a haphazard fashion, reflecting the uncertainties of a society undergoing a painful process of transition. Symptomatic of this has been the failure to establish a clear regulatory framework for the private sector - an omission which has undermined the credibility of private schools. Nevertheless, the authors argue that the development of private sector schooling in Poland has brought diversity and a degree of innovation to a system previously almost devoid of either. There is now an urgent need for the evaluation and dissemination of private sector initiatives, which can serve as examples for future educational decision-making in Poland.

  11. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  12. Control of rabbit myxomatosis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Górski, J; Mizak, B; Chrobocińska, M

    1994-09-01

    The authors present an epizootiological analysis of myxomatosis in Poland. The biological, physical and chemical properties of virus strains used for the production and control of 'Myxovac M' vaccine are discussed. The long-term stability, safety and efficacy of the vaccine are demonstrated. Laboratory experiments were confirmed in large-scale field observations.

  13. Trends in Poland in space psychology research.

    PubMed

    Terelak, J F

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses the basic directions of research carried out in Poland during the years 1981-86 within the Polish Academy of Science project 06.7. The subject matter concerns: individual and situational determinants of human functioning in stress conditions; functioning of a human in extreme conditions; and load imposition through activities requiring risk-taking decisions.

  14. Poland. A Selection of Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom House, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document is a collection of supplemental classroom materials on Poland to be photocopied for use in secondary schools in conjunction with the Education for Democracy's Classroom-To-Classroom project. The materials offer an historical framework for considering current events, as well as some insight into the events, ideas, issues, and…

  15. Misuse of OTC drugs in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zaprutko, Tomasz; Koligat, Dorota; Michalak, Michał; Wieczorek, Marta; Józiak, Malwina; Ratajczak, Monika; Szydłowska, Kinga; Miazek, Joanna; Kus, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2016-08-01

    The misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs became a global public health concern. Although abuse with dextrometorphan (DXM), pseudoefedrine (PSD), codeine (COD) or benzydamine (BND) may lead even to psychosis, drugs containing these substances are relatively cheap and freely available. In Poland the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in 2015, however it seems that there are still some points which could be improved. Study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015 using a specially designed questionnaire delivered to pharmacists from the Greater Poland region. Questionnaire consisting of 11 closed questions was distributed by direct contact and via the Internet. From over 2500 distributed questionnaires, we received 761 sheets and 680 were included. The misuse of OTC drugs is increasing in Poland from pharmacists point of view. The most popular substance was PSD followed by COD and DXM. The main reason of misuse of these drugs could be related to the use of Internet and free access to these medications. In respondents (58.2%) opinion OTC drugs containing analyzed substances should be moved into the prescription status. The misuse of OTC drugs should be considered as a very dangerous phenomenon. Although the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in Poland in 2015, there are some facets requiring improvement. Social education may play a key role in the limitation of misuse of OTC drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Culture and the Kindergarten Curriculum in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putkiewicz, Elzbieta

    This paper describes the effect of cultural context on the content of kindergarten curriculum in Poland, chronicling the historical changes from Communist to post-Soviet, capitalist cultures. Soviet cultural influence on early childhood education from 1945 to 1989 is described as affecting a single obligatory curriculum, strict government control,…

  17. FASD Prevalence among Schoolchildren in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Magdalena; Brzózka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is a major cause of brain damage and developmental delay, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) but in Poland is rarely diagnosed and the scale of problem is not known. Methods: An active case ascertainment approach was applied to estimate the prevalence of FASD among 7-9 years olds. Pre-screening…

  18. The Unnatural Approach: Language Learning in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muchisky, Dennis

    The instructional settings and teacher-learner relationships observed in English-as-a-second-language classes at the secondary and university levels in Poland by an American senior Fulbright lecturer are characterized by very formal instruction with heavy emphasis on pronunciation and grammar exercises, large classes with little opportunity for…

  19. Environmental Education in Poland: Its Present Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata

    2004-01-01

    Environmental education in Poland has a long history, but has advanced especially in recent years. The need to implement it within systems of formal and non-formal education is noted in many government documents. The educational reform introduced in 1999 changed the goals and methods of teaching environmental education in the school system. At…

  20. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign…

  1. FASD Prevalence among Schoolchildren in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Magdalena; Brzózka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is a major cause of brain damage and developmental delay, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) but in Poland is rarely diagnosed and the scale of problem is not known. Methods: An active case ascertainment approach was applied to estimate the prevalence of FASD among 7-9 years olds. Pre-screening…

  2. Testing Friction Laws by Comparing Simulation Results With Experiments of Spontaneous Dynamic Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Lapusta, N.; Rosakis, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    Friction laws are typically introduced either based on theoretic ideas or by fitting laboratory experiments that reproduce only a small subset of possible behaviors. Hence it is important to validate the resulting laws by modeling experiments that produce spontaneous frictional behavior. Here we simulate experiments of spontaneous rupture transition from sub-Rayleigh to supershear done by Xia et al. (Science, 2004). In the experiments, two thin Homalite plates are pressed together along an inclined interface. Compressive load P is applied to the edges of the plates and the rupture is triggered by an explosion of a small wire. Xia et al. (2004) link the transition in their experiments to the Burridge-Andrews mechanism (Andrews, JGR, 1976) which involves initiation of a daughter crack in front of the main rupture. Xia et al. have measured transition lengths for different values of the load P and compared their results with numerical simulations of Andrews who used linear slip-weakening friction. They conclude that to obtain a good fit they need to assume that the critical slip of the slip-weakening law scales as P-1/2, as proposed by Ohnaka (JGR, 2003). Hence our first goal is to verify whether the dependence of the critical slip on the compressive load P is indeed necessary for a good fit to experimental measurements. To test that, we conducted simulations of the experiments by using boundary integral methodology in its spectral formulation (Perrin et al., 1995; Geubelle and Rice, 1995). We approximately model the wire explosion by temporary normal stress decrease in the region of the interface comparable to the size of the exploding wire. The simulations show good agreement of the transition length with the experimental results for different values of the load P, even though we keep the critical slip constant. Hence the dependence of the critical slip on P is not necessary to fit the experimental measurements. The inconsistency between Andrews' numerical results

  3. Application of the Deformation Information System for automated analysis and mapping of mining terrain deformations - case study from SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowski, Jan; Grzempowski, Piotr; Milczarek, Wojciech; Nowacka, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring, mapping and modelling of mining induced terrain deformations are important tasks for quantifying and minimising threats that arise from underground extraction of useful minerals and affect surface infrastructure, human safety, the environment and security of the mining operation itself. The number of methods and techniques used for monitoring and analysis of mining terrain deformations is wide and expanding with the progress in geographical information technologies. These include for example: terrestrial geodetic measurements, Global Navigation Satellite Systems, remote sensing, GIS based modelling and spatial statistics, finite element method modelling, geological modelling, empirical modelling using e.g. the Knothe theory, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic calculations and other. The presentation shows the results of numerical modelling and mapping of mining terrain deformations for two cases of underground mining sites in SW Poland, hard coal one (abandoned) and copper ore (active) using the functionalities of the Deformation Information System (DIS) (Blachowski et al, 2014 @ http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2014/EGU2014-7949.pdf). The functionalities of the spatial data modelling module of DIS have been presented and its applications in modelling, mapping and visualising mining terrain deformations based on processing of measurement data (geodetic and GNSS) for these two cases have been characterised and compared. These include, self-developed and implemented in DIS, automation procedures for calculating mining terrain subsidence with different interpolation techniques, calculation of other mining deformation parameters (i.e. tilt, horizontal displacement, horizontal strain and curvature), as well as mapping mining terrain categories based on classification of the values of these parameters as used in Poland. Acknowledgments. This work has been financed from the National Science Centre Project "Development of a numerical method of

  4. Characterization of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 isolated from human in Poland between 1996 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, A; Wołkowicz, T; Chróst, A; Szych, J

    2015-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 infections can be comparable with STEC O157 infections in severity of the acute haemolytic-uremic syndrome HUS and long-term sequelae. Among O26 STEC isolates, highly virulent clone O26:H11/H- Sequence Type 29 (ST 29) emerged in Germany in mid-1990s and spread to European countries. However, up to date, no STEC O26:H11/H- belonging to ST29 has been documented in Poland. In this study, we determined the relationship and clonal structure, stx genotypes, plasmid gene profiles and antimicrobial resistance of nine human STEC O26:H11/H- strains from human patients in Poland between 1996 and 2014. Of the 9 human STEC O26:H11/H- strains, two belonged to ST29 and were isolated from two children with HUS and renal failure with sepsis respectively. These strains showed the molecular characteristics of the emerging human-pathogenic ST29 clone (stx1-, stx2a+, eae+, ehxA+, etpD+, katP-, espP-). The remaining STEC O26:H11/H- strains examined in this study, belonged to ST21, with plasmid genes profiles frequently reported in ST21 strains in Europe. STEC O26 infections with serious human health consequences highlight the need of continuous surveillance of non-O157 STEC and implementation of the diagnostic approaches focused on their detection. Significance and impact of the study: These study provides the first data on the occurrence of emerging Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 ST 29 clone in human patients in Poland. Those strains show the molecular characteristics of highly virulent new ST29 pathotype (stx1-, stx2a+, eae+ ehxA+, etpD+, katP-, espP-). These results demonstrated prompt efforts to implement diagnostic approaches detection of those pathogen in the European countries. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Prerequisites and Effects of CRM Systems Use in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchnowska, Dorota; Wrycza, Stanislaw

    It has been demonstrated in numerous studies that CRM implementation is beneficial in terms of higher revenues and lower costs (Aberdeen Group 2004: Thompson 2004) However, many potential CRM users in Poland are discouraged by high implementation costs and a high proportion of abortive implementations. Managers complain about lack of best practices that might convince them about the advisability of their strategy. The high failure rate in CRM implementation (Hellweg 2002) is often the result of the fact that the firms responsible for implementation lack an adequate and proven methodology.

  6. Trends in external causes of child and adolescent mortality in Poland, 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Grajda, Aneta; Kułaga, Zbigniew; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Wojtyło, Małgorzata; Litwin, Mieczysław

    2017-01-01

    To examine the pattern and trend of deaths due to external causes among Polish children and adolescents in 1999-2012, and to compare trends in Poland's neighboring countries. Death records were obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. External causes mortality rates (MR) with 95 % confidence interval were calculated. The annual percentage change of MR was examined using linear regression. To compare MR with Belarus, Ukraine, Czech Republic and Germany, data from the European Mortality Database were used. MR were the highest in the age 15-19 years (33.7/100,000) and among boys (22.7/100,000). Unintentional injuries including transport accidents, drowning, and suicides (especially in children over 10 years old), were the main cause of death in the analyzed groups. Between 1999 and 2012 annual MR for unintentional injuries declined substantially. MR due to injuries and poisoning in Poland were higher compared with Czech Republic and Germany and lower in comparison with Belarus and Ukraine. Deaths due to unintentional injuries are still the leading cause of death among Polish children and adolescents. There are differences in death rates between Poland and neighboring countries.

  7. Hard Coal in the Fuel-Mix Of Poland: The Long-Term Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Kaliski, Maciej; Kamiński, Jacek; Sikora, Andrzej P.; Szurlej, Adam

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the coal policy of Poland. It analyzes the forecasts of production and consumption of hard coal, the size of exports and imports and its importance for the energy sector on the basis of strategic documents. The main aim of the article is to show the role of hard coal in the fuel - energy balance of Poland until 2050. The adoption of appropriate assumptions for each scenario, including the maximum supply of hard coal from domestic mines, coal price curves, CO2 emission allowances and several calculations performed allowed to obtain certain results on the basis of which the future role of hard coal was determined.

  8. [Detection of antibodies of Borrelia burgdorferi among inhabitants of north-eastern Poland].

    PubMed

    Pancewicz, S A; Januszkiewicz, A; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, T

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi among inhabitants in North Eastern Poland 1765 persons from Białystok, Lomza and Suwałki voivodships were examined. Among them 1101 persons were from high-risk of exposition to ticks group (forest workers, people living close to forests). 418 (23.68%) persons from group of 1765 had antibodies against B.b. There was no difference of incidence of antibodies against B.b. in high-risk group and the others. The results show that North Eastern Poland is the endemic region of occurrence of B.b.

  9. Selected Problems of Applying the Law in Adaptation and Modernization of Buildings in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbel, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    Chosen problems of law implementation in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland. One of the major problems in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland is the pluralism of different interpretations of chosen legal terms, existing in the contemporary building code. Incorrect interpretation, results in the incorrect application to the authorities for the proper building permit and as the effect, it causes the lost of time and money. The article tries to identify some of these problems and seeks the solution to solve them, through the evolutionary method of building law creation.

  10. Comparing gender awareness in Dutch and Swedish first-year medical students - results from a questionaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to compare attitudes to gender and gender stereotyping among Dutch and Swedish male and female medical students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured the attitudes and assumptions about gender among 1096 first year medical students (616 Dutch and 480 Swedish) with the validated Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS). The response rate was 94% in the Netherlands and 93% in Sweden. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the scores between Dutch and Swedish male and female students. Linear regressions were used to analyze the importance of the background variables. Results There were significant differences in attitudes to gender between Dutch and Swedish students. The Swedish students expressed less stereotypical thinking about patients and doctors and the Dutch were more sensitive to gender differences. The students' sex mattered for gender stereotyping, with male students in both countries agreeing more with stereotypical statements. Students' age, father's birth country and mother's education level had some impact on the outcome. Conclusions There are differences between cultures as well as between men and women in gender awareness that need to be considered when implementing gender in medical education. This study suggests that to arouse the students' interest in gender issues and make them aware of the significance of gender in medical work, the examples used in discussions need to be relevant and challenging in the context of the specific country. Due to different levels of knowledge and different attitudes within the student population it is important to create a climate for dialogue where students feel permitted to

  11. Recent results on the spatiotemporal modelling and comparative analysis of Black Death and bubonic plague epidemics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.; Yu, H.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. Methods: Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of the composite space-time distributions were generated for important characteristics of two major epidemics: Black Death (14th century Western Europe) and bubonic plague (19th-20th century Indian subcontinent). Results: The comparative spatiotemporal analysis of the epidemics led to a number of interesting findings: (1) the two epidemics exhibited certain differences in their spatiotemporal characteristics (correlation structures, trends, occurrence patterns and propagation speeds) that need to be explained by means of an interdisciplinary effort; (2) geographical epidemic indicators confirmed in a rigorous quantitative manner the partial findings of isolated reports and time series that Black Death mortality was two orders of magnitude higher than that of bubonic plague; (3) modern bubonic plague is a rural disease hitting harder the small villages in the countryside whereas Black Death was a devastating epidemic that indiscriminately attacked large urban centres and the countryside, and while the epidemic in India lasted uninterruptedly for five decades, in Western Europe it lasted three and a half years; (4) the epidemics had reverse areal extension features in response to annual seasonal variations. Temperature increase at the end of winter led to an expansion of infected geographical area for Black Death and a reduction for bubonic plague, reaching a climax at the end of spring when the infected area in Western Europe was always larger than in India. Conversely, without exception, the infected area during winter was larger for the Indian bubonic plague; (5) during the

  12. The European COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project: towards transnational comparability and reliability of human biomonitoring results.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Esteban, Marta; Koch, Holger Martin; Castano, Argelia; Koslitz, Stephan; Cañas, Ana; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Schoeters, Greet; Hond, Elly Den; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Lopez, Ana; Huetos, Olga; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Maurer-Chronakis, Katja; Kasparova, Lucie; Vrbík, Karel; Rudnai, Peter; Naray, Miklos; Guignard, Cedric; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Janasik, Beata; Reis, M Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Pop, Cristian; Dumitrascu, Irina; Halzlova, Katarina; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Berglund, Marika; Jönsson, Bo; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Flemming; McGrath, Helena; Nesbitt, Ian; De Cremer, Koen; Vanermen, Guido; Koppen, Gudrun; Wilhelm, Michael; Becker, Kerstin; Angerer, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop a coherent approach on human biomonitoring (HBM) in Europe". Within this twin-project it was targeted to collect specimens from 120 mother-child-pairs in each of the 17 participating European countries. These specimens were investigated for six biomarkers (mercury in hair; creatinine, cotinine, cadmium, phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine). The results for mercury in hair are described in a separate paper. Each participating member state was requested to contract laboratories, for capacity building reasons ideally within its borders, carrying out the chemical analyses. To ensure comparability of analytical data a Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) was established which provided the participating laboratories with standard operating procedures (SOP) and with control material. This material was specially prepared from native, non-spiked, pooled urine samples and was tested for homogeneity and stability. Four external quality assessment exercises were carried out. Highly esteemed laboratories from all over the world served as reference laboratories. Web conferences after each external quality assessment exercise functioned as a new and effective tool to improve analytical performance, to build capacity and to educate less experienced laboratories. Of the 38 laboratories participating in the quality assurance exercises 14 laboratories qualified for cadmium, 14 for creatinine, 9 for cotinine, 7 for phthalate metabolites and 5 for bisphenol A in urine. In the last of the four external quality assessment exercises the laboratories that qualified for DEMOCOPHES performed the determinations in urine with relative standard deviations (low/high concentration) of 18.0/2.1% for cotinine, 14.8/5.1% for cadmium, 4.7/3.4% for creatinine. Relative standard deviations for the newly emerging biomarkers were higher, with values between 13.5 and 20.5% for bisphenol A and

  13. Results of the 1980 NACUBO Comparative Performance Study and Investment Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresner, Bruce M.

    The purpose of the annual National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO) Comparative Performance Study is to aid administrators in evaluating the performance of their investment pools. The 1980 study contains two parts: (1) comparative performance information and related investment performance statistics; and (2) other…

  14. Case Studies Comparing System Advisor Model (SAM) Results to Real Performance Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Dobos, A.; Sather, N.

    2012-06-01

    NREL has completed a series of detailed case studies comparing the simulations of the System Advisor Model (SAM) and measured performance data or published performance expectations. These case studies compare PV measured performance data with simulated performance data using appropriate weather data. The measured data sets were primarily taken from NREL onsite PV systems and weather monitoring stations.

  15. Results of the 1978 NACUBO Comparative Performance Study and Investment Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresner, Bruce M.

    Information from the 1978 Comparative Performance Study and investment questionnaire conducted by the National Association of College and University Business Officers is presented. One hundred forty-four institutions provided information about 164 investment pools. The Comparative Performance Study provides participating institutions with…

  16. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-05-11

    The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland.

  17. Human Alveolar Echinococcosis in Poland: 1990–2011

    PubMed Central

    Nahorski, Wacław L.; Knap, Józef P.; Pawłowski, Zbigniew S.; Krawczyk, Marek; Polański, Jerzy; Stefaniak, Jerzy; Patkowski, Waldemar; Szostakowska, Beata; Pietkiewicz, Halina; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Felczak-Korzybska, Iwona; Gołąb, Elżbieta; Wnukowska, Natalia; Paul, Małgorzata; Kacprzak, Elżbieta; Sokolewicz-Bobrowska, Elżbieta; Niścigorska-Olsen, Jolanta; Czyrznikowska, Aleksandra; Chomicz, Lidia; Cielecka, Danuta; Myjak, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis infections is a dangerous old disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The aim of the paper was to collect and analyze data on human AE in Poland in the last two decades. Methodology/Principal Findings The sources of data were both the cases officially registered and detected by an active field and laboratory surveillance. The cases were verified by clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. Altogether 121 human cases of AE were detected. Among these 83 (68,6%) cases were classified as confirmed, 16 as probable and 22 as possible. During the two decades a continuous increase in detection rate was noticed. The cases were 6–82 years old at the time of diagnosis (mean - 47.7 years). Sex ratio M/F was 0.86/1.0. The AE was fatal in 23 (19%) patients (mean age at death - 54.1 years). Family agglomeration of AE was found in 4 foci, involving 9 patients. Seventy six of the cases were diagnosed in an advanced stage of disease. In all cases the liver was the primary location of AE. In 30 (24.8%) patients a spread to other organs was observed. Ninety four of the patients were treated with albendazole. In 73 (60%) patients a surgical operation was performed, including 15 liver transplantations. Conclusions/Significance The studies confirmed that AE is an emerging disease in Poland, which is the fourth country in Europe with over 120 cases detected. The results also indicate the need of a wider national programme for implementation of screening in the highest AE risk areas (north-eastern Poland) with an effort to increase the public awareness of the possibility of contracting E. multilocularis, and above all, training of the primary care physicians in the recognition of the risk of AE to allow for an early detection of this dangerous disease. PMID:23301116

  18. [Vitrum osteomag in prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: results of the comparative open multicenter trial].

    PubMed

    Benevolenskaia, L I; Toroptsova, N V; Nikitinskaia, O A; Sharapova, E P; Korotkova, T A; Rozhinskaia, L Ia; Marova, E I; Dzeranova, L K; Molitvoslovova, N N; Men'shikova, L V; Grudinina, O V; Lesniak, O M; Evstigneeva, L P; Smetnik, V P; Shestakova, I G; Kuznetsov, S Iu

    2004-01-01

    To investigate efficacy, tolerance and safety of the drug vitrum osteomag one tablet of which contains 600 mg calcium (1500 mg calcium carbonate), 200 IU of cholecalcepherol, 40 mg of magnesium, zinc (7.5 mg), copper (1 mg), manganese (1.8 mg) and boron (250 mcg) in women with osteopenia for prevention of osteoporosis. A multicenter comparative open trial of vitrum osteomag influence on mineral bone density (MBD), change of pain syndrome in bones, index of calcium-phosphorous metabolism covered 334 postmenopausal women with osteopenia. MBD was measured in low-back spine and proximal part of the hip with DEXA method. All the patients were divided into 3 groups: 125 women taking 2 tablets of vitrum osteomag daily for 12 months (group 1); 111 women taking 1500 mg calcium carbonate (group 2); 96 women--control group (only observation). Vitrum osteomag relieved pain in the back and joints, had a positive effect on bone density (+1.5%) and proximal parts of the hip (0.6-0.93%) exceeding the effect of calcium carbonate only which preserves the initial MBD in low back spine but does not prevent bone loss in the hip. MBD dynamics in patients given vitrum osteomag differs essentially from one in the control group (from -1.9 to -2.91%) which demonstrates a reliable preventive anti-osteoporotic effect of this medication. The drug increases the level of general and ionized calcium in blood but does not cause hypercalcemia lowering the level of parathormone in blood. The rate of side effects in group 1 was 14.4% and did not differ much from that in group 2 (16.2%). The results of the study allow to recommend vitrum osteomag for prophylaxis of a rapid loss of bone tissue mineral density.

  19. Core Verbal Autopsy Procedures with Comparative Validation Results from Two Countries

    PubMed Central

    Setel, Philip W; Rao, Chalapati; Hemed, Yusuf; Whiting, David R; Yang, Gonghuan; Chandramohan, Daniel; Alberti, K. G. M. M; Lopez, Alan D

    2006-01-01

    Background Cause-specific mortality statistics remain scarce for the majority of low-income countries, where the highest disease burdens are experienced. Neither facility-based information systems nor vital registration provide adequate or representative data. The expansion of sample vital registration with verbal autopsy procedures represents the most promising interim solution for this problem. The development and validation of core verbal autopsy forms and suitable coding and tabulation procedures are an essential first step to extending the benefits of this method. Methods and Findings Core forms for peri- and neonatal, child, and adult deaths were developed and revised over 12 y through a project of the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and were applied to over 50,000 deaths. The contents of the core forms draw upon and are generally comparable with previously proposed verbal autopsy procedures. The core forms and coding procedures based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) were further adapted for use in China. These forms, the ICD tabulation list, the summary validation protocol, and the summary validation results from Tanzania and China are presented here. Conclusions The procedures are capable of providing reasonable mortality estimates as adjudged against stated performance criteria for several common causes of death in two countries with radically different cause structures of mortality. However, the specific causes for which the procedures perform well varied between the two settings because of differences in the underlying prevalence of the main causes of death. These differences serve to emphasize the need to undertake validation studies of verbal autopsy procedures when they are applied in new epidemiological settings. PMID:16942391

  20. Comparing Utility Scores in Common Spinal Radiculopathies: Results of a Prospective Valuation Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nikhil R.; Stephen, James H.; Abdullah, Kalil G.; Stein, Sherman C.; Malhotra, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study. Objective To determine whether preference-based health utility scores for common spinal radiculopathies vary by specific spinal level. Methods We employed a standard gamble study using the general public to calculate individual preference-based quality of life for four common radiculopathies: C6, C7, L5, and S1. We compared utility scores obtained for each level of radiculopathy with analysis of variance and t test. Multivariable regression was used to test the effects of the covariates age, sex, and years of education. We also reviewed the literature for publications reporting EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores for patients with radiculopathy. Results Two hundred participants were included in the study. Average utility for the four spinal levels fell within a narrow range (0.748 to 0.796). There were no statistically significant differences between lumbar and cervical radiculopathies, nor were there significant differences among the different spinal levels (F = 0.0850, p = 0.086). Age and sex had no significant effect on utility scores. There was a significant correlation between years of education and utility values for S1 radiculopathy (p = 0.037). On review of the literature, no study separated utility values by specific spinal level. EQ-5D utilities for both cervical and lumbar radiculopathy were considerably lower than the results of our study. Conclusions Utility values associated with the most common levels of cervical and lumbar radiculopathy do not significantly differ from each other, validating the current practice of grouping utility by spinal segment rather than by specific root levels. The discrepancy in average utility values between our study and the EQ-5D highlights the need to be mindful of the underlying instruments used when assessing outcomes studies from different sources. PMID:27099818

  1. Cassini's CAPS and MAG measurements during Titan flyby T15 compared to HYB model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, I.; Young, D.; Wilson, R.; Crary, F.; Bertucci, C.; Dougherty, M.; Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A.; Kallio, E.; Jarvinen, R.; Janhunen, P.

    2008-12-01

    Titan's ionosphere and exosphere interact with the rotating plasma flow of the Saturn's magnetosphere. The plasma flow is magnetized by Saturn's magnetic field but also disturbed by the dynamics of the outer magnetosphere; e.g. the location of the plasma sheet and the motion of the magnetopause due to varying solar wind pressure. These cause changes in the density and velocity of the plasma flow as well as in the direction of the ambient magnetic field. Furthermore, near the magnetospheric current sheet (i.e. in the magnetodisk) oxygen and water-group ions have often higher density than hydrogen ions whereas outside the magnetodisk these heavy ion components are not detected and consequently H+ dominates. Cassini's T15 flyby of Titan's close wake on July 2, 2006 is studied using CAPS ion spectrometer (IMS) and magnetometer (MAG) data. The plasma flow was composed of water-group ions (0.09±0.05 cm-3) and H+ (0.07±0.03 cm-3) with the flow speed roughly 80 km/s. For T15 the magnetic field a one- lobe structure was observed similar to that seen in the wake further down Titan's tail during T9[1]. The data are compared with simulation results from a global hybrid plasma model HYB. [1] Sillanpää, I., Hybrid Modelling of Titan's Interaction with the Magnetosphere of Saturn, Ph.D. dissertation, Yliopistopaino, Helsinki, 2008. (Freely available at permalink http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951- 697-660-3)

  2. Interval cancers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma screening: comparing two screening intervals after a negative initial screening result.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Huang, Qi-Hong; Fang, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Ke; Xie, Shang-Hang; Liu, Qing; Hong, Ming-Huang; Liao, Zhen-Er; Ye, Wei-Min; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Cao, Su-Mei

    2012-12-01

    To examine the optimal screening interval among the individuals who received a negative Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin A antibodies against viral capsid antigen (VCA-IgA) serum test result and who comprised the majority of the population screened for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Screening was performed in Sihui, Guangdong, China, offering a repeated screening for participants with an initial negative test either after 4-5 years in one centre (short interval centre), or 9-10 years in another (long interval centre). The characteristics and incidence rates (IRs) of interval NPCs (defined as cases diagnosed outside the screening protocol while within the screening interval) were compared between these two centres. Standard incidence ratios (SIRs) were also calculated using the general Sihui population as the reference. Seven interval NPCs were detected in the short interval centre (IR: 17.8/10(5) person-years) and 20 in the long interval centre (IR: 20.8/10(5) person-years during the first four years and 43.5/10(5) person-years during the remaining years). The SIR in the short interval centre was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.89); SIR in the long interval centre was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.17-1.02) during the first four years and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.49-1.51) during the remaining years. No aggressive interval NPC was observed in the short interval centre; four were identified in the long interval centre. The incidence of NPC, especially aggressive NPC, was low during the first few years after a negative screening; the incidence increased to the general population level afterwards. A screening interval of 4-5 years may therefore be more suitable than 9-10 years after a negative VCA-IgA test in NPC screening.

  3. Use of Power Assist-Wheels Results in Increased Distance Traveled Compared to Conventional Manual Wheeling

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Charles E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Chow, John W.; Tillman, Mark D.; Fournier, Kimberly A.; Giacobbi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of power assist wheels (PAWs) on the distance traveled by manual wheelchair users and analyze potential cofactors in the magnitude of response: To test the hypothesis that wheelers would travel significantly further with PAWs. Design A 16-week A (Pre-intervention)-B (Intervention)- A (Post-intervention) repeated measures design. Seven women and 13 men (age 43±15 years) full-time wheelers participated. During the pre-intervention and post-intervention phases (4 weeks each), participants used their own unaltered manual wheelchairs. During the 8-week intervention phase, the manual wheels were replaced with PAWs. Daily distance was measured with bicycle-style odometers. A composite score of laboratory wheelchair tasks was used to classify wheelchair performance. Mixed model repeated measures analysis of variance analyzed changes across phases of the trial. A post-hoc analysis tabulated the amount of days wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages in each phase by two standard deviations. Results Wheelers traveled significantly greater distances during the intervention phase compared to pre- or post-intervention phases regardless of baseline wheelchair performance . Wheelers who demonstrated higher baseline wheelchair performance traveled lesser average distances in the first two weeks after receiving PAWs than in the subsequent 6 weeks. Wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages per phase on a significantly greater number of days during the intervention phase. Conclusions PAWs enabled wheelers to travel farther and to travel beyond their usual distances on more days. Future studies may be strengthened by taking into account the two-week “adjustment phase” for PAWs. PMID:20647780

  4. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled {open_quotes}Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Results{close_quotes} (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was {open_quotes}to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.{close_quotes} The study also {open_quotes}identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.{close_quotes} This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete {open_quotes}cradle-to-grave{close_quotes} systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews.

  5. [Preliminary results of DERMATEL: prospective randomized study comparing synchronous and asynchronous modalities of teledermatology].

    PubMed

    Romero, G; García, M; Vera, E; Martínez, C; Cortina, P; Sánchez, P; Guerra, A

    2006-12-01

    There is considerable variability in the results of studies that evaluate diagnostic reliability in teledermatology. There are only two studies that compare the synchronous and asynchronous modalities of teleconsult in the same sample. We present the results of the pilot project DERMATEL, a study of diagnostic concordance that aims to increase the evidence of these aspects. One-hundred-fifty.nine patients referred by the general practitioner in the first consult were randomized (algorithm 3:2:1) in three arms: asyncronous teledermatology (store-and-forward or SAF), synchronous teldermatology (real-time or VTC), and conventional consult (CC). We used high-quality, fixed digital images in all cases. The patients on the VTC teledermatology arm were also evaluated by videoconference. Finally all patients attended a face-to-face consult, considered the gold standard of patient care. A second dermatologist evaluated the diagnostic and management concordance between the teleconsults and the face-to-face consults. One-hundred.forty-seven patients completed the study as follows: 74 in the SAF teledermatology arm, 47 in the VTC teledermatology arm and 26 in the conventional consult (control group). The teledermatological (SAF and VTC) and face-to-face evaluations were identical in 100 of 121 patients (82.6%). The errors were mild in 14 cases (11.6%) and severe in 7 (5.8%). The diagnostic concordance was very high (kappa=0,813). The errors grouped by diseases were as follows: 6/54 (11%) for tumors, 10/30 (33.3%) for inflammatory conditions, 1/20 (5%) for infectious diseases, 3/12 (25%) for alopecia/acne and 1/5 (20%) for others. There were 15 errors in the SAF teledermatology arm (20.3%) and 6 in the VTC teledermatology arm (12.8%); these differences were not statistically significant (chi2 1.12; p=0.288). The reliability of dermatological teleconsult is very high, especially for tumoral or infectious diseases. The synchronous interaction with audio requires more resources

  6. [Crosscultural aspects of bipolar disorder: results of a comparative study between French and Tunisian patients].

    PubMed

    Douki, S; Nacef, F; Triki, T; Dalery, J

    2012-06-01

    Bipolar disorders are one of the most potentially severe psychiatric disorders, implying a high degree of morbidity and incapacity for patients. Indeed, the World Health Organization in 1996 ranked them as the sixth most disabling condition worldwide. Major advances have been achieved in their understanding and management. However, too many patients do not yet benefit from them. As a matter of fact, bipolar disorders are still underestimated and under-recognized, being too often misdiagnosed with major depression or schizophrenia; the DSM-IV acknowledges the trend of clinicians to overdiagnose schizophrenia (rather than bipolar disorder), especially in ethnic groups and young people. Indeed, cultural factors may impact the symptomatology and the course of the disease. In particular, it has been shown by many authors that schizophrenia-like features are more likely to be found in southern countries. Similarly, the same authors have reported more manic than depressive episodes during the course of bipolar disorder. We aimed at comparing individuals with bipolar disorder living in two distinct geographic and cultural environments, namely France and Tunisia. Our study included two samples of 40 patients each, natives from the country, who were admitted during 2007 to the hospitals of Razi (Tunis, Tunisia) and Le Vinatier (Lyon, France) and suffering from a bipolar disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. The French sample was constituted by all the patients meeting the inclusion criteria and the Tunisian one was selected by matching the patients by gender and duration of the disorder. Our results were consistent with the existing literature, showing many similarities and some marked differences such as a greater rate of manic episodes in the onset and during the course of the illness as well. The main result was the type of the first episode: mania in three quarter cases in Tunisia and depressive in the same proportion in France. The same figures applied to the

  7. Plasmid Profiles of Virulent Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Infected Foals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Marcin; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Łukasz; Kato, Kiyoko; Hieda, Yu; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important bacterial pathogen in foals up to 6 months old, widespread in horse farms all over the world. It was found that only virulent R. equi strains expressing 15-17 kDa virulence-associated protein (VapA) and having large virulence plasmid of 85-90 kb containing vapA gene are pathogenic for horses. To date, 12 plasmid types have been reported in VapA positive strains from horses. There are no data concerning plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains isolated from horses and horse farm environment. The aim of the study is to determine plasmid profiles of virulent R. equi strains isolated in Poland from dead foals as well as from soil samples taken from horse breeding farms. Plasmid profiles of 10 clinical strains derived from 8 farms and 11 environmental strains from 3 farms, confirmed as virulent by PCR, were compared with 12 reference strains containing the known plasmid size and type. Plasmid DNAs were analysed by digestion with the restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII for detailed comparison and estimation of plasmid sizes. The results of RFLP analysis revealed that all except one isolates used in the study are classified as VapA 85 kb type I plasmid. One strain harboured VapA 87 kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains. The results of our preliminary investigations on horse farms located in central and eastern Poland indicate that the virulent R. equi strains thus far isolated from diseased foals and horse farms environment represent a highly uniform plasmid pattern.

  8. Plasmid Profiles of Virulent Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Infected Foals in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Marcin; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Łukasz; Kato, Kiyoko; Hieda, Yu; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important bacterial pathogen in foals up to 6 months old, widespread in horse farms all over the world. It was found that only virulent R. equi strains expressing 15–17 kDa virulence-associated protein (VapA) and having large virulence plasmid of 85–90 kb containing vapA gene are pathogenic for horses. To date, 12 plasmid types have been reported in VapA positive strains from horses. There are no data concerning plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains isolated from horses and horse farm environment. The aim of the study is to determine plasmid profiles of virulent R. equi strains isolated in Poland from dead foals as well as from soil samples taken from horse breeding farms. Plasmid profiles of 10 clinical strains derived from 8 farms and 11 environmental strains from 3 farms, confirmed as virulent by PCR, were compared with 12 reference strains containing the known plasmid size and type. Plasmid DNAs were analysed by digestion with the restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII for detailed comparison and estimation of plasmid sizes. The results of RFLP analysis revealed that all except one isolates used in the study are classified as VapA 85 kb type I plasmid. One strain harboured VapA 87 kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains. The results of our preliminary investigations on horse farms located in central and eastern Poland indicate that the virulent R. equi strains thus far isolated from diseased foals and horse farms environment represent a highly uniform plasmid pattern. PMID:27074033

  9. Dental Caries Level and Sugar Consumption in 12-Year-Old Children from Poland.

    PubMed

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Turska, Anna; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The frequent and high consumption of sugar products, particularly sucrose, is one of the causative factors of dental caries. Meta-analyses assessing the relationship between sugar intake and dental caries revealed that a restricted sugar intake to less than 10% of the daily energy intake results in substantial health benefits. Sugar consumption in Poland is 2-fold higher than recommended by the WHO. As change in dietary habits is slow, knowledge of whether a gradual reduction of sugar consumption influences beneficially the dental condition is important. Assessment of the relationship between caries experience and sugar consumption in 12-year-old children. The data obtained from the Statistical Agricultural Yearbooks of the Central Statistical Office in Poland regarding the average yearly sugar intake by a person in the years 1995-2013, and caries prevalence (frequency and DMFT) resulting from the national epidemiological studies of the 12-year-old children conducted by the Ministry of Health in those years were analyzed. The data was analyzed by linear regression. Regression function parameters and coefficients of determination were assessed for a possible link between sugar consumption and dental caries frequency and severity was expressed as DMFT value. The mean yearly sugar intake by a statistical Pole ranged from 43.6 kg (2002) to 35.3 kg (2006). Despite a slight trend to lower the sugar consumption, its mean intake in 1995 and 2013 was the same (41.9 kg). Caries frequency and DMFT decreased in 2012 compared to 1995 from 90.5% to 79.6% and from 4.3 to 3.53 kg in 2012, respectively. The increased sugar intake by 1 kg/year caused the increase of caries frequency by 1% and DMFT value by 0.2. Even a relatively low decrease in sugar consumption can exert some beneficial influence on the dental condition in adolescents, particularly upon the severity of caries.

  10. An assessment of dietary intake and state of nutritional in hypertensive patients from rural and urban areas of Greater Poland.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Duda, Grażyna; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Piątek, Jacek; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional factors connected with the prevalence of hypertension in rural and urban areas of Greater Poland. The study consisted of 308 people aged 35-62, with essential hypertension but without any other coexisting disorders. The studied group consisted of 154 residents of Poznań (79 women and 75 men) and 152 inhabitants of rural areas in Greater Poland (78 women and 74 men). Participants were randomly assigned to the study. Nutritional state assessment was based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage. Dietary intake were assessed with a 24-hour nutritional survey from 3 consecutive days. Analysis of anthropometric examination results showed a large prevalence of obesity in the studied group. Moreover people living in rural areas had a significantly higher BMI and body fat percentage than those living in a city. It has been proved that the patients with hypertension consume food with an excess of fat and a shortage of fibre, antioxidant vitamins, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The total food rations of rural dwellers consisted of larger amounts of fat, cholesterol and vitamin A compared to those of city dwellers. Present studies have shown incorrect dietary intake among patients with hypertension, often related to the coexistence of overweight and obesity. Obtained results indicate significantly worse eating habits and state of nutrition among rural inhabitants.

  11. Calibration of Strömgren-Crawford photometry for Ap-stars compared to Hipparcos results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Nikolaus; Paunzen, Ernst; Maitzen, Hans M.

    25 years ago Bidelman and MacConnell (1973) published a list of nearly 800 Ap-stars which they had identified on objective prism plates collected at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory as kind of a precursor work for the huge Michigan project of two-dimensional spectral classification. This list has been used as basis for 3 different photometric projects carried out at ESO-La Silla with limiting magnitude V = 8.5: 1. uvby photometry by Vogt and Faúndez (1979); 2. δa photometry by Maitzen and Vogt (1983) in the system of Maitzen (1976) demonstrating the very high agreement of photometric Ap-detections with the spectroscopic results of Bidelman and MacConnell; 3. Hβ photometry of 226 objects which were observed at the Danish 50cm telescope on La Silla in 1982. The latter work was intended not only to formally complete Strögren-Crawford data for a significantly large set of chemically peculiar stars (excluding Am and HgMn objects) but also to yield their galactic locations. Reddening corrections mattered only for the hot peculiars. Absolute magnitudes were derived according to the calibrations worked out by Crawford two decades ago for normal main sequence AB stars. The Hipparcos catalogue which appeared in 1997 offers an independent way to check whether these calibrations derived for normal stars do apply also for chemically peculiar stars. Fortunately, we identified Hipparcos parallaxes for two thirds of our sample. We divided our objects according to 3 calibration groups: early (= B type stars), intermediate (A0-A2 type stars), late (other A type stars). First of all we consider normal stars with published β-values in order to compare their photometric absolute magnitudes to those based on the Hipparcos catalogue. The degree of correlation between both quantities is not excellent for the normal B-type stars, but no systematic trend is visible. For the stars around the Balmer maximum (intermediate group) we also do not recognize a significant systematic

  12. Overt and covert narcissism in Poland and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Zondag, Hessel J; Van Halen, Cor; Wojtkowiak, Joanna

    2009-06-01

    This article reports a study of the relation between narcissism as a personality characteristic and the cultural dimension of individualism/collectivism. Participants from a more collectivistic society (Poland; n = 167) were compared with participants from a more individualistic society (The Netherlands; n = 156). Two dimensions of narcissism were distinguished: overt and covert. The cultural tendency for narcissism was measured by comparing average scores on both types of narcissism in both countries, as well as by the meaning that overt and covert narcissism seems to have for psychological well-being. More specifically, the correlations were compared among both types of narcissism and depression and meaning of life. In the Polish sample, the average score on covert narcissism was higher. In the Dutch sample, on the other hand, depression and meaning of life were significantly related to covert narcissism.

  13. Rise in electronic cigarette use among adolescents in Poland.

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Gawron, Michal; Nadolska, Justyna; Balwicki, Lukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Despite the potential negative health effects of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), these devices are increasing in popularity worldwide, especially among youth. We compared data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in Poland among students aged 15-19 years in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. We tested differences between samples in the prevalence of e-cigarette use, tobacco cigarette smoking, and simultaneous use of both tobacco and e-cigarettes ("dual use") using a multilevel linear mixed model regression. We found that the current use of e-cigarettes among adolescents in Poland was significantly higher in the 2013-2014 sample than the 2010-2011 sample (29.9% vs. 5.5%, respectively; p < .05). Dual use of tobacco and e-cigarettes was also significantly higher (21.8% vs. 3.6%, respectively; p < .05). Interestingly, the prevalence of smoking tobacco cigarettes also increased (from 23.9% in 2010-2011 to 38.0% in 2013-2014; p < .05). Observed parallel increase in e-cigarette use and smoking prevalence does not support the idea that e-cigarettes are displacing tobacco cigarettes in this population. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Financing health services in Poland: new evidence on private expenditures.

    PubMed

    Chawla, M; Berman, P; Kawiorska, D

    1998-06-01

    This paper estimates total expenditure on health care in Poland in 1994 and provides new evidence on high levels of private spending on health care. The analysis shows that health care expenditures in Poland are higher than has usually been maintained, and are comparable with the prevailing levels in many other European countries. Private expenditure on health is a significant proportion of total expenditure on health, and in particular on financing outpatient care. Available evidence indicates that informal payments made by patients to physicians contribute as much as double of the physician's salary, and thus form an important source of earnings for physicians. This situation of high private expenditures on health care and informal payments to physicians is likely to be true of other transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe as well. One policy implication that emerges is these transitional economies face a big challenge in managing existing resources, as opposed to finding new resources, in the health sector more effectively to meet the health care needs of their population. The paper highlights the need for better understanding of the current availability and distribution of resources in the health sector and their directions of flow, in both public and private sectors, and suggests using tools such as National Health Accounts to track and monitor changes in the financing of the health care system.

  15. Pu-241 in samples of forest soil from Poland.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, J W; Dorda, J; Was, B

    1999-10-01

    241Pu activity measurements in coniferous forest soil samples from Poland are presented. The results were obtained in two ways: by alpha spectrometric remeasurements of the plutonium sources 3-4 years after their preparation (i.e. by the 241Am ingrowth) and by direct measurements of 241Pu using liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry. Both methods gave consistent results. The maximum observed activity concentration obtained by the 241Am ingrowth was (254 +/- 43) Bq/kg, and by direct measurements it was (284 +/- 31) Bq/kg (the same sample, activities calculated for May 1, 1986). Enhanced levels of 241Pu were observed in all samples from the farthest north-eastern Poland. The estimated 241Pu maximum deposition from Chernobyl fallout in this area (sum of deposition for two examined layers of one site) was (1.025 +/- 0.110) kBq/m2. This will result after 70 years in an additional 241Am activity of about (30.1 +/- 3.2) Bq/m2. The average ratio for 241Pu to total 238,239,240Pu was of the order of 25. The obtained average Chernobyl ratios for 241Pu to 239,240Pu were about 86, and those for 241Pu to 238,239,240Pu were 56.

  16. Trends in the Incidence Rates of Chronic Hepatitis B in Poland in the Years 2005 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Stawinska-Witoszynska, Barbara; Zysnarska, Monika; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Wojtyła-Buciorab, Paulina; Krzyzaniak, Alicja; Wieckowska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic hepatitis is decisive for the overall incidence rate of hepatitis B observed in Poland. Objectives We aimed to determine the chronic hepatitis B incidence trends in Poland, taking into consideration the ages, genders, and environments of the patients. Methods The study is based on aggregated data from Polish descriptive epidemiological studies for the period of 2005 to 2013 (i.e., hepatitis B incidence numbers and ratios, including mixed HBV and HCV infections) as published in the annual bulletins Choroby zakazne i zatrucia w Polsce (Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland] drawn up by the laboratory for the monitoring and analysis of epidemiological status of the department of epidemiology at the national institute of public health - national institute of hygiene (NIPH-NIH). Poland, a central European country situated in the humid continental climate zone, is classified as a highly developed country. In the analyzed period, the Polish population consisted of about 38 million people, more than 19 million of whom were women, and more than 18 million of whom were men. Among European countries, Poland has the smallest number of national and ethnic minorities. For the purposes of epidemiological supervision, a special definition of acute hepatitis B was adopted in Poland in 2005, which facilitated separate registration of acute and chronic cases. Results A significantly increasing chronic hepatitis B incidence trend was observed in the population of Poland, with considerable increases in incidence rates for both men and women alike. The incidence rates for inhabitants of both urban and rural areas also showed an increasing tendency. Chronic hepatitis B occurred more frequently in men and in urban areas. For each of the five-year age groups encompassing patients between 20 and 54 years of age, the increase in the incidence rate proved to be significant. Conclusions The registered increase in the

  17. Prone position results in enhanced pressor response to ephedrine compared with supine position during general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangyan; Yuan, Jing; Lu, Xinjian; Yin, Ning

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate and compare the pressor response to ephedrine in the prone or supine position during general anesthesia (GA). Prospective cohort study. Department of General Surgery or Spine Surgery, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, China. Fifty-six patients who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery in the supine or prone position (n = 28 each) and using a generic GA protocol. During surgery, the patients received intravenous (IV) ephedrine when their systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased to 90 to 110 mm Hg. Hemodynamic changes were measured at 1-minute intervals for 10 minutes and were compared with baseline. Forty-nine patients (23 in the prone position and 26 in the supine position) completed the study. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to demographic characteristics, hemodynamic parameters, end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane, and dose of propofol and remifentanil (all P> .05). After the bolus injection of ephedrine, a significant increase in SBP was observed in both groups compared to baseline, but the duration and magnitude of the increase in SBP were longer and greater in the prone position than in the supine position. The magnitude of increase of the mean blood pressure was significantly greater in the prone position compared to the supine position at 2 to 7 minutes after ephedrine injection. Ephedrine could cause significant increase in diastolic blood pressure 2 minutes after IV injection, which could last until at least 9 minutes in the prone position group compared to only for 5 minutes in the supine position group (all P< .05). Compared to the supine position, the prone position could augment the pressor response to IV ephedrine during GA. Further studies are recommended to identify its association with other confounding factors such as surgery type or duration, patient history of cardiovascular disease, or patient hydration status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The New Biology in Poland after the Second World War: Polish Lysenkoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deJong-Lambert, William

    2009-01-01

    Genetic research was banned in the Polish People's Republic from 1949 to 1956 as a result of the activities of Trofim D. Lysenko, a pseudo-biologist in the Soviet Union. This article examines the impact upon education in biology in Poland, including textbook revision, curriculum reform and revised understandings of the purpose of scientific…

  19. The Meaning of Working among Professional Employees in Germany, Poland and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Ardichvili, Alexandre; Borchert, Margret; Rozanski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an empirical study of the meaning of working, individual level work outcomes, and job and career satisfaction, among professional level employees in business organizations in Russia, Poland, and Germany. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework for the study was based on…

  20. Early Support Development of Children with Disorders of the Biopsychosocial Functioning in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czyz, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research study on the system of early child development support with developmental disabilities and their families in Poland. The analysis covered areas such as proximity and accessibility of services, infrastructural conditions, preparation of personnel, and occurrence of systemic barriers. The article…

  1. The Meaning of Working among Professional Employees in Germany, Poland and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Ardichvili, Alexandre; Borchert, Margret; Rozanski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an empirical study of the meaning of working, individual level work outcomes, and job and career satisfaction, among professional level employees in business organizations in Russia, Poland, and Germany. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework for the study was based on…

  2. Project on School Staff Health Promotion in Poland: The First Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woynarowska-Soldan, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the concept, methods of implementation, results and experiences from the first stage of the three-year project on school staff health promotion carried out within the framework of the health-promoting school (HPS) network in Poland. Design/methodology/approach: The project was implemented in 2012 in…

  3. The New Biology in Poland after the Second World War: Polish Lysenkoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deJong-Lambert, William

    2009-01-01

    Genetic research was banned in the Polish People's Republic from 1949 to 1956 as a result of the activities of Trofim D. Lysenko, a pseudo-biologist in the Soviet Union. This article examines the impact upon education in biology in Poland, including textbook revision, curriculum reform and revised understandings of the purpose of scientific…

  4. Project on School Staff Health Promotion in Poland: The First Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woynarowska-Soldan, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the concept, methods of implementation, results and experiences from the first stage of the three-year project on school staff health promotion carried out within the framework of the health-promoting school (HPS) network in Poland. Design/methodology/approach: The project was implemented in 2012 in…

  5. Assessment of forest quality in southwestern Poland with the use of remotely sensed data

    Treesearch

    Zbigniew Bochenek; Andrzej Ciolkosz; Maria Iracka

    1998-01-01

    A three-stage approach was applied to assess the quality of forests in southwestern Poland, which are heavily affected with air pollution and insect infestations. In the first stage a ground evaluation of spruce stands was done within the selected test areas. Three main characteristics of forest quality were determined as a result of these works: defoliation,...

  6. Comparing MOOC Adoption Strategies in Europe: Results from the HOME Project Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Darco; Schuwer, Robert; Teixeira, Antonio; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Much of the literature and the academic discussion about institutional strategic planning of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) has been centred on the U.S. context. Literature on MOOCs in Europe is still developing and just recently some empirical studies were conducted. However, these studies are not comparable, and it is hard to learn about…

  7. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-12-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Mössbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  8. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  9. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  10. Comparing Cognitive Interviewing and Online Probing: Do They Find Similar Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meitinger, Katharina; Behr, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the application of probing techniques in cognitive interviewing (CI) and online probing (OP). Even though the probing is similar, the methods differ regarding typical mode setting, sample size, level of interactivity, and goals. We analyzed probing answers to the International Social Survey Programme item battery on specific…

  11. The Impact of Whole Language on Four Elementary School Libraries: Results from a Comparative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Sandra

    This paper reports the findings of a comparative case study designed to describe how the implementation of whole language, an educational philosophy influencing many of today's elementary schools, evolved in four school libraries in Virginia. The study examined the impact of whole language in terms of its effect on the library program and the…

  12. Results of the 1974 NACUBO Comparative Performance Study and Investment Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    The 1974 Comparative Performance Study includes 150 endowment pools representing 136 institutions. The market value of the pools which provided information as of June 30, 1974, was 6.9 billion dollars. The study identifies endowment pools by code and indicates each pool's investment objective, approximate market value, the percentage in cash and…

  13. Do We Need "Comparative" Supervision? A Response to Duffy's "Supervising for Results."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Edward F.

    1990-01-01

    Francis Duffy's case study of a district manager in the insurance business suggests comparative inquiry in supervision as a reasonable alternative to uncritical acceptance of constructs originating in noneducational contexts. Managers and supervisors in all organizational settings face the paradoxical task of encouraging both differentiation and…

  14. Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living: Results of a 6-Month Nutrition Education Comparative Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Alicia S.; Thomson, Jessica L.; Huye, Holly F.; Yadrick, Kathy; Connell, Carol L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Improving the diet of communities experiencing health inequities can be challenging given that multiple dietary components are low in quality. Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living was designed to test the comparative effectiveness of nutrition education using a single- versus multiple-message approach to improve the diet of adult…

  15. Comparing Lexis and Westlaw: Using System Features To Improve Search Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Rand J.

    This paper compares strengths and weaknesses of the Lexis and Westlaw computer assisted legal research systems. Their powerful full text document delivery capabilities are contrasted with their inherent limitations as information retrieval systems. The objective here is to alert users to the complexities of online legal searching and the necessity…

  16. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  17. Comparing Lexis and Westlaw: Using System Features To Improve Search Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Rand J.

    This paper compares strengths and weaknesses of the Lexis and Westlaw computer assisted legal research systems. Their powerful full text document delivery capabilities are contrasted with their inherent limitations as information retrieval systems. The objective here is to alert users to the complexities of online legal searching and the necessity…

  18. Comparing Groups in a Before-After Design: When t Test and ANCOVA Produce Different Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Researchers often test people before and after some treatment and compare these scores with a control group. Sometimes it is not possible to allocate people into conditions randomly, which means the initial scores for the two groups may differ. There are two main approaches: t test on the gain scores and ANCOVA partialling out the…

  19. The thermal seasons variability in Poland, 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernecki, Bartosz; Miętus, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to detect variability and changes in the occurrence of the thermal seasons in Poland during the period from 1951 to 2010. A monthly temperature dataset using average area values allowed the researchers to set proper occurrence dates for the thermal seasons' beginnings and length according to the following criteria: winter ( t < 0 °C), early spring (0-5 °C), spring (5-15 °C), summer ( t > 15 °C), autumn (5-15 °C) and early winter (0-5 °C). Statistically significant long-term trends have been detected for the occurrence dates of the thermal seasons' beginnings and season length. Seasonal variability accelerated significantly since the end of the twentieth century. The trend of limiting wintertime in Poland is 0.64 days per year, while summer and early spring seasons are longer by approximately 0.30 and 0.25 days per year, respectively. All seasons since thermal early spring until thermal summer tend to occur earlier, while the following seasons have the opposite trend. As a result, the number of years without thermal winter has substantially increased in the past 20 years. Simultaneously, thermal summer became the longest season in 85 % of years after 1990 in comparison to less than 50 % in the period from 1951 to 1970. Also, the change in the annual course of monthly mean temperature results in the fact that thermal spring is becoming longer than thermal autumn.

  20. Partnership for transplantation: a new initiative to increase deceased organ donation in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kosieradzki, M; Czerwinski, J; Jakubowska-Winecka, A; Kubik, T; Zawilinska, E; Kobryn, A; Bohatyrewicz, R; Zieniewicz, K; Nyckowski, P; Becler, R; Snarska, J; Danielewicz, R; Rowinski, W

    2012-09-01

    Despite the long-standing history of transplantation, the shortage of organs has remained its most restrictive factor. In 2010, the number of actual deceased organ donors in Poland was 13.5/million population (pmp). However, a huge difference in organ recovery rates is evident between various regions, eg, 32 pmp, in western Pomerania compared with 1-3 pmp in southern districts. A substantial number of patients who die while awaiting organ transplantations could be saved were effective programs able to overcome barriers in deceased organ donation. Such programs, eg, the European Donor Hospital Education Program, Donor Action, European Training Program on Organ Donation, United States Collaborative in Donation were introduced several years ago, but after transient improvements there has not been real progress. A new comprehensive program-Regional Partnership for Transplantation-was initiated a year ago in 4 districts of southern Poland by the Polish Union for Transplantation Medicine. The letter of intent to activate the donation program was signed by the local administration, the president of the local medical school, president of the Physician's Chamber, transplant centers, the Polish Union for Transplantation, and the Polish Transplant Coordinating Center. The plan of action included training of in-hospital coordinators, visits to all regional hospitals in company of a representative of the hospital founding body, examination of the real donation pool and the need for participation in a donation program training and education of the hospital staff in legal and organizational aspects of donation, brain death recognition, and various aspects of donor care. In addition, the program included communication skills workshops for intensive care unit physicians (with participation of 2 actors, an experienced anesthesiologist, and a psychologist), lectures for high school and university students and for hospital chaplains as well as alumni of higher seminaries. The

  1. Influence of urbanization level and Gross Domestic Product on the prevalence of adolescent obesity in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zienkiewicz, Ewa; Okoński, Marek; Matuszewski, Lukasz; Zienkiewicz, Tadeusz; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Klatka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is considered as a major disease of twenty-first century civilization. Its occurrence in Poland and worldwide has been increasing steadily for many years. Several factors play an important role in the development of overweight and obesity. In addition to the genetic factors and those associated with diseases of the endocrine system and nervous system, the rapidly growing number of obese people is due to improper nutrition. In this paper, authors attempt to justify the prevalence of obesity in Poland among the population of adolescent and young adults aged 15 - 29 years of age, depending on the urbanization level and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of voivodeships. Voivodeships, as an entity of regional autonomy, were divided into two groups according to urbanization level and GDP per capita. From the total population of each voivodeship population, groups of overweight and obese people aged 15-29 were selected. The population group aged 15-29 was divided into male and female subgroups. Each subgroup was compared in the different voivodeships, depending on the urbanization level and GDP per capita. The study shows that there is a strong linear relationship between the prevalence of obesity and GDP per capita of each examined region. During the study, the correlation between the level of prevalence of obesity and urbanization level produced a negative result. The high level of regional economic development in the economic transformation states has a significant impact on the increase in the percentage of people with overweight and obesity in the population aged 15-29. Gender and place of residence (urban or rural areas) did not show significant correlation with the occurrence of overweight and obesity in the study group of the population.

  2. [The system of protection of scientific biomedical research participants in France and in Poland].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek; Sieczych, Alicja

    2013-07-01

    Realizing scientific biomedical research conducted on human-beings demands obeying ample ethical rules. However, states keep independence in the means of implementing deontological guidelines to legislative acts. The aim of the article is to compare rules of law relative to protection of scientific biomedical research participants in two European Union member states--France and Poland. French regulations cover more types of scientific biomedical research than those in Poland. In France almost all types of interventional scientific biomedical research including research on human biological samples and research on cosmetics are covered by the rules of law. Polish regulations are limited to interventional research conducted by doctors and dentists. In both states projects of clinical trials of medicinal products demands double acceptance - from bioethics committee and from competent state authority. In protection of scientific biomedical research participants the role of state authority competent for personal data is more vital in France than it is in Poland. In France there is also National Ethics Advisory Committee whereas in Poland there is no such institution. The systems protecting scientific biomedical research participants differs therefore in both states in many vital aspects and French measures cover more types of scientific biomedical research, hence the level of participants protection in various types of research is more equitable.

  3. Molecular characterization of Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae) from south-western Poland based on mitochondrial markers.

    PubMed

    Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W

    2015-09-01

    The giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, is a veterinary important liver parasite of free living and domestic ruminants. This originally North American parasite was introduced along with its cervid hosts to Europe where it has established three permanent natural foci - in northern Italy, central and southern parts of the Czech Republic and the Danube floodplain forests. The first record on fascioloidosis in Poland originated from the Lower Silesian Forest in south-western Poland and since then an occurrence of F. magna in this country has not been documented. Recently, the parasitological examination of red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) from the Lower Silesian Wilderness (south-western Poland) revealed the presence of F. magna eggs. In order to determine the genetic interrelationships of the Polish giant liver fluke individuals, they were molecularly analyzed by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit I (nad1) and compared with haplotypes of so far studied European populations of the parasite. The study revealed the genetic uniformity of F. magna specimens from Poland with part of individuals from the Czech natural focus. Note: Nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper are available in the GenBank, EMBL and DDBJ databases under the accession numbers KP635008-9.

  4. High relative frequency of SCA1 in Poland reflecting a potential founder effect.

    PubMed

    Krysa, Wioletta; Sulek, Anna; Rakowicz, Maria; Szirkowiec, Walentyna; Zaremba, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) have irregular distributions worldwide. SCA1 is the most frequent in Poland, and no cases of SCA3 of Polish origin has yet been identified. In view of such patterns of SCAs occurrence, the relative frequency, geographical distribution and a possible founder effect of SCA1 were investigated. DNA samples of 134 probands with SCA1 and 228 controls were analysed. The genotyping of four markers, D6S89, D6S109, D6S274, D6S288, around the ATXN1 gene (SCA1) and sequencing of the selected variant of D6S89 were performed. The relative frequency of SCA1 was 68 %. The studied SCA1 pedigrees were irregularly distributed, with the highest concentration in Central Poland. Haplotyping revealed the association of ATXN1 gene mutation with a 197-bp variant of D6S89 marker (63 % of probands) and with a 184-bp variant of DS6274 (50.7 % of probands). Out of 61 SCA1 probands from Mazowieckie, 41 carried the same 197-bp variant. SCA1 relative frequency in Poland shows the highest value compared with the data from other countries worldwide. Due to the association with the mutation obtained for the investigated markers and the SCA1 pedigrees concentration in Central Poland, we hypothesise that it represents a potential founder effect.

  5. FASD Prevalence among Schoolchildren in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Magdalena; Brzózka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is a major cause of brain damage and developmental delay, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) but in Poland is rarely diagnosed and the scale of problem is not known. An active case ascertainment approach was applied to estimate the prevalence of FASD among 7-9 years olds. Pre-screening was conducted in 113 randomly selected regular and special schools. In the screening phase participated 280 children (54% from the risk group, 60% boys). The entire number of eligible students (N = 2500) was taken as a denominator. The prevalence of FASD is not lower than 2%, including 0.4% of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Neurodevelopmental disorders associated with PAE are a serious challenge for the public health system. Development of procedures and services to diagnose and to support individuals affected by PAE and their families is an urgent need in Poland. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Multicentre, Prospective Observational Study of Pegfilgrastim Primary Prophylaxis in Patients at High Risk of Febrile Neutropenia in Poland: PROFIL Study

    PubMed Central

    Jurczak, Wojciech; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Chmielowska, Ewa; Duchnowska, Renata; Wojciechowska-Lampka, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study PROFIL was a prospective observational study conducted to investigate physicians’ evaluation of febrile neutropenia (FN) risk and reasons for giving pegfilgrastim primary prophylaxis (PP) in routine clinical practice in Poland. Material and methods Adult cancer patients treated with chemotherapy (CT), assessed by investigators as having high overall FN risk, and who received pegfilgrastim in cycle 1 were enrolled between 03/2009 and 09/2010. Investigators assessed FN risk of the CT regimen, individual risk factors, and overall FN risk, and were asked to provide the most important reasons for providing pegfilgrastim PP. Investigator-assessed CT FN risk was compared with guideline classification. Results Data were analysed from 1006 breast, ovarian, and lung cancer, and non-Hodgkin (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. The most important reasons for using pegfilgrastim PP were high CT FN risk and advanced disease; these were consistent across tumour types and treatment intent. The investigators generally assessed high CT FN risk in agreement with guideline classification. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 4% of patients, most commonly in HL, NHL, and patients with advanced disease. Conclusions High CT FN risk and advanced stage of disease were found to be the most important reasons for providing pegfilgrastim PP by physicians in Poland. PMID:26557762

  7. Educational system for transplant coordinators in Poland: postgraduate studies at Warsaw Medical University; 2 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, J; Jakubowska-Winecka, A; Becler, R; Kubik, T; Milecka, A; Sekta, S; Pabisiak, K; Malanowski, P; Rowinński, W

    2009-10-01

    Donor hospital transplant coordinators play crucial roles in the donation process. There are only a few coordinators in Poland, while there are about 400 hospitals with intensive care units (ICU). Coordinators must be professionals in medical sciences, clinical psychology, law, organization, management, and statistics. Coordinators acquire these skills during the Transplant Coordinators Postgraduate Studies at Warsaw Medical University which began in 2007. Lectures, seminars and exercises (99 hours, 6 weekends) are run by experts. The studies end with an examination and a diploma. The main criterion for acceptance of a candidate is employment in a key department in the donation process. The aim of studies is to educate coordinators for each hospital in the country. Until now 4 editions of the course have been completed. Among 123 graduates, 71 (60%) are employed in strategic departments of 48 hospitals. Preliminary results of graduates' activities in donor detection were compared in the periods before (2005-2006) and after the course (2007-2008). The background was the overall activity in Poland, where in 2007-2008 the activity fell to 79% of 2005-2006. This fall for hospitals with the graduates of this program was 82% versus hospitals without them (76%). Of the 48 hospitals that employed the graduates: 14 improved donation 5 were the same, in 12 in both periods showed no donations; whereas in 11 it was much lower (>20%), and in 6 lower but consistent with the national trend.

  8. Generic versus specific competencies of entry-level public health graduates: employers' perceptions in Poland, the UK, and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Biesma, Regien G; Pavlova, Milena; Vaatstra, Rina; van Merode, Godefridus G; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Smith, Tony; Groot, Wim

    2008-08-01

    Constant changes in society and the public health domain force public health professionals into new roles and the development of new competencies. Public health professionals will need to be trained to respond to this challenge. The aim of this comparative study among Poland, the UK and the Netherlands is to identify competence needs for Master of Public Health graduates entering the labour market from a European perspective. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to employers in the three countries, rating the importance of competency in public health on a master's level. In all three countries, interpersonal competencies, like team working and communication skills, are rated as highly important. However, employers in the UK and Poland generally rate public health specific competencies as much more important than their Dutch colleagues. It is concluded that while public health specific knowledge is providing a useful starting point for entry-level public health professionals, employers increasingly recognise the value of generic competencies such as communication and team working skills. The results suggest a stronger emphasis on teaching methods that encourage active learning and the integration of skills, which is crucial for enhancing graduates' employability, and foster an open attitude to multidisciplinary working, which is essential in modern health care.

  9. [Biological activity of lipopolysaccharides from clinical Bacteroides fragilis strains isolated in Poland determined in reaction with limulus amoebocyte lysate].

    PubMed

    Rokosz, Alicja; Górska, Paulina; Michałkiewicz, Jacek; Łuczak, Miroslaw

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a biological activity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from clinical Bacterioides fragilis strains isolated in Poland by means of quantitative, photometric BET (LAL) method with Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate and chromogenic substrate S-2423. Lipopolysaccharides were extracted from nine clinical B. fragilis strains by the procedure of Westphal and Jann (1965). Crude LPS preparations were purified with ultracentrifugation. Biological activities of bacterial endotoxins were determined by quantitative BET method with chromogenic substrate S-2423 (ENDOCHROME kit). Tests were performed according to the recommendations of the producer (Charles River Endosafe Ltd., USA). E. coli O55:B5 LPS and LPS preparations from reference B. fragilis strains were applied to compare the results of examinations. Activities of endotoxins from clinical B. fragilis strains isolated in Poland determined in reaction with Limulus amoebocyte lysate were differentiated. Among endotoxins of clinical B. fragilis strains the most active was the preparation from strain cultured in the case of pancreatic ulcer (B. fragilis 80/81 LPS). Lipopolysaccharides of examined B. fragilis strains were less active in BET test than E. coli O55:B5 LPS.

  10. Occurrence and estimation of pesticide residues in edible minor crops in southeastern Poland in 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Podbielska, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Rupar, Julian; Kurdziel, Anna

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of official control of pesticide residues in minor crops collected in southeastern Poland in 2013-2014. Compliance of used pesticides with applicable law was also verified, and determined residues were compared to maximum residue levels (MRLs) provided for in Regulation (EC) No. 395/2005. A total of 583 samples of 25 different types of fresh fruit and vegetables were analyzed for pesticide residues. Pesticide residues were detected in 158 samples (27.1 % of the analyzed samples). According to the European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General (SANCO) guidelines document, MRL violations were understood as cases where a residue level exceeded the MRL after the uncertainty of the method (50 %) was considered. MRL violations were found in four samples. The usage of unauthorized pesticides was detected in 5.8 % of analyzed samples. Substances banned in Poland were found in two samples. Fungicides were the most frequently detected group of pesticides. Pesticide residues were most commonly found in fruit samples (19.4 % of all analyzed samples), mainly in gooseberry, redcurrant, and huckleberry. The majority of samples were compliant with MRLs, which means that they were suitable for trade.

  11. Comparative application of different risk assessment models and implications on resulting remediation options.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Andrea; Callegari, Arianna; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The issue of contaminated soils and their productive recovery is a quite controversial environmental and economic problem with important consequences for its social, public health and sustainability aspects. The sheer number and characteristics of the polluted sites are so large and varied, and the definition of priorities related to their remediation interventions so site-dependent, that proper characterization and final environmental quality goals reflect a strategic importance. One of the possible approaches to site specific approach and site priority ranking can be that of carrying out, respectively, absolute and comparative analysis procedures. An important aspect to be solved is represented by the necessity to consider not only the potential risk to public health, but also the best possible financial return from the investments for remediation, especially when carried out with public money. In this paper, different contaminated sites' risk assessment approaches are considered, compared and their applicability to support sustainable policies discussed using a case study.

  12. Compliance of laser-assisted microvascular anastomosis: a comparative study with manual anastomosis (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaria, Roland G.; Lhote, Francois-Marie; Dauzat, Michel; Juan, Jean-Marie; Oliva-Lauraire, Marie-Claire; Durrleman, Nicolas; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Albat, Bernard; Frapier, Jean-Marc; Chaptal, Paul-Andre; Godlewski, Guilhem

    1999-01-01

    The compliance of microvascular anastomosis is an important predictive factor for long term patency of graft or vascular reconstruction. This experimental study compare the compliance of manual suture and laser assisted end to end microvascular anastomosis. In nine New-Zealand white rabbits we performed manual end-to-end suture anastomosis on the left femoral artery and laser assisted anastomosis on the right femoral artery, with a diode laser (wavelength 988 nm, power output 500 mW). Compliance was obtained by echotracking (CBI 8000 sonomicrometry system with 20 MHz implantable microprobe from Crystal-Biotech, USA) on the anastomosis site as well as upstream, and downstream from the anastomosis. Vessel compliance was lower on the manual suture side compared to the laser assisted anastomosis side, especially downstream from the anastomosis.

  13. General vs health specialized search engine: a blind comparative evaluation of top search results.

    PubMed

    Pletneva, Natalia; Ruiz de Castaneda, Rafael; Baroz, Frederic; Boyer, Celia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a blind comparison of top ten search results retrieved by Google.ch (French) and Khresmoi for everyone, a health specialized search engine. Participants--students of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva had to complete three tasks and select their preferred results. The majority of the participants have largely preferred Google results while Khresmoi results showed potential to compete in specific topics. The coverage of the results seems to be one of the reasons. The second being that participants do not know how to select quality and transparent health web pages. More awareness, tools and education about the matter is required for the students of Medicine to be able to efficiently distinguish trustworthy online health information.

  14. Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, J W; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Szkop, A; Wink, J; Czerwińska, A

    2014-11-01

    Statistical analysis of the daily course of exposures to TL-01 tube radiation for 93 psoriatic patients from the Medical University of Łódź during 20-day phototherapy shows that the dose of 1 J/cm(2) represents a unit of single exposure necessary for psoriasis healing. This value is converted to the antipsoriatic effective dose of 317.9 J/m(2) using the TL-01 lamp irradiance spectrum and the antipsoriatic action spectrum. It is proposed that the daily exposure of 317.9 J/m(2) serves as the standard antipsoriatic dose (SAPD) providing a link between the cabinet and the out-door exposures and it could be used for planning heliotherapy in Poland. A model is proposed to calculate ambient antipsoriatic doses for 3 h exposures around the local noon (9 am-12 am GMT) based on satellite measurements of ozone and cloud characteristics. The model constants are determined by a comparison with pertaining antipsoriatic doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometer in central Poland. It is found that 3 h exposures to solar radiation in the period 15 May-15 September provides the mean (2005-2013) doses in the range 2.7-3.1 SAPD over Poland. Thus, heliotherapy could be treated as an alternative to the cabinet phototherapy for almost 4 months. It seems that the most effective site for antipsoriatic heliotherapy is the south/east part of Poland (the Bieszczady Mountains). The heliotherapy could be carried out in existing national health centers equipped with the standard easy-to-use biometers for on-line monitoring of UV level and controlling duration of sunbathing to avoid erythema risks. It is even possible to control the antipsoriatic heliotherapy by a patient himself, using low-cost hand-held instruments measuring UV index.

  15. Microwave Semiconductor Equipment Produced in Poland,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-20

    beginning of the development of microwave semiconductor electronics in Poland. The second stage of UPP production, between 1968 and 1974, encompassed...750 mW); --two types of Gunn diodes with a constant power in the X band between 50 and 250 mW; also designed were; A--the first models of the...field of the produced types of these devices. Also produced in this field were models of all the necessary types of microwave diodes (avalanche, Gunn

  16. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl.

    PubMed

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies . Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility. To our knowldge, this is the first report of such an association between Poland-Mobius syndrome and congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  17. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  18. Commenting on Research Results in Applied Linguistics and Education: A Comparative Genre-Based Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jason Miin-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    As university students are frequently given the tasks of writing research reports to fulfil their respective programme requirements, teaching novice writers to present the results of their reports understandably constitutes an essential component of English lessons at tertiary level. While past research has shown that results are consistently…

  19. Comparing State and District Test Results to National Norms: Interpretations of Scoring "Above the National Average."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Robert L.; And Others

    Norm-referenced test results reported by states and school districts and factors related to those scores were studied through mail and telephone surveys of 35 states and a nationally representative sample of 153 school districts to determine the degree to which "above average" results were being reported. Part of the stimulus for this…

  20. [Hepatitis C in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Stepień, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 in Poland reported cases of hepatitis C we classified independently according to two case definitions. One covered cases with clinical signs or elevated liver function tests confirmed by antibody test (2005 case definition) and the other one, implemented in 2009, all laboratory confirmed cases. In 2009 there were 1,939 cases of hepatitis C (2005 definition) registered in Poland, with the incidence rate of 5.08 per 100 000. A continued decrease in incidence of hepatitis C has been observed since 2006. On the other hand 1,891 cases were reported to meet the 2009 case definition. This points to the need of improving reporting completeness and justifies temporary continuation of use of the 2005 definition for the purpose of trend monitoring, although it may not reflect well the burden of illness. There were 82 deaths due to hepatitis C in 2009 in Poland including 2 deaths of acute and 80 of chronic hepatitis C. This constituted the first important decrease in hepatitis C mortality since 1996, when hepatitis C was included as a separate entity in the census mortality data. This decrease coincided with marked improvement of the treatment accessibility and is likely related to it.

  1. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Public attitudes toward stuttering in Poland.

    PubMed

    Przepiorka, Aneta M; Blachnio, Agata; St Louis, Kenneth O; Wozniak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes toward stuttering in Poland. A sample of 268 respondents (mean age = 29 years; range = 15-60 years) from numerous different geographic and urban-rural settings in Poland filled out a Polish translation of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S). Polish respondents displayed attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter that were generally similar or "average" in comparison with other samples around the world from the POSHA-S database. Although generally typical of other Western societies studied, attitudes of adolescents and adults from Poland were notably different in some ways, such as in the beliefs that emotional trauma or viruses and disease can cause stuttering as well as in the self reaction that they would feel uncomfortable speaking with a stuttering person. Overall, social exclusion and stigma are as likely among Poles who stutter as among most other populations studied. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  3. [Problems of prevention and control of poliomyelitis in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mazurowska-Magdzik, Wiesława; Bucholc, Bozenna; Janaszek-Seydlitz, Wiesława; Szkoda, Tomasz; Magdzik, Wiesław

    2010-01-01

    In the fifties and the sixties of 20th century big epidemic and increasing numbers of poliomyelitis cases were observed in Poland as well in other countries of Europe and world. Inactivated Salk's vaccine in injections as well as oral attenuated vaccine were introduced to the control and prevention of this disease. As the result of it poliomyelitis was eradicated in American, European and of West Pacific Region of WHO. Since 1984 poliomyelitis cases were not registered in Poland, VAPP were observed in small numbers. Just now new vaccines with poliomyelitis component as Boostrix Polio and Adacel Polio are convenient to use as booster doses of poliomyelitis vaccine. Actually inactivated polio vaccine is used in majority of west European countries, USA, Canada, Australia. Inactivated vaccine in basic and attenuated vaccine in booster doses were used in Central and East European countries and only attenuated vaccine are used in big African, South and Central American countries, China, India and countries, witch were the part of past Soviet Union.

  4. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyśk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  5. General anesthesia in patients with syndrome of Poland.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Crespo, J; Vázquez-Mambrilla, Y; García-Herrera, F

    2017-02-01

    The increased use of surgery as a treatment or as an alternative for improvement means that we have a larger number of patients in the operating theatre, including those who suffer from rare diseases. Poland Syndrome is a rare congenital disease associated with muscle development. These patients may have a broad spectrum of abnormalities, which include thoracic anomalies, which can alter the ventilatory management at the level of the airway; the possible onset of malignant hyperthermia. This leads the anaesthetist to take certain preventive measures. We report the case of a patient with Poland syndrome operated for the placement of a breast prosthesis. We avoid halogenated agents, and use a Total Intravenous Anaesthesia with propofol. The appearance of muscle spasms as a result of the use of propofol, forced us into a second anaesthesia to perform total intravenous anaesthesia with Midazolam. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Comparative results of Fontan surgery in patients with and without hypoplastic left heart syndrome].

    PubMed

    Becker Rencoret, Pedro; Besa Bandeira, Santiago; Riveros González, Sergio; Frangini Sanhueza, Patricia; Springmüller Pinto, Daniel; González Foretic, Rodrigo; Urcelay Montecinos, Gonzalo

    During the last few years, numerous patients with univentricular heart disease have been treated surgically with total cavopulmonary anastomosis according to a staged surgery protocol in our institution. To evaluate the perioperative outcomes and survival of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) after the Fontan procedure and compare them with other types of univentricular heart disease. A total of 102 patients underwent a Fontan procedure between April 1996 and March 2014, 25 with HLHS (group I), and 77 patients with other types of univentricular heart disease (group II). Groups survival, demographics, hemodinamic studies, morbimortality, mechanical ventilation, surgical drains, post-operative stay, isotopes score, pacemaker use, and requiriment of Fontan takedown were analyzed. Intraoperative mortality was 4% (n=1) for group I, and 7.8% (n=6) for group II (P=.451). A difference was only found in hospital length of stay (LOS), being 17 days (6-47) for group I and 12 days (5-103) for group II (P=.017). Mean follow-up was 4.24±2.08 years for group I, and 8.7±4.67 for group II. Survival rate at 8 years for both groups was 88%, and 81% at 10 years for group II. The Fontan procedure had similar mortality, but longer LOS, in patients with HLHS compared to those with another types of single ventricle anatomy. Long term survival was comparable between both groups. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Prostate movement during simulation resulting from retrograde urethrogram compared with "natural" prostate movement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ming; Ling, Stella; Langen, K M; Shinohara, Katsuto; Weinberg, Vivian; Pouliot, Jean; Roach, Mack

    2004-10-01

    Retrograde urethrography (UG) is commonly used at the time of simulation to assist in defining the prostate apex. Some investigators have reported that performing the UG introduces error by causing prostate displacement. We investigate the movement of the prostate caused by the retrograde UG. Twenty-four patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer who had gold marker seeds placed into their prostates were studied. Marker seed locations at the time of simulation and on the portal images acquired just before the treatment were compared with the locations on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR). Movement in the superior-inferior and anteroposterior directions as seen on lateral images was measured from 402 portal images by offline customized imaging software and evaluated using analysis of variance methods for continuous variables and chi-square statistics for categoric variables. "Natural" nonrandom movement of the prostate around an "origin" as defined by markers on DRR was observed. This movement tends to be in a superior and anterior direction, with the average shift being 1 mm and 0.82 mm, respectively. The magnitude of movement in the superior direction averaged 2.88 mm compared with 1.64 mm in the inferior direction (p = 0.04). There was slightly greater movement after the UG compared with mean "natural" movement but the difference was less than 3 mm in either direction on average (difference: superior-inferior = 2.64 mm, p = 0.004; anteroposterior = 2.24, p = 0.035). Use of the UG induces a small but clinically insignificant displacement of the prostate when "natural" movement is taken into account.

  8. COMPARATION OF REFRACTIVE RESULTS WITH BIFOCAL IMPLANTS AT LISA 809 AND TRIFOCAL AT LISA TRI839.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Cristian; Postolache, Oana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to make a comparison between the results obtained with AT LISA 809 bifocal IOL and trifocal AT LISA 839. Interest was represented especially by the evaluation of intermediate vision for the 2 implants. 18 patients (36 eyes) operated in Gauss Clinic in 2014 were included in the study: 9 patients (18 eyes) with bifocal implant AT LISA 809 and 9 patients (18 eyes) with bilateral implantation AT LISA 839 trifocal lens. Results showed that implant trifocal provided better visual results for intermediate vision to bifocal implant, as there were not significant differences between the two, in terms of distance vision and near vision.

  9. [Health literacy in Czech population results of the comparative representative research].

    PubMed

    Kučera, Zdeněk; Pelikan, Jurgen; Šteflová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy survey was carried out at the end of 2014 in the context of preparation of implementation strategy of the Program Health 2020 in the Czech Republic. The survey was conducted by the National Institute of Public Health with financial support from the Ministry of Health and the Czech WHO office. Sociological survey replicated comparative research conducted in eight EU countries in the first half of this decade. Representative survey in 1037 respondents in the age over 16 years, selected in all regions of the country. The identical methodology as used in the original study was utilized. Health literacy was measured in the areas of health care, disease prevention and health promotion.We found that 59,4 % of respondents showed limited general health literacy; health literacy in health care is proved to be 49.5 % of the population, in the area of disease prevention it was 54.1 % respondents and in health promotion it was even even 64.3 % of respondents. Compared to the other countries surveyed, Czech Republic occupies the eighth, penultimate place. Health literacy is correlated negatively with age and positively with education. We found a strong social gradient of health literacy which rises with social status. Health literacy quite significantly influences the health status and health behaviors.Key words: health literacy, health behaviour, health promotion, social determinants of health.

  10. [Lead in the environment of Poland].

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, T; Swiatczak, J

    1993-01-01

    Lead belongs to those elements which have a great variety of applications in the up-to-date technology. In the form of waste products or automotive wastes it has been brought into a global circulation. The authors attempt to present harmful effects of this "environmental poison" on individual media and human population in Poland. Following published and non-published data, an outline of lead geochemistry, anthropo-genetic sources of lead emission into the environment, concentration of lead in the ambient air, surface water, soil, plants and food, is presented. The data are interpreted on the basis of home maximum allowable concentrations and on the health criteria recommended by international organizations. It was found that the knowledge on the level of pollution of individual environmental media with lead is diversified and incomplete. This hinders a comparable and comprehensive evaluation of lead migration in the natural environment and thus the assessment of exposure magnitude among inhabitants of all regions (voivoships) of the country. Emissions from plants producing and processing non-ferrous metals, industrial waste sites, motor transport especially in central parts of urban and industrial agglomerations, and use of certain mineral fertilizers are recognized as the greatest hazards to the biosphere and human health among all sources of environmental pollution with lead. As appears from the data, the highest level of lead contamination of air, water and soil occurs in the central part of the Upper Silesian Industrial District as well as in the direct vicinity of other plants of non-ferrous metals in Katowice and Legnica voivodships. It was also noted that crops from those agglomerations and from family gardens located near active industrial waste sites or exploited yards may contain amounts of lead exceeding considerably allowable concentrations. It was revealed that in Polish conditions the largest amounts of lead enter children's organism with dirt, dust

  11. Four methods of attitude determination for spin-stabilized spacecraft with applications and comparative results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The attitude of a spacecraft is determined by specifying independent parameters which relate the spacecraft axes to an inertial coordinate system. Sensors which measure angles between spin axis and other vectors directed to objects or fields external to the spacecraft are discussed. For the spin-stabilized spacecraft considered, the spin axis is constant over at least an orbit, but separate solutions based on sensor angle measurements are different due to propagation of errors. Sensor-angle solution methods are described which minimize the propagated errors by making use of least squares techniques over many sensor angle measurements and by solving explicitly (in closed form) for the spin axis coordinates. These methods are compared with star observation solutions to determine if satisfactory accuracy is obtained by each method.

  12. Congress should clarify the circumstances under which drug makers can communicate results on comparative effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Klasmeier, Coleen

    2012-10-01

    Hypothetical comparative effectiveness studies of two migraine drugs offer an opportunity to analyze the legal issues that manufacturers face in conveying to practicing physicians information from such research about prescription drugs. This information, derived from observational studies, supposedly cannot be communicated to clinicians because it does not constitute "substantial evidence" as required by law. In fact, however, the emerging effectiveness data can be included in manufacturers' communications to physicians about drugs' clinical utility through various existing channels defined by other law. This article argues that Congress should further clarify the circumstances under which such communications can occur to comply with First Amendment requirements that speech constraints be narrowly drawn, known in advance, and precise. Otherwise, the Food and Drug Administration risks losing First Amendment arguments in cases involving the agency's regulation of the communications-or "speech"-of drug manufacturers.

  13. [Comparative study of results of coronary angiography in patients with first and repetitive myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Boldyreva, M O

    2013-01-01

    We compared coronary angiography data from 65 patients with first myocardial infarction (fMI) and 65 patients with repetitive MI (reMI). Coronary angiographic status in both patients with fMI and reMI was characterized by predominance of multivessel lesions with stenoses localized in branches of both coronary arteries (CA). Contrary to fMI patients with reMI had more severe right CA involvement, greater number of occlusions and diffuse lesions in CA bed. Differences between angiography data between fMI and reMI were more pronounced in men than in women. Angiographic differences between fMI and reMI did not depend on the presence of history of arterial hypertension and were considerably attenuated by diabetes mellitus.

  14. Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates, Inc. (SGNA) Endoscopic Disinfectant Survey results compared with control group.

    PubMed

    Ellett, M L; Fullhart, J W; Wright, K B

    1996-01-01

    Disinfectant surveys from responding members of the American Society of Postanesthesia Nurses were divided into two groups based on whether or not they considered themselves to be exposed to disinfectants in their work environment. Their survey responses were then compared with those obtained previously from members of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates, Inc., who were regularly exposed to 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde in the work setting. There were significant differences among the groups in the percentage of respondents who reported having headaches, eye irritations, respiratory problems, shortness of breath, rashes, memory loss, mood swings, and fatigue. These findings support the association of these complaints with 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde exposure. In contrast, there were no significant differences among the groups in the percentage of respondents who reported having asthma, rhinitis, chest pain, nausea, diarrhea, muscle/joint pain, visual disturbances, or dermatitis.

  15. Comparing the predictive value of three definitions of frailty: Results from the Three-City study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Colaço Harmand, Magali; Meillon, Céline; Bergua, Valérie; Tabue Teguo, Maturin; Dartigues, Jean-François; Avila-Funes, José Alberto; Amieva, Hélène

    2017-09-01

    Despite several attempts to reach a single definition of frailty, no consensus has been reached. The definitions previously published have tried to prove its utility in predicting negative health outcomes. The objective of the present study is to compare the predictive value of 3 different frailty instruments, for selected outcomes. The study sample includes 1278 participants of the Three-City study, a French prospective population-based study, assessed for frailty using Fried's phenotype criteria, Rockwood's Frailty Index and Tilburg Frailty Indicator. To assess the risk of mortality, incident disability, falls, institutionalization and hospitalization for a follow up period of 12 years, Cox proportional hazard models with delayed entry have been used. The area under the time-dependent ROC curve has been used to estimate and compare the ability of the three instruments of frailty to predict the previous adverse outcomes at 12 years. Five hundred ninety four participants were identified as non-robust with Fried's criteria; 169 with Rockwood's FI and 303 with TFI. The three scales consistently identified 91 participants as non-robust and 574 as robust. Rockwood's FI was a statistically significant predictor of mortality, incident disability and falls, and a strong predictor of hospitalization. In the absence of a "gold standard" definition of frailty, a debate on what measures and how to include them is open. A clue may be that one should select the appropriate definition according to the to-be predicted outcome, the setting and the underlying etiology of frailty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Different pathways but same result? Comparing chemistry and biological effects of burned and decomposed litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; El-Gawad, Ahmed M. Abd; Sarker, Tushar Chandra; Cesarano, Gaspare; Saulino, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio; Castro Rego, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Litter burning and biological decomposition are oxidative processes co-occurring in many terrestrial ecosystems, producing organic matter with different chemical properties and differently affecting plant growth and soil microbial activity. Here, we tested the chemical convergence hypothesis (i.e. materials with different initial chemistry tend to converge towards a common profile, with similar biological effects, as the oxidative process advances) for burning and decomposition. We compared the molecular composition of 63 organic materials - 7 litter types either fresh, decomposed for 30, 90, 180 days, or heated at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 °C - as assessed by 13C NMR. We used litter water extracts (5% dw) as treatments in bioassays on plant (Lepidium sativum) and fungal (Aspergillus niger) growth, and a washed quartz sand amended with litter materials (0.5 % dw) to assess heterotrophic respiration by CO2 flux chamber. We observed different molecular variations for materials either burning (i.e. a sharp increase of aromatic C and a decrease of most other fractions above 200 °C) or decomposing (i.e. early increase of alkyl, methoxyl and N-alkyl C and decrease of O-alkyl and di-O-alkyl C fractions). Soil respiration and fungal growth progressively decreased with litter age and temperature. Plant growth underwent an inhibitory effect by untreated litter, more and less rapidly released over decomposing and burning materials, respectively. Correlation analysis between NMR and bioassay data showed that opposite responses for soil respiration and fungi, compared to plants, are related to essentially the same C molecular types. Our findings suggest a functional convergence of decomposed and burnt organic substrates, emerging from the balance between the bioavailability of labile C sources and the presence of recalcitrant and pyrogenic compounds, oppositely affecting different trophic levels.

  17. Comparability of results of postnatal and long-term tests for carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sýkora, I; Vortel, V

    1993-01-01

    A method of testing postnatal carcinogenicity in rats was elaborated. The substances to be tested were administered from the 1st day after birth to the 5th, 10th and 20th days of age. The subsequent supply of a substance in diet from weaning (28th day of age) up to the end of the first year of survival was an optimal combination. A total of 12 substances were tested by this method. For all substances it was possible to provide a comparison with the results of long-term studies. For nine substances carcinogenicity was demonstrated in both tests, out of them in eight cases in identical organ systems. In three cases no carcinogenicity was ascertained in the postnatal study, in two compounds identical negative results were obtained by the two approaches. In one case (the cytostatic TS-160) development of sarcomas was found at the site of subcutaneous administration in the long-term study, and this effect was not observed in the postnatal study. Results identical for the two methods (carcinogenic or noncarcinogenic) were achieved in 11 substances, i.e. 91.7%. In addition, in 10 compounds, for which carcinogenicity was demonstrated either in the postnatal study or in the long-term study, the occurrence of tumors was found in identical organ systems after 8 compounds which is an 80% agreement. In mice, this identity of organs was demonstrated only in 62.5% of the compounds tested. The present results demonstrated that the use of postnatal carcinogenicity test in rats offers the determination of possible carcinogenic effect of the compound tested with a high probability, under economically more advantageous conditions, and with almost the same qualitative results as with the use of the long-term tests for carcinogenicity.

  18. Recent results on the spatiotemporal modelling and comparative analysis of Black Death and bubonic plague epidemics.

    PubMed

    Christakos, G; Olea, R A; Yu, H-L

    2007-09-01

    This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of the composite space-time distributions were generated for important characteristics of two major epidemics: Black Death (14th century Western Europe) and bubonic plague (19th-20th century Indian subcontinent). The comparative spatiotemporal analysis of the epidemics led to a number of interesting findings: (1) the two epidemics exhibited certain differences in their spatiotemporal characteristics (correlation structures, trends, occurrence patterns and propagation speeds) that need to be explained by means of an interdisciplinary effort; (2) geographical epidemic indicators confirmed in a rigorous quantitative manner the partial findings of isolated reports and time series that Black Death mortality was two orders of magnitude higher than that of bubonic plague; (3) modern bubonic plague is a rural disease hitting harder the small villages in the countryside whereas Black Death was a devastating epidemic that indiscriminately attacked large urban centres and the countryside, and while the epidemic in India lasted uninterruptedly for five decades, in Western Europe it lasted three and a half years; (4) the epidemics had reverse areal extension features in response to annual seasonal variations. Temperature increase at the end of winter led to an expansion of infected geographical area for Black Death and a reduction for bubonic plague, reaching a climax at the end of spring when the infected area in Western Europe was always larger than in India. Conversely, without exception, the infected area during winter was larger for the Indian bubonic plague; (5) during the Indian epidemic, the disease

  19. Institutions of Higher Education in Poland and Canadian Universities: A Comparison Using an Information Technology Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    Educators at all levels are being challenged to come up with new ideas and adaptations to learning theory. Comparative education provides a vehicle for exploring changes in education for new and emerging democracies. The purpose of this article is to compare institutions of higher learning in Poland and universities in Canada using an information…

  20. The Antarctic Ozone Hole: Initial Results from Aura / OMI Compared with TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Newman, P.

    2004-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments (on November 7 , Meteor 3, and Earth Probe) has been monitoring the annual development of the Antarctic ozone hole since the 1980s. The ozone mapping instrument on Aura, OMI, is expected to take over this record of observation from the aging Earth Probe TOMS instrument. The area of the ozone hole can be taken as a sensitive indicator of the magnitude of ozone destruction each year. The timing of initial formation of the ozone hole and its duration are sensitive to the atmospheric dynamics of the southern polar regions. The entire TOMS data record (1978 - 2004) has recently been reprocessed with the new version 8 algorithm, which includes a revised calibration. The effect has been to slightly increase ozone hole area over earlier estimates, but only by 23%. OMI (ozone monitoring instrument) on Aura is a hyperspectral imaging instrument that operates in a pushbroom mode to measure solar backscattered radiation in the ultraviolet and visible. OMI has higher spatial resolution than TOMS - 14 x 24 km versus 38 km x 38 km from TOMS. OMI has now begin mapping total column ozone on a global basis in a measurement similar to TOMS. The ozone hole measurements for 2003 are compared with those from Earth Probe TOMS.

  1. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory based testing

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching to sample memory test. Despite differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  2. Test results from a comparative evaluation of a condensation nuclei fire detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The fire/smoke alarm response of a condensation nuclei fire detector (CNFD) was compared with photoelectric and ionization detectors. Tests were conducted in a former control room 8.5 m by 8.9 with a 2.7 m ceiling. The room had air supplied from above the ceiling and under the floor with return air exiting from ceiling grills. The environment was varied from 278 to 305 K and relative humidities from 8 to 65%. Four detection zones were located in the room. Each zone contained a sampling head for the CNDF, a photodetector, and an ionization detector so that each detector system had four opportunities to alarm during tests. The particle level in the test room was also monitored during tests with a condensation nuclei particle counter. The CNFD responded to 90% of exposures to smoldering plastic and 84% of exposures to visible fire. The photoelectric response was 43 and 12.5% respectively for the same conditions. The ionization response was 9 and 48 respectively.

  3. Comparability of Results from Pair and Classical Model Formulations for Different Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jimmy Boon Som; Fu, Xiuju; Lee, Gary Kee Khoon; Chen, Mark I-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The “classical model” for sexually transmitted infections treats partnerships as instantaneous events summarized by partner change rates, while individual-based and pair models explicitly account for time within partnerships and gaps between partnerships. We compared predictions from the classical and pair models over a range of partnership and gap combinations. While the former predicted similar or marginally higher prevalence at the shortest partnership lengths, the latter predicted self-sustaining transmission for gonorrhoea (GC) and Chlamydia (CT) over much broader partnership and gap combinations. Predictions on the critical level of condom use (Cc) required to prevent transmission also differed substantially when using the same parameters. When calibrated to give the same disease prevalence as the pair model by adjusting the infectious duration for GC and CT, and by adjusting transmission probabilities for HIV, the classical model then predicted much higher Cc values for GC and CT, while Cc predictions for HIV were fairly close. In conclusion, the two approaches give different predictions over potentially important combinations of partnership and gap lengths. Assuming that it is more correct to explicitly model partnerships and gaps, then pair or individual-based models may be needed for GC and CT since model calibration does not resolve the differences. PMID:22761828

  4. The Nitrogen Footprint Tool for Institutions: Comparing Results for a Diverse Group of Institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castner, E.; Leach, A. M.; Galloway, J. N.; Hastings, M. G.; Lantz-Trissel, J.; Leary, N.; Kimiecik, J.; de la Reguera, E.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) has drastically altered the nitrogen cycle over the past few decades by causing it to accumulate in the environment. A nitrogen footprint (NF) estimates the amount of Nr released to the environment as a result of an entity's activities. The Nitrogen Footprint Tool (NFT) for universities and institutions provides a standardized method for quantifying the NF for the activities and operations of these entities. The NFT translates data on energy use, food purchasing, sewage treatment, and fertilizer use to the amount of Nr lost to the environment using NOx and N2O emission factors, virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) for food production, N reduction rates from wastewater treatment, and nitrogen uptake factors for fertilizer. As part of the Nitrogen Footprint Project supported by the EPA, seven institutions (colleges, universities, and research institutions) have completed NFT assessments: University of Virginia, University of New Hampshire, Brown University, Dickinson College, Colorado State University, Eastern Mennonite University, and the Marine Biological Laboratory. The results of these assessments reveal the magnitude of impacts on the global nitrogen cycle by different activities and sectors, and will allow these institutions to set NF reduction goals along with management decisions based on scenarios and projections in the NFT. The trends revealed in early analysis of the results include geographic differences based on regional energy sources and local sewage treatment, as well as operational differences that stem from institution type and management. As an example of the impact of management, the amount and type of food served directly impacts the food production NF, which is a large percentage of the total NF for all institutions (35-75%). Comparison of these first NF results will shed light on the primary activities of institutions that add Nr to the environment and examine the differences between them.

  5. Single-scatter Monte Carlo compared to condensed history results for low energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, C.T.; Cullen, D.E.; Perkins, S.T.; Rathkopf, J.A. ); Martin, W.R.; Wilderman, S.J. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-05-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate individual electron interactions. The code has been instrumental in determining the range of validity for the widely used condensed history method. This task was accomplished by isolating and testing the condensed history assumptions. The results show that the condensed history method fails for low energy electron transport due to inaccuracies in energy loss and spatial positioning. 19 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: reviewing the literature comparing the results of primary versus secondary surgery.

    PubMed

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Costales, Javier Robla; Paez, Miguel Domínguez; Nizzo, Gustavo; Valbuena, Sebastian; Varone, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPP) are a relatively common stretch injury of the brachial plexus that occurs during delivery. Roughly 30 % of patients will not recover completely and will need a surgical repair. Two main treatment strategies have been used: primary surgery, consisting in exploring and reconstructing the affected portions of the brachial plexus within the first few months of the patient's life, and secondary procedures that include tendon or muscle transfers, osteotomies, and other orthopedic techniques. Secondary procedures can be done as the only surgical treatment of OBPP or after primary surgery, in order to minimize any residual deficits. Two things are crucial to achieving a good outcome: (1) the appropriate selection of patients, to separate those who will spontaneously recover from those who will recover only partially or not at all; and (2) a good surgical technique. The objective of the present review is to assess the published literature concerning certain controversial issues in OBPP, especially in terms of the true current state of primary and secondary procedures, their results, and the respective roles each plays in modern-day treatment of this complex pathology. Considerable published evidence compiled over decades of surgical experience favors primary nerve surgery as the initial therapeutic step in patients who do not recover spontaneously, followed by secondary surgeries for further functional improvement. As described in this review, the results of such treatment can greatly ameliorate function in affected limbs. For best results, multi-disciplinary teams should treat these patients.

  7. Optical fiber technology in Poland: four decades of development 1975-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Dorosz, Jan; Wójcik, Waldemar; Mergo, Paweł; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    The paper is a subjective yet critical authors' description of arbitrarily chosen series of events associated with the development of optical fibre technology (OFT) in Poland. There are reminding pioneering research activities in the second half of the seventies in Optical Fibre Technological Centres in Lublin (UMCS), in Warsaw (in ONPMP), which were joined soon after by Białystok (Polytechnics and Glass Works). There are mentioned with friendliness the key persons of that period, and in particular the pioneers of OFT in Poland, which are not with us anymore. There is emphasized the role of the first national symposia on "Optical Fibres and Their Applications", which played an integration role for the newly established research community of OFT and photonics. Omitting the complex history of the development of OFT in Poland during the intermediate years, we bravely jump to today, a day which would have not existed now, if the pioneering period had not been so rich in research results. The authors would like to show in particular these research, scientific and logistic activities, which despite difficult conditions of science development in Poland, when looked at from some distance in time and space, seemed to be then well ahead of their time.

  8. Conservation genetics of the capercaillie in Poland - Delineation of conservation units

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Robert; Zawadzka, Dorota; Suchecka, Ewa; Merta, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    The capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is one of Poland's most endangered bird species, with an estimated population of 380–500 individuals in four isolated areas. To study these natural populations in Poland further, more than 900 non-invasive genetic samples were collected, along with samples from 59 birds representing large, continuous populations in Sweden and Russia; and from two centres in Poland breeding capercaillie. Microsatellite polymorphism at nine loci was then analysed to estimate within-population genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among populations. The results confirmed that isolation of populations and recent decreases in their sizes have reduced genetic diversity among capercaillie in Poland, with all the country’s natural populations found to be experiencing the genetic after-effects of demographic bottlenecks. The results of analyses of genetic differentiation and structure further suggest the presence of a 'lowland' cluster (encompassing birds of the Augustowska and Solska Primaeval Forests in Poland, and of Sweden and Russia), and a Carpathian cluster. Capercaillie from Sweden and Russia are also found to differ markedly. The Polish lowland populations seem more closely related to birds from Scandinavia. Our genetic analysis also indicates that the stocks at breeding centres are of a high genetic diversity effectively reflecting the origins of founder individuals, though identification of ancestry requires further study in the case of some birds. Overall, the results sustain the conclusion that the Polish populations of capercaillie from the Carpathians and the lowlands should be treated as independent Management Units (MUs). This is to say that the breeding lines associated with these two sources should be maintained separately at breeding centres. The high level of genetic differentiation of birds from the Solska Primaeval Forest suggests that this population should also be assigned the status of independent MU. PMID:28376095

  9. Conservation genetics of the capercaillie in Poland - Delineation of conservation units.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Robert; Zawadzka, Dorota; Suchecka, Ewa; Merta, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    The capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is one of Poland's most endangered bird species, with an estimated population of 380-500 individuals in four isolated areas. To study these natural populations in Poland further, more than 900 non-invasive genetic samples were collected, along with samples from 59 birds representing large, continuous populations in Sweden and Russia; and from two centres in Poland breeding capercaillie. Microsatellite polymorphism at nine loci was then analysed to estimate within-population genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among populations. The results confirmed that isolation of populations and recent decreases in their sizes have reduced genetic diversity among capercaillie in Poland, with all the country's natural populations found to be experiencing the genetic after-effects of demographic bottlenecks. The results of analyses of genetic differentiation and structure further suggest the presence of a 'lowland' cluster (encompassing birds of the Augustowska and Solska Primaeval Forests in Poland, and of Sweden and Russia), and a Carpathian cluster. Capercaillie from Sweden and Russia are also found to differ markedly. The Polish lowland populations seem more closely related to birds from Scandinavia. Our genetic analysis also indicates that the stocks at breeding centres are of a high genetic diversity effectively reflecting the origins of founder individuals, though identification of ancestry requires further study in the case of some birds. Overall, the results sustain the conclusion that the Polish populations of capercaillie from the Carpathians and the lowlands should be treated as independent Management Units (MUs). This is to say that the breeding lines associated with these two sources should be maintained separately at breeding centres. The high level of genetic differentiation of birds from the Solska Primaeval Forest suggests that this population should also be assigned the status of independent MU.

  10. Pesticide residue dynamics in passion fruits: comparing field trial and modelling results.

    PubMed

    Juraske, Ronnie; Fantke, Peter; Ramírez, Ana Cecilia Romero; González, Alonso

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated the exposure to pesticides from the consumption of passion fruits and subsequent human health risks by combining several methods: (i) experimental field studies including the determination of pesticide residues in/on passion fruits, (ii) dynamic plant uptake modelling, and (iii) human health risk assessment concepts. Eight commonly used pesticides were applied onto passion fruits cultivated in Colombia. Pesticide concentrations were measured periodically (between application and harvest) in whole fruits and fruit pulp. Measured concentrations were compared with predicted residues calculated with a dynamic and crop-specific pesticide uptake model, namely dynamiCROP. The model accounts for the time between pesticide application and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the amount of spray deposition on plant surfaces, uptake processes, dilution due to crop growth, degradation in plant components, and reduction due to food processing (peeling). Measured and modelled residues correspond well (r(2)=0.88-0.99), with all predictions falling within the 90% confidence interval of the measured values. A mean error of 43% over all studied pesticides was observed between model estimates and measurements. The fraction of pesticide applied during cultivation that is eventually ingested by humans is on average 10(-4)-10(-6), depending on the time period between application and ingestion and the processing step considered. Model calculations and intake fractions via fruit consumption based on experimental data corresponded well for all pesticides with a deviation of less than a factor of 2. Pesticide residues in fruits measured at recommended harvest dates were all below European Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) and therefore do not indicate any violation of international regulatory thresholds.

  11. Use of power assist wheels results in increased distance traveled compared with conventional manual wheeling.

    PubMed

    Levy, Charles E; Buman, Matthew P; Chow, John W; Tillman, Mark D; Fournier, Kimberly A; Giacobbi, Peter

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of power assist wheels on the distance traveled by manual wheelchair users and analyze potential cofactors in the magnitude of response and to test the hypothesis that wheelers would travel significantly further with power assist wheels. A 16-wk A (Preintervention)-B (Intervention)-A (Postintervention) repeated measures design. Seven women and 13 men (age, 43 +/- 15 yrs) full-time wheelers participated. During the pre- and postintervention phases (4 wks each), participants used their own unaltered manual wheelchairs. During the 8-wk intervention phase, the manual wheels were replaced with power assist wheels. Daily distance was measured with bicycle-style odometers. A composite score of laboratory wheelchair tasks was used to classify wheelchair performance. Mixed model repeated measures analysis of variance analyzed changes across phases of the trial. A post hoc analysis tabulated the amount of days wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages in each phase by two SDs. Wheelers traveled significantly greater distances during the intervention phase compared with pre- or postintervention phases regardless of baseline wheelchair performance. Wheelers who demonstrated higher baseline wheelchair performance traveled lesser average distances in the first 2 wks after receiving power assist wheels than in the subsequent 6 wks. Wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages per phase on a significantly greater number of days during the intervention phase. Power assist wheels enabled wheelers to travel farther and to travel beyond their usual distances on more days. Further studies may be strengthened by taking into account the 2-wk "adjustment phase" for power assist wheels.

  12. Comparing Regional Seismic Location Results Using Kriged Travel Time Correction Surfaces and Double-Difference Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begnaud, M. L.; Velasco, A. A.; Steck, L. K.

    2001-12-01

    The use of kriged two-dimensional travel time correction surfaces improves the location of regional seismic events using a sparse network. For more closely-spaced regional events (approximately 150 km), using travel time correction surfaces does not always demonstrate a distinct improvement in relative locations. A new location program HYPODD [Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000] uses a double-difference location algorithm with events correlated based on travel times. While this algorithm has been tested on local events with a fairly dense seismic network, it has not been tested with regional networks that have large station-event distances. We will compare locations defined using two-dimensional travel time correction surfaces with those from the double-difference method [Flores et al., this issue]. We will utilize a data set of approximately 142 events for a region around the Mw=7.5 Tibet event of 08NOV1997, with manually-picked P and S arrivals as well as global catalog arrivals having a station-event distance ranging from 5.5 to over 30 degrees. The Tibet event provides a unique ground truth test due to the presence of a related surface rupture identified by Inferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) [Peltzer et al., 1999] and the determination of the Tibet event as associated with a vertical strike/slip fault [Velasco et al., 2000]. We will test which method produces relocations that better align with this surface rupture. In addition, a small (5 km) secondary rupture was identified with the main rupture, but with no associated seismic event. We will also test whether each method relocates any events near to this secondary rupture.

  13. Carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx: A basis for comparing the results of radiotherapy and surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, W.M.; Parsons, J.T.; Stringer, S.P.; Cassisi, N.J.; Million, R.R. )

    1990-05-01

    An analysis of 129 patients with 131 squamous cell carcinomas of the supraglottic larynx treated between October 1964 and April 1987 with radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy followed by neck dissection is presented. All patients had a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients were excluded from analysis of disease control at the primary site and/or neck if they died within 2 years of treatment with the site(s) continuously disease-free. Local control rates with radiotherapy and ultimate local control rates, including patients successfully salvaged after a local recurrence, were as follows: T1, 13 of 13 and 13 of 13; T2, 34 of 42 (81%) and 37 of 42 (88%); T3, 25 of 41 (61%) and 34 of 41 (83%); and T4, 3 of 9 and 6 of 9. There was no significant difference in local control rates when comparing patients who were anatomically suitable for a supraglottic laryngectomy with those who would have required a total laryngectomy. Local control rates were slightly diminished in patients with T2-T3 lesions who had impaired or absent vocal cord mobility. The overall rates of ultimate local control with voice preservation for the entire series of 129 patients were as follows: T1, 100%; T2, 87%; T3, 69%; and T4, 57%. Cause-specific survival rates at 5 years by stage were I, 2 of 2; II, 10 of 12 (83%); III, 9 of 13 (69%); IVA, 4 of 6; and IVB, 7 of 22 (32%). The incidence of severe complications was 4 of 115 (3%) for T1-T3 lesions and 4 of 14 (29%) for T4 lesions.

  14. Recent results of comparative radiobiological experiments with short and long term expositions of Arabidopsis seed embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, M. W.; Gartenbach, K. E.; Kranz, A. R.; Baican, B.; Schopper, E.; Heilmann, C.; Reitz, G.

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of experimental data obtained from short (SDEF) and long duration exposure flights (LDEF) recently led to results, which will contribute for the estimation of genetic risk for long and/or repeated stay of man in space. Under orbital conditions biological stress and damage are induced in test subjects by cosmic radiation, especially the high energetic, densely ionizing component of heavy ions. Plant seeds were successful model systems for a biotest in studying the physiological damages and mutagenic effects caused by ionizing radiation in particular stem cells. In this article we present an overview of our space experiments with Arabidopis thaliana seeds. We present first results of investigations on certain damage endpoints (seed germination, plant survival, mutation frequencies), caused by cosmic ionizing radiation in dry dormant plant seeds ofArabidopsis thaliana after different short term (e.g. IML-1 and D-2) and long term (e.g. EURECA and LDEF-1) space exposures. Total dose effects of heavy ions and the other components of the mixed radiation field on damage endpoints and survival after space exposure and gamma-ray pre-irradiation were obtained. A new method of total dose spectrometry by neutron activation has been applied.

  15. Agility training in young elite soccer players: promising results compared to change of direction drills.

    PubMed

    Chaalali, A; Rouissi, M; Chtara, M; Owen, A; Bragazzi, N L; Moalla, W; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different training programmes - change of direction (COD) vs. agility (AG) - on straight sprint (SS), COD and AG test performances in young elite soccer players. Thirty-two soccer players (age: 14.5±0.9 years; height: 171.2±5.1 cm; body mass: 56.4±7.1 kg, body fat: 10.3±2.3%) participated in a short-term (6 weeks) training study. Players were randomly assigned to two experimental groups - training with change of direction drills (COD-G, n=11) or using agility training (AG-G, n= 11) - and to a control group (CON-G, n=10). All players completed the following tests before and after training: straight sprint (15m SS), 15 m agility run with (15m-AR-B) and without a ball (15m-AR), 5-0-5 agility test, reactive agility test (RAT), and RAT test with ball (RAT-B). A significant group effect was observed for all tests (p<0.001; η(2)=large). In 15m SS, COD-G and AG-G improved significantly (2.21; ES=0.57 and 2.18%; ES=0.89 respectively) more than CON-G (0.59%; ES=0.14). In the 15m-AR and 5-0-5 agility test, COD-G improved significantly more (5.41%; ES=1.15 and 3.41; ES=0.55 respectively) than AG-G (3.65%; ES=1.05 and 2.24; ES=0.35 respectively) and CON-G (1.62%; ES=0.96 and 0.97; ES=0.19 respectively). Improvements in RAT and RAT-B were larger (9.37%; ES=2.28 and 7.73%; ES=2.99 respectively) in RAT-G than the other groups. In conclusion, agility performance amongst young elite soccer could be improved using COD training. Nevertheless, including a conditioning programme for agility may allow a high level of athletic performance to be achieved.

  16. Agility training in young elite soccer players: promising results compared to change of direction drills

    PubMed Central

    Rouissi, M; Chtara, M; Owen, A; Bragazzi, NL; Moalla, W; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different training programmes – change of direction (COD) vs. agility (AG) – on straight sprint (SS), COD and AG test performances in young elite soccer players. Thirty-two soccer players (age: 14.5±0.9 years; height: 171.2±5.1 cm; body mass: 56.4±7.1 kg, body fat: 10.3±2.3%) participated in a short-term (6 weeks) training study. Players were randomly assigned to two experimental groups – training with change of direction drills (COD-G, n=11) or using agility training (AG-G, n= 11) – and to a control group (CON-G, n=10). All players completed the following tests before and after training: straight sprint (15m SS), 15 m agility run with (15m-AR-B) and without a ball (15m-AR), 5-0-5 agility test, reactive agility test (RAT), and RAT test with ball (RAT-B). A significant group effect was observed for all tests (p<0.001; η2=large). In 15m SS, COD-G and AG-G improved significantly (2.21; ES=0.57 and 2.18%; ES=0.89 respectively) more than CON-G (0.59%; ES=0.14). In the 15m-AR and 5-0-5 agility test, COD-G improved significantly more (5.41%; ES=1.15 and 3.41; ES=0.55 respectively) than AG-G (3.65%; ES=1.05 and 2.24; ES=0.35 respectively) and CON-G (1.62%; ES=0.96 and 0.97; ES=0.19 respectively). Improvements in RAT and RAT-B were larger (9.37%; ES=2.28 and 7.73%; ES=2.99 respectively) in RAT-G than the other groups. In conclusion, agility performance amongst young elite soccer could be improved using COD training. Nevertheless, including a conditioning programme for agility may allow a high level of athletic performance to be achieved. PMID:28090138

  17. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; Supper, W.

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  18. Hyperimmune antirabies sera titration by standard mouse neutralization and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests, comparing results of different laboratories.

    PubMed

    Díaz, A M; Valentini, E J; Albas, A; Fuches, R M; Gallina, N M

    1995-01-01

    To determine the rabies antibody level of twenty-four hyperimmune equine sera, Standard Mouse Neutralization (SMN) and Couterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) tests were carried out, both at the Instituto Butantan (IB) and Instituto Panamericano de Proteccíon de Alimentos y Zoonosis (INPPAZ). Statistical analysis has shown a correlation (r) of 0.9317 between the SMN and CIE performed at the IB, while at the INPPAZ it scored 0.974. Comparison of CIE data of both laboratories yielded a correlation of 0.845. The CIE technique has shown to be a sensitive and efficient as the SMN in titrating antirabies hyperimmune equine sera. Based on CIE results, a simple, rapid and inexpensive technique, titers of sera antibody can be rellably estimated in SMN test.

  19. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  20. Inclined air to air heat exchangers with heat pipes: Comparing experimental data with theoretical results

    SciTech Connect

    Beckert, K.; Herwig, H.

    1996-12-31

    A set of two-phase closed thermosyphons was systematically investigated to find out how far they can be inclined without appreciable decrease in the heat transfer rate. It turned out that even in a nearly horizontal position (up to {+-}6{degree} with respect to the horizontal) the overall performance is still satisfactory. These experimental results could be corroborated by theoretical considerations using well established heat transfer correlations for convective, evaporation and condensation heat transfer. As a consequence of these findings a remarkable extra feature of the system of thermosyphons appears: Turning the set of pipes by an angle of about 12{degree} from {minus}6{degree} to +6{degree} with respect to the horizontal will switch the overall heat transfer from one direction to the other. It is discussed how this can be applied in an air conditioning system.

  1. Leaf mechanical resistance in plant trait databases: comparing the results of two common measurement methods

    PubMed Central

    Enrico, Lucas; Díaz, Sandra; Westoby, Mark; Rice, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The influence of leaf mechanical properties on local ecosystem processes, such as trophic transfer, decomposition and nutrient cycling, has resulted in a growing interest in including leaf mechanical resistance in large-scale databases of plant functional traits. ‘Specific work to shear’ and ‘force to tear’ are two properties commonly used to describe mechanical resistance (toughness or strength) of leaves. Two methodologies have been widely used to measure them across large datasets. This study aimed to assess correlations and standardization between the two methods, as measured by two widely used apparatuses, in order to inter-convert existing data in those global datasets. Methods Specific work to shear (WSS) and force to tear (FT) were measured in leaves of 72 species from south-eastern Australia. The measurements were made including and excluding midribs. Relationships between the variables were tested by Spearman correlations and ordinary least square regressions. Key Results A positive and significant correlation was found between the methods, but coefficients varied according to the inclusion or exclusion of the midrib in the measurements. Equations for prediction varied according to leaf venation pattern. A positive and significant (r = 0·90, P < 0·0001) correlation was also found between WSS values for fresh and rehydrated leaves, which is considered to be of practical relevance. Conclusions In the context of broad-scale ecological hypotheses and used within the constraints recommended here, leaf mechanical resistance data obtained with both methodologies could be pooled together into a single coarser variable, using the equations provided in this paper. However, more detailed datasets of FT cannot be safely filled in with estimations based on WSS, or vice versa. In addition, WSS values of green leaves can be predicted with good accuracy from WSS of rehydrated leaves of the same species. PMID:26530215

  2. Thermal hydraulics of handling FFTF fuel in sodium and argon, comparing test results with calculated

    SciTech Connect

    Guzek, J.C.; Ingham, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were performed to assess the temperature distributions in FFTF fuel as they are handled in transfer pots, as bare assemblies and in partial fuel pin arrays. The detailed thermal mapping needed for handling FFTF fuel in storage locations, in and out of the reactor, and during transfers in handling machines has been obtained for fuel in stagnant sodium and stagnant atmospheres of argon and helium. Tests also include the thermal assessment of fuel under conditions of forced cooling with argon. The fuel cladding handling thermal limit for preserving reactor test information is 426.7/sup 0/C and in certain instances a local value of 537.9/sup 0/C is allowed for short periods of time. The cladding integrity thermal limit for FFTF fuel is 871.1/sup 0/C. Fuel with a maximum decay heat of 10 kW can be transferred in a sodium filled transfer pot which has been externally conditioned for a high surface emissivity to meet a data preservation thermal limit of 426.7/sup 0/C. The decay heat limit for handling fuel in stagnant argon is less than 1 kW, if data is to be preserved, and forced cooling of a 5 kW decay heat assembly with argon requires a flow of at least .023 CMS (49 SCFM). Results from the electrical tests of prototypic fuel assembly and pin arrays have identified thermal/hydraulic margins of conservatism and have allowed for the meaningful design handling equipment. Analytical thermal models show favorable agreement with the test results. 12 figures.

  3. Preliminary results of assessment of impact of the shale gas exploration and exploitation activities on the quality of ambient air - analysis of Wysin, Poland case study, 2015-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosławski, Janusz; Guzikowski, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    One of objectives of the "Shale gas exploration and exploitation induced risks - SHEER" project (Horizon 2020, call LCE 16-2014) is to assess the possible impact of activities related to the shale gas exploration and exploitation processes to the surrounding air quality. To achieve this goal, a mobile air pollution monitoring station has been deployed in Stary Wiec village, about 1 km from the drilling site at Wysin (54.08 N, 18.32 E). In addition to the standard parameters measured routinely at air quality monitoring stations like: Nitrogen oxides, Ozone, Carbon Monoxide and Particulate matter PM10, several parameters have been added to the measurement program, including Carbon dioxide, Methane and non-methane hydrocarbons and Radon 222. Impact on the air quality is analyzed in three dimensions: analysis of levels of "classical" communication pollutants (NOx, CO, O3, PM10), greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) and gases specific to the shale gas exploitation activities (CH4, 222Rn). Continuous monitoring has been performed before, during and after exploration activities. Air quality can be considered as very good ("rural" conditions) before the exploration/exploitation processes have started. Results obtained so far show that the air quality in the vicinity of shale gas exploration area has not changed significantly during the analyzed time period. The only significant signal of the presence of the shale gas well were two short episodes of elevated concentrations of methane registered during the hydrofracturing phase of the exploration. This work was supported within SHEER: "Shale Gas Exploration and Exploitation Induced Risks" project funded from Horizon 2020 - R&I Framework Programme, call H2020-LCE 16-2014-1.

  4. [Phosphorus intake in Poland in 1994-2000].

    PubMed

    Gronowska-Senger, Anna; Kotańska, Patrycja

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of the phosphorus intake in 8 types of households with different family number of persons in Poland during 1994-2000. The research was conducted on the basis on households budget food consumption data and tables of food composition and nutritional value. Phosphorus intake per capita per day was compared to RDA at the safe level. The intake of phosphorus was high in all investigated households and ranged between 65-144% above lower RDA limit and 34-96% for upper one. When the family number of persons increased, the intake decreased. The main food sources of phosphorus were: bread, meat and meat products, milk and milk drinks and vegetables and mushrooms. The bread has a highest share in phosphorus supply in households maintained from non-earned sources and the lowest for the non-manual labour position one.

  5. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Performance of the Aachen Acoustic Laboratory and results from comparative studies in water and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinen, Dirk; Paul, Larissa; Wiebusch, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    To investigate acoustic ice properties under laboratory conditions and to test the thermoacoustic model, the Aachen Acoustic Laboratory (AAL) was founded as a part of the activities of the acoustic working group (SPATS) within the IceCube collaboration. The goal of SPATS is to evaluate the possibility of acoustic detection of ultra high-energy neutrinos in the Antarctic ice. The AAL provides a test facility setup with a proper infrastructure to study acoustics and thermoacoustics in a large volume of water and ice. The control of the freezing process, the ice quality, the temperature monitoring at different phases of the medium and the laser-based thermoacoustic sound generation are the key features of the setup. The AAL setup provides the possibility for the characterization of a wide range of acoustic transducers, sensor/transmitter calibration, study of the thermoacoustic sound generation, study of the acoustic properties of the ice, water as well as the water/ice interfaces, and research and development of new types of acoustic transducers (PVDF-based) as an alternative to standard PZTs. In this document, the different parts of the AAL setup are described, results on the commissioning from the laser based thermoacoustic sound generation are presented and the performance of an absolute sensor calibration method in water and ice are discussed.

  7. Initial Results Comparing Spectral Signatures of Post-fire Materials, Western Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klene, A.; Riley, K. L.; Kamp, U.

    2006-12-01

    Current algorithms for estimating fire severity from remotely sensed imagery are based on pre-fire to post-fire changes in reflectance values within the sensor's bands, rather than on an understanding of how spectral signatures of burned areas differ from unburned areas. However, spectral signatures for materials commonly found in burned areas of the landscape, including ash, charcoal, and burned pine needles have not been published. With a fundamental understanding of how fire alters the spectral signatures of a landscape, fire severity algorithms could readily be derived for any sensor. Spectral signatures of charcoal, soil and other materials were collected for this project in several burned areas in western Montana during the summer of 2006. An ASD FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (350-2500 nm) was used for collection. Time since burn ranged from one week to one year. Spectral signatures were also collected for vegetation and other common materials outside the burn perimeter and for areas 26 inches in diameter with a mix of vegetation and burned materials. We present characteristic spectra for these types of materials associated with wildland fire, and regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that experience the most change due to wildfire. These results aid interpretation of the environmental effects of wildfire in remotely sensed imagery of burned areas.

  8. [New results of comparative studies of motivation and social factors influencing abortion in East Germany].

    PubMed

    Henning, G; Henning, M; Engel, E

    1989-01-01

    In 11 departments of gynaecology 2,700 patients with legal abortions had been as well in 1976 as in 1981 and 1,800 ones in 1987. The following results could be found: The average age decreased from 28.3 to 27.3 years and the portion of patients below 18 years increased from 6% to 8%. The portion of pupils, apprentices and students increased from 10% to 14%. 80% respectively 77% the women had born children previously. 33% respectively 38% of these women later on ant to have children yet. The portion of repeated artificial abortions increased from 16% to 35%. Motivations of artificial abortions changed only a little bit. The following motives were the main ones: Realized wish to children, age of the woman, inconvenient intervals of the born children and general familiar aspects. The hitherto existing use of hormonal contraception increased from 39% to 97%. Aspects of possible health damages and aspects of indifference were the main explanations of the non-use of hormonal contraception. 96% of the women intend to use one form of contraception (67% hormonal contraception, 15% IUD and 14% classic methods) in future. The main tasks to restrict the numbers of artificial abortions are: --Improvement of sexual-ethical education of the children an teenagers to responsible partnership.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. [Oral lichen planus plaques and homogeneous leukoplasia: comparative results of treatment with CO2 laser].

    PubMed

    Huerta Leteurtre, N; Bagán Sebastián, J V; Cardona Tortajada, F; Lloria De Miguel, E; Jiménez Soriano, Y; Basterra Alegría, J

    1999-10-01

    To determine the efficacy of CO2 laser therapy in plaque-like oral lichen planus and homogeneous oral leukoplakia. We studied two groups of patients; one comprised 29 cases of plaque-like oral lichen planus (group 1) and the other one included 34 cases of homogeneous oral leukoplasia (group 2). After histological study, all the lesions were treated by CO2 laser evaporation at 10 W. We analyzed the results following one month, three months and one year after the treatment. In group 1, 19 lesions (65.5%) were revoluted enterally in one month. Patients reported a slight to moderate pain in 16 cases (55.2%), while 4 (13.8%) showed recurrences after three months and 12 (41.4%) at the end of the following time (one year). In group 2 we found a complete healing after one month in 28 cases (82.4%), with a slight to moderate pain in 22 cases (64.7%). Three months after the treatment we found 7 recurrences (20.6%) and 8 (25.8%) one year after. We found lower rate of recurrences in homogeneous oral leukoplakias than in plaque-like oral lichen planus after treatment with carbon dioxide laser therapy.

  10. Different approaches to assess the volume of debris-flows deposits: are results comparable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, T.; Bertoldi, G.; D'Agostino, V.

    2012-04-01

    methods have been tested to estimate the volume of debris-flow deposits: a) interpolation of the deposit depths over depositional area via the ArcView tool "Topo to Raster"; (b) simple multiplication of the mean deposit thickness by the depositional area; (c) estimation of a multi-parametric linear regression to compute the deposit depth as function of deposit slope and distance from the fan apex; (d) use of an empirical relation depending on the planimetric area of the deposit raised to an exponent, equal to 2/3, and on a dimensionless mobility coefficient derived from adaptation of literature data; (e) previous method but with the exponent calculated as function of the fan and channel slope; (f) hydrological-hydraulic approach which transforms the reconstructed flow hydrograph into a debris-graph. Results show a large variability about volumes estimation, but some important key points emerge. The hydrological approach appears weak, being strongly dependent on rainfall data quality and on basin activity before the event. Geomorphic/field-survey-based approaches are more concordant and consistent. Even if the spatial interpolation of deposit thicknesses is over-simplified, such methods results the best alternative to the empirical formulas.

  11. Comparing the results of DAADD and ABC of children included in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    To verify if there are characteristic behaviors of the different diagnosis included in the autism spectrum according to the Differential Assessment of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders (DAADD) and to the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Participants were 45 individuals and their respective speech-language therapists. All therapists are graduate students working with the children for at least 1 year. This time was considered sufficient to the therapists to have the information required by the DAADD questionnaire. It is comprised by 3 protocols specifically designed to children with 2 to 4 years, 4 to 6 years and 6 to 8 years, the same criteria used to separate the research groups, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Data referring to the ABC were retrieved from the subject's files at the Laboratório de Investigação Fonoaudiológica nos Distúrbios do Espectro do Autismo (Research Laboratory on Language Disorders in the Autism Spectrum) of the School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, where it is routinely applied during the annual assessment. Answers to the different areas of DAADD are similar to the different areas of ABC. These data show data the diagnosis by DAADD is easier in older children. Although there is no significant difference, the large occurrence of Rett's syndrome diagnosis according to the DAADD was associated to higher risk for autism according to the ABC in G1. With increasing age this tendency decreases and either in G2 and G3 Autism is the most frequent diagnosis. Although the results of both questionnaires tend to agree more with increasing age, the DAADD is more sensitive in the different ages while the ABC if more specific only to older children.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Registration Algorithms in Different Brain Databases With Varying Difficulty: Results and Insights

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Hamed; Bilello, Michel; Da, Xiao; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating various algorithms for the inter-subject registration of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a necessary topic receiving growing attention. Existing studies evaluated image registration algorithms in specific tasks or using specific databases (e.g., only for skull-stripped images, only for single-site images, etc.). Consequently, the choice of registration algorithms seems task- and usage/parameter-dependent. Nevertheless, recent large-scale, often multi-institutional imaging-related studies create the need and raise the question whether some registration algorithms can 1) generally apply to various tasks/databases posing various challenges; 2) perform consistently well, and while doing so, 3) require minimal or ideally no parameter tuning. In seeking answers to this question, we evaluated 12 general-purpose registration algorithms, for their generality, accuracy and robustness. We fixed their parameters at values suggested by algorithm developers as reported in the literature. We tested them in 7 databases/tasks, which present one or more of 4 commonly-encountered challenges: 1) inter-subject anatomical variability in skull-stripped images; 2) intensity homogeneity, noise and large structural differences in raw images; 3) imaging protocol and field-of-view (FOV) differences in multi-site data; and 4) missing correspondences in pathology-bearing images. Totally 7,562 registrations were performed. Registration accuracies were measured by (multi-)expert-annotated landmarks or regions of interest (ROIs). To ensure reproducibility, we used public software tools, public databases (whenever possible), and we fully disclose the parameter settings. We show evaluation results, and discuss the performances in light of algorithms’ similarity metrics, transformation models and optimization strategies. We also discuss future directions for the algorithm development and evaluations. PMID:24951685

  13. Seasonal and diurnal variations in AMPERE observations of the Birkeland currents compared to modeled results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coxon, J. C.; Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2016-05-01

    We reduce measurements made by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) to give the total Birkeland (field-aligned) current flowing in both hemispheres in monthly and hourly bins. We analyze these totals using 6 years of data (2010-2015) to examine solar zenith angle-driven variations in the total Birkeland current flowing in both hemispheres, simultaneously, for the first time. A diurnal variation is identified in the total Birkeland current flowing, consistent with variations in the solar zenith angle. A seasonal variation is also identified, with more current flowing in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere during Bartels rotations in northern (southern) summer. For months close to equinox, more current is found to flow in the Northern Hemisphere, contrary to our expectations. We also conduct the first test of the Milan (2013) model for estimating Birkeland current magnitudes, with modifications made to account for solar contributions to ionospheric conductance based on the observed variation of the Birkeland currents with season and time of day. The modified model, using the value of ΦD averaged by Bartels rotation (scaled by 1.7), is found to agree with the observed AMPERE currents, with a correlation of 0.87 in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.86 in the Southern Hemisphere. The improvement over the correlation with dayside reconnection rate is demonstrated to be a significant improvement to the model. The correlation of the residuals is found to be consistent with more current flowing in the Northern Hemisphere. This new observation of systematically larger current flowing in the Northern Hemisphere is discussed in the context of previous results which suggest that the Northern Hemisphere may react more strongly to dayside reconnection than the Southern Hemisphere.

  14. A genetic structure of novel population of Fascioloides magna from Poland, Podkarpackie Province, indicates an expanding second European natural focus of fascioloidosis.

    PubMed

    Juhásová, Ľudmila; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Karamon, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The veterinary important parasite of ruminants, giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna(Trematoda: Fasciolidae), isolated from liver of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama) from Podkarpackie Province (southeastern Poland) was genotypized by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase (nad1) markers. The data on this newly emerged population were compared with mitochondrial haplotypes of recently detected Polish population of F. magna from Lower Silesian Wilderness (southwestern Poland) and with European populations of the parasite from all three natural foci; northern Italy, Czech Republic and the Danube floodplain forests. The flukes from Podkarpackie Province were found to be genetically identical with flukes from Czech Republic and Lower Silesian Wilderness in Poland. It is evident that central and southwestern Czech Republic, recognized as one of the endemic area of F. magna in Europe, has been enlarging and parasite has been invading several novel localities in Poland.

  15. Comparing two fish sampling standards over time: largely congruent results but with caveats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cachera, Sébastien; Colon, Michel; Guillard, Jean

    2013-01-01

    1. We sampled Lake Bourget (surface area = 44 km2) using CEN standard gillnet and provisional standard acoustic survey methods over 3 years (2005, 2010 and 2011) as the fish community responded to re-oligotrophication. A total of 16 species were caught in benthic gillnets and three species in pelagic gillnets. 2. Lake Bourget results were consistent with a recent study (Emmrich et al., Freshwater Biology, 57, 2012, 2436) showing strong correspondence between average biomass-per-unit-effort (BPUE) in standard benthic gillnets and average acoustic volume backscattering when smaller lakes (0.25–5.45 km2) were treated as sample units. 3. The BPUE of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) measured by benthic gillnets all declined significantly with increasing bathymetric depth; 93% of nets set at depths >50 m caught zero fish. 4. Pelagic gillnetting indicated that small (20 m) increased significantly after 2005. 5. Both surveys showed whitefish biomass increased significantly during the study, but whitefish ≥25 cm were poorly represented in benthic gillnet catches. Contrary to the acoustic findings, the BPUE of perch and roach in benthic gillnets did not vary significantly over time. This metric is insensitive to changes in size structure in that a high catch of small fish and a low catch of large fish in different years can provide similar average BPUE estimates. 6. We examined correlations between BPUE in benthic gillnets and acoustic methods at fine spatial scales by averaging acoustic backscattering measurements encompassed by buffers of varying size (250–2000 m) around individual gillnets and by averaging samples collected from lake quadrants. Correlations at fines scales were generally poor, and only in 1 year was the quadrant correlation significant. The lack of correlation can be explained, in part, by the two gears sampling different components of the fish community. Conversely, in pelagic habitat, where the

  16. Interannual sedimentary effluxes of alkalinity in the southern North Sea: Model results compared with summer observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetsch, Johannes; Kuehn, Wilfried; Six, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    Alkalinity generation in the sediment of the southern North Sea is the focus of several recent studies. One motivation for these efforts is the potentially enhanced buffering capacity of anthropogenic CO2 invasion into the corresponding pelagic system. An adaptation of a global multilayer sediment model (Heinze et al., 1999) in combination with a pelagic ecosystem model for shelf sea dynamics was used to study the benthic reactions on very different annual cycles (2001 - 2009) including the River Elbe summer flooding in 2002. The focus of this study is the efflux of alkalinity, their different contributors (aerobic respiration, denitrification, net sulfate reduction, calcite dissolution, nitrification) and their seasonal and interannual cycles. Similar to the observations covering the southern North Sea (Brenner et al., 2015) the model results show large horizontal gradients from the near-shore high productive areas with benthic remineralization up to Rmin = 10.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 and TA generation RTA = 2 mol C m-2 yr-1 to off-shore moderate productive areas with mean Rmin = 2.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 and mean TA generation RTA = 0.4 mol C m-2 yr-1. Beside calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration (producing ammonium) and denitrification are the largest contributors to alkalinity generation. Nitrification is reducing alkalinity in the sediment. Due to low regenerated primary production in summer, the year 2001 exhibits the lowest input of particulate organic matter into the sediment (POCexp=2.3 mol C m-2 yr-1), while the year 2003 exhibits the highest export production (POCexp=2.6 mol C m-2 yr-1). The biogeochemical reactions and the effluxes from the sediment follow these pelagic amplitudes with a time lag of about one year with damped amplitudes. References Brenner, H., Braeckman, U., Le Guitton, M., Meysman, F.J.R., 2015. The impact of sedimentary alkalinity release on the water column CO2 system in the North Sea. Biogeosiences Discussion, 12(15): 12395-12453. Heinze, C

  17. Leaf mechanical resistance in plant trait databases: comparing the results of two common measurement methods.

    PubMed

    Enrico, Lucas; Díaz, Sandra; Westoby, Mark; Rice, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    The influence of leaf mechanical properties on local ecosystem processes, such as trophic transfer, decomposition and nutrient cycling, has resulted in a growing interest in including leaf mechanical resistance in large-scale databases of plant functional traits. 'Specific work to shear' and 'force to tear' are two properties commonly used to describe mechanical resistance (toughness or strength) of leaves. Two methodologies have been widely used to measure them across large datasets. This study aimed to assess correlations and standardization between the two methods, as measured by two widely used apparatuses, in order to inter-convert existing data in those global datasets. Specific work to shear (W(SS)) and force to tear (FT) were measured in leaves of 72 species from south-eastern Australia. The measurements were made including and excluding midribs. Relationships between the variables were tested by Spearman correlations and ordinary least square regressions. A positive and significant correlation was found between the methods, but coefficients varied according to the inclusion or exclusion of the midrib in the measurements. Equations for prediction varied according to leaf venation pattern. A positive and significant (r = 0·90, P < 0·0001) correlation was also found between W(SS) values for fresh and rehydrated leaves, which is considered to be of practical relevance. In the context of broad-scale ecological hypotheses and used within the constraints recommended here, leaf mechanical resistance data obtained with both methodologies could be pooled together into a single coarser variable, using the equations provided in this paper. However, more detailed datasets of FT cannot be safely filled in with estimations based on W(SS), or vice versa. In addition, W(SS) values of green leaves can be predicted with good accuracy from W(SS) of rehydrated leaves of the same species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals

  18. In the Shadow of Auschwitz: Teaching the Holocaust in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    1999-01-01

    Until recently, schools in Poland have done little to discourage anti-Semitism and have not taught about the Holocaust nor explained why there are virtually no Jews in Poland. Curriculum modifications in the next school year will introduce the subject at the elementary-school level. (SLD)

  19. Bovine tuberculosis in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Monika; Lipiec, Marek; Zabost, Anna; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    Poland is officially tuberculosis free and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) cases are rarely found except in bovids. We found BTB in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Bieszczady Mountains, southeastern Poland. Studies suggest possible transmission of infection between free-living European bison (Bison bonasus caucasicus) and wild boar in this area.

  20. Legislative Aspects of Rehabilitation Services for the Disabled in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulek, A., Ed.

    The main task of rehabilitation in Poland is the maximum integration of the disabled into ordinary life. Developmental trends in recent years have focused on rehabilitation services for the chronically ill. The document provides information on the organization of rehabilitation services in Poland and discusses specific problems of rehabilitation…