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Sample records for polarization dependent spontaneous-emission

  1. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Spontaneous Emission of a Polarized Atom in a Medium Between Two Parallel Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, De-Hua; Huang, Kai-Yun; Xu, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Using the photon closed orbit theory, the spontaneous emission rate of a polarized atom in a medium between two parallel mirrors is derived and calculated. It is found that the spontaneous emission rate of a polarized atom between the mirrors is related to the atomic position and the polarization direction. The results show that in the vicinity of the mirror, the variation of the spontaneous emission rate depends crucially on the atomic polarization direction. With the increase of the polarization angle, the oscillation in the spontaneous emission rate becomes decreased. For the polarization direction parallel to the mirror plane, the oscillation is the greatest; while for the perpendicular polarization direction, the oscillation is nearly vanished. The agreement between our result and the quantum electrodynamics result suggests the correctness of our calculation. This study further verifies that the atomic spontaneous emission process can be effectively controlled by changing the polarization orientation of the atom.

  2. Characteristics of Spontaneous Emission of Polarized Atoms in Metal Dielectric Multiple Layer Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-Ming; Gu, Ben-Yuan; Zhou, Yun-Song

    2007-11-01

    The spontaneous emission (SE) progress of polarized atoms in a stratified structure of air-dielectric(D0)-metal(M)-dielectric(D1)-air can be controlled effectively by changing the thickness of the D1 layer and rotating the polarized direction of atoms. It is found that the normalized SE rate of atoms located inside the D0 layer crucially depends on the atomic position and the thickness of the D1 layer. When the atom is located near the D0-M interface, the normalized atomic SE rate as a function of the atomic position is abruptly onset for the thin D1 layer. However, with the increasing thickness of the D1 layer, the corresponding curve profile exhibits plateau and stays nearly unchanged. The substantial change of the SE rate stems from the excitation of the surface plasmon polaritons in metal-dielectric interface, and the feature crucially depends on the thickness of D1 layer. If atoms are positioned near the D0-air interface, the substantial variation of the normalized SE rate appears when rotating the polarized direction of atoms. These findings manifest that the atomic SE processes can be flexibly controlled by altering the thickness of the dielectric layer D1 or rotating the orientation of the polarization of atoms.

  3. Thickness dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in low-absorbing organic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Eva M; Ramírez, Manuel G; Boj, Pedro G; Díaz García, María A

    2012-06-01

    The effect of varying film thickness (h) on the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties of 0.5  wt.% perylenediimide-doped polystyrene waveguides is reported. The threshold dependence on h, not previously investigated in detail, is analyzed in terms of the film absorption and photoluminescence, the confinement of the fundamental waveguide mode (TE0), and the presence of high-order modes. For h<400  nm and down to 150 nm, the ASE wavelength blueshifts, while the linewidth and threshold increase. The detrimental ASE operation in very thin films is due to the low absorption as well as to the poor confinement of the TE0 mode.

  4. Excitation dependent two-component spontaneous emission and ultrafast amplified spontaneous emission in dislocation-free InGaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    You, Guanjun; Zhang, Chunfeng; Xu, Jian; Guo, Wei; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Henderson, Ron

    2013-03-04

    Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at 456 nm from In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N nanowires grown on (001) silicon by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy was observed at room temperature under femtosecond excitation. The photoluminescence spectra below ASE threshold consist of two spontaneous emission bands centered at {approx}555 nm and {approx}480 nm, respectively, revealing the co-existence of deeply and shallowly localized exciton states in the nanowires. The ASE peak emerges from the 480 nm spontaneous emission band when the excitation density exceeds {approx}120 {mu}J/cm{sup 2}, indicating that optical gain arises from the radiative recombination of shallowly localized excitons in the nanowires. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements revealed that the ASE process completes within 1.5 ps, suggesting a remarkably high stimulated emission recombination rate in one-dimensional InGaN nanowires.

  5. Powerful linearly-polarized high-order random fiber laser pumped by broadband amplified spontaneous emission source

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiangming; Zhou, Pu; Leng, Jinyong; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Hanwei

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been drawn to Random fiber lasers (RFLs) for their typical features of modeless, cavity-less and low coherence length. However, most previously reported high power RFLs employ narrowband fiber lasers as the pump source, thus inducing the self-pulsing transferring from pump source to output Stokes. In this contribution, linearly-polarized RFL pumped by broadband amplified-spontaneous-emission (ASE) is demonstrated and continuous-wave (CW) high order Stokes can be obtained.With 30.6 W pump injected into the half-opened cavity, 23.51 W the 2nd order Stokes centered at 1178 nm with a full width at half-maximum linewidth of 1.73 nm and polarization extinction ratio of about 25 dB can be obtained. The standard deviation and peak-vale value of the 2nd order Stokes light at maximal output power is just 0.47% and 4.10%, which indicates the good power stability. Significantly, the corresponding quantum efficiency of the 1st and 2nd order Stokes light is about 87% and 85%, and almost all pump photons are converted into Stokes photons. As far as we know, it is the highest power ever reported from linearly polarized RFL, and further power scaling is available in the case of more powerful pump source and optimization of system parameters. PMID:27725759

  6. Powerful linearly-polarized high-order random fiber laser pumped by broadband amplified spontaneous emission source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiangming; Zhou, Pu; Leng, Jinyong; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Hanwei

    2016-10-01

    A great deal of attention has been drawn to Random fiber lasers (RFLs) for their typical features of modeless, cavity-less and low coherence length. However, most previously reported high power RFLs employ narrowband fiber lasers as the pump source, thus inducing the self-pulsing transferring from pump source to output Stokes. In this contribution, linearly-polarized RFL pumped by broadband amplified-spontaneous-emission (ASE) is demonstrated and continuous-wave (CW) high order Stokes can be obtained.With 30.6 W pump injected into the half-opened cavity, 23.51 W the 2nd order Stokes centered at 1178 nm with a full width at half-maximum linewidth of 1.73 nm and polarization extinction ratio of about 25 dB can be obtained. The standard deviation and peak-vale value of the 2nd order Stokes light at maximal output power is just 0.47% and 4.10%, which indicates the good power stability. Significantly, the corresponding quantum efficiency of the 1st and 2nd order Stokes light is about 87% and 85%, and almost all pump photons are converted into Stokes photons. As far as we know, it is the highest power ever reported from linearly polarized RFL, and further power scaling is available in the case of more powerful pump source and optimization of system parameters.

  7. Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Gangcheng; Chen, Xinjuan; Yu, Tongjun Lu, Huimin; Chen, Zhizhong; Kang, Xiangning; Wu, Jiejun; Zhang, Guoyi

    2014-03-07

    Angular intensity distributions of differently polarized light sources in multiple quantum wells (MQWs) and their effects on extraction behavior of spontaneous emission from light emitting diode (LED) chips have been studied. Theoretical calculation based on k·p approximation, ray tracing simulation and angular electroluminescence measurement were applied in this work. It is found that the electron-hole recombination in the InGaN MQWs produces a spherical distribution of an s-polarized source and a dumbbell-shaped p-polarized source. Light rays from different polarized sources experience different extraction processes, determining the polarization degree of electro-luminescence and extraction efficiency of LEDs.

  8. Spontaneous emission rates of a single-impurity molecule in dependence on its orientation in biaxial host crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebane, Inna

    2005-08-01

    The spontaneous emission rate (SER) of a single impurity molecule for the electric dipole transition has been found in the case where the birefringence of a host crystal is taken into account. SER depends on the orientation of the dipole moment with respect to the principal axes of the dielectric (permittivity) tensor of the host crystal and on the principal refiactive indices of the crystal. We use the model where the average electromagnetic field in the crystal is classical and effective electric field vectors at the site of the impurity molecule are found for the interstitial impurity which is located in the center of the crystal cell. The results of calculations for seven biaxial host crystals (anthracene, chrysene, diphenyl, fluorine, naphthalene, phenanthrene, terphenyl) are presented. It is shown that values of SER form in the space a three- axial ellipsoid. Differences in the values of SER for the electric dipole transition in the same host crystal are up to 34%.

  9. Two-Dimensional Organic Single Crystals with Scale Regulated, Phase-Switchable, Polymorphism-Dependent, and Amplified Spontaneous Emission Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Song, Xiaoxian; Wang, Shipan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Hongyu; Ye, Kaiqi; Wang, Yue

    2016-05-01

    The successful preparation of two-dimensional (2D) single crystals can promote the development of organic optoelectronic devices with excellent performance. A Schiff base compound salicylidene(4-dimethylamino)aniline with aggregation induced emission (AIE) property was employed as the building block to fabricate 2D thin single crystal plates with scales from around 50 μm to 1.5 cm. Yellow and red emissive polymorphs were concomitantly obtained during crystallization. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SC-to-SC) transformation from yellow polymorph to red one was demonstrated. Furthermore, both polymorphs exhibited amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties. Interestingly, the red polymorph displayed size-dependent ASE characteristics. The larger red polymorph showed near-infrared ASE with maximum at 706 nm, whereas the smaller one presented red ASE with maximum at 610 nm. These results suggest that the different scale single crystalline thin films with perfect optoelectronic properties may be fabricated by using the organic molecules with 2D assembly feature. PMID:27096197

  10. Electrically induced spontaneous emission in open electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rulin; Zhang, Yu; Yam, Chiyung; Computation Algorithms Division (CSRC) Team; Theoretical; Computational Chemistry (HKU) Collaboration

    A quantum mechanical approach is formulated for simulation of electroluminescence process in open electronic system. Based on nonequilibrium Green's function quantum transport equations and combining with photon-electron interaction, this method is used to describe electrically induced spontaneous emission caused by electron-hole recombination. The accuracy and reliability of simulation depends critically on correct description of the electronic band structure and the electron occupancy in the system. In this work, instead of considering electron-hole recombination in discrete states in the previous work, we take continuous states into account to simulate the spontaneous emission in open electronic system, and discover that the polarization of emitted photon is closely related to its propagation direction. Numerical studies have been performed to silicon nanowire-based P-N junction with different bias voltage.

  11. Amplified spontaneous emission of phonons as a likely mechanism for density-dependent velocity saturation in GaN transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurgin, Jacob B.; Bajaj, Sanyam; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-09-01

    We show that density-dependent velocity saturation in a GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) can be related to the stimulated emission of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons. As the drift velocity of electrons increases, the drift of the Fermi distribution in reciprocal space results in population inversion and gain for the LO phonons. Once this gain reaches a threshold value, the avalanche-like increase in LO phonon emission causes a rapid loss of electron energy and momentum and leads to drift velocity saturation. Our simple model correctly predicts both the general trend of decreasing saturation velocity with increasing electron density, and the measured experimental values of saturation.

  12. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Michael S.; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C.

    2015-01-01

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35× corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼115×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼2,500× spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d2. Unfortunately, at d < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, Io = qω|xo|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|xo| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency. PMID:25624503

  13. Laser Cooling without Spontaneous Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corder, Christopher; Arnold, Brian; Metcalf, Harold

    2015-01-01

    This Letter reports the demonstration of laser cooling without spontaneous emission, and thereby addresses a significant controversy. It works by restricting the atom-light interaction to a time short compared to a cycle of absorption followed by natural decay. It is achieved by using the bichromatic force on an atomic transition with a relatively long excited state lifetime and a relatively short cooling time so that spontaneous emission effects are minimized. The observed width of the one-dimensional velocity distribution is reduced by ×2 thereby reducing the "temperature" by ×4 . Moreover, our results comprise a compression in phase space because the spatial expansion of the atomic sample is limited. This accomplishment is of interest to direct laser cooling of molecules or in experiments where working space or time is limited.

  14. Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission

    PubMed Central

    Naghiloo, M.; Foroozani, N.; Tan, D.; Jadbabaie, A.; Murch, K. W.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution. PMID:27167893

  15. Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghiloo, M.; Foroozani, N.; Tan, D.; Jadbabaie, A.; Murch, K. W.

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution.

  16. Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Naghiloo, M; Foroozani, N; Tan, D; Jadbabaie, A; Murch, K W

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution. PMID:27167893

  17. Spontaneous emission in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Bergmann, K.

    2005-11-15

    This work explores the effect of spontaneous emission on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The approach uses adiabatic elimination of weakly coupled density matrix elements in the Liouville equation, from which a very accurate analytic approximation is derived. The loss of population transfer efficiency is found to decrease exponentially with the factor {omega}{sub 0}{sup 2}/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the spontaneous emission rate and {omega}{sub 0} is the peak Rabi frequency. The transfer efficiency increases with the pulse delay and reaches a steady value. For large pulse delay and large spontaneous emission rate STIRAP degenerates into optical pumping.

  18. Peculiarities of the spontaneous emission from a laser oscillating on two optically connected transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipieva, E.; Karavasilev, P.; Todorov, G.

    1985-12-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of some peculiarities of alignment signals from laser levels carried out in simultaneous oscillation of two transitions connected by spontaneous emission. An expression is obtained for a spontaneous emission part caused by the oscillation originating from the lower laser level. It is shown that the population transfer exceeds the coherence transfer significantly. That is why the spontaneous emission part has opposite signs in two orthogonal polarizations under certain conditions. The more important results are verified experimentally at 1152.3 and 1161.4 nm He-Ne laser oscillation.

  19. Directional spontaneous emission enhancement in hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekanth, K. V.; Biaglow, T.; Strangi, G.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the control of spontaneous emission enhancement in multilayered Au/Al2O3 hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs). The hyperbolic dispersion of the Au/Al2O3 multilayers at optical frequencies is confirmed by using effective medium theory, and then the results are validated by experiments performed through variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The modification of spontaneous emission enhancement is observed when the emission wavelengths of different chromophores deposited on top of the multilayer are tuned from the elliptical to hyperbolic spectral region of the HMM. The simulation results further support the modification of spontaneous emission enhancement in designed HMM. This proposed concept and methodology promises potential applications in areas such as single photon sources and biosensing.

  20. Are Einstein's transition probabilities for spontaneous emission constant in plasmas?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griem, H. R.; Huang, Y. W.; Wang, J.-S.; Moreno, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted with a ruby laser to experimentally confirm the quenching of spontaneous emission coefficients and propose a mechanism for the phenomenon. Results of previous experiments are examined to determine the consistency and validity of interpretations of the spontaneous emissions. For the C IV 3s-3p and 2s-3p transitions, the line-intensity ratios are found to be dependent on the separation of the laser from the target. Density gradients and Stark broadening are proposed to interpret the results in a way that does not invalidate the Einstein A values. The interpretation is extended to C III and N V, both of which demonstrate similar changes in A values in previous experiments. The apparent quenching of Ar II by photon collisions is explained by Rabi oscillations and power broadening in the argon-ion laser cavity. It is concluded that the changes in A values cannot result from dense plasma effects.

  1. Ultrafast spontaneous emission source using plasmonic nanoantennas

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thang B.; Akselrod, Gleb M.; Argyropoulos, Christos; Huang, Jiani; Smith, David R.; Mikkelsen, Maiken H.

    2015-01-01

    Typical emitters such as molecules, quantum dots and semiconductor quantum wells have slow spontaneous emission with lifetimes of 1–10 ns, creating a mismatch with high-speed nanoscale optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, single-photon sources and lasers. Here we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast (<11 ps) yet efficient source of spontaneous emission, corresponding to an emission rate exceeding 90 GHz, using a hybrid structure of single plasmonic nanopatch antennas coupled to colloidal quantum dots. The antennas consist of silver nanocubes coupled to a gold film separated by a thin polymer spacer layer and colloidal core–shell quantum dots, a stable and technologically relevant emitter. We show an increase in the spontaneous emission rate of a factor of 880 and simultaneously a 2,300-fold enhancement in the total fluorescence intensity, which indicates a high radiative quantum efficiency of ∼50%. The nanopatch antenna geometry can be tuned from the visible to the near infrared, providing a promising approach for nanophotonics based on ultrafast spontaneous emission. PMID:26212857

  2. Ultrafast spontaneous emission source using plasmonic nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thang B; Akselrod, Gleb M; Argyropoulos, Christos; Huang, Jiani; Smith, David R; Mikkelsen, Maiken H

    2015-01-01

    Typical emitters such as molecules, quantum dots and semiconductor quantum wells have slow spontaneous emission with lifetimes of 1-10 ns, creating a mismatch with high-speed nanoscale optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, single-photon sources and lasers. Here we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast (<11 ps) yet efficient source of spontaneous emission, corresponding to an emission rate exceeding 90 GHz, using a hybrid structure of single plasmonic nanopatch antennas coupled to colloidal quantum dots. The antennas consist of silver nanocubes coupled to a gold film separated by a thin polymer spacer layer and colloidal core-shell quantum dots, a stable and technologically relevant emitter. We show an increase in the spontaneous emission rate of a factor of 880 and simultaneously a 2,300-fold enhancement in the total fluorescence intensity, which indicates a high radiative quantum efficiency of ∼50%. The nanopatch antenna geometry can be tuned from the visible to the near infrared, providing a promising approach for nanophotonics based on ultrafast spontaneous emission. PMID:26212857

  3. Spontaneous emission from a microwave-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li; Wan, Ren-Gang; Yao, Zhi-Hai

    2016-10-01

    The spontaneous emission from a microwave-driven four-level atom embedded in an anisotropic photonic crystal is studied. Due to the modified density of state (DOS) in the anisotropic photonic band gap (PBG) and the coherent control induced by the coupling fields, spontaneous emission can be significantly enhanced when the position of the spontaneous emission peak gets close to the band gap edge. As a result of the closed-loop interaction between the fields and the atom, the spontaneous emission depends on the dynamically induced Autler-Townes splitting and its position relative to the PBG. Interesting phenomena, such as spectral-line suppression, enhancement and narrowing, and fluorescence quenching, appear in the spontaneous emission spectra, which are modulated by amplitudes and phases of the coherently driven fields and the effect of PBG. This theoretical study can provide us with more efficient methods to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11447232, 11204367, 11447157, and 11305020).

  4. Controlling spontaneous emission in bioreplica photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Butler, Elizabeth S.; Bartl, Michael H.

    2012-04-01

    Sophisticated methods have been created by nature to produce structure-based colors as a way to address the need of a wide variety of organisms. This pallet of available structures presents a unique opportunity for the investigation of new photonic crystal designs. Low-temperature sol-gel biotemplating methods were used to transform a single biotemplate into a variety of inorganic oxide structures. The density of optical states was calculated for a diamond-based natural photonic crystal, as well as several structures templated from it. Calculations were experimentally probed by spontaneous emission studies using time correlated single photon counting measurements.

  5. Laser Control of Collective Spontaneous Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macovei, M.; Keitel, C. H.

    2003-09-01

    The collective spontaneous emission of a pair of two coupled three-level radiators in vacuum is investigated in the presence of a possibly intense laser field. The parameters describing the collective interaction along with the population and decay rates of all involved dressed states are shown to be controllable by the applied laser field. In particular, all populations of the collective system may be transferred at will in a reversible way into a subradiant state, allowing effective storage and manipulation of the quantum system.

  6. Amplified spontaneous emission in Cassegrainian amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eimerl, David

    1987-05-01

    The paper considers all possible paths for amplifed spontaneous emission (ASE) in multipass laser amplifiers using a Cassegranian telescope geometry. In particular, ASE which is reflected back into the medium off the telescope mirrors themselves is studied. These ASE components are unavoidable in this amplifier geometry. It is shown that there is a component of the ASE which makes approximately double the number of passes through the amplifier as the laser signal makes. It is also shown that these high-order ASE components are also present in amplifiers which are almost Cassegrainian. They cannot be eliminated by changing the ratio of the scraper and hole radii or the separation of the mirrors. It is likely that these ASE components will be more significant in pulsed lasers than CW lasers.

  7. Two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2011-12-01

    We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization based on the controlled spontaneous emission, in which the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Due to the spatially dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the resulting spontaneously emission spectrum. The phase sensitive property of the atomic system leads to quenching of the spontaneous emission in some regions of the standing-waves, which significantly reduces the uncertainty in the position measurement of the atom. We find that the frequency measurement of the emitted light localizes the atom in half-wavelength domain. Especially the probability of finding the atom at a particular position can reach 100% when a photon with certain frequency is detected. By increasing the Rabi frequencies of the driving fields, such 2D sub-half-wavelength atom localization can acquire high spatial resolution.

  8. Photonic Crystals-Inhibited Spontaneous Emission: Optical Antennas-Enhanced Spontaneous Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablonovitch, Eli

    Photonic crystals are also part of everyday technological life in opto-electronic telecommunication devices that provide us with internet, cloud storage, and email. But photonic crystals have also been identified in nature, in the coloration of peacocks, parrots, chameleons, butterflies and many other species.In spite of its broad applicability, the original motivation of photonic crystals was to create a ``bandgap'' in which the spontaneous emission of light would be inhibited. Conversely, the opposite is now possible. The ``optical antenna'' can accelerate spontaneous emission. Over 100 years after the radio antenna, we finally have tiny ``optical antennas'' which can act on molecules and quantum dots. Employing optical antennas, spontaneous light emission can become faster than stimulated emission.

  9. Scalarized photon analysis of spontaneous emission in the uniform magnetic field free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soln, Josip

    1990-04-01

    The recently developed concept of scalarized photons (formally photons of any polarization) is used to analyze the spontaneous emission in the uniform magnetic field free-electron laser in the microwave spectral region. With the electron beam energy of up to 10 MeV and the uniform magnetic field of up to 4 Tesla, the radiation (occurring with the fundamental and higher harmonic frequencies) can easily cover a 10- to 10,000 GHz spectral region.

  10. On spectral dependence of polarization of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupishko, D. F.; Shkuratov, Yu. G.

    2016-09-01

    From the analysis of all of the data available on the spectral dependence of polarization of light reflected by asteroids, it has been shown that the slope of the spectral dependence of polarization of asteroids changes its sign, when moving from the negative branch of the phase curve of polarization to the positive one. This effect also manifests itself in the spectral behavior of polarization of the Moon and, probably, in the polarization of the other atmosphereless bodies. From the analysis of a population of asteroids of different types, a weak correlation between the spectral slopes of the polarization degree and the albedo has been found.

  11. Quantum dot spontaneous emission control in a ridge waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Petr; Delga, Adrien; Bleuse, Joël; Dupuy, Emmanuel; Peinke, Emanuel; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Claudon, Julien; Zang, Xiaorun; Lalanne, Philippe

    2015-01-26

    We investigate the spontaneous emission (SE) of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in GaAs ridge waveguides that lay on a low index substrate. In thin enough waveguides, the coupling to the fundamental guided mode is vanishingly small. A pronounced anisotropy in the coupling to non-guided modes is then directly evidenced by normal-incidence photoluminescence polarization measurements. In this regime, a measurement of the QD decay rate reveals a SE inhibition by a factor up to 4. In larger wires, which ensure an optimal transverse confinement of the fundamental guided mode, the decay rate approaches the bulk value. Building on the good agreement with theoretical predictions, we infer from calculations the fraction β of SE coupled to the fundamental guided mode for some important QD excitonic complexes. For a charged exciton (isotropic in plane optical dipole), β reaches 0.61 at maximum for an on-axis QD. In the case of a purely transverse linear optical dipole, β increases up to 0.91. This optimal configuration is achievable through the selective excitation of one of the bright neutral excitons.

  12. Temperature quenching of spontaneous emission in tunnel-injection nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Talalaev, V. G. Novikov, B. V.; Cirlin, G. E.; Leipner, H. S.

    2015-11-15

    The spontaneous-emission spectra in the near-IR range (0.8–1.3 μm) from inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures are measured. These structures contain an InAs quantum-dot layer and an InGaAs quantum-well layer, separated by GaAs barrier spacer whose thickness varies in the range 3–9 nm. The temperature dependence of this emission in the range 5–295 K is investigated, both for optical excitation (photoluminescence) and for current injection in p–n junction (electroluminescence). At room temperature, current pumping proves more effective for inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures with a thin barrier (<6 nm), when the apexes of the quantum dots connect with the quantum well by narrow InGaAs straps (nanobridges). In that case, the quenching of the electroluminescence by heating from 5 to 295 K is slight. The quenching factor S{sub T} of the integrated intensity I is S{sub T} = I{sub 5}/I{sub 295} ≈ 3. The temperature stability of the emission from inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures is discussed on the basis of extended Arrhenius analysis.

  13. Spontaneous emission and the operation of invisibility cloaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morshed Behbahani, Mina; Amooghorban, Ehsan; Mahdifar, Ali

    2016-07-01

    As a probe to explore the ability of invisibility cloaks to conceal objects in the quantum mechanics domain, we study the spontaneous emission rate of an excited two-level atom in the vicinity of an ideal invisibility cloaking. On this base, first, a canonical quantization scheme is presented for the electromagnetic field interacting with atomic systems in an anisotropic, inhomogeneous, and absorbing magnetodielectric medium which can suitably be used for studying the influence of arbitrary invisibility cloak on the atomic radiative properties. The time dependence of the atomic subsystem is obtained in the Schrodinger picture. By introducing a modified set of the spherical wave-vector functions, the Green tensor of the system is calculated via exact and discrete methods. In this formalism, the decay rate and as well the emission pattern of the aforementioned atom are computed analytically for both weak and strong coupling interaction, and then numerically calculations are done to demonstrate the performances of cloaking in the quantum mechanics domain. Special attention is paid to different possible orientations and locations of the atomic system near the spherical invisibility cloaking. Results in the presence and the absence of the invisibility cloak are compared. We find that the cloak works very well far from its resonance frequency to conceal a macroscopic object, whereas at near the resonance frequency the object is more visible than the situation where the object is not covered by the cloak.

  14. Polarization Dependent Optical Responses of Graphene Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ting; Choi, Sangkook; Louie, Steven

    2014-03-01

    The optical response of an anisotropic system depends on light's polarization direction. In this study, we perform first-principle calculations on polarization dependent optical absorption spectra of graphene nanoribbons at the RPA and GW-BSE level. We observe significant polarization dependent features. We demonstrate the many-body origins of these features. We also discuss the polarization dependent optical responses of other carbon nanostructures, and connect our work to experimental measurements. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR10-1006184, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by DOE at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's NERSC facility

  15. Simulations of the spontaneous emission of a quantum dot near a gap plasmon waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, Chamanei S. Vernon, Kristy C.; Mcleod, Angus

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we modeled a quantum dot at near proximity to a gap plasmon waveguide to study the quantum dot-plasmon interactions. Assuming that the waveguide is single mode, this paper is concerned about the dependence of spontaneous emission rate of the quantum dot on waveguide dimensions such as width and height. We compare coupling efficiency of a gap waveguide with symmetric configuration and asymmetric configuration illustrating that symmetric waveguide has a better coupling efficiency to the quantum dot. We also demonstrate that optimally placed quantum dot near a symmetric waveguide with 50 nm × 50 nm cross section can capture 80% of the spontaneous emission into a guided plasmon mode.

  16. Spontaneous emission from semiconductor nanocrystals in coupled spherical microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovich, Yu. P.; Gerlach, M.; Bradley, A. L.; Donegan, J. F.; Boland, J.; Connolly, T.; Przyjalgowski, M.; Ryder, A.; Gaponik, N.; Rogach, A. L.

    2005-02-01

    We report on the coherent coupling of whispering gallery modes (WGM) in a photonic molecule formed from two melamine-formaldehyde spherical microcavities coated with a thin shell of light-emitting CdTe nanocrystals (NCs). Utilizing different excitation conditions the splitting of the WGM resonances originating from bonding and anti-bonding branches of the photonic states is observed and fine structure consisting of very sharp peaks resulting from lifting of the WGM degeneracy has been detected. Time-resolved measurements showed a slight increase in the spontaneous emission rate of NCs in a photonic molecule when compared to the spontaneous emission rate for NCs coating a single microsphere.

  17. QED (quantum-electrodynamical) theory of excess spontaneous emission noise

    SciTech Connect

    Milonni, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a quantum-electrodynamical theory of excess spontaneous emission noise in lossy resonators will be presented. The Petermann K factor'' does not enter into the spontaneous emission rate of a single atom in the cavity. The QED theory allows different interpretations of the K factor, and we use this fact to justify semiclassical analyses and to provide in one example a simple derivation of K in terms of the amplification of the quantum vacuum field entering the resonator through its mirrors. 17 refs.

  18. Spontaneous emission from photonic crystals: full vectorial calculations

    PubMed

    Li; Lin; Zhang

    2000-05-01

    Quantum electrodynamics of atom spontaneous emission from a three-dimensional photonic crystal is studied in a full vectorial framework. The electromagnetic fields are quantized via solving the eigenproblem of photonic crystals with use of a plane-wave expansion method. It is found that the photon density of states and local density of states (LDOS) with a full band gap vary slowly near the edge of band gap, in significant contrast to the singular character predicted by the previous isotropic model. Therefore, the spontaneous emission can be solved by conventional Weisskopf-Wigner approximate theory, which yields a pure exponentially decaying behavior with a rate proportional to the LDOS.

  19. Amplified spontaneous emission in solar-pumped iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Yong S.; Hwang, In H.; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1992-01-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from a long pulse, solar-simulating radiation pumped iodine laser amplifier is studied. The ASE threshold pump intensity is almost proportional to the inverse of the laser gain length when the gas pressure is constant in the laser tube.

  20. Mercury - Wavelength and longitude dependence of polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, T.; Landau, R.; Coyne, G. V.

    1987-01-01

    The polarization-time variations noted in the present linear polarization observations of the integrated Mercury disk, with filters covering the 0.3-1.0 micron bandpass and between 53-130 deg of phase angle, may be accounted for in terms of longitude dependence through the variation of brightness or other properties over the surface. Kepler's equation for the eccentric anomaly was solved for each observation, and the true anomaly was used to find the subsolar longitude. The difference found in the polarization-albedo relations of Mercury and the moon indicates a difference in surface texture and/or composition.

  1. Reversible modulation of spontaneous emission by strain in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Daryoush; Verma, Amit; Selvakumar, C R; Anantram, M P

    2012-01-01

    We computationally study the effect of uniaxial strain in modulating the spontaneous emission of photons in silicon nanowires. Our main finding is that a one to two orders of magnitude change in spontaneous emission time occurs due to two distinct mechanisms: (A) Change in wave function symmetry, where within the direct bandgap regime, strain changes the symmetry of wave functions, which in turn leads to a large change of optical dipole matrix element. (B) Direct to indirect bandgap transition which makes the spontaneous photon emission to be of a slow second order process mediated by phonons. This feature uniquely occurs in silicon nanowires while in bulk silicon there is no change of optical properties under any reasonable amount of strain. These results promise new applications of silicon nanowires as optoelectronic devices including a mechanism for lasing. Our results are verifiable using existing experimental techniques of applying strain to nanowires.

  2. Demonstration of photon-echo rephasing of spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Beavan, Sarah E; Hedges, Morgan P; Sellars, Matthew J

    2012-08-31

    In this paper we report the first demonstration of "rephased amplified spontaneous emission" (RASE) with photon-counting detection. This protocol provides an all-in-one photon-pair source and quantum-memory that has applications as a quantum repeater node. The RASE protocol is temporally multimode, and in this demonstration the photon echo was generated in a way that is spatially multimode and includes intermediate storage between two potentially long-lived spin states. A correlation between spontaneous emission and its photon echo was observed, using an ensemble of Pr(3+) ions doped into a Y2SiO5 crystal. Alterations that would allow for the measurement of nonclassical correlations are identified. These should generally apply for future experiments in rare-earth ion crystals, which are promising systems for implementing highly-multiplexed quantum repeater operations.

  3. Spontaneous emission of “polarized” V-type three-level atoms strongly coupled with an optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yan-Li; Zhu, Shi-Deng; Li, Jia-Fang; Ding, Wei; Feng, Bao-Hua; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Polarization, an intrinsic ingredient of photon, plays a critical role in its interaction with matter. A general polarization state can be an appropriate superposition of two basic polarization states, say, the vertical and horizontal linear polarized state. Here we study spontaneous emission of a V-type three-level atom (with two upper states close in energy level) strongly coupled with a single-mode damped optical cavity. By defining a general polarization state of atom as a specific superposition of the two upper quantum states, we can prepare atoms with linear polarization at arbitrary direction, left and right circular polarization, and left and right elliptical polarization, similar to photons. We find that the spontaneous emission of light from these “polarized” three-level atoms shows very different profiles of side and axis spectra. This means that the polarization state of three-level atoms can become an active ingredient to manipulate its interaction with light and control the quantum interference effect. Exploitation of the coherent superposition and interference of quantum states in “polarized” atoms would allow one to deeply explore new frontiers of light-matter interaction. Project supported by the National Basic Research Foundation of China (Grant No. 2011CB922002).

  4. Engineering Filters for Reducing Spontaneous Emission in cQED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronn, Nicholas; Masluk, Nicholas; Srinivasan, Srikanth; Chow, Jerry; Abraham, David; Rothwell, Mary; Keefe, George; Gambetta, Jay; Steffen, Matthias; Lirakis, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Inserting a notch filter between a qubit and the external environment at the qubit frequency can significantly suppress spontaneous emission mediated by the cavity (``Purcell effect''). In order to realize this filtering in multi-qubit architectures, where space comes at a premium, we will present a filter with minimal space requirements. We acknowledge support from IARPA under contract W911NF-10-1-0324.

  5. Surface plasmon enhancement of spontaneous emission in graphene waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    This work analyzes the spontaneous emission of a single emitter placed near the graphene waveguide formed by two parallel graphene monolayers, with an insulator spacer layer. In this case, the eigenmodes supported by the structure, such as surface plasmon and wave guided modes, provide decay channels for the electric dipole placed close to the waveguide. We calculated the contribution to the decay rate of symmetric and antisymmetric eigenmodes as a function of frequency and the orientation of the emitter. Our results show that the modification of the spontaneous emission due to excitation of guided modes is much lower than the corresponding decays through the excitation of symmetric and antisymmetric surface plasmons, for which, the spontaneous emission is dramatically enhanced. As a consequence of the high confinement of surface plasmons in the graphene waveguide, we found that the decay rate of the emitter with vertical orientation (with respect to graphene sheets) is twice the corresponding decay of the same emitter with parallel orientation in the whole frequency range where surface plasmon modes exist. Differently from metallo-dielectric structures, where structural parameters determine the range and magnitude of this emission, our work shows that, by dynamically tuning the chemical potential of graphene, the spectral region where the decay rate is enhanced can be chosen over a wide range.

  6. A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, R. Yuanying; Lu, Guowei Shen, Hongming; He, Yingbo; Cheng, Yuqing; Perriat, Pascal; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-06-28

    Spontaneous emission modulated by a hybrid plasmonic nanoantenna has been investigated by employing finite-difference time-domain method. The hybrid nanoantenna configurations constituted by a gap hot-spot and of a plasmonic corrugated grating and a metal reflector sandwiching a SiO{sub 2} thin layer which appears promising for high spontaneous emission enhancement devices. Simulation assays show that the coupling between the gap-antenna and plasmonic corrugations reaches an ultra-high near-field enhancement factor in the excitation process. Moreover, concerning the emission process, the corrugations concentrate the far-field radiated power within a tiny angular volume, offering unprecedented collection efficiency. In the past decades, many kinds of optical antennas have been proposed and optimized to enhance single molecule detection. However, the excitation enhancement effect for single individual or dimmer plasmonic nanostructure is limited due to intrinsic nonradiative decay of the nanoparticle plasmon and quantum tunneling effect. The proposed hybrid configuration overwhelms the enhancement limit of single individual plasmonic structure. The findings provide an insight into spontaneous emission high enhancement through integrating the functions of different metallic nanostructures.

  7. Spontaneous emission effects in optically pumped x-ray FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Smetanin, I.V.; Grigor`ev, S.V.

    1995-12-31

    An effect of spontaneous emission in both quantum and classical regimes of the optically pumped X-ray free electron laser (FEL) in investigated. The quantum properties of an FEL are determined by the ratio of the separation {h_bar} between the absorption and emission lines (i.e. the quanta emitted) and their effective width {Delta}{epsilon} {eta}={h_bar}/{Delta}{epsilon}. In the conventional classical regime {eta} {much_lt} 1 an electron emits and absorbes a great number of shortwavelength photons over the interaction region, the gain in FEL being the result of these competitive processes. In the quantum limit {eta} {much_gt} 1 the emission and absorption lines are completely separated and thus the FEL becomes a two-level quantum oscillator with a completely inverted active medium. Spontaneous emission causes the electron to leave the range of energies where resonant interaction with the laser field occurs, thus effectively reducing the number of particles that take part in generating the induced X-ray signal. This effect is found to be crucial for lasing in optically pumped X-ray FEL. The characteristic relaxation times are calculated for both classical and quantum FEL regimes. It is shown that spontaneous emission results in FEL electron beam threshold current, which is of rather high value. An optimal range of pumping laser intensities is determined.

  8. Plasmonic nanogaps for broadband and large spontaneous emission rate enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Anthony P.; Adawi, Ali M.

    2014-02-07

    We present the optical properties of a plasmonic nanogap formed between a silver metallic nanoparticle and an extended silver film that shows a strong enhancement in the spontaneous emission rate over the whole visible range. In particular, we use three-dimensional finite difference time domain calculations to study the spontaneous emission rate and the quantum efficiency of an emitting material placed within the gap region as a function of the geometrical parameters of the plasmonic nanogap. Our calculations reveal that the enhancements in the total decay rate can be divided into two regions as a function of wavelength; region I spans the wavelength range from 350 nm to 500 nm and peaks at approximately at 400 nm. Region II covers the spectral range between 500 nm and 1000 nm. The enhancements in total decay rate in region I are mainly dominated by Ohmic losses by the metal, while the enhancements in total decay rate in region II are mainly dominated by radiative decay rate enhancements. Furthermore, our calculations show over 100 times enhancement in the spontaneous emission rate in region II. We combine this with quantum efficiency enhancements of almost 30 times from materials with low intrinsic quantum efficiencies and only a small reduction in efficiency from those with high intrinsic quantum efficiencies. All results appear easily achievable using realistic geometrical parameters and simple synthesis techniques. These results are attributed to the strong field confinements in the nanogap region. The structures are of high interest for both the fundamental understanding of light mater interactions under extreme electromagnetic field confinements and also potential applications in quantum optics and Raman spectroscopy.

  9. 2-.mu.m fiber amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Shibin (Inventor); Wu, Jianfeng (Inventor); Geng, Jihong (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A 2-.mu.m fiber Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) source provides a wide emission bandwidth and improved spectral stability/purity for a given output power. The fiber ASE source is formed from a heavy metal oxide multicomponent glass selected from germanate, tellurite and bismuth oxides and doped with high concentrations, 0.5-15 wt. %, thulium oxides (Tm.sub.2O.sub.3) or 0.1-5 wt% holmium oxides (Ho.sub.2O.sub.3) or mixtures thereof. The high concentration of thulium dopants provide highly efficient pump absorption and high quantum efficiency. Co-doping of Tm and Ho can broaden the ASE spectrum.

  10. Amplified spontaneous emission in high power KrF lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Akira; Kasuya, Koichi; Ueda, Ken-Ichi; Takuma, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional simulation code for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) for a high-power KrF laser amplifier. The results of parametric calculation show that the maximum transverse gain-length product of the amplifier without efficiency depletion is three, and the longitudinal gain-length product should be limited to ten. From a device of 10 m in length and 3 m in diameter, operated with 1-percent/cm small signal gain and 1-microsec duration, the corresponding maximum output will be 500 kJ.

  11. Collective spontaneous emission in coupled quantum dots: Physical mechanism of quantum nanoantenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhlespour, Salman; Haverkort, J. E. M.; Slepyan, Gregory; Maksimenko, Sergey; Hoffmann, A.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the collective spontaneous emission in a system of two identical quantum dots (QDs) strongly coupled through the dipole-dipole (d-d) interaction. The QDs are modeled as two-level quantum objects, while the d-d interaction is described as the exchange of a virtual photon through the photonic reservoir. The master equation approach is used in the analysis. The main attention is focused on antenna characteristics of the two-QD system—the radiation intensity dependence on the meridian and azimuthal angles of observation. We show that the radiation pattern of such a system is nonstationary and its temporal behavior depends on the initial quantum state. In particular, for entangled initial states the radiative pattern exhibits oscillations on the frequency which corresponds to the d-d interaction energy. We also analyze spectral properties of the directional diagram. The comparison of radiation patterns is carried out for two QDs and two classical dipoles. The concept of quantum nanoantenna is proposed based on collective spontaneous emission in QD ensembles.

  12. Cooperative spontaneous emission from indistinguishable atoms in arbitrary motional quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanet, François; Braun, Daniel; Martin, John

    2016-09-01

    We investigate superradiance and subradiance of indistinguishable atoms with quantized motional states, starting with an initial total state that factorizes over the internal and external degrees of freedom of the atoms. Due to the permutational symmetry of the motional state, the cooperative spontaneous emission, governed by a recently derived master equation [F. Damanet et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 022124 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.022124], depends only on two decay rates γ and γ0 and a single parameter Δdd describing the dipole-dipole shifts. We solve the dynamics exactly for N =2 atoms, numerically for up to 30 atoms, and obtain the large-N limit by a mean-field approach. We find that there is a critical difference γ0-γ that depends on N beyond which superradiance is lost. We show that exact nontrivial dark states (i.e., states other than the ground state with vanishing spontaneous emission) only exist for γ =γ0 and that those states (dark when γ =γ0 ) are subradiant when γ <γ0 .

  13. Directional and enhanced spontaneous emission with a corrugated metal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hongming; Lu, Guowei; He, Yingbo; Cheng, Yuqing; Liu, Haitao; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-06-01

    A three-dimensional corrugated metal tapered probe with surface corrugated gratings at the tip apex is proposed and investigated theoretically, which leads to an obvious emission beaming effect of spontaneous emission from a single emitter near the probe. In contrast with conventional apertureless metal probes, where only the enhancement of an optical near-field is concerned, the corrugated probe is able to manipulate local excitation intensity and far-field emission direction simultaneously. The angular emission from a single dipole source, being placed close to the corrugated probe, falls into a cone with a maximum directivity angle of +/-11.6°, which improves the collection efficiency 25-fold. Such a probe simultaneously increases the localized field intensity to about twice as strong as the conventional bare tip. In addition, the radiation pattern is sensitive to the working wavelength and the dipole to tip-apex separation. These findings make a promising route to the development of plasmonic spontaneous emission manipulation based on corrugated tapered antenna--for instance, tip-enhanced spectroscopy, single-molecule sensing, and single-photon source .

  14. Madey's theorems for free-electron devices, spontaneous emission, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, W.; McIver, J. K.

    1988-12-01

    Two theorems due to Madey occupy a central position in free-electron laser physics: one relates the gain to the derivative of the spontaneous emission line shape and the other one relates it to the derivative of the electron energy spread in stimulated emission. We use quantum mechanical perturbation thoery of first order in the radiation field to give a general derivation of the theorems based on (a) the hermiticity of the electronfield interaction, (b) the applicability of lowest order perturbation theory, and (c) the assumption that the emitted photon have a sufficiently low energy. Assumption (b) restricts the validity of the theorems to the small-signal weak-field regime, (c) to the small recoil regime where the gain is classical. We use scalar quantum electrodynamics in the Furry picture in order to keep effects which are nonlinear in the undulator field, e.g. higher harmonic emission. We consider a fairly general one-dimensional (i.e. not having transverse variations) monochromatic undulator field (magnetic or optical undulator, linear or circular polarization, possible presence of a diffractive medium). An appendix considers nonmonochromatic fields. We derive explicit results for the linearly polarized and the helical undulator allowing for an arbitrary orientation of the undulator axis, the electron beam and the emitted radiation with respect to each other. In particular, we discuss the case of Gaussian modes where the applicability of the first theorem has been questioned. It turns out that the theorem is applicable provided that spontaneous emission into the Gaussian mode in question is considered (more generally, into whatever mode is of interest for the gain).

  15. Terahertz-range spontaneous emission under the optical excitation of donors in uniaxially stressed bulk silicon and SiGe/Si heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukavin, R. Kh. Kovalevsky, K. A.; Orlov, M. L.; Tsyplenkov, V. V.; Bekin, N. A.; Yablonskiy, A. N.; Yunin, P. A.; Pavlov, S. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Hübers, H.-W.; Radamson, H. H.; Shastin, V. N.

    2015-01-15

    The results of measurements of the total terahertz-range photoluminescence of Group-V donors (phosphorus, antimony, bismuth, arsenic) in bulk silicon and SiGe/Si heterostructures depending on the excitation intensity are presented. The signal of bulk silicon was also measured as a function of uniaxial stress. The results of measurement of the dependence of the spontaneous emission intensity on the uniaxial stress is in rather good agreement with theoretical calculations of the relaxation times of excited states of donors in bulk silicon. Comparative measurements of the spontaneous emission from various strained heterostructures showed that the photoluminescence signal is caused by donor-doped silicon regions.

  16. Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, G. R. M.; Bonifacio, R.

    2013-03-15

    We extend previous analyses of spontaneous emission in a quantum free electron laser (QFEL) and competition between spontaneous and coherent QFEL emission to include a broad distribution of photon frequencies and momenta appropriate for spontaneous undulator radiation. We show that although the predictions of monochromatic and broadband models predict different electron momentum distributions for the quantum regime due to spontaneous emission alone after many photon emissions, the inclusion of broadband spontaneous emission has a negligible effect on the competition between spontaneous and coherent emission in the QFEL. Numerical results from both models are well described by the same condition for the threshold/critical value of spontaneous emission rate.

  17. Final LDRD report : enhanced spontaneous emission rate in visible III-nitride LEDs using 3D photonic crystal cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Arthur Joseph; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Coley, Anthony J.; Lee, Yun-Ju; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Luk, Ting Shan; Koleske, Daniel David; Fullmer, Kristine Wanta

    2009-09-01

    The fundamental spontaneous emission rate for a photon source can be modified by placing the emitter inside a periodic dielectric structure allowing the emission to be dramatically enhanced or suppressed depending on the intended application. We have investigated the relatively unexplored realm of interaction between semiconductor emitters and three dimensional photonic crystals in the visible spectrum. Although this interaction has been investigated at longer wavelengths, very little work has been done in the visible spectrum. During the course of this LDRD, we have fabricated TiO{sub 2} logpile photonic crystal structures with the shortest wavelength band gap ever demonstrated. A variety of different emitters with emission between 365 nm and 700 nm were incorporated into photonic crystal structures. Time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were performed to measure changes to the spontaneous emission rate. Both enhanced and suppressed emission were demonstrated and attributed to changes to the photonic density of states.

  18. Improved polarization dependent loss tolerance for polarization multiplexed coherent optical systems by polarization pairwise coding.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Song, Binhuang; Corcoran, Bill; Zhuang, Leimeng; Lowery, Arthur James

    2015-10-19

    Polarization dependent loss (PDL) causes imbalanced optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) of the two polarizations, thus remains one of the major bottlenecks for next-generation polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) coherent optical transmission systems. In this paper, we investigate Pairwise Coding for adaptive PDL mitigation in PDM coherent optical systems. By pre-coding across two polarizations, the PDL-induced performance degradation can be largely mitigated without any coding overhead. We present details of the coding and de-coding design, and also derive the analytical symbol/bit error rate of the Polarization Pairwise Coding scheme, which can be used to predict the performance gain as well as for optimal rotation angle calculation. Simulation results verify that Pairwise Coding achieves substantial system performance gains over a wide range of PDL values. Compared with other digital coding techniques, Polarization Pairwise Coding shows improved performance than Walsh-Hadamard transform since it maximizes the coordinate diversity; and also Pairwise Coding is computationally much simpler to decode compared with the Golden and Silver Codes, therefore is practical for current 100-Gb/s and future 400-Gb/s and 1-Tb/s digital coherent transceivers. PMID:26480404

  19. Amplified spontaneous emission properties of semiconducting organic materials.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Eva M; Boj, Pedro G; Díaz-García, María A

    2010-06-18

    This paper aims to review the recent advances achieved in the field of organic solid-state lasers with respect to the usage of semiconducting organic molecules and oligomers in the form of thin films as active laser media. We mainly focus on the work performed in the last few years by our research group. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties, by optical pump, of various types of molecules doped into polystyrene films in waveguide configuration, are described. The various systems investigated include N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), several perilenediimide derivatives (PDIs), as well as two oligo-phenylenevinylene derivatives. The ASE characteristics, i.e., threshold, emission wavelength, linewidth, and photostability are compared with that of other molecular materials investigated in the literature.

  20. Optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission noise.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Tian, Yue; Fok, Mable P; Shastri, Bhavin J; Kanoff, Daniel R; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-01-28

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical steganography method in which a data signal is transmitted using amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise as a carrier. The ASE serving as a carrier for the private signal has an identical frequency spectrum to the existing noise generated by the Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) in the transmission system. The system also carries a conventional data channel that is not private. The so-called "stealth" or private channel is well-hidden within the noise of the system. Phase modulation is used for both the stealth channel and the public channel. Using homodyne detection, the short coherence length of the ASE ensures that the stealth signal can only be recovered if the receiver closely matches the delay-length difference, which is deliberately changed in a dynamic fashion that is only known to the transmitter and its intended receiver.

  1. Directive and enhanced spontaneous emission using shifted cubes nanoantenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, B.; Tellez-Limon, R.; Kante, B.

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that nano-patch antennas formed by metallic nanocubes placed on top of a metallic film largely enhance the spontaneous emission rate of quantum emitters due to the confinement of the electromagnetic field in the small nanogap cavity. The popularity of this architecture is, in part, due to the ease in fabrication. In this contribution, we theoretically demonstrate that a dimer formed by two metallic nanocubes embedded in a dielectric medium exhibits enhanced emission rate compared to the nano-patch antenna. Furthermore, we compare the directivity and radiation efficiency of both nanoantennas. From these characteristics, we obtained information about the "material efficiency" and the coupling mismatch efficiency between a dipole emitter and the nanoantenna. These quantities provide a more intuitive insight than the Purcell factor or localized density of states, opening new perspectives in nanoantenna design for ultra-directive light emission.

  2. WDM optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission noise.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben; Tait, Alexander N; Chang, Matthew P; Prucnal, Paul R

    2014-10-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) optical stealth transmission system carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. The stealth signal is hidden in both time and frequency domains by using ASE noise as the signal carrier. Each WDM channel uses part of the ASE spectrum, which provides more flexibility to apply stealth transmission in a public network and adds another layer of security to the stealth channel. Multi-channel transmission also increases the overall channel capacity, which is the major limitation of the single stealth channel transmission based on ASE noise. The relations between spectral bandwidth and coherence length of ASE carrier have been theoretically analyzed and experimentally investigated.

  3. Controlling the directionality of spontaneous emission by evanescent wave coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue-Lun E-mail: gdhao2@hotmail.com; Hao, Guo-Dong E-mail: gdhao2@hotmail.com; Toda, Naoya

    2015-09-28

    We report an approach toward controlling the directionality of spontaneous emissions by employing the evanescent wave coupling effect in a subwavelength-sized ridge or truncated cone structure. An InGaAs/GaAs light-emitting diode in which a stripe-shaped InGaAs/GaAs quantum well with a stripe width of about 100 nm is embedded at the center of a subwavelength-sized GaAs ridge (of width ∼520 nm) is fabricated by micro processing and epitaxial regrowth techniques. Strong directionalities characterized by a half-intensity angle of 43° are observed in planes perpendicular to the ridge axis. The directionality is found to be almost independent of operating conditions.

  4. Active magneto-optical control of spontaneous emission in graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Amorim, B.; Bastos, G.; Pinheiro, F. A.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Peres, N. M. R.; Farina, C.

    2015-11-13

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a two-level quantum emitter near a graphene-coated substrate under the influence of an external magnetic field or strain induced pseudomagnetic field. We demonstrate that the application of the magnetic field can substantially increase or decrease the decay rate. We show that a suppression as large as 99% in the Purcell factor is achieved even for moderate magnetic fields. The emitter's lifetime is a discontinuous function of |B|, which is a direct consequence of the occurrence of discrete Landau levels in graphene. We demonstrate that, in the near-field regime, the magneticmore » field enables an unprecedented control of the decay pathways into which the photon/polariton can be emitted. Our findings strongly suggest that a magnetic field could act as an efficient agent for on-demand, active control of light-matter interactions in graphene at the quantum level.« less

  5. Active magneto-optical control of spontaneous emission in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Amorim, B.; Bastos, G.; Pinheiro, F. A.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Peres, N. M. R.; Farina, C.

    2015-11-13

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a two-level quantum emitter near a graphene-coated substrate under the influence of an external magnetic field or strain induced pseudomagnetic field. We demonstrate that the application of the magnetic field can substantially increase or decrease the decay rate. We show that a suppression as large as 99% in the Purcell factor is achieved even for moderate magnetic fields. The emitter's lifetime is a discontinuous function of |B|, which is a direct consequence of the occurrence of discrete Landau levels in graphene. We demonstrate that, in the near-field regime, the magnetic field enables an unprecedented control of the decay pathways into which the photon/polariton can be emitted. Our findings strongly suggest that a magnetic field could act as an efficient agent for on-demand, active control of light-matter interactions in graphene at the quantum level.

  6. Amplified Spontaneous Emission Properties of Semiconducting Organic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Calzado, Eva M.; Boj, Pedro G.; Díaz-García, María A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to review the recent advances achieved in the field of organic solid-state lasers with respect to the usage of semiconducting organic molecules and oligomers in the form of thin films as active laser media. We mainly focus on the work performed in the last few years by our research group. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties, by optical pump, of various types of molecules doped into polystyrene films in waveguide configuration, are described. The various systems investigated include N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), several perilenediimide derivatives (PDIs), as well as two oligo-phenylenevinylene derivatives. The ASE characteristics, i.e., threshold, emission wavelength, linewidth, and photostability are compared with that of other molecular materials investigated in the literature. PMID:20640167

  7. Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wubs, Martijn; Ginzburg, Pavel; Wurtz, Gregory; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-04-01

    Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (SE) rate. Specifically, we show that the SE rate can be either enhanced or suppressed using invisibility cloaks or gradient index lenses. Furthermore, the anisotropic material profile of the cloak enables the directional control of SE. We also discuss how the practical issues, such as dispersion and losses, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices.

  8. Modified spontaneous emissions of europium complex in weak PMMA opals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Song, Hongwei; Bai, Xue; Liu, Qiong; Zhu, Yongsheng

    2011-10-28

    Engineering spontaneous emission by means of photonic crystals (PHC) is under extensive study. However PHC modification of line emissions of rare earth (RE) ions has not been thoroughly understood, especially in cases of weak opal PHCs and while emitters are well dispersed into dielectric media. In this study, poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) opal PHCs containing uniformly dispersed europium chelate were fabricated with finely controlled photonic stop band (PSB) positions. Measurements of luminescent dynamics and angle resolved/integrated emission spectra as well as numerical calculations of total densities of states (DOS) were performed. We determined that in weak opals, the total spontaneous emission rate (SER) of Σ(5)D(0)-(7)F(J) for Eu(3+) was independent of PSB positions but was higher than that of the disordered powder sample, which was attributed to higher effective refractive indices in the PHC rather than PSB effect. Branch SER of (5)D(0)-(7)F(2) for Eu(3+) in the PHCs, on the other hand, was spatially redistributed, suppressed or enhanced in directions of elevated or reduced optical modes, keeping the angle-integrated total unchanged. All the results are in agreement with total DOS approximation. Our paper addressed two unstudied issues regarding modified narrow line emission in weak opal PHCs: firstly whether PSB could change the SER of emitters and whether there exist, apart from PSB, other reasons to change SERs; secondly, while directional enhancement and suppression by PSB has been confirmed, whether the angle-integrated overall effect is enhancing or suppressing. PMID:21938288

  9. Amplified spontaneous emission of pyranyliden derivatives in PVK matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vembris, Aivars; Zarinsh, Elmars; Kokars, Valdis

    2016-04-01

    One of the well-known red light emitting laser dyes is 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4Hpyran (DCM). Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) has been widely investigated of DCM molecules or its derivatives in polymer or low molecular weight matrix. The main issue for these molecules is aggregation which limits doping concentration in matrix. Lowest ASE threshold values within concentration range of 2 and 4 wt% were obtained. In this work ASE properties of two original DCM derivatives in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) at various concentrations will be discussed. One of the derivatives is the same DCM dye with replaced butyl groups at electron donor part with bulky trytiloxyethyl groups (DWK-1). These groups do not influence electron transitions in the dye but prevent aggregation of the molecules. Second derivative (DWK-2) consists of two equal donor groups with the attached trytiloxyethyl groups. All results were compared with DCM:PVK system. Photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) is almost three times larger for DWK-1 concentration up to 20wt% with respect to DCM systems. PLQY was saturated on 0.06 at higher DWK-1 concentrations. Bulky trytiloxyethyl groups prevent aggregation of the molecules thus decreasing interaction between dyes and numbers of non-radiative decays. Red shift of photoluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission at higher concentrations were observed due to the solid state solvation effect. Increases of dye density in matrix with smaller lose in PLQY resulted in low ASE threshold energy. The lowest threshold value was obtained around 29 μJ/cm2 in DWK-1:PVK films.

  10. Modified spontaneous emissions of europium complex in weak PMMA opals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Song, Hongwei; Bai, Xue; Liu, Qiong; Zhu, Yongsheng

    2011-10-28

    Engineering spontaneous emission by means of photonic crystals (PHC) is under extensive study. However PHC modification of line emissions of rare earth (RE) ions has not been thoroughly understood, especially in cases of weak opal PHCs and while emitters are well dispersed into dielectric media. In this study, poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) opal PHCs containing uniformly dispersed europium chelate were fabricated with finely controlled photonic stop band (PSB) positions. Measurements of luminescent dynamics and angle resolved/integrated emission spectra as well as numerical calculations of total densities of states (DOS) were performed. We determined that in weak opals, the total spontaneous emission rate (SER) of Σ(5)D(0)-(7)F(J) for Eu(3+) was independent of PSB positions but was higher than that of the disordered powder sample, which was attributed to higher effective refractive indices in the PHC rather than PSB effect. Branch SER of (5)D(0)-(7)F(2) for Eu(3+) in the PHCs, on the other hand, was spatially redistributed, suppressed or enhanced in directions of elevated or reduced optical modes, keeping the angle-integrated total unchanged. All the results are in agreement with total DOS approximation. Our paper addressed two unstudied issues regarding modified narrow line emission in weak opal PHCs: firstly whether PSB could change the SER of emitters and whether there exist, apart from PSB, other reasons to change SERs; secondly, while directional enhancement and suppression by PSB has been confirmed, whether the angle-integrated overall effect is enhancing or suppressing.

  11. Spin-dependent manipulating of vector beams by tailoring polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junxiao; Zhang, Wenshuai; Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-01-01

    We examine the spin-dependent manipulating of vector beams by tailoring the inhomogeneous polarization. The spin-dependent manipulating is attributed to the spin-dependent phase gradient in vector beams, which can be regarded as the intrinsic feature of inhomogeneous polarization. The desired polarization can be obtained by establishing the relationship between the local orientation of polarization and the local orientation of the optical axis of waveplate. We demonstrate that the spin-dependent manipulating with arbitrary intensity patterns can be achieved by tailoring the inhomogeneous polarization. PMID:27677400

  12. Effect of surface-plasmon polaritons on spontaneous emission and intermolecular energy-transfer rates in multilayered geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Marocico, C. A.; Knoester, J.

    2011-11-15

    We use a Green's tensor method to investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a molecule and the energy-transfer rate between molecules placed in two types of layered geometries: a slab geometry and a planar waveguide. We focus especially on the role played by surface-plasmon polaritons in modifying the spontaneous emission and energy-transfer rates as compared to free space. In the presence of more than one interface, the surface-plasmon polariton modes split into several branches, and each branch can contribute significantly to modifying the electromagnetic properties of atoms and molecules. Enhancements of several orders of magnitude both in the spontaneous emission rate of a molecule and the energy-transfer rate between molecules are obtained and, by tuning the parameters of the geometry, one has the ability to control the range and magnitude of these enhancements. For the energy-transfer rate interference effects between contributions of different plasmon-polariton branches are observed as oscillations in the distance dependence of this rate.

  13. Measuring the energy of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in a short pulse laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliev, Marin; Adams, Daniel; Greco, Michael; Meier, Amanda; Squier, Jeff; Durfee, Charles

    2010-10-01

    In high-gain pulsed laser amplifiers, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) tends to limit the gain in single stage fiber amplifiers. Even if ASE is not strong enough to deplete the gain of the amplifier, it still contributes strongly to a low-intensity background output in the amplified signal. The intensity contrast between the amplified short pulse and this background ASE pedestal can be measured with third-order autocorrelation, but this method cannot be used to completely specify the ASE's energy, which is distributed over many nanoseconds. We have developed a novel method that allows us to determine the energy and the spectrum of the ASE. We use a cross polarized wave (XPW) generating crystal such as BaF2 to ``clean up'' the ASE from the short pulse(SP). The input pulse (SP and ASE) and the cross-polarized signal are passed through a birefringent crystal such as sapphire. The relative group velocity difference along each crystal axis results in a delay between both channels. After passing through a polarizer, an interferogram is obtained in a spectrometer. This interferogram results from interference of the XPW pulse with the short-pulse content of the amplifier output, with a background of the ASE spectrum. Fourier analysis yields both the ASE energy and its spectrum.

  14. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-09-19

    Spontaneous emission noise is an important limit to the performance of active plasmonic devices. Here, we investigate the spontaneous emission noise in the long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. A theoretical model of the sensitivity is established to study the incoherent multi-beam interference of spontaneous emission in the gyroscope. Numerical results show that spontaneous emission produces a drift in the transmittance spectra and lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio of the gyroscope. It also strengthens the shot noise to be the main limit to the sensitivity of the gyroscope for high propagation loss. To reduce the negative effects of the spontaneous emission noise on the gyroscope, an external feedback loop is suggested to estimate the drift in the transmittance spectra and therefor enhance the sensitivity. Our work lays a foundation for the improvement of long-range surface plasmon-polariton gyroscope and paves the way to its practical application.

  15. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous emission noise is an important limit to the performance of active plasmonic devices. Here, we investigate the spontaneous emission noise in the long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. A theoretical model of the sensitivity is established to study the incoherent multi-beam interference of spontaneous emission in the gyroscope. Numerical results show that spontaneous emission produces a drift in the transmittance spectra and lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio of the gyroscope. It also strengthens the shot noise to be the main limit to the sensitivity of the gyroscope for high propagation loss. To reduce the negative effects of the spontaneous emission noise on the gyroscope, an external feedback loop is suggested to estimate the drift in the transmittance spectra and therefor enhance the sensitivity. Our work lays a foundation for the improvement of long-range surface plasmon-polariton gyroscope and paves the way to its practical application. PMID:25234712

  16. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-09-01

    Spontaneous emission noise is an important limit to the performance of active plasmonic devices. Here, we investigate the spontaneous emission noise in the long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. A theoretical model of the sensitivity is established to study the incoherent multi-beam interference of spontaneous emission in the gyroscope. Numerical results show that spontaneous emission produces a drift in the transmittance spectra and lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio of the gyroscope. It also strengthens the shot noise to be the main limit to the sensitivity of the gyroscope for high propagation loss. To reduce the negative effects of the spontaneous emission noise on the gyroscope, an external feedback loop is suggested to estimate the drift in the transmittance spectra and therefor enhance the sensitivity. Our work lays a foundation for the improvement of long-range surface plasmon-polariton gyroscope and paves the way to its practical application.

  17. Self-amplification of coherent spontaneous emission in a cherenkov free-electron maser

    PubMed

    Wiggins; Jaroszynski; McNeil; Robb; Aitken; Phelps; Cross; Ronald; Ginzburg; Shpak; Yalandin; Shunailov; Ulmaskulov

    2000-03-13

    Ultrashort pulses of microwave radiation have been produced in a dielectric-lined Cherenkov free-electron maser (FEM) amplifier. An intense initial seed pulse, due to coherent spontaneous emission (CSE), arises at the leading edge of the electron pulse. There is evidence to show that 3-4 cycle spikes are produced through the amplification of these seed pulses. A strong dependence of the start-up power on the rise time of the electron pulse has been found. The experimental results are verified by a theoretical analysis. Our study shows that amplification in a FEM amplifier is always initiated by CSE arising from the edge of the electron pulse when the rise time is comparable to the electromagnetic wave period. PMID:11018893

  18. Quantitative analysis of directional spontaneous emission spectra from light sources in photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Ivan S.; Lodahl, Peter; Vos, Willem L.

    2005-05-15

    We have performed angle-resolved measurements of spontaneous-emission spectra from laser dyes and quantum dots in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals. Pronounced directional dependencies of the emission spectra are observed: angular ranges of strongly reduced emission adjoin with angular ranges of enhanced emission. It appears that emission from embedded light sources is affected both by the periodicity and by the structural imperfections of the crystals: the photons are Bragg diffracted by lattice planes and scattered by unavoidable structural disorder. Using a model comprising diffuse light transport and photonic band structure, we quantitatively explain the directional emission spectra. This work provides detailed understanding of the transport of spontaneously emitted light in real photonic crystals, which is essential in the interpretation of quantum optics in photonic-band-gap crystals and for applications wherein directional emission and total emission power are controlled.

  19. Numerical study of amplified spontaneous emission and lasing in random media

    SciTech Connect

    Andreasen, Jonathan; Cao Hui

    2010-12-15

    We simulate the transition from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) to lasing in random systems with varying degrees of mode overlap. This is accomplished by solving the stochastic Maxwell-Bloch equations with the finite-difference time-domain method. Below lasing threshold, the continuous emission spectra are narrowed by frequency-dependent amplification. Our simulations reproduce the stochastic emission spikes in the spectra. Well-defined peaks, corresponding to the system resonances, emerge at higher pumping and are narrowed by stimulated emission before lasing takes place. Noise tends to distribute pump energy over many modes, resulting in multimode operation. Well above the lasing threshold, the effects of noise lessen and results become similar to those without noise. By comparing systems of different scattering strength, we find that weaker scattering extends the transition region from ASE to lasing, where the effects of noise are most significant.

  20. Spontaneous emission enhancement of colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhili; Pelton, Matthew; Waks, Edo

    Colloidal CdS /CdSe/CdS nanoplatelets synthesized recently are high efficient nano-emitters and gain media for nanoscale lasers and other nonlinear optical devices. They are characterized as quantum well structure due to energy gap difference between core CdSe and shell CdS, of which the luminescent wavelength could be tuned precisely by their thickness of growth. However, the influence of environment on the material's optical properties and further enhancement of the emission to implement nanoscale systems remains to be investigated. Here we demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement of these CdSe nanoplatelets coupled to a photonic crystal cavity. We show clearly the photoluminescent spectrum modification of the nanoplatelets emission and an averaged Purcell enhancement factor of 3.1 is achieved when they are coupled to carefully-designed nanobeam photonic crystal cavities compared to the ones on unpatterned surface in our experiment of lifetime measurement. Also the phenomenon of cavity quality factor increasing is observed when increasing intensity of pumping, which attributes to saturable absorption of the nanoplatelets. Our success in enhancement of emission from these nanoplatelets here paves the road to realize actual nanoscale integrated systems such as ultra-low threshold micro-cavity lasers.

  1. Spontaneous emission of an atom in the presence of nanobodies

    SciTech Connect

    Klimov, Vasilii V; Ducloy, M; Letokhov, V S

    2001-07-31

    The effect of nanobodies, i.e., the bodies whose size is small compared to the emission wavelength, on spontaneous emission of an atom located near them is considered. The results of calculations performed within the framework of quantum and classical electrodynamics are presented both in analytic and graphical forms and can be readily used for planning experiments and analysis of experimental data. It is shown that nanobodies can be used to control efficiently the rate of spontaneous transitions. Thus, an excited atom located near a nanocylinder or a nanospheroid pole, whose transition dipole moment is directed normally to the nanobody surface, can decay with the rate that is tens and hundreds times higher than the decay rate in a free space. In the case of some (negative) dielectric constants, the decay rate can increase by a factor of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} and more. On the other hand, the decay of an excited atom whose transition dipole moment is directed tangentially to the nanobody surface substantially slows down. The probability of nonradiative decay of the excited state is shown to increase substantially in the presence of na-nobodies possessing losses. (review)

  2. A coupling model for amplified spontaneous emission in laser resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hua; Wang, Xiaojun; Shang, Jianli; Yu, Yi; Tang, Chun

    2015-10-01

    The competition between amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and main laser in solid-state laser resonators is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A coupled model using the spatial volume integral instead of the Monte Carlo type raytrace technique is proposed to depict ASE in the laser resonators. This model is able to evaluate all possible reflections at both the polishing surface and the diffusive side, to calculate ASE for an inhomogeneous gain distribution, and to include the spectral correction. An experiment is carefully designed to verify the theoretical model and to investigate the distinct physical properties caused by the coupling between ASE and the laser oscillations. The experimental data exhibit an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. According to that model, we confirm that ASE in thin-disk lasers can be characterized approximately by the product of the threshold gain of the resonator and the diameter of the disks, as laser modes are highly overlapped with the pumping beam. Theoretical evaluation shows that the scattering characteristic of the disk side impacts on ASE significantly. Furthermore, we point out that ASE decreases output laser power by affecting threshold pumping power, while slope efficiency is not changed by ASE. This observation provides us with a simple way to estimate the decrease of the optical efficiency by ASE.

  3. Vacuum field energy and spontaneous emission in anomalously dispersive cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Douglas H.; Di Rosa, Michael D.

    2011-05-15

    Anomalously dispersive cavities, particularly white-light cavities, may have larger bandwidth to finesse ratios than their normally dispersive counterparts. Partly for this reason, they have been proposed for use in laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO)-like gravity-wave detectors and in ring-laser gyroscopes. In this paper we analyze the quantum noise associated with anomalously dispersive cavity modes. The vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode is proportional to the cavity-averaged group velocity of that mode. For anomalously dispersive cavities with group index values between 1 and 0, this means that the total vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode must exceed ({h_bar}/2{pi}){omega}/2. For white-light cavities in particular, the group index approaches zero and the vacuum field energy of a particular spatial mode may be significantly enhanced. We predict enhanced spontaneous emission rates into anomalously dispersive cavity modes and broadened laser linewidths when the linewidth of intracavity emitters is broader than the cavity linewidth.

  4. Polarization-dependent optics using gauge-field metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fu; Xiao, Shiyi; Li, Jensen; Wang, Saisai; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2015-12-14

    We show that effective gauge field for photons with polarization-split dispersion surfaces, being realized using uniaxial metamaterials, can be used for polarization control with unique opportunities. The metamaterials with the proposed gauge field correspond to a special choice of eigenpolarizations on the Poincaré sphere as pseudo-spins, in contrary to those from either conventional birefringent crystals or optical active media. It gives rise to all-angle polarization control and a generic route to manipulate photon trajectories or polarizations in the pseudo-spin domain. As demonstrations, we show beam splitting (birefringent polarizer), all-angle polarization control, unidirectional polarization filter, and interferometer as various polarization control devices in the pseudo-spin domain. We expect that more polarization-dependent devices can be designed under the same framework.

  5. Polarization-dependent transmittance of concentric ring plasmonic lens: a polarizing interference investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Lei; Zang, Tianyang; Ren, Yuan; Lei, Xinrui; Jiang, Kang; Li, Kuanguo; Lu, Yonghua; Wang, Pei

    2016-10-01

    Plasmonic lenses are widely applied to manipulate optical phase or polarization distribution in the near and far field, but its polarization-dependent optical anisotropy is seldomly reported. Not only the plasmonic mode (excited by transverse magnetic polarization), but also the photonic mode (excited by transverse electric polarization) has an effect on the field distribution. In this paper, polarization-dependent optical anisotropy of concentric ring plasmonic lens has been investigated with polarizing microscope and explained by polarizing interference theoretical model. Moreover, several kinds of plasmonic lenses are mutually compared and dramatic different optical anisotropy is found. Our work bears a fundamental importance in design of micro-nano-devices as well as provides the potential to advance the applications of polarizing interferometry into plasmonic structure characterization.

  6. Polarization-dependent photoyield for evaporated Na films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colter, P. C.; Schnatterly, S. E.

    1980-08-01

    The polarization dependence of photoemission from vapor-quenched and annealed sodium films recently observed is confirmed using samples prepared in a different manner. A temperature variation in the polarization dependence is observed. The results are consistent with a surface-photoemission yield about twice the bulk value near threshold.

  7. Chirality dependent spin polarization of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Jiang, Wanrun; Wang, Bo; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Rui-Qin

    2016-02-01

    The spin polarization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offers a tunable building block for spintronic devices and is also crucial for realizing carbon-based electronics. However, the effect of chiral CNTs is still unclear. In this paper, we use the density functional theory (DFT) method to investigate the spin polarization of a series of typical finite-length chiral CNTs (9, m). The results show that the spin density of chiral CNTs (9, m) decreases gradually with the increase in m and vanishes altogether when m is larger than or equal to 6. The armchair edge units on both ends of the (9, m) CNTs exhibit a clear inhibition of spin polarization, allowing control of the spin density of (9, m) CNTs by adjusting the number of armchair edge units on the tube end. Furthermore, analysis of the orbitals shows that the spin of the ground state for (9, m) CNTs mainly comes from the contributions of the frontier molecular orbitals (MOs), and the energy gap decreases gradually with the spin density for chiral CNTs. Our work further develops the study of the spin polarization of CNTs and provides a strategy for controlling the spin polarization of functional molecular devices through chiral vector adjustment.

  8. Linearly polarized fiber amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kliner, Dahv A.; Koplow, Jeffery P.

    2004-11-30

    Optically pumped rare-earth-doped polarizing fibers exhibit significantly higher gain for one linear polarization state than for the orthogonal state. Such a fiber can be used to construct a single-polarization fiber laser, amplifier, or amplified-spontaneous-emission (ASE) source without the need for additional optical components to obtain stable, linearly polarized operation.

  9. Observer-dependent sign inversions of polarization singularities.

    PubMed

    Freund, Isaac

    2014-10-15

    We describe observer-dependent sign inversions of the topological charges of vector field polarization singularities: C points (points of circular polarization), L points (points of linear polarization), and two virtually unknown singularities we call γ(C) and α(L) points. In all cases, the sign of the charge seen by an observer can change as she changes the direction from which she views the singularity. Analytic formulas are given for all C and all L point sign inversions.

  10. Polarization-dependent exciton dynamics in tetracene single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Chunfeng Xu, Yanqing; Wang, Rui; He, Bin; Liu, Yunlong; Zhang, Shimeng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min

    2014-12-28

    We conduct polarization-dependent ultrafast spectroscopy to study the dynamics of singlet fission (SF) in tetracene single crystals. The spectrotemporal species for singlet and triplet excitons in transient absorption spectra are found to be strongly dependent on probe polarization. By carefully analyzing the polarization dependence, the signals contributed by different transitions related to singlet excitons have been disentangled, which is further applied to construct the correlation between dynamics of singlet and triplet excitons. The anisotropy of exciton dynamics provides an alternative approach to tackle the long-standing challenge in understanding the mechanism of singlet fission in organic semiconductors.

  11. Polarization Dependent Whispering Gallery Modes in Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A tunable resonant system is provided and includes a microsphere that receives an incident portion of a light beam generated via a light source, the light beam having a fundamental mode, a waveguide medium that transmits the light beam from the light source to the microsphere, and a polarizer disposed in a path of the waveguide between the light source and the microsphere. The incident portion of the light beam creates a fundamental resonance inside the microsphere. A change in a normalized frequency of the wavelength creates a secondary mode in the waveguide and the secondary mode creates a secondary resonance inside the microsphere.

  12. Polarization Dependent Coupling of Whispering Gallery Modes in Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Wrbanek, S.; Floyd, B.; Crotty, M.

    2010-01-01

    Two sets of resonances in glass microspheres attached to a standard communication-grade single-mode optical fiber have been observed. It has been found that the strength of the resonances depends strongly on the polarization of the coupled light. Furthermore, the position of the resonances in the wavelength domain depends on the polarization of light in the optical fiber with maximum magnitudes shifted by approximately 45 .

  13. Theory of phonon-modified spontaneous emission and photoluminescence intensity from quantum dots coupled to structured photonic reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Choudhury, Kaushik; Hughes, S.

    2015-08-01

    We present a general theory for calculating the spontaneous emission (SE) rate and the photoluminescence intensity of a quantum dot (QD) exciton coupled to an arbitrary structured photonic reservoir and a bath of acoustic phonons. We describe a polaron master equation (ME) approach which includes phonon interaction nonperturbatively and assume a weak coupling with the photon reservoir which is valid in the Purcell coupling regime. As examples of structured photonic reservoirs, we choose the cases of a Lorentzian cavity and a slow-light coupled-cavity waveguide. In analogy with a simple atom, the SE rate of a QD is expected to be proportional to the local density of photon states (LDOS) of the structured reservoir at the resonant frequency of a QD exciton. However, using a polaron ME theory, we show how the phonon-dressed SE rate of a QD is determined by a broad bandwidth of the photonic LDOS, in violation of the well known Fermi's golden rule. This broadband frequency dependence results in rich spontaneous emission enhancement and suppression, manifesting in significant changes in the Purcell factor and photoluminescence intensity as a function of frequency.

  14. Ultrafast spontaneous emission of copper-doped silicon enhanced by an optical nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Sumikura, Hisashi; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Dopants in silicon (Si) have attracted attention in the fields of photonics and quantum optics. However, the optical characteristics are limited by the small spontaneous emission rate of dopants in Si. This study demonstrates a large increase in the spontaneous emission rate of copper isoelectronic centres (Cu-IECs) doped into Si photonic crystal nanocavities. In a cavity with a quality factor (Q) of ~16,000, the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime of the Cu-IECs is 1.1 ns, which is 30 times shorter than the lifetime of a sample without a cavity. The PL decay rate is increased in proportion to Q/Vc (Vc is the cavity mode volume), which indicates the Purcell effect. This is the first demonstration of a cavity-enhanced ultrafast spontaneous emission from dopants in Si, and it may lead to the development of fast and efficient Si light emitters and Si quantum optical devices based on dopants with efficient optical access.

  15. Excitation Wavelength Independence: Toward Low-Threshold Amplified Spontaneous Emission from Carbon Nanodots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Hu, Yongsheng; Lin, Jie; Fan, Yi; Li, Yantao; Lv, Ying; Liu, Xingyuan

    2016-09-28

    Carbon nanodots (CDs) are known to be a superior type of lasing material due to their low cost, low toxicity, high photostability, and photobleaching resistance. Significant attention has been paid to synthesizing CDs with high fluorescence quantum yields (FLQYs) to achieve higher optical gains. In this report, we reveal that excitation wavelength-independent (λex-independent) photoluminescence (PL) characteristics, rather than high FLQYs, should be given priority to realize CD-based light amplification. CDs with excitation wavelength-dependent (λex-dependent) PL characteristics and FLQYs as high as 99% and 96% were found not to exhibit amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), while those with λex-independent PL characteristics and FLQYs of only 38% and 82% realized ASE with low thresholds. The difficulty of achieving ASE using CDs with λex-dependent PL characteristics is likely attributable to their high contents of C-O-H or C-O-C groups. These groups can induce numerous localized electronic states within the n-π* gap, which could decentralize the excited electrons, thus increasing the difficulty of population inversion. In addition, the radiative transition rates and stimulated emission cross sections of CDs with λex-independent PL characteristics were found to be significantly higher than those of CDs with λex-dependent PL characteristics. ASE in a planar waveguide structure, which is a practical structure for solid-state lasing devices, was also demonstrated for the first time using CDs with λex-independent PL characteristics. These results provide simple and effective guidelines for synthesizing and selecting CDs for low-threshold lasing devices. PMID:27617695

  16. Constraining the wavelength dependence of polarization for various asteroid taxonomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleszewski, Chester; Smith, Paul S.; McMillan, Robert S.

    2016-10-01

    The polarization of sunlight reflected from asteroids is known to be inversely proportional to geometric albedo (Umov 1905). However, that was mainly derived from observations in the V-filter. Preliminary observations of the wavelength dependence were conducted by Belskaya et al. (2009) in the major asteroid taxonomic classes. The limited UBVRI data revealed trends of spectral slope vs. phase angle. To study the wavelength dependence of asteroid polarization more robustly, we have used the SPOL spectropolarimeter at the 2.3-m Bok and 1.6-m Kuiper telescopes. The finer spectral resolution of spectropolarimetry is needed to confirm the linearity of the wavelength dependence of polarization.We present polarization spectra from four asteroid taxonomic groups: B-, C-, S-, and X-types. Across the observed wavelength range (0.45 to 0.7 microns), the linear trend described by Belskaya et al. is confirmed and we determined the best-fit linear slope of each spectrum. For the S-type asteroids, the slope of the polarization spectra becomes more negative as the phase angle increases. The rate at which the polarization slope changes increases at phase angles greater than the inversion angle. C-type asteroids behave differently from the S-types in two ways. First, the polarization spectra for the C-types are positively sloped as opposed to negative (also noted in Belskaya et al.). Also, as you observe the C-types closer to the inversion angle (~20 degrees phase angle), the polarization slopes tend to flatten as opposed to steepen. The polarization spectra of B-type asteroids are positively sloped, but the tendency to flatten near the inversion angle like the C-type spectra is not evident. Our observations of low albedo X-types exhibit positive polarization slopes, while the high albedo observations exhibit negative slopes. Differences in the wavelength dependencies of polarization between various asteroid types appear to be driven by differences in their geometric albedos. Better

  17. Polarization dependency of the metal-coated eccentric fiber.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianxia; Yuan, Libo

    2015-01-01

    The transmission losses and lengths of two polarized fundamental modes for a metal-coated eccentric core optical fiber (ECOF) are considered based on the finite-element method. Three typical thin metal films (Au, Ag, and Cu) are used and deposited on the walls of the cladding of ECOF. The variations of the transmission losses and lengths are investigated with different eccentricity, core radii, and metal film species. The numerical results indicate that the optical spectrum of a metal-coated ECOF can be tuned easily by changing the structure parameters of the fiber. The fundamental mode of metal-coated ECOF shows good polarization dependency. It is forecasted that the attenuation difference between the two polarization modes may be used to design an in-fiber polarizer.

  18. Polarization-dependent transmission through subwavelength anisotropic aperture arrays.

    PubMed

    Dimaio, Jeffrey R; Ballato, John

    2006-03-20

    The use of polarized light as an approach to further control the extraordinary transmission (EOT) through nanostructured metallic films has recently gained attention. In this work, it is shown that aperture shape and orientation not only determine the intensity of the polarized light emitted, corroborating the previous work of others, but also can be used to spectrally tune the relative peak intensity of surface plasmon polaritons modes. The high extinction ratio of high aspect ratio apertures lends itself to the creation of micron sized structures that emit at different wavelengths depending upon the orientation of linearly polarized incident light. This has many potential applications including the prospect of color shifting pixels for high definition television (HDTV) and thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices as well as novel polarization mode dispersion control components.

  19. Dispersion and polarization dependence of mobile carrier optical nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustagi, K. C.

    1984-06-01

    Based on the author's earlier work, it is shown that the proper inclusion of carrier scattering should strongly modify the frequency and polarization dependence of optical nonlinearities due to mobile carriers in semiconductors. When the momentum relaxation is much faster than the energy relaxation, the intensity dependent refractive index is enhanced, the induced birefringence becomes a sharp function of the difference frequency ωa-ωb, and a collision induced stimulated Raman effect becomes important.

  20. Large spontaneous-emission enhancements in metallic nanostructures: towards LEDs faster than lasers.

    PubMed

    Tsakmakidis, Kosmas L; Boyd, Robert W; Yablonovitch, Eli; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Recent progress in the design and realization of optical antennas enclosing fluorescent materials has demonstrated large spontaneous-emission enhancements and, simultaneously, high radiation efficiencies. We discuss here that an important objective of such work is to increase spontaneous-emission rates to such a degree that light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can possess modulation speeds exceeding those of typical semiconductor lasers, which are usually in the range ~20-50 GHz. We outline the underlying physics that enable large spontaneous-emission enhancements in metallic nanostructures, and we then discuss recent theoretical and experimentally promising results, where enhancements larger than a factor of ~300 have been reported, with radiation efficiencies exceeding 50%. We provide key comparative advantages of these structures in comparison to conventional dielectric microcavity designs, namely the fact that the enhancement of spontaneous emission can be relatively nonresonant (i.e., broadband) and that the antenna nanostructures can be spectrally and structurally compatible for integration with a wide class of emitters, including organic dyes, diamond nanocrystals and colloidal quantum dots. Finally, we point out that physical insight into the underlying effects can be gained by analyzing these metallic nanostructures in their equivalent-circuit (or nano-antenna) model, showing that all main effects (including the Purcell factor) can adequately be described in that approach. PMID:27505759

  1. Comparison of amplified spontaneous emission pulse cleaners for use in chirped pulse amplification front end lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J; Siders, C; Phan, H; Kanz, V; Barty, C

    2007-07-02

    We compare various schemes for removing amplified spontaneous emission from seed laser pulses. We focus on compact schemes that are compatible with fiber laser front end systems with pulse energies in the 10nJ-1{micro}J range and pulse widths in the 100fs-10ps range. Pre-pulse contrast ratios greater than 10{sup 9} have been measured.

  2. Manipulation of the spontaneous emission in mesoporous synthetic opals impregnated with fluorescent guests.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuri; Yamada, Hisashi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Yano, Kazuhisa

    2009-12-01

    The spontaneous emission of light from light-emitting materials adsorbed within the ordered pores of monodispersed mesoporous silica spheres (MMSS) has been investigated. By taking advantage of the ordered starburst pores of MMSS, we can provide a simple strategy for fabricating synthetic opals consisting of homogeneous individual building blocks in which fluorescent guests are uniformly and stably impregnated. In this study, tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum(III) (Alq(3)) and Rhodamine B (Rh B) are selected as the fluorescent guests. The former has a wider emission band than the reflection spectrum of MMSS synthetic opals, whereas the emission band of the latter is considerably narrower than the reflection spectrum of the opals. The spontaneous emissions of these functionalized synthetic opals are clearly influenced by the stop band governed by the Bragg equation. In the case of the Alq(3)-MMSS conjugate, the shape of the Alq(3) emission spectrum varies in accordance with the shift in the stop band. The emission of the Rh B-MMSS conjugate is noticeably narrowed, and its intensity is enhanced when the excitation intensity is increased. These results are well explained by an inhibition of spontaneous emission caused by a reduction in the density of optical states within the stop band. The results of this study indicate that MMSS synthetic opals are promising for use in novel optical applications in which the spontaneous emission can be manipulated.

  3. X-ray linear dichroism dependence on ferroelectric polarization.

    PubMed

    Polisetty, S; Zhou, J; Karthik, J; Damodaran, A R; Chen, D; Scholl, A; Martin, L W; Holcomb, M

    2012-06-20

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoemission electron microscopy are techniques commonly used to determine the magnetic properties of thin films, crystals, and heterostructures. Recently, these methods have been used in the study of magnetoelectrics and multiferroics. The analysis of such materials has been compromised by the presence of multiple order parameters and the lack of information on how to separate these coupled properties. In this work, we shed light on the manifestation of dichroism from ferroelectric polarization and atomic structure using photoemission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Linear dichroism arising from the ferroelectric order in the PbZr0:2Ti0:8O3 thin films was studied as a function of incident x-ray polarization and geometry to unambiguously determine the angular dependence of the ferroelectric contribution to the dichroism. These measurements allow us to examine the contribution of surface charges and ferroelectric polarization as potential mechanisms for linear dichroism. The x-ray linear dichroism from ferroelectric order revealed an angular dependence based on the angle between the ferroelectric polarization direction and the x-ray polarization axis, allowing a formula for linear dichroism in ferroelectric samples to be defined.

  4. Highly enhanced spontaneous emission with nanoshell-based metallodielectric hybrid antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuqing; Lu, Guowei; shen, Hongming; Wang, Yuwei; He, Yingbo; Chou, R. Yuanying; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-09-01

    The metallodielectric hybrid nanoantenna integrating plasmonic nanostructures with dielectric planar substrate can improve the spontaneous emission greatly. We demonstrated that the performances of the hybrid antenna can be substantially optimized with specific plasmonic nanostructures by employing finite-difference time-domain method. The hybrid antenna with core-shell nanostructure can enhance spontaneous emission greatly rather than the individual spherical nanoparticle. Moreover, the performances of the hybrid antenna can be boosted further through using asymmetrical nanoshell. The mechanism of the high enhancement effect is due to the hybrid structure being able to couple efficiently with the electric field by a larger dipolar moment. And the emission directivity of the hybrid antenna is able to be modified by adjusting the geometry of the plasmonic nanostructures. The results should be beneficial for various fundamental and applied research fields, including single molecule fluorescence and surface enhance Raman spectroscopy, etc. The enhancement of spontaneous emission is in demand in fundamental interests and various applied research fields. However, the electromagnetic enhancement of single plasmonic nanostructure is limited due to intrinsic loss of metal materials and quantum tunneling effect which also limits the ability of enhancement of spontaneous emission. Interestingly, it was found that hybrid structures can provide higher enhancement effect. This study is about a kind new type of optical antenna to control spontaneous emission of single emitter, i.e. a metallodielectric hybrid nanoantenna integrating plasmonic nanostructures with dielectric planar substrate which can improve the spontaneous emission greatly. We demonstrated that the performances of the hybrid antenna can be substantially optimized with specific plasmonic nanostructures by employing finite-difference time-domain method. The hybrid antenna with core-shell nanostructure can enhance

  5. Spontaneous emission and spectral properties of radiation by relativistic electrons in a gyro-klystron and optical-klystron undulator.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bramha; Mishra, Ganeswar; Khullar, Roma

    2016-03-01

    In this paper spontaneous emission of radiation by relativistic electrons in a gyro-klystron is studied. The scheme consists of two solenoid sections separated by a dispersive section. In the dispersive section the electrons are made non-resonant with the radiation. The dispersive section transforms a small change of the velocity into changes of the phases of the electrons. This leads to enhanced radiation due to klystron-type modulation as compared with a conventional gyrotron-type device driven by cyclotron maser interaction. It is shown that the klystron-modulated spectrum depends on the dispersive field strength, finite perpendicular velocity component and length of the solenoids but is independent of the axial magnetic field strength. A simple scheme to design a gyro-klystron is discussed. PMID:26917129

  6. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Nihar R.; Tuominen, Mark T.; Aidala, Katherine E.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs) with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.

  7. Dependence of polar hole density on magnetic and solar conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoegy, W.R.; Grebowsky, J.M. )

    1991-04-01

    The dependence of electron density in the polar F region ionization hole on solar activity, universal time (UT), magnetic activity, season, and hemisphere is studied using data from the Langmuir probes on Atmosphere Explorer C and Dynamics Explorer 2. The AE-C data were obtained during solar minimum when the 3-month average 10.7-cm solar flux index varied from 70 to 140; the DE 2 data were obtained near solar maximum when 10.7-cm solar flux index varied from 120 to 220. The polar hole is a region on the nightside of the polar cap where reduced ionization exists because of the long transport time of ionization from the dayside across the polar cap. The behavior of this region as a function of 10.7-cm solar flux (F10.7), UT, and Kp is statistically modeled for equinox, summer, and winter conditions for each hemisphere separately. The strongest dependencies are observed in F10.7 and UT; the Kp dependence is weak because it poorly represents the complexities of convection across the polar cap. A strong hemispherical difference due to the offset of the magnetic poles from the Earth's rotation axis is observed in the UT dependence of the ionization hole: there is a density minimum at about 20.3 hours UT in the south and at about 4.8 hours UT in the north; the minimum to maximum UT density variation is about a factor of 8.9 in the south and about a factor of 2.1 in the north. There is a seasonal variation in the dependence of ion density (N{sub i}) on solar flux (F10.7). Use of the relationship (N{sub i}{approximately}F10.7{sup D}) yields values of D of approximately unity (1.) in the summer polar hole and about 2.1 during equinox. There is an overall asymmetry in the density level between hemispheres; it was found that the winter hole density is about a factor of 10 greater in the north than in the south. The Utah State University time dependent ionosphere model gives similar UT behavior to that found in the AE-C and DE 2 data.

  8. Polarization-dependent ponderomotive gradient force in a standing wave

    SciTech Connect

    Smorenburg, P. W.; Kanters, J. H. M.; Lassise, A.; Brussaard, G. J. H.; Kamp, L. P. J.; Luiten, O. J.

    2011-06-15

    The ponderomotive force is derived for a relativistic charged particle entering an electromagnetic standing wave with a general three-dimensional field distribution and a nonrelativistic intensity, using a perturbation expansion method. It is shown that the well-known ponderomotive gradient force expression does not hold for this situation. The modified expression is still of simple gradient form but contains additional polarization-dependent terms. These terms arise because the relativistic translational velocity induces a quiver motion in the direction of the magnetic force, which is the direction of large field gradients. Consistent perturbation expansion of the equation of motion leads to an effective doubling of this magnetic contribution. The derived ponderomotive force generalizes the polarization-dependent electron motion in a standing wave obtained earlier [A. E. Kaplan and A. L. Pokrovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 053601 (2005)]. Comparison with simulations in the case of a realistic, nonidealized, three-dimensional field configuration confirms the general validity of the analytical results.

  9. Constraints on cosmological birefringence energy dependence from CMB polarization data

    SciTech Connect

    Gubitosi, G.; Paci, F. E-mail: fpaci@sissa.it

    2013-02-01

    We study the possibility of constraining the energy dependence of cosmological birefringence by using CMB polarization data. We consider four possible behaviors, characteristic of different theoretical scenarios: energy-independent birefringence motivated by Chern-Simons interactions of the electromagnetic field, linear energy dependence motivated by a 'Weyl' interaction of the electromagnetic field, quadratic energy dependence, motivated by quantum gravity modifications of low-energy electrodynamics, and inverse quadratic dependence, motivated by Faraday rotation generated by primordial magnetic fields. We constrain the parameters associated to each kind of dependence and use our results to give constraints on the models mentioned. We forecast the sensitivity that Planck data will be able to achieve in this respect.

  10. Geometric algebra description of polarization mode dispersion, polarization-dependent loss, and Stokes tensor transformations.

    PubMed

    Soliman, George; Yevick, David; Jessop, Paul

    2014-09-01

    This paper demonstrates that numerous calculations involving polarization transformations can be condensed by employing suitable geometric algebra formalism. For example, to describe polarization mode dispersion and polarization-dependent loss, both the material birefringence and differential loss enter as bivectors and can be combined into a single symmetric quantity. Their frequency and distance evolution, as well as that of the Stokes vector through an optical system, can then each be expressed as a single compact expression, in contrast to the corresponding Mueller matrix formulations. The intrinsic advantage of the geometric algebra framework is further demonstrated by presenting a simplified derivation of generalized Stokes parameters that include the electric field phase. This procedure simultaneously establishes the tensor transformation properties of these parameters.

  11. Polarization-dependent photocurrent in MoS2 phototransistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiu; Yu, Wentao; Chu, Saisai; Yang, Hong; Shi, Kebin; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-03-01

    Monolayer or few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted increasing interests in studying light-induced electronic effect due to its prominent photo-responsivity at visible spectral range, fast photo-switching rate and high channel mobility. However, the atomically thin layers make the interaction between light and matter much weaker than that in bulk state, hampering its application in two-dimensional material optoelectronics. One of recent efforts was to utilize resonantly enhanced localized surface plasmon for boosting light-matter interaction in MoS2 thin layer phototransistor. Randomly deposited metallic nano-particles were previously reported to modify surface of a back-gated MoS2 transistor for increasing light absorption cross-section of the phototransistor. Wavelength-dependent photocurrent enhancement was observed. In this paper, we report on a back-gated multilayer MoS2 field-effect-transistor (FET), whose surface is decorated with oriented gold nanobar array, of which the size of a single nanobar is 60nm:60nm:120nm. With these oriented nanostructures, photocurrent of the MoS2 FET could be successfully manipulated by a linear polarized incident 633nm laser, which fell into the resonance band of nanobar structure. We find that the drain-source current follows cos2θ relationship with respect to the incident polarization angle. We attribute the polarization modulation effect to the localized enhancement nature of gold nanobar layer, where the plasmon enhancement occurs only when the polarization of incident laser parallels to the longitudinal axis of nanobars and when the incident wavelength matches the resonance absorption of nanobars simultaneously. Our results indicate a promising application of polarization-dependent plasmonic manipulation in two-dimension semiconductor materials and devices.

  12. Polarization Dependent Azimuthal Scattering From Tilted Fibre Bragg Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robert Bruce

    Polarization sensitive mode coupling characteristics of tilted fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been exploited to develop a number of useful devices including fibre polarimeters, gain flattening filters, spectrum analyzers, polarization dependent loss (PDL) compensators, reconfigurable optical add / drop multiplexers (ROADM), as well as interferometric, and surface plasmon based sensors. Recently it was demonstrated that a single grating structure could couple the light guided in a fibre to two azimuthally separated, polarization independent, radiated beams. However the reasons for such behaviour had not been fully explained, precluding the complete understanding, exploitation and optimization of this phenomenon. This thesis explains the mechanisms underlying such behaviour through a thorough analytical examination of an existing equation formulated with the Volume Current Method (VCM), quantifying the degree to which a tilted FBG's radiation field is directionally dependent on the phase matching characteristics of a grating's three-dimensional structure as well as the polarization dependent dipole response of the medium itself. Examination of the equation's parameter space, revealed the possibility of three-beam azimuthal responses as well, and resulted in some guidelines for the design and optimization of these devices. Experimental measurements of the out-tapped field are also provided, clearly confirming these theoretical findings and reporting the fabrication of a three-beam azimuthal response grating for the first time. Drawing upon these advances, an improved polarimeter design is proposed that samples more than four detected beams with only two tilted FBGs, theoretically resulting in average Stokes vector error reductions of roughly 20%, facilitating monitoring at lower signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Finally, this thesis undertakes an analysis and re-derivation of the VCM formulation itself, designed to expand its applicability to FBGs written with

  13. Dual-channel spontaneous emission of quantum dots in magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Decker, Manuel; Staude, Isabelle; Shishkin, Ivan I; Samusev, Kirill B; Parkinson, Patrick; Sreenivasan, Varun K A; Minovich, Alexander; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Zvyagin, Andrei; Jagadish, Chennupati; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-01-01

    Metamaterials, artificial electromagnetic media realized by subwavelength nano-structuring, have become a paradigm for engineering electromagnetic space, allowing for independent control of both electric and magnetic responses of the material. Whereas most metamaterials studied so far are limited to passive structures, the need for active metamaterials is rapidly growing. However, the fundamental question on how the energy of emitters is distributed between both (electric and magnetic) interaction channels of the metamaterial still remains open. Here we study simultaneous spontaneous emission of quantum dots into both of these channels and define the control parameters for tailoring the quantum-dot coupling to metamaterials. By superimposing two orthogonal modes of equal strength at the wavelength of quantum-dot photoluminescence, we demonstrate a sharp difference in their interaction with the magnetic and electric metamaterial modes. Our observations reveal the importance of mode engineering for spontaneous emission control in metamaterials, paving a way towards loss-compensated metamaterials and metamaterial nanolasers.

  14. Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Quantum Wells in Rolled-Up Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, K. Marvin; Vu, Hoan; Schwaiger, Stephan; Rottler, Andreas; Korn, Tobias; Sonnenberg, David; Kipp, Tobias; Mendach, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of GaAs quantum wells embedded in rolled-up metamaterials. We fabricate microtubes whose walls consist of alternating Ag and (In)(Al)GaAs layers with incorporated active GaAs quantum-well structures. By variation of the layer thickness ratio of the Ag and (In)(Al)GaAs layers we control the effective permittivity tensor of the metamaterial according to an effective medium approach. Thereby, we can design samples with elliptic or hyperbolic dispersion. Time-resolved low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy supported by finite-difference time-domain simulations reveal a decrease of the quantum well's spontaneous emission lifetime in our metamaterials as a signature of the crossover from elliptic to hyperbolic dispersion.

  15. Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Quantum Wells in Rolled-Up Hyperbolic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Schulz, K Marvin; Vu, Hoan; Schwaiger, Stephan; Rottler, Andreas; Korn, Tobias; Sonnenberg, David; Kipp, Tobias; Mendach, Stefan

    2016-08-19

    We experimentally demonstrate the enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of GaAs quantum wells embedded in rolled-up metamaterials. We fabricate microtubes whose walls consist of alternating Ag and (In)(Al)GaAs layers with incorporated active GaAs quantum-well structures. By variation of the layer thickness ratio of the Ag and (In)(Al)GaAs layers we control the effective permittivity tensor of the metamaterial according to an effective medium approach. Thereby, we can design samples with elliptic or hyperbolic dispersion. Time-resolved low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy supported by finite-difference time-domain simulations reveal a decrease of the quantum well's spontaneous emission lifetime in our metamaterials as a signature of the crossover from elliptic to hyperbolic dispersion.

  16. Cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission rates for rhodamine 6-G in levitated microdroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.D.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M. ); Arnold, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence decay kinetics of Rhodamine 6-G molecules in levitated glycerol microdroplets (4--20 microns in diameter) have been investigated to determine the effects of spherical cavity resonances on spontaneous emission rates. For droplet diameters greater than 10 microns, the fluorescence lifetime is essentially the same as in bulk glycerol. As the droplet diameter is decreased below 10 microns, bi-exponential decay behavior is observed with a slow component whose rate is similar to bulk glycerol, and a fast component whose rate is as much as a factor of 10 larger than the bulk decay rate. This fast component is attributed to cavity enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate and, within the weak coupling approximation, a value for the homogeneous linewidth at room temperature can be estimated from the fluorescence lifetime data.

  17. Cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission rates for rhodamine 6-G in levitated microdroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.D.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.; Arnold, S.

    1992-11-01

    Fluorescence decay kinetics of Rhodamine 6-G molecules in levitated glycerol microdroplets (4--20 microns in diameter) have been investigated to determine the effects of spherical cavity resonances on spontaneous emission rates. For droplet diameters greater than 10 microns, the fluorescence lifetime is essentially the same as in bulk glycerol. As the droplet diameter is decreased below 10 microns, bi-exponential decay behavior is observed with a slow component whose rate is similar to bulk glycerol, and a fast component whose rate is as much as a factor of 10 larger than the bulk decay rate. This fast component is attributed to cavity enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate and, within the weak coupling approximation, a value for the homogeneous linewidth at room temperature can be estimated from the fluorescence lifetime data.

  18. Effect of amplified spontaneous emission on selectivity of laser photoionisation of the 177Lu radioisotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'yachkov, A. B.; Gorkunov, A. A.; Labozin, A. V.; Mironov, S. M.; Panchenko, V. Ya; Firsov, V. A.; Tsvetkov, G. O.

    2016-06-01

    A significant deselecting effect of amplified spontaneous emission has been observed in the experiments on selective laser photoionisation of the 177Lu radioisotope according to the scheme 5d6s2 2D3/2 → 5d6s6p 4Fo5/2 (18505 cm-1) → 5d6s7s 4D3/2(37194 cm-1) → autoionisation state (53375 cm-1). The effect is conditioned by involvement of non-target isotopes from the lower metastable level 5d6s2 2D5/2(1994 cm-1) into the ionisation process. Spectral filtering of spontaneous emission has allowed us to significantly increase the selectivity of the photoionisation process of the radioisotope and to attain a selectivity value of 105 when using saturating light intensities.

  19. Experimental demonstration of enhanced self-amplified spontaneous emission by an optical klystron.

    PubMed

    Penco, G; Allaria, E; De Ninno, G; Ferrari, E; Giannessi, L

    2015-01-01

    We report the first experimental evidence of enhancement of self-amplified spontaneous emission, due to the use of an optical klystron. In this free-electron laser scheme, a relativistic electron beam passes through two undulators, separated by a dispersive section. The latter converts the electron-beam energy modulation produced in the first undulator in density modulation, thus enhancing the free-electron laser gain. The experiment has been carried out at the FERMI facility in Trieste. Powerful radiation has been produced in the extreme ultraviolet range, with an intensity a few orders of magnitude larger than in pure self-amplified spontaneous emission mode. Data have been benchmarked with an existing theoretical model.

  20. Complementary coding optical stealth transmission based on amplified spontaneous emission light source.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Chen, Yinfang; Fang, Tao; Zheng, Jilin; Su, Guorui

    2014-11-17

    Complementary encoder of stealth signal is proposed and demonstrated for coding, modulating and enhancing the privacy of optical stealth transmission. With complementary encoding, the stealth signal carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light keeps the same characteristic to ASE noise and can be concealed well under public channel. The experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of the scheme and show the stealth signal has the same impact on public channel in transmission performance, compared to the ASE noise.

  1. Guided Mode for Enhanced Spontaneous Emission Using Finite Thickness Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorntep, W.; Wanchai, P.

    Guided mode for enhanced spontaneous emission of light is essential to quantum optics in design and development of high efficiency optical devices which are useful to security optical communication system. Thus, we performed to develop an efficient single photon source by controlling inhibited or enhanced spontaneous emission of the photon using silicon-based honeycomb lattice patterned finite thickness photonic crystal waveguide. A quantum dot embedded in planar photonic crystal membrane waveguide is the light source. The honeycomb lattice of circular air holes on silicon plate is simulated to obtain completely photonic band gaps, guided mode resonant frequency, quality factor, and effective volume mode. This significant property shows the potential applied guide modes of photonic crystal waveguide for controlling enhanced spontaneous emission. Significantly, this work is oriented to produce the novel single photon sources which can emit one photon at a time for the quantum optical security network with single photon state. In addition to the honeycomb lattice can easily be made on a Si on insulator (SOI) wafer.

  2. Spatially adjusted spontaneous emissions from photonic crystals embedded light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yu-Feng; Lin, Yen-Chen; Liu, Yi-Chen; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Huang, JianJang

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the angular light output enhancements of LEDs were investigated from the spontaneous emission and light scattering of devices with different photonic crystal (PhC) geometries. The emitted photon coupled into a leaky mode is differentiated by the manipulation of the quality factor in various spatial frequencies. Therefore, light extraction in this light-emitting device is determined by the modal extraction lengths and the quality factor obtained from the measured photonic bands. Furthermore, the higher- and lower-order mode spontaneous emissions are affected by the nonradiative process in the PhC structures with different periods. In our cases, the photonic crystal device with the largest period of 500 nm exhibits the highest lower-order mode extraction and quality factor. As a result, a self-collimation behavior toward the surface-normal is demonstrated in the 3D far-field pattern of such a device. We conclude that, with the coherent light scattering from the PhC region, the spontaneous emission of the material and spatial behavior of the extracted mode can be both managed by the proper design of the device.

  3. Ultrafast spontaneous emission of copper-doped silicon enhanced by an optical nanocavity

    PubMed Central

    SUMIKURA, HISASHI; KURAMOCHI, EIICHI; TANIYAMA, HIDEAKI; NOTOMI, MASAYA

    2014-01-01

    Dopants in silicon (Si) have attracted attention in the fields of photonics and quantum optics. However, the optical characteristics are limited by the small spontaneous emission rate of dopants in Si. This study demonstrates a large increase in the spontaneous emission rate of copper isoelectronic centres (Cu-IECs) doped into Si photonic crystal nanocavities. In a cavity with a quality factor (Q) of ~16,000, the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime of the Cu-IECs is 1.1 ns, which is 30 times shorter than the lifetime of a sample without a cavity. The PL decay rate is increased in proportion to Q/Vc (Vc is the cavity mode volume), which indicates the Purcell effect. This is the first demonstration of a cavity-enhanced ultrafast spontaneous emission from dopants in Si, and it may lead to the development of fast and efficient Si light emitters and Si quantum optical devices based on dopants with efficient optical access. PMID:24853336

  4. Collective Chemotaxis Requires Contact-Dependent Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Theveneau, Eric; Marchant, Lorena; Kuriyama, Sei; Gull, Mazhar; Moepps, Barbara; Parsons, Maddy; Mayor, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Summary Directional collective migration is now a widely recognized mode of migration during embryogenesis and cancer. However, how a cluster of cells responds to chemoattractants is not fully understood. Neural crest cells are among the most motile cells in the embryo, and their behavior has been likened to malignant invasion. Here, we show that neural crest cells are collectively attracted toward the chemokine Sdf1. While not involved in initially polarizing cells, Sdf1 directionally stabilizes cell protrusions promoted by cell contact. At this cell contact, N-cadherin inhibits protrusion and Rac1 activity and in turn promotes protrusions and activation of Rac1 at the free edge. These results show a role for N-cadherin during contact inhibition of locomotion, and they reveal a mechanism of chemoattraction likely to function during both embryogenesis and cancer metastasis, whereby attractants such as Sdf1 amplify and stabilize contact-dependent cell polarity, resulting in directional collective migration. PMID:20643349

  5. Mars: Wavelength-dependent dual polarization global scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, J. K.; Slade, M. A.; Hudson, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1988 and 1990 Mars oppositions, the first continuous-wave (CW) multi-wavelength radar observations were performed that include the entire echo in both polarizations. These observations, coordinated in subradar coverage when possible, were made with the Arecibo S-band (12.6 cm lambda) and Goldstone X-band (3.5 cm lambda) facilities. The CW spectra obtained during these oppositions have been studied using a variety of techniques to explore the spatial and wavelength dependence of both the Same-sense Circular (SC) and Opposite-sense Circular (OC) polarization returns. Earlier multi-wavelength comparisons dealt primarily with the quasispecular component of the echoes. Our work in contrast has much new information (at high signal-to-noise) for the SC 'depolarized component. The unique value of these radar observations lies in their potential for probing the subsurface scattering behavior in 'appropriate' terrain. The clearest case for wavelength dependence in the SC component is the scattering behavior over Tharsis, where the X-band features are significantly weaker than the S-band features. This hypothesis was advanced to account for the low thermal inertia of Tharsis, but also can explain the S/X differences if the layer is about 40 cm thick. In contrast to the Tharsis result, the depolarized echo from the heavily cratered terrain is actually stronger at X-band. The obvious interpretation is that more scatterers exist at the scale of the shorter wavelength, either at the surface or as a distributed subsurface scatterers. The strongest depolarized feature of the X-band spectra is associated with the south residual polar cap. The radar cross section of this feature corresponds to an equivalent full-disk albedo of unity.

  6. Temperature dependence of spectral induced polarization data: experimental results and membrane polarization theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairlein, Katharina; Bücker, Matthias; Hördt, Andreas; Hinze, Björn

    2016-04-01

    Spectral induced polarization measurements are affected by temperature variations due to a variety of temperature-dependent parameters that control the complex electrical conductivity. Most important is the influence of the ion mobility, which increases with increasing temperature. It is responsible for the increase of the conductivity of the fluid in the pores with temperature and influences the electrical double layer on the mineral surface. This work is based on laboratory measurements of 13 sandstone samples from different sources with different geological and petrophysical characteristics. We measured the complex impedance in a frequency range from 0.01 to 100 Hz and a temperature range from 0 to 40 °C. The main observation is a decrease of the characteristic time (defined by the inverse of the frequency, at which the phase shift is maximum) with increasing temperature. The strength of this decrease differs from one sample to another. The temperature dependence of the phase shift magnitude cannot easily be generalized, as it depends on the particular sample. The experimental findings suggest that neglecting the influence of temperature on complex conductivity may lead to significant errors when estimating hydraulic conductivity from relaxation time. We also simulate the temperature dependence with a theoretical model of membrane polarization and review some of the model properties, with an emphasis on the temperature dependence of the parameters. The model reproduces several features characterizing the measured data, including the temperature dependence of the characteristic times. Computed tomography and microscope images of the pore structure of three samples also allow us to associate differences in the geometrical parameters used in the modelling with pore scale parameters of the actual samples.

  7. Photogeneration of charge carrier correlated with amplified spontaneous emission in single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu

    2010-04-01

    Thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers have substantial promise for the use of not only organic electronics but also organic optical devices. However, considerably less is known about the correlation between their optical and optoelectronic properties. We have investigated the charge carrier generation in 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)benzene (AC5) single crystals by flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) and transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). It was found that the dependence of photocarrier generation efficiency on excitation photon density differed from that of emission efficiency once amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and resultant spectrally narrowed emission occur upon exposure to 355 nm. In contrast, the dependences of emission and photocarrier generation efficiencies were identical when ASE was not involved at a different excitation wavelength (193 nm). An approximated analytical solution of rate equation considering ASE or singlet-singlet annihilation was applied to the experiments, exhibiting good agreement. On the basis of TRMC, TAS, and extinction coefficient of radical cation assessed by pulse radiolysis, the minimum charge carrier mobility was estimated, without electrodes, to be 0.12 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The dynamics of charge carrier and triplet excited state is discussed, accompanying with examination by time-dependent density functional theory. The present work would open the way to a deeper understanding of the fate of excited state in optically robust organic semiconducting crystals.

  8. Polarization-dependent extraordinary optical transmission from upconversion nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng Hui; Salcedo, Walter J.; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham; van Veggel, Frank C. J. M.; Brolo, Alexandre G.

    2015-10-01

    Enhanced upconversion (UC) emission was experimentally demonstrated using gold double antenna nanoparticles coupled to nanoslits in gold films. The transmitted red emission from UC ytterbium and erbium co-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+) nanoparticles (UC NPs) at ~665 nm (excited with a 980 nm diode laser) was enhanced relative to the green emission at ~550 nm. The relatively enhanced UC NP emission could be tuned by the different polarization-dependent extraordinary optical transmission modes coupled to the gold nanostructures. Finite-difference time-domain calculations suggest that the preferential enhanced UC emission is related to a combination of different surface plasmon mode excitation coupling to cavity Fabry-Perot interactions. A maximum UC enhancement of 6-fold was measured for nanoslit arrays in the absence of the double antennas. In the presence of the double nanoantennas inside the nanoslits, the UC enhancement was between 2- and 4-fold, depending on the experimental conditions.Enhanced upconversion (UC) emission was experimentally demonstrated using gold double antenna nanoparticles coupled to nanoslits in gold films. The transmitted red emission from UC ytterbium and erbium co-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+) nanoparticles (UC NPs) at ~665 nm (excited with a 980 nm diode laser) was enhanced relative to the green emission at ~550 nm. The relatively enhanced UC NP emission could be tuned by the different polarization-dependent extraordinary optical transmission modes coupled to the gold nanostructures. Finite-difference time-domain calculations suggest that the preferential enhanced UC emission is related to a combination of different surface plasmon mode excitation coupling to cavity Fabry-Perot interactions. A maximum UC enhancement of 6-fold was measured for nanoslit arrays in the absence of the double antennas. In the presence of the double nanoantennas inside the nanoslits, the UC enhancement was between 2- and 4-fold

  9. Gravity-dependent polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in Nitellopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.; Leopold, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The internodal cells of the characean alga Nitellopsis obtusa were chosen to investigate the effect of gravity on cytoplasmic streaming. Horizontal cells exhibit streaming with equal velocities in both directions, whereas in vertically oriented cells, the downward-streaming cytoplasm flows ca. 10% faster than the upward-streaming cytoplasm. These results are independent of the orientation of the morphological top and bottom of the cell. We define the ratio of the velocity of the downward- to the upward-streaming cytoplasm as the polar ratio (PR). The normal polarity of a cell can be reversed (PR < 1) by treatment with neutral red (NR). The NR effect may be the result of membrane hyperpolarization, caused by the opening of K+ channels. The K+ channel blocker TEA Cl- inhibits the NR effect. External Ca2+ is required for normal graviresponsiveness. The [Ca2+] of the medium determines the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. Less than 1 micromole Ca2+ resulted in a PR < 1 while greater than 1 micromole Ca2+ resulted in the normal gravity response. The voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-channel blocker, nifedipine, inhibited the gravity response in a reversible manner, while treatment with LaCl3 resulted in a PR < 1, indicating the presence of two types of Ca2+ channels. A new model for graviperception is presented in which the whole cell acts as the gravity sensor, and the plasma membrane acts as the gravireceptor. This is supported by ligation and UV irradiation experiments which indicate that the membranes at both ends of the cell are required for graviperception. The density of the external medium also affects the PR of Nitellopsis. Calculations are presented that indicate that the weight of the protoplasm may provide enough potential energy to open ion channels.

  10. Modelling polarization dependent absorption: The vectorial Lambert-Beer law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franssens, G.

    2014-07-01

    The scalar Lambert-Beer law, describing the absorption of unpolarized light travelling through a linear non-scattering medium, is simple, well-known, and mathematically trivial. However, when we take the polarization of light into account and consider a medium with polarization dependent absorption, we now need a Vectorial Lambert-Beer Law (VLBL) to quantify this interaction. Such a generalization of the scalar Lambert-Beer law appears not to be readily available. A careful study of this topic reveals that it is not a trivial problem. We will see that the VLBL is not and cannot be a straightforward vectorized version of its scalar counterpart. The aim of the work is to present the general form of the VLBL and to explain how it arises. A reasonable starting point to derive the VLBL is the Vectorial Radiative Transfer Equation (VRTE), which models the absorption and scattering of (partially) polarized light travelling through a linear medium. When we turn off scattering, the VRTE becomes an infinitesimal model for the VLBL holding in the medium. By integrating this equation, we expect to find the VLBL. Surprisingly, this is not the end of the story. It turns out that light propagation through a medium with polarization-dependent absorption is mathematically not that trivial. The trickiness behind the VLBL can be understood in the following terms. The matrix in the VLBL, relating any input Stokes vector to the corresponding output Stokes vector, must necessarily be a Mueller matrix. The subset of invertible Mueller matrices forms a Lie group. It is known that this Lie group contains the ortho-chronous Lorentz group as a subgroup. The group manifold of this subgroup has a (well-known) non-trivial topology. Consequently, the manifold of the Lie group of Mueller matrices also has (at least the same, but likely a more general) non-trivial topology (the full extent of which is not yet known). The type of non-trivial topology, possessed by the manifold of (invertible

  11. Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Naoto; Kawahira, Tetsuya; Sakai, Wataru

    2003-09-01

    This letter presents amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and distributed feedback (DFB) lasing of the conjugated compound, 1,4-bis[2-[4-[N,N-di(p-tolyl)amino]phenyl] vinyl]benzene, in various polymer matrices of poly(methylmethacrylate), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(vinyl butyral), poly(N-vinyl carbazole), and poly(methyl phenylsilane). Effective and large ASE intensity, lowest threshold, and maximum optical gain were measured in the PS matrix. Sharp DFB lasing with full width at half-maximum=0.6 nm was measured at 490 nm. The lasing wavelength of 490 nm was fitted well by the theoretically calculated value of 491 nm.

  12. Modified spontaneous emission of organic molecules in-filled in inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lier; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei

    2011-11-01

    Inverse opals were prepared by replication of colloidal crystal templates made from silica spheres 298 nm in diameter. The air between the silica spheres was filled with the mixture of the monomer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the organic molecule Alq3 that can be subsequently polymerized. After removing the silica sphere templates, the photonic bandgap effect on the spontaneous emission of Alq3 were investigated. The dip in the fluorescence spectrum was interpreted in terms of redistribution of the photon density of states in the photonic crystal. PMID:22413286

  13. Calculated half-lives and kinetic energies for spontaneous emission of heavy ions from nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Poenaru, D.N.; Greiner, W.; Depta, K.; Ivascu, M.; Mazilu, D.; Sandulescu, A.

    1986-05-01

    The most probable decays by spontaneous emission of heavy ions are listed for nuclides with Z = 47--106 and total half-lives>1 ..mu..sec. Partial half-lives, branching ratios relative to ..cap alpha.. decay, kinetic energies, and Q values are estimated by using the analytical superasymmetric fission model, a semiempirical formula for those ..cap alpha..-decay lifetimes which have not been measured, and the new Wapstra--Audi mass tables. Numerous ''stable'' nuclides with Z>40 are found to be metastable with respect to the new decay modes. The current experimental status is briefly reviewed.

  14. Ultrafast spontaneous emission modulation of graphene quantum dots interacting with Ag nanoparticles in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Lu, Jian; Wang, Liang; Tian, Linfan; Deng, Xingxia; Tian, Lijun; Pan, Dengyu; Wang, Zhongyang

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the strong interaction between graphene quantum dots and silver nanoparticles in solution using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques. In solution, the silver nanoparticles are surrounded by graphene quantum dots and interacted with graphene quantum dots through exciton-plasmon coupling. An ultrafast spontaneous emission process (lifetime 27 ps) was observed in such a mixed solution. This ultrafast lifetime corresponds to the emission rate exceeding 35 GHz, with the purcell enhancement by a factor of ˜12. These experiment results pave the way for the realization of future high speed light sources applications.

  15. Directed spontaneous emission from an extended ensemble of N atoms: timing is everything.

    PubMed

    Scully, Marlan O; Fry, Edward S; Ooi, C H Raymond; Wódkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-01-13

    A collection of static atoms is fixed in a crystal at a low temperature and prepared by a pulse of incident radiation of wave vector . The atoms are well described by an entangled Dicke-like state, in which each atom carries a characteristic phase factor exp(ik0.r(j)), where is the atomic position in the crystal. It is shown that a single photon absorbed by the N atoms will be followed by spontaneous emission in the same direction. Furthermore, phase matched emission is found when one photon is absorbed by N atoms followed by two-photon down-conversion.

  16. Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zin; Pick, Adi; Lončar, Marko; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2016-09-01

    We formulate and exploit a computational inverse-design method based on topology optimization to demonstrate photonic crystal structures supporting complex spectral degeneracies. In particular, we discover photonic crystals exhibiting third-order Dirac points formed by the accidental degeneracy of monopolar, dipolar, and quadrupolar modes. We show that, under suitable conditions, these modes can coalesce and form a third-order exceptional point, leading to strong modifications in the spontaneous emission (SE) of emitters, related to the local density of states. We find that SE can be enhanced by a factor of 8 in passive structures, with larger enhancements ∼sqrt[n^{3}] possible at exceptional points of higher order n.

  17. Amplified spontaneous emission from the exciplex state of a conjugated polymer "PFO" in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Taha, Kamal K.; Aldaghri, O.; Alhathlool, R.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Ibnaouf, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) characteristics of a conjugated polymer poly (9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl) (PFO) in oleic acid have been studied under different concentrations and temperatures. Here, the ASE spectra of PFO in oleic acid have been obtained using a transverse cavity configuration where the conjugated PFO was pumped by laser pulses from the third harmonic of Nd: YAG laser (355 nm). The PFO in oleic acid produces ASE from an exciplex state - a new molecular species. The obtained results were compared with the PFO in benzene. Such ASE spectra from the exciplex state have not been observed for the PFO in benzene.

  18. Low threshold amplified spontaneous emission from near-infrared dye-doped polymeric waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, K.; Kuro, T.; Oe, K.; Yanagi, H.

    2006-06-01

    We have investigated near-infrared light amplification in a dye-doped polymeric waveguide structure under optical pumping. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at ˜800nm was observed in poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) thin film with organic dye LDS798. The ASE threshold energy was as low as ˜12μJ/cm2, which is about one-tenth of previously reported values for infrared-dye-doped polymeric waveguides. This low threshold ASE comes from a large Stokes shift of LDS798, in which the self-absorption of emission is suppressed.

  19. Amplified spontaneous emission of Rhodamine 6G embedded in pure deoxyribonucleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Ileana; Szukalski, Adam; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej; Bartkiewicz, Stanislaw; Kajzar, Francois; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw

    2012-10-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is commonly viewed as a genetic information carrier. However, now it is recognized as a nanomaterial, rather than as a biological material, in the research field of nanotechnology. Here, we show that using pure DNA, doped with rhodamine 6G, we are able to observe amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) phenomenon. Moderate ASE threshold, photodegradation, and reasonable gain coefficient observed in this natural host gives some perspectives for practical applications of this system in biophotonics. Obtained results open the way and will be leading to construction of truly bio-lasers using nature made luminophores, such as anthocyanins.

  20. Spontaneous emission measurements from a low voltage pre-bunched electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dearden, G.; Mayhew, S.E.; Lucas, J.

    1995-12-31

    Recently we have carried out measurements on the spontaneous microwave (8.2 GHz) emission which results when a low-voltage (55kV) pre-punched electron beam is passed through a waveguide in a wiggler magnetic field. The variation of the spontaneous emission output power level with the average electron beam current and energy are reported and compared with the theory presented by Doria et al. The effect of the degree of bunching of the electron beam has also been observed and compared with theory.

  1. Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zin; Pick, Adi; Lončar, Marko; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-09-01

    We formulate and exploit a computational inverse-design method based on topology optimization to demonstrate photonic crystal structures supporting complex spectral degeneracies. In particular, we discover photonic crystals exhibiting third-order Dirac points formed by the accidental degeneracy of monopolar, dipolar, and quadrupolar modes. We show that, under suitable conditions, these modes can coalesce and form a third-order exceptional point, leading to strong modifications in the spontaneous emission (SE) of emitters, related to the local density of states. We find that SE can be enhanced by a factor of 8 in passive structures, with larger enhancements ˜√{n3} possible at exceptional points of higher order n .

  2. Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bronn, Nicholas T. Hertzberg, Jared B.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M.; Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A.

    2015-10-26

    The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration.

  3. Modified spontaneous emission of organic molecules in-filled in inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lier; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei

    2011-11-01

    Inverse opals were prepared by replication of colloidal crystal templates made from silica spheres 298 nm in diameter. The air between the silica spheres was filled with the mixture of the monomer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the organic molecule Alq3 that can be subsequently polymerized. After removing the silica sphere templates, the photonic bandgap effect on the spontaneous emission of Alq3 were investigated. The dip in the fluorescence spectrum was interpreted in terms of redistribution of the photon density of states in the photonic crystal.

  4. Amplified and directional spontaneous emission from arbitrary composite bodies: A self-consistent treatment of Purcell effect below threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Weiliang; Khandekar, Chinmay; Pick, Adi; Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-03-01

    We study amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from wavelength-scale composite bodies—complicated arrangements of active and passive media—demonstrating highly directional and tunable radiation patterns, depending strongly on pump conditions, materials, and object shapes. For instance, we show that under large enough gain, PT symmetric dielectric spheres radiate mostly along either active or passive regions, depending on the gain distribution. Our predictions are based on a recently proposed fluctuating-volume-current formulation of electromagnetic radiation that can handle inhomogeneities in the dielectric and fluctuation statistics of active media, e.g., arising from the presence of nonuniform pump or material properties, which we exploit to demonstrate an approach to modeling ASE in regimes where Purcell effect (PE) has a significant impact on the gain, leading to spatial dispersion and/or changes in power requirements. The nonlinear feedback of PE on the active medium, captured by the Maxwell-Bloch equations but often ignored in linear formulations of ASE, is introduced into our linear framework by a self-consistent renormalization of the (dressed) gain parameters, requiring the solution of a large system of nonlinear equations involving many linear scattering calculations.

  5. Wnt-Dependent Control of Cell Polarity in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Runkle, Kristin B; Witze, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    The secreted ligand Wnt5a regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movement during development by signaling through the poorly defined noncanonical Wnt pathway. Cell polarity regulates most aspects of cell behavior including the organization of apical/basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, polarized cell divisions along a directional plane, and front rear polarity during cell migration. These characteristics of cell polarity allow coordinated cell movements required for tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Genetic model organisms have been used to identify multiple signaling pathways including Wnt5a that are required to establish cell polarity and regulate polarized cell behavior. However, the downstream signaling events that regulate these complex cellular processes are still poorly understood. The methods below describe assays to study Wnt5a-induced cell polarity in cultured cells, which may facilitate our understanding of these complex signaling pathways.

  6. Wnt-Dependent Control of Cell Polarity in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Runkle, Kristin B; Witze, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    The secreted ligand Wnt5a regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movement during development by signaling through the poorly defined noncanonical Wnt pathway. Cell polarity regulates most aspects of cell behavior including the organization of apical/basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, polarized cell divisions along a directional plane, and front rear polarity during cell migration. These characteristics of cell polarity allow coordinated cell movements required for tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Genetic model organisms have been used to identify multiple signaling pathways including Wnt5a that are required to establish cell polarity and regulate polarized cell behavior. However, the downstream signaling events that regulate these complex cellular processes are still poorly understood. The methods below describe assays to study Wnt5a-induced cell polarity in cultured cells, which may facilitate our understanding of these complex signaling pathways. PMID:27590152

  7. Polarization-dependent imaging contrast in abalone shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Abrecht, Mike; Chiou, Jau-Wern; Guo, Jinghua; Ariosa, Daniel; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2008-02-01

    Many biominerals contain micro- or nanocrystalline mineral components, organized accurately into architectures that confer the material with improved mechanical performance at the macroscopic scale. We present here an effect which enables us to observe the relative orientation of individual crystals at the submicron scale. We call it polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC), as it is an imaging development of the well-known x-ray linear dichroism. Most importantly, PIC is obtained in situ, in biominerals. We present here PIC in the prismatic and nacreous layers of Haliotis rufescens (red abalone), confirm it in geologic calcite and aragonite, and corroborate the experimental data with theoretical simulated spectra. PIC reveals different and unexpected aspects of nacre architecture that have inspired theoretical models for nacre formation.

  8. Generalized Mueller matrix method for polarization mode dispersion measurement in a system with polarization-dependent loss or gain.

    PubMed

    Dong, H; Shum, P; Yan, M; Zhou, J Q; Ning, G X; Gong, Y D; Wu, C Q

    2006-06-12

    A generalized Mueller matrix method (GMMM) is proposed to measure the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in an optical fiber system with polarization-dependent loss or gain (PDL/G). This algorithm is based on the polar decomposition of a 4X4 matrix which corresponds to a Lorentz transformation. Compared to the generalized Poincaré sphere method, the GMMM can measure PMD accurately with a relatively larger frequency step, and the obtained PMD data has very low noise level. PMID:19516669

  9. Spontaneous emission from ScF in a supersonic mixing flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, D. R.; Cool, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted of the two reactions: Sc + F2 yields ScF(asterisk) + F and Y + Cl2 yields YCl(asterisk) + Cl. Experiments were designed for studying the reactions under the relatively high pressure conditions (5-20 torr) appropriate for chemical laser operation. A shock tube was used to provide a short duration flow through a supersonic nozzle array. Shock wave heating is used to dissociate the ScCl3 or YCl3 at temperatures of about 6000 K, before the gases are accelerated and expanded through the supersonic nozzle array. The expanded primary flow is then mixed with a secondary flow of F2 introduced through slots at the trailing edge of each nozzle blade. Graphs show the temporal behavior of the visible spontaneous emission over the range from 3000 to 9000 A for a typical test condition, a microdensitometer tracing of the visible emission over the range from 4000 to 7000 A, and the spontaneous emission from ScF(asterisk) obtained by computer image processing of intensity data.

  10. The generation of amplified spontaneous emission in high‐power CPA laser systems

    PubMed Central

    Sävert, Alexander; Körner, Jörg; Hornung, Marco; Liebetrau, Hartmut; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An analytical model is presented describing the temporal intensity contrast determined by amplified spontaneous emission in high‐intensity laser systems which are based on the principle of chirped pulse amplification. The model describes both the generation and the amplification of the amplified spontaneous emission for each type of laser amplifier. This model is applied to different solid state laser materials which can support the amplification of pulse durations ≤350 fs . The results are compared to intensity and fluence thresholds, e.g. determined by damage thresholds of a certain target material to be used in high‐intensity applications. This allows determining if additional means for contrast improvement, e.g. plasma mirrors, are required for a certain type of laser system and application. Using this model, the requirements for an optimized high‐contrast front‐end design are derived regarding the necessary contrast improvement and the amplified “clean” output energy for a desired focussed peak intensity. Finally, the model is compared to measurements at three different high‐intensity laser systems based on Ti:Sapphire and Yb:glass. These measurements show an excellent agreement with the model. PMID:27134684

  11. Criterion of transverse coherence of self-amplified spontaneous emission in high gain free electron laser amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, M.; Kim, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    In a high gain free electron laser amplifier based on Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) the spontaneous radiation generated by an electron beam near the undulator entrance is amplified many orders of magnitude along the undulator. The transverse coherence properties of the amplified radiation depends on both the amplification process and the coherence of the seed radiation (the undulator radiation generated in the first gain length or so). The evolution of the transverse coherence in the amplification process is studied based on the solution of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations including higher order transverse modes. The coherence of the seed radiation is determined by the number of coherent modes in the phase space area of the undulator radiation. We discuss the criterion of transverse coherence and identify governing parameters over a broad range of parameters. In particular we re-examine the well known emittance criterion for the undulator radiation, which states that full transverse coherence is guaranteed if the rms emittance is smaller than the wavelength divided by 4{pi}. It is found that this criterion is modified for SASE because of the different optimization conditions required for the electron beam. Our analysis is a generalization of the previous study by Yu and Krinsky for the case of vanishing emittance with parallel electron beam. Understanding the transverse coherence of SASE is important for the X-ray free electron laser projects now under consideration at SLAC and DESY.

  12. Polarization-dependent extraordinary optical transmission from upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng Hui; Salcedo, Walter J; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham; van Veggel, Frank C J M; Brolo, Alexandre G

    2015-11-21

    Enhanced upconversion (UC) emission was experimentally demonstrated using gold double antenna nanoparticles coupled to nanoslits in gold films. The transmitted red emission from UC ytterbium and erbium co-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+)) nanoparticles (UC NPs) at ∼665 nm (excited with a 980 nm diode laser) was enhanced relative to the green emission at ∼550 nm. The relatively enhanced UC NP emission could be tuned by the different polarization-dependent extraordinary optical transmission modes coupled to the gold nanostructures. Finite-difference time-domain calculations suggest that the preferential enhanced UC emission is related to a combination of different surface plasmon mode excitation coupling to cavity Fabry-Perot interactions. A maximum UC enhancement of 6-fold was measured for nanoslit arrays in the absence of the double antennas. In the presence of the double nanoantennas inside the nanoslits, the UC enhancement was between 2- and 4-fold, depending on the experimental conditions. PMID:26487270

  13. Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungcheol; Lee, Jae-Ung; Lee, Jinhwan; Park, Hyo Ju; Lee, Zonghoon; Lee, Changgu; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2015-11-28

    We investigated polarization dependence of the Raman modes in black phosphorus (BP) using five different excitation wavelengths. The crystallographic orientation was determined by comparing polarized optical microscopy with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. In polarized Raman spectroscopy, the B2g mode shows the same polarization dependence regardless of the excitation wavelength or the sample thickness. On the other hand, the Ag(1) and Ag(2) modes show a peculiar polarization behavior that depends on the excitation wavelength and the sample thickness. The thickness dependence can be explained by considering the anisotropic interference effect due to the birefringence and dichroism of the BP crystal, but the wavelength dependence cannot be explained. We propose a simple and fail-proof procedure to determine the orientation of a BP crystal by combining polarized Raman scattering with polarized optical microscopy. PMID:26503032

  14. Patches in the polar ionosphere: UT and seasonal dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Sojka, J.J.; Bowline, M.D.; Schunk, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    The seasonal and UT dependencies of patches in the polar ionosphere are simulated using the Utah State University time dependent ionospheric model (TDIM). Patch formation is achieved by changing the plasma convection pattern in response to temporal changes in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B{sub y} component during periods of southward IMF. This mechanism redirects the plasma flow from the dayside high-density region, which is the source of the tongue of ionization (TOI) density feature, through the throat and leads to patches, rather than a continuous TOI. The model predicts that the patches are absent at winter solstice (northern hemisphere) between 0800 and 1200 UT and that they have their largest seasonal intensity at winter solstice between 2000 and 2400 UT. Between winter solstice and equinox, patches are strong and present all day. Patches are present in summer as well, although their intensity is only tens of percent above the background density. These winter-to-equinox findings are also shown to be consistent with observations. The model was also used to predict times at which patch observations could be performed to determine the contributions from other patch mechanisms. This observational window is {+-} 20 days about winter solstice between 0800 and 1200 UT in the northern hemisphere. In this observational window the TOI is either absent or reduced to a very low density. Hence the time dependent electric field mechanism considered in this study does not produce patches, and if they are observed, then they must be due to some other mechanism. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Quantum theory of spontaneous emission in a one-dimensional optical cavity with two-side output coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-Ping; Ujihara, Kikuo

    1990-03-01

    A quantum theory of spontaneous emission from an initially excited two-level atom in a one-dimensional optical cavity with output coupling from both sides is developed. Orthonormal mode functions with a continuous spectrum are employed, which are derived by imposing a periodic boundary condition on the whole space with a period much larger than the cavity length. The delay differential equation of the atomic state of Cook and Milonni [Phys. Rev. A 35, 5081 (1987)] is re-derived in a strict manner, where the reflectivity of the cavity mirrors is included naturally in the mode functions. An approximate solution at a single-resonant-mode limit shows the results of ``vacuum'' Rabi oscillation in an underdamped cavity and enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an overdamped cavity. For the latter case, it is found that in the optical range the spontaneous emission rate is enhanced by a factor F (finesse of the cavity).

  16. Polarization-dependent losses of integrated optical splitters in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenbach, Uwe; Eckstein, Holger; Fabricius, Norbert; Krause, Michael; Kobayashi, Shigeru

    1996-01-01

    During the last two years investments have been made in order to develop new measurement techniques for the characterization of fiber networks. An important characteristic is the neutrality of polarization dependence losses (PDL). Fiber networks contain beside optical sources and detectors a series of basic components like singlemode fibers, integrated optical components (IOC) for the subdistribution, wavelength selective components (WDM) and amplifying elements. The quality of the optical data between transmitters and receivers and the achieved maximum range are determined essentially by the PDL value. In this report the PDL characteristics of passive splitters made by IOT Integrierte Optik GmbH will be described, especially those of N X M splitters. N stands for the entrance port of the splitter and can be 1 or 2. M stands for the exit port of the splitter and can be 2, 4, 8, or 16. Different measuring processes will be described and the achieved measurement results for the PDL will be discussed, In addition to this the different sources of error during the process are described. The achieved results of IOT's N X M splitters have very low PDL values. They are typically smaller than 0.1 dB what makes them excellently suitable for the construction of long-distance optical communication networks. In the meantime such splitters are valued worldwide by different systems suppliers and installed in first optical networks.

  17. Amplified spontaneous emission spectrum at the output of a diode amplifier saturated by an input monochromatic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatov, A. P.; Drakin, A. E.; D'yachkov, N. V.; Gushchik, T. I.

    2016-08-01

    Expressions for the amplitudes of amplified spontaneous emission waves in a diode amplifier near the frequency ω0 of a 'strong' input monochromatic wave have been derived in terms of a random function of a stationary Gaussian process. We have found expressions for the spectral density of the amplitudes and shown that, on the red side of the spectrum with respect to frequency ω0, spontaneous emission waves obtain additional nonlinear gain, induced by the strong wave, whereas on the blue side of the spectrum an additional loss is induced. Such behaviour of the amplitudes of amplified waves agrees with previous results.

  18. Flexible all-polymer waveguide for low threshold amplified spontaneous emission

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, José R. Castro; Zhang, Qi; Wannemacher, Reinhold; Wu, Longfei; Casado, Santiago; Xia, Ruidong; Rodriguez, Isabel; Cabanillas-González, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of all polymer optical waveguides, based on a highly fluorescent conjugated polymer (CP) poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) and a mechanically flexible and biodegradable polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), is reported. The replication by hot embossing of patterned surfaces in CA substrates, onto which high quality F8BT films can be easily processed by spin coating, is exploited to produce an entirely plastic device that exhibits low optical loss and low threshold for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). As a result, highly transparent and flexible waveguides are obtained, with excellent optical properties that remain unaltered after bending, allowing them to be adapted in various flexible photonic devices. PMID:27686745

  19. Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zin; Pick, Adi; Lončar, Marko; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2016-09-01

    We formulate and exploit a computational inverse-design method based on topology optimization to demonstrate photonic crystal structures supporting complex spectral degeneracies. In particular, we discover photonic crystals exhibiting third-order Dirac points formed by the accidental degeneracy of monopolar, dipolar, and quadrupolar modes. We show that, under suitable conditions, these modes can coalesce and form a third-order exceptional point, leading to strong modifications in the spontaneous emission (SE) of emitters, related to the local density of states. We find that SE can be enhanced by a factor of 8 in passive structures, with larger enhancements ∼sqrt[n^{3}] possible at exceptional points of higher order n. PMID:27636493

  20. Temporal phase mask encrypted optical steganography carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Shastri, Bhavin J; Chang, Matthew P; Frost, Nicholas A; Prucnal, Paul R

    2014-01-13

    A temporal phase mask encryption method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to improve the security of the stealth channel in an optical steganography system. The stealth channel is protected in two levels. In the first level, the data is carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, which cannot be detected in either the time domain or spectral domain. In the second level, even if the eavesdropper suspects the existence of the stealth channel, each data bit is covered by a fast changing phase mask. The phase mask code is always combined with the wide band noise from ASE. Without knowing the right phase mask code to recover the stealth data, the eavesdropper can only receive the noise like signal with randomized phase. PMID:24515055

  1. Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission in a quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Mingxuan; Zhang, Yating; Song, Xiaoxian; Che, Yongli; Zhang, Haiting; Yan, Chao; Dai, Haitao; Liu, Guang; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-07-01

    Quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (QD-PDLCs) were prepared by photoinitiated polymerization and sealed in capillary tubes. The concentration of QDs in the PDLC was 1 wt%. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals was observed with 532 nm wavelength laser excitation. The threshold for ASE was 6 mJ cm‑2, which is much lower than that for homogeneous quantum dot-doped polymer (25 mJ cm‑2). The threshold for ASE was dramatically enhanced when the working temperature exceeded the clearing point of the liquid crystal; this result demonstrates that multi-scattering caused by the liquid crystals effectively improved the path length or dwell time of light in the gain region, which played a key role in decreasing the threshold for ASE.

  2. Suppression of spontaneous emission and superradiance over macroscopic distances in media with negative refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kästel, Jürgen; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of negative optical path length in left-handed media (LHM) is shown to lead to complete suppression of spontaneous emission of an atom in front of a mirror with a layer of LHM. For the same reason two atoms put at the foci of a perfect lens formed by a parallel LHM slab [J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett.8520003966] exhibit perfect subradiance and superradiance. It is shown that these effects occur over distances that can be orders of magnitude larger than the transition wavelength and are only limited by the propagation length within the free-space decay time of the atoms. Single- and two-atom decay rates are calculated from the Greens function of the electric field in the presence of a LHM and limitations as well as potential applications are discussed.

  3. Impact of amplified spontaneous emission on Brillouin scattering of a single-frequency signal.

    PubMed

    Karow, Malte; Neumann, Jörg; Kracht, Dietmar; Weßels, Peter

    2012-05-01

    We experimentally investigated the influence of amplified spontaneous emission within the Brillouin gain bandwidth on the Brillouin scattering of a single-frequency signal. The experiments were performed for the case of artificial ASE injected in backward direction into a passive fiber, as well as in forward direction of a low-power fiber amplifier. A significant influence could be observed, when the ASE was counter-propagating to the signal. Injecting 160.6 nW of ASE within the Brillouin gain bandwidth led to a decrease of about 3 dB of the SBS-threshold of an approximately 335 m long passive fiber from about 80 mW to less than 40 mW. At a fixed signal power of 81 mW the backscattered power and the power in the Brillouin scattered Stokes maximum increased by a factor of 19.

  4. Temporal phase mask encrypted optical steganography carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Shastri, Bhavin J; Chang, Matthew P; Frost, Nicholas A; Prucnal, Paul R

    2014-01-13

    A temporal phase mask encryption method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to improve the security of the stealth channel in an optical steganography system. The stealth channel is protected in two levels. In the first level, the data is carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, which cannot be detected in either the time domain or spectral domain. In the second level, even if the eavesdropper suspects the existence of the stealth channel, each data bit is covered by a fast changing phase mask. The phase mask code is always combined with the wide band noise from ASE. Without knowing the right phase mask code to recover the stealth data, the eavesdropper can only receive the noise like signal with randomized phase.

  5. Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Eva M; Villalvilla, José M; Boj, Pedro G; Quintana, José A; Gómez, Rafael; Segura, José L; Díaz García, María A

    2007-06-20

    The presence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) by optical pump in polystyrene films doped with N,N'-di(10-nonadecyl)perylene-3,4:9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI-N) in a range of PDI-N concentrations between 0.25 and 5 wt. % is reported. Gain coefficients up to 10 cm(-1), at a pump intensity of 74 kW/cm2, were obtained. The lowest thresholds (approximately 15 kW/cm2) and largest photostabilities measured at 50% (approximately 50 min, i.e., 30,000 pump pulses) were obtained for concentrations up to 1 wt. %. The observation of an increase in the ASE threshold and a decrease in the photostability for larger concentrations is attributed to the presence of aggregated species.

  6. Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission in a quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingxuan; Zhang, Yating; Song, Xiaoxian; Che, Yongli; Zhang, Haiting; Yan, Chao; Dai, Haitao; Liu, Guang; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-07-01

    Quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (QD-PDLCs) were prepared by photoinitiated polymerization and sealed in capillary tubes. The concentration of QDs in the PDLC was 1 wt%. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals was observed with 532 nm wavelength laser excitation. The threshold for ASE was 6 mJ cm(-2), which is much lower than that for homogeneous quantum dot-doped polymer (25 mJ cm(-2)). The threshold for ASE was dramatically enhanced when the working temperature exceeded the clearing point of the liquid crystal; this result demonstrates that multi-scattering caused by the liquid crystals effectively improved the path length or dwell time of light in the gain region, which played a key role in decreasing the threshold for ASE.

  7. Suppression of spontaneous emission and superradiance over macroscopic distances in media with negative refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kaestel, Juergen; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of negative optical path length in left-handed media (LHM) is shown to lead to complete suppression of spontaneous emission of an atom in front of a mirror with a layer of LHM. For the same reason two atoms put at the foci of a perfect lens formed by a parallel LHM slab [J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000)] exhibit perfect subradiance and superradiance. It is shown that these effects occur over distances that can be orders of magnitude larger than the transition wavelength and are only limited by the propagation length within the free-space decay time of the atoms. Single- and two-atom decay rates are calculated from the Greens function of the electric field in the presence of a LHM and limitations as well as potential applications are discussed.

  8. Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission using layer-by-layer assembled cowpea mosaic virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Deng, Zhaoqi; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaojie; Geng, Yanhou; Ma, Dongge; Su, Zhaohui

    2009-01-01

    Layer-by-layer assembly technique was used to construct ultrathin film of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) by electrostatic interactions, and the film was employed as a precursor on which an OF8T2 film was deposited by spin coating. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) was observed and improved for the OF8T2 film. Compared with OF8T2 film on quartz, the introduction of CPMV nanoparticles reduced the threshold and loss, and remarkably increased the net gain. The threshold, loss, and gain reached 0.05 mJ/pulse, 6.9 cm-1, and 82 cm-1, respectively. CPMV nanoparticles may enormously scatter light, resulting in a positive feedback, thus the ASE is easily obtained and improved.

  9. Broadband Enhancement of Spontaneous Emission in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors Using Photonic Hypercrystals.

    PubMed

    Galfsky, Tal; Sun, Zheng; Considine, Christopher R; Chou, Cheng-Tse; Ko, Wei-Chun; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Menon, Vinod M

    2016-08-10

    The low quantum yield observed in two-dimensional semiconductors of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has motivated the quest for approaches that can enhance the light emission from these systems. Here, we demonstrate broadband enhancement of spontaneous emission and increase in Raman signature from archetype two-dimensional semiconductors: molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) by placing the monolayers in the near field of a photonic hypercrystal having hyperbolic dispersion. Hypercrystals are characterized by a large broadband photonic density of states due to hyperbolic dispersion while having enhanced light in/out coupling by a subwavelength photonic crystal lattice. This dual advantage is exploited here to enhance the light emission from the 2D TMDs and can be utilized for developing light emitters and solar cells using two-dimensional semiconductors. PMID:27420735

  10. Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission in a quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Mingxuan; Zhang, Yating; Song, Xiaoxian; Che, Yongli; Zhang, Haiting; Yan, Chao; Dai, Haitao; Liu, Guang; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-07-01

    Quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (QD-PDLCs) were prepared by photoinitiated polymerization and sealed in capillary tubes. The concentration of QDs in the PDLC was 1 wt%. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals was observed with 532 nm wavelength laser excitation. The threshold for ASE was 6 mJ cm-2, which is much lower than that for homogeneous quantum dot-doped polymer (25 mJ cm-2). The threshold for ASE was dramatically enhanced when the working temperature exceeded the clearing point of the liquid crystal; this result demonstrates that multi-scattering caused by the liquid crystals effectively improved the path length or dwell time of light in the gain region, which played a key role in decreasing the threshold for ASE.

  11. Dynamics of spontaneous emission in a single-end photonic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufarelli, Tommaso; Ciccarello, Francesco; Kim, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spontaneous emission of a two-level system, e.g., an atom or atomlike object, coupled to a single-end, i.e., a semi-infinite, one-dimensional photonic waveguide such that one end behaves as a perfect mirror while light can pass through the opposite end with no backreflection. Through a quantum microscopic model we show that such geometry can cause nonexponential and long-lived atomic decay. Under suitable conditions, a bound atom-photon stationary state appears in the atom-mirror interspace so as to trap a considerable amount of initial atomic excitation. Yet this can be released by applying an atomic frequency shift, causing a revival of photon emission. The resilience of such effects to typical detrimental factors is analyzed.

  12. Flexible all-polymer waveguide for low threshold amplified spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, José R. Castro; Zhang, Qi; Wannemacher, Reinhold; Wu, Longfei; Casado, Santiago; Xia, Ruidong; Rodriguez, Isabel; Cabanillas-González, Juan

    2016-09-01

    The fabrication of all polymer optical waveguides, based on a highly fluorescent conjugated polymer (CP) poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) and a mechanically flexible and biodegradable polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), is reported. The replication by hot embossing of patterned surfaces in CA substrates, onto which high quality F8BT films can be easily processed by spin coating, is exploited to produce an entirely plastic device that exhibits low optical loss and low threshold for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). As a result, highly transparent and flexible waveguides are obtained, with excellent optical properties that remain unaltered after bending, allowing them to be adapted in various flexible photonic devices.

  13. Angular dependence of recoil proton polarization in high-energy \\gamma d \\to p n

    SciTech Connect

    X. Jiang; J. Arrington; F. Benmokhtar; A. Camsonne; J.P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; F. Cusanno; A. Deur; D. Dutta; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; C. Glashauser; D. Hamilton; O. Hansen; D.W. Higinbotham; R.J. Holt; C.W. de Jager; M.K. Jones; L.J. Kaufman; E.R. Kinney; K. Kramer; L. Lagamba; R. de Leo; J. Lerose; D. Lhuillier; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; K.D. Paschke; C.F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; I.A. Qattan; R.D. Ransome; P.E. Reimer; B. Reitz; A. Saha; E.C. Schulte; R. Sheyor; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; V. Sulkosky; G.M. Urciuoli; E. Voutier; K. Wang; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; L. Zhu

    2007-02-26

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily.. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  14. Intrinsic spontaneous emission-induced fluctuations of the output optical beam power and phase in a diode amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatov, A. P.; Drakin, A. E.; D'yachkov, N. V.; Gushchik, T. I.

    2016-08-01

    Output optical beam intensity and phase fluctuations are analysed in a classical approach to describing the propagation and amplification of spontaneous emission in the active region of a laser diode with a gain saturated by input monochromatic light. We find their spectral densities and dispersion and the correlation coefficient of the two-dimensional probability distribution function of the fluctuations.

  15. Modification and control of coherence effects in the spontaneous emission spectrum of a three-level atom at weak field regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Bibhas Kumar; Panchadhyayee, Pradipta

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that coherence effects have a marked influence in the spontaneous emission spectrum of a three-level Λ -type atom driven by weak coherent and incoherent fields. Phase dependent evolution of interference effects leading to spectral narrowing, generation of spectral hole and dark line are exhibited in the present scheme when the atom does not interact with the incoherent fields. The basic mechanism underlying this scheme seems to be appropriate for a phaseonium. Apart from phase-coherence introduced in the system the phenomenon of line narrowing, in the presence of weak incoherent pumping, can be achieved in a different way as a consequence of two competitive resonant effects: sharp non-Lorentzian and symmetric Fano-like-resonance contributions to the line shape. In both the situations, the evolution of narrow structures in the line shape can be achieved even when the emission is influenced by the dephasing of Raman coherence.

  16. Polarization-dependent diffraction in all-dielectric, twisted-band structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kardaś, Tomasz M.; Jagodnicka, Anna; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2015-11-23

    We propose a concept for light polarization management: polarization-dependent diffraction in all-dielectric microstructures. Numerical simulations of light propagation show that with an appropriately configured array of twisted bands, such structures may exhibit zero birefringence and at the same time diffract two circular polarizations with different efficiencies. Non-birefringent structures as thin as 3 μm have a significant difference in diffraction efficiency for left- and right-hand circular polarizations. We identify the structural parameters of such twisted-band matrices for optimum performance as circular polarizers.

  17. Polarization dependent ripples induced by femtosecond laser on dense flint (ZF6) glass.

    PubMed

    Han, Yanhua; Zhao, Xiuli; Qu, Shiliang

    2011-09-26

    We report on the formation of polarization dependent ripples on ZF(6) glass by femtosecond laser irradiation. Two kinds of polarization dependent ripples are formed on the laser modified region. The ripples with direction parallel to laser polarization distribute in a pit in the center of laser modified region, the period of the ripples increases with the increasing pulse number. The ripples with direction perpendicular to laser polarization spread around the pit, the period of the ripples (~750 nm) almost keeps constant with the increasing pulse number.

  18. Suppressed dependence of polarization on epitaxial strain in highly polar ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Nakhmanson, Serge M; Chisholm, Matthew F; Christen, Hans M; Rabe, Karin M; Vanderbilt, David

    2007-05-25

    A combined experimental and computational investigation of coupling between polarization and epitaxial strain in highly polar ferroelectric PbZr(0.2)Ti(0.8)O3 (PZT) thin films is reported. A comparison of the properties of relaxed (tetragonality c/a approximately 1.05) and highly strained (c/a approximately 1.09) epitaxial films shows that polarization, while being amongst the highest reported for PZT or PbTiO3 in either film or bulk forms P(r) approximately 82 microC/cm(2)), is almost independent of the epitaxial strain. We attribute this behavior to a suppressed sensitivity of the A-site cations to epitaxial strain in these Pb-based perovskites, where the ferroelectric displacements are already large, contrary to the case of less polar perovskites, such as BaTiO3. In the latter case, the A-site cation (Ba) and equatorial oxygen displacements can lead to substantial polarization increases. PMID:17677807

  19. Coherent control of cooperative spontaneous emission from two identical three-level atoms in a photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; Idehenre, Ighodalo; Hardin, Tyler

    2015-08-01

    The coherent control of cooperative spontaneous emission from two identical non-overlapping three-level atoms in the V-configuration located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material with two resonant frequencies near the upper band edge of the PBG and confined to a region small in comparison to their radiation wavelengths but still greater than their atomic sizes is investigated. The dependencies of cooperative effects in which a photon emitted by one atom is reabsorbed by the other atom on the inter-atomic separation, on the initial state of the two-atom system, on the strength of the driving control laser field, and on the detuning of the atomic resonant frequencies from the upper band edge frequency is analyzed so as to identify the conditions for which these cooperative effects are enhanced or inhibited. Cooperative effects between atoms are shown to be influenced more by the PBG than by the nature of the atomic transitions involved. Excited state populations as well as coherences between excited levels are expressed in terms of time-dependent amplitudes which are shown to satisfy coupled integro-differential equations for which analytic solutions are derived under special conditions. Unlike for the case of one atom in a PBG where the fractional non-zero steady state populations on the excited levels as well as the coherence between the excited levels are constants independent of time, in the case of two atoms in PBG these quantities continuously oscillate as a manifestation of beating due to the continuous exchange between the two atoms of the photon trapped by the PBG. The values of these quantities as well as the amplitudes and frequencies of their oscillations depend of the parameters of the system, providing different ways of manipulating the system. The general formalism presented here is shown to recapture the special results of investigations of similar systems in free space when the non-Markovian memory kernels of the PBG are replaced by delta

  20. Amplified Spontaneous Emission and Gain from Optically Pumped Films of Dye-Doped Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wu; Zhong, Bo; Ma, Dongge

    2004-09-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission and gain characteristics of various fluorescent dyes, 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6(2-(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-1H,5H-benzo[ij] quinolizin-9-1)ethenyl)-4H-pyran-4-ylidene) propanedinitrile (DCJTB) and 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethyl-aminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), doped in polystyrene (PS) matrices were studied and compared. It was found that DCJTB has a larger net gain, 40.72 cm^-1, a lower loss, 2.49 cm^-1, and a lower threshold, 0.16 (mJ/pulse)/cm^2, than DCM, which has a net gain of 11.95 cm^-1, a loss of 9.25 cm^-1, and a threshold of 4(mJ/pulse)/cm^2. The improvement of performance in DCJTB PS films is attributed to the larger free volume of DCJTB caused by the introduction of steric spacer groups into the DCJTB molecule.

  1. Prolonged spontaneous emission and dephasing of localized excitons in air-bridged carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarpkaya, Ibrahim; Zhang, Zhengyi; Walden-Newman, William; Wang, Xuesi; Hone, James; Wong, Chee W.; Strauf, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    The bright exciton emission of carbon nanotubes is appealing for optoelectronic devices and fundamental studies of light-matter interaction in one-dimensional nanostructures. However, to date, the photophysics of excitons in carbon nanotubes is largely affected by extrinsic effects. Here we perform time-resolved photoluminescence measurements over 14 orders of magnitude for ultra-clean carbon nanotubes bridging an air gap over pillar posts. Our measurements demonstrate a new regime of intrinsic exciton photophysics with prolonged spontaneous emission times up to T1=18 ns, about two orders of magnitude better than prior measurements and in agreement with values hypothesized by theorists about a decade ago. Furthermore, we establish for the first time exciton decoherence times of individual nanotubes in the time domain and find fourfold prolonged values up to T2=2.1 ps compared with ensemble measurements. These first observations motivate new discussions about the magnitude of the intrinsic dephasing mechanism while the prolonged exciton dynamics is promising for applications.

  2. Fast and bright spontaneous emission of Er3+ ions in metallic nanocavity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Jisu; Jang, Hoon; Yong Kim, In; Karnadi, Indra; Shin, Jonghwa; Shin, Jung H.; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    By confining light in a small cavity, the spontaneous emission rate of an emitter can be controlled via the Purcell effect. However, while Purcell factors as large as ∼10,000 have been predicted, actual reported values were in the range of about 10–30 only, leaving a huge gap between theory and experiment. Here we report on enhanced 1.54-μm emission from Er3+ ions placed in a very small metallic cavity. Using a cavity designed to enhance the overall Purcell effect instead of a particular component, and by systematically investigating its photonic properties, we demonstrate an unambiguous Purcell factor that is as high as 170 at room temperature. We also observe >90 times increase in the far-field radiant flux, indicating that as much as 55% of electromagnetic energy that was initially supplied to Er3+ ions in the cavity escape safely into the free space in just one to two optical cycles. PMID:25940839

  3. Spontaneous emission dynamics in an omnidirectional waveguide made of photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Hsien; Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Wu, Jing-Nuo; Hsieh, Wen-Feng

    2011-06-01

    The spontaneous emission dynamics of atoms embedded in an omnidirectional waveguide (ODWG), a novel optical waveguide, is studied on the basis of the complete reflection of one-dimensional photonic crystals. With the dispersion curve of the single waveguide mode within the photonic band gap and various extents of background dissipation, we characterize the photon-atom interaction in the ODWG. The photon emitter of the system is a two-level atom embedded in the low-index medium of the multilayer-film ODWG or the atom-ODWG system. Fractional calculus, an innovative mathematical method in optical systems, is applied to solve the equation of motion for this atom-ODWG system. Two kinds of states with different group velocities exhibit totally distinctive dynamical behavior. The high frequency waveguide mode with a fast group velocity shows fast exponential decay in propagation while the band-edge mode with a slow group velocity displays non-Markovian dynamics with non-exponential oscillating time evolution. We therefore suggest different functions of this atom-ODWG system for these two kinds of states. The richness of the physical content of the system is also revealed through investigating the dynamical behavior of the band-edge mode. These results aid in further application and fundamental understanding of the atom-ODWG system.

  4. Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Yakunin, Sergii; Protesescu, Loredana; Krieg, Franziska; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I.; Nedelcu, Georgian; Humer, Markus; De Luca, Gabriele; Fiebig, Manfred; Heiss, Wolfgang; Kovalenko, Maksym V.

    2015-01-01

    Metal halide semiconductors with perovskite crystal structures have recently emerged as highly promising optoelectronic materials. Despite the recent surge of reports on microcrystalline, thin-film and bulk single-crystalline metal halides, very little is known about the photophysics of metal halides in the form of uniform, size-tunable nanocrystals. Here we report low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from ∼10 nm monodisperse colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites CsPbX3 (X=Cl, Br or I, or mixed Cl/Br and Br/I systems). We find that room-temperature optical amplification can be obtained in the entire visible spectral range (440–700 nm) with low pump thresholds down to 5±1 μJ cm−2 and high values of modal net gain of at least 450±30 cm−1. Two kinds of lasing modes are successfully observed: whispering-gallery-mode lasing using silica microspheres as high-finesse resonators, conformally coated with CsPbX3 nanocrystals and random lasing in films of CsPbX3 nanocrystals. PMID:26290056

  5. Fabrication and characterization of plasmonic nanocone antennas for strong spontaneous emission enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Björn; Vassant, Simon; Chen, Xue-Wen; Götzinger, Stephan; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Christiansen, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Plasmonic antennas are attractive nanostructures for a large variety of studies ranging from fundamental aspects of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale to industry-relevant applications such as ultrasensitive sensing, enhanced absorption in solar cells or solar fuel generation. A particularly interesting feature of these antennas is that they can enhance the fluorescence properties of emitters. Theoretical calculations have shown that nanocone antennas provide ideal results, but a high degree of manufacturing precision and control is needed to reach optimal performance. In this study, we report on the fabrication of nanocones with base diameters and heights in the range of 100 nm with variable aspect ratios using focused ion beam milling of sputtered nano-crystalline gold layers. The controlled fabrication process allows us to obtain cones with tailored plasmon resonances. The measured plasmon spectra show very good agreement with finite-difference time-domain calculations. Theoretical investigations predict that these nanocones can enhance the spontaneous emission rate of a quantum emitter by several hundred times while keeping its quantum efficiency above 60%.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of plasmonic nanocone antennas for strong spontaneous emission enhancement.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Björn; Vassant, Simon; Chen, Xue-Wen; Götzinger, Stephan; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Christiansen, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Plasmonic antennas are attractive nanostructures for a large variety of studies ranging from fundamental aspects of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale to industry-relevant applications such as ultrasensitive sensing, enhanced absorption in solar cells or solar fuel generation. A particularly interesting feature of these antennas is that they can enhance the fluorescence properties of emitters. Theoretical calculations have shown that nanocone antennas provide ideal results, but a high degree of manufacturing precision and control is needed to reach optimal performance. In this study, we report on the fabrication of nanocones with base diameters and heights in the range of 100 nm with variable aspect ratios using focused ion beam milling of sputtered nano-crystalline gold layers. The controlled fabrication process allows us to obtain cones with tailored plasmon resonances. The measured plasmon spectra show very good agreement with finite-difference time-domain calculations. Theoretical investigations predict that these nanocones can enhance the spontaneous emission rate of a quantum emitter by several hundred times while keeping its quantum efficiency above 60%.

  7. Cold test, spontaneous emission and gain in a rectangular Cerenkov amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Scharer, J.E.; Joe, J.; Booske, J.H.; Basten, M.; Kirolous, H.

    1994-12-31

    The authors present experimental results for the rectangular Cerenkov grating amplifier. This research is being carried out to develop a Ka-band (35 GHz), low voltage (10 kV), moderate power (10 kW) source. They have constructed a Ku-band grating structure to study a scaled version of this source. The tapered grating consists of two tapered Ku-band smooth wave guide sections and two 3.5-inch sections of five-step-tapered gratings. Both tapered and untapered grating structures have been cold tested utilizing the network analyzer measurements. They find that their taper design reduced the reflection coefficient from {minus}5 dB to less than {minus}20 dB over a 12--15 GHz bandwidth. Spontaneous emission results resulting from passing the circular electron beam from a Litton thermionic gun over the grating structure will be presented. They have theoretically investigated the sheet beam interaction with hybrid modes in a deep groove rectangular grating waveguide. A complex dispersion relation, which includes a finite axial energy spread of the beam, describing the interaction has been solved. The authors find that the instability is always convective in the forward wave mode regime.

  8. Performance of a quantum teleportation protocol based on collective spontaneous emission

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Richard Jr.; Clemens, James P.

    2009-03-15

    Recently a conditional quantum teleportation protocol has been proposed by Chen et al. [New J. Phys. 7, 172 (2005)], which is based on the collective spontaneous emission of a photon from a pair of quantum dots. We formulate a similar protocol for collective emission from a pair of atoms, one of which is entangled with a single mode of an optical cavity. We focus on the performance of the protocol as characterized by the fidelity of the teleported state and the overall success probability. We consider a strategy employing spatially resolved photodetection of the emitted photon in order to distinguish superradiant from subradiant emission on the basis of a single detected photon. We find that fidelity approaches unity as the spacing of the atoms becomes much smaller than the emission wavelength with a success probability of 0.25. The fidelity remains above the classical limit of 2/3 for arbitrary atomic separations with the ultimate limit of performance coming from the spatial resolution of the detectors.

  9. Polarity-dependent dielectric torque in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Gu, Mingxia; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2008-06-13

    The dielectric dispersion in the uniaxial nematic liquid crystals affects the switching dynamics of the director, as the dielectric torque is determined by not only the present values of the electric field and director but also by their past values. We demonstrate that this "dielectric memory" leads to an unusual contribution to the dielectric torque that is linear in the present field and thus polarity sensitive. This torque can be used to accelerate the "switch-off" phase of director dynamics.

  10. In vivo polarization dependant Second and Third harmonic generation imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans pharyngeal muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidis, G.; Troulinaki, K.; Fotakis, C.; Tavernarakis, N.

    2009-07-01

    In this study Second and Third harmonic generation (SHG-THG) imaging measurements were performed to the pharyngeal muscles of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, in vivo with linearly polarized laser beam. Complementary information about the anatomy of the pharynx and the morphology of the anterior part of the worm were extracted. THG signals proved to have no dependence on incident light polarization, while SHG images are highly sensitive to the changes of the incident linearly polarized light.

  11. Azimuthally polarized cathodoluminescence from InP nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Brenny, B. J. M.; Osorio, C. I.; Polman, A.; Dam, D. van; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2015-11-16

    We determine the angle and polarization dependent emission from 1.75 µm and 2.50 µm long InP nanowires by using cathodoluminescence polarimetry. We excite the vertical wires using a 5 keV electron beam, and find that the 880 nm bandgap emission shows azimuthally polarized rings, with the number of rings depending on the wire height. The data agree well with a model in which spontaneous emission from the wire emitted into the far field interferes with emission reflected off the substrate. From the model, the depth range from which the emission is generated is found to be up to 400 nm below the top surface of the wires, well beyond the extent of the primary electron cloud. This enables a probe of the carrier diffusion length in the InP nanowires.

  12. Arabidopsis D6PK is a lipid domain-dependent mediator of root epidermal planar polarity.

    PubMed

    Stanislas, Thomas; Hüser, Anke; Barbosa, Inês C R; Kiefer, Christian S; Brackmann, Klaus; Pietra, Stefano; Gustavsson, Anna; Zourelidou, Melina; Schwechheimer, Claus; Grebe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Development of diverse multicellular organisms relies on coordination of single-cell polarities within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity). Cell polarity often involves plasma membrane heterogeneity generated by accumulation of specific lipids and proteins into membrane subdomains. Coordinated hair positioning along Arabidopsis root epidermal cells provides a planar polarity model in plants, but knowledge about the functions of proteo-lipid domains in planar polarity signalling remains limited. Here we show that Rho-of-plant (ROP) 2 and 6, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 (PIP5K3), DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN (DRP) 1A and DRP2B accumulate in a sterol-enriched, polar membrane domain during root hair initiation. DRP1A, DRP2B, PIP5K3 and sterols are required for planar polarity and the AGCVIII kinase D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) is a modulator of this process. D6PK undergoes phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate- and sterol-dependent basal-to-planar polarity switching into the polar, lipid-enriched domain just before hair formation, unravelling lipid-dependent D6PK localization during late planar polarity signalling.

  13. Polarization-dependent enhanced photoluminescence and polarization-independent emission rate of quantum dots on gold elliptical nanodisc arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiangzhong; Zheng, Shupei; Lin, Shijie; Liu, Tian-Ran; Jin, Chongjun

    2014-07-01

    We have fabricated gold (Au) elliptical nanodisc (ND) arrays via three-beam interference lithography and electron beam deposition of gold. The enhanced photoluminescence intensity and emission rate of quantum dots (QDs) near to the Au elliptical NDs have been studied by tuning the nearest distance between quantum dots and Au elliptical NDs. We found that the photoluminescence intensity is polarization-dependent with the degree of polarization being equal to that of the light extinction of the Au elliptical NDs, while the emission rate is polarization-independent. This is resulted from the plasmon-coupled emission via the coupling between the QD dipole and the plasmon nano-antenna. Our experiments fully confirm the evidence of the plasmophore concept proposed recently in the interaction of the QDs with metal nanoparticles. PMID:24898688

  14. Polarization-dependent tunneling of light in gradient optics.

    PubMed

    Shvartsburg, A; Kuzmiak, V; Petite, G

    2007-07-01

    Reflection-refraction properties of photonic barriers, formed by dielectric gradient nanofilms, for inclined incidence of both S - and P -polarized electromagnetic waves are examined by means of exactly solvable models. We present generalized Fresnel formulas, describing the influence of the nonlocal dispersion on the reflectance and transmittance of single- and double-layer gradient photonic barriers for S and P waves and arbitrary angles of incidence. The nonlocal dispersion of such layers, arising due to a concave spatial profile of dielectric susceptibility across the plane film, is shown to result in a peculiar heterogeneity-induced optical anisotropy, providing the propagation of S (P) waves in tunneling (traveling) regimes. The results obtained indicate the possibility of narrow-band nonattenuated tunneling (complete transmittance) of oblique S waves through such heterogeneous barriers, and the existence of spectral areas characterized by the strong reflection of P waves and profound contrast between transmitted S and P waves. The scalability of obtained exact analytical solutions of Maxwell equations into the different spectral ranges is discussed and the application potential of these phenomena for miniaturized polarizers and filters is demonstrated.

  15. Flatland Position-Dependent-Mass: Polar Coordinates, Separability and Exact Solvability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Mustafa, Omar

    2010-10-01

    The kinetic energy operator with position-dependent-mass in plane polar coordinates is obtained. The separability of the corresponding Schrödinger equation is discussed. A hypothetical toy model is reported and two exactly solvable examples are studied.

  16. Kif26b controls endothelial cell polarity through the Dishevelled/Daam1-dependent planar cell polarity-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Guillabert-Gourgues, Aude; Jaspard-Vinassa, Beatrice; Bats, Marie-Lise; Sewduth, Raj N; Franzl, Nathalie; Peghaire, Claire; Jeanningros, Sylvie; Moreau, Catherine; Roux, Etienne; Larrieu-Lahargue, Frederic; Dufourcq, Pascale; Couffinhal, Thierry; Duplàa, Cecile

    2016-03-15

    Angiogenesis involves the coordinated growth and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) toward a proangiogenic signal. The Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, through the recruitment of Dishevelled (Dvl) and Dvl-associated activator of morphogenesis (Daam1), has been proposed to regulate cell actin cytoskeleton and microtubule (MT) reorganization for oriented cell migration. Here we report that Kif26b--a kinesin--and Daam1 cooperatively regulate initiation of EC sprouting and directional migration via MT reorganization. First, we find that Kif26b is recruited within the Dvl3/Daam1 complex. Using a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay, we show that Kif26b and Daam1 depletion impairs tip cell polarization and destabilizes extended vascular processes. Kif26b depletion specifically alters EC directional migration and mislocalized MT organizing center (MTOC)/Golgi and myosin IIB cell rear enrichment. Therefore the cell fails to establish a proper front-rear polarity. Of interest, Kif26b ectopic expression rescues the siDaam1 polarization defect phenotype. Finally, we show that Kif26b functions in MT stabilization, which is indispensable for asymmetrical cell structure reorganization. These data demonstrate that Kif26b, together with Dvl3/Daam1, initiates cell polarity through the control of PCP signaling pathway-dependent activation. PMID:26792835

  17. Analysis and simulation of nonlinearity and effects of spontaneous emission in Schottky-junction-based plasmonic amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Livani, Abdolber Mallah; Kaatuzian, Hassan

    2015-07-01

    An amplifier that operates on surface plasmon polaritons has been analyzed and simulated. Nonlinearity behavior and the spontaneous emission effects of the plasmonic amplifier are investigated in this paper. A rate equations approach has been used in which parameters are derived from simulation results of the plasmonic amplifier (Silvaco/ATLAS). Details on the method of this derivation are included, which were not previously reported. Rate equations are solved numerically by MATLAB codes. These codes verify the Silvaco results. The plasmonic amplifier operates on surface plasmons with a free-space wavelength of 1550 nm. Results show that, even without the effect of spontaneous emission, gain of the plasmonic amplifier saturates in high input levels. Saturation power, which can be used for comparing nonlinearity of different amplifiers, is 2.1 dBm for this amplifier. Amplified spontaneous emission reduces the gain of the amplifiers, which is long. There is an optimum value for the length of the amplifier. For the amplifier of this work, the optimum length for the small signal condition is 265 μm. PMID:26193159

  18. Polarization dependent color switching by extra-ordinary transmission in H-slit plasmonic metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, P.; Anantha Ramakrishna, S.; Patil, Raj; Venu Gopal, Achanta

    2013-12-14

    An array of H-shaped subwavelength slits in a plasmonic film has a polarization dependent extra-ordinary transmission due to shape anisotropy. Non-overlapping extra-ordinary transmission bands for the orthogonal linear polarization states of the input light are used to demonstrate a polarization dependent color switch. The fabricated array of submicron sized H-slits on a gold film displayed two transmission bands for the linear x- and y-polarized light at visible (650–850 nm) and near-infra-red (1150–1450 nm) bands, respectively. The relative transmitted light in these two bands can be controlled by changing the linear polarization state of the input radiation from 0° to 90°.

  19. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants.

  20. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants. PMID:17043314

  1. Observation of novel radioactive decay by spontaneous emission of complex nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Barwick, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    Two years of experimental investigation on the subject of spontaneous emission of intermediate-mass fragments is described in this manuscript. A short introduction on this subject and a historical review are presented in chapter 1. In chapter 2, the author describe the experimental methods which led to the observation of /sup 14/C emission in polycarbonate etched-track detectors from the isotopes /sup 222/Ra, /sup 223/Ra, /sup 224/Ra and /sup 226/Ra at the branching ratios with respect to ..cap alpha..-decay of (3.7 +/- 0.6) x 10/sup -10/, (6.1 +/- 1.0) x 10/sup -10/, (4.3 +/- 1.2) x 10/sup -10/ and (2.9 +/- 1.0) x 10/sup -11/ respectively. Branching ratio limits for heavy-ion emission from /sup 221/Fr, /sup 221/Ra and /sup 225/Ac were determined to be at < 5.0 x 10/sup -14/, < 1.2 x 10/sup -13/ and < 4.0 x 10/sup -13/ respectively for the 90% C.L. The emission of /sup 24/Ne from /sup 232/U at a branching ratio of (2.0 +/- 0.5) x 10/sup -12/ has been discovered using polyethylene terephthalate etched-track plastics. A confirmation of /sup 24/Ne and/or /sup 25/Ne emission from /sup 233/U at a branching ratio of (5.3 +/- 2.3) x 10/sup -13/ is also reported. In chapter 3, three models of intermediate-mass decay are discussed-the analytic superasymmetric fission model, the model by Shi and Swiatecki, and a model based on a square-well + Coulomb potential.

  2. Spermatid Cyst Polarization in Drosophila Depends upon apkc and the CPEB Family Translational Regulator orb2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuwa; Tyagi, Sanjay; Schedl, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mature Drosophila sperm are highly polarized cells—on one side is a nearly 2 mm long flagellar tail that comprises most of the cell, while on the other is the sperm head, which carries the gamete's genetic information. The polarization of the sperm cells commences after meiosis is complete and the 64-cell spermatid cyst begins the process of differentiation. The spermatid nuclei cluster to one side of the cyst, while the flagellar axonemes grows from the other. The elongating spermatid bundles are also polarized with respect to the main axis of the testis; the sperm heads are always oriented basally, while the growing tails extend apically. This orientation within the testes is important for transferring the mature sperm into the seminal vesicles. We show here that orienting cyst polarization with respect to the main axis of the testis depends upon atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC), a factor implicated in polarity decisions in many different biological contexts. When apkc activity is compromised in the male germline, the direction of cyst polarization within this organ is randomized. Significantly, the mechanisms used to spatially restrict apkc activity to the apical side of the spermatid cyst are different from the canonical cross-regulatory interactions between this kinase and other cell polarity proteins that normally orchestrate polarization. We show that the asymmetric accumulation of aPKC protein in the cyst depends on an mRNA localization pathway that is regulated by the Drosophila CPEB protein Orb2. orb2 is required to properly localize and activate the translation of apkc mRNAs in polarizing spermatid cysts. We also show that orb2 functions not only in orienting cyst polarization with respect to the apical-basal axis of the testis, but also in the process of polarization itself. One of the orb2 targets in this process is its own mRNA. Moreover, the proper execution of this orb2 autoregulatory pathway depends upon apkc. PMID:24830287

  3. Dependence of multiply charged ions on the polarization state in nanosecond laser-benzene cluster interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiguo; Zhao, Wuduo; Hua, Lei; Hou, Keyong; Li, Haiyang

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigated the dependence of multiply charged ions on the laser polarization state when benzene cluster was irradiated with 532 and 1064 nm nanosecond laser. A circle, square and flower distribution for C2+, C3+ and C4+ were observed with 532 nm laser respectively, while flower petals for C2+, C3+ and C4+ were observed at 1064 nm as the laser polarization varied. A theoretical calculation was performed to interpret the polarization state and wavelength dependence of the multiply charged ions. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental observation with considering the contribution from the cluster disintegration.

  4. Polarized light modulates light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds

    PubMed Central

    Muheim, Rachel; Sjöberg, Sissel; Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoreception of the light-dependent magnetic compass in birds is suggested to be mediated by a radical-pair mechanism taking place in the avian retina. Biophysical models on magnetic field effects on radical pairs generally assume that the light activating the magnetoreceptor molecules is nondirectional and unpolarized, and that light absorption is isotropic. However, natural skylight enters the avian retina unidirectionally, through the cornea and the lens, and is often partially polarized. In addition, cryptochromes, the putative magnetoreceptor molecules, absorb light anisotropically, i.e., they preferentially absorb light of a specific direction and polarization, implying that the light-dependent magnetic compass is intrinsically polarization sensitive. To test putative interactions between the avian magnetic compass and polarized light, we developed a spatial orientation assay and trained zebra finches to magnetic and/or overhead polarized light cues in a four-arm “plus” maze. The birds did not use overhead polarized light near the zenith for sky compass orientation. Instead, overhead polarized light modulated light-dependent magnetic compass orientation, i.e., how the birds perceive the magnetic field. Birds were well oriented when tested with the polarized light axis aligned parallel to the magnetic field. When the polarized light axis was aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, the birds became disoriented. These findings are the first behavioral evidence to our knowledge for a direct interaction between polarized light and the light-dependent magnetic compass in an animal. They reveal a fundamentally new property of the radical pair-based magnetoreceptor with key implications for how birds and other animals perceive the Earth’s magnetic field. PMID:26811473

  5. Polarized light modulates light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds.

    PubMed

    Muheim, Rachel; Sjöberg, Sissel; Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus

    2016-02-01

    Magnetoreception of the light-dependent magnetic compass in birds is suggested to be mediated by a radical-pair mechanism taking place in the avian retina. Biophysical models on magnetic field effects on radical pairs generally assume that the light activating the magnetoreceptor molecules is nondirectional and unpolarized, and that light absorption is isotropic. However, natural skylight enters the avian retina unidirectionally, through the cornea and the lens, and is often partially polarized. In addition, cryptochromes, the putative magnetoreceptor molecules, absorb light anisotropically, i.e., they preferentially absorb light of a specific direction and polarization, implying that the light-dependent magnetic compass is intrinsically polarization sensitive. To test putative interactions between the avian magnetic compass and polarized light, we developed a spatial orientation assay and trained zebra finches to magnetic and/or overhead polarized light cues in a four-arm "plus" maze. The birds did not use overhead polarized light near the zenith for sky compass orientation. Instead, overhead polarized light modulated light-dependent magnetic compass orientation, i.e., how the birds perceive the magnetic field. Birds were well oriented when tested with the polarized light axis aligned parallel to the magnetic field. When the polarized light axis was aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, the birds became disoriented. These findings are the first behavioral evidence to our knowledge for a direct interaction between polarized light and the light-dependent magnetic compass in an animal. They reveal a fundamentally new property of the radical pair-based magnetoreceptor with key implications for how birds and other animals perceive the Earth's magnetic field. PMID:26811473

  6. Polarized light modulates light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds.

    PubMed

    Muheim, Rachel; Sjöberg, Sissel; Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus

    2016-02-01

    Magnetoreception of the light-dependent magnetic compass in birds is suggested to be mediated by a radical-pair mechanism taking place in the avian retina. Biophysical models on magnetic field effects on radical pairs generally assume that the light activating the magnetoreceptor molecules is nondirectional and unpolarized, and that light absorption is isotropic. However, natural skylight enters the avian retina unidirectionally, through the cornea and the lens, and is often partially polarized. In addition, cryptochromes, the putative magnetoreceptor molecules, absorb light anisotropically, i.e., they preferentially absorb light of a specific direction and polarization, implying that the light-dependent magnetic compass is intrinsically polarization sensitive. To test putative interactions between the avian magnetic compass and polarized light, we developed a spatial orientation assay and trained zebra finches to magnetic and/or overhead polarized light cues in a four-arm "plus" maze. The birds did not use overhead polarized light near the zenith for sky compass orientation. Instead, overhead polarized light modulated light-dependent magnetic compass orientation, i.e., how the birds perceive the magnetic field. Birds were well oriented when tested with the polarized light axis aligned parallel to the magnetic field. When the polarized light axis was aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, the birds became disoriented. These findings are the first behavioral evidence to our knowledge for a direct interaction between polarized light and the light-dependent magnetic compass in an animal. They reveal a fundamentally new property of the radical pair-based magnetoreceptor with key implications for how birds and other animals perceive the Earth's magnetic field.

  7. Longitudinally Coherent Single-Spike Radiation from a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission Free-Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Gabriel Andrew

    This work studies the production and measurement of longitudinally coherent, ultrashort pulses of light from a self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser (SASE FEL) by using an energy-chirped electron beam in conjunction with a tapered undulator. This scheme effectively preserves the FEL gain only where an appropriate undulator taper compensates for the detuning experienced by an amplifying radiation spike as it slips forward in the electron beam rest frame. The simultaneous time and frequency-domain measurement of ultrashort pulses of light generated in this manner were made with an advanced transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating (TG FROG) diagnostic, which has the potential to push ultrashort light pulse measurement at FEL facilities to shorter wavelength regimes. The theoretical framework presented in this dissertation has two components. The FEL theory presented here includes an analysis of the coupled wave and Vlasov equations, which are linearized in the one-dimensional case, and are solved in the frequency domain by the Laplace transform technique. The exponential gain regime for SASE FEL light is explored in detail to clearly identify concepts that are relevant to the energy-chirp and undulator tapering experiment. Some of these concepts are illustrated with fully three-dimensional, time-dependent numerical particle simulations using the FEL code GENESIS for the supportive case of ultrashort, low-charge electron beams. In addition, nonlinear optics, the foundation upon which all FROG diagnostics are built, is briefly explored using two complementary perspectives as they apply to the TG FROG geometry. The experimental section describes in detail the first direct time-domain measurements of a single coherent radiation spike from a SASE FEL amplifier employing the energy-chirped electron beam and tapered undulator technique at the SPARC FEL test facility in Frascati, Italy. Electron beams were accelerated and compressed using the

  8. Polarization-dependent DANES study on vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chengjun; Park, Chang-In; Jin, Zhenlan; Hwang, In-Hui; Heald, S. M.; Han, Sang-Wook

    2016-05-01

    The local structural and local density of states of vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods are examined by using polarization-dependent diffraction anomalous near edge structure (DANES) measurements from c-oriented ZnO nanorods at the Zn K edge at the geometry of the incident x-ray electric field parallel and perpendicular to the x-ray momentum transfer direction. Orientation-dependent local structures determined by DANES are comparable with polarization- dependent EXAFS results. Unlike other techniques, polarization-dependent DANES can uniquely describe the orientation-dependent local structural properties and the local density of states of a selected element in selected-phased crystals of compounds or mixed-phased structures.

  9. Role of amplified spontaneous emission in optical free-space communication links with optical amplification: impact on isolation and data transmission and utilization for pointing, acquisition, and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winzer, Peter J.; Kalmar, Andras; Leeb, Walter R.

    1999-04-01

    We investigate the role of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) produced by an optical booster amplifier at the transmitter of free-space optical communication links. In a communication terminal with a single telescope for both transmission and reception, this ASE power has to be taken into account in connection with transmit-to-receive channel isolation, especially since it partly occupies the same state of polarization and the same frequency band as the receive signal. We show that the booster ASE intercepted by the receiver can represent a non-negligible source of background radiation: In a typical optical intersatellite link scenario, the ASE power spectral density generated by the booster amplifier at the transmitter and coupled to the receiver will be on the order of 10-20 W/Hz, which equals the background radiation of the sun. Exploiting these findings for pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) purposes, we describe a patent-pending PAT system doing without beacon lasers and without the need for diverting a part of the data signal for PAT. Utilizing the transmit booster ASE over a bandwidth of e.g. 20 nm at the receiver, a total power of about -46 dBm is available for PAT purposes without extra power consumption at the transmitter and without the need for beacon lAser alignment.

  10. Polarization-dependent enhanced photoluminescence and polarization-independent emission rate of quantum dots on gold elliptical nanodisc arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiangzhong; Zheng, Shupei; Lin, Shijie; Liu, Tian-Ran; Jin, Chongjun

    2014-06-01

    We have fabricated gold (Au) elliptical nanodisc (ND) arrays via three-beam interference lithography and electron beam deposition of gold. The enhanced photoluminescence intensity and emission rate of quantum dots (QDs) near to the Au elliptical NDs have been studied by tuning the nearest distance between quantum dots and Au elliptical NDs. We found that the photoluminescence intensity is polarization-dependent with the degree of polarization being equal to that of the light extinction of the Au elliptical NDs, while the emission rate is polarization-independent. This is resulted from the plasmon-coupled emission via the coupling between the QD dipole and the plasmon nano-antenna. Our experiments fully confirm the evidence of the plasmophore concept proposed recently in the interaction of the QDs with metal nanoparticles.We have fabricated gold (Au) elliptical nanodisc (ND) arrays via three-beam interference lithography and electron beam deposition of gold. The enhanced photoluminescence intensity and emission rate of quantum dots (QDs) near to the Au elliptical NDs have been studied by tuning the nearest distance between quantum dots and Au elliptical NDs. We found that the photoluminescence intensity is polarization-dependent with the degree of polarization being equal to that of the light extinction of the Au elliptical NDs, while the emission rate is polarization-independent. This is resulted from the plasmon-coupled emission via the coupling between the QD dipole and the plasmon nano-antenna. Our experiments fully confirm the evidence of the plasmophore concept proposed recently in the interaction of the QDs with metal nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The thickness of the Al2O3 layer with different cycle numbers; SEM image of the Au ND array covered with QDs; the electric field distribution of the Au elliptical ND at two LSPR wavelengths; the emission properties of the QD-ND hybrid system with the excitation light of

  11. Radiation and Polarization Signatures of the 3D Multizone Time-dependent Hadronic Blazar Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Diltz, Chris; Böttcher, Markus

    2016-10-01

    We present a newly developed time-dependent three-dimensional multizone hadronic blazar emission model. By coupling a Fokker-Planck-based lepto-hadronic particle evolution code, 3DHad, with a polarization-dependent radiation transfer code, 3DPol, we are able to study the time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures of a hadronic blazar model for the first time. Our current code is limited to parameter regimes in which the hadronic γ-ray output is dominated by proton synchrotron emission, neglecting pion production. Our results demonstrate that the time-dependent flux and polarization signatures are generally dominated by the relation between the synchrotron cooling and the light-crossing timescale, which is largely independent of the exact model parameters. We find that unlike the low-energy polarization signatures, which can vary rapidly in time, the high-energy polarization signatures appear stable. As a result, future high-energy polarimeters may be able to distinguish such signatures from the lower and more rapidly variable polarization signatures expected in leptonic models.

  12. Remote sensing of dust in the Solar system and beyond using wavelength dependence of polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolova, L.

    2011-12-01

    For a long time, the main polarimetric tool to study dust in the Solar system has been the dependence of polarization on phase (scattering) angle. Surprisingly, a variety of cosmic dusts (interplanetary and cometary dust, dust on the surfaces of asteroids and in debris disks) possesses a very similar phase dependence of polarization with a negative bowl-shaped part at small phase angles and a positive bell-shaped region with maximum polarization around 95-105 deg. Numerous laboratory and theoretical simulations showed that a polarimetric phase curve of this shape is typical for fluffy materials, e.g., porous, aggregated particles. By contrast, the wavelength dependence of polarization is different for different types of dust. In the visual, polarization decreases with wavelength (negative gradient) for asteroids and interplanetary dust, but usually increases with wavelength (positive gradient) for cometary dust. In debris disks both signs of the spectral gradient of polarization have been found. Moreover, it was found that a cometary positive spectral gradient can change to a negative one as observations move to longer (near-infrared) wavelengths (Kelley et al. AJ, 127, 2398, 2004) and some comets(Kiselev et al. JQSRT, 109, 1384, 2008) have negative gradient even in the visible. The diversity of the spectral dependence of polarization therefore gives us hope that it can be used for characterization of the aggregates that represent different types of cosmic dust. To accomplish this, the physics behind the spectral dependence of polarization need to be revealed. Our recent study shows that the spectral dependence of polarization depends on the strength of electromagnetic interaction between the monomers in aggregates. The strength of the interaction mainly depends on how many monomers the electromagnetic wave covers on the light path equal to one wavelength. Since the electromagnetic interaction depolarizes the light, the more particles a single wavelength covers the

  13. Polarization-dependent thin-film wire-grid reflectarray for terahertz waves

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Tiaoming; Upadhyay, Aditi; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Headland, Daniel; Abbott, Derek; Fumeaux, Christophe

    2015-07-20

    A thin-film polarization-dependent reflectarray based on patterned metallic wire grids is realized at 1 THz. Unlike conventional reflectarrays with resonant elements and a solid metal ground, parallel narrow metal strips with uniform spacing are employed in this design to construct both the radiation elements and the ground plane. For each radiation element, a certain number of thin strips with an identical length are grouped to effectively form a patch resonator with equivalent performance. The ground plane is made of continuous metallic strips, similar to conventional wire-grid polarizers. The structure can deflect incident waves with the polarization parallel to the strips into a designed direction and transmit the orthogonal polarization component. Measured radiation patterns show reasonable deflection efficiency and high polarization discrimination. Utilizing this flexible device approach, similar reflectarray designs can be realized for conformal mounting onto surfaces of cylindrical or spherical devices for terahertz imaging and communications.

  14. Linear polarization study of microwave-radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations: Comparison of power dependence to theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tianyu; Iñarrea, Jesús; Wegscheider, W.; Mani, R. G.

    2016-07-01

    We present an experimental study of the microwave power and the linear polarization angle dependence of the microwave-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron system. Experimental results show the sinusoidal dependence of the oscillatory magnetoresistance extrema as a function of the polarization angle. Yet, as the microwave power increases, the angular dependence includes additional harmonic content, and it begins to resemble the absolute value of the cosine function. We present a theory to explain such peculiar behavior.

  15. Anomalous temperature dependence of gas chromatographic retention indices of polar compounds on nonpolar phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkevich, I. G.; Pavlovskii, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The character of the temperature dependences of the retention indices RI( T) of polar sorbates on nonpolar stationary phases was found to depend on the dosed amounts of sorbates, but not on column overloading. A physicochemical model was suggested to explain the observed anomalies in RI( T).

  16. Polarization and distance dependent coupling in linear chains of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, Vira V.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Khalavka, Yuriy; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2015-02-01

    We studied collective surface plasmon excitations in chains of gold nanoparticles. The resonance frequency of these excitations is a function of the distance between the particles and polarization of the incident light. The near-field coupling between the particles in a chain leads to a cosine squared angular dependence between the polarization of the incident light and the axis connecting the particles. The far-field coupling between the particles results in a sine squared angular dependence. When the incident light is polarized along the chain, the near-field coupling exhibits a red shift, while the far-field exhibits a blue shift of the collective plasmon mode with respect to the mode of the non-interacting particles. We experimentally determined the particle separation for which the resonance frequency in the extinction spectra is polarization-independent.

  17. Polarization-dependent exciton linewidth in semiconductor quantum wells: A consequence of bosonic nature of excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rohan; Suzuki, Takeshi; Autry, Travis M.; Moody, Galan; Siemens, Mark E.; Cundiff, Steven T.

    2016-08-01

    The exciton coherent signal decay rate in GaAs quantum wells, as measured in four-wave mixing experiments, depends on the polarization of the excitation pulses. Using polarization-dependent two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy, we show that this behavior is due to the bosonic character of excitons. Interference between two different quantum mechanical pathways results in a smaller decay rate for cocircular and colinear polarization of the optical excitation pulses. This interference does not exist for cross-linearly polarized excitation pulses resulting in a larger decay rate. Our result shows that the bosonic nature of excitons must be considered when interpreting ultrafast spectroscopic studies of exciton dephasing in semiconductors. This behavior should be considered while interpreting results of ultrafast spectroscopy experiments involving bosonlike excitations.

  18. A Unified Framework for Creating Domain Dependent Polarity Lexicons from User Generated Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Muhammad Zubair; Khan, Aurangzeb; Ahmad, Shakeel; Khan, Imran Ali; Kundi, Fazal Masud

    2015-01-01

    The exponential increase in the explosion of Web-based user generated reviews has resulted in the emergence of Opinion Mining (OM) applications for analyzing the users’ opinions toward products, services, and policies. The polarity lexicons often play a pivotal role in the OM, indicating the positivity and negativity of a term along with the numeric score. However, the commonly available domain independent lexicons are not an optimal choice for all of the domains within the OM applications. The aforementioned is due to the fact that the polarity of a term changes from one domain to other and such lexicons do not contain the correct polarity of a term for every domain. In this work, we focus on the problem of adapting a domain dependent polarity lexicon from set of labeled user reviews and domain independent lexicon to propose a unified learning framework based on the information theory concepts that can assign the terms with correct polarity (+ive, -ive) scores. The benchmarking on three datasets (car, hotel, and drug reviews) shows that our approach improves the performance of the polarity classification by achieving higher accuracy. Moreover, using the derived domain dependent lexicon changed the polarity of terms, and the experimental results show that our approach is more effective than the base line methods. PMID:26466101

  19. Simulations of polarization dependent contrast during the diurnal heating cycle for passive millimeter-wave imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John P.; Murakowski, Maciej; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Prather, Dennis W.

    2013-09-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) sensors are especially suited to persistent surveillance applications due to their ability to operate during day/night conditions and through transient atmospheric obscurants such as clouds, rain and fog. The contrast of targets will change throughout a diurnal heating cycle and this change will be polarization dependent. Simulations are presented from a ray tracing program developed for the mmW regime that has been modified to account for polarization information. Results are shown demonstrating periods during the day when the contrast of certain targets drop to zero for a linear polarization state while the orthogonal state still maintains a high contrast.

  20. Anisotropy modeling of terahertz metamaterials: polarization dependent resonance manipulation by meta-atom cluster.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunseung; In, Chihun; Choi, Hyunyong; Lee, Hojin

    2014-06-09

    Recently metamaterials have inspired worldwide researches due to their exotic properties in transmitting, reflecting, absorbing or refracting specific electromagnetic waves. Most metamaterials are known to have anisotropic properties, but existing anisotropy models are applicable only to a single meta-atom and its properties. Here we propose an anisotropy model for asymmetrical meta-atom clusters and their polarization dependency. The proposed anisotropic meta-atom clusters show a unique resonance property in which their frequencies can be altered for parallel polarization, but fixed to a single resonance frequency for perpendicular polarization. The proposed anisotropic metamaterials are expected to pave the way for novel optical systems.

  1. Anisotropy Modeling of Terahertz Metamaterials: Polarization Dependent Resonance Manipulation by Meta-Atom Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyunseung; in, Chihun; Choi, Hyunyong; Lee, Hojin

    2014-06-01

    Recently metamaterials have inspired worldwide researches due to their exotic properties in transmitting, reflecting, absorbing or refracting specific electromagnetic waves. Most metamaterials are known to have anisotropic properties, but existing anisotropy models are applicable only to a single meta-atom and its properties. Here we propose an anisotropy model for asymmetrical meta-atom clusters and their polarization dependency. The proposed anisotropic meta-atom clusters show a unique resonance property in which their frequencies can be altered for parallel polarization, but fixed to a single resonance frequency for perpendicular polarization. The proposed anisotropic metamaterials are expected to pave the way for novel optical systems.

  2. Polarity-dependent effect of humidity on the resistive switching characteristics of nonpolar devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Qiaonan; Wei, Chunyang; Wei, Qi; Chen, Yan; Xia, Yidong; Xu, Bo; Yin, Jiang; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-10-01

    The roles of moisture in resistive switching (RS) devices are closely related to the RS mechanism. In principle, the nonpolar RS promises symmetric behaviors independent of the polarities of operating voltages. However, the effect of humidity on the RS characteristics of Pt/TiO2- x /Pt nonpolar cells is confirmed to be polarity-dependent. The positive electroforming threshold voltage decreases when humidity increases, whereas the negative one is unaffected. This asymmetric phenomenon can be attributed to the polarity-associated rule of current varying with humidity before electroforming. The voltage distribution in the device and then the electroforming threshold voltage are modified.

  3. Generation and elimination of polarization-dependent ablation of cubic crystals by femtosecond laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Rong, Wenlong; Jiang, Lan; Zhang, Kaihu; Li, Cong; Cao, Qiang; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yongfeng

    2014-12-01

    We experimentally showed that the π/2-period oscillation of an ablation area with laser polarization direction can be observed in GaAs, ZnSe, MgO and LiF with cubic crystal by a femtosecond laser (800 nm, 100 fs) and that the modulation in the ablation area can be controlled by the laser fluence. While the polarization dependence is sustained in a wide range of laser fluences for a narrow band-gap crystal, it is strongly suppressed with a slight augmentation of laser fluence in a wide band-gap material. The polarization-dependent ablation is explained by the crystal's orientation-dependent reduced-electron mass and the resultant contrasting nonlinear absorptions with slightly different reduced electron mass. The interplay between photoionization and avalanche ionization is discussed to interpret the influence of laser fluence on polarization-dependent ablation. Based on Keldysh's theory, polarization-dependent ablation occurs in a mixed regime between tunneling and multiphoton ionization.

  4. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF POLARIZATION OF ZEBRA PATTERN IN TYPE-IV SOLAR RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneda, Kazutaka; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T.; Iwai, K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the polarization characteristics of a zebra pattern (ZP) in a type-IV solar radio burst observed with AMATERAS on 2011 June 21 for the purpose of evaluating the generation processes of ZPs. Analyzing highly resolved spectral and polarization data revealed the frequency dependence of the degree of circular polarization and the delay between two polarized components for the first time. The degree of circular polarization was 50%–70% right-handed and it varied little as a function of frequency. Cross-correlation analysis determined that the left-handed circularly polarized component was delayed by 50–70 ms relative to the right-handed component over the entire frequency range of the ZP and this delay increased with the frequency. We examined the obtained polarization characteristics by using pre-existing ZP models and concluded that the ZP was generated by the double-plasma-resonance process. Our results suggest that the ZP emission was originally generated in a completely polarized state in the O-mode and was partly converted into the X-mode near the source. Subsequently, the difference between the group velocities of the O-mode and X-mode caused the temporal delay.

  5. Latitudinal Density Dependence of Magnetic Field Lines Inferred from Polar Plasma Wave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, J.; Denton, R. E.; Hudson, M. K.; Miftakhova, E. G.; Menietti, J. D.; Gallagher, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Using observations of the electron density, n(sub e), based on measurement of the upper hybrid resonance frequency by the Polar spacecraft Plasma Wave Instrument, we have examined the radial density dependence along field lines in the outer plasmasphere and the near plasmatrough. Sampled L values range from 2.5 to 6.6. Our technique depends on the fact that Polar crosses particular L values at two different points with different radial distance R. In our plasmaspheric data set (n(sub e) > 100/cm3), we find that on average n(sub e) is flat along field lines from the equator up to the latitudes sampled by Polar (R approximately equal to or > 2.0). In the plasmatrough data set (n(sub e) < 100/cm-3), there is on average a mild radial dependence n(sub e) varies as R(exp -1.7).

  6. Low polarization dependent beam deflector based on Bragg reflector waveguide for C-band wavelength demultiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaodong; Matsutani, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

    2013-10-01

    We report a miniature beam deflector with a large angular dispersion based on a Bragg reflector waveguide operating in a full-C band. The device is extremely small with an effective footprint of 20 × 100 μm2. Continuous beam deflection of over 40° was obtained with large angular dispersion of ˜1°/nm. Polarization dependence was largely alleviated by optimizing the optical core thickness. Further decrease in the polarization dependence below 0.1° can be expected after considering the material birefringence inside the waveguide. A possible channel number can exceed 300, which could be the highest in C-band demultiplexing technologies ever reported.

  7. Polarization-dependent loss characterization method based on optical frequency beat.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, T; Nobre, C S; Temporão, G P

    2016-03-10

    Characterization of the polarization-dependent loss (PDL) of optical components is fundamental for the reliable operation of fiber-optic communication systems. Here we present a method for determining the PDL of optical devices based on optical frequency beating and spectral analysis. Depending on the beat note between components of two orthogonally polarized probe signals modulated at different frequencies, the PDL value and its axis can be determined from a single sweep of an optical spectrum analyzer. Our proposal represents an alternative high-speed option for PDL characterization. PMID:26974770

  8. Why does the light-gradient photovoltage from photosynthetic organelles show a wavelength-dependent polarity?

    PubMed Central

    Paillotin, G; Dobek, A; Breton, J; Leibl, W; Trissl, H W

    1993-01-01

    The light-gradient photovoltage from photosynthetic organisms and organelles is thought to arise from the primary charge separation in the reaction centers. The current explanation of the effect is the stronger excitation of the membrane side of a vesicle facing the light source than the one on the opposite side. Together with the known orientation of reaction centers, this explanation predicts unequivocally the polarity of the photovoltage. However, a polarity opposite to the one expected has often been reported. A dependence of the polarity on the wavelength has been published but no explanation was given (Gräber, P., and H.-W. Trissl. 1981. FEBS Lett. 123:95-99). Here we report on a theoretical treatment of light propagation and interference in pigmented and nonpigmented multilayers. A model calculation is carried out for a pair of membranes, demonstrating the wavelength-dependent light distribution as well as the relative photovoltage and its polarity. When the membranes contain no chromophores or when the absorption coefficient is low, the predicted polarity to that expected from a simple macroscopic absorption behavior. The model is tested by comparing new photovoltage data obtained at 532 nm as well as in the blue and red absorption bands of chlorophyll in chloroplasts. It is concluded that outside the main absorption bands the amplitude and polarity of the photovoltage is determined by the ratio of the refractive indices of the membrane and the medium. PMID:8369444

  9. Amplification and ASE suppression in a polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-solid photonic bandgap fibre.

    PubMed

    Olausson, C B; Falk, C I; Lyngsø, J K; Jensen, B B; Therkildsen, K T; Thomsen, J W; Hansen, K P; Bjarklev, A; Broeng, J

    2008-09-01

    We demonstrate suppression of amplified spontaneous emission at the conventional ytterbium gain wavelengths around 1030 nm in a cladding-pumped polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-solid photonic crystal fibre. The fibre works through combined index and bandgap guiding. Furthermore, we show that the peak of the amplified spontaneous emission can be shifted towards longer wavelengths by rescaling the fibre dimensions. Thereby one can obtain lasing or amplification at longer wavelengths (1100 nm - 1200 nm) as the amount of amplification in the fibre is shown to scale with the power of the amplified spontaneous emission.

  10. Planck intermediate results. XXII. Frequency dependence of thermal emission from Galactic dust in intensity and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Alves, M. I. R.; Aniano, G.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Magalhães, A. M.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B. D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-04-01

    Planck has mapped the intensity and polarization of the sky at microwave frequencies with unprecedented sensitivity. We use these data to characterize the frequency dependence of dust emission. We make use of the Planck 353 GHz I, Q, and U Stokes maps as dust templates, and cross-correlate them with the Planck and WMAP data at 12 frequencies from 23 to 353 GHz, over circular patches with 10° radius. The cross-correlation analysis is performed for both intensity and polarization data in a consistent manner. The results are corrected for the chance correlation between the templates and the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. We use a mask that focuses our analysis on the diffuse interstellar medium at intermediate Galactic latitudes. We determine the spectral indices of dust emission in intensity and polarization between 100 and 353 GHz, for each sky patch. Both indices are found to be remarkably constant over the sky. The mean values, 1.59 ± 0.02 for polarization and 1.51 ± 0.01 for intensity, for a mean dust temperature of 19.6 K, are close, but significantly different (3.6σ). We determine the mean spectral energy distribution (SED) of the microwave emission, correlated with the 353 GHz dust templates, by averaging the results of the correlation over all sky patches. We find that the mean SED increases for decreasing frequencies at ν< 60 GHz for both intensity and polarization. The rise of the polarization SED towards low frequencies may be accounted for by a synchrotron component correlated with dust, with no need for any polarization of the anomalous microwave emission. We use a spectral model to separate the synchrotron and dust polarization and to characterize the spectral dependence of the dust polarization fraction. The polarization fraction (p) of the dust emission decreases by (21 ± 6)% from 353 to 70 GHz. We discuss this result within the context of existing dust models. The decrease in p could indicate differences in polarization

  11. Polarization dependent micro-structuring of silicon with a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khazraji, H.; Bhardwaj, V. R.

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate formation of a sub-micron rim around femtosecond laser ablated crater on silicon whose height and width were sensitive to laser polarization. Except for circularly polarized light we show that the rim height and width were asymmetric - larger along the direction of the laser polarization for n-type and intrinsic silicon, while in p-type silicon the asymmetry was perpendicular. Polarization dependent rim formation is attributed to the transient light-plasma interaction that gives rise to local-field enhancements resulting in an asymmetric electron density and energy deposition. Picoseconds later when the electron energy is transferred to the lattice, the asymmetry is retained in the temperature distribution within the interaction region. The temperature distribution eventually leads to non-symmetric radial outward fluid motion of a thin layer of molten material from the centre of the ablation crater that subsequently re-solidifies on a nanosecond timescale.

  12. X-RAY NONLINEAR OPTICAL PROCESSES IN ATOMS USING A SELF-AMPLIFIED SPONTANEOUS EMISSION FREE-ELECTRON LASER

    SciTech Connect

    Rohringer, N

    2008-08-08

    X-ray free electron lasers (xFEL) will open new avenues to the virtually unexplored territory of non-linear interactions of x rays with matter. Initially xFELs will be based on the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). Each SASE pulse consists of a number of coherent intensity spikes of random amplitude, i.e. the process is chaotic and pulses are irreproducible. The coherence time of SASE xFELs will be a few femtoseconds for a photon energy near 1 keV. The importance of coherence properties of light in non-linear optical processes was theoretically discovered in the early 1960s. In this contribution we will illustrate the impact of field chaoticity on x-ray non-linear optical processes on neon for photon energies around 1 keV and intensities up to 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. Resonant and non-resonant processes are discussed. The first process to be addressed is the formation of a double-core hole in neon by photoionization with x rays above 1.25 keV energy. In contrast to the long-wavelength regime, non-linear optical processes in the x-ray regime are characterized in general by sequential single-photon single-electron interactions. Despite this fact, the sequential absorption of multiple x-ray photons depends on the statistical properties of the radiation field. Treating the x rays generated by a SASE FEL as fully chaotic, a quantum-mechanical analysis of inner-shell two-photon absorption is performed. By solving a system of time-dependent rate equations, we demonstrate that double-core hole formation in neon via x-ray two-photon absorption is enhanced by chaotic photon statistics. At an intensity of 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, the statistical enhancement is about 30%, much smaller than typical values in the optical regime. The second part of this presentation discusses the resonant Auger effect of atomic neon at the 1s-3p transition (at 867.1 eV). For low X-ray intensity, the excitation process 1s {yields} 3p in Neon can be treated perturbatively. The

  13. Evolution of polarization dependent microstructures induced by high repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation in glass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangteng; Gecevičius, Mindaugas; Chen, Qiuqun; Zhang, Hang; Dai, Ye; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-09-19

    We report the observation of an anomalous polarization dependent process in an isotropic glass induced by long time stationary irradiation of a high repetition rate near-infrared femtosecond laser. Two distinctive types of polarization dependent microstructures were induced at different irradiation stages. At early stage (a few seconds), a dumbbell-shaped structure elongated perpendicularly to the laser polarization formed at the top of the modified region, which was later erased by further irradiation. At later stage (above 30 s), bubbles filled with O2 formed by the irradiation, which were distributed along the laser polarization at a distance far beyond the radius of the laser beam. Based on a simple modeling of light reflection on boundaries, a thermal accumulation process was proposed to explain the formation and evolution of the dumbbell-shaped microstructure. The possible factors responsible for polarization dependent distribution of bubbles are discussed, which needs further systematic investigations. The results may be helpful in the development of femtosecond laser microprocessing for various applications. PMID:27661877

  14. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-08

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  15. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  16. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  17. Temperature-dependent, polarization-induced bias errors in a resonator integrated optical gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Feng, Lishuang; Zhi, Yinzhou

    2014-03-01

    The performance of a resonator integrated optical gyroscope (RIOG) is inevitably influenced by polarization noise. In this work, the effects of temperature-dependent polarization on the performances of an integrated optical resonator (IOR) and a RIOG are formulated mathematically and analyzed. Firstly, resonant curves with different polarization extinction ratios (PERs) and different temperature fluctuations are demonstrated. The main performances of the IOR, i.e. depth and full width at half maximum (FWHM), are not only influenced by the waveguide birefringence, but also by the intensity coupling coefficient of the couplers, both of which change with the variation of temperature. Secondly, the relationship between the variation of temperature and the variation of depth, as well as the FWHM, are obtained. Thirdly, in order to evaluate the zero bias error caused by the temperature-dependent polarization, resonant asymmetry ratio (RAR) is introduced, which is strongly dependent on the temperature fluctuation. A relationship between the bias error caused by the polarization and the temperature fluctuation is proposed. A large PER of the input beam and a high temperature stability are required to reduce the bias error and achieve a high bias stability of the silica RIOG.

  18. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  19. Polarization dependence of two-photon transition intensities in rare-earth doped crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Le Nguyen, An-Dien

    1996-05-01

    A polarization dependence technique has been developed as a tool to investigate phonon scattering (PS), electronic Raman scattering (ERS), and two-photon absorption (TPA) transition intensities in vanadate and phosphate crystals. A general theory for the polarization dependence (PD) of two-photon transition intensities has been given. Expressions for the polarization dependent behavior of two-photon transition intensities have been tabulated for the 32 crystallographic point groups. When the wavefunctions for the initial and final states of a rare-earth doped in crystals are known, explicit PD expressions with no unknown parameters can be obtained. A spectroscopic method for measuring and interpreting phonon and ERS intensities has been developed to study PrVO{sub 4}, NdVO{sub 4}, ErVO{sub 4}, and TmVO{sub 4} crystals. Relative phonon intensities with the polarization of the incident and scattered light arbitrarily varied were accurately predicted and subsequently used for alignment and calibration in ERS measurements in these systems for the first time. Since ERS and PS intensities generally follow different polarization curves as a function of polar angles, the two can be uniquely identified by comparing their respective polarization behavior. The most crucial application of the technique in ERS spectroscopy is the establishment of a stringent test for the Axe theory. For the first time, the F{sub 1}/F{sub 2} ratio extracted from the experimental fits of the ERS intensities were compared with those predicted by theories which include both the second- and third-order contributions. Relatively good agreement between the fitted values of F{sub 1}/F{sub 2} and the predicted values using the second-order theory has been found.

  20. Wavelength dependence of position angle in polarization standards. [of stellar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Tapia, S.

    1986-01-01

    Eleven of the 15 stars on Serkowski's (1974) list of 'Standard Stars with Large Interstellar Polarization' were investigated to determine whether the orientation of the plane of their linear polarization showed any dependence on wavelength. Nine of the eleven stars exhibited a statistically significant wavelength dependence of position angle when measured with an accuracy of about 0.1 deg standard deviation. For the majority of these stars, the effect is caused primarily by intrinsic polarization. The calibration of polarimeter position angles in a celestial coordinate frame must evidently be done at the 0.1 deg level of accuracy by using only carefully selected standard stars or by using other astronomical or laboratory methods.

  1. Temperature dependences of the electric polarization and wave number of incommensurate structures in multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikin, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    It is shown that the electric polarization and wave number of incommensurate modulations, proportional to each other, increase according to the Landau law in spin multiferroic cycloids near the Néel temperature. In this case, the constant magnetization component (including the one for a conical spiral) is oriented perpendicular to the spin incommensurability wave vector. A similar temperature behavior should manifest itself for spin helicoids, the axes of which are oriented parallel to the polarization vector but their spin rotation planes are oriented perpendicular to the antiferromagnetic order plane. When the directions of axes of the magnetization helicoid and polarization vector coincide, the latter is quadratic with respect to magnetization and linearly depends on temperature, whereas the incommensurate-modulation wave number barely depends on temperature. Structural distortions of unit cells for multiferroics of different types determine their axial behavior.

  2. Frequency-dependent polarization-angle-phase-shift in the microwave-induced magnetoresistance oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Han-Chun; Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.

    2015-02-14

    Linear polarization angle, θ, dependent measurements of the microwave radiation-induced oscillatory magnetoresistance, R{sub xx}, in high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron devices have shown a θ dependence in the oscillatory amplitude along with magnetic field, frequency, and extrema-dependent phase shifts, θ{sub 0}. Here, we suggest a microwave frequency dependence of θ{sub 0}(f) using an analysis that averages over other smaller contributions, when those contributions are smaller than estimates of the experimental uncertainty.

  3. Observation of interface dependent spin polarized photocurrents in InAs/GaSb superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Wu, Qing; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yonghai; Niu, Zhichuan; Xiang, Wei; Hao, Hongyue

    2015-05-11

    In this letter, we investigated the spin polarized photocurrents excited by mid-infrared radiation and near-infrared radiation, respectively, in InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with different kinds of interfaces. By periodically varying the polarization state of the radiation, we analyzed Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents, which present different features depending on the interface types and excitation conditions. Under mid-infrared excitation, the ratio of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents of the superlattice with InSb-like interface is obviously larger than that of the superlattice with GaAs-like interface, the ratio of the superlattice with alternate interface is in the middle. Whereas under near-infrared excitation, the ratios of the three superlattices are nearly the same. Further researches reveal the synactic effects of interface dependent strain and asymmetric interface potential on the spin splitting. Besides, the polarized Raman spectroscopies of these structures were also analyzed.

  4. Spin polarization transfer mechanisms of SABRE: A magnetic field dependent study.

    PubMed

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N; Ivanov, Konstantin L; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Petrov, Pavel A; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Kaptein, Robert; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the magnetic field dependence of Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE) arising from binding of para-hydrogen (p-H2) and a substrate to a suitable transition metal complex. The magnetic field dependence of the amplification of the (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signals of the released substrates and dihydrogen, and the transient transition metal dihydride species shows characteristic patterns, which is explained using the theory presented here. The generation of SABRE is most efficient at low magnetic fields due to coherent spin mixing at nuclear spin Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in the SABRE complexes. We studied two Ir-complexes and have shown that the presence of a (31)P atom in the SABRE complex doubles the number of LACs and, consequently, the number of peaks in the SABRE field dependence. Interestingly, the polarization of SABRE substrates is always accompanied by the para-to-ortho conversion in dihydride species that results in enhancement of the NMR signal of free (H2) and catalyst-bound H2 (Ir-HH). The field dependences of hyperpolarized H2 and Ir-HH by means of SABRE are studied here, for the first time, in detail. The field dependences depend on the chemical shifts and coupling constants of Ir-HH, in which the polarization transfer takes place. A negative coupling constant of -7Hz between the two chemically equivalent but magnetically inequivalent hydride nuclei is determined, which indicates that Ir-HH is a dihydride with an HH distance larger than 2Å. Finally, the field dependence of SABRE at high fields as found earlier has been investigated and attributed to polarization transfer to the substrate by cross-relaxation. The present study provides further evidence for the key role of LACs in the formation of SABRE-derived polarization. Understanding the spin dynamics behind the SABRE method opens the way to optimizing its performance and overcoming the main limitation of NMR, its notoriously low sensitivity.

  5. Anomalous temperature-dependent spin-valley polarization in monolayer WS2

    PubMed Central

    Hanbicki, A.T.; Kioseoglou, G.; Currie, M.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; McCreary, K.M.; Friedman, A.L.; Jonker, B.T.

    2016-01-01

    Single layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are direct gap semiconductors with nondegenerate valley indices. An intriguing possibility for these materials is the use of their valley index as an alternate state variable. Several limitations to such a utility include strong intervalley scattering, as well as multiparticle interactions leading to multiple emission channels. We prepare single-layer WS2 films such that the photoluminescence is from either the neutral or charged exciton (trion). After excitation with circularly polarized light, the neutral exciton emission has zero polarization. However, the trion emission has a large polarization (28%) at room temperature. The trion emission also has a unique, non-monotonic temperature dependence that is a consequence of the multiparticle nature of the trion. This temperature dependence enables us to determine that intervalley scattering, electron-hole radiative recombination, and Auger processes are the dominant mechanisms at work in this system. Because this dependence involves trion systems, one can use gate voltages to modulate the polarization (or intensity) emitted from TMD structures. PMID:26728976

  6. Anomalous temperature-dependent spin-valley polarization in monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanbicki, A. T.; Kioseoglou, G.; Currie, M.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; McCreary, K. M.; Friedman, A. L.; Jonker, B. T.

    2016-01-01

    Single layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are direct gap semiconductors with nondegenerate valley indices. An intriguing possibility for these materials is the use of their valley index as an alternate state variable. Several limitations to such a utility include strong intervalley scattering, as well as multiparticle interactions leading to multiple emission channels. We prepare single-layer WS2 films such that the photoluminescence is from either the neutral or charged exciton (trion). After excitation with circularly polarized light, the neutral exciton emission has zero polarization. However, the trion emission has a large polarization (28%) at room temperature. The trion emission also has a unique, non-monotonic temperature dependence that is a consequence of the multiparticle nature of the trion. This temperature dependence enables us to determine that intervalley scattering, electron-hole radiative recombination, and Auger processes are the dominant mechanisms at work in this system. Because this dependence involves trion systems, one can use gate voltages to modulate the polarization (or intensity) emitted from TMD structures.

  7. Polarization-dependent responses of fluorescent indicators partitioned into myelinated axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Ileana; Brideau, Craig; Stys, Peter K.

    2012-02-01

    Myelination, i.e. the wrapping of axons in multiple layers of lipid-rich membrane, is a unique phenomenon in the nervous systems of both vertebrates and invertebrates, that greatly increases the speed and efficiency of signal transmission. In turn, disruption of axo-myelinic integrity underlies disability in numerous clinical disorders. The dependence of myelin physiology on nanometric organization of its lamellae makes it difficult to accurately study this structure in the living state. We expected that fluorescent probes might become highly oriented when partitioned into the myelin sheath, and in turn, this anisotropy could be interrogated by controlling the polarization state of the exciting laser field used for 2-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF). Live ex vivo myelinated rodent axons were labeled with a series of lipohilic and hydrophilic fluorescenct probes, and TPEF images acquired while laser polarization was varied at the sample over a broad range of ellipticities and orientations of the major angle [see Brideau, Micu & Stys, abstract this meeting]. We found that most probes exhibited strong dependence on both the major angle of polarization, and perhaps more surprisingly, on ellipticity as well. Lipophilic vs. hydrophilic probes exhibited distinctly different behavior. We propose that polarization-dependent TPEF microscopy represents a powerful tool for probing the nanostructural architecture of both myelin and axonal cytoskeleton in a domain far below the resolution limit of visible light microscopy. By selecting probes with different sizes and physicochemical properties, distinct aspects of cellular nanoarchitecture can be accurately interrogated in real-time in living tissue.

  8. Polarization-dependent fluorescence of proteins bound to nanopore-confined lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.-Q.; Marek, A.; Smirnov, Alex I.; Grebel, H.

    2008-09-01

    Lipid bilayers are essential structural component of biological membranes of all the living species: from viruses and bacteria to plants and humans. Biophysical and biochemical properties of such membranes are important for understanding physical mechanisms responsible for drug targeting. Binding events between proteins and the membrane may be ascertained by introducing fluorescence markers (chromophores) to the proteins. Here we describe a novel biosensing platform designed to enhance signals of these fluorescence markers. Nanoporous aluminum oxide membranes with and without gold (Au) surface coating have been employed for optical detection of bound conjugated streptavidin to biotinylated lipid bilayers-a model system that mimics protein docking to the membrane surface. Unexpectedly, it was found that fluorescence signals from such structures vary when pumped with E-polarized and H-polarized incident optical beams. The origin of the observed polarization-dependent effects and the implications for enhanced fluorescence detection in a biochip format are being discussed.

  9. Polarization dependences of electroluminescence and absorption of vertically correlated InAs/GaAs QDs

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, M. M. Gadzhiyev, I. M.; Bakshaev, I. O.; Nevedomskiy, V. N.; Buyalo, M. S.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Zolotareva, R. V.; Portnoi, E. L.

    2012-01-15

    The results of experimental studies concerning the optical polarization anisotropy of electroluminescence and absorption spectra of systems with a varied number of tunnel-coupled vertically correlated In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs), built into a double-section laser with equal-length sections, are presented. One such system is a QD superlattice exhibiting the Wannier-Stark effect. The involvement of heavyhole ground states in optical transitions for light polarized both in the plane perpendicular to the growth axis (X-Y) and along the growth direction Z of the structure was observed. The degree of polarization anisotropy depends on the height of vertically correlated QDs and the QD superlattice: the total thickness of all In(Ga)As QD layers and GaAs spacers between the QDs, which is related to the Z component of the wave function of heavy-hole ground states for vertically correlated QDs and for the QD superlattice.

  10. Measurement of complicated temperature-dependent polarization of multiferroic RMn2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, Mamoru; Noda, Yukio

    2011-09-01

    We have measured the temperature-dependent electric polarization P(T) of multiferroic rare-earth (R) manganese oxides RMn2O5 using both typical pyroelectric measurements and hysteresis loops with the double-wave method (DWM), and revealed the complicated behavior of the P(T). RMn2O5 single crystal samples often exhibit a tendency to macroscopically polarize without applying an external electric field. We have found that the tendency appeared in P(T) by the pyroelectric measurement can be measured by the DWM loops. The tendency to polarize is equivalent to asymmetric non-hystersis loops obtained by the DWM. We clarify the relationship between P(T) by pyroelectric measurement and that by the DWM loops, which can warrant the measured P(T).

  11. Model and observation comparison of the universal time and IMF by dependence of the ionospheric polar hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Hoegy, W. R.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The polar ionospheric F-region often exhibits regions of marked density depletion. These depletions have been observed by a variety of polar orbiting ionospheric satellites over a full range of solar cycle, season, magnetic activity, and universal time (UT). An empirical model of these observations has recently been developed to describe the polar depletion dependence on these parameters. Specifically, the dependence has been defined as a function of F10.7 (solar), summer or winter, Kp (magnetic), and UT. Polar cap depletions have also been predicted /1, 2/ and are, hence, present in physical models of the high latitude ionosphere. Using the Utah State University Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) the predicted polar depletion characteristics are compared with those described by the above empirical model. In addition, the TDIM is used to predict the IMF By dependence of the polar hole feature.

  12. Survival rates of radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Polar bears are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting, polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and hydrocarbon extraction and related human activities such as shipping, road building, and seismic testing. As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, reliable estimates of survivorship of polar bears are needed to predict and manage the impacts of those activities. We used the Kaplan-Meier model to estimate annual survival (with 95% confidence intervals) for radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young that were followed during a 12-year study in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Survival of adult female polar bears was higher than had been previously thought: S = 0.969 (range 0.952-0.983). If human-caused mortalities were deleted, the computed survival rate was 0.996 (0.990-1.002). Survival of young from den exit to weaning was 0.676 (0.634-0.701). Survival during the second year of life, 0.860 (0.751-0.903), was substantially higher than during the first year, 0.651 (0.610-0.675). Shooting by local hunters accounted for 85% of the documented deaths of adult female polar bears. Conversely, 90% of documented losses of young were independent of litter size (P = 0.36), indicating that parental investment in single cubs was not different from investment in litters of two or more. Precise estimates of the survival of independent juveniles and adult males still need to be developed.

  13. Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Diao; Jussila, Henri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ye, Guojun; Lipsanen, Harri; Chen, Xianhui; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-01-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) has recently been rediscovered as a new and interesting two-dimensional material due to its unique electronic and optical properties. Here, we study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of BP flakes. We observe that both the linear and nonlinear optical properties are anisotropic and can be tuned by the film thickness in BP, completely different from other typical two-dimensional layered materials (e.g., graphene and the most studied transition metal dichalcogenides). We then use the nonlinear optical properties of BP for ultrafast (pulse duration down to ~786 fs in mode-locking) and large-energy (pulse energy up to >18 nJ in Q-switching) pulse generation in fiber lasers at the near-infrared telecommunication band ~1.5 μm. We observe that the output of our BP based pulsed lasers is linearly polarized (with a degree-of-polarization ~98% in mode-locking, >99% in Q-switching, respectively) due to the anisotropic optical property of BP. Our results underscore the relatively large optical nonlinearity of BP with unique polarization and thickness dependence, and its potential for polarized optical pulse generation, paving the way to BP based nonlinear and ultrafast photonic applications (e.g., ultrafast all-optical polarization switches/modulators, frequency converters etc.). PMID:26514090

  14. Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Diao; Jussila, Henri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ye, Guojun; Lipsanen, Harri; Chen, Xianhui; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-10-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) has recently been rediscovered as a new and interesting two-dimensional material due to its unique electronic and optical properties. Here, we study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of BP flakes. We observe that both the linear and nonlinear optical properties are anisotropic and can be tuned by the film thickness in BP, completely different from other typical two-dimensional layered materials (e.g., graphene and the most studied transition metal dichalcogenides). We then use the nonlinear optical properties of BP for ultrafast (pulse duration down to ~786 fs in mode-locking) and large-energy (pulse energy up to >18 nJ in Q-switching) pulse generation in fiber lasers at the near-infrared telecommunication band ~1.5 μm. We observe that the output of our BP based pulsed lasers is linearly polarized (with a degree-of-polarization ~98% in mode-locking, >99% in Q-switching, respectively) due to the anisotropic optical property of BP. Our results underscore the relatively large optical nonlinearity of BP with unique polarization and thickness dependence, and its potential for polarized optical pulse generation, paving the way to BP based nonlinear and ultrafast photonic applications (e.g., ultrafast all-optical polarization switches/modulators, frequency converters etc.).

  15. Airway epithelial homeostasis and planar cell polarity signaling depend on multiciliated cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Vladar, Eszter K.; Nayak, Jayakar V.; Milla, Carlos E.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Motile airway cilia that propel contaminants out of the lung are oriented in a common direction by planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which localizes PCP protein complexes to opposite cell sides throughout the epithelium to orient cytoskeletal remodeling. In airway epithelia, PCP is determined in a 2-phase process. First, cell-cell communication via PCP complexes polarizes all cells with respect to the proximal-distal tissue axis. Second, during ciliogenesis, multiciliated cells (MCCs) undergo cytoskeletal remodeling to orient their cilia in the proximal direction. The second phase not only directs cilium polarization, but also consolidates polarization across the epithelium. Here, we demonstrate that in airway epithelia, PCP depends on MCC differentiation. PCP mutant epithelia have misaligned cilia, and also display defective barrier function and regeneration, indicating that PCP regulates multiple aspects of airway epithelial homeostasis. In humans, MCCs are often sparse in chronic inflammatory diseases, and these airways exhibit PCP dysfunction. The presence of insufficient MCCs impairs mucociliary clearance in part by disrupting PCP-driven polarization of the epithelium. Consistent with defective PCP, barrier function and regeneration are also disrupted. Pharmacological stimulation of MCC differentiation restores PCP and reverses these defects, suggesting its potential for broad therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:27570836

  16. Salmonella typhimurium-induced M1 macrophage polarization is dependent on the bacterial O antigen.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fengling; Sun, Xiaoming; Qu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaolian

    2016-02-01

    Recently, macrophages were shown to be capable of differentiating toward two phenotypes after antigen stimulation: a classically activated (M1) or an alternatively activated phenotype (M2). To investigate the effect of Salmonella enteric serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) on macrophage differentiation, we compared macrophage phenotypes after infection of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with wild-type S. typhimurium and its isogenic rfc mutant. S. typhimurium C5 induced M1 macrophage polarization and enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by macrophages; this induction was dependent on Toll-like receptor 4. In contrast, the Δrfc mutant (S. typhimurium C5 rfc::Km(r)) lost this function and induced an M2 response in the macrophages. Here, we propose that S. typhimurium C5 is capable of polarizing macrophages towards the M1 phenotype and that this polarization is dependent on the O antigen encoded by rfc. Our finding indicates that M1 macrophage polarization induced by S. typhimurium may be related to the ability of this intracellular bacterium to survive and replicate within macrophages, which is essential for systemic disease.

  17. Importance of dye host on absorption, propagation losses, and amplified spontaneous emission for dye-doped polymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Goudket, Hélène; Nhung, Tran Hong; Ea-Kim, Buntha; Roger, Gisèle; Canva, Michael

    2006-10-10

    The absorption spectra of dye-doped polymer thin films made from a variety of five dyes and six matrices, either organic or organomineral, are analyzed to evaluate the residual absorption in the red wavelength tail and in particular at amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) wavelengths. An absorption cutoff wavelength is defined as the extrapolated wavelength at which the absorption losses are expected to become negligible compared to the structure losses. Such absorption-spectrum-extrapolated wavelengths are compared to the ASE wavelengths and found to correlate for most of the dye-matrix couples. The propagation losses of PM597-doped organic polymers are also measured and accordingly found to increase with the glass transition temperature of the host matrix.

  18. Importance of dye host on absorption, propagation losses, and amplified spontaneous emission for dye-doped polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudket, Hélène; Nhung, Tran Hong; Ea-Kim, Buntha; Roger, Gisèle; Canva, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The absorption spectra of dye-doped polymer thin films made from a variety of five dyes and six matrices, either organic or organomineral, are analyzed to evaluate the residual absorption in the red wavelength tail and in particular at amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) wavelengths. An absorption cutoff wavelength is defined as the extrapolated wavelength at which the absorption losses are expected to become negligible compared to the structure losses. Such absorption-spectrum-extrapolated wavelengths are compared to the ASE wavelengths and found to correlate for most of the dye-matrix couples. The propagation losses of PM597-doped organic polymers are also measured and accordingly found to increase with the glass transition temperature of the host matrix.

  19. Controlling the 1 μm spontaneous emission in Er/Yb co-doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Sobon, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Pawel; Antonczak, Arkadiusz; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Abramski, Krzysztof M

    2011-09-26

    In this paper we present our experimental studies on controlling the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from Yb(3+) ions in Er/Yb co-doped fiber amplifiers. We propose a new method of controlling the Yb-ASE by stimulating a laser emission at 1064 nm in the amplifier, by providing a positive 1 μm signal feedback loop. The results are discussed and compared to a conventional amplifier setup without 1 μm ASE control and to an amplifier with auxiliary 1064 nm seeding. We have shown, that applying a 1064 nm signal loop in an Er/Yb amplifier can increase the output power at 1550 nm and provide stable operation without parasitic lasing at 1 μm.

  20. Amplified spontaneous emission measurement of a line-narrowed, tunable, Ti:Al2O3 amplifier using rubidium absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, James C.; Barnes, Norman P.; Lockard, George E.; Cross, Patricia L.

    1989-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission, ASE, generated by a Ti:Al2O3 laser amplifier has been measured as a function of pump energy, and thus gain, using the atomic absorption of rubidium, Rb, gas at 0.780 micron. By tuning the Ti:Al2O3 laser, the Rb cell could selectively absorb the narrow spectral bandwidth laser radiation while transmitting the wide spectral bandwidth ASE. Transmission of laser amplifier pulses through a Rb absorption cell, measured at various temperatures, thus allows the measurement of the weak ASE in the vicinity of the strong laser pulse. A model for the transmission of Rb as a function of temperature and wavelength has been developed. The measured transmissions are in good agreement with the transmission model predictions.

  1. Spontaneous emission study on 1.3 µm InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Y; Stubenrauch, M; Bimberg, D

    2011-06-10

    True spontaneous emission (TSE) measurements on InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) lasers have been performed as a function of injection current and cavity length. For each laser, TSE from both the ground state (GS) transition and the excited state (ES) transition has been analyzed. It is found that Auger processes are the major nonradiative recombination (NR) processes for both the GS and ES transitions. In particular, for the first time, the existence of Auger like NR features in ES transitions has been experimentally demonstrated. In addition, obvious competition for carriers between the ES transition and the GS transition has been observed in TSE analysis. Furthermore, the QD laser's cavity length has a strong effect on the NR process in GS transitions, due to GS gain saturation. Therefore, when analyzing the NR processes in operating QD lasers, gain saturation due to cavity length limits should be properly considered.

  2. Electron-Beam Noise and spontaneous emission Suppression and the Fundamental Coherence Limits of Free Electron Radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gover, Avraham

    2010-02-01

    It is shown that the electron beam current noise can be reduced at optical frequencies below the classical shot-noise limit. This self-ordering phenomenon takes place due to longitudinal collective Coulomb interaction when the beam parameters are set to excite Langmuir plasma-wave single mode oscillation [1]. Full 3-D particle dynamics simulations confirm the theoretical model. Based on this result, it is shown that it is possible to obtain sub-radiance (in the sense of Dicke [2]) of spontaneous emission from electron-beam radiators. This results in fundamental limit expressions for the coherence of FELs and other e-beam radiators, analogously to the Schawlow-Towns limit [3]. Surpassing the shot-noise limit, the coherence of free electron laser radiation is limited by the e-beam energy spread at frequencies below the IR, and fundamentally limited by quantum noise at higher frequencies. )

  3. Full characterization of the amplified spontaneous emission from a diode-pumped high-power laser system.

    PubMed

    Keppler, S; Hornung, M; Bödefeld, R; Sävert, A; Liebetrau, H; Hein, J; Kaluza, M C

    2014-05-01

    We present the first complete temporal and spatial characterization of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of laser radiation generated by a diode-pumped high-power laser system. The ASE of the different amplifiers was measured independently from the main pulse and was characterized within a time window of -10ms ≤ t ≤ 10ms and an accuracy of up to 15fs around the main pulse. Furthermore, the focusability and the energy of the ASE from each amplifier was measured after recompression. Using our analysis method, the laser components, which need to be optimized for a further improvement of the laser contrast, can be identified. This will be essential for laser-matter interaction experiments requiring a minimized ASE intensity or fluence.

  4. Valley-dependent spin polarization and long-lived electron spins in germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgioni, Anna Vitiello, Elisa; Grilli, Emanuele; Guzzi, Mario; Pezzoli, Fabio

    2014-10-13

    Spin orientation and relaxation of conduction band electrons in bulk Ge are addressed by studying the steady-state circular polarization of the indirect gap photoluminescence (PL) at low temperatures. This provides a direct experimental proof of recently predicted spin-dependent selection rules for phonon-mediated optical transitions in Ge. In addition, we observe valley-dependent circularly polarized emission, and map the concomitant redistribution of electron spins within the multi-valley conduction band of Ge by gaining simultaneous access to the circular dichroism of light emitted across the direct and the indirect gap transitions. Finally, the lifetime of L-valley electrons is measured by means of decay curves of the indirect gap PL emission, yielding spin relaxation times in the order of hundreds of ns.

  5. Circular polarization dependent cyclotron resonance in large-area graphene in ultrahigh magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booshehri, L. G.; Mielke, C. H.; Rickel, D. G.; Crooker, S. A.; Zhang, Q.; Ren, L.; Hároz, E. H.; Rustagi, A.; Stanton, C. J.; Jin, Z.; Sun, Z.; Yan, Z.; Tour, J. M.; Kono, J.

    2012-05-01

    Using ultrahigh magnetic fields up to 170 T and polarized midinfrared radiation with tunable wavelengths from 9.22 to 10.67 μm, we studied cyclotron resonance in large-area graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. Circular polarization dependent studies reveal strong p-type doping for as-grown graphene, and the dependence of the cyclotron resonance on radiation wavelength allows for a determination of the Fermi energy. Thermal annealing shifts the Fermi energy to near the Dirac point, resulting in the simultaneous appearance of hole and electron cyclotron resonance in the magnetic quantum limit, even though the sample is still p-type, due to graphene's linear dispersion and unique Landau level structure. These high-field studies therefore allow for a clear identification of cyclotron resonance features in large-area, low-mobility graphene samples.

  6. Polarization dependent asymmetric magneto-resistance features in nanocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Somnath

    2014-08-18

    Polar angle-dependence of magneto-resistance (AMR) in heavily nitrogen-incorporated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films is recorded by applying high magnetic fields, which shows strong anisotropic features at low temperatures. The temperature-dependence of MR and AMR can reveal transport in the weak-localization regime, which is explained by using a superlattice model for arbitrary values of disorder and angles. While a propagative Fermi surface model explains the negative MR features for low degree of disorder the azimuthal angle-dependent MR shows field dependent anisotropy due to the aligned conducting channels on the layers normal to film growth direction. The analysis of MR and AMR can extract the temperature dependence of dephasing time with respect to the elastic scattering time which not only establishes quasi-two dimensional features in this system but also suggests a potential application in monitoring the performance of UNCD based quantum devices.

  7. Enhancement in the excitonic spontaneous emission rates for Si nanocrystal multi-layers covered with thin films of Au, Ag, and Al.

    PubMed

    Estrin, Y; Rich, D H; Rozenfeld, N; Arad-Vosk, N; Ron, A; Sa'ar, A

    2015-10-30

    The enhancement in the spontaneous emission rate (SER) for Ag, Au, and Al films on multilayer Si nanocrystals (SiNCs) was probed with time-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL). The SiNCs were grown on Si(100) using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Electron-hole pairs were generated in the metal-covered SiNCs by injecting a pulsed high-energy electron beam through the thin metal films, which is found to be an ideal method of excitation for plasmonic quantum heterostructures and nanostructures that are opaque to laser or light excitation. Spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved CL was used to measure the excitonic lifetime of the SiNCs in metal-covered and bare regions of the same samples. The observed enhancement in the SER for the metal-covered SiNCs, relative to the SER for the bare sample, is attributed to a coupling of the SiNC excitons with surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of the thin metal films. A maximum SER enhancement of ∼2.0, 1.4 and 1.2 was observed for the Ag, Au, and Al films, respectively, at a temperature of 55 K. The three chosen plasmonic metals of Ag, Au, and Al facilitate an interesting comparison of the exciton-SPP coupling for metal films that exhibit varying differences between the surface plasmon energy, ω(sp), and the SiNC excitonic emission energy. A modeling of the temperature dependence of the Purcell enhancement factor, Fp, was performed and included the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of the metals. PMID:26436289

  8. Enhancement in the excitonic spontaneous emission rates for Si nanocrystal multi-layers covered with thin films of Au, Ag, and Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrin, Y.; Rich, D. H.; Rozenfeld, N.; Arad-Vosk, N.; Ron, A.; Sa'ar, A.

    2015-10-01

    The enhancement in the spontaneous emission rate (SER) for Ag, Au, and Al films on multilayer Si nanocrystals (SiNCs) was probed with time-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL). The SiNCs were grown on Si(100) using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Electron-hole pairs were generated in the metal-covered SiNCs by injecting a pulsed high-energy electron beam through the thin metal films, which is found to be an ideal method of excitation for plasmonic quantum heterostructures and nanostructures that are opaque to laser or light excitation. Spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved CL was used to measure the excitonic lifetime of the SiNCs in metal-covered and bare regions of the same samples. The observed enhancement in the SER for the metal-covered SiNCs, relative to the SER for the bare sample, is attributed to a coupling of the SiNC excitons with surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of the thin metal films. A maximum SER enhancement of ˜2.0, 1.4 and 1.2 was observed for the Ag, Au, and Al films, respectively, at a temperature of 55 K. The three chosen plasmonic metals of Ag, Au, and Al facilitate an interesting comparison of the exciton-SPP coupling for metal films that exhibit varying differences between the surface plasmon energy, ωsp, and the SiNC excitonic emission energy. A modeling of the temperature dependence of the Purcell enhancement factor, Fp, was performed and included the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of the metals.

  9. Enhancement in the excitonic spontaneous emission rates for Si nanocrystal multi-layers covered with thin films of Au, Ag, and Al.

    PubMed

    Estrin, Y; Rich, D H; Rozenfeld, N; Arad-Vosk, N; Ron, A; Sa'ar, A

    2015-10-30

    The enhancement in the spontaneous emission rate (SER) for Ag, Au, and Al films on multilayer Si nanocrystals (SiNCs) was probed with time-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL). The SiNCs were grown on Si(100) using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Electron-hole pairs were generated in the metal-covered SiNCs by injecting a pulsed high-energy electron beam through the thin metal films, which is found to be an ideal method of excitation for plasmonic quantum heterostructures and nanostructures that are opaque to laser or light excitation. Spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved CL was used to measure the excitonic lifetime of the SiNCs in metal-covered and bare regions of the same samples. The observed enhancement in the SER for the metal-covered SiNCs, relative to the SER for the bare sample, is attributed to a coupling of the SiNC excitons with surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of the thin metal films. A maximum SER enhancement of ∼2.0, 1.4 and 1.2 was observed for the Ag, Au, and Al films, respectively, at a temperature of 55 K. The three chosen plasmonic metals of Ag, Au, and Al facilitate an interesting comparison of the exciton-SPP coupling for metal films that exhibit varying differences between the surface plasmon energy, ω(sp), and the SiNC excitonic emission energy. A modeling of the temperature dependence of the Purcell enhancement factor, Fp, was performed and included the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of the metals.

  10. Polarization dependent fragmentation of ions produced by laser desorption from nanopost arrays.

    PubMed

    Stolee, Jessica A; Vertes, Akos

    2011-05-28

    Tailored silicon nanopost arrays (NAPA) enable controlled and resonant ion production in laser desorption ionization experiments and have been termed nanophotonic ion sources (Walker et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2010, 114, 4835-4840). As the post dimensions are comparable to or smaller than the laser wavelength, near-field effects and localized electromagnetic fields are present in their vicinity. In this contribution, we explore the desorption and ionization mechanism by studying how surface derivatization affects ion yields and fragmentation. We demonstrate that by increasing the laser fluence on derivatized NAPA with less polar surfaces that have decreased interaction energy between the structured silicon substrate and the adsorbate, the spectrum changes from exhibiting primarily molecular ions to showing a growing variety and abundance of fragments. The polarization angle of the laser beam had been shown to dramatically affect the ion yields of adsorbates. For the first time, we report that by rotating the plane of polarization of the desorption laser, the internal energy of the adsorbate can also be modulated resulting in polarization dependent fragmentation. This polarization effect also resulted in selective fragmentation of vitamin B(12). To explore the internal energy of NAPA generated ions, the effect of the post aspect ratios on the laser desorption thresholds and on the internal energy of a preformed ion was studied. Elevated surface temperatures and enhanced near fields in the vicinity of high aspect ratio posts are thought to contribute to desorption and ionization from NAPA. Comparison of the fluence dependence of the internal energies of ions produced from nanoporous silicon and NAPA substrates indicates that surface restructuring or transient melting by the desorption laser is a prerequisite for the former but not for the latter. PMID:21437297

  11. Polarization dependent fragmentation of ions produced by laser desorption from nanopost arrays.

    PubMed

    Stolee, Jessica A; Vertes, Akos

    2011-05-28

    Tailored silicon nanopost arrays (NAPA) enable controlled and resonant ion production in laser desorption ionization experiments and have been termed nanophotonic ion sources (Walker et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2010, 114, 4835-4840). As the post dimensions are comparable to or smaller than the laser wavelength, near-field effects and localized electromagnetic fields are present in their vicinity. In this contribution, we explore the desorption and ionization mechanism by studying how surface derivatization affects ion yields and fragmentation. We demonstrate that by increasing the laser fluence on derivatized NAPA with less polar surfaces that have decreased interaction energy between the structured silicon substrate and the adsorbate, the spectrum changes from exhibiting primarily molecular ions to showing a growing variety and abundance of fragments. The polarization angle of the laser beam had been shown to dramatically affect the ion yields of adsorbates. For the first time, we report that by rotating the plane of polarization of the desorption laser, the internal energy of the adsorbate can also be modulated resulting in polarization dependent fragmentation. This polarization effect also resulted in selective fragmentation of vitamin B(12). To explore the internal energy of NAPA generated ions, the effect of the post aspect ratios on the laser desorption thresholds and on the internal energy of a preformed ion was studied. Elevated surface temperatures and enhanced near fields in the vicinity of high aspect ratio posts are thought to contribute to desorption and ionization from NAPA. Comparison of the fluence dependence of the internal energies of ions produced from nanoporous silicon and NAPA substrates indicates that surface restructuring or transient melting by the desorption laser is a prerequisite for the former but not for the latter.

  12. Transverse momentum dependent quark distributions and polarized Drell-Yan processes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Yuan, F.; Liang, Z.-T.

    2009-09-11

    We study the spin-dependent quark distributions at large transverse momentum. We derive their transverse momentum behaviors in the collinear factorization approach in this region. We further calculate the angular distribution of the Drell-Yan lepton pair production with polarized beams and present the results in terms of the collinear twist-three quark-gluon correlation functions. In the intermediate transverse momentum region, we find that the two pproaches: the collinear factorization and the transverse momentum dependent factorization approaches are consistent in the description of the lepton pair angular distributions.

  13. Polarization dependence of Na/emph>+Na/emph> associative ionization revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, H. A. J.; Meulen, H. P. V. D.; Morgenstern, R.; Hertel, I. V.; Meyer, E.; Schmidt, H.; Witte, R.

    1986-02-01

    The dependence of the associative ionization process Na 3 2P3/2+Na 3 2P3/2-->Na2 ++e- on the polarization of the laser light used for Na excitation was independently investigated in Utrecht and Berlin. The purpose of this paper is to clarify discrepancies between earlier experimental results of Kircz, Morgenstern, and Nienhuis, on one hand, and Rothe, Theyunni, Reck, and Tung on the other hand. The new results confirm in general the data of Kircz, Morgenstern, and Nienhuis, and also indicate a dependence of the anisotropy ratios on the relative velocity of the interacting Na* atoms.

  14. Orientation-dependent visibility of long thin objects in polarization-based microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Arimoto, R; Murray, J M

    1996-01-01

    Under conditions of directional illumination, the visibility of long, thin objects depends very strongly on the direction and polarization of the incident light. Solutions to Maxwell's equations for the case of an infinite cylinder in an electromagnetic field are well known, and have been used by others in the past for theoretical analysis of light scattering by long, thin objects. The existence of those solutions allows us to calculate the expected angular distribution and polarization of the light scattered from long, thin objects illuminated by a plane wave at any angle. In this paper we show for the first time how one can incorporate these solutions of Maxwell's equations into a quantitative description of the expected appearance of filamentous biological structures in polarization-based microscopy. Our calculations for unidirectional polarized illumination show that thin, dielectric linear objects such as microtubules (or shallow interfaces) observed with finite aperture optics 1) are totally invisible when the angle (phi) between the object's long axis and incident illumination is outside the range magnitude of 90 - phi < or = sin-1 [1.33/N.A.obj]degrees; and 2) are seen with maximum intensity when phi = 90 degrees for incident illumination and scattered light polarized, either both parallel or both perpendicular to the long axis of the object; whereas 3) two maxima appear at phi approximately equal to 90 +/- 25 degrees for polarization of the incident illumination parallel to, but the scattered light perpendicular to the long axis, or vice versa; and 4) in either of these latter conditions, the objects are invisible when the illumination is near normal incidence. These counterintuitive predictions were exactly borne out by our experimental measurements of light-scattering intensity from flagellar axonemes as a function of orientation in a polarizing microscope. These calculations and measurements provide a foundation for furthering our understanding of

  15. Orientation-dependent visibility of long thin objects in polarization-based microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, R; Murray, J M

    1996-06-01

    Under conditions of directional illumination, the visibility of long, thin objects depends very strongly on the direction and polarization of the incident light. Solutions to Maxwell's equations for the case of an infinite cylinder in an electromagnetic field are well known, and have been used by others in the past for theoretical analysis of light scattering by long, thin objects. The existence of those solutions allows us to calculate the expected angular distribution and polarization of the light scattered from long, thin objects illuminated by a plane wave at any angle. In this paper we show for the first time how one can incorporate these solutions of Maxwell's equations into a quantitative description of the expected appearance of filamentous biological structures in polarization-based microscopy. Our calculations for unidirectional polarized illumination show that thin, dielectric linear objects such as microtubules (or shallow interfaces) observed with finite aperture optics 1) are totally invisible when the angle (phi) between the object's long axis and incident illumination is outside the range magnitude of 90 - phi < or = sin-1 [1.33/N.A.obj]degrees; and 2) are seen with maximum intensity when phi = 90 degrees for incident illumination and scattered light polarized, either both parallel or both perpendicular to the long axis of the object; whereas 3) two maxima appear at phi approximately equal to 90 +/- 25 degrees for polarization of the incident illumination parallel to, but the scattered light perpendicular to the long axis, or vice versa; and 4) in either of these latter conditions, the objects are invisible when the illumination is near normal incidence. These counterintuitive predictions were exactly borne out by our experimental measurements of light-scattering intensity from flagellar axonemes as a function of orientation in a polarizing microscope. These calculations and measurements provide a foundation for furthering our understanding of

  16. Angular and polarization dependence of all optical diode in one-dimensional photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem; Safari, Zeinab; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2015-05-01

    The effect of the incident angle on all-optical diode (AOD) efficiency in a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure (1DPC) for TE and TM polarizations was studied. An asymmetric hybrid Fabry Perot resonator type 1DPC structure composed of linear and nonlinear materials was considered in this communication. The nonlinear transmission curves around the defect mode resonant frequency inside the photonic band gap for both TE and TM polarizations at different incident angles, from left to right (L-R) and right to left (R-L) incidences, are illustrated. Results showed that with increasing the incident angle, AOD performance efficiency increases only for TM polarization. The AOD efficiency increased to 80% for an incident angle of 60 degrees because of the dynamical shifting of the defect mode peak frequency caused by the intensity-dependency of the nonlinear layer refractive index along the z-axes. For TE polarization, the z-component of the electric field remained constant for all incident angles. The results of this study can be important in optical data communications and information analysis in all-optical integrated circuits.

  17. Angle- and polarization-dependent spectral characteristics of circular grating filters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Gangyi; Liu, Qifa; Li, Xin; Sa, Tongliang; Fang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Hongbo; Wang, Yongjin

    2016-05-16

    We design and implement one type of guided mode resonance (GMR) circular grating filters (CGFs) on an HfO2-on-silicon platform. Taking advantage of an angle-resolved micro-reflection measurement system, we achieve their incident angle- and polarization-dependent reflection spectra. For normal incident arbitrary linear polarization, a pair of reflection peaks is experimentally observed due to the coexistence of the azimuthal component Ea and the radial component Er of the incident wave electric field (E-field). For oblique incident s-polarization (E-field perpendicular to the incident plane), the peak excited by the Ea component splits into two sub-peaks due to the removal of degeneracy, while that excited by the Er component gradually fades away with the increase of the incident angle. For oblique incident p-polarization (E-field parallel to the incident plane), the spectrum appears to be reversed; that is, the peak corresponding to the Er component gets split while that corresponding to the Ea component gradually disappears when the incident angle increases. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate the spectral relationships between CGFs and linear grating filters under not only normal incidence but also oblique incidence; these relationships greatly facilitate the spectral design and tailoring of the CGFs.

  18. Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tuer, Adam E; Krouglov, Serguei; Prent, Nicole; Cisek, Richard; Sandkuijl, Daaf; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Wilson, Brian C; Barzda, Virginijus

    2011-11-10

    Collagen (type I) fibers are readily visualized with second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy though the molecular origin of the signal has not yet been elucidated. In this study, the molecular origin of SHG from type I collagen is investigated using the time-dependent coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock calculations of the hyperpolarizibilities of glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline. Two effective nonlinear dipoles are found to orient in-the-plane of the amino acids, with one of the dipoles aligning close to the pitch orientation in the triple-helix, which provides the dominant contribution to the SHG polarization properties. The calculated hyperpolarizability tensor element ratios for the collagen triple-helix models: [(Gly3)n]3, [(Gly-Pro2)n]3, and [(Gly-Pro-Hyp)n]3, are used to predict the second-order nonlinear susceptibility ratios, χ(zzz)(2)/χ(iiz)(2) and χ(zii)(2)/χ(iiz)(2) of collagen fibers. From SHG microscopy polarization in, polarization out (PIPO) measurements of type I collagen in human lung tissue, a theoretical method is used to extract the triple-helix orientation angle with respect to the collagen fiber. The study shows the dominant role of amino acid orientation in the triple-helix for determining the polarization properties of SHG and provides a method for determining the triple-helix orientation angle in the collagen fibers. PMID:21970315

  19. Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Feng, Yijun; Yang, Zhongjie; Cui, Li; Zhao, Junming; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin metasurface compromising various sub-wavelength meta-particles offers promising advantages in controlling electromagnetic wave by spatially manipulating the wavefront characteristics across the interface. The recently proposed digital coding metasurface could even simplify the design and optimization procedures due to the digitalization of the meta-particle geometry. However, current attempts to implement the digital metasurface still utilize several structural meta-particles to obtain certain electromagnetic responses, and requiring time-consuming optimization especially in multi-bits coding designs. In this regard, we present herein utilizing geometric phase based single structured meta-particle with various orientations to achieve either 1-bit or multi-bits digital metasurface. Particular electromagnetic wave scattering patterns dependent on the incident polarizations can be tailored by the encoded metasurfaces with regular sequences. On the contrast, polarization insensitive diffusion-like scattering can also been successfully achieved by digital metasurface encoded with randomly distributed coding sequences leading to substantial suppression of backward scattering in a broadband microwave frequency. The proposed digital metasurfaces provide simple designs and reveal new opportunities for controlling electromagnetic wave scattering with or without polarization dependence. PMID:27775064

  20. Inelastic Scattering of CO with He: Polarization Dependent Differential State-to-State Cross Sections.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Groenenboom, Gerrit C; van der Avoird, Ad; Bishwakarma, Chandan Kumar; Sarma, Gautam; Parker, David H; Suits, Arthur G

    2015-12-17

    A joint theoretical and experimental study of state-to-state rotationally inelastic polarization dependent differential cross sections (PDDCSs) for CO (v = 0, j = 0, 1, 2) molecules colliding with helium is reported for collision energies of 513 and 840 cm(-1). In a crossed molecular beam experiment, velocity map imaging (VMI) with state-selective detection by (2 + 1) and (1 + 1') resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is used to probe rotational excitation of CO due to scattering. By taking account of the known fractions of the j = 0, 1, and 2 states of CO in the rotationally cold molecular beam (Trot ≈ 3 K), close-coupling theory based on high-quality ab initio potential energy surfaces for the CO-He interaction is used to simulate the differential cross sections for the mixed initial states. With polarization-sensitive 1 + 1' REMPI detection and a direct analysis procedure described by Suits et al. ( J. Phys, Chem. A 2015 , 119 , 5925 ), alignment moments are extracted from the images and the latter are compared with images simulated by theory using the calculated DCS and alignment moments. In general, good agreement of theory with the experimental results is found, indicating the reliability of the experiment in reproducing state-to-state differential and polarization-dependent differential cross sections. PMID:26473516

  1. Polarization-dependent manipulation of optical properties in a tripod system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Lauprêtre, Thomas; Bretenaker, Fabien; Goldfarb, Fabienne; Ghosh, Rupamanjari

    2013-08-01

    We analyze the dependence of the transmission profiles of an atom in a tripod configuration on the polarizations of the coupling and the probe beams and use room-temperature metastable helium (4He*) as a model system. We show that, by rotating the orthogonally polarized coupling-probe beams with respect to an applied small magnetic field, one can manipulate the detuned peaks due to electromagnetically induced transparency [Kumar, Lauprêtre, Ghosh, Bretenaker, and Goldfarb, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.84.023811 84, 023811 (2011)] and the central peak arising because of ground-state coherent population oscillations [Lauprêtre, Kumar, Berger, Faoro, Ghosh, Bretenaker, and Goldfarb, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.85.051805 85, 051805(R) (2012)] observed earlier separately. Our experimental results match well with our numerical simulation using the Floquet method.

  2. Polarization dependent formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures near stepped features

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Ryan D.; Torralva, Ben; Adams, David P.; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2014-06-09

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are formed near 110 nm-tall Au microstructured edges on Si substrates after single-pulse femtosecond irradiation with a 150 fs pulse centered near a 780 nm wavelength. We investigate the contributions of Fresnel diffraction from step-edges and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation to LIPSS formation on Au and Si surfaces. For certain laser polarization vector orientations, LIPSS formation is dominated by SPP excitation; however, when SPP excitation is minimized, Fresnel diffraction dominates. The LIPSS orientation and period distributions are shown to depend on which mechanism is activated. These results support previous observations of the laser polarization vector influencing LIPSS formation on bulk surfaces.

  3. Polarization-dependent circular Dammann grating made of azo-dye-doped liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Sun, Xiao Wei; Dai, Hai Tao; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2011-05-20

    A polarization-dependent circular Dammann grating (CDG) was generated from an azo-dye-doped liquid crystal (LC) cell. A simple multiexposure photo-alignment process was used to fabricate a binary phase LC CDG zone plane, which was composed of an odd zone with a twisted nematic LC structure and an even zone with a homogenous LC structure. A two-order CDG with equal-intensity rings was produced through a Fourier transform. The maximum zeroth and first diffraction orders of obtained CDG can be separately achieved by rotating the analyzer's polarization direction. The CDG using an azo-dye-doped LC cell can be used to generate diffractions by lasers in a broad wavelength range, hence expanding possible device applications. PMID:21614127

  4. Multiple Scattering Approach to Polarization Dependence of F K-Edge XANES Spectra for Highly Oriented Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Thin Film

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamatsu, S.; Ono, M.; Kera, S.; Okudaira, K. K.; Fujikawa, T.; Ueno, N.

    2007-02-02

    The polarization dependence of F K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of highly-oriented thin-film of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been analyzed by using multiple scattering theory. The spectra show clear polarization dependence due to the highly-oriented structure. The multiple scattering calculations reflects a local structure around an absorbing atom. The calculated results obtained by considering intermolecular-interactions are in good agreement with the observed polarization-dependence. We have also analyzed structural models of the radiation damaged PTFE films.

  5. Wavelength, temperature, and voltage dependent calibration of a nematic liquid crystal multispectral polarization generating device

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2007-01-01

    Rapid calibration of liquid crystal variable retarder (LCVR) devices is critical for successful clinical implementation of a LC-based Mueller matrix imaging system being developed for noninvasisve skin cancer detection. For multispectral implementation of such a system, the effect of wavelength (), temperature (T), and voltage (V) on the retardance () required to generate each desired polarization state needs to be clearly understood. Calibration involves quantifying this interdependence such that for a given set of system input variables, T, the appropriate voltage is applied across a LC cell to generate a particular retardance. This paper presents findings that elucidate the dependence of voltage, for a set retardance, on the aforementioned variables for a nematic LC cell: 253 mv100 nm-dependence andd 10 mVC T-dependence. Additionally, an empirically derived model is presented that enables initial voltage calibration of retardance for any desired input wavelength within the calibration range of 460-905 nm. copyright 2007 Optical Society of America

  6. Dynamics of morphology-dependent resonances by openness in dielectric disks for TE polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jinhang; Rim, Sunghwan; Kim, Chil-Min

    2011-04-15

    We have studied the parametric evolution of morphology-dependent resonances according to the change of openness in a two-dimensional dielectric microdisk for transverse-electric polarization. We found that the dynamics exhibit avoided resonance crossings between the inner and outer resonances even though the corresponding billiard is integrable. Due to these recondite avoidances, inner and outer resonances can be exchanged and the quality (Q) factor of inner resonances is strongly affected. We analyze the diverse phenomena arising from these dynamics including the avoided crossings.

  7. Spectrum-luminosity dependence of radiation from the polar emitting regions in accreting magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    The recent progress in observational techniques allowed one to probe the evolution of the X-ray spectrum in accreting pulsars (especially, of the cyclotron absorption line - the key spectral feature of accreting magnetized neutron stars) in great detail on various timescales, from pulse-to-pulse variability to secular trends. Particularly interesting are the discovered spectrum-luminosity correlations which are being used to infer the structure and physical characteristics of the pulsar's polar emitting region. I will present the latest developments in the modeling of the emitting structure (accretion column/mound/spot) aimed at explaining the observed spectrum-luminosity dependences.

  8. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2015-12-28

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarization as well as atmospheric conditions. Additionally, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. In polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, it the rectifying ability of Mg: LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity is demonstrated.

  9. Valley-dependent spin polarization in bulk MoS2 with broken inversion symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, R.; Sakano, M.; Zhang, Y. J.; Akashi, R.; Morikawa, D.; Harasawa, A.; Yaji, K.; Kuroda, K.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, T.; Ishizaka, K.; Arita, R.; Iwasa, Y.

    2014-08-01

    The valley degree of freedom of electrons is attracting growing interest as a carrier of information in various materials, including graphene, diamond and monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides. The monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides are semiconducting and are unique due to the coupling between the spin and valley degrees of freedom originating from the relativistic spin-orbit interaction. Here, we report the direct observation of valley-dependent out-of-plane spin polarization in an archetypal transition-metal dichalcogenide—MoS2—using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The result is in fair agreement with a first-principles theoretical prediction. This was made possible by choosing a 3R polytype crystal, which has a non-centrosymmetric structure, rather than the conventional centrosymmetric 2H form. We also confirm robust valley polarization in the 3R form by means of circularly polarized photoluminescence spectroscopy. Non-centrosymmetric transition-metal dichalcogenide crystals may provide a firm basis for the development of magnetic and electric manipulation of spin/valley degrees of freedom.

  10. Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS₂ for refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yang; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yanxue; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    As a noncentrosymmetric crystal with spin-polarized band structure, MoS2 nanomaterials have attracts increasing attention in many areas such as lithium ion batteries, flexible electronic devices, photoluminescence and valleytronics. The investigation of MoS2 is mainly focused on the electronics and spintronics instead of optics, which restrict its applications as key elements of photonics. In this work, we demonstrate the first observation of the polarization-dependent optical absorption of the MoS2 thin film, which is integrated onto an optical waveguide device. With this feature, a novel optical sensor combining MoS2 thin-film and a microfluidic structure has been constituted to achieve the sensitive monitoring of refractive index. Our work indicates the MoS2 thin film as a complementary material to graphene for the optical polarizer in the visible light range, and explores a new application direction of MoS2 nanomaterials for the construction of photonic circuits. PMID:25516116

  11. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia; Kholkin, Andrei L.

    2015-12-28

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarization as well as atmospheric conditions. In addition, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. Polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, demonstrates the rectifying ability of Mg:LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity.

  12. Polarization leakage in epoch of reionization windows - II. Primary beam model and direction-dependent calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asad, K. M. B.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Jelić, V.; Ghosh, A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Brentjens, M. A.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Ciardi, B.; Gehlot, B. K.; Iliev, I. T.; Mevius, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Yatawatta, S.; Zaroubi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Leakage of diffuse polarized emission into Stokes I caused by the polarized primary beam of the instrument might mimic the spectral structure of the 21-cm signal coming from the epoch of reionization (EoR) making their separation difficult. Therefore, understanding polarimetric performance of the antenna is crucial for a successful detection of the EoR signal. Here, we have calculated the accuracy of the nominal model beam of Low Frequency ARray (LOFAR) in predicting the leakage from Stokes I to Q, U by comparing them with the corresponding leakage of compact sources actually observed in the 3C 295 field. We have found that the model beam has errors of ≤10 per cent on the predicted levels of leakage of ˜1 per cent within the field of view, i.e. if the leakage is taken out perfectly using this model the leakage will reduce to 10-3 of the Stokes I flux. If similar levels of accuracy can be obtained in removing leakage from Stokes Q, U to I, we can say, based on the results of our previous paper, that the removal of this leakage using this beam model would ensure that the leakage is well below the expected EoR signal in almost the whole instrumental k-space of the cylindrical power spectrum. We have also shown here that direction-dependent calibration can remove instrumentally polarized compact sources, given an unpolarized sky model, very close to the local noise level.

  13. Dynamic, Rho1p-dependent localization of Pkc1p to sites of polarized growth.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P D; Stark, M J

    2000-08-01

    In eukaryotes, the Rho GTPases and their effectors are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking and secretion, cell growth, cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. Budding yeast Pkc1p, a protein kinase C-like enzyme involved in cell wall biosynthesis and cytoskeletal polarity, is structurally and functionally related to the Rho-associated kinases (PRK/ROCK) of mammalian cells. In this study, localization of Pkc1p was monitored in live cells using a GFP fusion (Pkc1p-GFP). Pkc1p-GFP showed dynamic spatial and temporal localization at sites of polarized growth. Early in the cell cycle, Pkc1p-GFP was found at the pre-bud site and bud tips, becoming delocalized as the cell progressed further and finally relocalizing around the mother-daughter bud neck in an incomplete ring, which persisted until cell separation. Bud localization was actin-dependent but stability of Pkc1p-GFP at the neck was actin-independent, although localization at both sites required functional Rho1p. In addition, Pkc1p-GFP showed rapid relocalization after cell wall damage. These results suggest that the roles of Pkc1p in both polarized growth and the response to cell wall stress are mediated by dynamic changes in its localization, and suggest an additional potential role in cytokinesis.

  14. Using Spontaneous Emission of a Qubit as a Resource for Feedback Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagne-Ibarcq, P.; Jezouin, S.; Cottet, N.; Six, P.; Bretheau, L.; Mallet, F.; Sarlette, A.; Rouchon, P.; Huard, B.

    2016-08-01

    Persistent control of a transmon qubit is performed by a feedback protocol based on continuous heterodyne measurement of its fluorescence. By driving the qubit and cavity with microwave signals whose amplitudes depend linearly on the instantaneous values of the quadratures of the measured fluorescence field, we show that it is possible to stabilize permanently the qubit in any targeted state. Using a Josephson mixer as a phase-preserving amplifier, it was possible to reach a total measurement efficiency η =35 %, leading to a maximum of 59% of excitation and 44% of coherence for the stabilized states. The experiment demonstrates multiple-input multiple-output analog Markovian feedback in the quantum regime.

  15. Orientation Dependent Polarized Micro-XAS Study of U, Th and Sr in Single Crystal Apatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Rakovan, J.; Wright, S.

    2009-05-01

    also allows evaluation of possible orientation dependence on the U absorption edge position in our samples. In this study, we found orientation has strong effects on U, Th, and Sr EXAFS we measured in all of our apatite single crystals. After taking account of polarization effects, results from EXAFS suggest that U and Th substitute dominantly into Ca1 site in fluorapatite, whereas U and Th are essentially equally distributed between Ca1 and Ca2 site in chlorapatite. We also tested the possibility of orientation dependence on the U absorption edge position in our sample and found no observable X-ray absorption pleochroism.

  16. Coherent optical transition radiation and self-amplified spontaneous emission generated by chicane-compressed electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Dejus, R.J.; Sereno, N.S.; /Argonne

    2009-02-01

    Observations of strongly enhanced optical transition radiation (OTR) following significant bunch compression of photoinjector beams by a chicane have been reported during the commissioning of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) accelerator and recently at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. These localized transverse spatial features involve signal enhancements of nearly a factor of 10 and 100 in the APS case at the 150-MeV and 375-MeV OTR stations, respectively. They are consistent with a coherent process seeded by noise and may be evidence of a longitudinal space charge (LSC) microbunching instability which leads to coherent OTR (COTR) emissions. Additionally, we suggest that localized transverse structure in the previous self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) data at APS in the visible-UV regime as reported at FEL02 may be attributed to such beam structure entering the FEL undulators and inducing the SASE startup at those structures. Separate beam structures 120 microns apart in x and 2.9 nm apart in wavelength were reported. The details of these observations and operational parameters will be presented.

  17. Low Threshold Two-Photon-Pumped Amplified Spontaneous Emission in CH3NH3PbBr3 Microdisks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Mao, Xin; Yang, Songqiu; Li, Yajuan; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Meishan; Deng, Weiqiao; Han, Keli

    2016-08-01

    Two-photon-pumped amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of CH3NH3PbBr3 microdisks (MDs) were investigated by using femtosecond laser system. Low threshold at 2.2 mJ cm(-2) was obtained. Also, emission spectral tunability from 500 to 570 nm was demonstrated by synthesis the mixed halide perovskite MDs. The spatial effect of photoluminescence (PL) properties under one-photon and two-photon excitation were also studied by means of two-photon laser scanning microscope (TPLSM) and time-resolved PL spectroscopy. It was found that the band to band emission of near-surface regions and photocarriers' diffusion from near-surface regions to interior regions is significant for one-photon excitation. By contrast, reabsorption of emission under two-photon excitation plays a major role in the emission properties of the MDs. These results will give a more comprehensive understanding of the nonlinear effect of CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals.

  18. Using Spontaneous Emission of a Qubit as a Resource for Feedback Control.

    PubMed

    Campagne-Ibarcq, P; Jezouin, S; Cottet, N; Six, P; Bretheau, L; Mallet, F; Sarlette, A; Rouchon, P; Huard, B

    2016-08-01

    Persistent control of a transmon qubit is performed by a feedback protocol based on continuous heterodyne measurement of its fluorescence. By driving the qubit and cavity with microwave signals whose amplitudes depend linearly on the instantaneous values of the quadratures of the measured fluorescence field, we show that it is possible to stabilize permanently the qubit in any targeted state. Using a Josephson mixer as a phase-preserving amplifier, it was possible to reach a total measurement efficiency η=35%, leading to a maximum of 59% of excitation and 44% of coherence for the stabilized states. The experiment demonstrates multiple-input multiple-output analog Markovian feedback in the quantum regime. PMID:27541448

  19. Characterization of temperature-dependent birefringence in polarization maintaining fibers based on Brillouin dynamic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Hyun; Song, Kwang Yong

    2015-07-01

    Temperature dependence of birefringence in various types of polarization-maintaining fibers (PMF's) is rigorously investigated by the spectral analysis of Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG). PANDA, Bowtie, and PM photonic crystal fibers are tested in the temperature range of -30 to 150 ºC, where nonlinear temperature dependence is quantified for each fiber to an accuracy of ±7.6 × 10-8. It is observed that the amount of deviation from the linearity varies according to the structural parameters of the PMF's and the existence of acrylate jacket. Experimental confirmation of the validity of the BDG-based birefringence measurement is also presented in comparison to the periodic lateral force method.

  20. Nonlinear temperature dependence of glue-induced birefringence in polarization maintaining FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopf, Barbara; Koch, Alexander W.; Roths, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Glue-induced stresses decrease the accuracy of surface-mounted fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). Significant temperature dependent glue-induced birefringence was verified when a thermally cured epoxy-based bonding technique had been used. Determining the peak separation of two azimuthally aligned FBGs in PM fibers combined with a polarization resolved measurement set-up in a temperature range between -30°C and 150°C revealed high glue-induced stresses at low temperatures. Peak separations of about 60 pm and a nonlinear temperature dependence of the glue-induced birefringence due to stress relaxation processes and a visco-elastic behavior of the used adhesive have been shown.

  1. The magnetic field dependence of cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic angle spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Mance, Deni; Baldus, Marc; Gast, Peter; Huber, Martina; Ivanov, Konstantin L.

    2015-06-21

    We develop a theoretical description of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) in solids under Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) to describe the magnetic field dependence of the DNP effect. The treatment is based on an efficient scheme for numerical solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation, which explicitly takes into account the variation of magnetic interactions during the sample spinning. The dependence of the cross-effect MAS-DNP on various parameters, such as the hyperfine interaction, electron-electron dipolar interaction, microwave field strength, and electron spin relaxation rates, is analyzed. Electron spin relaxation rates are determined by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements, and calculations are compared to experimental data. Our results suggest that the observed nuclear magnetic resonance signal enhancements provided by MAS-DNP can be explained by discriminating between “bulk” and “core” nuclei and by taking into account the slow DNP build-up rate for the bulk nuclei.

  2. Polarization dependence of nonlinear wave mixing of spinor polaritons in semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Przemyslaw; Lafont, Ombline; Baudin, Emmanuel; Chan, Chris K. P.; Leung, P. T.; Luk, Samuel M. H.; Galopin, Elisabeth; Lemaître, Aristide; Bloch, Jacqueline; Tignon, Jerome; Roussignol, Philippe; Kwong, N. H.; Binder, Rolf; Schumacher, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The pseudospin dynamics of propagating exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities are known to be strongly influenced by TE-TM splitting. As a vivid consequence, in the Rayleigh scattering regime, the TE-TM splitting gives rise to the optical spin Hall effect (OSHE). Much less is known about its role in the nonlinear optical regime in which four-wave mixing, for example, allows the formation of spatial patterns in the polariton density, such that hexagons and two-spot patterns are observable in the far field. Here we present a detailed analysis of spin-dependent four-wave mixing processes, by combining the (linear) physics of TE-TM splitting with spin-dependent nonlinear processes, i.e., exciton-exciton interaction and fermionic phase-space filling. Our combined theoretical and experimental study elucidates the complex physics of the four-wave mixing processes that govern polarization and orientation of off-axis modes.

  3. Size-dependent static bending and free vibration of 0–3 polarized PLZT microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shijie; Li, Zongjun; Chen, Ming; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, analytical solutions for size-dependent static bending and free vibration of a pure 0–3 polarized PbLaZrTi (PLZT) cantilever are developed. This paper also makes the first attempt to investigate the static bending of a cantilever metal beam bonded with discretized 0–3 polarized PLZT actuator based on the modified couple stress theory and composite laminated beam theory. These models involve an internal material length scale parameter used to capture the size effect. In the limit when the internal material length scale parameter goes to zero, this model reduces to classical (local) solutions available in the literature. Exact solutions for the normalized static deflection are obtained as a function of the actuator thickness and the internal material length scale parameter. The simulations show that the size-dependent results developed by the present models have a remarkable difference with those got by the classical solutions when the ratio of the actuator thickness to the internal material length scale parameter is small. It is also observed that an increase in the stiffness parameter of the substrate beam gives rise to an increase in the effect of the material length scale parameter on tip deflections of the cantilever metal beam.

  4. Polarization dependence of phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry and its suppression method based on orthogonal-state of polarization pulse pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yixin; Xu, Yemian; Shan, Yuanyuan; Sun, Zhenhong; Zhu, Fan; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-07-01

    Phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) has been widely used in various applications for its distributed measurement capability of dynamic disturbance along the entire sensing fiber. Commonly, the sensing system is considered to be only sensitive to the phase change and capable of detecting multiple vibration events. In application, once any of the vibration events leads to a local birefringence change, the polarization evolution of the signal will be disturbed along the following fiber, which will result in the generation of polarization-related noise and the failure of identification for multipoint vibration events. We will reveal the polarization-dependence of Φ-OTDR both theoretically and experimentally. To suppress the polarization-dependence of Φ-OTDR, an orthogonal-state of polarization pulse pair method has been proposed, making the sensing system purely phase-sensitive. The experiment result has shown that maximum noise suppression ratio of 11.2 dB and mean noise suppression ratio of 4.9 dB could be achieved, which confirmed the validity of the proposed method.

  5. Determining the average path length of amplified spontaneous emission in a four-level laser near the 1/3 mode-degeneracy cavity configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching-Hsu; Lu, Ming-Lun; Tai, Po-Tse

    2015-08-01

    We determine the average path length ls of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) by comparing the numerical slope of a straight line with the experimental slope in the graph of the square of relaxation oscillation frequency versus normalized pump ratio. The simple method is applied in an end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with the 1/3 mode-degeneracy cavity having the transverse mode spacing equal to 1/3 of the longitudinal mode spacing. We find that ls is larger at the degeneracy than that far from the degeneracy. This result indicates the existence of stronger ASE at the degeneracy, which is confirmed below the threshold. This is because many spontaneous emission photons can undergo amplification not only before escaping from the gain medium but also after leaving the gain medium, owing to cavity reflection. Our method can be applied in the situations where the Auger upconversion effect is absent, weak, or well-known.

  6. GBT Detection of Polarization-Dependent HI Absorption and HI Outflows in Local ULIRGs and Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a 21-cm HI survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study (QUEST) sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L(sub 8 - 1000 micron) > 10(exp 12) solar L) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of HI absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with HI detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km/s in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent HI absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground HI clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the approx 10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into "mature" radio galaxies.

  7. Polarization-Dependent Measurements of Molecular Super Rotors with Oriented Angular Momenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Matthew J.; Toro, Carlos; Liu, Qingnan; Mullin, Amy S.

    2014-05-01

    Controlling molecular motion would enable manipulation of energy flow between molecules. Here we have used an optical centrifuge to investigate energy transfer between molecular super rotors with oriented angular momenta. The polarizable electron cloud of the molecules interacts with the electric field of linearly polarized light that angularly accelerates over the time of the optical pulse. This process drives molecules into high angular momentum states that are oriented with the optical field and have energies far from equilibrium. High resolution transient IR spectroscopy reveals the dynamics of collisional energy transfer for these super excited rotors. The results of this study leads to a more fundamental understanding of energy balance in non-equilibrium environments and the physical and chemical properties of gases in a new regime of energy states. Results will be presented for several super rotor species including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acetylene. Polarization-dependent measurements reveal the extent to which the super rotors maintain spatial orientation of high angular momentum states.

  8. Characterization of cosmic rays and direction dependence in the Polar Region up to 88 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zábori, Balázs; Hirn, Attila; Deme, Sándor; Apáthy, István; Pázmándi, Tamás

    2016-02-01

    Aims: The sounding rocket experiment REM-RED was developed to operate on board the REXUS-17 rocket in order to measure the intensity of cosmic rays. The experiment was launched from the ESRANGE Space Center (68 °N, 21 °E) on the 17th of March 2015 at the beginning of the most intense geomagnetic storm within the preceding 10 years. The experiment provided the opportunity to measure the intensity of cosmic rays in the Polar Region up to an altitude of 88 km above sea level. Methods: The experiment employed Geiger-Müller (GM) counters oriented with their axes perpendicular to each other in order to measure the cosmic ray intensity during the flight of the rocket. This measurement setup allowed performing direction-sensitive measurements as well. During the ascent phase the rocket was spinning and hence stabilized along its longitudinal axis looking close to the zenith direction. This phase of the flight was used for studying the direction dependence of the charged particle component of the cosmic rays. Results: In comparison with earlier, similar rocket experiments performed with GM tubes at lower geomagnetic latitudes, significantly higher cosmic radiation flux was measured above 50 km. A non-isotropic behavior was found below 50 km and described in detail for the first time in the Polar Region. This behavior is in good agreement with the results of the TECHDOSE experiment that used the same type of GM tubes on board the BEXUS-14 stratospheric balloon.

  9. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    DOE PAGES

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2015-12-28

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarizationmore » as well as atmospheric conditions. Additionally, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. In polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, it the rectifying ability of Mg: LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity is demonstrated.« less

  10. Tunable multiwavelength mode-locked fiber laser using intra-cavity polarization and wavelength dependent loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Ankita; Chandra, Nishanth; Anchal, Abhishek; Kumar K, Pradeep

    2016-09-01

    We report a tunable multiwavelength mode-locked fiber ring laser in C-band. Multiwavelength characteristic and tuning of laser wavelengths is achieved by inducing polarization and wavelength dependent loss in the cavity by using a combination of two polarization controllers (PCs) and an intensity modulator, inserted between the two PCs. With this technique we obtained pulses of 14 ps (FWHM) at a repetition rate of 10 GHz by actively mode-locking the laser. We obtained simultaneous lasing of 5 wavelengths with 3-dB spectral width of 0.2 nm for each lasing wavelength. We measured short-term stability of the pulses and corresponding spectra by continuously collecting time and spectral domain data for 600 s, sampled at an interval of 20 s. The pulsewidth was measured to be stable to within ±732 fs and peak power fluctuations were within ±0.16 mW. For simultaneous lasing of two wavelengths, the linewidth was found to be stable within ±0.07 nm with a peak power fluctuation of ±1 dB.

  11. Local time dependence of polar mesospheric clouds and model validation with satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Francie; Berger, Uwe; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2016-04-01

    Polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs), also known as noctilucent clouds (NLCs), consist of water-ice cystals. They occur at high latitudes in the summer mesopause region at very low temperatures below 150 K. In this case PMCs are highly sensitive to atmospheric conditions. Therefore, PMCs are thought to be sensitive indicators of climate changes in the middle atmosphere. The ice clouds show spatial and temporal variations. We present a model that can help to understand the variability of mesospheric clouds. The model is called Mesospheric Ice Microphysics And tranSport model (MIMAS) and is a threedimensional Lagrangian transport model, which can be used on multiple dynamic fields. MIMAS is a good instrument to check observations and also to fill some gaps that are included in satellite observations, e.g., the local time dependence of PMCs. The ice model is used to study local time dependencies of the PMC occurrence frequency, brightness and ice water content. At the station ALOMAR in Northern Norway (69°N, 16°E) we have the most ice water content with a total mean of around 90 g/km² (July 2008) in the morning hours. In the afternoons the ice water content decreases to 10 g/km² and increases again in the evening hours to 50 g/km². Tidal variability will impact results of long-term PMC observations which do not cover the full diurnal cycle. To investigate the local time dependence of PMCs in its entirety, ground-based remote sensing instruments, e.g., lidars are usefull. Variations in PMCs relating to occurrence frequency and brightness as function of local time had been already observed with the ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar. But lidar measurements offer only observations at a single local station. Models give the opportunity of a global perspective on a possible local time dependence of PMCs. In this context we will present latitudinal variations regarding to local time dependence. The combination of further observations and modeling studies can help to understand

  12. Broad-band linear polarization in cool stars. II - Amplitude and wavelength dependence for magnetic and scattering regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, Steven H.; Huovelin, Juhani

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a model to estimate the amplitude and wavelength dependence of broad-band linear polarization (BLP) from magnetic regions on cool stars. The model includes corrections both for line blends and for the partial cancellation of polarization in the vector sum over the stellar disk. Our results agree with recent calculations of BLP in the red, but show larger amplitudes and a different wavelength dependence in the blue. We find that the detailed wavelength dependence of the polarization is complex and varies with effective temperature and gravity due to changes in line blanketing. The BLP amplitudes depend strongly on field strength, blanketing, and magnetic region filling factor and geometry. We make rough estimates of the maximum BLP for stars of various spectral types and demonstrate a method for deriving a lower limit to the filling factor from the maximum observed BLP. This lower limit is related to the fractional area covered by the spatially asymmetric component of magnetic regions.

  13. The polarization dependence of γγ absorption—implications for γ-ray bursts and blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Böttcher, M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the dependence of the opacity for high-energy γ-rays to γγ absorption by low-energy photons on the polarization of the γ-ray and target photons. This process has so far only been considered using the polarization-averaged γγ absorption cross section. It is demonstrated that in the case of polarized γ-ray emission, subject to source-intrinsic γγ absorption by polarized target photons, this may lead to a slight overestimation of the γγ opacity by up to ∼10% in the case of a perfectly ordered magnetic field. Thus, for realistic astrophysical scenarios with partially ordered magnetic fields, the use of the polarization-averaged γγ cross section is justified for practical purposes, such as estimates of minimum Doppler factors inferred for γ-ray bursts and blazars, based on γγ transparency arguments; this paper quantifies the small error incurred by the unpolarized-radiation approximation. Furthermore, it is shown that polarization-dependent γγ absorption of initially polarized γ-rays can lead to a slight increase in the polarization beyond the spectral break caused by γγ absorption. This amount is distinctly different from the change in polarization expected if the same spectral break were produced by a break in the underlying electron distribution. This may serve as a diagnostic of whether γγ absorption is relevant in sources such as γ-ray bursts and blazars where the γ-ray emission may be intrinsically highly polarized.

  14. Polarization dependent extinction coefficients of superparamagnetic colloids in transverse and longitudinal configurations of magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, R. V.

    2013-05-01

    We review here, our work on the light scattering by ferrofluids and mixture of ferrofluids and other nonmagnetic suspensions subjected to an external static magnetic field. Detailed derivation of extinction coefficients of the systems when incident light is propagating along transverse and longitudinal direction of the field are carried out. In case of inclusion of anisotropic diamagnetic micron sized particles in a ferrofluids, effects of'magnetic holes' generated in the system on the extinction are discussed. The present work is analyzed in light of other similar investigations. It is shown that the study of polarization dependence of extinction coefficients in transverse field configuration is useful to arrive at an unambiguous conclusion regarding chain formation in a ferrofluid.

  15. Magnetic skin layer of NiO(100) probed by polarization-dependent spectromicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Suman Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.; Maccherozzi, Francesco

    2014-06-16

    Using polarization-dependent x-ray photoemission electron microscopy, we have investigated the surface effects on antiferromagnetic (AFM) domain formation. Depth-resolved information obtained from our study indicates the presence of strain-induced surface AFM domains on some of the cleaved NiO(100) crystals, which are unusually thinner than bulk AFM domain wall widths (∼150 nm). Existence of such magnetic skin layer is substantiated by exchange-coupled ferromagnetic Fe domains in Fe/NiO(100), thereby evidencing the influence of this surface AFM domains on interfacial magnetic coupling. Our observations demonstrate a depth evolution of AFM structure in presence of induced surface strain, while the surface symmetry-breaking in absence of induced strain does not modify the bulk AFM domain structure. Realization of such thin surface AFM layer will provide better microscopic understanding of the exchange bias phenomena.

  16. Polarization-dependent fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for studying structural properties of proteins in living cell

    PubMed Central

    Oura, Makoto; Yamamoto, Johtaro; Ishikawa, Hideto; Mikuni, Shintaro; Fukushima, Ryousuke; Kinjo, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Rotational diffusion measurement is predicted as an important method in cell biology because the rotational properties directly reflect molecular interactions and environment in the cell. To prove this concept, polarization-dependent fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (pol-FCS) measurements of purified fluorescent proteins were conducted in viscous solution. With the comparison between the translational and rotational diffusion coefficients obtained from pol-FCS measurements, the hydrodynamic radius of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was estimated as a control measurement. The orientation of oligomer EGFP in living cells was also estimated by pol-FCS and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The results of this pol-FCS experiment indicate that this method allows an estimation of the molecular orientation using the characteristics of rotational diffusion. Further, it can be applied to analyze the degree of molecular orientation and multimerization or detection of tiny aggregation of aggregate-prone proteins. PMID:27489044

  17. Concentration-dependent Diversification Effects of Free Cholesterol Loading on Macrophage Viability and Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ningjun; Li, Pin-Lan; Zhang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of free cholesterol in atherosclerotic lesions has been well documented in both animals and humans. In studying the relevance of free cholesterol buildup in atherosclerosis, contradictory results have been generated, indicating that free cholesterol produces both pro- and anti-atherosclerosis effects in macrophages. This inconsistency might stem from the examination of only select concentrations of free cholesterol. In the present study, we sought to investigate the implication of excess free cholesterol loading in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis across a broad concentration range from (in μg/ml) 0 to 60. Macrophage metabolite measurements and viable cell counting showed that the cell viability increased at lower concentrations of free cholesterol from (in μg/ml) 0 to 20, but gradually decreased at higher concentrations from 20 to 60. FACS (Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting) found that lower free cholesterol loading induced anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage polarization. The activation of the PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma) nuclear factor underscored the stimulation of this M2 phenotype. Nevertheless, higher levels of free cholesterol resulted in pro-inflammatory M1 activation. Moreover, with the application of higher free cholesterol concentrations, macrophage apoptosis and secretion of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β (Interleukin-1 beta) increased significantly as determined by flow cytometry and ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) assay, respectively. These results for the first time have demonstrated that free cholesterol could render concentration-dependent diversification effects on macrophage viability, polarization, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine secretions, thereby reconciling the pros and cons of free cholesterol buildup in atherosclerosis. Understanding these concentration-dependent effects of cholesterol on atherosclerosis will facilitate the development of a free cholesterol-based therapy

  18. Inflammation-induced up-regulation of hepcidin and down-regulation of ferroportin transcription are dependent on macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Agoro, Rafiou; Mura, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Iron is essential in all organisms. In mammals systemic iron homeostasis relies on hepcidin, a peptide hormone with defensin properties, and its target, the cell iron exporter ferroportin. Hepcidin and ferroportin transcription are both upregulated by high iron levels, but are inversely regulated upon inflammation, leading to hypoferremia. Thus, host iron genes regulation may affect the innate immune responses against infectious microorganisms. Since macrophages, which are crucial innate immune cells, express both hepcidin and ferroportin, we explored in these cells their transcriptional regulation upon inflammation which is not completely understood. Macrophages represent an heterogenous population of immune cells resulting from cytokine and pathogen sensing, indeed macrophages polarized especially into pro-inflammatory M1 and regulatory/anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. We found that hepcidin mRNA upregulation depends on M1 polarization and ferroportin mRNA downregulation depends on M2 subtype polarization. All TLR agonists, except TLR2 agonist, polarize to pro-inflammatory macrophages and upregulate hepcidin mRNA expression. Cell pretreatment with IFNγ or inhibitor of PI3K, p38-MAPK and NF-κB pathway involved in M1 polarization prior TLR4 activation, enhanced hepcidin upregulation. Conversely, ferroportin mRNA downregulation upon inflammation was strongly increased by macrophage polarization through TLR2- and 4-PI3K-dependent pathways, or through IL-1β and TNFα priming prior to LPS activation. PMID:27667162

  19. Inflammation-induced up-regulation of hepcidin and down-regulation of ferroportin transcription are dependent on macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Agoro, Rafiou; Mura, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Iron is essential in all organisms. In mammals systemic iron homeostasis relies on hepcidin, a peptide hormone with defensin properties, and its target, the cell iron exporter ferroportin. Hepcidin and ferroportin transcription are both upregulated by high iron levels, but are inversely regulated upon inflammation, leading to hypoferremia. Thus, host iron genes regulation may affect the innate immune responses against infectious microorganisms. Since macrophages, which are crucial innate immune cells, express both hepcidin and ferroportin, we explored in these cells their transcriptional regulation upon inflammation which is not completely understood. Macrophages represent an heterogenous population of immune cells resulting from cytokine and pathogen sensing, indeed macrophages polarized especially into pro-inflammatory M1 and regulatory/anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. We found that hepcidin mRNA upregulation depends on M1 polarization and ferroportin mRNA downregulation depends on M2 subtype polarization. All TLR agonists, except TLR2 agonist, polarize to pro-inflammatory macrophages and upregulate hepcidin mRNA expression. Cell pretreatment with IFNγ or inhibitor of PI3K, p38-MAPK and NF-κB pathway involved in M1 polarization prior TLR4 activation, enhanced hepcidin upregulation. Conversely, ferroportin mRNA downregulation upon inflammation was strongly increased by macrophage polarization through TLR2- and 4-PI3K-dependent pathways, or through IL-1β and TNFα priming prior to LPS activation.

  20. Live imaging of GLUT2 glucose-dependent trafficking and its inhibition in polarized epithelial cysts.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Merav; Kitsberg, Daniel; Tsytkin, Sabina; Shulman, Maria; Aroeti, Benjamin; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2014-07-01

    GLUT2 is a facilitative glucose transporter, expressed in polarized epithelial cells of the liver, intestine, kidney and pancreas, where it plays a critical role in glucose homeostasis. Together with SGLT1/2, it mediates glucose absorption in metabolic epithelial tissues, where it can be translocated apically upon high glucose exposure. To track the subcellular localization and dynamics of GLUT2, we created an mCherry-hGLUT2 fusion protein and expressed it in multicellular kidney cysts, a major site of glucose reabsorption. Live imaging of GLUT2 enabled us to avoid the artefactual localization of GLUT2 in fixed cells and to confirm the apical GLUT2 model. Live cell imaging showed a rapid 15 ± 3 min PKC-dependent basal-to-apical translocation of GLUT2 in response to glucose stimulation and a fourfold slower basolateral translocation under starvation. These results mark the physiological importance of responding quickly to rising glucose levels. Importantly, we show that phloretin, an apple polyphenol, inhibits GLUT2 translocation in both directions, suggesting that it exerts its effect by PKC inhibition. Subcellular localization studies demonstrated that GLUT2 is endocytosed through a caveolae-dependent mechanism, and that it is at least partly recovered in Rab11A-positive recycling endosome. Our work illuminates GLUT2 dynamics, providing a platform for drug development for diabetes and hyperglycaemia. PMID:25056286

  1. Lipid-dependent Bidirectional Traffic of Apolipoprotein B in Polarized Enterocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Etienne; Demignot, Sylvie; Chateau, Danielle; Chambaz, Jean; Rousset, Monique; Delers, François

    2004-01-01

    Enterocytes are highly polarized cells that transfer nutrients across the intestinal epithelium from the apical to the basolateral pole. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a secretory protein that plays a key role in the transepithelial transport of dietary fatty acids as triacylglycerol. The evaluation of the control of apoB traffic by lipids is therefore of particular interest. To get a dynamic insight into this process, we used the enterocytic Caco-2 cells cultured on microporous filters, a system in which the apical and basal compartments can be delimited. Combining biochemical and morphological approaches, our results showed that, besides their role in protection from degradation, lipids control the intracellular traffic of apoB in enterocytes. A supply of fatty acids and cholesterol is sufficient for the export of apoB from the endoplasmic reticulum and its post-Golgi traffic up to the apical brush-border domain, where it remains until an apical supply of complex lipid micelles signals its chase down to the basolateral secretory domain. This downward traffic of apoB involves a microtubule-dependent process. Our results demonstrate an enterocyte-specific bidirectional process for the lipid-dependent traffic of a secretory protein. PMID:14565984

  2. Live imaging of GLUT2 glucose-dependent trafficking and its inhibition in polarized epithelial cysts.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Merav; Kitsberg, Daniel; Tsytkin, Sabina; Shulman, Maria; Aroeti, Benjamin; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2014-07-01

    GLUT2 is a facilitative glucose transporter, expressed in polarized epithelial cells of the liver, intestine, kidney and pancreas, where it plays a critical role in glucose homeostasis. Together with SGLT1/2, it mediates glucose absorption in metabolic epithelial tissues, where it can be translocated apically upon high glucose exposure. To track the subcellular localization and dynamics of GLUT2, we created an mCherry-hGLUT2 fusion protein and expressed it in multicellular kidney cysts, a major site of glucose reabsorption. Live imaging of GLUT2 enabled us to avoid the artefactual localization of GLUT2 in fixed cells and to confirm the apical GLUT2 model. Live cell imaging showed a rapid 15 ± 3 min PKC-dependent basal-to-apical translocation of GLUT2 in response to glucose stimulation and a fourfold slower basolateral translocation under starvation. These results mark the physiological importance of responding quickly to rising glucose levels. Importantly, we show that phloretin, an apple polyphenol, inhibits GLUT2 translocation in both directions, suggesting that it exerts its effect by PKC inhibition. Subcellular localization studies demonstrated that GLUT2 is endocytosed through a caveolae-dependent mechanism, and that it is at least partly recovered in Rab11A-positive recycling endosome. Our work illuminates GLUT2 dynamics, providing a platform for drug development for diabetes and hyperglycaemia.

  3. A wide-angle broadband polarization-dependent absorber with stacked metal-dielectric grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Yan

    2016-07-01

    We report an absorber in the mid-infrared regime by using stacked metal-dielectric grating structure. The simulation results show that the minimal absorption magnitude is larger than 0.8 in the broadband range for angles up to 60° for TM polarization (magnetic field is parallel to grating grooves). At the same time, absorption for TE polarization (electric field is parallel to grating grooves) is negligible. Furthermore, such broadband absorption for TM polarization can be tuned by shrinking or enlarging the grating parameters. This absorber is a good candidate for potential applications such as polarization detectors and polarizers.

  4. Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetization at the interfacesof highly spin-polarized manganite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-08-18

    We have probed the nature of magnetism at the surface of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films. The spin polarization of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films is not intrinsically suppressed at all surfaces and interfaces but is highly sensitive to both the epitaxial strain state as well as the substrate orientation. Through the use of soft x-ray spectroscopy, the magnetic properties of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces have been investigated and compared to bulk magnetometry and resistivity measurements. The magnetization of (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces are more bulk-like as a function of thickness whereas the magnetization at the (001)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface is suppressed significantly below a layer thickness of 20 nm. Such findings are correlated with the biaxial strain state of the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films; for a given film thickness it is the tetragonal distortion of (001) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} that severely impacts the magnetization, whereas the trigonal distortion for (111)-oriented films and monoclinic distortion for (110)-oriented films have less of an impact. These observations provide evidence that surface magnetization and thus spin polarization depends strongly on the crystal surface orientation as well as epitaxial strain.

  5. Prickle isoforms control the direction of tissue polarity by microtubule independent and dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Katherine A; Axelrod, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Planar cell polarity signaling directs the polarization of cells within the plane of many epithelia. While these tissues exhibit asymmetric localization of a set of core module proteins, in Drosophila, more than one mechanism links the direction of core module polarization to the tissue axes. One signaling system establishes a polarity bias in the parallel, apical microtubules upon which vesicles containing core proteins traffic. Swapping expression of the differentially expressed Prickle isoforms, Prickle and Spiny-legs, reverses the direction of core module polarization. Studies in the proximal wing and the anterior abdomen indicated that this results from their differential control of microtubule polarity. Prickle and Spiny-legs also control the direction of polarization in the distal wing (D-wing) and the posterior abdomen (P-abd). We report here that this occurs without affecting microtubule polarity in these tissues. The direction of polarity in the D-wing is therefore likely determined by a novel mechanism independent of microtubule polarity. In the P-abd, Prickle and Spiny-legs interpret at least two directional cues through a microtubule-polarity-independent mechanism.

  6. Prickle isoforms control the direction of tissue polarity by microtubule independent and dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Katherine A.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Planar cell polarity signaling directs the polarization of cells within the plane of many epithelia. While these tissues exhibit asymmetric localization of a set of core module proteins, in Drosophila, more than one mechanism links the direction of core module polarization to the tissue axes. One signaling system establishes a polarity bias in the parallel, apical microtubules upon which vesicles containing core proteins traffic. Swapping expression of the differentially expressed Prickle isoforms, Prickle and Spiny-legs, reverses the direction of core module polarization. Studies in the proximal wing and the anterior abdomen indicated that this results from their differential control of microtubule polarity. Prickle and Spiny-legs also control the direction of polarization in the distal wing (D-wing) and the posterior abdomen (P-abd). We report here that this occurs without affecting microtubule polarity in these tissues. The direction of polarity in the D-wing is therefore likely determined by a novel mechanism independent of microtubule polarity. In the P-abd, Prickle and Spiny-legs interpret at least two directional cues through a microtubule-polarity-independent mechanism. PMID:26863941

  7. Self-amplified spontaneous emission saturation at the Advanced Photon Source free-electron laser (abstract) (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moog, E. R.; Milton, S. V.; Arnold, N. D.; Benson, C.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.-C.; Dejus, R. J.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Gluskin, E.; Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.; Lewellen, J. W.; Li, Y.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O.; Nassiri, A.; Sajaev, V.; Soliday, R.; Tieman, B. J.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Travish, G.; Vasserman, I. B.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Wiemerslage, G.; Yang, B. X.

    2002-03-01

    Today, many bright photon beams in the ultraviolet and x-ray wavelength range are produced by insertion devices installed in specially designed third-generation storage rings. There is the possibility of producing photon beams that are orders of magnitude brighter than presently achieved at synchrotron sources, by using self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) free-electron laser (FEL) project was built to explore the SASE process in the visible through vacuum ultraviolet wavelength range. While the understanding gained in these experiments will guide future work to extend SASE FELs to shorter wavelengths, the APS FEL itself will become a continuously tunable, bright light source. Measurements of the SASE process to saturation have been made at 530 and 385 nm. A number of quantities were measured to confirm our understanding of the SASE process and to verify that saturation was reached. The intensity of the FEL light was measured versus distance along the FEL, and was found to flatten out at saturation. The statistical variation of the light intensity was found to be wide in the exponential gain region where the intensity is expected to be noisy, and narrower once saturation was reached. Absolute power measurements compare well with GINGER simulations. The FEL light spectrum at different distances along the undulator line was measured with a high-resolution spectrometer, and the many sharp spectral spikes at the beginning of the SASE process coalesce into a single peak at saturation. The energy spread in the electron beam widens markedly after saturation due to the number of electrons that transfer a significant amount of energy to the photon beam. Coherent transition radiation measurements of the electron beam as it strikes a foil provide additional confirmation of the microbunching of the electron beam. The quantities measured confirm that saturation was indeed reached. Details are

  8. Crystal fields of porphyrins and phthalocyanines from polarization-dependent 2p-to-3d multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Phillip S.; Boukahil, Idris; Himpsel, F. J.; García-Lastra, J. M.; Kennedy, Colton K.; Jersett, Nathan J.; Cook, Peter L.

    2014-03-21

    Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy is combined with density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations to determine the crystal field parameters 10Dq, Ds, and Dt of transition metal phthalocyanines and octaethylporphyrins (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni). The polarization dependence facilitates the assignment of the multiplets in terms of in-plane and out-of-plane orbitals and avoids ambiguities. Crystal field values from density functional calculations provide starting values close to the optimum fit of the data. The resulting systematics of the crystal field can be used for optimizing electron-hole separation in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  9. Polarity dependence of the electrical characteristics of Ag reflectors for high-power GaN-based light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Seong; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Han, Jaecheon; Ha, Jun-Seok

    2014-04-28

    We report on the polarity dependence of the electrical properties of Ag reflectors for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes. The (0001) c-plane samples become ohmic after annealing in air. However, the (11–22) semi-polar samples are non-ohmic after annealing, although the 300 °C-annealed sample shows the lowest contact resistivity. The X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the Ga 2p core level for the c-plane samples experiences larger shift toward the valence band than that for the semi-polar samples. The XPS depth profile results show that unlike the c-plane samples, the semi-polar samples contain some amounts of oxygen at the Ag/GaN interface regions. The outdiffusion of Ga atoms is far more significant in the c-plane samples than in the semi-polar samples, whereas the outdiffusion of N atoms is relatively less significant in the c-plane samples. On the basis of the electrical and XPS results, the polarity dependence of the electrical properties is described and discussed.

  10. Raman-amplification and polarization-dependence measurement in a methane Raman shifter seeded by a liquid Raman oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, Chun-Soo; Lee, Jai-Hyung; Chang, Joon-Sung

    1995-05-01

    We perform Raman amplification in a high-pressure methane cell seeded by a low-threshold liquid Raman oscillator. The Raman frequency of the oscillator medium, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), is tuned when it is mixed with water to fit the Raman frequency of methane. The Raman gain in this configuration is not so sensitive to the methane pressure, and the conversion efficiency is high. Using this configuration, we measure the polarization dependence of the Raman amplifier. An experiment is performed for three typical polarization states. Complete gain suppression is expected in some polarization states, but there is a little gain because of the incompleteness of the polarization state. Theoretically the results are analyzed when the x and the y components of the scattered waves are coupled.

  11. Polarization dependence of the direct two photon transitions of 87Rb atoms by erbium: Fiber laser frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shaoyang; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Zhao, Jianye; Zhou, Dawei; Wang, Qing; Yu, Qi; Li, Kunqian; Qi, Xianghui; Chen, Xuzong

    2016-11-01

    The femtosecond fiber-based optical frequency combs have been proved to be powerful tools for investigating the energy levels of atoms and molecules. In this paper, an Er-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb has been implemented for studying the polarization dependence of 5S-5D two-photon transitions in thermal gas of atomic rubidium 87 using an entirely symmetrical optical configuration. By changing the polarization states of the counter-propagating light beams, the polarization dependence of direct two photon transition spectrum is demonstrated, and a dramatic variation (up to 5.5 times) of the two-photon transitions strength has been observed. The theory for the polarization dependence of two photon transition based on the second-order perturbation was established, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The measurement results indicate that the polarization state manipulation with the existing frequency comb is used for femtosecond optical frequency comb based two photon transition spectroscopic purposes, which will improve the precision measurement of the absolute transition frequency and related applications.

  12. Cluster size dependence of double ionization energy spectra of spin-polarized aluminum and sodium clusters: All-electron spin-polarized GW+T -matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Yoshifumi; Ohno, Kaoru; Solovyev, Igor; Sasaki, Taizo

    2010-04-01

    The double ionization energy (DIE) spectra are calculated for the spin-polarized aluminum and sodium clusters by means of the all-electron spin-polarized GW+T -matrix method based on the many-body perturbation theory. Our method using the one- and two-particle Green’s functions enables us to determine the whole spectra at once in a single calculation. The smaller is the size of the cluster, the larger the difference between the minimal double ionization energy and the twice of the ionization potential. This is because the strong Coulomb repulsion between two holes becomes dominant in small confined geometry. Due to Pauli’s exclusion principle, the parallel spin DIE is close to or smaller than the antiparallel spin DIE except for Na4 that has well-separated highest and second highest occupied molecular-orbital levels calculated by the spin-dependent GW calculation. In this paper, we compare the results calculated for aluminum and sodium clusters and discuss the spin-polarized effect and the cluster size dependence of the resulting spectra in detail.

  13. On the IMF BY dependence on polar cap patch exits at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, J.; Hosokawa, K.; Gulbrandsen, N.

    2012-04-01

    Polar cap patches are islands of enhanced F-region electron density within the polar cap. They form near the cusp inflow region at day, transit the polar cap when frozen into twin-cell convection, and finally exit the polar cap at night into the night time auroras. When exiting they change status from patches to blobs. Monitoring the presence of F-region plasma structures and their travel path is essential in order to develop reliable space weather forecasts for the high latitude ionosphere in future. This paper presents a comprehensive study of a sequence of polar cap patches that exit the polar cap. Superimposing satellite images of the auroral oval and all-sky camera observations of airglow patches onto SuperDARN convection maps for an extended time period around magnetic midnight, provides an unparalleled opportunity to examine how plasma exits the polar cap. Under conditions of IMF BY predominantly positive (+5nT) we find that the patches exit both into the oval on the dusk cell pre midnight and on the dusk cell post midnight. This event study concurs with a statistical result also presented. The statistics show that the MLT distribution of patch exits, which is a ~10 hours broad bell shaped function cantered on ~23:30 MLT, is just marginally sensitive to the IMF BY polarity. This makes us conclude that the patches do not memorize on which cell they entered the polar cap.

  14. Tensor polarization dependent fragmentation functions and e+e-→V π X at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai-bao; Yang, Wei-hua; Wei, Shu-yi; Liang, Zuo-tang

    2016-08-01

    We present the systematic results for three-dimensional fragmentation functions of spin-1 hadrons defined via the quark-quark correlator. There are totally 72 such fragmentation functions, among them 18 are twist-2, 36 are twist-3 and 18 are twist-4. We also present the relationships between the twist-3 parts and those defined via the quark-gluon-quark correlator obtained from the QCD equation of motion. We show that the two particle semi-inclusive hadron production process e+e-→V π X at high energies is one of the best places to study the three-dimensional tensor polarization dependent fragmentation functions. We present the general kinematic analysis of this process and show that the cross section should be expressed in terms of 81 independent structure functions. After that we present parton model results for the hadronic tensor, the structure functions, and the azimuthal and spin asymmetries in terms of these gauge invariant fragmentation functions at the leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics up to twist-3.

  15. Effects of thermospheric motions on the polar wind: A time-dependent numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Gombosi, T.I.; Killeen, T.L. )

    1987-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study investigating the effects of low-altitude short-duration plasma heating episodes (such as horizontal frictional heating) on transient heavy ion outflows from the polar ionosphere using a time-dependent model. In a previous set of calculations, where the effects of high-altitude transient heat sources were investigated, the low-altitude neutral atmosphere (z < 800 km) acted as a very efficient heat sink, absorbing most of the energy conducted to this region and thus preventing large differences between the ion and neutral temperatures. On purpose of the present study was to investigate whether realistic, specified low-altitude frictional heating rates, based on published experimental data, can result in elevated ion temperatures and lift a part of the heavy ion population over the gravitational barrier before the extra energy is lost to the neutral atmosphere. In the model calculations the specified heating generated an upflowing O{sup +} disturbance (with a normalized peak flux of {approximately}10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}) moving upward along the open magnetic field line with a velocity of {approximately}2 km/s. The spatial extent of the disturbance was approximately equal to the disturbance velocity times the duration of the heat source. The model results provide a possible mechanism to explain recent European Incoherent Scatter observations of high-latitude O{sup +} upwellings.

  16. Vangl-dependent planar cell polarity signalling is not required for neural crest migration in mammals.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Sophie E; Massa, Valentina; Savery, Dawn; Andre, Philipp; Yang, Yingzi; Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    The role of planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling in neural crest (NC) development is unclear. The PCP dependence of NC cell migration has been reported in Xenopus and zebrafish, but NC migration has not been studied in mammalian PCP mutants. Vangl2(Lp/Lp) mouse embryos lack PCP signalling and undergo almost complete failure of neural tube closure. Here we show, however, that NC specification, migration and derivative formation occur normally in Vangl2(Lp/Lp) embryos. The gene family member Vangl1 was not expressed in NC nor ectopically expressed in Vangl2(Lp/Lp) embryos, and doubly homozygous Vangl1/Vangl2 mutants exhibited normal NC migration. Acute downregulation of Vangl2 in the NC lineage did not prevent NC migration. In vitro, Vangl2(Lp/Lp) neural tube explants generated emigrating NC cells, as in wild type. Hence, PCP signalling is not essential for NC migration in mammals, in contrast to its essential role in neural tube closure. PCP mutations are thus unlikely to mediate NC-related birth defects in humans.

  17. Effects of thermospheric motions on the polar wind - A time-dependent numerical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gombosi, T. I.; Killeen, T. L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study investigating the effects of low-altitude short-duration plasma heating episodes (such as horizontal frictional heating) on transient heavy ion outflows from the polar ionosphere using a time-dependent model. In a previous set of calculations, where the effects of high-altitude transient heat sources were investigated, the low-altitude neutral atmosphere (z less than 800 km) acted as a very efficient heat sink, absorbing most of the energy conducted to this region and thus preventing large differences between the ion and neutral temperatures. One purpose of the present study was to investigate whether realistic, specified low-altitude frictional heating rates, based on published experimental data, can result in elevated ion temperatures and lift a part of the heavy ion population over the gravitational barrier before the extra energy is lost to the neutral atmosphere. In these model calculations the specified heating generated an upflowing O(+) disturbance (with a normalized peak flux of about 100 million/sq cm per sec) moving upward along the open magnetic field line with a velocity of about 2 km/s. The spatial extent of the disturbance was approximately equal to the disturbance velocity times the duration of the heat source. The model results provide a possible mechanism to explain recent European Incoherent Scatter observations of high-latitude O(+) upwellings.

  18. Polarity-dependent effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    D'Urso, Giordano; Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Anastasia, Annalisa; Micillo, Marco; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Mantovani, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    About one third of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to experience significant clinical benefit from currently available treatments. Hyperactivity of the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) has been detected in OCD patients, but it is not clear whether it is the primary cause or a secondary compensatory mechanism in OCD pathophysiology. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with polarity-dependent effects on motor cortical excitability. A 33-year-old woman with treatment-resistant OCD received 20 daily consecutive 2 mA/20 min tDCS sessions with the active electrode placed on the pre-SMA, according to the 10-20 EEG system, and the reference electrode on the right deltoid. The first 10 sessions were anodal, while the last 10 were cathodal. Symptoms severity was assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) severity score. In the end of anodal stimulation, OCD symptoms had worsened. Subsequent cathodal stimulation induced a dramatic clinical improvement, which led to an overall 30% reduction in baseline symptoms severity score on the Y-BOCS. Our study supports the hypothesis that pre-SMA hyperfunction might be responsible for OCD symptoms and shows that cathodal inhibitory tDCS over this area might be an option when dealing with treatment-resistant OCD. PMID:25971992

  19. Retrieval of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Microphysical Properties from Lidar Measurements: Dependence on Particle Shape Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, J.; Reichardt, S.; Yang, P.; McGee, T. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A retrieval algorithm has been developed for the microphysical analysis of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) optical data obtained using lidar instrumentation. The parameterization scheme of the PSC microphysical properties allows for coexistence of up to three different particle types with size-dependent shapes. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method has been used to calculate optical properties of particles with maximum dimensions equal to or less than 2 mu m and with shapes that can be considered more representative of PSCs on the scale of individual crystals than the commonly assumed spheroids. Specifically. these are irregular and hexagonal crystals. Selection of the optical parameters that are input to the inversion algorithm is based on a potential data set such as that gathered by two of the lidars on board the NASA DC-8 during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 0 p (SAGE) Ozone Loss Validation experiment (SOLVE) campaign in winter 1999/2000: the Airborne Raman Ozone and Temperature Lidar (AROTEL) and the NASA Langley Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). The 0 microphysical retrieval algorithm has been applied to study how particle shape assumptions affect the inversion of lidar data measured in leewave PSCs. The model simulations show that under the assumption of spheroidal particle shapes, PSC surface and volume density are systematically smaller than the FDTD-based values by, respectively, approximately 10-30% and approximately 5-23%.

  20. Concentration Dependent Speciation and Mass Transport Properties of Switchable Polarity Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron D. Wilson; Christopher J. Orme

    2014-12-01

    Tertiary amine switchable polarity solvents (SPS) consisting of predominantly water, tertiary amine, and tertiary ammonium and bicarbonate ions were produced at various concentrations for three different amines: N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine, N,N-dimethyloctylamine, and 1 cyclohexylpiperidine. For all concentrations, physical properties were measured including viscosity, molecular diffusion coefficients, freezing point depression, and density. Based on these measurements a variation on the Mark Houwink equation was developed to predict the viscosity of any tertiary amine SPS as a function of concentration using the amine’s molecular mass. The observed physical properties allowed the identification of solution state speciation of non-osmotic SPS, where the amine to carbonic acid ratio is significantly greater than one. These results indicate that at most concentrations the stoichiometric excess amine is involved in solvating a proton with two amines. The physical properties of osmotic SPS have consistent concentration dependence behavior over a wide range of concentrations; this consistence suggests osmotic pressures based on low concentrations freezing point studies can be reliably extrapolated to higher concentrations.

  1. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  2. In situ growth and density-functional-theory study of polarity-dependent homo-epitaxial ZnO microwires

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Rui; Xu, Jun; Gao, Jingyun; Zhang, Jingmin; Zhu, Wenguang; Xu, Hongjun; Sun, Yanghui; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Li; Du, Dapeng

    2012-01-01

    Polarity-dependent homo-epitaxy on (0001)-Zn and (0001)-O surfaces of cleaved ZnO microwires was investigated by in situ growth in ESEMand DFT simulations. ZnO monomers adsorption, adatoms desorption and chemisorption were simulated to understand the explicit mechanism.

  3. High amplified spontaneous emission contrast of 1011 in a Nd:glass laser based on a hybrid double chirped pulse amplification scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X. M.; Leng, Y. X.; Sui, Z.; Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, Z. X.; Xu, Y.; Guo, X. Y.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2014-10-01

    By using a Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass hybrid double chirped pulse amplification scheme and a pulse cleaner based on optical parametric amplification and second harmonic generation, we demonstrate high amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) contrast at 1053 nm. The optimized ASE temporal contrast of the output pulse is about 1011 at about 160 ps before the main peak with an output of 140 mJ/500 fs. And the potential of 10 J level output with high ASE contrast is demonstrated in a laser system with attenuated injection.

  4. Wideband thulium-holmium-doped fiber source with combined forward and backward amplified spontaneous emission at 1600-2300  nm spectral band.

    PubMed

    Honzatko, Pavel; Baravets, Yauhen; Kasik, Ivan; Podrazky, Ondrej

    2014-06-15

    We have experimentally demonstrated two extremely wideband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) sources. High bandwidth is achieved by combining the backward and forward ASEs generated in thulium-holmium-doped fiber using appropriate wideband couplers. The ASE source optimized for flat spectral power density covers a spectral range from 1527 to 2171 nm at a -10  dB level. The ASE source optimized for spectroscopy features an enhancement with respect to single-mode fiber (SMF) coupled halogen lamps within the spectral range from 1540 nm to more than 2340 nm covering the 800 nm bandwidth.

  5. Comment on “Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser” [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Petrillo, V.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.

    2013-12-15

    We point out that in the equation for the electron distribution evolution during Thomson/Compton or undulator radiation used in the paper: “Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser” by G. R. M. Robb and R. Bonifacio [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)], the weight function should be the distribution of the number of emitted photons and not the photon energy distribution. Nevertheless, the considerations expressed in this comment do not alter the conclusions drawn in the paper in object.

  6. HASEonGPU-An adaptive, load-balanced MPI/GPU-code for calculating the amplified spontaneous emission in high power laser media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, C. H. J.; Zenker, E.; Bussmann, M.; Albach, D.

    2016-10-01

    We present an adaptive Monte Carlo algorithm for computing the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) flux in laser gain media pumped by pulsed lasers. With the design of high power lasers in mind, which require large size gain media, we have developed the open source code HASEonGPU that is capable of utilizing multiple graphic processing units (GPUs). With HASEonGPU, time to solution is reduced to minutes on a medium size GPU cluster of 64 NVIDIA Tesla K20m GPUs and excellent speedup is achieved when scaling to multiple GPUs. Comparison of simulation results to measurements of ASE in Y b 3 + : Y AG ceramics show perfect agreement.

  7. Raman-shifted KrF laser radiation with low amplified spontaneous emission for a rotational Raman daytime-temperature lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Luckow, F.; Voss, E.; Zeyn, J.; Lahmann, W.; Weitkamp, C.; Michaelis, W. )

    1994-07-15

    Various configurations of a tunable two-stage KrF laser have been investigated for providing powerful laser pulses with very low amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The lowest fraction (0.00017%) of ASE was attained with a single-pass amplifier and a phase-conjugate Brillouin mirror. The most suitable application envisaged for the laser source, i.e., remote daytime-temperature measurement by means of rotational Raman scattering, is a dedicated oscillator--amplifier configuration with an ASE of 0.005% at an output of 300 mJ. The very low values of ASE were measured with the aid of a thallium atomic-vapor filter.

  8. Wavefront analysis of nonlinear self-amplified spontaneous-emission free-electron laser harmonics in the single-shot regime.

    PubMed

    Bachelard, R; Mercère, P; Idir, M; Couprie, M-E; Labat, M; Chubar, O; Lambert, G; Zeitoun, Ph; Kimura, H; Ohashi, H; Higashiya, A; Yabashi, M; Nagasono, M; Hara, T; Ishikawa, T

    2011-06-10

    The single-shot spatial characteristics of the vacuum ultraviolet self-amplified spontaneous emission of a free electron laser (FEL) is measured at different stages of amplification up to saturation with a Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fundamental radiation at 61.5 nm tends towards a single-mode behavior as getting closer to saturation. The measurements are found in good agreement with simulations and theory. A near diffraction limited wavefront was measured. The analysis of Fresnel diffraction through the Hartmann wavefront sensor hole array also provides some further insight for the evaluation of the FEL transverse coherence, of high importance for various applications.

  9. Mapping the transverse coherence of the self amplified spontaneous emission of a free-electron laser with the heterodyne speckle method.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Matteo D; Anania, Maria Pia; Artioli, Marcello; Bacci, Alberto; Bellaveglia, Marco; Ciocci, Franco; Chiadroni, Enrica; Cianchi, Alessandro; Dattoli, Giuseppe; Di Pirro, Giampierro; Ferrario, Massimo; Gatti, Giancarlo; Giannessi, Luca; Manfredda, Michele; Martucci, Roberta; Mostacci, Andrea; Paroli, Bruno; Petralia, Alberto; Petrillo, Vittoria; Pompili, Riccardo; Potenza, Marco A C; Quattormini, Marcello; Rau, Julietta; Redoglio, Daniele; Rossi, Andrea R; Serafini, Luca; Surrenti, Vincenzo; Torre, Amalia; Vaccarezza, Cristina; Villa, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    The two-dimensional single shot transverse coherence of the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission of the SPARC_LAB Free-Electron Laser was measured through the statistical analysis of a speckle field produced by heterodyning the radiation beam with a huge number of reference waves, scattered by a suspension of particles. In this paper we report the measurements and the evaluation of the transverse coherence along the SPARC_LAB undulator modules. The measure method was demonstrated to be precise and robust, it does not require any a priori assumptions and can be implemented over a wide range of wavelengths, from the optical radiation to the x-rays.

  10. Polarity dependent thermochemical E-model for describing time dependent dielectric breakdown in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with hyper-thin gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, J. W.

    2016-09-01

    The Lorentz factor L, which is used for describing the local electric fields in hyper-thin (<3.0 nm) gate dielectrics, is found to be polarity dependent for an inversion and accumulation-mode testing of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors. L is strongly impacted by the dipole layers that are induced in the depletion regions in the poly and silicon-substrate electrodes. While time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) results are much improved with the inversion-mode testing, the reason for this is due to a smaller Lorentz factor (thus smaller Eloc). In fact, when compared at the same local electric field Eloc, there is no difference in TDDB between the inversion and accumulation mode testing. Thus, when properly corrected for the depletion effects in the MOS electrodes, the Thermochemical E-Model becomes polarity dependent and describes well both the inversion and accumulation-mode TDDB testing of the hyper-thin gate dielectrics.

  11. Alignment, rotation, and spinning of single plasmonic nanoparticles and nanowires using polarization dependent optical forces.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lianming; Miljković, Vladimir D; Käll, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate optical alignment and rotation of individual plasmonic nanostructures with lengths from tens of nanometers to several micrometers using a single beam of linearly polarized near-infrared laser light. Silver nanorods and dimers of gold nanoparticles align parallel to the laser polarization because of the high long-axis dipole polarizability. Silver nanowires, in contrast, spontaneously turn perpendicular to the incident polarization and predominantly attach at the wire ends, in agreement with electrodynamics simulations. Wires, rods, and dimers all rotate if the incident polarization is turned. In the case of nanowires, we demonstrate spinning at an angular frequency of approximately 1 Hz due to transfer of spin angular momentum from circularly polarized light. PMID:20030391

  12. Polar polycyclic aromatic compounds from different coal types show varying mutagenic potential, EROD induction and bioavailability depending on coal rank.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wiebke; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Hollert, Henner; Achten, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Investigations of the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) have rarely considered the heterogeneity of coals and the impact of more polar PAC besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Earlier, we investigated the toxicity of eight heterogeneous coals and their extracts. In the present study, the hazard potential with respect to mechanism-specific toxicity of polar fractions of dichloromethane extracts from coals was studied. Polar extract fractions of all coal types except for anthracite induced EROD activity (determined in RTL-W1 cells), independent of coal type (Bio-TEQs between 23 ± 16 and 52 ± 22 ng/g). The polar fractions of all bituminous coal extracts revealed mutagenic activity (determined using the Ames Fluctuation test). No significant mutation induction was detected for the polar extract fractions from the lignite, sub-bituminous coal and anthracite samples, which indicates a higher dependency on coal type for polar PAC here. Additionally, information on bioavailability was derived from a bioaccumulation test using the deposit-feeding oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus which was exposed for 28 days to ground coal samples. Despite the high toxic potential of most coal extracts and a reduced biomass of Lumbriculus in bituminous coal samples, bioaccumulation of PAH and mortality after 28 days were found to be low. Limited bioaccumulation of PAH (up to 3.6 ± 3.8 mg/kg EPA-PAH) and polar PAC were observed for all coal samples. A significant reduction of Lumbriculus biomass was observed in the treatments containing bituminous coals (from 0.019 ± 0.004 g to 0.046 ± 0.011 g compared to 0.080 ± 0.025 g per replicate in control treatments). We conclude that bioavailability of native PAC from coals including polar PAC is low for all investigated coal types. In comparison to lignite, sub-bituminous coals and anthracite, the bioavailability of PAC from bituminous coals is slightly increased.

  13. Single-Shot Measurement of Temporally-Dependent Polarization State of Femtosecond Pulses by Angle-Multiplexed Spectral-Spatial Interferometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Wei; Jovanovic, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that temporally-dependent polarization states of ultrashort laser pulses can be reconstructed in a single shot by use of an angle-multiplexed spatial-spectral interferometry. This is achieved by introducing two orthogonally polarized reference pulses and interfering them with an arbitrarily polarized ultrafast pulse under measurement. A unique calibration procedure is developed for this technique which facilitates the subsequent polarization state measurements. The accuracy of several reconstructed polarization states is verified by comparison with that obtained from an analytic model that predicts the polarization state on the basis of its method of production. Laser pulses with mJ-level energies were characterized via this technique, including a time-dependent polarization state that can be used for polarization-gating of high-harmonic generation for production of attosecond pulses. PMID:27596951

  14. Single-Shot Measurement of Temporally-Dependent Polarization State of Femtosecond Pulses by Angle-Multiplexed Spectral-Spatial Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Wei; Jovanovic, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that temporally-dependent polarization states of ultrashort laser pulses can be reconstructed in a single shot by use of an angle-multiplexed spatial-spectral interferometry. This is achieved by introducing two orthogonally polarized reference pulses and interfering them with an arbitrarily polarized ultrafast pulse under measurement. A unique calibration procedure is developed for this technique which facilitates the subsequent polarization state measurements. The accuracy of several reconstructed polarization states is verified by comparison with that obtained from an analytic model that predicts the polarization state on the basis of its method of production. Laser pulses with mJ-level energies were characterized via this technique, including a time-dependent polarization state that can be used for polarization-gating of high-harmonic generation for production of attosecond pulses. PMID:27596951

  15. Single-Shot Measurement of Temporally-Dependent Polarization State of Femtosecond Pulses by Angle-Multiplexed Spectral-Spatial Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Wei; Jovanovic, Igor

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that temporally-dependent polarization states of ultrashort laser pulses can be reconstructed in a single shot by use of an angle-multiplexed spatial-spectral interferometry. This is achieved by introducing two orthogonally polarized reference pulses and interfering them with an arbitrarily polarized ultrafast pulse under measurement. A unique calibration procedure is developed for this technique which facilitates the subsequent polarization state measurements. The accuracy of several reconstructed polarization states is verified by comparison with that obtained from an analytic model that predicts the polarization state on the basis of its method of production. Laser pulses with mJ-level energies were characterized via this technique, including a time-dependent polarization state that can be used for polarization-gating of high-harmonic generation for production of attosecond pulses.

  16. Spectral line polarization with angle-dependent partial frequency redistribution. III. Single scattering approximation for the Hanle effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampoorna, M.

    2011-08-01

    Context. The solar limb observations in spectral lines display evidence of linear polarization, caused by non-magnetic resonance scattering process. This polarization is modified by weak magnetic fields - the process of the Hanle effect. These two processes serve as diagnostic tools for weak solar magnetic field determination. In modeling the polarimetric observations the partial frequency redistribution (PRD) effects in line scattering have to be accounted for. For simplicity, it is common practice to use PRD functions averaged over all scattering angles. For weak fields, it has been established that the use of angle-dependent PRD functions instead of angle-averaged functions is essential. Aims: We introduce a single scattering approximation to the problem of polarized line radiative transfer in weak magnetic fields with an angle-dependent PRD. This helps us to rapidly compute an approximate solution to the difficult and numerically expensive problem of polarized line formation with angle-dependent PRD. Methods: We start from the recently developed Stokes vector decomposition technique combined with the Fourier azimuthal expansion for angle-dependent PRD with the Hanle effect. In this decomposition technique, the polarized radiation field (I, Q, U) is decomposed into an infinite set of cylindrically symmetric Fourier coefficients tilde I(k)K_Q, where K = 0,2, with - K ≤ Q ≤ + K, and k is the order of the Fourier coefficients (k takes values from - ∞ to + ∞). In the single scattering approximation, the effect of the magnetic field on the Stokes I is neglected, so that it can be computed using the standard non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) scalar line transfer equation. In the case of angle-dependent PRD, we further assume that the Stokes I is cylindrically symmetric and given by its dominant term tilde I(0)0_0. Keeping only the contribution from tilde I(0)0_0 in the source terms for the K = 2 components (which give rise to Stokes Q and U), the

  17. Measuring the biphoton temporal wave function with polarization-dependent and time-resolved two-photon interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Shu, Chi; Guo, Xianxin; Loy, M M T; Du, Shengwang

    2015-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an approach to measuring the biphoton temporal wave function with polarization-dependent and time-resolved two-photon interference. Through six sets of two-photon interference measurements projected onto different polarization subspaces, we can reconstruct the amplitude and phase functions of the biphoton temporal waveform. For the first time, we apply this technique to experimentally determine the temporal quantum states of the narrow-band biphotons generated from the spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atoms.

  18. Spin-polarized hydrogen Rydberg time-of-flight: Experimental measurement of the velocity-dependent H atom spin-polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Bernadette M.; Lee, Yumin; Doyle, Michael B.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Suits, Arthur G.; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.

    2014-05-15

    We have developed a new experimental method allowing direct detection of the velocity dependent spin-polarization of hydrogen atoms produced in photodissociation. The technique, which is a variation on the H atom Rydberg time-of-flight method, employs a double-resonance excitation scheme and experimental geometry that yields the two coherent orientation parameters as a function of recoil speed for scattering perpendicular to the laser propagation direction. The approach, apparatus, and optical layout we employ are described here in detail and demonstrated in application to HBr and DBr photolysis at 213 nm. We also discuss the theoretical foundation for the approach, as well as the resolution and sensitivity we achieve.

  19. Neutrophils establish rapid and robust WAVE complex polarity in an actin-dependent fashion

    PubMed Central

    Millius, Arthur; Dandekar, Sheel N.; Houk, Andrew R.; Weiner, Orion D.

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric intracellular signals enable cells to migrate in response to external cues. The multiprotein WAVE (SCAR/WASF) complex activates the actin-nucleating Arp2/3 complex [1-4] and localizes to propagating “waves”, which direct actin assembly during neutrophil migration [5, 6]. Here, we observe similar WAVE complex dynamics in other mammalian cells and analyze WAVE complex dynamics during the establishment of neutrophil polarity. Earlier models proposed that either spatially-biased generation [7] or selection of protrusions [8] enables chemotaxis. These models require existing morphological polarity to control protrusions. Similar spatially-biased generation and selection of WAVE complex recruitment occur in morphologically unpolarized neutrophils during the development of their first protrusions. Additionally, several mechanisms limit WAVE complex recruitment during polarization and movement: intrinsic cues restrict WAVE complex distribution during the establishment of polarity, and asymmetric intracellular signals constrain WAVE complex distribution in morphologically polarized cells. External gradients can overcome both intrinsic biases and control WAVE complex localization. Following latrunculin-mediated inhibition of actin polymerization, addition and removal of agonist gradients globally recruits and releases the WAVE complex from the membrane. Under these conditions the WAVE complex no longer polarizes, despite the presence of strong external gradients. Thus, actin polymer and the WAVE complex reciprocally interact during polarization. PMID:19200726

  20. Theory of antisymmetric spin-pair-dependent electric polarization in multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, S.; Furukawa, N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate magnetoelectric couplings between an electric polarization and an antisymmetric spin pair, Si×Sj , in a multiorbital Hubbard model on a distorted lattice. We microscopically derive a generic form of the electric polarization, pAS=d ̂(Si×Sj) , with a tensor, d ̂, which includes the electric polarization induced by the Katsura-Nagaosa-Balatsky formula as a subset. The origin and nature of these magnetoelectric couplings are clarified in a unified way; the results indicate that various noncollinear magnetic structures, such as canted antiferromagnetic, proper screw, and 120∘ spin structures, show multiferroic behaviors owing to non-Katsura-Nagaosa-Balatsky coupling.

  1. Polarization-dependent atomic dipole traps behind a circular aperture for neutral-atom quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen-Christandl, Katharina; Copsey, Bert D.

    2011-02-15

    The neutral-atom quantum computing community has successfully implemented almost all necessary steps for constructing a neutral-atom quantum computer. We present computational results of a study aimed at solving the remaining problem of creating a quantum memory with individually addressable sites for quantum computing. The basis of this quantum memory is the diffraction pattern formed by laser light incident on a circular aperture. Very close to the aperture, the diffraction pattern has localized bright and dark spots that can serve as red-detuned or blue-detuned atomic dipole traps. These traps are suitable for quantum computing even for moderate laser powers. In particular, for moderate laser intensities ({approx}100 W/cm{sup 2}) and comparatively small detunings ({approx}1000-10 000 linewidths), trap depths of {approx}1 mK and trap frequencies of several to tens of kilohertz are achieved. Our results indicate that these dipole traps can be moved by tilting the incident laser beams without significantly changing the trap properties. We also explored the polarization dependence of these dipole traps. We developed a code that calculates the trapping potential energy for any magnetic substate of any hyperfine ground state of any alkali-metal atom for any laser detuning much smaller than the fine-structure splitting for any given electric field distribution. We describe details of our calculations and include a summary of different notations and conventions for the reduced matrix element and how to convert it to SI units. We applied this code to these traps and found a method for bringing two traps together and apart controllably without expelling the atoms from the trap and without significant tunneling probability between the traps. This approach can be scaled up to a two-dimensional array of many pinholes, forming a quantum memory with single-site addressability, in which pairs of atoms can be brought together and apart for two-qubit gates for quantum computing.

  2. Effect of Zn-Cd interdiffusion on the band structure and spontaneous emission of ZnO/Zn1-xCdxO/ZnO quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtepliuk, I.; Khranovskyy, V.; Yakimova, R.

    2015-09-01

    Needs in more-efficient visible light sources based on quantum wells (QWs) requires the diversification of traditional optoelectronics' materials as well as development of the cost-effective approaches for reliable quantum confinement engineering. Interdiffusion approach has a great potential to become a simple method for controlling the optical properties of QWs and diminishing the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE). In this work we theoretically study the effect of Zn-Cd interdiffusion in ZnCdO/ZnO QWs on their band structure, optical matrix elements and spontaneous emission properties. The QW intermixing leads to improving both the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) optical matrix elements due to enhancement of the overlap integral between electron and hole wave functions and modification of the confinement potential from triangle-shaped to parabolic-like. The optimized diffusion length 4 Å provided by the annealing at 700 K during 60 s was determined for 2 nm-thick Zn0.85Cd0.15O QW, which offers higher spontaneous emission rate in comparison to conventional QW. The reasonable interpretation of the interdiffusion effect on the optical properties of QWs is proposed in terms of low diffusion length and high diffusion length regimes. Thus, suitable combination of annealing duration and annealing temperature with the geometrical/compositional parameters of QWs can be the efficient way for improving the optical performance of ZnO-based QWs.

  3. A pulsed source for Xe(6s[3/2]1) and Xe(6s'[1/2]1) resonance state atoms using two-photon driven amplified spontaneous emission from the Xe(6p) and Xe(6p') states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Setser, D. W.

    1996-09-01

    A new, simple method for the generation of Xe(6s[3/2]1) and Xe(6s'[1/2]1) atoms is described. The method involves resonant two-photon excitation of Xe(6p[1/2]0 and 6p'[3/2]2) states followed by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) to the Xe(6s[3/2]1 and 6s'[1/2]1) states. The vacuum ultraviolet transitions, Xe(6s[3/2]1→5p6(1S0)) at 147 nm and Xe(6s'[1/2]1→5p6(1S0)) at 129.6 nm, were used to monitor the time dependence of the resonance state atom concentrations. The quenching rate constants of these resonance atoms with ten molecules were measured at 300 K. The quenching cross-sections of the Xe(6s and 6s') resonance atoms are compared to the cross-sections of the metastable Xe(6s[3/2]2) atoms and Xe(6p[3/2]2) atoms. The correlation between quenching cross-sections and photoabsorption cross-section of the molecules predicted by the resonance dipole-dipole energy transfer model is discussed. The applicability of the two-photon driven ASE method for the generation of other resonance state atoms is considered.

  4. Kif26b controls endothelial cell polarity through the Dishevelled/Daam1-dependent planar cell polarity–signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guillabert-Gourgues, Aude; Jaspard-Vinassa, Beatrice; Bats, Marie-Lise; Sewduth, Raj N.; Franzl, Nathalie; Peghaire, Claire; Jeanningros, Sylvie; Moreau, Catherine; Roux, Etienne; Larrieu-Lahargue, Frederic; Dufourcq, Pascale; Couffinhal, Thierry; Duplàa, Cecile

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the coordinated growth and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) toward a proangiogenic signal. The Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, through the recruitment of Dishevelled (Dvl) and Dvl-associated activator of morphogenesis (Daam1), has been proposed to regulate cell actin cytoskeleton and microtubule (MT) reorganization for oriented cell migration. Here we report that Kif26b—a kinesin—and Daam1 cooperatively regulate initiation of EC sprouting and directional migration via MT reorganization. First, we find that Kif26b is recruited within the Dvl3/Daam1 complex. Using a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay, we show that Kif26b and Daam1 depletion impairs tip cell polarization and destabilizes extended vascular processes. Kif26b depletion specifically alters EC directional migration and mislocalized MT organizing center (MTOC)/Golgi and myosin IIB cell rear enrichment. Therefore the cell fails to establish a proper front–rear polarity. Of interest, Kif26b ectopic expression rescues the siDaam1 polarization defect phenotype. Finally, we show that Kif26b functions in MT stabilization, which is indispensable for asymmetrical cell structure reorganization. These data demonstrate that Kif26b, together with Dvl3/Daam1, initiates cell polarity through the control of PCP signaling pathway–dependent activation. PMID:26792835

  5. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION IN MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MEDIA. V. EFFECTS OF ANGLE-DEPENDENT PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N.

    2012-02-10

    The solution of polarized radiative transfer equation with angle-dependent (AD) partial frequency redistribution (PRD) is a challenging problem. Modeling the observed, linearly polarized strong resonance lines in the solar spectrum often requires the solution of the AD line transfer problems in one-dimensional or multi-dimensional (multi-D) geometries. The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the relative importance of the AD PRD effects and the multi-D transfer effects and particularly their combined influence on the line polarization. This would help in a quantitative analysis of the second solar spectrum (the linearly polarized spectrum of the Sun). We consider both non-magnetic and magnetic media. In this paper we reduce the Stokes vector transfer equation to a simpler form using a Fourier decomposition technique for multi-D media. A fast numerical method is also devised to solve the concerned multi-D transfer problem. The numerical results are presented for a two-dimensional medium with a moderate optical thickness (effectively thin) and are computed for a collisionless frequency redistribution. We show that the AD PRD effects are significant and cannot be ignored in a quantitative fine analysis of the line polarization. These effects are accentuated by the finite dimensionality of the medium (multi-D transfer). The presence of magnetic fields (Hanle effect) modifies the impact of these two effects to a considerable extent.

  6. Telmisartan prevention of LPS-induced microglia activation involves M2 microglia polarization via CaMKKβ-dependent AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Yurong; Wang, Yunjie; He, Ling; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Huang, Zhangjian; Liao, Hong; Li, Jia; Saavedra, Juan M; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao

    2015-11-01

    Brain inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric and neurological diseases. During brain inflammation, microglia cells are activated, producing neurotoxic molecules and neurotrophic factors depending on their pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. It has been demonstrated that Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) ameliorate brain inflammation and reduce M1 microglia activation. The ARB telmisartan suppresses glutamate-induced upregulation of inflammatory genes in cultured primary neurons. We wished to clarify whether telmisartan, in addition, prevents microglia activation through polarization to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. We found that telmisartan promoted M2 polarization and reduced M1 polarization in LPS-stimulated BV2 and primary microglia cells, effects partially dependent on PPARγ activation. The promoting effects of telmisartan on M2 polarization, were attenuated by an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor or AMPK knockdown, indicating that AMPK activation participates on telmisartan effects. Moreover, in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells, telmisartan enhancement of M2 gene expression was prevented by the inhibitor STO-609 and siRNA of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ), an upstream kinase of AMPK. Furthermore, telmisartan enhanced brain AMPK activation and M2 gene expression in a mouse model of LPS-induced neuroinflammation. In addition, telmisartan reduced the LPS-induced sickness behavior in this in vivo model, and this effect was prevented by prior administration of an AMPK inhibitor. Our results indicate that telmisartan can be considered as a novel AMPK activator, suppressing microglia activation by promoting M2 polarization. Telmisartan may provide a novel, safe therapeutic approach to treat brain disorders associated with enhanced inflammation.

  7. Alignment dependence of photoelectron momentum distributions of atomic and molecular targets probed by few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-08-01

    We present theoretical photoelectron momentum distributions (PMDs) for ionization from Ar(3 p ) and H2+ (σg) orbitals by few-cycle, high-intensity, near-infrared laser fields circularly polarized in the x y plane. The three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved numerically within the single-active-electron approximation for Ar and within the fixed nuclei approximation for H2+ . The PMDs are investigated for alignment of the probed target orbitals relative to the polarization plane of the laser field. In the atomic case, the PMDs in the polarization plane for aligned 3 p Ar orbitals are, up to an overall scaling factor, insensitive to alignment of the probed orbital, while the lateral PMDs show a signature of the orbital node when that node is sufficiently close to the polarization plane. For the molecular case of H2+ (σg), our results show a significant impact of alignment on the PMDs due to the anisotropic molecular potential and the alignment-dependent coupling between the ground state and excited states.

  8. Structure-Dependent Spin Polarization in Polymorphic CdS:Y Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Xiao, Bingxin; Zhao, Rui; Ma, Yanzhang; Zhang, Mingzhe

    2016-03-01

    Searching for the polymorphic semiconductor nanocrystals would provide precise and insightful structure-spin polarization correlations and meaningful guidance for designing and synthesizing high spin-polarized spintronic materials. Herein, the high spin polarization is achieved in polymorphic CdS:Y semiconductor nanocrystals. The high-pressure polymorph of rock-salt CdS:Y nanocrystals has been recovered at ambient conditions synthesized by the wurtzite CdS:Y nanocrystals as starting material under 5.2 GPa and 300 °C conditions. The rock-salt CdS:Y polymorph displays more robust room-temperature ferromagnetism than wurtzite sample, which can reach the ferromagnetic level of conventional semiconductors doped with magnetic transition-metal ions, mainly due to the significantly enhanced spin configuration and defect states. Therefore, crystal structure directly governs the spin configuration, which determines the degree of spin polarization. This work can provide experimental and theoretical methods for designing the high spin-polarized semiconductor nanocrystals, which is important for applications in semiconductor spintronics. PMID:26905093

  9. Polarity dependent strongly inhomogeneous In-incorporation in GaN nanocolumns.

    PubMed

    Oppo, C I; Malindretos, J; Zamani, R R; Broxtermann, D; Segura-Ruiz, J; Martinez-Criado, G; Ricci, P C; Rizzi, A

    2016-09-01

    In this work, GaN/InGaN/GaN nanocolumns (NCs) have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Selective area growth (SAG) and self-organized growth (SOG) were performed simultaneously in patterned and unpatterned regions of the same substrate, respectively. The resulting structures show different tip morphologies and structural properties due to the different polarity along the growth direction, namely Ga-polar with r-plane faceted tips for the SAG NCs and N-polar with c-plane top facet for the SOG ones. When growing Ga-polar GaN/InGaN NCs, no indium is incorporated at a substrate temperature of [Formula: see text]°C. Rather, indium incorporation takes place under the same growth conditions on the N-polar NCs. The In-incorporation is investigated by means of nano x-ray fluorescence and diffraction, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. PMID:27454897

  10. Polarity dependent strongly inhomogeneous In-incorporation in GaN nanocolumns.

    PubMed

    Oppo, C I; Malindretos, J; Zamani, R R; Broxtermann, D; Segura-Ruiz, J; Martinez-Criado, G; Ricci, P C; Rizzi, A

    2016-09-01

    In this work, GaN/InGaN/GaN nanocolumns (NCs) have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Selective area growth (SAG) and self-organized growth (SOG) were performed simultaneously in patterned and unpatterned regions of the same substrate, respectively. The resulting structures show different tip morphologies and structural properties due to the different polarity along the growth direction, namely Ga-polar with r-plane faceted tips for the SAG NCs and N-polar with c-plane top facet for the SOG ones. When growing Ga-polar GaN/InGaN NCs, no indium is incorporated at a substrate temperature of [Formula: see text]°C. Rather, indium incorporation takes place under the same growth conditions on the N-polar NCs. The In-incorporation is investigated by means of nano x-ray fluorescence and diffraction, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  11. Polarity dependent strongly inhomogeneous In-incorporation in GaN nanocolumns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppo, C. I.; Malindretos, J.; Zamani, R. R.; Broxtermann, D.; Segura-Ruiz, J.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Ricci, P. C.; Rizzi, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, GaN/InGaN/GaN nanocolumns (NCs) have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Selective area growth (SAG) and self-organized growth (SOG) were performed simultaneously in patterned and unpatterned regions of the same substrate, respectively. The resulting structures show different tip morphologies and structural properties due to the different polarity along the growth direction, namely Ga-polar with r-plane faceted tips for the SAG NCs and N-polar with c-plane top facet for the SOG ones. When growing Ga-polar GaN/InGaN NCs, no indium is incorporated at a substrate temperature of {T}{{S}}=700 °C. Rather, indium incorporation takes place under the same growth conditions on the N-polar NCs. The In-incorporation is investigated by means of nano x-ray fluorescence and diffraction, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Temperature-dependent remote control of polarization and coherence intensity with sender's pure initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fel'dman, E. B.; Kuznetsova, E. I.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    We study the remote creation of the polarization and intensity of the first-order coherence (or coherence intensity) in long spin-1/2 chains with one-qubit sender and receiver. Therewith we use a physically motivated initial condition with the pure state of the sender and the thermodynamical equilibrium state of the other nodes. The main part of the creatable region is a one-to-one map of the initial state (control) parameters, except the small subregion twice covered by the control parameters, which appears owing to the chosen initial state. The polarization and coherence intensity behave differently in the state creation process. In particular, the coherence intensity cannot reach any significant value unless the polarization is large in long chains (unlike the short ones), but the opposite is not true. The coherence intensity vanishes with an increase in the chain length, while the polarization (by absolute value) is not sensitive to this parameter. We represent several characteristics of the creatable polarization and coherence intensity and describe their relation to the parameters of the initial state. The link to the eigenvalue-eigenvector parametrization of the receiver's state space is given.

  13. Structure-Dependent Spin Polarization in Polymorphic CdS:Y Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Xiao, Bingxin; Zhao, Rui; Ma, Yanzhang; Zhang, Mingzhe

    2016-03-01

    Searching for the polymorphic semiconductor nanocrystals would provide precise and insightful structure-spin polarization correlations and meaningful guidance for designing and synthesizing high spin-polarized spintronic materials. Herein, the high spin polarization is achieved in polymorphic CdS:Y semiconductor nanocrystals. The high-pressure polymorph of rock-salt CdS:Y nanocrystals has been recovered at ambient conditions synthesized by the wurtzite CdS:Y nanocrystals as starting material under 5.2 GPa and 300 °C conditions. The rock-salt CdS:Y polymorph displays more robust room-temperature ferromagnetism than wurtzite sample, which can reach the ferromagnetic level of conventional semiconductors doped with magnetic transition-metal ions, mainly due to the significantly enhanced spin configuration and defect states. Therefore, crystal structure directly governs the spin configuration, which determines the degree of spin polarization. This work can provide experimental and theoretical methods for designing the high spin-polarized semiconductor nanocrystals, which is important for applications in semiconductor spintronics.

  14. Evolution of the linear-polarization-angle-dependence of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance-oscillations with microwave power

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.

    2014-11-10

    We examine the role of the microwave power in the linear polarization angle dependence of the microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system. The diagonal resistance R{sub xx} was measured at the fixed magnetic fields of the photo-excited oscillatory extrema of R{sub xx} as a function of both the microwave power, P, and the linear polarization angle, θ. Color contour plots of such measurements demonstrate the evolution of the lineshape of R{sub xx} versus θ with increasing microwave power. We report that the non-linear power dependence of the amplitude of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations distorts the cosine-square relation between R{sub xx} and θ at high power.

  15. Phase and direction dependence of photorefraction in a low-frequency strong circular-polarized plane wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Nai-Yan; Tang, Xiu-Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Contrary to the superposition principle, it is well known that photorefraction exists in the vacuum with the presence of a strong static field, a laser field, or a rotational magnetic field. Different from the classical optical crystals, the refractive index also depends on the phase of the strong electromagnetic field. We obtain the phase and direction dependence of the refractive index of a probe wave incident in the strong field of a circular-polarized plane wave by solving the Maxwell equations corrected by the effective Lagrangian. It may provide a valuable theoretical basis to calculate the polarization evolution of waves in the strong electromagnetic circumstances of pulsar or neutron stars. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB808104) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11105233).

  16. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Affect Electrolyte Transport in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells: Dependence on Cyclooxygenase and Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Nüsing, Rolf M.; Schweer, Horst; Fleming, Ingrid; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Wegmann, Markus

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on ion transport in the polarized renal distal tubular cell line, MDCK C7. Of the four EET regioisomers (5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET) studied, only apical, but not basolateral, application of 5,6-EET increased short circuit current (Isc) with kinetics similar to those of arachidonic acid. The ion transport was blocked by preincubation with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or with the chloride channel blocker NPPB. Further, both a Cl−-free bath solution and the Ca2+ antagonist verapamil blocked 5,6-EET-induced ion transport. Although the presence of the PGE2 receptors EP2, EP3, and EP4 was demonstrated, apically added PGE2 was ineffective and basolaterally added PGE2 caused a different kinetics in ion transport compared to 5,6-EET. Moreover, PGE2 sythesis in MDCK C7 cells was unaffected by 5,6-EET treatment. GC/MS/MS analysis of cell supernatants revealed the presence of the biologically inactive 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1 in 5,6-EET-treated cells, but not in control cells. Indomethacin suppressed the formation of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1. 5,6-epoxy-PGE1 the precursor of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1, caused a similar ion transport as 5,6-EET. Cytochrome P450 enzymes homolog to human CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2J2 protein were detected immunologically in the MDCK C7 cells. Our findings suggest that 5,6-EET affects Cl-transport in renal distal tubular cells independent of PGE2 but by a mechanism, dependent on its conversion to 5,6-epoxy-PGE1 by cyclooxygenase. We suggest a role for this P450 epoxygenase product in the regulation of electrolyte transport, especially as a saluretic compound acting from the luminal side of tubular cells in the mammalian kidney. PMID:17494091

  17. Tethering of ICAM on target cells is required for LFA-1-dependent NK cell adhesion and granule polarization

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Catharina C.; Brzostowski, Joseph A.; Liu, Dongfang; Long, Eric O.

    2013-01-01

    αLβ2 integrin (LFA-1) has an important role in the formation of T cell and NK cell cytotoxic immunological synapses and in target cell killing. Binding of LFA-1 to ICAM on target cells promotes not only adhesion, but also polarization of cytolytic granules in NK cells. Here we tested whether LFA-1-dependent NK cell responses are regulated by the distribution and mobility of ICAM at the surface of target cells. We show that depolymerization of F-actin in NK-sensitive target cells abrogated LFA-1-dependent conjugate formation and granule polarization in primary NK cells. Degranulation, which is not controlled by LFA-1, was not impaired. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments and particle tracking by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 were distributed in largely immobile clusters. ICAM clusters were maintained and became highly mobile after actin depolymerization. Moreover, reducing ICAM-2 mobility on an NK-resistant target cell through expression of ezrin, an adapter molecule that tethers proteins to the actin cytoskeleton, enhanced LFA-1-dependent adhesion and granule polarization. Finally, while NK cells kept moving over freely diffusible ICAM-1 on a lipid bilayer, they bound and spread over solid-phase ICAM-1. We conclude that tethering, rather than clustering of ICAM promotes proper signaling by LFA-1 in NK cells. Our findings suggest that the lateral diffusion of integrin ligands on cells may be an important determinant of susceptibility to lysis by cytotoxic lymphocytes. PMID:20675589

  18. Field polarity dependent nucleation of superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional magnetic templates.

    SciTech Connect

    Ataklti, G. W.; Silhanek, A. V.; Van de Vondel, J.; Gillijns, W.; Belkin, A.; Karapetrov, G.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Materials Science Division; Katholieke Univ. Leuven; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the nucleation of superconductivity in an Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Py trilayer system by electrical transport measurements. Magnetic force microscopy images taken at room temperature show that the 0.7 {micro}m thick Py-film form stripes of magnetic domains with alternating out-of-plane stray field. After applying a strong out of plane magnetic field H the superconductor/normal phase boundary becomes asymmetric with respect to H = 0. This lack of field polarity symmetry results from the unbalanced size distribution of domains with opposite polarity.

  19. Intensity-dependent circular polarization and circumstellar magnetic fields from the observation of SiO masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Watson, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A new aspect of the propagation of astrophysical maser radiation in the presence of a magnetic field is described in which circular polarization is created. The resulting antisymmetric spectral line profile for this circular polarization resembles that produced by the ordinary Zeeman effect when the Zeeman splittings are much less than the spectral line breadth. It is caused by the change, with increasing maser intensity, in the axis of symmetry for the molecular quantum states from a direction that is parallel to the magnetic field to a direction that is parallel to the direction of propagation. When the maser is radiatively saturated, and the rate for stimulated emission is within an order of magnitude of the Zeeman splitting in frequency units, this 'intensity-dependent circular polarization' is greater than that due to the ordinary Zeeman effect by factors as large as 1000. The circular polarization that is observed in the spectra of circumstellar SiO (J = 1-0) masers associated with late-type giants and supergiants may then be caused by magnetic fields as weak as about 10 mG. With the standard Zeeman interpretation of the observations, magnetic fields of 10-100 G are indicated. The lower fields are similar to the limits obtained from the observation of the 22 GHz water masers which are typically somewhat further from the central star. The observed tendency for the fractional linear polarization of SiO masers to increase with increasing angular momentum of the molecular state is shown to be a likely result of anisotropic pumping. Errors are identified that invalidate a recent conflicting claim in the literature about the basic theory of maser polarization in the regime that is relevant here.

  20. Differential infection of polarized epithelial cell lines by sialic acid-dependent and sialic acid-independent rotavirus strains.

    PubMed

    Ciarlet, M; Crawford, S E; Estes, M K

    2001-12-01

    Infection of epithelial cells by some animal rotaviruses, but not human or most animal rotaviruses, requires the presence of N-acetylneuraminic (sialic) acid (SA) on the cell surface for efficient infectivity. To further understand how rotaviruses enter susceptible cells, six different polarized epithelial cell lines, grown on permeable filter membrane supports containing 0.4-microm pores, were infected apically or basolaterally with SA-independent or SA-dependent rotaviruses. SA-independent rotaviruses applied apically or basolaterally were capable of efficiently infecting both sides of the epithelium of all six polarized cell lines tested, while SA-dependent rotaviruses only infected efficiently through the apical surface of five of the polarized cell lines tested. Regardless of the route of virus entry, SA-dependent and SA-independent rotaviruses were released almost exclusively from the apical domain of the plasma membrane of polarized cells before monolayer disruption or cell lysis. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of cells decreased at the same time, irrespective of whether infection with SA-independent rotaviruses occurred apically or basolaterally. The TER of cells infected apically with SA-dependent rotaviruses decreased earlier than that of cells infected basolaterally. Rotavirus infection decreased TER before the appearance of cytopathic effect and cell death and resulted in an increase in the paracellular permeability to [(3)H]inulin as a function of loss of TER. The presence of SA residues on either the apical or basolateral side was determined using a Texas Red-conjugated lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), which binds SA residues. WGA bound exclusively to SA residues on the apical surface of the cells, confirming the requirement for SA residues on the apical cell membrane for efficient infectivity of SA-dependent rotaviruses. These results indicate that the rotavirus SA-independent cellular receptor is present on both sides of the

  1. The quantum harmonic oscillator on the sphere and the hyperbolic plane: {kappa}-dependent formalism, polar coordinates, and hypergeometric functions

    SciTech Connect

    Carinena, Jose F.; Ranada, Manuel F.; Santander, Mariano

    2007-10-15

    A nonlinear model representing the quantum harmonic oscillator on the sphere and the hyperbolic plane is solved in polar coordinates (r,{phi}) by making use of a curvature-dependent formalism. The curvature {kappa} is considered as a parameter and then the radial Schroedinger equation becomes a {kappa}-dependent Gauss hypergeometric equation. The energy spectrum and the wave functions are exactly obtained in both the sphere S{sup 2} ({kappa}>0) and the hyperbolic plane H{sup 2} ({kappa}<0). A comparative study between the spherical and the hyperbolic quantum results is presented.

  2. SASE FEL Polarization Control Using Crossed Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2008-09-30

    There is a growing interest in producing intense, coherent x-ray radiation with an adjustable and arbitrary polarization state. In this paper, we study the crossed undulator scheme for rapid polarization control in a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free electron laser (FEL). Because a SASE source is a temporally chaotic light, we perform a statistical analysis on the state of polarization using FEL theory and simulations. We show that by adding a small phase shifter and a short (about 1.3 times the FEL power gain length), 90{sup o} rotated planar undulator after the main SASE planar undulator, one can obtain circularly polarized light--with over 80% polarization--near the FEL saturation.

  3. "Depend on, Rely on, Count on": Economic Subjectivities Aboard "The Polar Express"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Christmas literature and film produced for children is an important, albeit under-researched, site for the production of cultural values and norms. This paper analyses Chris Van Allsburg's 1985 picture book "The Polar Express", the 2004 Warner Brothers feature film of the same title, the film's official website, and resources for teachers…

  4. Phytoplankton communities of polar regions--Diversity depending on environmental conditions and chemical anthropopressure.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Klaudia; Polkowska, Żaneta; Żyszka, Beata; Lipok, Jacek

    2016-04-15

    The polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic) constitute up to 14% of the biosphere and offer some of the coldest and most arid Earth's environments. Nevertheless several oxygenic phototrophs including some higher plants, mosses, lichens, various algal groups and cyanobacteria, survive that harsh climate and create the base of the trophic relationships in fragile ecosystems of polar environments. Ecosystems in polar regions are characterized by low primary productivity and slow growth rates, therefore they are more vulnerable to disturbance, than those in temperate regions. From this reason, chemical contaminants influencing the growth of photoautotrophic producers might induce serious disorders in the integrity of polar ecosystems. However, for a long time these areas were believed to be free of chemical contamination, and relatively protected from widespread anthropogenic pressure, due their remoteness and extreme climate conditions. Nowadays, there is a growing amount of data that prove that xenobiotics are transported thousands of kilometers by the air and ocean currents and then they are deposed in colder regions and accumulate in many environments, including the habitats of marine and freshwater cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria (blue green algae), as a natural part of phytoplankton assemblages, are globally distributed, but in high polar ecosystems they represent the dominant primary producers. These microorganisms are continuously exposed to various concentration levels of the compounds that are present in their habitats and act as nourishment or the factors influencing the growth and development of cyanobacteria in other way. The most common group of contaminants in Arctic and Antarctic are persistent organic pollutants (POPs), characterized by durability and resistance to degradation. It is important to determine their concentrations in all phytoplankton species cells and in their environment to get to know the possibility of contaminants to transfer to higher

  5. Phytoplankton communities of polar regions--Diversity depending on environmental conditions and chemical anthropopressure.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Klaudia; Polkowska, Żaneta; Żyszka, Beata; Lipok, Jacek

    2016-04-15

    The polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic) constitute up to 14% of the biosphere and offer some of the coldest and most arid Earth's environments. Nevertheless several oxygenic phototrophs including some higher plants, mosses, lichens, various algal groups and cyanobacteria, survive that harsh climate and create the base of the trophic relationships in fragile ecosystems of polar environments. Ecosystems in polar regions are characterized by low primary productivity and slow growth rates, therefore they are more vulnerable to disturbance, than those in temperate regions. From this reason, chemical contaminants influencing the growth of photoautotrophic producers might induce serious disorders in the integrity of polar ecosystems. However, for a long time these areas were believed to be free of chemical contamination, and relatively protected from widespread anthropogenic pressure, due their remoteness and extreme climate conditions. Nowadays, there is a growing amount of data that prove that xenobiotics are transported thousands of kilometers by the air and ocean currents and then they are deposed in colder regions and accumulate in many environments, including the habitats of marine and freshwater cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria (blue green algae), as a natural part of phytoplankton assemblages, are globally distributed, but in high polar ecosystems they represent the dominant primary producers. These microorganisms are continuously exposed to various concentration levels of the compounds that are present in their habitats and act as nourishment or the factors influencing the growth and development of cyanobacteria in other way. The most common group of contaminants in Arctic and Antarctic are persistent organic pollutants (POPs), characterized by durability and resistance to degradation. It is important to determine their concentrations in all phytoplankton species cells and in their environment to get to know the possibility of contaminants to transfer to higher

  6. Transient, polarity-dependent dielectric response in a twisted nematic liquid crystal under very low frequency excitation.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K S

    2015-09-01

    The electric Freedericksz transition is a second-order quadratic effect, which, in a planarly aligned nematic liquid crystal layer, manifests above a threshold field as a homogeneous symmetric distortion with maximum director-tilt in the midplane. We find that, upon excitation by a low frequency (<0.2Hz) square-wave field, the instability becomes spatially and temporally varying. This is demonstrated using calamitic liquid crystals, initially in the 90°-twisted planar configuration. The distortion occurs close to the negative electrode following each polarity switch and, for low-voltage amplitudes, decays completely in time. We use the elastically favorable geometry of Brochard-Leger walls to establish the location of maximum distortion. Thus, at successive polarity changes, the direction of extension of both annular and open walls switches between the alignment directions at the two substrates. For high voltages, this direction is largely along the midplane director, while remaining marginally oscillatory. These results are broadly understood by taking into account the time-varying and inhomogeneous field conditions that prevail soon after the polarity reverses. Polarity dependence of the instability is traced to the formation of intrinsic double layers that lead to an asymmetry in field distribution in the presence of an external bias. Momentary field elevation near the negative electrode following a voltage sign reversal leads to locally enhanced dielectric and gradient flexoelectric torques, which accounts for the surface-like phenomenon observed at low voltages. These spatiotemporal effects, also found earlier for other instabilities, are generic in nature.

  7. Front-signal-dependent accumulation of the RHOA inhibitor FAM65B at leading edges polarizes neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Tang, Wenwen; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Pingzhao; Wang, Dejie; Yu, Long; Wang, Chenji; Wu, Dianqing

    2015-03-01

    A hallmark of neutrophil polarization is the back localization of active RHOA and phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC, also known as MYL2). However, the mechanism for the polarization is not entirely clear. Here, we show that FAM65B, a newly identified RHOA inhibitor, is important for the polarization. When FAM65B is phosphorylated, it binds to 14-3-3 family proteins and becomes more stable. In neutrophils, chemoattractants stimulate FAM65B phosphorylation largely depending on the signals from the front of the cells that include those mediated by phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ), leading to FAM65B accumulation at the leading edge. Concordantly, FAM65B deficiency in neutrophils resulted in an increase in RHOA activity and localization of pMLC to the front of cells, as well as defects in chemotaxis directionality and adhesion to endothelial cells under flow. These data together elucidate a mechanism for RHOA and pMLC polarization in stimulated neutrophils through direct inhibition of RHOA by FAM65B at the leading edge. PMID:25588844

  8. Front-signal-dependent accumulation of the RHOA inhibitor FAM65B at leading edges polarizes neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kun; Tang, Wenwen; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Pingzhao; Wang, Dejie; Yu, Long; Wang, Chenji; Wu, Dianqing

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hallmark of neutrophil polarization is the back localization of active RHOA and phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC, also known as MYL2). However, the mechanism for the polarization is not entirely clear. Here, we show that FAM65B, a newly identified RHOA inhibitor, is important for the polarization. When FAM65B is phosphorylated, it binds to 14-3-3 family proteins and becomes more stable. In neutrophils, chemoattractants stimulate FAM65B phosphorylation largely depending on the signals from the front of the cells that include those mediated by phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ), leading to FAM65B accumulation at the leading edge. Concordantly, FAM65B deficiency in neutrophils resulted in an increase in RHOA activity and localization of pMLC to the front of cells, as well as defects in chemotaxis directionality and adhesion to endothelial cells under flow. These data together elucidate a mechanism for RHOA and pMLC polarization in stimulated neutrophils through direct inhibition of RHOA by FAM65B at the leading edge. PMID:25588844

  9. LKB1 kinase-dependent and -independent defects disrupt polarity and adhesion signaling to drive collagen remodeling during invasion

    PubMed Central

    Konen, Jessica; Wilkinson, Scott; Lee, Byoungkoo; Fu, Haian; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Yi; Marcus, Adam I.

    2016-01-01

    LKB1 is a serine/threonine kinase and a commonly mutated gene in lung adenocarcinoma. The majority of LKB1 mutations are truncations that disrupt its kinase activity and remove its C-terminal domain (CTD). Because LKB1 inactivation drives cancer metastasis in mice and leads to aberrant cell invasion in vitro, we sought to determine how compromised LKB1 function affects lung cancer cell polarity and invasion. Using three-dimensional models, we show that LKB1 kinase activity is essential for focal adhesion kinase–mediated cell adhesion and subsequent collagen remodeling but not cell polarity. Instead, cell polarity is overseen by the kinase-independent function of its CTD and more specifically its farnesylation. This occurs through a mesenchymal-amoeboid morphological switch that signals through the Rho-GTPase RhoA. These data suggest that a combination of kinase-dependent and -independent defects by LKB1 inactivation creates a uniquely invasive cell with aberrant polarity and adhesion signaling that drives invasion into the microenvironment. PMID:26864623

  10. Spectral line polarization with angle-dependent partial frequency redistribution. I. A Stokes parameters decomposition for Rayleigh scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, H.

    2010-11-01

    Context. The linear polarization of a strong resonance lines observed near the solar limb is created by a multiple-scattering process. Partial frequency redistribution (PRD) effects must be accounted for to explain the polarization profiles. The redistribution matrix describing the scattering process is a sum of terms, each containing a PRD function multiplied by a Rayleigh type phase matrix. A standard approximation made in calculating the polarization is to average the PRD functions over all the scattering angles, because the numerical work needed to take the angle-dependence of the PRD functions into account is large and not always needed for reasonable evaluations of the polarization. Aims: This paper describes a Stokes parameters decomposition method, that is applicable in plane-parallel cylindrically symmetrical media, which aims at simplifying the numerical work needed to overcome the angle-average approximation. Methods: The decomposition method relies on an azimuthal Fourier expansion of the PRD functions associated to a decomposition of the phase matrices in terms of the Landi Degl'Innocenti irreducible spherical tensors for polarimetry T^K_Q(i, Ω) (i Stokes parameter index, Ω ray direction). The terms that depend on the azimuth of the scattering angle are retained in the phase matrices. Results: It is shown that the Stokes parameters I and Q, which have the same cylindrical symmetry as the medium, can be expressed in terms of four cylindrically symmetrical components I_Q^K (K = Q = 0, K = 2, Q = 0, 1, 2). The components with Q = 1, 2 are created by the angular dependence of the PRD functions. They go to zero at disk center, ensuring that Stokes Q also goes to zero. Each component I_Q^K is a solution to a standard radiative transfer equation. The source term S_Q^K are significantly simpler than the source terms corresponding to I and Q. They satisfy a set of integral equations that can be solved by an accelerated lambda iteration (ALI) method.

  11. Structure of the spontaneous emission spectra of high-{gamma} free electron lasers as measured at the Darmstadt (S-Dalinac) FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Renz, G.; Spindler, G.; Schlott, V.

    1995-12-31

    Recent spontaneous emission measurements at the Darmstadt infrared FEL indicate a relatively broad (down-shifted) spectrum with several intensity maxima. The typical features of the measured spectrum can be well reproduced by a numerical simulation comprising the 3-d electron dynamics in a realizable planar wiggler field, the spontaneous radiation according to the well-known Jackson formula, as well as the detection of the radiation with a finite aperture detector. An analytical consideration attributes the observed down-shift to the reduced Doppler up-shift of the radiation as observed under a finite angle with respect to the axis. The intensity peaks appear as a consequence of a modulation of the transverse velocity amplitudes of the electrons due to the betatron oscillation. The spectral spacing of these {open_quote}sidebands{close_quote} are roughly given by the Doppler up-shifted betatron frequency. Consequences for very high energy FELs will be discussed.

  12. Infrared amplified spontaneous emission from the 0 ((3)P0) and 0 ((1)D2) ion-pair states of molecular bromine.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Shoma; Araki, Mitsunori; Ishiwata, Takashi; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-07-28

    We report the observation of amplified spontaneous emission for the first time from the 0 ((3)P0) and 0 ((1)D2) ion-pair states of Br2 by using an optical-optical double resonance technique through the B (3)Π(0) valence state as the intermediate state. The strong infrared emission propagating along the incident laser radiation is assigned to the parallel ASE transitions from the 0 ion-pair states down to the nearby 0 ion-pair states. The subsequent UV fluorescence from the 0 states to the high vibrational levels of the ground state is also observed. By the Franck-Condon simulation of the cascade UV fluorescence, we determine the vibrational distributions in the 0 states populated by ASE, which are consistent with the intensity distribution in the dispersed infrared ASE spectrum. The lifetimes of the relevant ion-pair states are evaluated by analyzing the temporal profiles of the UV fluorescence. PMID:27410159

  13. Comparative study of amplified spontaneous emission and short pre-pulse impacts onto fast electron generation at sub-relativistic femtosecond laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, K. A.; Shulyapov, S. A.; Ksenofontov, P. A.; Tsymbalov, I. N.; Volkov, R. V.; Savel'ev, A. B.; Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Turinge, A. A.; Lapik, A. M.; Rusakov, A. V.; Djilkibaev, R. M.; Nedorezov, V. G.

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the study of hot electron generation under the action of intense (˜1018 W/cm2) femtosecond pulses onto the surface of a solid target, in the presence of a long pre-plasma, which varied with different spatial extents and densities. The corona was formed by pre-pulses with varied intensities and temporal profiles (amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and short pre-pulses). The most efficient fast electron acceleration, to energies well beyond the ponderomotive potential, was observed if the ASE was able to form to the extent of ˜100 μm a slightly undercritical plasma. Energy of accelerated electrons underwent further growth if the laser pulse duration increased from ˜45 to ˜350 fs at constant energy fluence. The experimental results were supported by numerical simulations using 3D3V Mandor PIC code.

  14. High-coverage organic-inorganic perovskite film fabricated by double spin coating for improved solar power conversion and amplified spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Inoue, Munetomo; Fujihara, Takashi; Terakawa, Shinobu; Qin, Chuanjiang; Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that double spin coating, where a perovskite film is covered with another perovskite film, can increase substrate coverage from 81% to 97% along with an increase of film thickness from 151 ± 17 to 246 ± 18 nm. The increased substrate coverage by double coating improves the solar power conversion efficiency from 7.1 ± 0.6 to 10.3 ± 1.0%, an approximate 1.5-fold increase. Additionally, a double-coated film of higher substrate coverage exhibits amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) while a single-coated film of lower substrate coverage does not exhibit ASE. Double coating is an attractive method for increasing substrate coverage and improving solar power conversion and ASE.

  15. Superradiant Pulse And Amplified Spontaneous Emission From The Flash Pumped Atomic Iodine System Undergoing The Laser Transition Of 2P 1/2- 2P3/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Jae W.; Kim, Gyu U.; Lee, Sang S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, Jaroszynski and King found superradiance(SR) occurring in photodissociatively created systems using NaI and n-C3F7I moleculesl) , and Hahn and Lee have performe2)d the amplified spontaneous emission(ASE) experiment in an iodine photodissociation laser(IPL) amplifier . In general, to observe SR experimentally, a very short intense pumping pulse of which FWHM is about a few tens of nanoseconds, is used for making a totally inverted system. But in this work, the amplifier is pumped with conventional flashlamps of FWHM=3us, yet we have detected a output pulse which is a superposition of ASE and SR. The temporal behaviour of the pulse is investigated in detail, and the experimental results are compared with theoretical results.

  16. Organic Crystals with Near-Infrared Amplified Spontaneous Emissions Based on 2'-Hydroxychalcone Derivatives: Subtle Structure Modification but Great Property Change.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao; Wang, Kai; Huang, Shuo; Zhang, Houyu; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Yue

    2015-07-13

    A series of highly efficient deep red to near-infrared (NIR) emissive organic crystals 1-3 based on the structurally simple 2'-hydroxychalcone derivatives were synthesized through a simple one-step condensation reaction. Crystal 1 displays the highest quantum yield (Φf) of 0.32 among the reported organic single crystals with an emission maximum (λem) over 710 nm. Comparison between the bright emissive crystals 1-3 and the nearly nonluminous compounds 4-7 clearly gives evidence that a subtle structure modification can arouse great property changes, which is instructive in designing new high-efficiency organic luminescent materials. Notably, crystals 1-3 exhibit amplified spontaneous emissions (ASE) with extremely low thresholds. Thus, organic deep red to NIR emissive crystals with very high Φf have been obtained and are found to display the first example of NIR fluorescent crystal ASE.

  17. Mouse macrophage polarity and ROCK1 activity depend on RhoA and non-apoptotic Caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yianzhu; Minze, Laurie J; Mumma, Lindsay; Li, Xian C; Ghobrial, Rafik M; Kloc, Malgorzata

    2016-02-15

    The macrophages have different subtypes with different functions in immune response and disease. It has been generally accepted that M1 macrophages are responsible for stimulation of immune system and inflammation while M2 macrophages play a role in tissue repair. Irrespective of the type, macrophage functions depend on actin cytoskeleton, which is under the control of small GTPase RhoA pathway and its downstream effector ROCK1. We generated RhoA-deleted macrophages and compared the effect of RhoA deletion on M0, M1 and M2 macrophage phenotype. Our studies showed that, unexpectedly, the RhoA deletion did not eliminate macrophage ROCK1 expression and increased ROCK1 activity. The RhoA deletion effect on macrophage phenotype, structure and polarity was different for each subtype. Moreover, our study indicates that the up-regulation of ROCK1 activity in RhoA-deleted macrophages and macrophage phenotype/polarity are dependent on non-apoptotic Caspase-3 and are sensitive to Caspase-3 inhibition. These novel findings will revise/complement our understanding of RhoA pathway regulation of cell structure and polarity. PMID:26875770

  18. Control of antiferromagnetic domain distribution via polarization-dependent optical annealing

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takuya; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The absence of net magnetization inside antiferromagnetic domains has made the control of their spatial distribution quite challenging. Here we experimentally demonstrate an optical method for controlling antiferromagnetic domain distributions in MnF2. Reduced crystalline symmetry can couple an order parameter with non-conjugate external stimuli. In the case of MnF2, time-reversal symmetry is macroscopically broken reflecting the different orientations of the two magnetic sublattices. Thus, it exhibits different absorption coefficients between two orthogonal linear polarizations below its antiferromagnetic transition temperature under an external magnetic field. Illumination with linearly polarized laser light under this condition selectively destructs the formation of a particular antiferromagnetic order via heating. As a result, the other antiferromagnetic order is favoured inside the laser spot, achieving spatially localized selection of an antiferromagnetic order. Applications to control of interface states at antiferromagnetic domain boundaries, exchange bias and control of spin currents are expected. PMID:26911337

  19. Optical spin polarization and Hanle effect in GaAsSb: Temperature dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Weiyang; Wang, Xingjun E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Chen, Pingping; Li, Ning; Lu, Wei E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn

    2014-08-25

    Continuous-wave optical orientation spectroscopy and the Hanle effect are used to investigate the optical spin polarization and spin dephasing time (gT{sub s}) in GaAsSb with a Sb concentration of ∼6% as a function of temperature. Optical and spin polarizations up to ∼21% were achieved at ∼120 K, and the scaled spin lifetime gT{sub s} decreased monotonously from ∼1.5 ns at 5 K to ∼20 ps at 200 K. We demonstrate that the spin properties of GaAs could be modified by incorporating a small percentage of Sb into it, as a result of an increase in the spin–orbit interactions.

  20. Carrier and polarization dynamics in monolayer MoS2: temperature and power dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbaszek, Bernhard; Lagarde, D.; Bouet, L.; Amand, T.; Marie, X.; Zhu, C. R.; Liu, B. L.; Tan, P. H.

    2014-03-01

    In monolayer (ML) MoS2 optical transitions across the direct bandgap are governed by chiral selection rules, allowing optical k-valley initialization. Here we present the first time resolved photoluminescence (PL) polarization measurements in MoS2 MLs, providing vital information on the electron valley dynamics. Using quasi-resonant excitation of the A-exciton transitions, we can infer that the PL decays within τ ~= 4ps. The PL polarization of Pc ~ 60 % remains nearly constant in time for experiments from 4K - 300K, a necessary condition for the success of future Valley Hall experiments. τ does not vary significantly over this temperature range. This is surprising when considering the decrease of Pc in continuous wave experiments when going from 4K to 300K reported in the literature. By tuning the laser following the shift of the A-exciton resonance with temperature we are able to recover at 300K ~ 80 % of the polarization observed at 4K. For pulsed laser excitation, we observe a decrease of Pc with increasing laser power at all temperatures.

  1. Dependence of the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals on site latitude.

    PubMed

    Clement, Bradford M

    2004-04-01

    An important constraint on the processes governing the geodynamo--the flow in the outer core responsible for generating Earth's magnetic field--is the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals; that is, how long it takes for Earth's magnetic field to reverse. It is generally accepted that Earth's magnetic field strength drops to low levels during polarity reversals, and the field direction progresses through a 180 degrees change while the field is weak. The time it takes for this process to happen, however, remains uncertain, with estimates ranging from a few thousand up to 28,000 years. Here I present an analysis of the available sediment records of the four most recent polarity reversals. These records yield an average estimate of about 7,000 years for the time it takes for the directional change to occur. The variation about this mean duration is not random, but instead varies with site latitude, with shorter durations observed at low-latitude sites, and longer durations observed at mid- to high-latitude sites. Such variation of duration with site latitude is predicted by simple geometrical reversal models, in which non-dipole fields are allowed to persist while the axial dipole decays through zero and then builds in the opposite direction, and provides a constraint on numerical dynamo models. PMID:15071591

  2. Temperature dependence of Kerr coefficient and quadratic polarized optical coefficient of a paraelectric Mn:Fe:KTN crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qieni; Han, Jinxin; Dai, Haitao; Ge, Baozhen; Zhao, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    We measure temperature dependence on Kerr coefficient and quadratic polarized optical coefficient of a paraelectric Mn:Fe:KTN crystal simultaneously in this work, based on digital holographic interferometry (DHI). And the spatial distribution of the field-induced refractive index change can also be visualized and estimated by numerically retrieving sequential phase maps of Mn:Fe:KTN crystal from recording digital holograms in different states. The refractive indices decrease with increasing temperature and quadratic polarized optical coefficient is insensitive to temperature. The experimental results suggest that the DHI method presented here is highly applicable in both visualizing the temporal and spatial behavior of the internal electric field and accurately measuring electro-optic coefficient for electrooptical media.

  3. Dependence of Polarization of the near-Earth Asteroids (1036) Ganymed and (5143) Heracles on Wavelength and Phase Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleszewski, C.; McMillan, R.; Smith, P.

    2012-12-01

    We are measuring the polarization of asteroids with the SPOL polarimeter of Steward Observatory. With monthly access to the instrument, we can obtain many observations throughout phase angle. This is in contrast to other recent work that had to rely on aggregate properties of targets of similar taxonomic type. Comparing individual objects to these aggregate results may reveal differences of regolith properties from object to object. Both the phase angle and spectral dependence of polarization are being measured. SPOL provides simultaneous coverage from 0.40-0.75 microns, equivalent to BVR filters. Three phase curves thus reveal differences of phase angle dependences with respect to wavelength. The spectral dependence of the linear polarization is determined according to a linear trend previously used to describe the dependence for Main Belt Asteroids (MBAs) in various taxonomic classes (Belskaya et al. 2009). The slopes of these linear trends vs. phase angle are also investigated as was also done in the Belskaya analysis for MBAs in the C-, M-, and S-types. Two initial objects of interest are the NEAs (1036) Ganymed and (5143) Heracles. The taxonomic types of Ganymed and Heracles are S-type and Q-type respectively (DeMeo et al. 2009). For Ganymed, twelve observations were made between 2011 September and 2012 March. These include observations below ten degrees phase angle, which are currently lacking in the polarimetric databases. The positive branch of Ganymed's polarization phase curve behaved similarly across SPOL's wavelength range. But for wavelengths associated with a typical B-filter, the negative branch is more shallow and narrow. The negative phase branch of Ganymed is smaller compared to the aggregate phase curve of S-types determined by Gil-Hutton and Cañada-Assandri (2011). The linear polarization decreases with increasing wavelength at all observed phase angles. As the phase angle increases, the slope of the wavelength dependence of polarization

  4. Temperature dependence on the pesticide sampling rate of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS).

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Yoshinori; Nagai, Takashi; Inao, Keiya; Ono, Junko; Aiko, Nobuyuki; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tanimori, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the sampling rates of pesticides for the polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) used in Japan. The concentrations of pesticides in aquatic environments were estimated from the accumulated amounts of pesticide on POCIS, and the effect of water temperature on the pesticide sampling rates was evaluated. The sampling rates of 48 pesticides at 18, 24, and 30 °C were obtained, and this study confirmed that increasing trend of sampling rates was resulted with increasing water temperature for many pesticides. PMID:27305429

  5. Polarization-dependent colored conical emission in a quadratically nonlinear medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jie; Zhou, Lina; Zheng, Anshou; Lv, Tao; Xiang, Dong

    2012-07-01

    Both supercontinuum conical emission (SCCE) and blue-green conical emission (CE) by means of second harmonic generation (SHG) were observed alternately in a β-barium borate (BBO) crystal induced by femtosecond laser pulses with vertical polarization state. Three theoretical models were analyzed to interpret the angular beam of SCCE. The experimental conical angles with different wavelengths in BBO crystal and BK-7 glass can be explained well by nonlinear X-wave model and Cerenkov type phase matching model other than four-wave mixing (FWM) model.

  6. Effects of interaction and polarization on spin-charge separation: A time-dependent spin-density-functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianlong, Gao

    2010-03-01

    We calculate the nonequilibrium dynamic evolution of a one-dimensional system of two-component fermionic atoms after a strong local quench by using a time-dependent spin-density-functional theory. The interaction quench is also considered to see its influence on the spin-charge separation. It is shown that the charge velocity is larger than the spin velocity for the system of on-site repulsive interaction (Luttinger liquid), and vise versa for the system of on-site attractive interaction (Luther-Emery liquid). We find that both the interaction quench and polarization suppress the spin-charge separation.

  7. Energetic auroral and polar ion outflow at DE 1 altitudes Magnitude, composition, magnetic activity dependence, and long-term variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, A. W.; Lenchyshyn, L.; Shelley, E. G.; Peterson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Data acquired from the Dynamics Explorer I Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer in the period from September 1981 to May 1984 are used to determine the magnitude of the terrestrial ion outflow in the 0.01-17 keV/el range. The data are also employed to investigate the mass composition and topology (local time and invariant latitude distributions) of the ion outflow, as well as the outflow's magnetic activity dependence and long-term variation. The relative importance of auroral versus polar cap upflowing ions as a source of energetic plasma for various parts of the magnetosphere is examined.

  8. Disk instability and the time-dependent X-ray emission from the intermediate polar GK Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Insu; Kim, Soon-Wook; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The correlation between the disk instability model for the 1981-1989 optical outbursts of the intermediate polar GK Per and the accompanying X-ray emission is examined, and the self-consistency of the combined optical-X-ray model is investigated. Special attention is given to the nature of the transition in the X-ray emission due to the time-dependent accretion rates in the simple column accretion model. The large variation in the efficiency of hard X-ray production is explained.

  9. The Frizzled-dependent planar polarity pathway locally promotes E-cadherin turnover via recruitment of RhoGEF2

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Samantha J.; Strutt, Helen; Strutt, David

    2013-01-01

    Polarised tissue elongation during morphogenesis involves cells within epithelial sheets or tubes making and breaking intercellular contacts in an oriented manner. Growing evidence suggests that cell adhesion can be modulated by endocytic trafficking of E-cadherin (E-cad), but how this process can be polarised within individual cells is poorly understood. The Frizzled (Fz)-dependent core planar polarity pathway is a major regulator of polarised cell rearrangements in processes such as gastrulation, and has also been implicated in regulation of cell adhesion through trafficking of E-cad; however, it is not known how these functions are integrated. We report a novel role for the core planar polarity pathway in promoting cell intercalation during tracheal tube morphogenesis in Drosophila embryogenesis, and present evidence that this is due to regulation of turnover and levels of junctional E-cad by the guanine exchange factor RhoGEF2. Furthermore, we show that core pathway activity leads to planar-polarised recruitment of RhoGEF2 and E-cad turnover in the epidermis of both the embryonic germband and the pupal wing. We thus reveal a general mechanism by which the core planar polarity pathway can promote polarised cell rearrangements. PMID:23364328

  10. Regulation of cochlear convergent extension by the vertebrate planar cell polarity pathway is dependent on p120-catenin.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Heszele, Maria F; Ren, Dongdong; Reynolds, Albert B; Chi, Fanglu; Chen, Ping

    2012-03-01

    The vertebrate planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway consists of conserved PCP and ciliary genes. During development, the PCP pathway regulates convergent extension (CE) and uniform orientation of sensory hair cells in the cochlea. It is not clear how these diverse morphogenetic processes are regulated by a common set of PCP genes. Here, we show that cellular contacts and geometry change drastically and that the dynamic expression of N-cadherin and E-cadherin demarcates sharp boundaries during cochlear extension. The conditional knockout of a component of the adherens junctions, p120-catenin, leads to the reduction of E-cadherin and N-cadherin and to characteristic cochlear CE defects but not misorientation of hair cells. The specific CE defects in p120-catenin mutants are in contrast to associated CE and hair cell misorientation defects observed in common PCP gene mutants. Moreover, the loss-of-function of a conserved PCP gene, Vangl2, alters the dynamic distribution of N-cadherin and E-cadherin in the cochlea and causes similar abnormalities in cellular morphology to those found in p120-catenin mutants. Conversely, we found that Pcdh15 interacts genetically with PCP genes to regulate the formation of polar hair bundles, but not CE defects in the cochlea. Together, these results indicate that the vertebrate PCP pathway regulates CE and hair cell polarity independently and that a p120-catenin-dependent mechanism regulates CE of the cochlea. PMID:22318628

  11. Induced polarization dependence on pore space geometry: Empirical observations and mechanistic predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, A.; Slater, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    We use an extensive database to compare empirical observations and previously proposed empirical models against recently developed mechanistic formulations for the induced polarization (IP) response in porous media as a function of pore space geometry and interfacial chemistry. These comparisons support the argument that the pore-volume normalized internal surface (Spor) is the most important geometric parameter influencing the polarization. The specific polarizability derived from the empirical relationship between imaginary conductivity σ″ and Spor is independent of the porosity. By contrast, equivalent specific polarizability terms in recently proposed mechanistic models are found to be significantly correlated with porosity, and thus do not appear to represent an interfacial chemistry factor independent of the pore space geometry. Furthermore, the database shows no evidence for a significant decrease in the counterion mobility of clayey materials relative to clay-free materials, as postulated in recent studies. On the contrary, a single value of cp is consistent with no significant differences in ionic mobility given that all samples were saturated with a NaCl solution close to a common salinity of about 100 mS/m.

  12. Dependence of electronic polarization on octahedral rotations in TbMnO3 from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashevich, Andrei; Vanderbilt, David

    2009-12-01

    The electronic contribution to the magnetically induced polarization in orthorhombic TbMnO3 is studied from first principles. We compare the cases in which the spin cycloid, which induces the electric polarization via the spin-orbit interaction, is in either the b-c or a-b plane. We find that the electronic contribution is negligible in the first case, but much larger, and comparable to the lattice-mediated contribution, in the second case. However, we show that this behavior is an artifact of the particular pattern of octahedral rotations characterizing the structurally relaxed Pbnm crystal structure. To do so, we explore how the electronic contribution varies for a structural model of rigidly rotated MnO6 octahedra and demonstrate that it can vary over a wide range, comparable with the lattice-mediated contribution, for both b-c and a-b spirals. We present a phenomenological model that is capable of describing this behavior in terms of sums of symmetry-constrained contributions arising from the displacements of oxygen atoms from the centers of the Mn-Mn bonds.

  13. Dependence of spectral-induced polarization response of sandstone on temperature and its relevance to permeability estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zisser, N.; Kemna, A.; Nover, G.

    2010-09-01

    The possibility to estimate permeability from the electrical spectral induced polarization (SIP) response might be the most important benefit offered by SIP measurements. It can thus be deduced that, in the future, SIP measurements will be carried out more frequently at the field scale or in a well-logging context to estimate permeability. In the shallow subsurface, however, the temperature generally exhibits seasonal variability, and in the deeper subsurface, it usually increases with depth. Hence, knowledge about the dependence of the SIP response on temperature is necessary in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of datasets impacted by thermal effects. In our study, we present a semiempirical framework to describe the temperature dependence of the SIP response. We briefly introduce the SIP response and its relation to permeability in terms of an electrochemical polarization mechanism and combine this formulation with relationships for the dependence of ionic mobility on temperature. We compare the predictions of our formulation with the experimental data from SIP measurements performed on sandstone at temperatures from 0°C to 80°C. The measured SIP response was transformed into a relaxation time distribution, using the empirical Cole-Cole model and a regularized Debye decomposition procedure. The SIP response was found to be in good agreement with the theoretical model. The temperature dependence of both direct current conductivity and relaxation time is controlled mainly by the dependence of ionic mobility on temperature, and the shape of the relaxation time distribution of the investigated sandstone is almost independent of temperature. The temperature effect on the SIP response can therefore be easily corrected.

  14. Upper Thermosphere Winds and Temperatures in the Geomagnetic Polar Cap: Solar Cycle, Geomagnetic Activity, and Interplanetary Magnetic Field Dependencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killeen, T. L.; Won, Y.-I.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Burns, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers located at Thule, Greenland (76.5 deg. N, 69.0 deg. W, lambda = 86 deg.) and at Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland (67.0 deg. N, 50.9 deg. W, lambda = 74 deg.) have monitored the upper thermospheric (approx. 240-km altitude) neutral wind and temperature over the northern hemisphere geomagnetic polar cap since 1983 and 1985, respectively. The thermospheric observations are obtained by determining the Doppler characteristics of the (OI) 15,867-K (630.0-nm) emission of atomic oxygen. The instruments operate on a routine, automatic, (mostly) untended basis during the winter observing seasons, with data coverage limited only by cloud cover and (occasional) instrument failures. This unique database of geomagnetic polar cap measurements now extends over the complete range of solar activity. We present an analysis of the measurements made between 1985 (near solar minimum) and 1991 (near solar maximum), as part of a long-term study of geomagnetic polar cap thermospheric climatology. The measurements from a total of 902 nights of observations are compared with the predictions of two semiempirical models: the Vector Spherical Harmonic (VSH) model of Killeen et al. (1987) and the Horizontal Wind Model (HWM) of Hedin et al. (1991). The results are also analyzed using calculations of thermospheric momentum forcing terms from the Thermosphere-ionosphere General Circulation Model TGCM) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The experimental results show that upper thermospheric winds in the geomagnetic polar cap have a fundamental diurnal character, with typical wind speeds of about 200 m/s at solar minimum, rising to up to about 800 m/s at solar maximum, depending on geomagnetic activity level. These winds generally blow in the antisunward direction, but are interrupted by episodes of modified wind velocity and altered direction often associated with changes in the orientation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). The

  15. Multiple-Station Observation of Frequency Dependence and Polarization Characteristics of ELF/VLF waves generated via Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals through ionospheric modification has been practiced for many years. Heating the lower ionosphere with high power HF waves allows for modulation of natural current systems. Our experiments were carried out at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. In this experiment, the ionosphere was heated with a vertical amplitude modulating signal and the modulation frequency was changed sequentially within an array of 40 frequencies followed by a frequency ramp. The observed magnetic field amplitude and polarization of the generated ELF/VLF signals were analyzed for multiple sites and as a function of modulation frequency. Our three observation sites: Chistochina, Paxson and Paradise are located within 36km (azimuth 47.7°), 50.2km (azimuth -20°) and 99km (azimuth 80.3°) respectively. We show that the peak amplitudes observed as a function of frequency result from vertical resonance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and can be used to diagnose the D-region profile. Polarization analysis showed that out of the three sites Paxson shows the highest circularity in the magnetic field polarization, compared to Chistochina and Paradise which show highly linear polarizations. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical simulation model results and it was clear that in both cases, the modulated Hall current dominates the observed signals at Chistochina and Paradise sites and at Paxson there is an equal contribution from Hall and Pedersen currents. The Chistochina site shows the highest magnetic field amplitudes in both experimental and simulation environments. Depending upon the experimental and simulation observations at the three sites, a radiation pattern for the HAARP ionospheric heater can be mapped

  16. Transient, polarity-dependent dielectric response in a twisted nematic liquid crystal under very low frequency excitation.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K S

    2015-09-01

    The electric Freedericksz transition is a second-order quadratic effect, which, in a planarly aligned nematic liquid crystal layer, manifests above a threshold field as a homogeneous symmetric distortion with maximum director-tilt in the midplane. We find that, upon excitation by a low frequency (<0.2Hz) square-wave field, the instability becomes spatially and temporally varying. This is demonstrated using calamitic liquid crystals, initially in the 90°-twisted planar configuration. The distortion occurs close to the negative electrode following each polarity switch and, for low-voltage amplitudes, decays completely in time. We use the elastically favorable geometry of Brochard-Leger walls to establish the location of maximum distortion. Thus, at successive polarity changes, the direction of extension of both annular and open walls switches between the alignment directions at the two substrates. For high voltages, this direction is largely along the midplane director, while remaining marginally oscillatory. These results are broadly understood by taking into account the time-varying and inhomogeneous field conditions that prevail soon after the polarity reverses. Polarity dependence of the instability is traced to the formation of intrinsic double layers that lead to an asymmetry in field distribution in the presence of an external bias. Momentary field elevation near the negative electrode following a voltage sign reversal leads to locally enhanced dielectric and gradient flexoelectric torques, which accounts for the surface-like phenomenon observed at low voltages. These spatiotemporal effects, also found earlier for other instabilities, are generic in nature. PMID:26465487

  17. Chemokine-Dependent pH Elevation at the Cell Front Sustains Polarity in Directionally Migrating Zebrafish Germ Cells.

    PubMed

    Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Grimaldi, Cecilia; Raz, Erez

    2015-04-20

    Directional cell migration requires cell polarization with respect to the distribution of the guidance cue. Cell polarization often includes asymmetric distribution of response components as well as elements of the motility machinery. Importantly, the function and regulation of most of these molecules are known to be pH dependent. Intracellular pH gradients were shown to occur in certain cells migrating in vitro, but the functional relevance of such gradients for cell migration and for the response to directional cues, particularly in the intact organism, is currently unknown. In this study, we find that primordial germ cells migrating in the context of the developing embryo respond to the graded distribution of the chemokine Cxcl12 by establishing elevated intracellular pH at the cell front. We provide insight into the mechanisms by which a polar pH distribution contributes to efficient cell migration. Specifically, we show that Carbonic Anhydrase 15b, an enzyme controlling the pH in many cell types, including metastatic cancer cells, is expressed in migrating germ cells and is crucial for establishing and maintaining an asymmetric pH distribution within them. Reducing the level of the protein and thereby erasing the pH elevation at the cell front resulted in abnormal cell migration and impaired arrival at the target. The basis for the disrupted migration is found in the stringent requirement for pH conditions in the cell for regulating contractility, for the polarization of Rac1 activity, and hence for the formation of actin-rich structures at the leading edge of the migrating cells.

  18. ⁵⁷Fe polarization-dependent synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy using a diamond phase plate and an iron borate nuclear Bragg monochromator.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Takaya; Imai, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Ryo; Seto, Makoto; Mibu, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Energy-domain (57)Fe polarization-dependent synchrotron radiation Mössbauer spectroscopy was developed by using a diamond X-ray phase plate and an iron borate nuclear Bragg monochromator. The former controls the polarization of the incident synchrotron radiation X-rays and the latter filters the (57)Fe-Mössbauer radiation with a narrow bandwidth of ∼3.4 Γ0 (Γ0 ≃ 4.7 neV: natural linewidth of the (57)Fe nucleus) from the broadband synchrotron radiation. The developed nuclear diffraction optics allowed (57)Fe-Mössbauer studies to be performed with various polarization states, i.e. linear polarization, circular polarization and non-polarization. In this paper, the spectrometer system, beam characterization, performance-test experiments and a grazing-incidence Mössbauer measurement of an isotope-enriched ((57)Fe: 95%) iron thin film are described. PMID:25723944

  19. Large polarization-dependent exciton optical Stark effect in lead iodide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Yang, Mengjin; Zhu, Kai; Johnson, Justin C; Berry, Joseph J; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Beard, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    A strong interaction of a semiconductor with a below-bandgap laser pulse causes a blue-shift of the bandgap transition energy, known as the optical Stark effect. The energy shift persists only during the pulse duration with an instantaneous response time. The optical Stark effect has practical relevance for applications, including quantum information processing and communication, and passively mode-locked femtosecond lasers. Here we demonstrate that solution-processable lead-halide perovskites exhibit a large optical Stark effect that is easily resolved at room temperature resulting from the sharp excitonic feature near the bandedge. We also demonstrate that a polarized pump pulse selectively shifts one spin state producing a spin splitting of the degenerate excitonic states. Such selective spin manipulation is an important prerequisite for spintronic applications. Our result implies that such hybrid semiconductors may have great potential for optoelectronic applications beyond photovoltaics. PMID:27577007

  20. Spectral Modifications and Polarization Dependent Coupling in Tailored Assemblies of Quantum Dots and Plasmonic Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of optical emitters with a nanostructured environment is at the heart of nano- and quantum optics. We control this coupling by the lithographic positioning of a few (1–3) quantum dots (QDs) along plasmonic silver nanowires with nanoscale resolution. The fluorescence emission from the QD-nanowire systems is probed spectroscopically, by microscopic imaging and decay time measurements. We find that the plasmonic modes can strongly modulate the fluorescence emission. For a given QD position, the local plasmon field dictates the coupling efficiency, and thus the relative weight of free space radiation and emission into plasmon modes. Simulations performed with a generic few-level model give very good agreement with experiment. Our data imply that the 2D degenerate emission dipole orientation of the QD can be forced to predominantly emit to one polarization component dictated by the nanowire modes. PMID:23968490

  1. Large polarization-dependent exciton optical Stark effect in lead iodide perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Ye; Yang, Mengjin; Zhu, Kai; Johnson, Justin C.; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Beard, Matthew C.

    2016-08-31

    A strong interaction of a semiconductor with a below-bandgap laser pulse causes a blue-shift of the bandgap transition energy, known as the optical Stark effect. The energy shift persists only during the pulse duration with an instantaneous response time. The optical Stark effect has practical relevance for applications, including quantum information processing and communication, and passively mode-locked femtosecond lasers. Here we demonstrate that solution-processable lead-halide perovskites exhibit a large optical Stark effect that is easily resolved at room temperature resulting from the sharp excitonic feature near the bandedge. We also demonstrate that a polarized pump pulse selectively shifts one spinmore » state producing a spin splitting of the degenerate excitonic states. Such selective spin manipulation is an important prerequisite for spintronic applications. Lastly, our result implies that such hybrid semiconductors may have great potential for optoelectronic applications beyond photovoltaics.« less

  2. Large polarization-dependent exciton optical Stark effect in lead iodide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Yang, Mengjin; Zhu, Kai; Johnson, Justin C.; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Beard, Matthew C.

    2016-08-01

    A strong interaction of a semiconductor with a below-bandgap laser pulse causes a blue-shift of the bandgap transition energy, known as the optical Stark effect. The energy shift persists only during the pulse duration with an instantaneous response time. The optical Stark effect has practical relevance for applications, including quantum information processing and communication, and passively mode-locked femtosecond lasers. Here we demonstrate that solution-processable lead-halide perovskites exhibit a large optical Stark effect that is easily resolved at room temperature resulting from the sharp excitonic feature near the bandedge. We also demonstrate that a polarized pump pulse selectively shifts one spin state producing a spin splitting of the degenerate excitonic states. Such selective spin manipulation is an important prerequisite for spintronic applications. Our result implies that such hybrid semiconductors may have great potential for optoelectronic applications beyond photovoltaics.

  3. Large polarization-dependent exciton optical Stark effect in lead iodide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye; Yang, Mengjin; Zhu, Kai; Johnson, Justin C.; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Beard, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    A strong interaction of a semiconductor with a below-bandgap laser pulse causes a blue-shift of the bandgap transition energy, known as the optical Stark effect. The energy shift persists only during the pulse duration with an instantaneous response time. The optical Stark effect has practical relevance for applications, including quantum information processing and communication, and passively mode-locked femtosecond lasers. Here we demonstrate that solution-processable lead-halide perovskites exhibit a large optical Stark effect that is easily resolved at room temperature resulting from the sharp excitonic feature near the bandedge. We also demonstrate that a polarized pump pulse selectively shifts one spin state producing a spin splitting of the degenerate excitonic states. Such selective spin manipulation is an important prerequisite for spintronic applications. Our result implies that such hybrid semiconductors may have great potential for optoelectronic applications beyond photovoltaics. PMID:27577007

  4. Origins of polarization-dependent anisotropic X-ray scattering from organic thin films.

    PubMed

    Gann, Eliot; Collins, Brian A; Tang, Maolong; Tumbleston, John R; Mukherjee, Subrangsu; Ade, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Organic thin films that have no overall in-plane directional ordering often nonetheless produce anisotropic scattering patterns that rotate with the polarization of incident resonant X-rays. Isotropic symmetry is broken by local correlations between molecular orientation and domain structure. Such examples of molecular alignment at domain interfaces and within the bulk of domains, which are both critical to fields such as organic electronics, are simulated and compared with experimental scattering. Anisotropic scattering patterns are found to allow unambiguous identification of the mechanism of local molecular orientation correlations and, as such, promise to be both distinct and complementary to isotropic scattering intensity as a general measure of thin film microstructure. PMID:26698067

  5. Polarized dependence of nonlinear susceptibility in a single layer graphene system in infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solookinejad, G.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of a single-layer graphene nanostructure driven by a weak probe light and an elliptical polarized coupling field is discussed theoretically. The Landau levels of graphene can be separated in infrared or terahertz regions under the strong magnetic field. Therefore, by using the density matrix formalism in quantum optic, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of the medium can be derived. It is demonstrated that by adjusting the elliptical parameter, one can manipulate the linear and nonlinear absorption as well as Kerr nonlinearity of the medium. It is realized that the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be possible with zero linear absorption and nonlinear amplification at some values of elliptical parameter. Our results may be having potential applications in quantum information science based on Nano scales devices.

  6. Comparison of the classical rate and the Einstein coefficient for spontaneous emission in a light-absorbing cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Datsyuk, Vitaly V.; Juodkazis, Saulius; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2005-08-15

    The rate of spontaneous electromagnetic emission in a cavity is the normalized output radiation rate in the classical electrodynamics and the Einstein A coefficient in a quantum theory. We reveal the difference and similarity between the quantum and classical rates by calculations of the relative output power of the resonant spontaneous electric-dipole emission as a function of light absorption in a high-Q cavity. We show that the relative resonant output power is equal to the relative width of a morphology-dependent resonance in the spectral dependence of the Einstein A coefficient. The validity of the theory is demonstrated by numerical verification of an experimental result on a microsphere.

  7. Derivation of effective penetration depth of femtosecond laser pulses in metal from ablation rate dependence on laser fluence, incidence angle, and polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiro; Hashida, Masaki; Nishii, Takaya; Inoue, Shunsuke; Sakabe, Shuji

    2015-01-05

    Ablation rate dependence on laser fluence for copper subjected to oblique femtosecond laser irradiation has been determined experimentally in order to investigate processing induced by oblique irradiation. A difference of ablation rate between p-polarized and s-polarized oblique irradiation is clearly observed. Effective penetration depth is defined to explain the ablation rate dependence instead of using optical penetration depth, which is treated as a key value for determining the ablation rate in conventional theory. The effective penetration depth for copper is presented in simple formulas as a function of laser incidence angle for each polarization.

  8. Unusual polarity-dependent patterns in a bent-core nematic liquid crystal under low-frequency ac field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ying; Zhou, Meng-jie; Xu, Ming-Ya; Salamon, Péter; Éber, Nándor; Buka, Ágnes

    2015-04-01

    Electric-field-induced patterns of diverse morphology have been observed over a wide frequency range in a recently synthesized bent-core nematic (BCN) liquid crystal. At low frequencies (up to ˜25 Hz), the BCN exhibited unusual polarity-dependent patterns. When the amplitude of the ac field was enhanced, these two time-asymmetrical patterns turned into time-symmetrical prewavylike stripes. At ac frequencies in the middle-frequency range (˜50-3000 Hz), zigzag patterns were detected whose obliqueness varied with the frequency. Finally, if the frequency was increased above 3 kHz, the zigzag pattern was replaced by another, prewavylike pattern, whose threshold voltage depended on the frequency; however, the wave vector did not. For a more complete characterization, material parameters such as elastic constants, dielectric permittivities, and the anisotropy of the diamagnetic susceptibility were also determined.

  9. How to measure a complete set of polarization-dependent differential cross sections in a scattering experiment with aligned reagents?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fengyan E-mail: kliu@po.iams.sinica.edu.tw; Lin, Jui-San; Liu, Kopin E-mail: kliu@po.iams.sinica.edu.tw

    2014-02-28

    Polarization-dependent differential cross section (PDDCS) is one of the three-vector correlations (k, k{sup ′}, j) in molecular collisions, which provides the most detailed insights into the steric requirements of chemical reactions, i.e., how the reactivity depends on the polarization of reagents. Only quite recently has such quantity been fully realized experimentally in the study of the reaction of the aligned CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1, |jK〉 = |10〉) molecules with Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms. Theoretically, PDDCS is a relatively new concept; experimental realization of the theoretical construct requires some careful considerations that are not readily available in the literature. Here, we present the “know-how” behind the full PDDCS measurements to fill the gaps and to provide a clear roadmap for future applications. To make the connection apparent between the methodology presented here and the stereodynamics revealed in previous reports, the same Cl + aligned CHD{sub 3} reaction is used for illustration.

  10. Wavelength dependence of linear polarization in the visible and near infrared domain for large levitating grains (PROGRA2 instruments)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, J.-B.; Hadamcik, E.; Couté, B.; Jeannot, M.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2014-10-01

    Remote sensing measurements of light scattered by dust in solar system objects can provide clues on their physical properties. Databases obtained in the laboratory with numerous samples are necessary to interpret these measurements. We present here first studies of the wavelength dependence of the linear polarization between 545 nm and 1.5 μm, using the imaging polarimeters PROGRA2 for large levitating compact grains (PROGRA2-VIS in the visible domain, and the new instrument PROGRA2-IR in the near infrared). The measurements are conducted in microgravity conditions during parabolic flights for glass beads, quartz, sands, silicon carbides, anthracite, and lunar and Martian simulants. Comparison between measurements on glass beads and Mie calculations with glass spheres provides an assessment of the quality of the instruments. The dependence of the polarization on the wavelength is related to the complex refractive index of the particles, i.e. to their composition and to the size of the grains. More laboratory measurements will be necessary, in particular with smaller grains in aggregates, to better reproduce the remote sensing observations of solar system bodies.

  11. Growth condition dependence of photoluminescence polarization in (100) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Iba, Satoshi; Saito, Hidekazu; Yuasa, Shinji; Watanabe, Ken; Ohno, Yuzo

    2015-08-28

    We conducted systematic measurements on the carrier lifetime (τ{sub c}), spin relaxation time (τ{sub s}), and circular polarization of photoluminescence (P{sub circ}) in (100) GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The τ{sub c} values are strongly affected by MBE growth conditions (0.4–9 ns), whereas the τ{sub s} are almost constant at about 0.13 ns. The result suggests that spin detection efficiency [τ{sub s}/(τ{sub c} + τ{sub s})], which is expected to be proportional to a steady-state P{sub circ}, is largely dependent on growth condition. We confirmed that the P{sub circ} has similar dependence on growth condition to those of τ{sub s}/(τ{sub c} + τ{sub s}) values. The study thus indicates that choosing the appropriate growth condition of the QW is indispensable for obtaining a high P{sub circ} from a spin-polarized light-emitting diode (spin-LED)

  12. Nonequilibrium dynamics of bosonic atoms in optical lattices: Decoherence of many-body states due to spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, H.; Daley, A. J.; Zoller, P.

    2010-12-01

    We analyze in detail the heating of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice due to incoherent scattering of light from the lasers forming the lattice. Because atoms scattered into higher bands do not thermalize on the time scale of typical experiments, this process cannot be described by the total energy increase in the system alone (which is determined by single-particle effects). The heating instead involves an important interplay between the atomic physics of the heating process and the many-body physics of the state. We characterize the effects on many-body states for various system parameters, where we observe important differences in the heating for strongly and weakly interacting regimes, as well as a strong dependence on the sign of the laser detuning from the excited atomic state. We compute heating rates and changes to characteristic correlation functions based on both perturbation-theory calculations and a time-dependent calculation of the dissipative many-body dynamics. The latter is made possible for one-dimensional systems by combining time-dependent density-matrix-renormalization-group methods with quantum trajectory techniques.

  13. The latitude dependencies of the solar wind. [of interplanetary magnetic field polarity and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, R. L.; Winge, C. R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The motion of spacecraft following the earth's orbit occurs within the solar latitude range of 7 deg 15 min N on approximately September 7 to 7 deg 15 min S on approximately March 6. The latitude dependencies so far detected within this range have shown that the photospheric dipole-like field of the sun makes very important contributions to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) observed near the ecliptic. Changes in geomagnetic activity from even to odd numbered 11-year solar cycles are related to changes in the sun's dipolar field. The north-south IMF component and meridional, nonradial flow are important to a complete understanding of steady-state solar wind dynamics. Coronal conditions must be latitude-dependent in a way that accounts for the observed latitude dependence of the velocity and density of the solar wind.

  14. Orientation-and polarization-dependent optical properties of the single Ag nanowire/glass substrate system excited by the evanescent wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mu; Cai, Wei; Wang, Yingjie; Sun, Mengtao; Shang, Guangyi

    2016-05-01

    As an important plasmon one-dimensional material, orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of single Ag nanowires/glass substrate system are investigated by a powerful platform consisting of evanescent wave excitation, near-/far-field detection and a micromanipulator. In the case of the nanowire perpendicular or parallel to the incident plane and p- ors-polarized evanescent excitation respectively, optical properties of the nanowire is measured both in far-field and near-field. For the perpendicular situation, scattering light from the nanowire shows strong dependence on the polarization of incident light, and period patterns along the nanowire are observed both in the near- and far-field. The chain of dipole model is used to explain the origin of this pattern. The discrepancy of the period patterns observed in the near- and far-field is due to the different resolution of the near- and far-field detection. For the parallel case, light intensity from the output end also depends on the incident polarization. Both experimental and calculation results show that the polarization dependence effect results from the surface plasmon excitation. These results on the orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of the Ag nanowires detected by the combination of near- and far-field methods would be helpful to understand interactions of one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures with light.

  15. Orientation-and polarization-dependent optical properties of the single Ag nanowire/glass substrate system excited by the evanescent wave

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mu; Cai, Wei; Wang, Yingjie; Sun, Mengtao; Shang, Guangyi

    2016-01-01

    As an important plasmon one-dimensional material, orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of single Ag nanowires/glass substrate system are investigated by a powerful platform consisting of evanescent wave excitation, near-/far-field detection and a micromanipulator. In the case of the nanowire perpendicular or parallel to the incident plane and p- ors-polarized evanescent excitation respectively, optical properties of the nanowire is measured both in far-field and near-field. For the perpendicular situation, scattering light from the nanowire shows strong dependence on the polarization of incident light, and period patterns along the nanowire are observed both in the near- and far-field. The chain of dipole model is used to explain the origin of this pattern. The discrepancy of the period patterns observed in the near- and far-field is due to the different resolution of the near- and far-field detection. For the parallel case, light intensity from the output end also depends on the incident polarization. Both experimental and calculation results show that the polarization dependence effect results from the surface plasmon excitation. These results on the orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of the Ag nanowires detected by the combination of near- and far-field methods would be helpful to understand interactions of one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures with light. PMID:27157123

  16. Cingulin and actin mediate midbody-dependent apical lumen formation during polarization of epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, Anthony J.; Sietsema, Daniel V.; Li, Dongying; Moore, Jeffrey K.; Citi, Sandra; Prekeris, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated polarization of epithelial cells is a key step during morphogenesis that leads to the formation of an apical lumen. Rab11 and its interacting protein FIP5 are necessary for the targeting of apical endosomes to the midbody and apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) during lumenogenesis. However, the machinery that mediates AMIS establishment and FIP5-endosome targeting remains unknown. Here we identify a FIP5-interacting protein, Cingulin, which localizes to the AMIS and functions as a tether mediating FIP5-endosome targeting. We analysed the machinery mediating AMIS recruitment to the midbody and determined that both branched actin and microtubules are required for establishing the site of the nascent lumen. We demonstrate that the Rac1-WAVE/Scar complex mediates Cingulin recruitment to the AMIS by inducing branched actin formation, and that Cingulin directly binds to microtubule C-terminal tails through electrostatic interactions. We propose a new mechanism for apical endosome targeting and AMIS formation around the midbody during epithelial lumenogenesis. PMID:27484926

  17. Bismuth-content-dependent polarized Raman spectrum of InPBi alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan-Nan, Wei; Qing-Hai, Tan; Xing, Dai; Qi, Feng; Wen-Gang, Luo; Yu, Sheng; Kai, Wang; Wen-Wu, Pan; Li-Yao, Zhang; Shu-Min, Wang; Kai-You, Wang

    2016-06-01

    We systematically investigate the optical properties of the InP1-x Bi x ternary alloys with 0 ≤ x ≤ 2.46%, by using high resolution polarized Raman scattering measurement. Both InP-like and InBi-like optical vibration modes (LO) are identified in all the samples, suggesting that most of the Bi-atoms are incorporated into the lattice sites to substitute P-atoms. And the intensity of the InBi-like Raman mode is positively proportional to the Bi-content. Linear red-shift of the InP-like longitudinal optical vibration mode is observed to be 1.1 cm-1/Bi%, while that of the InP-like optical vibration overtone (2LO) is nearly doubled. In addition, through comparing the Z(XX)Z̅ and Z(XY)Z̅ Raman spectra, longitudinal-optical-plasmon-coupled (LOPC) modes are identified in all the samples, and their intensities are found to be proportional to the electron concentrations. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB643903) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61225021, 11474272, and 11174272).

  18. Time and polarization dependent double scattering calculations of lidar returns from water clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    We describe and present results of a double scattering lidar model which we use to calculate lidar returns from water clouds. The model is used in conjunction with the Phillips Laboratory's (Geophysics Directorate) low altitude Nd:YAG lidar system to determine microphysical properties of water clouds. The model determines the Stokes parameters of the backscattered lidar radiation, from media composed of spherical particles, as a function of time. The Stokes parameters of the radiation of the lidar return are determined, at each time, by considering all radiation which has traveled the same path length from transmitter to receiver while making two successive single scatters. Each single scatter is considered a Mie scatter. We have also developed a Mie scattering program for use with the double scattering model. Each single scatter takes into account the polarization of the incident and scattered radiation. Inputs to the double scattering mode include the receiver area and field of view, the receiver integration time, the extinction coefficient as a function of distance into the cloud, the particle size distribution (assumed independent of position), and the complex index of refraction of the spherical particles.

  19. Polarization dependent soft x-ray spectro-microscopy of local spin structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Maccallum; Agostino, Christopher; Im, Mi-Young; Montoya, Sergio; Fullerton, Eric; Fischer, Peter

    Quantitative information about element-specific contributions to local magnetic spin and orbital moments is readily available by XMCD spectroscopy and images of magnetic domain patterns with a few tens of nanometer spatial resolution. We show that the x-ray spectroscopic analysis of x-ray microscopy images provides quantitative information about local spin structures. We have investigated two prototypical multilayered PMA film systems prepared by sputtering, specifically (Co 0.3 nm/Pt 0.5 nm)x30 and (Fe 0.7nm/Gd 0.4nm)x100 systems. A spectroscopic sequence of full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy (MTXM) images covering about 8mm field-of-views with a spatial resolution of about 20nm were recorded across the Co and Fe L edges, resp. To modulate the magnetic contrast, two sets of images were obtained with left and right circular polarization. Standard XMCD spectroscopy analysis procedures were applied to retrieve the local spectroscopic behavior. We observe a decrease of the L3/L2 ratio when approaching the domain walls, indicating a non-uniform spin configuration along the vertical profile of a domain, which we will discuss in view of both systems' magnetic anisotropies. U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05-CH11231.

  20. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE DETECTION OF POLARIZATION-DEPENDENT H I ABSORPTION AND H I OUTFLOWS IN LOCAL ULIRGs AND QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2013-03-10

    We present the results of a 21 cm H I survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L{sub 8{sub -{sub 1000{sub {mu}m}}}} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of H I absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with H I detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km s{sup -1} in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent H I absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground H I clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the {approx}10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into ''mature'' radio galaxies.

  1. Propagation of a strong x-ray pulse: Pulse compression, stimulated Raman scattering, amplified spontaneous emission, lasing without inversion, and four-wave mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yuping; Wang Chuankui; Liu Jicai; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2010-01-15

    We study the compression of strong x-ray pulses from x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) propagating through the resonant medium of atomic argon. The simulations are based on the three-level model with the frequency of the incident x-ray pulse tuned in the 2p{sub 3/2}-4s resonance. The pulse propagation is accompanied by the self-seeded stimulated resonant Raman scattering (SRRS). The SRRS starts from two channels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), 4s-2p{sub 3/2} and 3s-2p{sub 3/2}, which form the extensive ringing pattern and widen the power spectrum. The produced seed field triggers the Stokes ASE channel 3s-2p{sub 3/2}. The population inversion is quenched for longer propagation distances where the ASE is followed by the lasing without inversion (LWI), which amplifies the Stokes component. Both ASE and LWI reshape the input pulse: The compressed front part of the pulse (up to 100 as) is followed by the long tail of the ringing and beating between the pump and Stokes frequencies. The pump pulse also generates weaker Stokes and anti-Stokes fields caused by four-wave mixing. These four spectral bands have fine structures caused by the dynamical Stark effect. A slowdown of the XFEL pulse up to 78% of the speed of light in vacuum is found because of a large nonlinear refractive index.

  2. A Highly Crystalline and Wide-Bandgap Polydiarylfluorene with β-Phase Conformation toward Stable Electroluminescence and Dual Amplified Spontaneous Emission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Lin, Jinyi; Liu, Feng; Yu, Mengna; Zhang, Xinwen; Xia, Ruidong; Yang, Tao; Fang, Yueting; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2016-08-24

    Bulky conjugated polymers with high crystallinity is the prerequisite for the overall improvement of performance in wide-bandgap semiconductors, including charge transport, photoluminescence quantum yield, processing reliability, and stability. Herein, we report a stable β-phase film of bulky polydiarylfluorene (PODPF) preparing by thermal annealing at ∼220 °C. The β-phase conformation and regular molecular packing are confirmed by UV-vis, photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectra, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), respectively. Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with crystalline and β-phase film serving as the active layer exhibit higher current efficiency of 1.8 cd/A (6.0 V) and more stable electroluminescence over the amorphous one. Surprisingly, mixed conformations in PODPF film produce dually tunable amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at 463 and 482 nm. Polydiarylfluorenes with quasi-planar conformation will be a promising candidate for the next-generation gain medium toward a broadly tunable lasing and dual-wavelength laser. PMID:27480142

  3. Membrane studies with polarity-dependant and excimer-forming fluorescent probes

    PubMed Central

    Brocklehurst, J. R.; Freedman, R. B.; Hancock, D. J.; Radda, G. K.

    1970-01-01

    1. The interaction of electron-transporting particles from heavy mitochondria of ox heart with several fluorescent probes was examined. 2. 1-Anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate and 2-(N-methylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulphonate both show an energy-dependent response. 3. Energy transfer between the electron-transporting particles and the dyes and the kinetics of the dye–particle interaction were studied in order to locate the binding regions in the membrane. 4. The energy-dependent probe responses were shown to be a result of changes in the quantum yield of fluorescence of the bound dyes together with increased binding of the dyes to the energized membrane. 5. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were also used to observe changes on energization. 6. A new type of probe was found in pyrene-3-sulphonate, which may be regarded as a `volume indicator' for the internal membrane binding region, since it shows a concentration-dependent excimer fluorescence. 7. By comparing the responses of all these dyes when energized particles are uncoupled, a membrane transition with a time-constant of 2–3s is inferred. PMID:5435498

  4. Imaging the Stereodynamics of Cl + CH4(ν3 = 1): Polarization Dependence on the Rotational Branch and the Hyperfine Depolarization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huilin; Yang, Jiayue; Wang, Fengyan; Liu, Kopin

    2014-11-01

    The transition state in the Cl + CH4 reaction is of Cl-H-C collinear geometry, which serves as the bottleneck to reaction. When the reactant CH4 is antisymmetrically stretch-excited to ν3 = 1 by absorbing a linearly polarized photon, all four C-H bonds are collectively excited, and any one of the H atoms could be attacked by the Cl atom. At first sight, it is not obvious how an excited spherical-top molecule like CH4 is aligned and what consequences will be on chemical reactivity by polarizing the CH4 reagents. As shown here, an enormous steric effect on reactivity is observed, which depends sensitively on the selected rotational states. By exploiting various rotational branches in optical excitation, we quantify the degree of stereospecificity for a few lowest rovibrational states of the aligned CH4(ν3 = 1) reagents, as well as account for the hyperfine depolarization factor. This information lays the foundation for a full stereorequirement study of the Cl + CH4(ν3 = 1) reaction. PMID:26278763

  5. Retrieval of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Microphysical Properties From Lidar Measurements: Dependence on Particle Shape Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, Susanne; Reichardt, Jens; Yang, Ping; McGee, Thomas J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of particle sizes and number densities of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) is highly important, because they are critical parameters for the modeling of the ozone chemistry of the stratosphere. In situ measurements of PSC particles are rare. the main instrument for the accumulation of PSC data are lidar systems. Therefore the derivation of some microphysical properties of PSCS from the optical parameters measured by lidars would be highly beneficial for ozone research. Inversion of lidar data obtained in the presence of PSCs formed from crystalline particles type 11 and the various nitric acid tri Ydrrate (NAT) types cannot be easily accomplished, because a suitable scattering theory for small faceted crystals has not been readily available tip to now. As a consequence, the T-matrix method is commonly used for the interpretation of these PSC lidar data. Here the assumption is made that the optical properties of an ensemble of spheroids resemble those of crystalline PSCs, and microphysical properties of the PSC are inferred from the optical signatures of the PSC at two or more wavelengths. The problem with the T-matrix approach is that the assumption of spheroidal instead of faceted particles can lead to dramatically wrong results: Usually cloud particle properties are deduced from analysis of lidar profiles of backscatter ratio and depolarization ratio. The particle contribution to the backscatter ratio is given by the product of the particle number density and the backscattering cross section. The latter is proportional to the value of the particle's scattering phase function at 180 degrees scattering angle. At 180 degrees however, the phase functions of rough, faceted crystals and of spheroids with same maximum dimension differ by a factor of 6. From this it follows that for a PSC consisting of faceted crystals, the particle number density is underestimated by roughly the same factor if spheroidal particles are unrealistically assumed. We are currently

  6. Predominance of Th2 polarization by Vitamin D through a STAT6-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has several reported immunomodulatory properties including the reduced generation of pro-inflammatory CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1) cells and the increase in levels of the anti-inflammatory Th2 subset. Less clear has been the impact of vitamin D on the pro-inflammatory Th17 subset, and whether and how vitamin D may preferentially drive the polarization of one of the T helper subsets. Methods Using human peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells and mouse splenocytes and lymph node cells in culture, we examined whether and how vitamin D preferentially skews T cells towards the Th1, Th2 or Th17 subsets. Mice afflicted with the multiple sclerosis-like condition, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), were examined in vivo for the relevance of the tissue culture-derived results. Results We report that the biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 {1,25(OH)2D3}, consistently generates human and murine Th2 cells in culture, frequently leaving unchanged the levels of Th1/Th17 cytokines. As a result, the ratio of Th2 to Th1 and Th17 is increased by 1,25(OH)2D3. The upregulation of Th2 to Th1 or Th17 subsets by 1,25(OH)2D3 is enabled by an increase of the GATA-3 transcription factor, which itself is promoted upstream by an elevation of the STAT6 transcription factor. In mice, the alleviation of EAE severity by 1,25(OH)2D3 is accompanied by elevation of levels of GATA-3 and STAT6. Significantly, the efficacy of 1,25(OH)2D3 in ameliorating EAE is completely lost in mice genetically deficient for STAT6, which was accompanied by the inability of 1,25(OH)2D3 to raise GATA-3 in STAT6 null lymphocytes. Conclusions These results of vitamin D promoting a Th2 shift through upstream GATA-3 and STAT6 transcription factors shed mechanistic understanding on the utility of vitamin D in MS. PMID:21605467

  7. Pressure dependence of wall relaxation in polarized {sup 3}He gaseous cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, W.; Gao, H.; Ye, Q.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-06-15

    We have observed a linear pressure dependence of longitudinal relaxation time T{sub 1} at 4.2 and 295 K in gaseous {sup 3}He cells made of either bare Pyrex glass or Cs- or Rb-coated Pyrex due to paramagnetic sites in the cell wall. The paramagnetic wall relaxation is previously thought to be independent of {sup 3}He pressure. We develop a model to interpret the observed wall relaxation by taking into account the diffusion process, and our model gives a good description of the data.

  8. Polarization dependant in vivo second harmonic generation imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans vulval, pharynx, and body wall muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Santos, Susana; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Mathew, Manoj; Thayil K. N., Anisha; Artigas, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2008-02-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging has emerged in recent years as an important laboratory imaging technique since it can provide unique structural information with submicron resolution. It enjoys the benefits of non-invasive interaction establishing this imaging modality as ideal for in vivo investigation of tissue architectures. In this study we present, polarization dependant high resolution SHG images of Caenorhabditis elegans muscles in vivo. We imaged a variety of muscular structures such as body walls, pharynx and vulva. By fitting the experimental data into a cylindrical symmetry spatial model we mapped the corresponding signal distribution of the χ (2) tensor and identified its main axis orientation for different sarcomeres of the earth worm. The cylindrical symmetry was considered to arise from the thick filaments architecture of the inside active volume. Moreover, our theoretical analysis allowed calculating the mean orientation of harmonophores (myosin helical pitch). Ultimately, we recorded and analysed vulvae muscle dynamics, where SHG signal decreased during in vivo contraction.

  9. Direct transverse load profile determination using the polarization-dependent loss spectral response of a chirped fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Frédéric; Bette, Sébastien; Kinet, Damien; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The determination of stress profiles created by transverse loads was proved to be important in different domains, such as structural health monitoring and biomechanics, and, more specifically, in the prostheses domain. In this paper, we report an original method to estimate the transverse load profile from the polarization-dependent loss (PDL) spectrum of a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG). This method makes use of the relationship between the integration of the PDL of a CFBG, and the force profile has the advantage of not requiring any iterative method to estimate the transverse load profile. The relationship linking the integration of the PDL and the force profile is demonstrated using an analytical approximation of the transmission spectrum of CFBGs. The validity of this method for the determination of non-uniform load profiles is then shown using a numerical analysis. An experimental demonstration is finally reported using a 48 mm-long CFBG subject to different step transverse load profiles. PMID:27411174

  10. Direct transverse load profile determination using the polarization-dependent loss spectral response of a chirped fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Frédéric; Bette, Sébastien; Kinet, Damien; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The determination of stress profiles created by transverse loads was proved to be important in different domains, such as structural health monitoring and biomechanics, and, more specifically, in the prostheses domain. In this paper, we report an original method to estimate the transverse load profile from the polarization-dependent loss (PDL) spectrum of a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG). This method makes use of the relationship between the integration of the PDL of a CFBG, and the force profile has the advantage of not requiring any iterative method to estimate the transverse load profile. The relationship linking the integration of the PDL and the force profile is demonstrated using an analytical approximation of the transmission spectrum of CFBGs. The validity of this method for the determination of non-uniform load profiles is then shown using a numerical analysis. An experimental demonstration is finally reported using a 48 mm-long CFBG subject to different step transverse load profiles.

  11. Balloon-Borne Submillimeter Polarimetry of the Vela C Molecular Cloud: Systematic Dependence of Polarization Fraction on Column Density and Local Polarization-Angle Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissel, Laura M.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Diego Soler, Juan; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2016-06-01

    We present results for Vela C obtained during the 2012 flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry. We mapped polarized intensity across almost the entire extent of this giant molecular cloud, in bands centered at 250, 350, and 500 μm. In this initial paper, we show our 500 μm data smoothed to a resolution of 2.‧5 (approximately 0.5 pc). We show that the mean level of the fractional polarization p and most of its spatial variations can be accounted for using an empirical three-parameter power-law fit, p \\propto {{\\boldsymbol{N}}}-0.45 {{\\boldsymbol{S}}}-0.60, where N is the hydrogen column density and S is the polarization-angle dispersion on 0.5 pc scales. The decrease of p with increasing S is expected because changes in the magnetic field direction within the cloud volume sampled by each measurement will lead to cancellation of polarization signals. The decrease of p with increasing N might be caused by the same effect, if magnetic field disorder increases for high column density sightlines. Alternatively, the intrinsic polarization efficiency of the dust grain population might be lower for material along higher density sightlines. We find no significant correlation between N and S. Comparison of observed submillimeter polarization maps with synthetic polarization maps derived from numerical simulations provides a promising method for testing star formation theories. Realistic simulations should allow for the possibility of variable intrinsic polarization efficiency. The measured levels of correlation among p, N, and S provide points of comparison between observations and simulations.

  12. Polarization and temperature dependence of photoluminescence of m-plane GaN grown on {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} (100) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Kong, J. Y.; Zhang, R.; Xie, Z. L.; Fu, D. Y.; Xiu, X. Q.; Chen, P.; Lu, H.; Han, P.; Zheng, Y. D.; Zhou, S. M.

    2009-08-10

    We investigated the polarization and temperature dependence of photoluminescence (PL) of m-plane GaN grown on {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} (100) substrate. The calculated electronic band structure with kp Hamiltonian points out the energy splitting as well as polarization selection originate from the m-plane GaN epilayer under anisotropic strain. The polarization-angle dependence PL spectra are found to be selected from in-plane x- and z-polarized emission, corresponding to T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} transition. And the intensity distribution of the fitting peaks satisfies the Malus' law. An S-shape energy evolution of near band edge peak on temperatures is observed, which originates from the transition between the localized holes and electrons in triangular potentials induced by basal stacking faults.

  13. Dependence of SuperDARN-inferred cross polar cap potential upon the solar wind electric field and magnetopause subsolar distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koustov, Alexandre; Khachikjan, Galina; Sofko, George

    Analysis of statistically significant data set on the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) derived from Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) measurements for the geoeffective solar wind electric field Ey of up to 12 mV/m is performed. It is shown that if all CPCP data are plotted against Ey, there is a linear increase between 0 and 5 mV/m and saturation at larger values. If the same data are arranged in bins of RMS values, the CPCP depends on Ey linearly in each bin with the slope and intercept of the regression line related to RMS. The inferred linear dependencies CPCP (Ey) for various fixed bins of RMS intersect each other at Ey 2.5-3.0 mV/m, and the character of the CPCP dependence upon the solar wind rum pressure changes at this value. For this reason, the value of 3 mV/m is interpreted as the true threshold of CPCP saturation. This value also corresponds to the condition of the solar wind magnetic field at the subsolar point to be equal to the Earth's dipole field as shown in published MHD simulations. It is argued that the initially inferred saturation threshold of 5 mV/m (for the case of the CPCP data being not sorted according to RMS) is an apparent effect. Presented analysis favors the hypothesis that the CPCP saturates due to shortening of the merging x-line

  14. Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals.

    PubMed

    DeVol, Ross T; Metzler, Rebecca A; Kabalah-Amitai, Lee; Pokroy, Boaz; Politi, Yael; Gal, Assaf; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro; Demichelis, Raffaella; Gale, Julian D; Ihli, Johannes; Meldrum, Fiona C; Blonsky, Adam Z; Killian, Christopher E; Salling, C B; Young, Anthony T; Marcus, Matthew A; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Jenkins, Catherine; Bechtel, Hans A; Gilbert, Pupa U P A

    2014-07-17

    X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy have been extensively used to characterize biominerals. Using either Ca or C spectra, unique information has been obtained regarding amorphous biominerals and nanocrystal orientations. Building on these results, we demonstrate that recording XANES spectra of calcium carbonate at the oxygen K-edge enables polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC) mapping with unprecedented contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, and magnification. O and Ca spectra are presented for six calcium carbonate minerals: aragonite, calcite, vaterite, monohydrocalcite, and both hydrated and anhydrous amorphous calcium carbonate. The crystalline minerals reveal excellent agreement of the extent and direction of polarization dependences in simulated and experimental XANES spectra due to X-ray linear dichroism. This effect is particularly strong for aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In natural biominerals, oxygen PIC-mapping generated high-magnification maps of unprecedented clarity from nacre and prismatic structures and their interface in Mytilus californianus shells. These maps revealed blocky aragonite crystals at the nacre-prismatic boundary and the narrowest calcite needle-prisms. In the tunic spicules of Herdmania momus, O PIC-mapping revealed the size and arrangement of some of the largest vaterite single crystals known. O spectroscopy therefore enables the simultaneous measurement of chemical and orientational information in CaCO3 biominerals and is thus a powerful means for analyzing these and other complex materials. As described here, PIC-mapping and spectroscopy at the O K-edge are methods for gathering valuable data that can be carried out using spectromicroscopy beamlines at most synchrotrons without the expense of additional equipment.

  15. Membrane targeting and intracellular trafficking of the human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter in polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Veedamali S; Marchant, Jonathan S; Boulware, Michael J; Ma, Thomas Y; Said, Hamid M

    2009-04-01

    The human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (hSMVT) mediates sodium-dependent uptake of biotin in renal and intestinal epithelia. To date, however, there is nothing known about the structure-function relationship or targeting sequences in the hSMVT polypeptide that control its polarized expression within epithelia. Here, we focused on the role of the COOH-terminal tail of hSMVT in the targeting and functionality of this transporter. A full-length hSMVT-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was functional and expressed at the apical membrane in renal and intestinal cell lines. Microtubule disrupting agents disrupted the mobility of trafficking vesicles and impaired cell surface delivery of hSMVT, which was also prevented in cells treated with dynamitin (p50), brefeldin, or monensin. Progressive truncation of the COOH-terminal tail impaired the functionality and targeting of the transporter. First, biotin transport decreased by approximately 20-30% on deletion of up to 15 COOH-terminal amino acids of hSMVT, a decrease mimicked solely by deletion of the terminal PDZ motif (TSL). Second, deletions into the COOH-terminal tail (between residues 584-612, containing a region of predicted high surface accessibility) resulted in a further drop in hSMVT transport (to approximately 40% of wild-type). Third, apical targeting was lost on deletion of a helical-prone region between amino acids 570-584. We conclude that the COOH tail of hSMVT contains several determinants important for polarized targeting and biotin transport.

  16. Loss of growth polarity and mislocalization of septa in a Neurospora mutant altered in the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, K S; Aramayo, R; Minke, P F; Metzenberg, R L; Plamann, M

    1996-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, growth polarity (i.e. hyphal extension) and formation of septa require polarized deposition of new cell wall material. To explore this process, we analyzed a conditional Neurospora crassa mutant, mcb, which showed a complete loss of growth polarity when incubated at the restrictive temperature. Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of the mcb gene revealed that it encodes a regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Unexpectedly, the mcb mutant still formed septa when grown at the restrictive temperature, indicating that polarized deposition of wall material during septation is a process that is, at least in part, independent of polarized deposition during hyphal tip extension. However, septa formed in the mcb mutant growing at the restrictive temperature are mislocalized. Both polarized growth and septation are actin-dependent processes, and a concentration of actin patches is observed at growing hyphal tips and sites where septa are being formed. In the mcb mutant growing at the restrictive temperature, actin patches are uniformly distributed over the cell cortex; however, actin patches are still concentrated at sites of septation. Our results suggest that the PKA pathway regulates hyphal growth polarity, possibly through organizing actin patches at the cell cortex. Images PMID:8918454

  17. Solution processable 2-(trityloxy)ethyl and tert-butyl group containing amorphous molecular glasses of pyranylidene derivatives with light-emitting and amplified spontaneous emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarins, Elmars; Vembris, Aivars; Misina, Elina; Narels, Martins; Grzibovskis, Raitis; Kokars, Valdis

    2015-11-01

    Small organic molecules with incorporated 4H-pyran-4-ylidene (pyranylidene) fragment as the π-conjugation system which bonds the electron acceptor fragment (A) with electron donor part (D) in the molecule - also well known as derivatives of 4-(dicyano-methylene)-2-methyl-6-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-4H-pyran (DCM) laser dye-have attracted considerable attention of scientists as potential new generation materials for organic photonics and molecular electronics due to their low-cost fabrication possibility, flexibility and low-weight. Six glassy derivatives of 4H-pyran-4-ylidene (pyranylidene) with attached bulky 2-(trityloxy)ethyl and tert-butyl groups are described in this report. Almost all of the synthesized compounds form good optical quality transparent amorphous films from volatile organic solvents and could be obtained in good yields up to 75%. Their light emission in solution and thin solid films is in the range of 600-700 nm, they are thermally stable and show glass transition in the range of 108-158 °C. The amplified spontaneous emission threshold values of the neat films of the glassy pyranylidene derivatives vary from 155 to 450 μJ/cm2 and their HOMO and LUMO energy levels are between of those of tris(8-hydroxy quinolinato) aluminum (Alq3). The photoluminescence quantum yields of the glassy compounds are in the range from 1% to about 7.7% and their electroluminescence properties have been investigated. Therefore, glassy pyranylidene derivatives could be a very potential low-cost solution processable materials for Alq3 hosted light-amplification and light-emitting application studies.

  18. Molecular host-guest energy-transfer system with an ultralow amplified spontaneous emission threshold employing an ambipolar semiconducting host matrix.

    PubMed

    Toffanin, Stefano; Capelli, Raffaella; Hwu, Tsyr-Yuan; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Plötzing, Tobias; Först, Michael; Muccini, Michele

    2010-01-14

    We report on the characteristics of a host-guest lasing system obtained by coevaporation of an oligo(9,9-diarylfluorene) derivative named T3 with the red-emitter 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran dye (DCM). We demonstrate that the ambipolar semiconductor T3 can be implemented as an active matrix in the realization of a host-guest system in which an efficient energy transfer takes place from the T3 matrix to the lasing DCM molecules. We performed a detailed spectroscopic study on the system by systematically varying the DCM concentration in the T3 matrix. Measurements of steady-state photoluminescence (PL), PL quantum yield (PLQY), time-resolved picosecond PL, and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold are used to optimize the acceptor concentration at which the ASE from DCM molecules takes place with the lowest threshold. The sample with a DCM relative deposition ratio of 2% shows an ASE threshold as low as 0.6 kW/cm(2) and a net optical gain measured by femtosecond time-resolved pump-and-probe spectroscopy as high as 77 cm(-1). The reference model system Alq(3):DCM sample measured in exactly the same experimental conditions presents an one-order-of-magnitude higher ASE threshold. The ASE threshold of T3:DCM is the lowest reported to date for a molecular host-guest energy-transfer system, which makes the investigated blend an appealing system for use as an active layer in lasing devices. In particular, the ambipolar charge transport properties of the T3 matrix and its field-effect characteristics make the host-guest system presented here an ideal candidate for the realization of electrically pumped organic lasers.

  19. Detailed description of spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryev, M. V.

    2012-08-01

    The wave side of wave-photon duality, describing light as an electromagnetic field (EMF), is used in this article. The EMF of spontaneous light emission (SE) of a laser-excited atom is calculated from first principles for the first time. This calculation is done using the simple method of atomic quantum electrodynamics. The EMF of SE is also calculated for three types of polyatomic light sources excited by a laser. It is shown that light radiated by such sources can be coherent, which explains recent experiments on SE of laser-excited atoms. Small sources of SE can be superradiant, which also conforms to experiment. Thus, SE is shown not to be a random event itself. Random properties of natural light are simply explained as a result of thermal excitation randomness without additional hypotheses. The EMF of SE is described by simple complex functions, but not real ones.

  20. Easy adjustment structure and method for realizing InP based polarization beam splitter via Pockels effect dependence on crystal orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kei; Nasu, Yusuke; Ohiso, Yoshitaka; Iga, Ryuzo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel adjustment structure and method for an InP-based polarization beam splitter/combiner by using the characteristic whereby the sign at the front of this term changes depending on the light propagation direction. To confirm the proposed principle of adjustment for our InP-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer polarization beam splitter/combiner, we fabricated a test sample that had an npin high-mesa waveguide structure with InGaAlAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells. By using the test sample, we demonstrated the easy adjustment of an InP-based polarization beam splitter/combiner with the individual modulation of the TE and TM modes and showed that we can output TE/TM polarization at any port as desired.

  1. Dynamic nuclear polarization enhancement of protons and vanadium-51 in the presence of pH-dependent vanadyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Perez Linde, Angel J; Carnevale, Diego; Miéville, Pascal; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2015-02-01

    We report applications of dynamic nuclear polarization to enhance proton and vanadium-51 polarization of vanadyl sulfate samples doped with TOTAPOL under magic angle spinning conditions. The electron paramagnetic resonance response stemming from the paramagnetic (51)V species was monitored as a function of pH, which can be adjusted to improve the enhancement of the proton polarization. By means of cross-polarization from the proton bath, (51)V spins could be hyperpolarized. Enhancement factors, build-up times, and longitudinal relaxation times T1((1)H) and T1((51)V) were investigated as a function of pH.

  2. The In-Plane Anisotropy of WTe2 Investigated by Angle-Dependent and Polarized Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingjun; Pan, Xingchen; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Kun; Tan, Qinghai; Li, Pan; Wan, Yi; Wang, Yilun; Xu, Xiaolong; Lin, Miaoling; Wan, Xiangang; Song, Fengqi; Dai, Lun

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a semi-metallic layered transition metal dichalcogenide with a stable distorted 1T phase. The reduced symmetry of this system leads to in-plane anisotropy in various materials properties. We have systemically studied the in-plane anisotropy of Raman modes in few-layer and bulk WTe2 by angle-dependent and polarized Raman spectroscopy (ADPRS). Ten Raman modes are clearly resolved. Their intensities show periodic variation with sample rotating. We identify the symmetries of the detected modes by quantitatively analyzing the ADPRS results based on the symmetry selection rules. Material absorption effect on the phonon modes with high vibration frequencies is investigated by considering complex Raman tensor elements. We also provide a rapid and nondestructive method to identify the crystallographic orientation of WTe2. The crystallographic orientation is further confirmed by the quantitative atomic-resolution force image. Finally, we find that the atomic vibrational tendency and complexity of detected modes are also reflected in the shrinkage degree defined based on ADPRS, which is confirmed by corresponding density functional calculation. Our work provides a deep understanding of the interaction between WTe2 and light, which will benefit in future studies about the anisotropic physical properties of WTe2 and other in-plane anisotropic materials. PMID:27404226

  3. Temperature-dependent microwave dielectric relaxation studies of hydrogen bonded polar binary mixtures of propan-1-ol and propionaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Vishwam, T; Parvateesam, K; Sreeharisastry, S; Murthy, V R K

    2013-10-01

    The molecular interaction between the polar systems of propan-1-ol and propionaldehyde for various mole fractions at different temperatures were studied by determining the frequency dependent complex dielectric permittivity by using the open-ended coaxial probe technique method in the microwave frequency range from 20 MHz to 20 GHz. The geometries are optimized at HF, B3LYP and MP2 with 6-311G and 6-311G+ basis sets. Dipole moments of the binary mixtures are calculated from the dielectric data using Higasi's method and compared with the theoretical results. Conformational analysis of the formation of hydrogen bond between the propan-1-ol and propionaldehyde is supported by the FT-IR and molecular polarizability calculations. The average relaxation times are calculated from their respective Cole-Cole plots. The activation entropy, activation enthalpy and Kirkwood correlation 'g' factor, excess permittivity (ε(E)), excess inverse relaxation time (1/τ)(E), Bruggeman parameter (f(B)) have also been determined for propan-1-ol and propionaldehyde and the results were correlated.

  4. The In-Plane Anisotropy of WTe2 Investigated by Angle-Dependent and Polarized Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qingjun; Pan, Xingchen; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Kun; Tan, Qinghai; Li, Pan; Wan, Yi; Wang, Yilun; Xu, Xiaolong; Lin, Miaoling; Wan, Xiangang; Song, Fengqi; Dai, Lun

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a semi-metallic layered transition metal dichalcogenide with a stable distorted 1T phase. The reduced symmetry of this system leads to in-plane anisotropy in various materials properties. We have systemically studied the in-plane anisotropy of Raman modes in few-layer and bulk WTe2 by angle-dependent and polarized Raman spectroscopy (ADPRS). Ten Raman modes are clearly resolved. Their intensities show periodic variation with sample rotating. We identify the symmetries of the detected modes by quantitatively analyzing the ADPRS results based on the symmetry selection rules. Material absorption effect on the phonon modes with high vibration frequencies is investigated by considering complex Raman tensor elements. We also provide a rapid and nondestructive method to identify the crystallographic orientation of WTe2. The crystallographic orientation is further confirmed by the quantitative atomic-resolution force image. Finally, we find that the atomic vibrational tendency and complexity of detected modes are also reflected in the shrinkage degree defined based on ADPRS, which is confirmed by corresponding density functional calculation. Our work provides a deep understanding of the interaction between WTe2 and light, which will benefit in future studies about the anisotropic physical properties of WTe2 and other in-plane anisotropic materials. PMID:27404226

  5. The In-Plane Anisotropy of WTe2 Investigated by Angle-Dependent and Polarized Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qingjun; Pan, Xingchen; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Kun; Tan, Qinghai; Li, Pan; Wan, Yi; Wang, Yilun; Xu, Xiaolong; Lin, Miaoling; Wan, Xiangang; Song, Fengqi; Dai, Lun

    2016-07-01

    Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a semi-metallic layered transition metal dichalcogenide with a stable distorted 1T phase. The reduced symmetry of this system leads to in-plane anisotropy in various materials properties. We have systemically studied the in-plane anisotropy of Raman modes in few-layer and bulk WTe2 by angle-dependent and polarized Raman spectroscopy (ADPRS). Ten Raman modes are clearly resolved. Their intensities show periodic variation with sample rotating. We identify the symmetries of the detected modes by quantitatively analyzing the ADPRS results based on the symmetry selection rules. Material absorption effect on the phonon modes with high vibration frequencies is investigated by considering complex Raman tensor elements. We also provide a rapid and nondestructive method to identify the crystallographic orientation of WTe2. The crystallographic orientation is further confirmed by the quantitative atomic-resolution force image. Finally, we find that the atomic vibrational tendency and complexity of detected modes are also reflected in the shrinkage degree defined based on ADPRS, which is confirmed by corresponding density functional calculation. Our work provides a deep understanding of the interaction between WTe2 and light, which will benefit in future studies about the anisotropic physical properties of WTe2 and other in-plane anisotropic materials.

  6. Assignment of polarization-dependent peaks in carbon K-edge spectra from biogenic and geologic aragonite.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong; Metzler, Rebecca A; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Guo, Jinghua; Abrecht, Mike; Coppersmith, Susan N; Gilbert, P U P A

    2008-10-16

    Many biominerals, including mollusk and echinoderm shells, avian eggshells, modern and fossil bacterial sediments, planktonic coccolithophores, and foraminifera, contain carbonates in the form of biogenic aragonite or calcite. Here we analyze biogenic and geologic aragonite using different kinds of surface- and bulk-sensitive X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the carbon K-edge, as well as high-resolution scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Besides the well-known main pi* and sigma* carbonate peaks, we observed and fully characterized four minor peaks, at energies between the main pi* and sigma* peaks. As expected, the main peaks are similar in geologic and biogenic aragonite, while the minor peaks differ in relative intensity. In this and previous work, the minor peaks appear to be the ones most affected in biomineralization processes, hence the interest in characterizing them. Peak assignment was achieved by correlation of polarization-dependent behavior of the minor peaks with that of the main pi* and sigma* peaks. The present characterization provides the background for future studies of aragonitic biominerals.

  7. Experimental and analytical study of a high gain self amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser operating in a large spectral bandwidth regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andonian, Gerard Cosmos

    The drive to create and measure ultra-short pulses in the x-ray regime advances the ongoing development of free electron lasers (FEL). Several proposed schemes, to shorten the pulse length of the radiation, involve driving the FEL with a chirped (linear longitudinal phase space correlation) electron beam in the self amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode. This dissertation examines the experiments conducted under such conditions, canvassing analytical and numerical studies of beam dynamics and radiation properties, experimental observations, and descriptions of the development of novel diagnostics. The VISA (Visible-Infrared SASE Amplifier) program has achieved saturation at 840 nm within a 4 m long undulator. A novel bunch compression mechanism during transport was discovered and ultimately responsible for the high peak current required to drive the FEL. Start-to-end simulations, detailing the dynamics from electron beam inception at the photocathode to the FEL radiation properties at the undulator, were successfully benchmarked to observable data. The VISA II experiment is an extension of this SASE FEL operating under different experimental conditions. Driving the SASE FEL with a chirped electron beam requires maintaining the chirp throughout transport by the use of sextupole magnets to correct for second-order compression effects. The emitted radiation is frequency chirped, diagnosed via a modified frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) technique. Specific numerical simulations and diagnostic developments are presented. A set of measurements, without sextupole corrections, displays anomalous features, namely large spectral bandwidth of the radiation at stable and sustained high gain lasing. The bandwidth has an rms value of 21 nm (12% full width), previously unobserved in a FEL. In addition, the far-field angular distribution yields a hollow mode structure, similar to earlier results yet more pronounced in angle. Start-to-end simulations reproduced the

  8. Polarization orientation dependence of the far infrared spectra of oriented single crystals of 1,3,5,-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) using terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, Von H; Hooks, Dan E; Ramos, Kyle J; O' Hara, John F; Azad, A K; Taylor, A J; Barber, J; Averitt, R D

    2008-01-01

    The far infrared spectra of (100), (010), and (001)-oriented RDX single crystals were measured as the crystal was rotated about the axis perpendicular to the polarization plane of the incident radiation. Absorption measurements were taken at temperatures of both 20 K and 295 K for all rotations using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. A number of discrete absorptions were found ranging from 10-100 cm(-1) (0.3-3 THz). The absorptions are highly dependent on the orientation of the terahertz polarization with respect to crystallographic axes.

  9. Rear Polarization of the Microtubule-Organizing Center in Neointimal Smooth Muscle Cells Depends on PKCα, ARPC5, and RHAMM

    PubMed Central

    Silverman-Gavrila, Rosalind; Silverman-Gavrila, Lorelei; Hou, Guangpei; Zhang, Ming; Charlton, Milton; Bendeck, Michelle P.

    2011-01-01

    Directed migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the media to the intima in arteries occurs during atherosclerotic plaque formation and during restenosis after angioplasty or stent application. The polarized orientation of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) is a key determinant of this process, and we therefore investigated factors that regulate MTOC polarity in vascular SMCs. SMCs migrating in vivo from the medial to the intimal layer of the rat carotid artery following balloon catheter injury were rear polarized, with the MTOC located posterior of the nucleus. In tissue culture, migrating neointimal cells maintained rear polarization, whereas medial cells were front polarized. Using phosphoproteomic screening and mass spectrometry, we identified ARPC5 and RHAMM as protein kinase C (PKC)-phosphorylated proteins associated with rear polarization of the MTOC in neointimal SMCs. RNA silencing of ARPC5 and RHAMM, PKC inhibition, and transfection with a mutated nonphosphorylatable ARPC5 showed that these proteins regulate rear polarization by organizing the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in neointimal SMCs. Both ARPC5 and RHAMM, in addition to PKC, were required for migration of neointimal SMCs. PMID:21281821

  10. A diffuser-based three-dimensional measurement of polarization-dependent scattering characteristics of optical films for 3D-display applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Yeon; Seo, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-26

    We propose an accurate and easy-to-use three-dimensional measurement method using a diffuser plate to analyze the scattering characteristics of optical films. The far-field radiation pattern of light scattered by the optical film is obtained from the illuminance pattern created on the diffuser plate by the light. A mathematical model and calibration methods were described, and the results were compared with those obtained by a direct measurement using a luminance meter. The new method gave very precise three-dimensional polarization-dependent scattering characteristics of scattering polarizer films, and it can play an effective role in developing high performance polarization-selective screens for 3D display applications. PMID:25835866

  11. Anomalous spectral dependence of optical polarization and its impact on spin detection in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Puttisong, Y.; Huang, Y. Q.; Buyanova, I. A.; Chen, W. M.; Yang, X. J.; Subagyo, A.; Sueoka, K.; Murayama, A.

    2014-09-29

    We show that circularly polarized emission light from InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) ensembles under optical spin injection from an adjacent GaAs layer can switch its helicity depending on emission wavelengths and optical excitation density. We attribute this anomalous behavior to simultaneous contributions from both positive and negative trions and a lower number of photo-excited holes than electrons being injected into the QDs due to trapping of holes at ionized acceptors and a lower hole mobility. Our results call for caution in reading out electron spin polarization by optical polarization of the QD ensembles and also provide a guideline in improving efficiency of spin light emitting devices that utilize QDs.

  12. Par-aPKC-dependent and -independent mechanisms cooperatively control cell polarity, Hippo signaling, and cell positioning in 16-cell stage mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Hirate, Yoshikazu; Hirahara, Shino; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Niwa, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    In preimplantation mouse embryos, the Hippo signaling pathway plays a central role in regulating the fates of the trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM). In early blastocysts with more than 32 cells, the Par-aPKC system controls polarization of the outer cells along the apicobasal axis, and cell polarity suppresses Hippo signaling. Inactivation of Hippo signaling promotes nuclear accumulation of a coactivator protein, Yap, leading to induction of TE-specific genes. However, whether similar mechanisms operate at earlier stages is not known. Here, we show that slightly different mechanisms operate in 16-cell stage embryos. Similar to 32-cell stage embryos, disruption of the Par-aPKC system activated Hippo signaling and suppressed nuclear Yap and Cdx2 expression in the outer cells. However, unlike 32-cell stage embryos, 16-cell stage embryos with a disrupted Par-aPKC system maintained apical localization of phosphorylated Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (p-ERM), and the effects on Yap and Cdx2 were weak. Furthermore, normal 16-cell stage embryos often contained apolar cells in the outer position. In these cells, the Hippo pathway was strongly activated and Yap was excluded from the nuclei, thus resembling inner cells. Dissociated blastomeres of 8-cell stage embryos form polar-apolar couplets, which exhibit different levels of nuclear Yap, and the polar cell engulfed the apolar cell. These results suggest that cell polarization at the 16-cell stage is regulated by both Par-aPKC-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Asymmetric cell division is involved in cell polarity control, and cell polarity regulates cell positioning and most likely controls Hippo signaling.

  13. Rab5 and its effector FHF contribute to neuronal polarity through dynein-dependent retrieval of somatodendritic proteins from the axon.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoli; Farías, Ginny G; Mattera, Rafael; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2016-09-01

    An open question in cell biology is how the general intracellular transport machinery is adapted to perform specialized functions in polarized cells such as neurons. Here we illustrate this adaptation by elucidating a role for the ubiquitous small GTPase Ras-related protein in brain 5 (Rab5) in neuronal polarity. We show that inactivation or depletion of Rab5 in rat hippocampal neurons abrogates the somatodendritic polarity of the transferrin receptor and several glutamate receptor types, resulting in their appearance in the axon. This loss of polarity is not caused primarily by increased transport from the soma to the axon but rather by decreased retrieval from the axon to the soma. Retrieval is also dependent on the Rab5 effector Fused Toes (FTS)-Hook-FTS and Hook-interacting protein (FHIP) (FHF) complex, which interacts with the minus-end-directed microtubule motor dynein and its activator dynactin to drive a population of axonal retrograde carriers containing somatodendritic proteins toward the soma. These findings emphasize the importance of both biosynthetic sorting and axonal retrieval for the polarized distribution of somatodendritic receptors at steady state.

  14. Rab5 and its effector FHF contribute to neuronal polarity through dynein-dependent retrieval of somatodendritic proteins from the axon.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoli; Farías, Ginny G; Mattera, Rafael; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2016-09-01

    An open question in cell biology is how the general intracellular transport machinery is adapted to perform specialized functions in polarized cells such as neurons. Here we illustrate this adaptation by elucidating a role for the ubiquitous small GTPase Ras-related protein in brain 5 (Rab5) in neuronal polarity. We show that inactivation or depletion of Rab5 in rat hippocampal neurons abrogates the somatodendritic polarity of the transferrin receptor and several glutamate receptor types, resulting in their appearance in the axon. This loss of polarity is not caused primarily by increased transport from the soma to the axon but rather by decreased retrieval from the axon to the soma. Retrieval is also dependent on the Rab5 effector Fused Toes (FTS)-Hook-FTS and Hook-interacting protein (FHIP) (FHF) complex, which interacts with the minus-end-directed microtubule motor dynein and its activator dynactin to drive a population of axonal retrograde carriers containing somatodendritic proteins toward the soma. These findings emphasize the importance of both biosynthetic sorting and axonal retrieval for the polarized distribution of somatodendritic receptors at steady state. PMID:27559088

  15. The temperature-dependent physical state of polar lipids and their miscibility impact the topography and mechanical properties of bilayer models of the milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Appala Venkata Ramana; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Lopez, Christelle

    2016-09-01

    The polar lipid assembly and biophysical properties of the biological membrane enveloping the milk fat globules (the MFGM) are yet poorly known, especially in connection with the temperature history that milk can experience after its secretion. However, bioactive mechanisms depend on biological structure, which itself highly depend on temperature. The objectives of this study were to investigate polar lipid packing in hydrated bilayers, models of the MFGM, and to follow at intermolecular level temperature-induced changes in the range 60-6°C, using the combination of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and force spectroscopy. MFGM polar lipids, especially sphingomyelin, contain long chain saturated fatty acids with high phase transition temperatures. On cooling, the liquid disordered ld to solid ordered so (gel) phase transition of MFGM polar lipids started at about 40°C, leading to phase separation and formation of so phase domains protruding by about 1nm from the ld phase. Indentation measurements using AFM revealed that the resistance of the so phase domains to rupture was significantly higher than that of the ld phase and that it increased for both the domain and fluid phases with decreasing temperature. However, packing and stability of the bilayers were adversely affected by fast cooling to 6°C or by cooling-rewarming cycle. This study showed that MFGM polar lipid bilayers are dynamic systems. Heterogeneity in the structure and mechanical properties of the membrane was induced by temperature-dependent so/ld phase immiscibility of the lipid components. This could have consequences on the MFGM technological and biological functions (e.g. immunity and milk lipid digestion). PMID:27349732

  16. Anisotropic optical polarization dependence on internal strain in AlGaN epilayer grown on Al x Ga1-x N templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hanling; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Jingwen; Zhao, Chong; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Xu, Jintong; Li, Xiangyang; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    Anisotropic optical polarization of AlGaN has been one of the major challenges responsible for the poor efficiency of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs). In this work, we experimentally investigated the effect of internal strain on the optical polarization of AlGaN epilayers which were pseudomorphically grown on Al x Ga1-x N templates with Al composition changing from 0.1 to 0.42. High-resolution x-ray diffraction and reciprocal space mapping were conducted to determine the crystal quality and strain status. Polarization-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurement was performed to study the degree of polarization (DOP) of light emission from lateral facet of the AlGaN epilayer. The result showed that the DOP increased from  -0.69 to  -0.24 with the in-plane strain changing from tensile status (1.19%) to compressive status (-0.70%) and it exhibited a strong dependence of the DOP on the strain. These results demonstrated that the compressive in-plane strain could facilitate TE mode emission from AlGaN, which providing a potential way to enhance the surface light emission of AlGaN-based UV LEDs via strain management of the active region.

  17. Empirical Evidence for Roughness-Dependent Limit in Observation of Odd-Even Effect in Wetting Properties of Polar Liquids on n-Alkanethiolate Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengjia; Chen, Jiahao; Oyola-Reynoso, Stephanie; Thuo, Martin

    2016-08-16

    Substrate roughness influences the wetting properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), but details on this dependency at the sub-nanometer level are still lacking. This study investigates the effect of surface roughness on interfacial properties of n-alkanethiolate SAMs, specifically wetting, and confirms the predicted limit to the observation of the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity. This article studies static contact angles of polar and nonpolar probe liquids on a series of n-alkanethiolate SAMs on surfaces with tunable roughness. We prepared Ag surfaces with root-mean-square roughness (Rrms) of ∼0.6-2.2 nm and compared the wetting properties of n-alkanethiolate SAMs fabricated on these surfaces. We measured the static contact angles, θs, formed between SAM and probe liquids [water, glycerol, and hexadecane]. Hexadecane showed an odd-even effect on all surfaces irrespective of the degree of roughness. Polar liquids (water and glycerol), however, showed a dependency on the roughness of the substrate with an odd-even effect observable only on smooth, but not rougher (Rrms ≥ 1.15 nm), surfaces. These results confirm that the previously predicted limit to observation of the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity (here extended to polar liquids) is real. From the results with glycerol, we infer that this limit is not limited just to hydrophobicity but may extend to other polar liquids. Results from hexadecane, however, suggest that this limit may not be a universal property of the SAM. PMID:27448027

  18. Empirical Evidence for Roughness-Dependent Limit in Observation of Odd-Even Effect in Wetting Properties of Polar Liquids on n-Alkanethiolate Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengjia; Chen, Jiahao; Oyola-Reynoso, Stephanie; Thuo, Martin

    2016-08-16

    Substrate roughness influences the wetting properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), but details on this dependency at the sub-nanometer level are still lacking. This study investigates the effect of surface roughness on interfacial properties of n-alkanethiolate SAMs, specifically wetting, and confirms the predicted limit to the observation of the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity. This article studies static contact angles of polar and nonpolar probe liquids on a series of n-alkanethiolate SAMs on surfaces with tunable roughness. We prepared Ag surfaces with root-mean-square roughness (Rrms) of ∼0.6-2.2 nm and compared the wetting properties of n-alkanethiolate SAMs fabricated on these surfaces. We measured the static contact angles, θs, formed between SAM and probe liquids [water, glycerol, and hexadecane]. Hexadecane showed an odd-even effect on all surfaces irrespective of the degree of roughness. Polar liquids (water and glycerol), however, showed a dependency on the roughness of the substrate with an odd-even effect observable only on smooth, but not rougher (Rrms ≥ 1.15 nm), surfaces. These results confirm that the previously predicted limit to observation of the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity (here extended to polar liquids) is real. From the results with glycerol, we infer that this limit is not limited just to hydrophobicity but may extend to other polar liquids. Results from hexadecane, however, suggest that this limit may not be a universal property of the SAM.

  19. Polarization-dependent elliptical crater morphologies formed on a silicon surface by single-shot femtosecond laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xu; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Han, Weina; Liu, Yang; Huang, Qiang; Lu, Yongfeng

    2014-10-10

    Formation of the elliptical-shaped craters on a silicon surface is investigated comprehensively using a single shot of a femtosecond laser. It is observed that the ablation craters are elongated along the major axis of the polarization direction, while their orientation is parallel to the polarization direction. The ablation area grows and the morphology of the craters evolves from an ellipse to nearly a circle with increasing fluence. The underlying physical mechanism is revealed through numerical simulations that are based on the finite-difference time-domain technique. It is suggested that the initially formed craters or surface defects lead to the redistribution of the electric field on the silicon surface, which plays a crucial role in the creation of the elliptical-shaped craters. In addition, the field intensity becomes enhanced along the incident laser polarization direction, which determines the elliptical crater orientations. PMID:25322377

  20. Polarization-dependent elliptical crater morphologies formed on a silicon surface by single-shot femtosecond laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xu; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Han, Weina; Liu, Yang; Huang, Qiang; Lu, Yongfeng

    2014-10-10

    Formation of the elliptical-shaped craters on a silicon surface is investigated comprehensively using a single shot of a femtosecond laser. It is observed that the ablation craters are elongated along the major axis of the polarization direction, while their orientation is parallel to the polarization direction. The ablation area grows and the morphology of the craters evolves from an ellipse to nearly a circle with increasing fluence. The underlying physical mechanism is revealed through numerical simulations that are based on the finite-difference time-domain technique. It is suggested that the initially formed craters or surface defects lead to the redistribution of the electric field on the silicon surface, which plays a crucial role in the creation of the elliptical-shaped craters. In addition, the field intensity becomes enhanced along the incident laser polarization direction, which determines the elliptical crater orientations.

  1. Beta4 integrin-dependent formation of polarized three-dimensionalarchitecture confers resistance to apoptosis in normal and malignantmammary epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Valerie M.; Lelievre, Sophie; Lakins, Johnathon N.; Chrenek, Micah A.; Jones, Jonathan C.R.; Giancotti, Filippo; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-08-27

    Tumor cells can evade chemotherapy by acquiring resistanceto apoptosis. We investigated the molecular mechanism whereby malignantand nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells become insensitive toapoptosis. We show that regardless of growth status formation ofpolarized, three-dimensional structures driven by basement membraneconfers protection to apoptosis in both nonmalignant and malignantmammary epithelial cells. By contrast, irrespective of their malignantstatus, nonpolarized structures are sensitive to induction of apoptosis.Resistance to apoptosis requires ligation of beta4 integrins, whichregulates tissue polarity, hemidesmosome formation and NFkB activation.Expression of beta4 integrin that lacks the hemidesmosome targetingdomain interferes with tissue polarity and NFkB activation and permitsapoptosis. These results indicate that integrin-induced polarity maydrive tumor cell resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents via effects onNFkB.

  2. Crossed elliptical polarization undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Shigemi

    1997-05-01

    The first switching of polarization direction is possible by installing two identical helical undulators in series in a same straight section in a storage ring. By setting each undulator in a circular polarization mode in opposite handedness, one can obtain linearly polarized radiation with any required polarization direction depending on the modulator setting between two undulators. This scheme can be used without any major degradation of polarization degree in any low energy low emittance storage ring.

  3. Acute myeloid leukemia cells polarize macrophages towards a leukemia supporting state in a Growth factor independence 1 dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Al-Matary, Yahya S.; Botezatu, Lacramioara; Opalka, Bertram; Hönes, Judith M.; Lams, Robert F.; Thivakaran, Aniththa; Schütte, Judith; Köster, Renata; Lennartz, Klaus; Schroeder, Thomas; Haas, Rainer; Dührsen, Ulrich; Khandanpour, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    The growth of malignant cells is not only driven by cell-intrinsic factors, but also by the surrounding stroma. Monocytes/Macrophages play an important role in the onset and progression of solid cancers. However, little is known about their role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia, a malignant disease characterized by an aberrant development of the myeloid compartment of the hematopoietic system. It is also unclear which factors are responsible for changing the status of macrophage polarization, thus supporting the growth of malignant cells instead of inhibiting it. We report herein that acute myeloid leukemia leads to the invasion of acute myeloid leukemia-associated macrophages into the bone marrow and spleen of leukemic patients and mice. In different leukemic mouse models, these macrophages support the in vitro expansion of acute myeloid leukemia cell lines better than macrophages from non-leukemic mice. The grade of macrophage infiltration correlates in vivo with the survival of the mice. We found that the transcriptional repressor Growth factor independence 1 is crucial in the process of macrophage polarization, since its absence impedes macrophage polarization towards a leukemia supporting state and favors an anti-tumor state both in vitro and in vivo. These results not only suggest that acute myeloid leukemia-associated macrophages play an important role in the progression of acute myeloid leukemia, but also implicate Growth factor independence 1 as a pivotal factor in macrophage polarization. These data may provide new insights and opportunities for novel therapies for acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:27390361

  4. Polarized deposition of basement membrane proteins depends on Phosphatidylinositol synthase and the levels of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Devergne, Olivier; Tsung, Karen; Barcelo, Gail; Schüpbach, Trudi

    2014-05-27

    The basement membrane (BM), a specialized sheet of the extracellular matrix contacting the basal side of epithelial tissues, plays an important role in the control of the polarized structure of epithelial cells. However, little is known about how BM proteins themselves achieve a polarized distribution. Here, we identify phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) as a critical regulator of the polarized secretion of BM proteins. A decrease of PIP2 levels, in particular through mutations in Phosphatidylinositol synthase (Pis) and other members of the phosphoinositide pathway, leads to the aberrant accumulation of BM components at the apical side of the cell without primarily affecting the distribution of apical and basolateral polarity proteins. In addition, PIP2 controls the apical and lateral localization of Crag (Calmodulin-binding protein related to a Rab3 GDP/GTP exchange protein), a factor specifically required to prevent aberrant apical secretion of BM. We propose that PIP2, through the control of Crag's subcellular localization, restricts the secretion of BM proteins to the basal side.

  5. A survey of the polar cap density based on Cluster EFW probe measurements: Solar wind and solar irradiation dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, S.; Svenes, K.; Lybekk, B.; Pedersen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The plasma density above the Earth's polar caps provide crucial information about the state of the magnetosphere. This region of space is known for its tenuous plasma and extremely low plasma densities, thus making traditional measurements with particle and plasma instruments extremely difficult. A new method based on spacecraft potential measurements from the electric field instrument onboard the Cluster satellites has shown that more reliable density measurements can be obtained. In this paper, we utilize this method and present a survey of the polar cap densities and the response to changes in the solar irradiation, solar wind parameters as well as processes internal to the magnetosphere. Our observations spans a time interval of almost 10 years, thus covering almost a full solar cycle. The observations seem to confirm that solar irradiance, and thus ionization through UV absorption in the atmosphere is the most important mechanism controlling the polar cap cold plasma density. We also find positive correlations between polar cap density and solar wind density and solar wind dynamic pressure, as well as geomagnetic activity levels.

  6. Polarization-dependent laser autofluorescence of the polycrystalline networks of blood plasma films in the task of liver pathology differentiation.

    PubMed

    Prysyazhnyuk, V P; Ushenko, Yu A; Dubolazov, A V; Ushenko, A G; Ushenko, V A

    2016-04-20

    Current research presents the results of the investigation of diagnostic efficiency of laser polarization autofluorescence for the set of endogenous fluorophores of blood plasma polycrystalline films in two spectral regions (0.5-0.53 μm and 0.63-0.67 μm) under the excitation of laser radiation with a wavelength of 0.405 μm. A model of generalized optical anisotropy of protein networks of blood plasma polycrystalline films is proposed for the purpose of defining laser autofluorescence processes. Both phase (linear birefringence and optical activity) and amplitude (linear and circular dichroisms) anisotropies have been considered. Interconnections between the optimal condition of probing beam polarization state and the efficiency of induction laser autofluorescence have been found. Statistical analysis of coordinate distributions of laser polarization autofluorescence intensities is suggested by means of determination of the quantitative criteria (statistical moments of the 1st-4th orders). The efficiency of laser polarization autofluorescence of polycrystalline networks in the task of differentiation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic hepatitis of human liver has been analyzed. PMID:27140117

  7. Regulation of epithelial cell polarity by PAR-3 depends on Girdin transcription and Girdin-Gαi3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Kakuwa, Taku; Akimoto, Kazunori; Koga, Hisashi; Ohno, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial apicobasal polarity has fundamental roles in epithelial physiology and morphogenesis. The PAR complex, comprising PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), is involved in determining cell polarity in various biological contexts, including in epithelial cells. However, it is not fully understood how the PAR complex induces apicobasal polarity. In this study, we found that PAR-3 regulates the protein expression of Girdin (also known as GIV or CCDC88A), a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) for heterotrimeric Gαi subunits, at the transcriptional level by cooperating with the AP-2 transcription factor. In addition, we confirmed that PAR-3 physically interacts with Girdin, and show that Girdin, together with the Gαi3 (also known as GNAI3), controls tight junction formation, apical domain development and actin organization downstream of PAR-3. Taken together, our findings suggest that transcriptional upregulation of Girdin expression and Girdin-Gαi3 signaling play crucial roles in regulating epithelial apicobasal polarity through the PAR complex.

  8. Regulation of epithelial cell polarity by PAR-3 depends on Girdin transcription and Girdin-Gαi3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Kakuwa, Taku; Akimoto, Kazunori; Koga, Hisashi; Ohno, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial apicobasal polarity has fundamental roles in epithelial physiology and morphogenesis. The PAR complex, comprising PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), is involved in determining cell polarity in various biological contexts, including in epithelial cells. However, it is not fully understood how the PAR complex induces apicobasal polarity. In this study, we found that PAR-3 regulates the protein expression of Girdin (also known as GIV or CCDC88A), a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) for heterotrimeric Gαi subunits, at the transcriptional level by cooperating with the AP-2 transcription factor. In addition, we confirmed that PAR-3 physically interacts with Girdin, and show that Girdin, together with the Gαi3 (also known as GNAI3), controls tight junction formation, apical domain development and actin organization downstream of PAR-3. Taken together, our findings suggest that transcriptional upregulation of Girdin expression and Girdin-Gαi3 signaling play crucial roles in regulating epithelial apicobasal polarity through the PAR complex. PMID:25977476

  9. Visualization of Excitonic Structure in the Fenna-Matthews-OlsonPhotosynthetic Complex by Polarization-Dependent Two-DimensionalElectronic Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago; Department of Biology, Department of Chemistry, Washington University; Fleming, Graham; Read, Elizabeth L.; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Engel, Gregory S.; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-05-26

    Photosynthetic light-harvesting proceeds by the collection and highly efficient transfer of energy through a network of pigment-protein complexes. Inter-chromophore electronic couplings and interactions between pigments and the surrounding protein determine energy levels of excitonic states and dictate the mechanism of energy flow. The excitonic structure (orientation of excitonic transition dipoles) of pigment-protein complexes is generally deduced indirectly from x-ray crystallography in combination with predictions of transition energies and couplings in the chromophore site basis. Here, we demonstrate that coarse-grained excitonic structural information in the form of projection angles between transition dipole moments can be obtained from polarization-dependent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of an isotropic sample, particularly when the nonrephasing or free polarization decay signal rather than the photon echo signal is considered. The method provides an experimental link between atomic and electronic structure and accesses dynamical information with femtosecond time resolution. In an investigation of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex from green sulfur bacteria, energy transfer connecting two particular exciton states in the protein is isolated as being the primary contributor to a cross peak in the nonrephasing 2D spectrum at 400 fs under a specific sequence of polarized excitation pulses. The results suggest the possibility of designing experiments using combinations of tailored polarization sequencesto separate and monitor individual relaxation pathways.

  10. Bias-polarity-dependent resistance switching in W/SiO2/Pt and W/SiO2/Si/Pt structures

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hao; Li, Xiang Yuan; Chen, Ran; Shao, Xing Long; Yoon, Jung Ho; Hu, Xiwen; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Zhao, Jinshi

    2016-01-01

    SiO2 is the most significantly used insulator layer in semiconductor devices. Its functionality was recently extended to resistance switching random access memory, where the defective SiO2 played an active role as the resistance switching (RS) layer. In this report, the bias-polarity-dependent RS behaviours in the top electrode W-sputtered SiO2-bottom electrode Pt (W/SiO2/Pt) structure were examined based on the current-voltage (I-V) sweep. When the memory cell was electroformed with a negative bias applied to the W electrode, the memory cell showed a typical electronic switching mechanism with a resistance ratio of ~100 and high reliability. For electroforming with opposite bias polarity, typical ionic-defect-mediated (conducting filament) RS was observed with lower reliability. Such distinctive RS mechanisms depending on the electroforming-bias polarity could be further confirmed using the light illumination study. Devices with similar electrode structures with a thin intervening Si layer between the SiO2 and Pt electrode, to improve the RS film morphology (root-mean-squared roughness of ~1.7 nm), were also fabricated. Their RS performances were almost identical to that of the single-layer SiO2 sample with very high roughness (root-mean-squared roughness of ~10 nm), suggesting that the reported RS behaviours were inherent to the material property. PMID:26916050

  11. Bias-polarity-dependent resistance switching in W/SiO2/Pt and W/SiO2/Si/Pt structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao; Li, Xiang Yuan; Chen, Ran; Shao, Xing Long; Yoon, Jung Ho; Hu, Xiwen; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Zhao, Jinshi

    2016-02-01

    SiO2 is the most significantly used insulator layer in semiconductor devices. Its functionality was recently extended to resistance switching random access memory, where the defective SiO2 played an active role as the resistance switching (RS) layer. In this report, the bias-polarity-dependent RS behaviours in the top electrode W-sputtered SiO2-bottom electrode Pt (W/SiO2/Pt) structure were examined based on the current-voltage (I-V) sweep. When the memory cell was electroformed with a negative bias applied to the W electrode, the memory cell showed a typical electronic switching mechanism with a resistance ratio of ~100 and high reliability. For electroforming with opposite bias polarity, typical ionic-defect-mediated (conducting filament) RS was observed with lower reliability. Such distinctive RS mechanisms depending on the electroforming-bias polarity could be further confirmed using the light illumination study. Devices with similar electrode structures with a thin intervening Si layer between the SiO2 and Pt electrode, to improve the RS film morphology (root-mean-squared roughness of ~1.7 nm), were also fabricated. Their RS performances were almost identical to that of the single-layer SiO2 sample with very high roughness (root-mean-squared roughness of ~10 nm), suggesting that the reported RS behaviours were inherent to the material property.

  12. Mass dependence of fragment angular distributions in the fission of 232Th and 236U induced by polarized photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiper, F.; Frommhold, Th.; Henkel, W.; Jung, A.; Kneissl, U.; Stock, R.

    1993-10-01

    Near-barrier fission of 232Th and 236U induced by linearly polarized photons has been investigated. The experiments have been carried out at the "off-axis" bremsstrahlung facility of the Giessen 65 MeV electron linac. Fragment angular, mass and energy distributions have been measured simultaneously allowing the investigation of correlations between these fragment characteristics. A consistent assignment of the quantum numbers Jπ and K for the fussion channels involved in the fission process is proposed. For the first time, the polar anisotropies and azimuthal asymmetries of the fission fragment angular distributions W( θ, φ) have been investigated as a function of the fragment masses. The results are discussed in the framework of the double-humped fission barrier concept and the so-called "multi-exit fission channel" model. Additionally, angular distributions of heavy and light fission fragments from photofission of 236U have been analyzed for a possible asymmetry with respect to θ = 90°.

  13. Electric-field-dependent dynamic polarizability and state-insensitive conditions for optical trapping of diatomic polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kotochigova, Svetlana; DeMille, David

    2010-12-15

    Selection of state-insensitive or 'magic' trapping conditions with ultracold atoms or molecules, where pairs of internal states experience identical trapping potentials, brings substantial benefits to precision measurements and quantum computing schemes. Working at such conditions could ensure that the detrimental effects of inevitable inhomogeneities across an ultracold sample are significantly reduced. However, this aspect of confinement remains unexplored for ultracold polar molecules. Here, we present means to control the ac Stark shift of rotational states of ultracold diatomic polar molecules, when subjected to both trapping laser light and an external electric field. We show that both the strength and relative orientation of the two fields influence the trapping potential. In particular, we predict 'magic electric field strengths' and a 'magic angle', where the Stark shift is independent of the dc external field for certain rotational states of the molecule.

  14. Cdc42-dependent Modulation of Tight Junctions and Membrane Protein Traffic in Polarized Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Raul; Ruiz, Wily G.; Leung, Som-Ming; Jou, Tzuu-Shuh; Apodaca, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    Polarized epithelial cells maintain the asymmetric composition of their apical and basolateral membrane domains by at least two different processes. These include the regulated trafficking of macromolecules from the biosynthetic and endocytic pathway to the appropriate membrane domain and the ability of the tight junction to prevent free mixing of membrane domain-specific proteins and lipids. Cdc42, a Rho family GTPase, is known to govern cellular polarity and membrane traffic in several cell types. We examined whether this protein regulated tight junction function in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and pathways that direct proteins to the apical and basolateral surface of these cells. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells that expressed dominant-active or dominant-negative mutants of Cdc42 under the control of a tetracycline-repressible system. Here we report that expression of dominant-active Cdc42V12 or dominant-negative Cdc42N17 altered tight junction function. Expression of Cdc42V12 slowed endocytic and biosynthetic traffic, and expression of Cdc42N17 slowed apical endocytosis and basolateral to apical transcytosis but stimulated biosynthetic traffic. These results indicate that Cdc42 may modulate multiple cellular pathways required for the maintenance of epithelial cell polarity. PMID:11514615

  15. Polar localization and endocytic degradation of a boron transporter, BOR1, is dependent on specific tyrosine residues.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Akira; Kasai, Koji; Fujiwara, Toru; Naito, Satoshi; Takano, Junpei

    2012-01-01

    Boron (B) is essential for plants, but is toxic in excess. Plants have to strictly regulate the uptake and translocation of B. In Arabidopsis thaliana root cells, a boric acid channel, NIP5;1, and a boric acid/borate exporter, BOR1, localize to the outer (facing soil) and inner plasma membrane domains, respectively, under B limitation. The opposite polar localizations of the importer and exporter would enable plant roots to transport B efficiently towards the xylem. In addition, accumulation of the B transporters is controlled by B conditions. When plants are shifted from low to high B conditions, NIP5;1 transcript accumulation is down-regulated through mRNA degradation. The BOR1 protein is transported to the trans-Golgi network/early endosome and multivesicular body and finally degraded in the vacuole. We have recently shown that both the polar localization and the endocytic degradation of BOR1 are controlled by at least two tyrosine residues in a large loop located in the cytosol. We also showed that ubiquitination is required for the endocytic degradation of BOR1. Here, we analyzed possible involvement of an additional tyrosine residue (Y414) in the loop region and discuss the pathway of the BOR1 trafficking for polar localization and endocytic degradation of BOR1. PMID:22301967

  16. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  17. Observation of polarized gain from aligned colloidal nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuan; Ta, Van Duong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; Mutlugun, Evren; Fong, Kah Ee; Tan, Swee Tiam; Dang, Cuong; Sun, Xiao Wei; Sun, Handong; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, colloidal semiconductor nanorods have attracted great interest for polarized spontaneous emission. However, their polarized gain has not been possible to achieve so far. In this work we show the highly polarized stimulated emission from the densely packed ensembles of core-seeded nanorods in a cylindrical cavity. Here CdSe/CdS dot-in-rods were coated and aligned on the inner wall of a capillary tube, providing optical feedback for the nanorod gain medium. Results show that the polarized gain originates intrinsically from the aligned nanorods and not from the cavity and that the optical anisotropy of the nanorod ensemble was amplified with the capillary tube, resulting in highly polarized whispering gallery mode lasing. The highly polarized emission and lasing, together with easy fabrication and flexible incorporation, make this microlaser a promising candidate for important color conversion and enrichment applications including liquid crystal display backlighting and laser lighting.In recent years, colloidal semiconductor nanorods have attracted great interest for polarized spontaneous emission. However, their polarized gain has not been possible to achieve so far. In this work we show the highly polarized stimulated emission from the densely packed ensembles of core-seeded nanorods in a cylindrical cavity. Here CdSe/CdS dot-in-rods were coated and aligned on the inner wall of a capillary tube, providing optical feedback for the nanorod gain medium. Results show that the polarized gain originates intrinsically from the aligned nanorods and not from the cavity and that the optical anisotropy of the nanorod ensemble was amplified with the capillary tube, resulting in highly polarized whispering gallery mode lasing. The highly polarized emission and lasing, together with easy fabrication and flexible incorporation, make this microlaser a promising candidate for important color conversion and enrichment applications including liquid crystal display

  18. MicroRNA-33–dependent regulation of macrophage metabolism directs immune cell polarization in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Mireille; Ediriweera, Hasini N.; Gundra, U. Mahesh; Sheedy, Frederick J.; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Hutchison, Susan B.; Rinehold, Kaitlyn; van Solingen, Coen; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Cecchini, Katharine; Rayner, Katey J.; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Zamore, Phillip D.; Fisher, Edward A.; Loke, P’ng; Moore, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular metabolism is increasingly recognized as a controller of immune cell fate and function. MicroRNA-33 (miR-33) regulates cellular lipid metabolism and represses genes involved in cholesterol efflux, HDL biogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation. Here, we determined that miR-33–mediated disruption of the balance of aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation instructs macrophage inflammatory polarization and shapes innate and adaptive immune responses. Macrophage-specific Mir33 deletion increased oxidative respiration, enhanced spare respiratory capacity, and induced an M2 macrophage polarization–associated gene profile. Furthermore, miR-33–mediated M2 polarization required miR-33 targeting of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but not cholesterol efflux. Notably, miR-33 inhibition increased macrophage expression of the retinoic acid–producing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A2 (ALDH1A2) and retinal dehydrogenase activity both in vitro and in a mouse model. Consistent with the ability of retinoic acid to foster inducible Tregs, miR-33–depleted macrophages had an enhanced capacity to induce forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) expression in naive CD4+ T cells. Finally, treatment of hypercholesterolemic mice with miR-33 inhibitors for 8 weeks resulted in accumulation of inflammation-suppressing M2 macrophages and FOXP3+ Tregs in plaques and reduced atherosclerosis progression. Collectively, these results reveal that miR-33 regulates macrophage inflammation and demonstrate that miR-33 antagonism is atheroprotective, in part, by reducing plaque inflammation by promoting M2 macrophage polarization and Treg induction. PMID:26517695

  19. Two-dimensional grating coupler with a low polarization dependent loss of 0.25  dB covering the C-band.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinghui; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-09-15

    We design and demonstrate a two-dimensional grating coupler (2D GC) with a low polarization dependent loss (PDL) based on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Using a grating cell consisting of five cylinders and carefully optimizing the distances between the cylinders, a maximum PDL of 0.25 dB covering the C-band is realized, which is 1.25 dB better than a conventional 2D GC with a single cylinder etching pattern fabricated on the same SOI wafer. PMID:27628358

  20. Thickness dependence of spin polarization and electronic structure of ultra-thin films of MoS2 and related transition-metal dichalcogenides

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Lin, Hsin; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Bansil, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out thickness dependent first-principles electronic structure calculations on ultra-thin films of transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo or W; X = S, Se, or Te). When spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is included in the computations, monolayer MX2 thin films display spin-split states around the valence band maximum at the Brillouin zone corners with nearly 100% spin polarization. The spins are aligned oppositely along out-of-the-plane direction at the K and K′ points. For the bilayer films, spin polarization of this SOC induced band splitting can be switched on or off by an out-of-the-plane external electric field. The spin-polarized states are weakly coupled between the layers in bulk MX2 compounds with small kz dispersion. We confirm a transition from an indirect to direct band gap as the thickness is reduced to a monolayer in MoS2, in agreement with recent experimental findings. Owing to the presence of a large spin-splitting energy and an insulating band gap, MX2 compounds have great potential for spin/valley electronic applications at room temperature. PMID:25189645