Science.gov

Sample records for polarization foreground analysis

  1. PIPER and Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David

    2009-01-01

    In addition to probing inflationary cosmology, PIPER will measure the polarized dust emission from the Galaxy. PIPER will be capable of full (I,0,U,V) measurement over four frequency bands ' These measurements will provide insight into the physics of dust grains and a probe of the Galactic magnetic field on large and intermediate scales.

  2. Large-scale polarization of the microwave background and foreground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira-Costa, Angélica; Tegmark, Max; O'dell, Christopher; Keating, Brian; Timbie, Peter; Efstathiou, George; Smoot, George

    2003-10-01

    The DASI discovery of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization has opened a new chapter in cosmology. Most of the useful information about inflationary gravitational waves and reionization is on large angular scales where galactic foreground contamination is the worst, so a key challenge is to model, quantify, and remove polarized foregrounds. We use the POLAR experiment, COBE/DMR and radio surveys to provide the strongest limits to date on the TE cross-power spectrum of the CMB on large angular scales and to quantify the polarized synchrotron radiation, which is likely to be the most challenging polarized contaminant for the WMAP satellite. We find that the synchrotron E and B contributions are equal to within 10% from 408 820 MHz with a hint of E domination at higher frequencies. We quantify Faraday rotation and depolarization effects in the two-dimensional (l,ν) plane and show that they cause the synchrotron polarization percentage to drop both towards lower frequencies and towards lower multipoles.

  3. Impact of modelling foreground uncertainties on future CMB polarization satellite experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervías-Caimapo, Carlos; Bonaldi, Anna; Brown, Michael L.

    2017-07-01

    We present an analysis of errors on the tensor-to-scalar ratio due to residual diffuse foregrounds. We use simulated observations of a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization satellite, the Cosmic Origins Explorer (COrE), using the specifications of the version proposed to ESA in 2010. We construct a full pipeline from microwave sky maps to r likelihood, using two models of diffuse Galactic foregrounds with different complexity and assuming component separation with varying degrees of accuracy. Our pipeline uses a linear mixture (generalized least squares) solution for component separation, and a hybrid approach for power spectrum estimation, with a quadratic maximum likelihood estimator at low ℓs and a pseudo-Cℓ deconvolution at high ℓs. In the likelihood for r, we explore modelling foreground residuals as nuisance parameters. Our analysis aims at measuring the bias introduced in r by mismodelling the foregrounds and to determine what error is tolerable while still successfully detecting r. We find that r = 0.01 can be measured successfully even for a complex sky model and in the presence of foreground parameters error. However, the detection of r = 0.001 is a lot more challenging, as inaccurate modelling of the foreground spectral properties may result in a biased measurement of r. Once biases are eliminated, the total error on r allows setting an upper limit rather than a detection, unless the uncertainties on the foreground spectral indices are very small, i.e. equal or better than 0.5 per cent error for both dust and synchrotron. This emphasizes the need for pursuing research on component separation and foreground characterization in view of next-generation CMB polarization experiments.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF POLARIZED FOREGROUNDS ON 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION POWER SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David F.; Aguirre, James E.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Pober, Jonathan C.; Jacobs, Daniel C.

    2013-06-01

    Experiments aimed at detecting highly-redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization (EoR) are plagued by the contamination of foreground emission. A potentially important source of contaminating foregrounds may be Faraday-rotated, polarized emission, which leaks into the estimate of the intrinsically unpolarized EoR signal. While these foregrounds' intrinsic polarization may not be problematic, the spectral structure introduced by the Faraday rotation could be. To better understand and characterize these effects, we present a simulation of the polarized sky between 120 and 180 MHz. We compute a single visibility, and estimate the three-dimensional power spectrum from that visibility using the delay spectrum approach presented in Parsons et al. Using the Donald C. Backer Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization as an example instrument, we show the expected leakage into the unpolarized power spectrum to be several orders of magnitude above the expected 21 cm EoR signal.

  5. Isotropy-violation diagnostics for B-mode polarization foregrounds to the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotti, Aditya; Huffenberger, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Isotropy-violation statistics can highlight polarized galactic foregrounds that contaminate primordial B-modes in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We propose a particular isotropy-violation test and apply it to polarized Planck 353 GHz data, constructing a map that indicates B-mode foreground dust power over the sky. We build our main isotropy test in harmonic space via the bipolar spherical harmonic basis, and our method helps us to identify the least-contaminated directions. By this measure, there are regions of low foreground in and around the BICEP field, near the South Galactic Pole, and in the Northern Galactic Hemisphere. There is also a possible foreground feature in the BICEP field. We compare our results to those based on the local power spectrum, which is computed on discs using a version of the method of Planck Int. XXX (2016). The discs method is closely related to our isotropy-violation diagnostic. We pay special care to the treatment of noise, including chance correlations with the foregrounds. Currently we use our isotropy tool to assess the cleanest portions of the sky, but in the future such methods will allow isotropy-based null tests for foreground contamination in maps purported to measure primordial B-modes, particularly in cases of limited frequency coverage.

  6. Sensitivity and foreground modelling for large-scale cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remazeilles, M.; Dickinson, C.; Eriksen, H. K. K.; Wehus, I. K.

    2016-05-01

    The measurement of the large-scale B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a fundamental goal of future CMB experiments. However, because of unprecedented sensitivity, future CMB experiments will be much more sensitive to any imperfect modelling of the Galactic foreground polarization in the reconstruction of the primordial B-mode signal. We compare the sensitivity to B-modes of different concepts of CMB satellite missions (LiteBIRD, COrE, COrE+, PRISM, EPIC, PIXIE) in the presence of Galactic foregrounds. In particular, we quantify the impact on the tensor-to-scalar parameter of incorrect foreground modelling in the component separation process. Using Bayesian fitting and Gibbs sampling, we perform the separation of the CMB and Galactic foreground B-modes. The recovered CMB B-mode power spectrum is used to compute the likelihood distribution of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We focus the analysis to the very large angular scales that can be probed only by CMB space missions, i.e. the reionization bump, where primordial B-modes dominate over spurious B-modes induced by gravitational lensing. We find that fitting a single modified blackbody component for thermal dust where the `real' sky consists of two dust components strongly bias the estimation of the tensor-to-scalar ratio by more than 5σ for the most sensitive experiments. Neglecting in the parametric model the curvature of the synchrotron spectral index may bias the estimated tensor-to-scalar ratio by more than 1σ. For sensitive CMB experiments, omitting in the foreground modelling a 1 per cent polarized spinning dust component may induce a non-negligible bias in the estimated tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  7. Statistical simulations of the dust foreground to cosmic microwave background polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vansyngel, F.; Boulanger, F.; Ghosh, T.; Wandelt, B.; Aumont, J.; Bracco, A.; Levrier, F.; Martin, P. G.; Montier, L.

    2017-07-01

    The characterization of the dust polarization foreground to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a necessary step toward the detection of the B-mode signal associated with primordial gravitational waves. We present a method to simulate maps of polarized dust emission on the sphere that is similar to the approach used for CMB anisotropies. This method builds on the understanding of Galactic polarization stemming from the analysis of Planck data. It relates the dust polarization sky to the structure of the Galactic magnetic field and its coupling with interstellar matter and turbulence. The Galactic magnetic field is modeled as a superposition of a mean uniform field and a Gaussian random (turbulent) component with a power-law power spectrum of exponent αM. The integration along the line of sight carried out to compute Stokes maps is approximated by a sum over a small number of emitting layers with different realizations of the random component of the magnetic field. The model parameters are constrained to fit the power spectra of dust polarization EE, BB, and TE measured using Planck data. We find that the slopes of the E and B power spectra of dust polarization are matched for αM = -2.5, an exponent close to that measured for total dust intensity but larger than the Kolmogorov exponent - 11/3. The model allows us to compute multiple realizations of the Stokes Q and U maps for different realizations of the random component of the magnetic field, and to quantify the variance of dust polarization spectra for any given sky area outside of the Galactic plane. The simulations reproduce the scaling relation between the dust polarization power and the mean total dust intensity including the observed dispersion around the mean relation. We also propose a method to carry out multifrequency simulations, including the decorrelation measured recently by Planck, using a given covariance matrix of the polarization maps. These simulations are well suited to optimize

  8. Continuum Foreground Polarization and Na I Absorption in Type Ia SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelaya, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Baade, D.; Höflich, P.; Maund, J.; Patat, F.; Quinn, J. R.; Reilly, E.; Wang, L.; Wheeler, J. C.; Förster, F.; González-Gaitán, S.

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of the continuum polarization over the 400–600 nm range of 19 SNe Ia obtained with FORS at the VLT. We separate them into those that show Na i D lines at the velocity of their hosts and those that do not. Continuum polarization of the sodium sample near maximum light displays a broad range of values, from extremely polarized cases like SN 2006X to almost unpolarized ones like SN 2011ae. The non-sodium sample shows, typically, smaller polarization values. The continuum polarization of the sodium sample in the 400–600 nm range is linear with wavelength and can be characterized by the mean polarization ({P}{mean}). Its values span a wide range and show a linear correlation with color, color excess, and extinction in the visual band. Larger dispersion correlations were found with the equivalent width of the Na i D and Ca ii H and K lines, and also a noisy relation between {P}{mean} and R V , the ratio of total to selective extinction. Redder SNe show stronger continuum polarization, with larger color excesses and extinctions. We also confirm that high continuum polarization is associated with small values of R V . The correlation between extinction and polarization—and polarization angles—suggest that the dominant fraction of dust polarization is imprinted in interstellar regions of the host galaxies. We show that Na i D lines from foreground matter in the SN host are usually associated with non-galactic ISM, challenging the typical assumptions in foreground interstellar polarization models. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programs 068.D-0571(A), 069.D-0438(A), 070.D-0111(A), 076.D-0178(A), 079.D-0090(A), 080.D-0108(A), 081.D-0558(A), 085.D-0731(A), and 086.D-0262(A). Also based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto (Spain).

  9. BICEP2/Keck - Planck joint analysis and prospects for Galactic foreground removal from CMB observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crill, Brendan

    2015-08-01

    The joint analysis of 150 GHz polarized maps from BICEP2 and Keck Array at 150 GHz with Planck data at 353 GHzallowed the removal of Galactic dust contamination from the measurement of lensed B-modes in the deep (57 nK deg)BICEP2/Keck maps as well as setting an upper limit on the primordial gravitational wave background from inflation. We present this analysis, describe prospects for polarized foreground cleaning of future suborbitalmeasurements of CMB, and additionally describe Planck's measurements of the spatial correlation of polarizedemission from synchrotron and dust at high galactic latitude, which complicates the removal of Galactic foregrounds at the foregroundminimum of 70-100 GHz.

  10. Robust forecasts on fundamental physics from the foreground-obscured, gravitationally-lensed CMB polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen M.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Peiris, Hiranya V. E-mail: s.feeney@imperial.ac.uk E-mail: a.jaffe@imperial.ac.uk

    2016-03-01

    Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)∼1.3×10{sup −4}, σ(n{sub t})∼0

  11. Robust forecasts on fundamental physics from the foreground-obscured, gravitationally-lensed CMB polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Jaffe, Andrew H.

    2016-03-01

    Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)~1.3×10-4, σ(nt)~0.03, σ( ns )~1.8×10

  12. Polarization of extragalactic radio sources: CMB foregrounds and telescope calibration issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massardi, Marcella; Galluzzi, Vincenzo; Paladino, Rosita; Burigana, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Radio source observations play important roles in polarimetric cosmological studies. On the one hand, they constitute the main foregrounds for cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on scales smaller than 30 arcmin up to 100 GHz, on the other they can be used as targets for validation of products of polarimetric experiments dedicated to cosmology. Furthermore, extragalactic high-redshift sources have been used for cosmic polarization rotation (CPR) investigation. In this paper, we will discuss the support to cosmological studies from ground-based polarimetric observations in the radio and millimetric wavelength bands. Most of the limits to accuracy improvements arise from systematic effects and low calibration quality. We will discuss some details of interferometric calibration procedures and show some of the perspectives that the Atacama large millimeter array (ALMA) could offer for CPR studies.

  13. Differentiating salt marsh species using foreground/background analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Pinzon, J.; Ustin, S.L.; Rejmankova, E.

    1996-10-01

    Three California salt marsh plant species have distinctive morphologies that could be remotely sensed by airborne spectrometers because the architectures create differences in canopy reflectance characteristics. This paper presents a method to differentiate wetland species using a modified spectral mixture analysis termed hierarchical foreground and background analysis (HFBA). To validate this approach, the method was applied to field spectral data from several salt marshes. Foreground and background analysis allows the user to direct analysis along a specified axis of variance by identifying vectors through the n-dimensional spectral volume by identifying vectors that comprise the information of selected subset of spectra which emphasizes the presence of a discriminative signature of interest. The goal of FBA is to project spectral variation along the most relevant axis of variance that maximizes spectral differences between groups, while minimizing spectral variation within each group. For this work, we selected a training set that allowed us to create HFBA vectors which efficiently discriminate species based on canopy spectral characteristics. Results indicated that the dominant species in these salts marshes could be clearly differentiated with greater than 90% certainty from field collected canopy spectrometer data. Hundred percent of Spartina and 79% of Salicornia were correctly classified at the first level of classification. The accuracy of classification for Salicornia improved to 87% in the second level of classification. The unclassified spectral samples were related to extraordinary conditions within the wetlands such as extreme biomass, salinity and nitrogen conditions. These patterns were apparent in AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/infrared Imaging Spectrometer) images which showed distinct zonation corresponding to the distributions of these species in the marsh. Results were confirmed by field reconnaissance. 19 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Statistical analysis of the cosmic microwave background: Power spectra and foregrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dwyer, Ian J.

    2005-11-01

    In this thesis I examine some of the challenges associated with analyzing Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data and present a novel approach to solving the problem of power spectrum estimation, which is called MAGIC (MAGIC Allows Global Inference of Covariance). In light of the computational difficulty of a brute force approach to power spectrum estimation, I review several approaches which have been applied to the problem and show an example application of such an approximate method to experimental CMB data from the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST). I then introduce MAGIC, a new approach to power spectrum estimation; based on a Bayesian statistical analysis of the data utilizing Gibbs Sampling. I demonstrate application of this method to the all-sky Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe WMAP data. The results are in broad agreement with those obtained originally by the WMAP team. Since MAGIC generates a full description of each C l it is possible to examine several issues raised by the best-fit WMAP power spectrum, for example the perceived lack of power at low ℓ. It is found that the distribution of C ℓ's at low l are significantly non-Gaussian and, based on the exact analysis presented here, the "low quadrupole issue" can be attributed to a statistical fluctuation. Finally, I examine the effect of Galactic foreground contamination on CMB experiments and describe the principle foregrounds. I show that it is possible to include the foreground components in a self-consistent fashion within the statistical framework of MAGIC and give explicit examples of how this might be achieved. Foreground contamination will become an increasingly important issue in CMB data analysis and the ability of this new algorithm to produce an exact power spectrum in a computationally feasible time, coupled with the foreground component separation and removal is an exciting development in CMB data analysis. When considered with current algorithmic developments

  15. Polarized foreground removal at low radio frequencies using rotation measure synthesis: uncovering the signature of hydrogen reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geil, Paul M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2011-11-01

    Measurement of redshifted 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen promises to be the most effective method for studying the reionization history of hydrogen and, indirectly, the first galaxies. These studies will be limited not by raw sensitivity to the signal, but rather, by bright foreground radiation from Galactic and extragalactic radio sources and the Galactic continuum. In addition, leakage due to gain errors and non-ideal feeds conspire to further contaminate low-frequency radio observations. This leakage leads to a portion of the complex linear polarization signal finding its way into Stokes I, and inhibits the detection of the non-polarized cosmological signal from the epoch of reionization. In this work, we show that rotation measure synthesis can be used to recover the signature of cosmic hydrogen reionization in the presence of contamination by polarized foregrounds. To achieve this, we apply the rotation measure synthesis technique to the Stokes I component of a synthetic data cube containing Galactic foreground emission, the effect of instrumental polarization leakage and redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen from the epoch of reionization. This produces an effective Stokes I Faraday dispersion function for each line of sight, from which instrumental polarization leakage can be fitted and subtracted. Our results show that it is possible to recover the signature of reionization in its late stages (z≈ 7) by way of the 21-cm power spectrum, as well as through tomographic imaging of ionized cavities in the intergalactic medium.

  16. Analysis of small-scale microwave background radiation anisotropy in the presence of foreground contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Stebbins, Albert

    1994-01-01

    Many of the current round of experiments searching for anisotropies in the microwave background radiation (MBR) are confronting the problem of how to disentangle the cosmic signal from contamination due to Galactic and intergalactic foreground sources. Here we show how commonly used likelihood function techniques can be generalized to account for foreground. Specifically we set some restrictions on the spectrum of foreground contamination but allow the amplitude to vary arbitrarily. The likelihood function thus generalized gives reasonable limits on the MBR anisotropy which, in some cases, are not much less restrictive than what one would get from more detailed modeling of the foreground. Furthermore, the likelihood function is exactly the same as one would obtain by simply projecting out foreground contamination and looking at the reduced data set. We apply this generalized analysis to the recent medium-angle data sets of ACME-HEMT (Gaier et al. 1992; Schuster et al. 1993) and MAX (Meinhold et al. 1993; Gunderson et al. 1993). The resulting analysis constrains the one free parameter in the standard cold dark matter theory to be Q(sub rms-ps) = 18(sub -5 sup +8) microKelvin. This best fit value, although in striking agreement with the normalization from Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), is not a very good fit, with an overall chi-squared/degrees of freedom = 208/168. We also argue against three commonly used methods of dealing with foreground: (1) ignoring it completely; (2) subtracting off a best-fit foreground and treating the residuals as if uncontaminated; and (3) culling data which appears to be contaminated by foreground.

  17. Constraining Polarized Foregrounds for EoR Experiments I: 2D Power Spectra from the PAPER-32 Imaging Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, S. A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Nunhokee, C. D.; Bernardi, G.; Pober, J. C.; Ali, Z. S.; Bradley, R. F.; Carilli, C. L.; DeBoer, D. R.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Jacobs, D. C.; Klima, P.; MacMahon, D. H. E.; Manley, J. R.; Moore, D. F.; Parsons, A. R.; Stefan, I. I.; Walbrugh, W. P.

    2016-06-01

    Current generation low-frequency interferometers constructed with the objective of detecting the high-redshift 21 cm background aim to generate power spectra of the brightness temperature contrast of neutral hydrogen in primordial intergalactic medium. Two-dimensional (2D) power spectra (power in Fourier modes parallel and perpendicular to the line of sight) that formed from interferometric visibilities have been shown to delineate a boundary between spectrally smooth foregrounds (known as the wedge) and spectrally structured 21 cm background emission (the EoR window). However, polarized foregrounds are known to possess spectral structure due to Faraday rotation, which can leak into the EoR window. In this work we create and analyze 2D power spectra from the PAPER-32 imaging array in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. These allow us to observe and diagnose systematic effects in our calibration at high signal-to-noise within the Fourier space most relevant to EoR experiments. We observe well-defined windows in the Stokes visibilities, with Stokes Q, U, and V power spectra sharing a similar wedge shape to that seen in Stokes I. With modest polarization calibration, we see no evidence that polarization calibration errors move power outside the wedge in any Stokes visibility to the noise levels attained. Deeper integrations will be required to confirm that this behavior persists to the depth required for EoR detection.

  18. A fast method for power spectrum and foreground analysis for 21 cm cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Liu, Adrian; Tegmark, Max

    2013-02-01

    We develop and demonstrate an acceleration of the Liu and Tegmark quadratic estimator formalism for inverse variance foreground subtraction and power spectrum estimation in 21 cm tomography from O(N3) to O(Nlog⁡N), where N is the number of voxels of data. This technique makes feasible the megavoxel scale analysis necessary for current and upcoming radio interferometers by making only moderately restrictive assumptions about foreground models and survey geometry. We exploit iterative and Monte Carlo techniques and the symmetries of the foreground covariance matrices to quickly estimate the 21 cm brightness temperature power spectrum, P(k∥,k⊥), the Fisher information matrix, the error bars, the window functions, and the bias. We also extend the Liu and Tegmark foreground model to include bright point sources with known positions in a way that scales as O[(Nlog⁡N)×(Npointsources)]≤O(N5/3). As a first application of our method, we forecast error bars and window functions for the upcoming 128-tile deployment of the Murchinson Widefield Array, showing that 1000 hours of observation should prove sufficiently sensitive to detect the power spectrum signal from the Epoch of Reionization.

  19. Using foreground/background analysis to determine leaf and canopy chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinzon, J. E.; Ustin, S. L.; Hart, Q. J.; Jacquemoud, S.; Smith, M. O.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) has become a well established procedure for analyzing imaging spectrometry data, however, the technique is relatively insensitive to minor sources of spectral variation (e.g., discriminating stressed from unstressed vegetation and variations in canopy chemistry). Other statistical approaches have been tried e.g., stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to predict canopy chemistry. Grossman et al. reported that SMLR is sensitive to measurement error and that the prediction of minor chemical components are not independent of patterns observed in more dominant spectral components like water. Further, they observed that the relationships were strongly dependent on the mode of expressing reflectance (R, -log R) and whether chemistry was expressed on a weight (g/g) or are basis (g/sq m). Thus, alternative multivariate techniques need to be examined. Smith et al. reported a revised SMA that they termed Foreground/Background Analysis (FBA) that permits directing the analysis along any axis of variance by identifying vectors through the n-dimensional spectral volume orthonormal to each other. Here, we report an application of the FBA technique for the detection of canopy chemistry using a modified form of the analysis.

  20. Moving cast shadow resistant for foreground segmentation based on shadow properties analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Gao, Yun; Yuan, Guowu; Ji, Rongbin

    2015-12-01

    Moving object detection is the fundamental task in machine vision applications. However, moving cast shadows detection is one of the major concerns for accurate video segmentation. Since detected moving object areas are often contain shadow points, errors in measurements, localization, segmentation, classification and tracking may arise from this. A novel shadow elimination algorithm is proposed in this paper. A set of suspected moving object area are detected by the adaptive Gaussian approach. A model is established based on shadow optical properties analysis. And shadow regions are discriminated from the set of moving pixels by using the properties of brightness, chromaticity and texture in sequence.

  1. Coaxing cosmic 21 cm fluctuations from the polarized sky using m -mode analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J. Richard; Sigurdson, Kris; Sitwell, Michael; Stebbins, Albert; Pen, Ue-Li

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we continue to develop the m -mode formalism, a technique for efficient and optimal analysis of wide-field transit radio telescopes, targeted at 21 cm cosmology. We extend this formalism to give an accurate treatment of the polarized sky, fully accounting for the effects of polarization leakage and cross polarization. We use the geometry of the measured set of visibilities to project down to pure temperature modes on the sky, serving as a significant compression, and an effective first filter of polarized contaminants. As in our previous work, we use the m -mode formalism with the Karhunen-Loève transform to give a highly efficient method for foreground cleaning, and demonstrate its success in cleaning realistic polarized skies observed with an instrument suffering from substantial off axis polarization leakage. We develop an optimal quadratic estimator in the m -mode formalism which can be efficiently calculated using a Monte Carlo technique. This is used to assess the implications of foreground removal for power spectrum constraints where we find that our method can clean foregrounds well below the foreground wedge, rendering only scales k∥<0.02 h Mpc-1 inaccessible. As this approach assumes perfect knowledge of the telescope, we perform a conservative test of how essential this is by simulating and analyzing data sets with deviations about our assumed telescope. Assuming no other techniques to mitigate bias are applied, we find we recover unbiased power spectra when the per-feed beamwidth to be measured to 0.1%, and amplifier gains to be known to 1% within each minute. Finally, as an example application, we extend our forecasts to a wideband 400-800 MHz cosmological observation and consider the implications for probing dark energy, finding a pathfinder-scale medium-sized cylinder telescope improves the Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit by around 70% over Planck and Stage II experiments alone.

  2. BFORE: The B-mode Foreground Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemack, Michael D.; Ade, Peter; de Bernardis, Francesco; Boulanger, Francois; Bryan, Sean; Devlin, Mark; Dunkley, Joanna; Eales, Steve; Gomez, Haley; Groppi, Chris; Henderson, Shawn; Hillbrand, Seth; Hubmayr, Johannes; Mauskopf, Philip; McMahon, Jeff; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Novak, Giles; Scott, Douglas; Soler, Juan; Tucker, Carole

    2016-08-01

    The B-mode Foreground Experiment (BFORE) is a proposed NASA balloon project designed to make optimal use of the sub-orbital platform by concentrating on three dust foreground bands (270, 350, and 600 GHz) that complement ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) programs. BFORE will survey ˜ 1/4 of the sky with 1.7-3.7 arcminute resolution, enabling precise characterization of the Galactic dust that now limits constraints on inflation from CMB B-mode polarization measurements. In addition, BFORE's combination of frequency coverage, large survey area, and angular resolution enables science far beyond the critical goal of measuring foregrounds. BFORE will constrain the velocities of thousands of galaxy clusters, provide a new window on the cosmic infrared background, and probe magnetic fields in the interstellar medium. We review the BFORE science case, timeline, and instrument design, which is based on a compact off-axis telescope coupled to {>}10,000 superconducting detectors.

  3. POLAR/CEPPAD Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2001-01-01

    This a report on the Comprehensive Energetic Particle Pitch Angle Distribution (CEPPAD) experiment of POLAR. Dr. Baker has been active in the design and calibration of the CEPPAD sensors and is now heavily involved in the analysis and interpretation of the data. Baker and his team have developed analysis and data display software and continue to support all aspects of the CEPPAD program.

  4. Normalized Polarization Ratios for the Analysis of Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Shimoni, Raz; Pham, Kim; Yassin, Mohammed; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J.; Gu, Min; Russell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification and analysis of molecular localization in living cells is increasingly important for elucidating biological pathways, and new methods are rapidly emerging. The quantification of cell polarity has generated much interest recently, and ratiometric analysis of fluorescence microscopy images provides one means to quantify cell polarity. However, detection of fluorescence, and the ratiometric measurement, is likely to be sensitive to acquisition settings and image processing parameters. Using imaging of EGFP-expressing cells and computer simulations of variations in fluorescence ratios, we characterized the dependence of ratiometric measurements on processing parameters. This analysis showed that image settings alter polarization measurements; and that clustered localization is more susceptible to artifacts than homogeneous localization. To correct for such inconsistencies, we developed and validated a method for choosing the most appropriate analysis settings, and for incorporating internal controls to ensure fidelity of polarity measurements. This approach is applicable to testing polarity in all cells where the axis of polarity is known. PMID:24963926

  5. Normalized polarization ratios for the analysis of cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Raz; Pham, Kim; Yassin, Mohammed; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J; Gu, Min; Russell, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    The quantification and analysis of molecular localization in living cells is increasingly important for elucidating biological pathways, and new methods are rapidly emerging. The quantification of cell polarity has generated much interest recently, and ratiometric analysis of fluorescence microscopy images provides one means to quantify cell polarity. However, detection of fluorescence, and the ratiometric measurement, is likely to be sensitive to acquisition settings and image processing parameters. Using imaging of EGFP-expressing cells and computer simulations of variations in fluorescence ratios, we characterized the dependence of ratiometric measurements on processing parameters. This analysis showed that image settings alter polarization measurements; and that clustered localization is more susceptible to artifacts than homogeneous localization. To correct for such inconsistencies, we developed and validated a method for choosing the most appropriate analysis settings, and for incorporating internal controls to ensure fidelity of polarity measurements. This approach is applicable to testing polarity in all cells where the axis of polarity is known.

  6. Polar Hydra Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Hall, Van Allen

    1998-01-01

    The science activities are: 1) Hydra is still operating successfully on orbit. 2) A large amount of analysis and discovery has occurred with the Hydra ground data processing this past year. 3) Full interdetector calibration has been implemented and documented. This intercalibration was necessitated by the incorrect installation of bias resistors in the pre-acceleration stage to the electron channeltrons. This had the effect of making the counting efficiency for electrons energy dependent as well as channeltron specific. The nature of the error had no impact on the ion detection efficiency since they have a different bias arrangement. This intercalibration is so effective, that the electron and ion moment densities are routinely produced with a level of agreement better than 20%. 4) The data processing routinely removes glint in the sensors and produces public energy time spectrograms on the web overnight. 6) Routine, but more intensive computer processing codes are operational that determine for electrons and ions, the density, the flow vector, the pressure tensor and the heat flux by numerical integration. These codes use the magnetic field to sustain the quality of their output. To gain access to this high quality magnetic field within our data stream we have monitored Russell's web page for zero levels and timing files (since his data acquisition is not telemetry synchronous) and have a local reconstruction of B for our use. We have also detected a routine anomaly in the magnetometer data stream that we have documented to Chris Russell and developed an editing algorithm to intercept these "hits" and remove them from the geophysical analysis.

  7. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Galactic Foreground Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, B.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Kogut, A.; Bennett, C. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Chen, X.; Dunkley, J.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    We present updated estimates of Galactic foreground emission using seven years of WMAP data. Using the power spectrum of differences between multi-frequency template-cleaned maps, we find no evidence for foreground contamination outside of the updated (KQ85y7) foreground mask. We place a 15 μK upper bound on rms foreground contamination in the cleaned maps used for cosmological analysis. Further, the cleaning process requires only three power-law foregrounds outside of the mask. We find no evidence for polarized foregrounds beyond those from soft (steep-spectrum) synchrotron and thermal dust emission; in particular we find no indication in the polarization data of an extra "haze" of hard synchrotron emission from energetic electrons near the Galactic center. We provide an updated map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the internal linear combination method, updated foreground masks, and updates to point source catalogs using two different techniques. With additional years of data, we now detect 471 point sources using a five-band technique and 417 sources using a three-band CMB-free technique. In total there are 62 newly detected point sources, a 12% increase over the five-year release. Also new are tests of the Markov chain Monte Carlo foreground fitting procedure against systematics in the time-stream data, and tests against the observed beam asymmetry. Within a few degrees of the Galactic plane, the behavior in total intensity of low-frequency foregrounds is complicated and not completely understood. WMAP data show a rapidly steepening spectrum from 20 to 40 GHz, which may be due to emission from spinning dust grains, steepening synchrotron, or other effects. Comparisons are made to a 1 deg 408 MHz map (Haslam et al.) and the 11 deg ARCADE 2 data (Singal et al.). We find that spinning dust or steepening synchrotron models fit the combination of WMAP and 408 MHz data equally well. ARCADE data appear inconsistent with the steepening synchrotron model

  8. Polarity Analysis in Child Abuse Case Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Joe Brannan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The use of polarity analysis in child abuse case management provides a way to identify interdependent polar opposites, their positive and negative consequences, and actions to manage them over time, rather than compete for one right solution. An example of polarity analysis is presented with the two poles being parental autonomy and the agency as…

  9. Polarity Analysis in Child Abuse Case Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Joe Brannan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The use of polarity analysis in child abuse case management provides a way to identify interdependent polar opposites, their positive and negative consequences, and actions to manage them over time, rather than compete for one right solution. An example of polarity analysis is presented with the two poles being parental autonomy and the agency as…

  10. POLAR/CEPPAD Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Hoffman, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This final report provides a final report on a NASA sponsored project involving data reduction and scientific analysis related to the Comprehensive Energetic Particle Pitch Angle Distribution (CEPPAD) experiment of POLAR. Dr. D.N. Baker, the chief scientist, has focused primarily on the calibration of CEPPAD sensors and the interpretation of data from the sensors which has led to discoveries regarding storm-substorm relationships in the earth's magnetosphere. The report contains approximately 190 bibliographic references to the activities of Baker and others involved.

  11. Toward an understanding of foreground emission in the BICEP2 region

    SciTech Connect

    Flauger, Raphael; Hill, J. Colin; Spergel, David N. E-mail: jch@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-08-01

    the pre-Planck templates used in the BICEP2 analysis and between different versions of a data-based template, we emphasize that cross-correlations between models are very sensitive to noise in the polarization angles and that measured cross-correlations are likely underestimates of the contribution of foregrounds to the map. These results suggest that BICEP1 and BICEP2 data alone cannot distinguish between foregrounds and a primordial gravitational wave signal, and that future Keck Array observations at 100 GHz and Planck observations at higher frequencies will be crucial to determine whether the signal is of primordial origin.

  12. Symmetry constraint for foreground extraction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huazhu; Cao, Xiaochun; Tu, Zhuowen; Lin, Dongdai

    2014-05-01

    Symmetry as an intrinsic shape property is often observed in natural objects. In this paper, we discuss how explicitly taking into account the symmetry constraint can enhance the quality of foreground object extraction. In our method, a symmetry foreground map is used to represent the symmetry structure of the image, which includes the symmetry matching magnitude and the foreground location prior. Then, the symmetry constraint model is built by introducing this symmetry structure into the graph-based segmentation function. Finally, the segmentation result is obtained via graph cuts. Our method encourages objects with symmetric parts to be consistently extracted. Moreover, our symmetry constraint model is applicable to weak symmetric objects under the part-based framework. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate the advantages of our approach in extracting the foreground. Our method also shows improved results in segmenting objects with weak, complex symmetry properties.

  13. EUV analysis of polar plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, I. A.; Withbroe, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Three polar plumes were studied using Skylab Mg X and O VI data. The plumes lie within the boundaries of a polar coronal hole. We find that the mean temperature of the plumes is about 1.1 million K and that they have a small vertical temperature gradient. Densities are determined and found consistent with white light analyses. The variation of density with height in the plumes is compared with that expected for hydrostatic equilibrium. As is the case for other coronal features, polar plumes will be a source of solar wind if the magnetic field lines are open. On the basis of the derived plume model and estimates of the numbers of plumes in polar coronal holes, it appears that polar plumes contain about 15% of the mass in a typical polar hole and occupy about 10% of the volume.

  14. Erasing the Variable: Empirical Foreground Discovery for Global 21 cm Spectrum Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, Eric R.; Liu, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Spectral measurements of the 21 cm monopole background have the promise of revealing the bulk energetic properties and ionization state of our universe from z approx. 6 - 30. Synchrotron foregrounds are orders of magnitude larger than the cosmological signal, and are the principal challenge faced by these experiments. While synchrotron radiation is thought to be spectrally smooth and described by relatively few degrees of freedom, the instrumental response to bright foregrounds may be much more complex. To deal with such complexities, we develop an approach that discovers contaminated spectral modes using spatial fluctuations of the measured data. This approach exploits the fact that foregrounds vary across the sky while the signal does not. The discovered modes are projected out of each line-of-sight of a data cube. An angular weighting then optimizes the cosmological signal amplitude estimate by giving preference to lower-noise regions. Using this method, we show that it is essential for the passband to be stable to at least approx. 10(exp -4). In contrast, the constraints on the spectral smoothness of the absolute calibration are mainly aesthetic if one is able to take advantage of spatial information. To the extent it is understood, controlling polarization to intensity leakage at the approx. 10(exp -2) level will also be essential to rejecting Faraday rotation of the polarized synchrotron emission. Subject headings: dark ages, reionization, first stars - methods: data analysis - methods: statistical

  15. Analysis of random induced cross polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Daniel T.

    1992-03-01

    Streamlined radomes will always introduce depolarization because of the fact that any material surface viewed at an oblique angle has different transmission coefficients for fields polarized parallel and perpendicular to the plane of incidence, a phenomenon known as divorce. The cross polarized fields are similar in nature to those responsible for Condon lobes of parabolic reflectors, and which are known to make those antennas susceptible to cross polarization jamming. The relative strength of those lobes is directly related to the amount of divorce, and is quite sensitive to the phase difference of parallel and perpendicular transmission coefficients. A mere 20 deg of phase divorce has a comparable effect to 3 dB of amplitude divorce. This paper presents a detailed analysis for general radome shapes, based on geometrical optics (ray tracing). Example results are presented for conical and tangent ogive radome geometries used in conjunction with a circular-aperture antenna that is mechanically scanned. The results show that when the antenna is scanned off axis, the cross polarized pattern changes from a Condon lobe structure to a difference pattern in the direction orthogonal to the axis of scan, e.g.: under azimuth scanning the cross polarized sum pattern resembles an elevation difference pattern, while the cross polarized elevation difference resembles a sum beam. Hence, interference in the cross polarization will introduce a tracking error in the direction orthogonal to the scan plane.

  16. Digital techniques for ULF wave polarization analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Digital power spectral and wave polarization analysis are powerful techniques for studying ULF waves in the earth's magnetosphere. Four different techniques for using the spectral matrix to perform such an analysis have been presented in the literature. Three of these techniques are similar in that they require transformation of the spectral matrix to the principal axis system prior to performing the polarization analysis. The differences in the three techniques lie in the manner in which determine this transformation. A comparative study of these three techniques using both simulated and real data has shown them to be approximately equal in quality of performance. The fourth technique does not require transformation of the spectral matrix. Rather, it uses the measured spectral matrix and state vectors for a desired wave type to design a polarization detector function in the frequency domain. The design of various detector functions and their application to both simulated and real data will be presented.

  17. Efficient polarization analysis for focusing neutron instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahn, Jochen; Glavic, Artur

    2017-06-01

    Polarized neutrons are a powerful probe to investigate magnetism in condensed matter on length scales from single atomic distances to micrometers. With the ongoing advancement of neutron optics, that allow to transport beams with increased divergence, the demands on neutron polarizes and analyzers have grown as well. The situation becomes especially challenging for new instruments at pulsed sources, where a large wavelength band needs to be polarized to make efficient use of the time structure of the beam. Here we present a polarization analysis concept for highly focused neutron beams that is based on transmission supermirrors that are bend in the shape of equiangular spirals. The method allows polarizations above 95% and good transmission, without negative impact on other beam characteristics. An example of a compact polarizing device already tested on the AMOR reflectometer is presented as well as the concept for the next generation implementation of the technique that will be installed on the Estia instrument being build for the European Spallation Source.

  18. SPIDER OPTIMIZATION. II. OPTICAL, MAGNETIC, AND FOREGROUND EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dea, D. T.; Clark, C. N.; Contaldi, C. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Burger, B.; Davis, G.; Benton, S. J.; Bock, J. J.; Crill, B. P.; Dore, O.; Filippini, J. P.; Bond, J. R.; Farhang, M.; Bonetti, J. A.; Bryan, S.; Chiang, H. C.; Fraisse, A. A.; Fissel, L. M.; Gandilo, N. N.

    2011-09-01

    SPIDER is a balloon-borne instrument designed to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with degree-scale resolution over a large fraction of the sky. SPIDER's main goal is to measure the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves through their imprint on the polarization of the CMB if the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, is greater than 0.03. To achieve this goal, instrumental systematic errors must be controlled with unprecedented accuracy. Here, we build on previous work to use simulations of SPIDER observations to examine the impact of several systematic effects that have been characterized through testing and modeling of various instrument components. In particular, we investigate the impact of the non-ideal spectral response of the half-wave plates, coupling between focal-plane components and Earth's magnetic field, and beam mismatches and asymmetries. We also present a model of diffuse polarized foreground emission based on a three-dimensional model of the Galactic magnetic field and dust, and study the interaction of this foreground emission with our observation strategy and instrumental effects. We find that the expected level of foreground and systematic contamination is sufficiently low for SPIDER to achieve its science goals.

  19. Cosmology with the cosmic microwave background temperature-polarization correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couchot, F.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Perdereau, O.; Plaszczynski, S.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Spinelli, M.; Tristram, M.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature-polarization cross-correlation provides accurate and robust constraints on cosmological parameters. We compare them with the results from temperature or polarization and investigate the impact of foregrounds, cosmic variance, and instrumental noise. This analysis makes use of the Planck high-ℓ HiLLiPOP likelihood based on angular power spectra, which takes into account systematics from the instrument and foreground residuals directly modelled using Planck measurements. The temperature-polarization correlation (TE) spectrum is less contaminated by astrophysical emissions than the temperature power spectrum (TT), allowing constraints that are less sensitive to foreground uncertainties to be derived. For ΛCDM parameters, TE gives very competitive results compared to TT. For basic ΛCDM model extensions (such as AL, ∑mν, or Neff), it is still limited by the instrumental noise level in the polarization maps.

  20. Data Analysis And Polarization Measurements With GEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohmayer, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) mission was selected by NASA for flight in 2014. GEMS will make the first sensitive survey of X-ray polarization across a wide range of source classes including black hole and neutron star binaries, AGN of different types, rotation and accretion-powered pulsars, magnetars, shell supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. GEMS employs grazing-incidence foil mirrors and novel time-projection chamber (TPC) polarimeters leveraging the photoelectric effect. The GEMS detectors image the charge tracks of photoelectrons produced by 2 - 10 keV X-rays. The initial direction of the photoelectron is determined by the linear polarization of the photon. We present an overview of the data analysis challenges and methods for GEMS, including procedures for producing optimally filtered images of the charge tracks and estimating their initial directions. We illustrate our methods using laboratory measurements of polarized and unpolarized X-rays with flight-like detectors as well as from simulated tracks. We also present detailed simulations exploring the statistics of polarization measurements appropriate for GEMS, and make comparisons with previous work.

  1. A joint analysis of Planck and BICEP2 B modes including dust polarization uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Mortonson, Michael J.; Seljak, Uroš E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu

    2014-10-01

    We analyze BICEP2 and Planck data using a model that includes CMB lensing, gravity waves, and polarized dust. Recently published Planck dust polarization maps have highlighted the difficulty of estimating the amount of dust polarization in low intensity regions, suggesting that the polarization fractions have considerable uncertainties and may be significantly higher than previous predictions. In this paper, we start by assuming nothing about the dust polarization except for the power spectrum shape, which we take to be C{sub l}{sup BB,dust} ∝ l{sup -2.42}. The resulting joint BICEP2+Planck analysis favors solutions without gravity waves, and the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r<0.11, a slight improvement relative to the Planck analysis alone which gives r<0.13 (95% c.l.). The estimated amplitude of the dust polarization power spectrum agrees with expectations for this field based on both HI column density and Planck polarization measurements at 353 GHz in the BICEP2 field. Including the latter constraint on the dust spectrum amplitude in our analysis improves the limit further to r < 0.09, placing strong constraints on theories of inflation (e.g., models with r>0.14 are excluded with 99.5% confidence). We address the cross-correlation analysis of BICEP2 at 150 GHz with BICEP1 at 100 GHz as a test of foreground contamination. We find that the null hypothesis of dust and lensing with 0r= gives Δ χ{sup 2} < 2 relative to the hypothesis of no dust, so the frequency analysis does not strongly favor either model over the other. We also discuss how more accurate dust polarization maps may improve our constraints. If the dust polarization is measured perfectly, the limit can reach r < 0.05 (or the corresponding detection significance if the observed dust signal plus the expected lensing signal is below the BICEP2 observations), but this degrades quickly to almost no improvement if the dust calibration error is 20% or larger or if the dust maps

  2. A High-Resolution Foreground Model for the MWA EoR1 Field: Model and Implications for EoR Power Spectrum Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procopio, P.; Wayth, R. B.; Line, J.; Trott, C. M.; Intema, H. T.; Mitchell, D. A.; Pindor, B.; Riding, J.; Tingay, S. J.; Bell, M. E.; Callingham, J. R.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, Bi-Qing; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Lenc, E.; McKinley, B.; Morgan, J.; Offringa, A.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wu, Chen; Zheng, Q.

    2017-08-01

    The current generation of experiments aiming to detect the neutral hydrogen signal from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) is likely to be limited by systematic effects associated with removing foreground sources from target fields. In this paper, we develop a model for the compact foreground sources in one of the target fields of the MWA's EoR key science experiment: the `EoR1' field. The model is based on both the MWA's GLEAM survey and GMRT 150 MHz data from the TGSS survey, the latter providing higher angular resolution and better astrometric accuracy for compact sources than is available from the MWA alone. The model contains 5 049 sources, some of which have complicated morphology in MWA data, Fornax A being the most complex. The higher resolution data show that 13% of sources that appear point-like to the MWA have complicated morphology such as double and quad structure, with a typical separation of 33 arcsec. We derive an analytic expression for the error introduced into the EoR two-dimensional power spectrum due to peeling close double sources as single point sources and show that for the measured source properties, the error in the power spectrum is confined to high k ⊥ modes that do not affect the overall result for the large-scale cosmological signal of interest. The brightest 10 mis-modelled sources in the field contribute 90% of the power bias in the data, suggesting that it is most critical to improve the models of the brightest sources. With this hybrid model, we reprocess data from the EoR1 field and show a maximum of 8% improved calibration accuracy and a factor of two reduction in residual power in k-space from peeling these sources. Implications for future EoR experiments including the SKA are discussed in relation to the improvements obtained.

  3. A NEW METHOD OF POLARIZATION MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Robert D.; Brault, James; Moore, Robert D.

    1963-01-01

    A new method of polarized light analysis is described in which a highly sensitive electronic detector specific for birefringence is used to identify the crystalline axes of an object and then measure its phase retardation due to birefringence. The microscopic system employed in the method consists of an electronic birefringence detection system (BDS), a microscope with strain-free lenses, and a driven stage for passing the specimen at appropriate velocities across the image of an aperture placed at the field stop and imaged in the specimen plane by the condenser. The detector registers retardations directly as voltage at a constant deflection sensitivity of ca. 1.1 v per angstrom unit over a range of 120 angstrom units. The basal rms noise level is 0.002 A for a spot 36 µ in diameter formed by a 95 x, N. A. 1.25 objective pair, and increases in proportion to the reciprocal of the diameter of the scanning spot. The increase in noise with high resolution scanning can be offset by increasing the instrumental time constant, which is adjustable in decades between 0.004 and 0.4 seconds. A number of difficult problems in high extinction polarization microscopy are avoided by the use of modulated light and a rapid electronic detector. For example: (a) The measured distribution of birefringence is unaffected by the usual diffraction anomaly; therefore polarization rectifiers are not required. (b) The detector is selective for birefringence, so that there is no problem in separating contrast due to different optical properties (e.g. dichroism, light scattering). (c) The speed and sensitivity are both increased by between one and two orders of magnitude over that attainable by visual or photographic methods, thereby rendering a vast number of weakly birefringent, light-scattering, and motile objects readily analyzable for the first time with polarized light. PMID:14079486

  4. A Polarimetric Approach for Constraining the Dynamic Foreground Spectrum for Cosmological Global 21 cm Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhan, Bang D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Burns, Jack O.

    2017-02-01

    The cosmological global (sky-averaged) 21 cm signal is a powerful tool to probe the evolution of the intergalactic medium in high-redshift universe (z≤slant 6). One of the biggest observational challenges is to remove the foreground spectrum which is at least four orders of magnitude brighter than the cosmological 21 cm emission. Conventional global 21 cm experiments rely on the spectral smoothness of the foreground synchrotron emission to separate it from the unique 21 cm spectral structures in a single total-power spectrum. However, frequency-dependent instrumental and observational effects are known to corrupt such smoothness and complicate the foreground subtraction. We introduce a polarimetric approach to measure the projection-induced polarization of the anisotropic foreground onto a stationary dual-polarized antenna. Due to Earth rotation, when pointing the antenna at a celestial pole, the revolving foreground will modulate this polarization with a unique frequency-dependent sinusoidal signature as a function of time. In our simulations, by harmonic decomposing this dynamic polarization, our technique produces two separate spectra in parallel from the same observation: (i) a total sky power consisting both the foreground and the 21 cm background and (ii) a model-independent measurement of the foreground spectrum at a harmonic consistent to twice the sky rotation rate. In the absence of any instrumental effects, by scaling and subtracting the latter from the former, we recover the injected global 21 cm model within the assumed uncertainty. We further discuss several limiting factors and potential remedies for future implementation.

  5. MODELING EXTRAGALACTIC FOREGROUNDS AND SECONDARIES FOR UNBIASED ESTIMATION OF COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FROM PRIMARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPY

    SciTech Connect

    Millea, M.; Knox, L.; Dore, O.; Dudley, J.; Holder, G.; Shaw, L.; Song, Y.-S.; Zahn, O.

    2012-02-10

    Using the latest physical modeling and constrained by the most recent data, we develop a phenomenological parameterized model of the contributions to intensity and polarization maps at millimeter wavelengths from external galaxies and Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects. We find such modeling to be necessary for estimation of cosmological parameters from Planck data. For example, ignoring the clustering of the infrared background would result in a bias in n{sub s} of 7{sigma} in the context of an eight-parameter cosmological model. We show that the simultaneous marginalization over a full foreground model can eliminate such biases, while increasing the statistical uncertainty in cosmological parameters by less than 20%. The small increases in uncertainty can be significantly reduced with the inclusion of higher-resolution ground-based data. The multi-frequency analysis we employ involves modeling 46 total power spectra and marginalization over 17 foreground parameters. We show that we can also reduce the data to a best estimate of the cosmic microwave background power spectra, with just two principal components (with constrained amplitudes) describing residual foreground contamination.

  6. Skewness and kurtosis as indicators of non-Gaussianity in galactic foreground maps

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-David, Assaf; Jackson, Andrew D.; Hausegger, Sebastian von E-mail: s.vonhausegger@nbi.dk

    2015-11-01

    Observational cosmology is entering an era in which high precision will be required in both measurement and data analysis. Accuracy, however, can only be achieved with a thorough understanding of potential sources of contamination from foreground effects. Our primary focus will be on non-Gaussian effects in foregrounds. This issue will be crucial for coming experiments to determine B-mode polarization. We propose a novel method for investigating a data set in terms of skewness and kurtosis in locally defined regions that collectively cover the entire sky. The method is demonstrated on two sky maps: (i) the SMICA map of Cosmic Microwave Background fluctuations provided by the Planck Collaboration and (ii) a version of the Haslam map at 408 MHz that describes synchrotron radiation. We find that skewness and kurtosis can be evaluated in combination to reveal local physical information. In the present case, we demonstrate that the statistical properties of both maps in small local regions are predominantly Gaussian. This result was expected for the SMICA map. It is surprising that it also applies for the Haslam map given its evident large scale non-Gaussianity. The approach described here has a generality and flexibility that should make it useful in a variety of astrophysical and cosmological contexts.

  7. Fast image analysis in polarization SHG microscopy.

    PubMed

    Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Artigas, David

    2010-08-02

    Pixel resolution polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation (PSHG) imaging has been recently shown as a promising imaging modality, by largely enhancing the capabilities of conventional intensity-based SHG microscopy. PSHG is able to obtain structural information from the elementary SHG active structures, which play an important role in many biological processes. Although the technique is of major interest, acquiring such information requires long offline processing, even with current computers. In this paper, we present an approach based on Fourier analysis of the anisotropy signature that allows processing the PSHG images in less than a second in standard single core computers. This represents a temporal improvement of several orders of magnitude compared to conventional fitting algorithms. This opens up the possibility for fast PSHG information with the subsequent benefit of potential use in medical applications.

  8. Statistical imprints of CMB B-type polarization leakage in an incomplete sky survey analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Larissa; Wang, Kai; Hu, Yangrui; Fang, Wenjuan; Zhao, Wen

    2017-01-01

    One of the main goals of modern cosmology is to search for primordial gravitational waves by looking on their imprints in the B-type polarization in the cosmic microwave background radiation. However, this signal is contaminated by various sources, including cosmic weak lensing, foreground radiations, instrumental noises, as well as the E-to-B leakage caused by the partial sky surveys, which should be well understood to avoid the misinterpretation of the observed data. In this paper, we adopt the E/B decomposition method suggested by Smith in 2006, and study the imprints of E-to-B leakage residuals in the constructed B-type polarization maps, Script B(hat n), by employing various statistical tools. We find that the effects of E-to-B leakage are negligible for the Script B-mode power spectrum, as well as the skewness and kurtosis analyses of Script B-maps. However, if employing the morphological statistical tools, including Minkowski functionals and/or Betti numbers, we find the effect of leakage can be detected at very high confidence level, which shows that in the morphological analysis, the leakage can play a significant role as a contaminant for measuring the primordial B-mode signal and must be taken into account for a correct explanation of the data.

  9. Determination of the polarization states of an arbitrary polarized terahertz beam: Vectorial vortex analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wakayama, Toshitaka; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Oikawa, Hiroki; Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Yonemura, Motoki; Yoshizawa, Toru; Tyo, J. Scott; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Vectorial vortex analysis is used to determine the polarization states of an arbitrarily polarized terahertz (0.1–1.6 THz) beam using THz achromatic axially symmetric wave (TAS) plates, which have a phase retardance of Δ = 163° and are made of polytetrafluorethylene. Polarized THz beams are converted into THz vectorial vortex beams with no spatial or wavelength dispersion, and the unknown polarization states of the incident THz beams are reconstructed. The polarization determination is also demonstrated at frequencies of 0.16 and 0.36 THz. The results obtained by solving the inverse source problem agree with the values used in the experiments. This vectorial vortex analysis enables a determination of the polarization states of the incident THz beam from the THz image. The polarization states of the beams are estimated after they pass through the TAS plates. The results validate this new approach to polarization detection for intense THz sources. It could find application in such cutting edge areas of physics as nonlinear THz photonics and plasmon excitation, because TAS plates not only instantaneously elucidate the polarization of an enclosed THz beam but can also passively control THz vectorial vortex beams. PMID:25799965

  10. Non-Gaussianity in the foreground-reduced CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Bernui, A.; Reboucas, M. J.

    2010-03-15

    A detection or nondetection of primordial non-Gaussianity by using the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) data is crucial not only to discriminate inflationary models but also to test alternative scenarios. Non-Gaussianity offers, therefore, a powerful probe of the physics of the primordial Universe. The extraction of primordial non-Gaussianity is a difficult enterprise since several effects of a nonprimordial nature can produce non-Gaussianity. Given the far-reaching consequences of such a non-Gaussianity for our understanding of the physics of the early Universe, it is important to employ a range of different statistical tools to quantify and/or constrain its amount in order to have information that may be helpful for identifying its causes. Moreover, different indicators can in principle provide information about distinct forms of non-Gaussianity that can be present in CMB data. Most of the Gaussianity analyses of CMB data have been performed by using part-sky frequency, where the mask is used to deal with the galactic diffuse foreground emission. However, full-sky map seems to be potentially more appropriate to test for Gaussianity of the CMB data. On the other hand, masks can induce bias in some non-Gaussianity analyses. Here we use two recent large-angle non-Gaussianity indicators, based on skewness and kurtosis of large-angle patches of CMB maps, to examine the question of non-Gaussianity in the available full-sky five-year and seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) maps. We show that these full-sky foreground-reduced maps present a significant deviation from Gaussianity of different levels, which vary with the foreground-reducing procedures. We also make a Gaussianity analysis of the foreground-reduced five-year and seven-year WMAP maps with a KQ75 mask, and compare with the similar analysis performed with the corresponding full-sky foreground-reduced maps. This comparison shows a significant reduction in the levels of non

  11. Lunar Polar Illumination for Power Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents illumination analyses using the latest Earth-based radar digital elevation model (DEM) of the lunar south pole and an independently developed analytical tool. These results enable the optimum sizing of solar/energy storage lunar surface power systems since they quantify the timing and durations of illuminated and shadowed periods. Filtering and manual editing of the DEM based on comparisons with independent imagery were performed and a reduced resolution version of the DEM was produced to reduce the analysis time. A comparison of the DEM with lunar limb imagery was performed in order to validate the absolute heights over the polar latitude range, the accuracy of which affects the impact of long range, shadow-casting terrain. Average illumination and energy storage duration maps of the south pole region are provided for the worst and best case lunar day using the reduced resolution DEM. Average illumination fractions and energy storage durations are presented for candidate low energy storage duration south pole sites. The best site identified using the reduced resolution DEM required a 62 hr energy storage duration using a fast recharge power system. Solar and horizon terrain elevations as well as illumination fraction profiles are presented for the best identified site and the data for both the reduced resolution and high resolution DEMs compared. High resolution maps for three low energy storage duration areas are presented showing energy storage duration for the worst case lunar day, surface height, and maximum absolute surface slope.

  12. Model independent foreground power spectrum estimation using WMAP 5-year data

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Tuhin; Souradeep, Tarun; Saha, Rajib; Jain, Pankaj

    2009-06-15

    In this paper, we propose and implement on WMAP 5 yr data a model independent approach of foreground power spectrum estimation for multifrequency observations of the CMB experiments. Recently, a model independent approach of CMB power spectrum estimation was proposed by Saha et al. 2006. This methodology demonstrates that the CMB power spectrum can be reliably estimated solely from WMAP data without assuming any template models for the foreground components. In the current paper, we extend this work to estimate the galactic foreground power spectrum using the WMAP 5 yr maps following a self-contained analysis. We apply the model independent method in harmonic basis to estimate the foreground power spectrum and frequency dependence of combined foregrounds. We also study the behavior of synchrotron spectral index variation over different regions of the sky. We use the full sky Haslam map as an external template to increase the degrees of freedom, while computing the synchrotron spectral index over the frequency range from 408 MHz to 94 GHz. We compare our results with those obtained from maximum entropy method foreground maps, which are formed in pixel space. We find that relative to our model independent estimates maximum entropy method maps overestimate the foreground power close to galactic plane and underestimates it at high latitudes.

  13. Testing for foreground residuals in the Planck foreground cleaned maps: A new method for designing confidence masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, M.; Ihle, H. T.; Scodeller, S.; Hansen, F. K.

    2015-06-01

    We test for foreground residuals in the foreground-cleaned Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps outside and inside the U73 mask commonly used for cosmological analysis. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new method of validating masks by looking at the differences in cleaned maps obtained by different component-separation methods. By analyzing the power spectrum, as well as the mean, rms, and skewness of needlet coefficients on separate equatorial bands running from the poles to the equator outside and inside the U73 mask, we first confirm that the pixels already masked by U73 are highly contaminated and cannot be used for cosmological analysis. We further find that the U73 mask needs extension in order to reduce large-scale foreground residuals to a level of less than 20% of the standard deviation of CMB fluctuations within the bands closest to the galactic equator. We also find 276 point-like residuals in the cleaned foreground maps that are currently not masked by the U73 mask. About 80 of these are identified as sz clusters that have not been properly subtracted by the component separation methods, and the rest are strongly correlated with the Planck dust map, indicating point-like dust residuals. Our final publicly available extended mask leaves 65.9% of the sky for cosmological analysis. This extended mask may be important for analyses on local sky patches; for the full sky power spectrum, we have shown that the unmasked residuals have very little impact. The final extended mask (FITS format) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A44 and at http://folk.uio.no/frodekh/PS_catalogue/planck_extended_mask.fits

  14. Polarized 3He spin-filters using MEOP for wide-angle polarization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Ken H.; Jullien, David; Petoukhov, Alexander K.; Mouveau, Pascal; Bordenave, Florian; Thomas, Frédéric; Babcock, Earl

    2009-09-01

    Polarized 3He spin-filters are currently employed on a wide range of neutron instruments at the ILL, primarily for diffraction, reflectometry and fundamental physics. A wide range of recent and ongoing improvements are enabling the implementation of this technique for wide-angle polarization analysis for inelastic measurements. These include Progress in metastability-exchange optical pumping (MEOP), resulting in on-beam polarization levels of up to 80%. 1st generation “Pastis-1” coils for rotating the neutron polarization at the sample position, allowing for “ XYZ” polarization analysis. 2nd generation “Pastis-2” coils with no blind angles in the equatorial plane. Spin-filter cells with glued silicon windows, allowing for wide-angle “banana” cells with very low background scattering. Polarization-preserving capillaries for transferring polarized 3He gas into the cell without manual access. The development of capillary transfer also allows for a completely new way of working with 3He spin-filters: connecting the cells on the instruments directly to the MEOP filling station several tens of meters away and allowing for quasi-continuous operation.

  15. EXTraS discovery of two pulsators in the direction of the LMC: a Be/X-ray binary pulsar in the LMC and a candidate double-degenerate polar in the foreground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberl, F.; Israel, G. L.; Rodriguez Castillo, G. A.; Vasilopoulos, G.; Delvaux, C.; De Luca, A.; Carpano, S.; Esposito, P.; Novara, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Tiengo, A.; D'Agostino, D.; Udalski, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky (EXTraS) project searches for coherent signals in the X-ray archival data of XMM-Newton. Aims: XMM-Newton performed more than 400 pointed observations in the region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We inspected the results of the EXTraS period search to systematically look for new X-ray pulsators in our neighbour galaxy. Methods: We analysed the XMM-Newton observations of two sources from the 3XMM catalogue which show significant signals for coherent pulsations. Results: 3XMM J051259.8-682640 was detected as a source with a hard X-ray spectrum in two XMM-Newton observations, revealing a periodic modulation of the X-ray flux with 956 s. As optical counterpart we identify an early-type star with Hα emission. The OGLE I-band light curve exhibits a regular pattern with three brightness dips which mark a period of 1350 d. The X-ray spectrum of 3XMM J051034.6-670353 is dominated by a super-soft blackbody-like emission component (kT 70 eV) which is modulated by nearly 100% with a period of 1418 s. From GROND observations we suggest a star with r' = 20.9 mag as a possible counterpart of the X-ray source. Conclusions: 3XMM J051259.8-682640 is confirmed as a new Be/X-ray binary pulsar in the LMC. We discuss the long-term optical period as the likely orbital period which would be the longest known from a high-mass X-ray binary. The spectral and temporal properties of the super-soft source 3XMM J051034.6-670353 are very similar to those of RX J0806.3+1527 and RX J1914.4+2456 suggesting that it belongs to the class of double-degenerate polars and is located in our Galaxy rather than in the LMC.

  16. Foreground extraction for moving RGBD cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junejo, Imran N.; Ahmed, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple method to perform foreground extraction for a moving RGBD camera. These cameras have now been available for quite some time. Their popularity is primarily due to their low cost and ease of availability. Although the field of foreground extraction or background subtraction has been explored by the computer vision researchers since a long time, the depth-based subtraction is relatively new and has not been extensively addressed as of yet. Most of the current methods make heavy use of geometric reconstruction, making the solutions quite restrictive. In this paper, we make a novel use RGB and RGBD data: from the RGB frame, we extract corner features (FAST) and then represent these features with the histogram of oriented gradients (HoG) descriptor. We train a non-linear SVM on these descriptors. During the test phase, we make used of the fact that the foreground object has distinct depth ordering with respect to the rest of the scene. That is, we use the positively classified FAST features on the test frame to initiate a region growing to obtain the accurate segmentation of the foreground object from just the RGBD data. We demonstrate the proposed method of a synthetic datasets, and demonstrate encouraging quantitative and qualitative results.

  17. Dust Temperature Distribution in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium: Modeling the CMB Dust Foreground to Sub-Percent Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, Alan

    Measurements of the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a critical test of the inflationary paradigm. Gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch in the early universe interact with the CMB to impart a characteristic signal in linear polarization. The distinctive spatial pattern and frequency dependence of the inflationary signal provide a unique signature to characterize physics at energies approaching Grand Unification, a trillion times beyond the energies accessible to particle accelerators. At millimeter wavelengths where the CMB is brightest, the dominant foreground is thermal emission from interstellar dust. As highlighted by the recent BICEP2 and Planck results, dust emission is brighter than the anticipated inflationary signal even in the cleanest regions of the sky, and is 1-2 orders of magnitude brighter over most of the sky. Robust detection and characterization of the primordial signal requires subtracting the dust foreground to sub-percent accuracy. Despite the importance of dust to CMB measurements, far-IR dust emission is poorly constrained. Popular phenomenological models treat the dust as a superposition of components at one or two temperatures although the actual temperature distribution must be more complex. Disturbingly, use of these models can bias the inflationary CMB results at levels large compared to planned sensitivities, despite fitting the combined sky emission to sub-percent precision. Foreground models must be accurate as well as precise. We propose to use archival data at millimeter through far-IR wavelengths to improve models of far-IR dust emission, explicitly deriving the temperature distribution within the diffuse dust cirrus to separate temperature effects from intrinsic emission effects (spectral index). The proposed analysis is tightly focused and likely to succeed. Simple toy models demonstrate that far-IR data such as FIRAS can distinguish the temperature distribution within the diffuse

  18. A global optimization approach to multi-polarity sentiment analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinmiao; Li, Jing; Wu, Yukeng

    2015-01-01

    Following the rapid development of social media, sentiment analysis has become an important social media mining technique. The performance of automatic sentiment analysis primarily depends on feature selection and sentiment classification. While information gain (IG) and support vector machines (SVM) are two important techniques, few studies have optimized both approaches in sentiment analysis. The effectiveness of applying a global optimization approach to sentiment analysis remains unclear. We propose a global optimization-based sentiment analysis (PSOGO-Senti) approach to improve sentiment analysis with IG for feature selection and SVM as the learning engine. The PSOGO-Senti approach utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm to obtain a global optimal combination of feature dimensions and parameters in the SVM. We evaluate the PSOGO-Senti model on two datasets from different fields. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti model can improve binary and multi-polarity Chinese sentiment analysis. We compared the optimal feature subset selected by PSOGO-Senti with the features in the sentiment dictionary. The results of this comparison indicated that PSOGO-Senti can effectively remove redundant and noisy features and can select a domain-specific feature subset with a higher-explanatory power for a particular sentiment analysis task. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti approach is effective and robust for sentiment analysis tasks in different domains. By comparing the improvements of two-polarity, three-polarity and five-polarity sentiment analysis results, we found that the five-polarity sentiment analysis delivered the largest improvement. The improvement of the two-polarity sentiment analysis was the smallest. We conclude that the PSOGO-Senti achieves higher improvement for a more complicated sentiment analysis task. We also compared the results of PSOGO-Senti with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and grid search method. From

  19. GENERAL VIEW OF SITE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. JUPITER 'HOP' STAND, FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SITE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. JUPITER 'HOP' STAND, FOREGROUND CENTER, REDSTONE TEST STAND FOREGROUND RIGHT, SATURN I C TEST STAND BACKGROUND LEFT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. 2. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACE OF BATTERY OFFICES FOREGROUND, DIRECTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACE OF BATTERY OFFICES FOREGROUND, DIRECTOR PIT LEFT MIDDLE-GROUND. AND HEIGHT FINDER RIGHT FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Battery Offices, Wolf Ridge, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  1. TOWER, WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING CONNECTION PIPES FOR TURNOUTS 22 (FOREGROUND) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER, WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING CONNECTION PIPES FOR TURNOUTS 22 (FOREGROUND) AND 24. NOTE “LAZY JACK” TEMPERATURE COMPENSATOR IN FOREGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  2. Polar wander analysis from paleomagnetic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervoo, R.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing marine magnetic anomalies and paleomagnetic pole positions, paleogeographic maps were constructed for three time intervals back to the Early Cretaceous. From the maps lithospheric plate motions were calculated and these global displacement fields were analyzed to determine best-fitting rigid rotations, which then could be ascribed to true polar wander. The values so obtained are no larger than a few degrees and are within the magnitude of the uncertainties involved.

  3. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  4. Foreground effects on troposcatter digital communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, E. E.

    1985-12-01

    Troposcatter antennas are usually pointed very close to the horizon to maximize system gain. As a result, multipath reflections from the foreground may arise. These multipath signals may have time delays that are significantly longer than direct signals, which are scattered within the common volume and thus degrade system performance. In this report, the effects of terrain-reflected multipath signals on troposcatter digital communication systems are examined. The distance that a ray travels from the transmitting antenna to a point within the common volume is calculated. The maximum differential distance that can occur for a pair of rays that intersect the common volume is than determined for a set of troposcatter geometries. The total distance that a terrain-reflected ray traverses in going from the antenna to the common volume is also calculated. It is found that, for typical troposcatter/foreground geometries, the differential distance between a direct ray and a foreground-reflected ray is small compared with the maximum differential distance that exists between direct rays within the common volume. Thus, multipath signals that would have time delays significantly longer than those scattered within the common volume must be scattered from a region outside the common volume.

  5. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP1) Observations: Galactic Foreground Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, B.; Bennett, C.L.; Larson, D.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Spergel, N.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Meyer, S.S.; Nolta, M.R.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new estimate of foreground emission in the WMAP data, using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The new technique delivers maps of each foreground component for a variety of foreground models, error estimates of the uncertainty of each foreground component, and provides an overall goodness-of-fit measurement. The resulting foreground maps are in broad agreement with those from previous techniques used both within the collaboration and by other authors. We find that for WMAP data, a simple model with power-law synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust components fits 90% of the sky with a reduced X(sup 2) (sub v) of 1.14. However, the model does not work well inside the Galactic plane. The addition of either synchrotron steepening or a modified spinning dust model improves the fit. This component may account for up to 14% of the total flux at Ka-band (33 GHz). We find no evidence for foreground contamination of the CMB temperature map in the 85% of the sky used for cosmological analysis.

  6. A Global Optimization Approach to Multi-Polarity Sentiment Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinmiao; Li, Jing; Wu, Yukeng

    2015-01-01

    Following the rapid development of social media, sentiment analysis has become an important social media mining technique. The performance of automatic sentiment analysis primarily depends on feature selection and sentiment classification. While information gain (IG) and support vector machines (SVM) are two important techniques, few studies have optimized both approaches in sentiment analysis. The effectiveness of applying a global optimization approach to sentiment analysis remains unclear. We propose a global optimization-based sentiment analysis (PSOGO-Senti) approach to improve sentiment analysis with IG for feature selection and SVM as the learning engine. The PSOGO-Senti approach utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm to obtain a global optimal combination of feature dimensions and parameters in the SVM. We evaluate the PSOGO-Senti model on two datasets from different fields. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti model can improve binary and multi-polarity Chinese sentiment analysis. We compared the optimal feature subset selected by PSOGO-Senti with the features in the sentiment dictionary. The results of this comparison indicated that PSOGO-Senti can effectively remove redundant and noisy features and can select a domain-specific feature subset with a higher-explanatory power for a particular sentiment analysis task. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti approach is effective and robust for sentiment analysis tasks in different domains. By comparing the improvements of two-polarity, three-polarity and five-polarity sentiment analysis results, we found that the five-polarity sentiment analysis delivered the largest improvement. The improvement of the two-polarity sentiment analysis was the smallest. We conclude that the PSOGO-Senti achieves higher improvement for a more complicated sentiment analysis task. We also compared the results of PSOGO-Senti with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and grid search method. From

  7. Reappraising foreground contamination in the COBE-DMR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banday, A. J.; Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Górski, K. M.

    2003-11-01

    With the advent of all-sky Hα surveys it is possible to determine a reliable free-free template of the diffuse interstellar medium which can be used in conjunction with the synchrotron and dust templates to correct cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations for diffuse Galactic foregrounds. We have used the COBE-DMR data at 31.5, 53 and 90 GHz and employed cross-correlation techniques to re-evaluate the foreground contributions, particularly that due to dust which is known to be partially correlated with Hα (and free-free) emission. The DMR microwave maps are found to contain, as well as the expected synchrotron and free-free components, a component tightly correlated to the COBE-DIRBE 140-μm dust map. At 31.5, 53 and 90 GHz this emission is 6.3 +/- 0.6, 2.4 +/- 0.4 and 2.2 +/- 0.4 μK MJy-1 sr at 140 μm, respectively. When corrected for the contribution from thermal dust, a strong anomalous dust-correlated emission component remains, which is well fitted by a frequency spectrum of the form ν-β where β~ 2.5 in the DMR frequency range; this is the dominant foreground at 31.5 GHz. The result implies the presence of an emission component with a dust-like morphology but a synchrotron-like spectrum. We discuss the possible origins of this component and compare it with the recent WMAP interpretation. The better knowledge of the individual foregrounds provided by the present study enables a larger area of the sky (|b| > 15°) to be used to reappraise the CMB quadrupole normalization, Qrms-PS, and the scalar perturbations spectral index, n. We find Qrms-PS= 15.2+2.8-2.3 with a power-law spectral index of n= 1.2 +/- 0.2. These values are consistent with previous COBE-DMR analyses and the WMAP 1-yr analysis.

  8. Multispectral polarization viewing angle analysis of circular polarized stereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Bignon, Thibault; Collomb-Patton, Véronique

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we propose a method to characterize polarization based stereoscopic 3D displays using multispectral Fourier optics viewing angle measurements. Full polarization analysis of the light emitted by the display in the full viewing cone is made at 31 wavelengths in the visible range. Vertical modulation of the polarization state is observed and explained by the position of the phase shift filter into the display structure. In addition, strong spectral dependence of the ellipticity and polarization degree is observed. These features come from the strong spectral dependence of the phase shift film and introduce some imperfections (color shifts and reduced contrast). Using the measured transmission properties of the two glasses filters, the resulting luminance across each filter is computed for left and right eye views. Monocular contrast for each eye and binocular contrasts are performed in the observer space, and Qualified Monocular and Binocular Viewing Spaces (QMVS and QBVS) can be deduced in the same way as auto-stereoscopic 3D displays allowing direct comparison of the performances.

  9. Polarization analysis of a balloon-borne solar magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiley, Daniel J.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1987-01-01

    The main text of the report contains the particular results of our research which relate to the Experimental Vector Magnetograph (EXVM) and the Balloon-borne Vector Magnetograph (BVM). A brief overview of which elements in the EXVM and BVM that are relevant to this polarization analysis are presented. The possible meaning of the 10(exp -5) polarization specification for the BVM is discussed qualitatively. A recommendation of which polarization specification is most relevant for the BVM is provided. A diattenuation budget for the various surfaces in the BVM which will allow the polarization specification to be met is discussed. An explanation of the various coating specifications which are recommended is presented. Optical design of the EXVM and coating specification sheets for the BVM are presented. The appendices of this report contain the more general results of our research on the general topic of polarization aberrations. A general discussion of polarization aberration theory, in terms of the SAMEX solar magnetograph, and rigorous derivations for the Mueller matrices of optical systems are also presented in the appendices.

  10. Detection of Stationary Foreground Objects Using Multiple Nonparametric Background-Foreground Models on a Finite State Machine.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Carlos; Martinez, Raquel; Berjon, Daniel; Garcia, Narciso

    2017-03-01

    There is a huge proliferation of surveillance systems that require strategies for detecting different kinds of stationary foreground objects (e.g., unattended packages or illegally parked vehicles). As these strategies must be able to detect foreground objects remaining static in crowd scenarios, regardless of how long they have not been moving, several algorithms for detecting different kinds of such foreground objects have been developed over the last decades. This paper presents an efficient and high-quality strategy to detect stationary foreground objects, which is able to detect not only completely static objects but also partially static ones. Three parallel nonparametric detectors with different absorption rates are used to detect currently moving foreground objects, short-term stationary foreground objects, and long-term stationary foreground objects. The results of the detectors are fed into a novel finite state machine that classifies the pixels among background, moving foreground objects, stationary foreground objects, occluded stationary foreground objects, and uncovered background. Results show that the proposed detection strategy is not only able to achieve high quality in several challenging situations but it also improves upon previous strategies.

  11. Run-08 pC polarization analysis - October 16, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 pC data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the pC analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.

  12. Polarized cosmic microwave background map recovery with sparse component separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobin, J.; Sureau, F.; Starck, J.-L.

    2015-11-01

    The polarization modes of the cosmological microwave background are an invaluable source of information for cosmology and a unique window to probe the energy scale of inflation. Extracting this information from microwave surveys requires distinguishing between foreground emissions and the cosmological signal, which means solving a component separation problem. Component separation techniques have been widely studied for the recovery of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies, but very rarely for the polarization modes. In this case, most component separation techniques make use of second-order statistics to distinguish between the various components. More recent methods, which instead emphasize the sparsity of the components in the wavelet domain, have been shown to provide low-foreground, full-sky estimates of the CMB temperature anisotropies. Building on sparsity, we here introduce a new component separation technique dubbed the polarized generalized morphological component analysis (PolGMCA), which refines previous work to specifically work on the estimation of the polarized CMB maps: i) it benefits from a recently introduced sparsity-based mechanism to cope with partially correlated components; ii) it builds upon estimator aggregation techniques to further yield a better noise contamination/non-Gaussian foreground residual trade-off. The PolGMCA algorithm is evaluated on simulations of full-sky polarized microwave sky simulations using the Planck Sky Model (PSM). The simulations show that the proposed method achieves a precise recovery of the CMB map in polarization with low-noise and foreground contamination residuals. It provides improvements over standard methods, especially on the Galactic center, where estimating the CMB is challenging.

  13. VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, CONDENSERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, CONDENSERS AND ORE BIN FOUNDATION ABOVE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  14. 18. VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, CONDENSERS, AND ORE BIN FOUNDATION ABOVE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  15. A moving foreground objects extraction method under camouflage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen-zhen; Li, Jing-yue; Yang, Si-si; Zhou, Hong

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the problem of segmenting foreground objects with apertures or discontinuities under camouflage effect and the optical physics model is introduced into foreground detection. A moving foreground objects extraction method based on color invariants is proposed in which color invariants are used as descriptors to model the background and do the foreground segmentation. It makes full use of the color spectral information and spatial configuration. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in various situations of color similarity and meets the demand of real-time performance.

  16. GARDEN (FOREGROUND), GARAGE (CENTER), AND PUMPHOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARDEN (FOREGROUND), GARAGE (CENTER), AND PUMPHOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  17. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH NEW EXPRESSWAY IN FOREGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH NEW EXPRESSWAY IN FOREGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH 19 SEPTEMBER 1978. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Black Hills National Cemetery, 20901 Pleasant Valley Drive, Sturgis, Meade County, SD

  18. 20. CAMPANILE WITH DOWNING URN IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CAMPANILE WITH DOWNING URN IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Space Station polar orbiting platform - Mission analysis and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Polar Orbiting Platform will be a serviceable spacecraft supporting a range of missions. The planning and analysis of these missions is investigated. The subjects of STS compatibility, rendezvous strategy, and requisite launch windows are addressed. General, as well as, two specific cases are detailed with respect to their incremental velocity requirements.

  20. Rapid Introgression of the Fusarium Wilt Resistance Gene into an Elite Cabbage Line through the Combined Application of a Microspore Culture, Genome Background Analysis, and Disease Resistance-Specific Marker Assisted Foreground Selection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Kong, Congcong; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Lv, Honghao

    2017-01-01

    Cabbage is an economically important vegetable worldwide. Cabbage Fusarium Wilt (CFW) is a destructive disease that results in considerable yield and quality losses in cole crops. The use of CFW-resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to mitigate the effects of CFW. 01-20 is an elite cabbage line with desirable traits and a high combining ability, but it is highly susceptible to CFW. To rapidly transfer a CFW resistance gene into 01-20 plants, we used microspore cultures to develop 230 doubled haploid (DH) lines from a cross between 01-20 (highly susceptible) and 96-100 (highly resistant). One of the generated DH lines (i.e., D134) was highly resistant to CFW and exhibited a phenotypic performance that was similar to that of line 01-20. Therefore, D134 was applied as the resistance donor parent. We generated 24 insertion–deletion markers using whole genome resequencing data for lines 01-20 and 96-100 to analyze the genomic backgrounds of backcross (BC) progenies. Based on the CFW resistance gene FOC1, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker (i.e., Frg13) was developed for foreground selections. We screened 240 BC1 individuals and 280 BC2 individuals with these markers and assessed their phenotypic performance. The proportion of recurrent parent genome (PRPG) of the best individuals in BC1 and BC2 were 95.8 and 99.1%. Finally, a best individual designated as YR01-20 was identified from 80 BC2F1 individuals, with homozygous FOC1 allele and genomic background and phenotype almost the same as those of 01-20. Our results may provide a rapid and efficient way of improving elite lines through the combined application of microspore culture, whole-genome background analysis, and disease resistance-specific marker selection. Additionally, the cabbage lines developed in this study represent elite materials useful for the breeding of new CFW-resistant cabbage varieties. PMID:28392793

  1. Analysis of Polarization Data from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Roger H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to complete the analysis of data obtained with the polarimeter, Hertz, on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. This has enabled us to complete and publish two student theses (one on Sgr B2 and one on Orion) and a paper on the first results on the far-infrared polarization-spectrum. In addition it has enabled us to analyze data for two additional papers (one on W3 and the other a complete archive of KAO polarization data) which have reached the stage of complete drafts but still need checking and editing before final submission.

  2. Time-resolved scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Frömter, Robert Oepen, Hans Peter; Kloodt, Fabian; Rößler, Stefan; Frauen, Axel; Staeck, Philipp; Cavicchia, Demetrio R.; Bocklage, Lars; Röbisch, Volker; Quandt, Eckhard

    2016-04-04

    We demonstrate the feasibility of investigating periodically driven magnetization dynamics in a scanning electron microscope with polarization analysis based on spin-polarized low-energy electron diffraction. With the present setup, analyzing the time structure of the scattering events, we obtain a temporal resolution of 700 ps, which is demonstrated by means of imaging the field-driven 100 MHz gyration of the vortex in a soft-magnetic FeCoSiB square. Owing to the efficient intrinsic timing scheme, high-quality movies, giving two components of the magnetization simultaneously, can be recorded on the time scale of hours.

  3. Modelling stratospheric polar ozone using objective analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandilands, J. W.; Kaminski, J. W.; Mcconnell, J. C.; Beagley, S. R.; Mcfarlane, N.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the development of the austral ozone hole using a 3-D spectral chemical transport model at R15 resolution for the period 15th September to 15th October, 1991. The model is driven by objectively analyzed wind fields obtained from the Canadian Meteorological Center and uses the chemical module developed by Kaminski (1992). Although extensive processing of NO(y) and Cl(x) occurs within the model, the ozone hole that develops appears shallow and ephemeral. Analysis of the results indicate that the meridional transport of ozone is sufficient to overwhelm the substantial chemical depletion that does occur. We suggest that the low resolution objectively analyzed data used is unable to capture the essential isolated nature of the vortex.

  4. Using dynamic mode decomposition for real-time background/foreground separation in video

    DOEpatents

    Kutz, Jose Nathan; Grosek, Jacob; Brunton, Steven; Fu, Xing; Pendergrass, Seth

    2017-06-06

    The technique of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is disclosed herein for the purpose of robustly separating video frames into background (low-rank) and foreground (sparse) components in real-time. Foreground/background separation is achieved at the computational cost of just one singular value decomposition (SVD) and one linear equation solve, thus producing results orders of magnitude faster than robust principal component analysis (RPCA). Additional techniques, including techniques for analyzing the video for multi-resolution time-scale components, and techniques for reusing computations to allow processing of streaming video in real time, are also described herein.

  5. Erasing the variable: empirical foreground discovery for global 21 cm spectrum experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Switzer, Eric R.; Liu, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Spectral measurements of the 21 cm monopole background have the promise of revealing the bulk energetic properties and ionization state of our universe from z ∼ 6-30. Synchrotron foregrounds are orders of magnitude larger than the cosmological signal and are the principal challenge faced by these experiments. While synchrotron radiation is thought to be spectrally smooth and described by relatively few degrees of freedom, the instrumental response to bright foregrounds may be much more complex. To deal with such complexities, we develop an approach that discovers contaminated spectral modes using spatial fluctuations of the measured data. This approach exploits the fact that foregrounds vary across the sky while the signal does not. The discovered modes are projected out of each line of sight of a data cube. An angular weighting then optimizes the cosmological signal amplitude estimate by giving preference to lower-noise regions. Using this method, we show that it is essential for the passband to be stable to at least ∼10{sup –4}. In contrast, the constraints on the spectral smoothness of the absolute calibration are mainly aesthetic if one is able to take advantage of spatial information. To the extent it is understood, controlling polarization to intensity leakage at the ∼10{sup –2} level will also be essential to rejecting Faraday rotation of the polarized synchrotron emission.

  6. Erasing the Variable: Empirical Foreground Discovery for Global 21 cm Spectrum Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, Eric R.; Liu, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Spectral measurements of the 21 cm monopole background have the promise of revealing the bulk energetic properties and ionization state of our universe from z ~ 6-30. Synchrotron foregrounds are orders of magnitude larger than the cosmological signal and are the principal challenge faced by these experiments. While synchrotron radiation is thought to be spectrally smooth and described by relatively few degrees of freedom, the instrumental response to bright foregrounds may be much more complex. To deal with such complexities, we develop an approach that discovers contaminated spectral modes using spatial fluctuations of the measured data. This approach exploits the fact that foregrounds vary across the sky while the signal does not. The discovered modes are projected out of each line of sight of a data cube. An angular weighting then optimizes the cosmological signal amplitude estimate by giving preference to lower-noise regions. Using this method, we show that it is essential for the passband to be stable to at least ~10-4. In contrast, the constraints on the spectral smoothness of the absolute calibration are mainly aesthetic if one is able to take advantage of spatial information. To the extent it is understood, controlling polarization to intensity leakage at the ~10-2 level will also be essential to rejecting Faraday rotation of the polarized synchrotron emission.

  7. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF OIL HOUSE IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF OIL HOUSE IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, WITH EMBANKMENT (MI-100-A) IN LEFT FOREGROUND, AND POWERHOUSE (MI-100-B) AND SUBSTATION (MI-100-C) AT CENTER AND LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Hardy Hydroelectric Plant, Oil House, 6928 East Thirty-sixth Street, Newaygo, Newaygo County, MI

  8. VIEW TO EAST OF CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY (CENTER LEFT FOREGROUND), PAINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO EAST OF CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY (CENTER LEFT FOREGROUND), PAINT APPLICATION BUILDING (CENTER BACKGROUND), AND c1944-1950 c1944-1950 POST-U.S. RADIUM ADDITION ADDITIONS TO EACH BUILDING (RIGHT FOREGROUND AND BACKGROUND) - United States Radium Corporation, 422-432 Alden Street, Orange, Essex County, NJ

  9. Foregrounds in Wide-field Redshifted 21 cm Power Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bowman, Judd D.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, Han-Seek; Kittiwisit, P.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, Sourabh; Pindor, B.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tegmark, M.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2015-05-01

    Detection of 21 cm emission of H i from the epoch of reionization, at redshifts z\\gt 6, is limited primarily by foreground emission. We investigate the signatures of wide-field measurements and an all-sky foreground model using the delay spectrum technique that maps the measurements to foreground object locations through signal delays between antenna pairs. We demonstrate interferometric measurements are inherently sensitive to all scales, including the largest angular scales, owing to the nature of wide-field measurements. These wide-field effects are generic to all observations but antenna shapes impact their amplitudes substantially. A dish-shaped antenna yields the most desirable features from a foreground contamination viewpoint, relative to a dipole or a phased array. Comparing data from recent Murchison Widefield Array observations, we demonstrate that the foreground signatures that have the largest impact on the H i signal arise from power received far away from the primary field of view. We identify diffuse emission near the horizon as a significant contributing factor, even on wide antenna spacings that usually represent structures on small scales. For signals entering through the primary field of view, compact emission dominates the foreground contamination. These two mechanisms imprint a characteristic pitchfork signature on the “foreground wedge” in Fourier delay space. Based on these results, we propose that selective down-weighting of data based on antenna spacing and time can mitigate foreground contamination substantially by a factor of ∼100 with negligible loss of sensitivity.

  10. Moving-object segmentation using a foreground history map.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sooyeong; Bae, Guntae; Byun, Hyeran

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a real-time foreground segmentation method in monocular video sequences for video teleconferencing. Background subtraction is widely used in foreground segmentation for static cameras. However, the results are usually not accurate enough for background substitution tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for fast and accurate foreground segmentation. The strategy consists of two steps: initial foreground segmentation and fine foreground segmentation. The key to our algorithm consists of two steps. In the first step, a moving object is roughly segmented using the background subtraction method. In order to update the initial foreground segmentation results in the second step, a region-based segmentation method and a foreground history map (FHM)-based segmentation representing the combination of temporal and spatial information were developed. The segmentation accuracy of the proposed algorithm was evaluated with respect to the ground truth, which was the manually cropped foreground. The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm improved the accuracy of segmentation with respect to Horprasert's well-known algorithm.

  11. Evaluation of Extraction Protocols for Simultaneous Polar and Non-Polar Yeast Metabolite Analysis Using Multivariate Projection Methods

    PubMed Central

    Tambellini, Nicolas P.; Zaremberg, Vanina; Turner, Raymond J.; Weljie, Aalim M.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches aim to measure metabolites or lipids in the cell. Metabolite extraction is a key step in obtaining useful and reliable data for successful metabolite studies. Significant efforts have been made to identify the optimal extraction protocol for various platforms and biological systems, for both polar and non-polar metabolites. Here we report an approach utilizing chemoinformatics for systematic comparison of protocols to extract both from a single sample of the model yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three chloroform/methanol/water partitioning based extraction protocols found in literature were evaluated for their effectiveness at reproducibly extracting both polar and non-polar metabolites. Fatty acid methyl esters and methoxyamine/trimethylsilyl derivatized aqueous compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to evaluate non-polar or polar metabolite analysis. The comparative breadth and amount of recovered metabolites was evaluated using multivariate projection methods. This approach identified an optimal protocol consisting of 64 identified polar metabolites from 105 ion hits and 12 fatty acids recovered, and will potentially attenuate the error and variation associated with combining metabolite profiles from different samples for untargeted analysis with both polar and non-polar analytes. It also confirmed the value of using multivariate projection methods to compare established extraction protocols. PMID:24958140

  12. Evaluation of extraction protocols for simultaneous polar and non-polar yeast metabolite analysis using multivariate projection methods.

    PubMed

    Tambellini, Nicolas P; Zaremberg, Vanina; Turner, Raymond J; Weljie, Aalim M

    2013-07-23

    Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches aim to measure metabolites or lipids in the cell. Metabolite extraction is a key step in obtaining useful and reliable data for successful metabolite studies. Significant efforts have been made to identify the optimal extraction protocol for various platforms and biological systems, for both polar and non-polar metabolites. Here we report an approach utilizing chemoinformatics for systematic comparison of protocols to extract both from a single sample of the model yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three chloroform/methanol/water partitioning based extraction protocols found in literature were evaluated for their effectiveness at reproducibly extracting both polar and non-polar metabolites. Fatty acid methyl esters and methoxyamine/trimethylsilyl derivatized aqueous compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to evaluate non-polar or polar metabolite analysis. The comparative breadth and amount of recovered metabolites was evaluated using multivariate projection methods. This approach identified an optimal protocol consisting of 64 identified polar metabolites from 105 ion hits and 12 fatty acids recovered, and will potentially attenuate the error and variation associated with combining metabolite profiles from different samples for untargeted analysis with both polar and non-polar analytes. It also confirmed the value of using multivariate projection methods to compare established extraction protocols.

  13. Robust Background Subtraction with Foreground Validation for Urban Traffic Video

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, S S; Kamath, C

    2004-01-15

    Identifying moving objects in a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in many computer-vision applications. Background subtraction techniques are commonly used to separate foreground moving objects from the background. Most background subtraction techniques assume a single rate of adaptation, which is inadequate for complex scenes such as a traffic intersection where objects are moving at different and varying speeds. In this paper, we propose a foreground validation algorithm that first builds a foreground mask using a slow-adapting Kalman filter, and then validates individual foreground pixels by a simple moving object model, built using both the foreground and background statistics as well as the frame difference. Ground-truth experiments with urban traffic sequences show that our proposed algorithm significantly improves upon results using only Kalman filter or frame-differencing, and outperforms other techniques based on mixture of Gaussians, median filter, and approximated media filter.

  14. Frequency dependent polarization analysis of high-frequency seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeffrey; Vernon, Frank L., III; Lindberg, Craig R.

    1987-11-01

    We present a multitaper algorithm to estimate the polarization of particle motion as a function of frequency from three-component seismic data. This algorithm is based on a singular value decomposition of a matrix of eigenspectra at a given frequency. The right complex eigenvector zˆ corresonding to the largest singular value of the matrix has the same direction as the dominant polarization of seismic motion at that frequency. The elements of the polarization vector zˆ specify the relative amplitudes and phases of motion measured along the recorded components within a chosen frequency band. The width of this frequency band is determined by the time-bandwidth product of the prolate spheroidal tapers used in the analysis. We manipulate the components of zˆ to determine the apparent azimuth and angle of incidence of seismic motion as a function of frequency. The orthogonality of the eigentapers allows one to calculate easily uncertainties in the estimated azimuth and angle of incidence. We apply this algorithm to data from the Anza Seismic Telemetered Array in the frequency band 0 ≤ ƒ ≤ 30 Hz. The polarization is not always a smooth function of frequency and can exhibit sharp jumps, suggesting the existence of scattered modes within the crustal waveguide and/or receiver site resonances.

  15. Analysis of polarization by means of polarized cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in a TEM.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yutaka; Takeda, Seiji

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a novel method to determine the polarization of light emitted from nanometre-ordered spaces in materials by means of polarized cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy with an ellipsoidal mirror in a transmission electron microscope. We have shown that simulation of CL intensities in full consideration of the effect of reflection on an ellipsoidal mirror is necessary to determine the polarization.

  16. Planck 2015 results. XXV. Diffuse low-frequency Galactic foregrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A. W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vidal, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the Galactic foreground emission between 20 and 100 GHz based on observations by Planck and WMAP. The total intensity in this part of the spectrum is dominated by free-free and spinning dust emission, whereas the polarized intensity is dominated by synchrotron emission. The Commander component-separation tool has been used to separate the various astrophysical processes in total intensity. Comparison with radio recombination line templates verifies the recovery of the free-free emission along the Galactic plane. Comparison of the high-latitude Hα emission with our free-free map shows residuals that correlate with dust optical depth, consistent with a fraction (≈30%) of Hα having been scattered by high-latitude dust. We highlight a number of diffuse spinning dust morphological features at high latitude. There is substantial spatial variation in the spinning dust spectrum, with the emission peak (in Iν) ranging from below 20 GHz to more than 50 GHz. There is a strong tendency for the spinning dust component near many prominent H ii regions to have a higher peak frequency, suggesting that this increase in peak frequency is associated with dust in the photo-dissociation regions around the nebulae. The emissivity of spinning dust in these diffuse regions is of the same order as previous detections in the literature. Over the entire sky, the Commander solution finds more anomalous microwave emission (AME) than the WMAP component maps, at the expense of synchrotron and free-free emission. This can be explained by the difficulty in separating multiple broadband components with a limited number of frequency maps. Future surveys, particularly at 5-20 GHz, will greatly improve the separation by constraining the synchrotron spectrum. We combine Planck and WMAP data to make the highest signal-to-noise ratio maps yet of the intensity of the all-sky polarized synchrotron emission at frequencies above a few GHz. Most of the high-latitude polarized emission is

  17. Planck 2015 results: XXV. Diffuse low-frequency Galactic foregrounds

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; ...

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, we discuss the Galactic foreground emission between 20 and 100 GHz based on observations by Planck and WMAP. The total intensity in this part of the spectrum is dominated by free-free and spinning dust emission, whereas the polarized intensity is dominated by synchrotron emission. The Commander component-separation tool has been used to separate the various astrophysical processes in total intensity. Comparison with radio recombination line templates verifies the recovery of the free-free emission along the Galactic plane. Comparison of the high-latitude Hα emission with our free-free map shows residuals that correlate with dust optical depth, consistent withmore » a fraction (≈30%) of Hα having been scattered by high-latitude dust. We highlight a number of diffuse spinning dust morphological features at high latitude. There is substantial spatial variation in the spinning dust spectrum, with the emission peak (in Iν) ranging from below 20 GHz to more than 50 GHz. There is a strong tendency for the spinning dust component near many prominent H ii regions to have a higher peak frequency, suggesting that this increase in peak frequency is associated with dust in the photo-dissociation regions around the nebulae. The emissivity of spinning dust in these diffuse regions is of the same order as previous detections in the literature. Over the entire sky, the Commander solution finds more anomalous microwave emission (AME) than the WMAP component maps, at the expense of synchrotron and free-free emission. This can be explained by the difficulty in separating multiple broadband components with a limited number of frequency maps. Future surveys, particularly at 5–20 GHz, will greatly improve the separation by constraining the synchrotron spectrum. We combine Planck and WMAP data to make the highest signal-to-noise ratio maps yet of the intensity of the all-sky polarized synchrotron emission at frequencies above a few GHz. Most of the high

  18. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD FOREGROUND CLEANING FOR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIMETERS IN THE PRESENCE OF SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, C.; Hanany, S.; Baccigalupi, C.; Gold, B.; Jaffe, A.; Stompor, R.

    2016-03-01

    We extend a general maximum likelihood foreground estimation for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data to include estimation of instrumental systematic effects. We focus on two particular effects: frequency band measurement uncertainty and instrumentally induced frequency dependent polarization rotation. We assess the bias induced on the estimation of the B-mode polarization signal by these two systematic effects in the presence of instrumental noise and uncertainties in the polarization and spectral index of Galactic dust. Degeneracies between uncertainties in the band and polarization angle calibration measurements and in the dust spectral index and polarization increase the uncertainty in the extracted CMB B-mode power, and may give rise to a biased estimate. We provide a quantitative assessment of the potential bias and increased uncertainty in an example experimental configuration. For example, we find that with 10% polarized dust, a tensor to scalar ratio of r = 0.05, and the instrumental configuration of the E and B experiment balloon payload, the estimated CMB B-mode power spectrum is recovered without bias when the frequency band measurement has 5% uncertainty or less, and the polarization angle calibration has an uncertainty of up to 4°.

  19. ULF Narrowband Emissions Analysis in the Terrestrial Polar Cusps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grison, B.; Pisa, D.

    2013-05-01

    Polar cusps are known to be a key region for transfer of mass and momentum between the adjacent magnetosheath and the magnetosphere. The 4 spacecraft of the Cluster ESA mission crossed the polar cusps in their most distant part to the Earth in the early years of the mission (2000-2004) because of their highly eccentric orbit. The ULF wave activity in the cusp region has been linked with the magnetosheath plasma penetration since HEOS observations (D'Angelo et al., 1974). Wave and particle interaction play an important role in this colisionless plasma. The observed wave activity certainly results from both distant and local generation mechanisms. From Cluster case studies we propose to focus on one aspect for each of this place of generation. Concerning the distant generation, the possibility of a wave generation at the magnetopause itself is investigated. For this purpose we compare the propagation of the emissions on each side of the magnetopasue, i.e. in the cusp and in the magnetosheath. Concerning the local generation, the presence of locally generated waves above the local proton gyrofrequency that display a left hand polarization has been reported in Polar and Cluster studies (Le et al., 2001; Nykyri et al., 2003 ). The Doppler shift was not large enough to explain the observed frequency. We propose here to combine various techniques (k-filtering analysis, WHAMP simulations) to achieve a precise wave vector estimation and to explain these observations. References: D'Angelo, N., A. Bahnsen, and H. Rosenbauer (1974), Wave and particle measurements at the polar cusp, J. Geophys. Res., 79( 22), 3129-3134, doi:10.1029/JA079i022p03129. Le, G., X. Blanco-Cano, C. T. Russell, X.-W. Zhou, F. Mozer, K. J. Trattner, S. A. Fuselier, and B. J. Anderson (2001), Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the high-altitude cusp: Polar observations, J. Geophys. Res., 106(A9), 19067-19079, doi:10.1029/2000JA900163. Nykyri, K., P. J. Cargill, E. A. Lucek, T. S. Horbury, A. Balogh

  20. Winds analysis for polar and equatorial stratospheric balloons flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivano, Musso; Cardillo, Andrea; Ibba, Roberto; Spoto, Domenico; Amaro, Francesco; Memmo, Adelaide

    Astrophysicists, meteorologists and biologists are only some of the scientists that are requiring stratospheric flights and in particular Long Duration Balloon Flights for their researches and experiments. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) is therefore coordinating an effort for the developing of stratospheric balloons' campaigns from North Pole, where ASI collaborates with Andoya Rocket Range preparing the Nobile/Amundsen Stratospheric Balloon Centre at Svalbard and from the ASI satellite receiving station in Malindi Kenya. Flights have been ongoing by other agencies in Antarctica. From the Northern Polar Region and Equatorial Africa similar flights will be possible without the logistical difficulties of that area. Answering to a specific scientific requirement, polar nocturnal and equatorial flights are now being investigated. Missions during polar winter are interesting because they provide regions of the sky where measurements are normally impossible. Trajectories are evaluated with a statistical wind analysis. Summer flights provide circular paths from Svalbard around the Pole and a safe recovery in Greenland after two weeks or more. The nocturnal flights do not have the same stability: isobaric lines are not centred above the Pole and trajectories around Svalbard involving Russia, Norway and Greenland are usual between December and February. For the equatorial missions we have analysed the statistical properties of trajectories considering the biennal oscillation and the seasonal effects of the stratospheric winds.

  1. Attitude Drift Analysis for the WIND and POLAR Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    The spin axis attitude drift due to environmental torques acting on the Global Geospace Science (GGS) Interplanetary Physics Laboratory (WIND) and the Polar Plasma Laboratory (POLAR) and the subsequent impact on the maneuver planning strategy for each mission is investigated. A brief overview of each mission is presented, including mission objectives, requirements, constraints, and spacecraft design. The environmental torques that act on the spacecraft and the relative importance of each is addressed. Analysis results are presented that provide the basis for recommendations made pre-launch to target the spin axis attitude to minimize attitude trim maneuvers for both spacecraft over their respective mission lives. It is demonstrated that attitude drift is not the dominant factor in maintaining the pointing requirement for each spacecraft. Further it is demonstrated that the WIND pointing cannot be met pas 4 months due to the Sun angle constraint, while the POLAR initial attitude can be chosen such that attitude trim maneuvers are not required during each 6 month viewing period.

  2. 33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  3. Contextual view showing building 253 in foreground; camera facing southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing building 253 in foreground; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage behind. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  5. 6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  6. 8. Water treatment plant, view to SE, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Water treatment plant, view to SE, berm in foreground covering settling tank - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  7. 4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  8. 7. Water treatment plant, view to E, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Water treatment plant, view to E, berm in foreground covering settling tank - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  9. 5. Water treatment plant, view to N, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Water treatment plant, view to N, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  10. 53. VIEW OF PASSENGER SPEEDER 04 IN FOREGROUND, BOOM SPEEDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF PASSENGER SPEEDER 04 IN FOREGROUND, BOOM SPEEDER 75 IN BACKGROUND LEFT, AND BOOM SPEEDER 59 IN BACKGROUND RIGHT - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  11. 17. TRACTOR ENGINE POWERING SHAFT SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND, BELT CONNECTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TRACTOR ENGINE POWERING SHAFT SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND, BELT CONNECTS WITH MAIN SHAFT LOOKING EAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  12. 5. View, oxidizer waste tanks and containment basin in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View, oxidizer waste tanks and containment basin in foreground with Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28) uphill in background, looking northeast. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  13. 1. View of caretaker's house with field in foreground and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of caretaker's house with field in foreground and corral fence to the right looking east - Richmond Hill Plantation, Caretaker's House, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  14. 22. View of historic district looking northeast; road in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of historic district looking northeast; road in foreground and Ogeechee River in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  15. BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SYRUP TANKS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SYRUP TANKS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, HIGH GRADE VACUUM PANS BEYOND THE SYRUP TANKS. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  16. 1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  17. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  18. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  19. 19. View west, foreground, north facade of Forest East Suites, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View west, foreground, north facade of Forest East Suites, background north & east facades of Forest Hall. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  20. 27. View east, foreground north facade of Forest Hall, background ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View east, foreground north facade of Forest Hall, background north facade of Forest East Suites. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  1. 20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  2. VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH VERSON HYDROPRESS IN FOREGROUND, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH VERSON HYDROPRESS IN FOREGROUND, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Overview of operational apron. Painted warning sign in foreground. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of operational apron. Painted warning sign in foreground. View to north - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. View to the southeast, note sire fence in the foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to the southeast, note sire fence in the foreground - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Five Antenna Array, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  5. 1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND - Pettinos Brothers Graphite Manufacturing Mill, On Sand Island, south side of Lehigh Canal, west of Hill-to-Hill Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  6. Context view looking west from hill with tree in foreground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view looking west from hill with tree in foreground. Entist Mountains are in distance. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  7. DETAIL OF SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN FOREGROUND, WITH PANELS FOR #1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN FOREGROUND, WITH PANELS FOR #1 AND #2 GENERATORS . PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  8. 14. ROOF, OTIS ELEVATOR OPERATING MACHINE (FOREGROUND) AND MOTOR GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ROOF, OTIS ELEVATOR OPERATING MACHINE (FOREGROUND) AND MOTOR GENERATOR DC SUPPLY SET, TO NORTHWEST - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Office Building, 105 Hudson Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  9. 18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 (broken cradle) center; cradle for Marine Railway #3 on right. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  10. 15. Foreground; broken gear from headhouse of electric powered Marine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Foreground; broken gear from headhouse of electric powered Marine Railway #3; cradle for Marine Railway #3 in background. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  11. 7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 242, SHOWING GANTRY HOIST IN FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 242, SHOWING GANTRY HOIST IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. 43) and steel tanks in background. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  13. Contextual view of building, with building #11 in right foreground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building, with building #11 in right foreground. Camera facing east - Naval Supply Center, Broadway Complex, Administration Storehouse, 911 West Broadway, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  14. SECTION B, WITH ARTILLERY MONUMENT AT LEFT FOREGROUND, NEW YORK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION B, WITH ARTILLERY MONUMENT AT LEFT FOREGROUND, NEW YORK MONUMENT AT LEFT BACKGROUND AND PENNSYLVANIA MONUMENT AT CENTER BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Culpeper National Cemetery, 305 U.S. Avenue, Culpeper, Culpeper County, VA

  15. 1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  16. View facing north, Structure 162 in foreground, as Transmission Line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing north, Structure 16-2 in foreground, as Transmission Line turns at intersection of Powerline Road and US 87 - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  17. El Tovar steam tunnel breaker box in foreground. Note El ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    El Tovar steam tunnel breaker box in foreground. Note El Tovar stone vault in alignment with tunnel. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. ERECTING SHOP, EAST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTH. LEFT FOREGROUND BREAK IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTING SHOP, EAST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTH. LEFT FOREGROUND BREAK IN WALL IS FOR PASSAGE OF STEAM-POWERED BELTING FROM POWERHOUSE. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Erecting Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. Looking east along Porter Avenue, management engineering in foreground; supply ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east along Porter Avenue, management engineering in foreground; supply department storehouse (building no. 5) (Haer no. PA-387-1) to left. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Management Engineering, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Southeast corner with overhead crane in foreground Bureau of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast corner with overhead crane in foreground - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  2. View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 2. DETAIL VIEW OF ON RIGHT FOREGROUND FIXED SPAN TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW OF ON RIGHT FOREGROUND FIXED SPAN TO TRANSITIONAL MOVEABLE SPAN TO FLOATING SPAN IN MIDDLEGROUND - Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Floating Bridge, Spanning Lake Washington at I-90, Seattle, King County, WA

  5. 76. PINETREE SIPHON, SECOND AQUEDUCT IN FOREGROUND LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. PINETREE SIPHON, SECOND AQUEDUCT IN FOREGROUND LOOKING WEST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Interior oblique view with wagon in foreground; camera facing southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior oblique view with wagon in foreground; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. 89. LOCK 13 EAST. WOODEN TIMBERS (FOREGROUND LEFT AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. LOCK 13 EAST. WOODEN TIMBERS (FOREGROUND LEFT AND RIGHT OF LOCK ENTRANCE) ARE BEING USED AS BUMPERS TO HELP GUIDE SHIP INTO LOCK WHILE AVOIDING CONTACT WITH WALLS. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  8. SECTION 1, WITH BIVOUAC OF THE DEAD TABLET IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION 1, WITH BIVOUAC OF THE DEAD TABLET IN FOREGROUND AND FLAGPOLE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Crown Hill Cemetery, Crown Hill National Cemetery, 700 West Thirty-eighth Street, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  9. 12. June 1988 INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER; SHOWING FIREFINDER (FOREGROUND), LIGHTNING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. June 1988 INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER; SHOWING FIREFINDER (FOREGROUND), LIGHTNING STOOL AND BED (BOTH TO RIGHT OF FIREFINDER) - Suntop Lookout, Forest Road 510, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Greenwater, Pierce County, WA

  10. View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, TOWERS 16 and 17 in the distance, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  11. OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVEGROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. DETAIL OF THREE DOORS FOR READY AMMUNITION BOXES (IN FOREGROUND). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THREE DOORS FOR READY AMMUNITION BOXES (IN FOREGROUND). NOTE THE STEEL PLATES IN THE BACKGROUND - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Building 202, with shop area in foreground, also showing test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 202, with shop area in foreground, also showing test cell of test stand A and a portion of stand B. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. 2. LONG VIEW NORTHWEST, EASTBOUND BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND, WESTBOUND BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LONG VIEW NORTHWEST, EASTBOUND BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND, WESTBOUND BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND - Willow Run Expressway Bridge No. R01, Spanning Conrail Railway, eastbound, at US-10, Ypsilanti, Washtenaw County, MI

  15. 12. EAST REAR OF OFFICE BUILDING (RIGHT FOREGROUND) AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. EAST REAR OF OFFICE BUILDING (RIGHT FOREGROUND) AND WAREHOUSE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, International Harvester Company Showroom, Office & Warehouse, 10 South Main Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  16. 11. SOUTH SIDE OF WAREHOUSE, WITH LOADING DOCK IN FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTH SIDE OF WAREHOUSE, WITH LOADING DOCK IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, International Harvester Company Showroom, Office & Warehouse, 10 South Main Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  17. Object-Based Multiple Foreground Segmentation in RGBD Video.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huazhu; Xu, Dong; Lin, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    We present an RGB and Depth (RGBD) video segmentation method that takes advantage of depth data and can extract multiple foregrounds in the scene. This video segmentation is addressed as an object proposal selection problem formulated in a fully-connected graph, where a flexible number of foregrounds may be chosen. In our graph, each node represents a proposal, and the edges model intra-frame and inter-frame constraints on the solution. The proposals are selected based on an RGBD video saliency map in which depth-based features are utilized to enhance the identification of foregrounds. Experiments show that the proposed multiple foreground segmentation method outperforms related techniques, and the depth cue serves as a helpful complement to RGB features. Moreover, our method provides performance comparable to the state-of-the-art RGB video segmentation techniques on regular RGB videos with estimated depth maps.

  18. 7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, view east, southwest and northwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  19. 6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF DAM AND EARTH. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Black Maria Reconstruction (left foreground); Building No. 1; Main Building; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Black Maria Reconstruction (left foreground); Building No. 1; Main Building; Edison Storage Battery Building (right background) - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  1. 13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE SPILLWAY APRON.... Volume XVII, No. 12, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  2. View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. Image looking northeast - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. Drill press in foreground is one of few machine tools ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Drill press in foreground is one of few machine tools in operating condition which is still operated occasionally for public demonstrations. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  4. 9. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING SOUTH. CANAL IN FOREGROUND FOLLOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING SOUTH. CANAL IN FOREGROUND FOLLOWS HILLSIDE INTO DRAINAGE; FLUME HEADING TO RIGHT CROSSED GULCH ON A TRESTLE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  5. 2. Long view east, with bridge in foreground, showing length ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Long view east, with bridge in foreground, showing length of Carquinez Strait with Benecia Martinez Bridge in background. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, OLIVER MUD FILTER WING TO RIGHT REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  7. 8. View looking SW with Manhattan Bridge in foreground. Jet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View looking SW with Manhattan Bridge in foreground. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  8. 10. View looking S with Manhattan tower in right foreground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View looking S with Manhattan tower in right foreground. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  9. 12. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING IN FOREGROUND; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING IN FOREGROUND; NEW JERSEY SIDE, HUDSON RIVEN VENTILATION BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York County, NY

  10. Nicotine enhances both foreground and background contextual fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer A.; Porter, Jessica; Gould, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined if nicotine enhances contextual fear conditioning when the training context is either a background stimulus or a foreground stimulus. In the background conditioning experiment, mice were trained using two auditory conditioned stimulus (CS; 30 s, 85 dB white noise)–footshock unconditioned stimulus (US; 2 s, 0.57 mA) pairings and tested 24 h later. In the foreground conditioning experiment, mice were trained with two presentations of a footshock US (2 s, 0.57 mA) and tested 24 h later. Mice received 0.09 mg/kg nicotine before training and testing. For both the foreground and background conditioning experiments, nicotine enhanced contextual conditioning. No enhancement of the auditory CS–US association was seen. These results demonstrate that nicotine enhances contextual fear conditioning regardless of whether the context is a background stimulus or a foreground stimulus during conditioning. PMID:16260086

  11. 1. DETAIL, NORTHEAST VIEW (REMAINDER OF SHAFTTURNING MECHANISM IN FOREGROUND). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DETAIL, NORTHEAST VIEW (REMAINDER OF SHAFT-TURNING MECHANISM IN FOREGROUND). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Brick Skimmer Salt Roaster, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  12. 13. EAST ELEVATION, PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY COVERED WALKWAY IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. EAST ELEVATION, PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY COVERED WALKWAY IN FOREGROUND A. C. Eschete, photographer, July 7, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  13. 90. View looking southwest at dehumidification plant in foreground and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View looking southwest at dehumidification plant in foreground and power house in background. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. View along Cavalry Avenue, with building 210 in left foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View along Cavalry Avenue, with building 210 in left foreground and left to right, buildings 212 through 222. View to east. - Fort David A. Russell, Randall Avenue west of First Street, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  15. 3. View west. North elevation Walpole span in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View west. North elevation - Walpole span in foreground, link span; Westminster span in background. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  16. First floor interior, showing mess room in left foreground and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First floor interior, showing mess room in left foreground and main hall in right background. View to southwest. - Fort David A. Russell, Artillery Barracks, Randall Avenue between Sixth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  17. 44. Blue Coal Corporation Office Building (foreground), Huber Breaker (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Blue Coal Corporation Office Building (foreground), Huber Breaker (left), Retail Coal Storage Bins (far center) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  18. 26. VIEW OF TAINTER GATE HOIST CAR (LEFT FOREGROUND), BULKHEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF TAINTER GATE HOIST CAR (LEFT FOREGROUND), BULKHEAD HOIST CAR (LEFT BACKGROUND) AND FLATCAR ON DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  19. 3. EXTERIOR FRONT OF TRIPLEX COTTAGE. CONCRETE STEPS IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR FRONT OF TRIPLEX COTTAGE. CONCRETE STEPS IN FOREGROUND LEAD TO SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  20. 10. CONTEXTUAL VIEW WEST OF FEATURE 14 IN FOREGROUND, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CONTEXTUAL VIEW WEST OF FEATURE 14 IN FOREGROUND, WITH FEATURES 7, 6, 8, AND 2 IN BACKGROUND. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  1. VIEW ALONG ARIZONA AVENUE. WITH STEAM PIPES IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG ARIZONA AVENUE. WITH STEAM PIPES IN FOREGROUND AND NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION SHOP (BUILDING 2802) AT LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  2. 7. General view of stockyards showing cattle pens in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General view of stockyards showing cattle pens in foreground, south Omaha in background, and livestock exchange building to right. View to east. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  3. PIQUETTE AVENUE STREETSCAPE WITH STUDEBAKER CORPORATION IN FOREGROUND. 411 PIQUETTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PIQUETTE AVENUE STREETSCAPE WITH STUDEBAKER CORPORATION IN FOREGROUND. 411 PIQUETTE AVENUE IN CENTER, AND FORD PIQIETTE PLANT ON THE OTHER SIDE. (Duplicate color view of HAER MI-349-1) - 411 Piquette Avenue (Industrial), Detroit, MI

  4. 2. MAGAZINE P, WITH ENTRANCE DOOR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. MAGAZINE P, WITH ENTRANCE DOOR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  5. BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, GARVER CLARIFIER IN FOREGROUND, TOPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, GARVER CLARIFIER IN FOREGROUND, TOPS OF LONG TUBE EVAPORATORS IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  6. 14. SOUTH ELEVATION, PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY TREES IN FOREGROUND A. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SOUTH ELEVATION, PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY TREES IN FOREGROUND A. C. Eschete, photographer, July 7, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  7. 8. DISTANT NORTH ELEVATION, OBSCURED BY TREES IN FOREGROUND A. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DISTANT NORTH ELEVATION, OBSCURED BY TREES IN FOREGROUND A. C. Eschete, photographer, July 7, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  8. 2. GATELIFTING SPUR GEAR DRIVE IN FOREGROUND, ATTACHED TO A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GATE-LIFTING SPUR GEAR DRIVE IN FOREGROUND, ATTACHED TO A GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY CRANE MOTOR, WITH COMPANION SOLENOID BRAKE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND, WITH BOTH MOUNTED ON A CONCRETE PEDESTAL. PORTIONS OF THE STEEL DERRICK LIFTING FRAME ARE VISIBLE IN THE FOREGROUND AND BACKGROUND, LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates & Gate-Lifting Mechanisms, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  9. Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Polarization Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Waluschka, Eugene; Wang, Menghua

    2016-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on October 28, 2011. It is a whiskbroom radiometer that provides +/-56.28deg scans of the Earth view. It has 22 bands, among which 14 are reflective solar bands (RSBs). The RSBs cover a wavelength range from 410 to 2250 nm. The RSBs of a remote sensor are usually sensitive to the polarization of incident light. For VIIRS, it is specified that the polarization factor should be smaller than 3% for 410 and 862 nm bands and 2.5% for other RSBs for the scan angle within +/-45deg. Several polarization sensitivity tests were performed prelaunch for SNPP VIIRS. The first few tests either had large uncertainty or were less reliable, while the last one was believed to provide the more accurate information about the polarization property of the instrument. In this paper, the measured data in the last polarization sensitivity test are analyzed, and the polarization factors and phase angles are derived from the measurements for all the RSBs. The derived polarization factors and phase angles are band, detector, and scan angle dependent. For near-infrared bands, they also depend on the half-angle mirror side. Nevertheless, the derived polarization factors are all within the specification, although the strong detector dependence of the polarization parameters was not expected. Compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on both Aqua and Terra satellites, the polarization effect on VIIRS RSB is much smaller.

  10. Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Polarization Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Waluschka, Eugene; Wang, Menghua

    2016-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on October 28, 2011. It is a whiskbroom radiometer that provides +/-56.28deg scans of the Earth view. It has 22 bands, among which 14 are reflective solar bands (RSBs). The RSBs cover a wavelength range from 410 to 2250 nm. The RSBs of a remote sensor are usually sensitive to the polarization of incident light. For VIIRS, it is specified that the polarization factor should be smaller than 3% for 410 and 862 nm bands and 2.5% for other RSBs for the scan angle within +/-45deg. Several polarization sensitivity tests were performed prelaunch for SNPP VIIRS. The first few tests either had large uncertainty or were less reliable, while the last one was believed to provide the more accurate information about the polarization property of the instrument. In this paper, the measured data in the last polarization sensitivity test are analyzed, and the polarization factors and phase angles are derived from the measurements for all the RSBs. The derived polarization factors and phase angles are band, detector, and scan angle dependent. For near-infrared bands, they also depend on the half-angle mirror side. Nevertheless, the derived polarization factors are all within the specification, although the strong detector dependence of the polarization parameters was not expected. Compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on both Aqua and Terra satellites, the polarization effect on VIIRS RSB is much smaller.

  11. Planck intermediate results. L. Evidence of spatial variation of the polarized thermal dust spectral energy distribution and implications for CMB B-mode analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Benabed, K.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Chiang, H. C.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Dusini, S.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Finelli, F.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Helou, G.; Herranz, D.; Hivon, E.; Huang, Z.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Matarrese, S.; Mauri, N.; McEwen, J. D.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Moss, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Patrizii, L.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Plaszczynski, S.; Polenta, G.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Stanco, L.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Tauber, J. A.; Tenti, M.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Valiviita, J.; Vansyngel, F.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2017-03-01

    The characterization of the Galactic foregrounds has been shown to be the main obstacle in thechallenging quest to detect primordial B-modes in the polarized microwave sky. We make use of the Planck-HFI 2015 data release at high frequencies to place new constraints on the properties of the polarized thermal dust emission at high Galactic latitudes. Here, we specifically study the spatial variability of the dust polarized spectral energy distribution (SED), and its potential impact on the determination of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r. We use the correlation ratio of the angular power spectra between the 217 and 353 GHz channels as a tracer of these potential variations, computed on different high Galactic latitude regions, ranging from 80% to 20% of the sky. The new insight from Planck data is a departure of the correlation ratio from unity that cannot be attributed to a spurious decorrelation due to the cosmic microwave background, instrumental noise, or instrumental systematics. The effect is marginally detected on each region, but the statistical combination of all the regions gives more than 99% confidence for this variation in polarized dust properties. In addition, we show that the decorrelation increases when there is a decrease in the mean column density of the region of the sky being considered, and we propose a simple power-law empirical model for this dependence, which matches what is seen in the Planck data. We explore the effect that this measured decorrelation has on simulations of the BICEP2-Keck Array/Planck analysis and show that the 2015 constraints from these data still allow a decorrelation between the dust at 150 and 353 GHz that is compatible with our measured value. Finally, using simplified models, we show that either spatial variation of the dust SED or of the dust polarization angle are able to produce decorrelations between 217 and 353 GHz data similar to the values we observe in the data.

  12. Residual foreground contamination in the WMAP data and bias in non-Gaussianity estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Chingangbam, Pravabati; Park, Changbom E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr

    2013-02-01

    We analyze whether there is any residual foreground contamination in the cleaned WMAP 7 years data for the differential assemblies, Q, V and W. We calculate the correlation between the foreground map, from which long wavelength correlations have been subtracted, and the foreground reduced map for each differential assembly after applying the Galaxy and point sources masks. We find positive correlations for all the differential assemblies, with high statistical significance. For Q and V, we find that a large fraction of the contamination comes from pixels where the foreground maps have positive values larger than three times the rms values. These findings imply the presence of residual contamination from Galactic emissions and unresolved point sources. We redo the analysis after masking the extended point sources cataloque of Scodeller et al. [7] and find a drop in the correlation and corresponding significance values. To quantify the effect of the residual contamination on the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in the CMB we add estimated contaminant fraction to simulated Gaussian CMB maps and calculate the characteristic non-Gaussian deviation shapes of Minkowski Functionals that arise due to the contamination. We find remarkable agreement of these deviation shapes with those measured from WMAP data, which imply that a major fraction of the observed non-Gaussian deviation comes from residual foreground contamination. We also compute non-Gaussian deviations of Minkowski Functionals after applying the point sources mask of Scodeller et al. and find a decrease in the overall amplitudes of the deviations which is consistent with a decrease in the level of contamination.

  13. RHIC FY15 pp Run RHIC and AGS polarization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Adams, P.

    2016-02-20

    The polarization information is important for the spin physics program in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). There are discrepancies between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements. First, the face value of AGS polarization is higher than RHIC ones in general. Second, the measured polarization profile (described by the profile ratio R) is stronger in AGS than in RHIC. This note analyzes the polarization data from FY15 pp run period. The results show that the differences between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements are reasonable, but the R value difference is puzzling. The difference between blue and yellow ring is worth of spin simulation to explain.

  14. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: A stochastic demographic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, C.M.; Caswell, H.; Runge, M.C.; Regehr, E.V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2010-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) depends on sea ice for feeding, breeding, and movement. Significant reductions in Arctic sea ice are forecast to continue because of climate warming. We evaluated the impacts of climate change on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea by means of a demographic analysis, combining deterministic, stochastic, environment-dependent matrix population models with forecasts of future sea ice conditions from IPCC general circulation models (GCMs). The matrix population models classified individuals by age and breeding status; mothers and dependent cubs were treated as units. Parameter estimates were obtained from a capture-recapture study conducted from 2001 to 2006. Candidate statistical models allowed vital rates to vary with time and as functions of a sea ice covariate. Model averaging was used to produce the vital rate estimates, and a parametric bootstrap procedure was used to quantify model selection and parameter estimation uncertainty. Deterministic models projected population growth in years with more extensive ice coverage (2001-2003) and population decline in years with less ice coverage (2004-2005). LTRE (life table response experiment) analysis showed that the reduction in ?? in years with low sea ice was due primarily to reduced adult female survival, and secondarily to reduced breeding. A stochastic model with two environmental states, good and poor sea ice conditions, projected a declining stochastic growth rate, log ??s, as the frequency of poor ice years increased. The observed frequency of poor ice years since 1979 would imply log ??s ' - 0.01, which agrees with available (albeit crude) observations of population size. The stochastic model was linked to a set of 10 GCMs compiled by the IPCC; the models were chosen for their ability to reproduce historical observations of sea ice and were forced with "business as usual" (A1B) greenhouse gas emissions. The resulting stochastic population projections showed drastic

  15. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: a stochastic demographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Christine M; Caswell, Hal; Runge, Michael C; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steve C; Stirling, Ian

    2010-10-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) depends on sea ice for feeding, breeding, and movement. Significant reductions in Arctic sea ice are forecast to continue because of climate warming. We evaluated the impacts of climate change on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea by means of a demographic analysis, combining deterministic, stochastic, environment-dependent matrix population models with forecasts of future sea ice conditions from IPCC general circulation models (GCMs). The matrix population models classified individuals by age and breeding status; mothers and dependent cubs were treated as units. Parameter estimates were obtained from a capture-recapture study conducted from 2001 to 2006. Candidate statistical models allowed vital rates to vary with time and as functions of a sea ice covariate. Model averaging was used to produce the vital rate estimates, and a parametric bootstrap procedure was used to quantify model selection and parameter estimation uncertainty. Deterministic models projected population growth in years with more extensive ice coverage (2001-2003) and population decline in years with less ice coverage (2004-2005). LTRE (life table response experiment) analysis showed that the reduction in lambda in years with low sea ice was due primarily to reduced adult female survival, and secondarily to reduced breeding. A stochastic model with two environmental states, good and poor sea ice conditions, projected a declining stochastic growth rate, log lambdas, as the frequency of poor ice years increased. The observed frequency of poor ice years since 1979 would imply log lambdas approximately - 0.01, which agrees with available (albeit crude) observations of population size. The stochastic model was linked to a set of 10 GCMs compiled by the IPCC; the models were chosen for their ability to reproduce historical observations of sea ice and were forced with "business as usual" (A1B) greenhouse gas emissions. The resulting stochastic population

  16. The analysis of polarization characteristics on 40nm memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Minae; Park, Chanha; You, Taejun; Yang, Hyunjo; Min, Young-Hong; Park, Ki-Yeop; Yim, Donggyu; Park, Sungki

    2009-03-01

    Hyper NA system has been introduced to develop sub-60nm node memory devices. Especially memory industries including DRAM and NAND Flash business have driven much finer technology to improve productivity. Polarization at hyper NA has been well known as important optical technology to enhance imaging performance and also achieve very low k1 process. The source polarization on dense structure has been used as one of the major RET techniques. The process capabilities of various layers under specific illumination and polarization have been explored. In this study, polarization characteristic on 40nm memory device will be analyzed. Especially, TE (Transverse Electric) polarization and linear X-Y polarization on hyper NA ArF system will be compared and investigated. First, IPS (Intensity in Preferred State) value will be measured with PMM (Polarization Metrology Module) to confirm polarization characteristic of each machine before simulation. Next simulation will be done to estimate the CD variation impact of each polarization to different illumination. Third, various line and space pattern of DRAM and Flash device will be analyzed under different polarized condition to see the effect of polarization on CD of actual wafer. Finally, conclusion will be made for this experiment and future work will be discussed. In this paper, the behavior of 40nm node memory devices with two types of polarization is presented and the guidelines for polarization control is discussed based on the patterning performances.

  17. Analysis of Saturn's Polar Vortices with Cassini ISS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn P.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2014-11-01

    We present new analyses of Saturn's north pole using high-resolution images captured in late 2012 by the Cassini spacecraft's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) camera. The new images reveal the presence of an intense cyclonic vortex centered at the north pole. In the red, green and near-IR methane continuum wavelengths, the north polar region exhibits a spiraling cloud morphology extending from 89 degree N to 85 degree N latitude, with a 4700 km radius. Images captured in the methane absorption bands, which sense upper tropospheric haze, show an approximately circular hole in the haze extending up to 1.5 degree latitude away from the pole. The spiraling morphology and the “eye”-like hole at the center are reminiscent of a terrestrial tropical cyclone. In the System III reference frame (rotation period of 10h39m22.4s, Seidelmann et al 2007), the eastward wind speed increases to about 140 m/s at 89 degree N planetocentric latitude. The vorticity peaks at the pole at (6.5±1.5)×10-4 s-1, and decreases to (1.3±1.2)×10-4 s-1 at 89 degree N. In addition, we present new analysis of Saturn's south polar vortex using images captured in January 2007 to compare its cloud morphology to the north pole. The south-polar images reveal an eye-like hole similar to that over the north pole; however, the reflectivity of the upper tropospheric haze is significantly higher over the south pole in 2007 than the north pole in 2012, perhaps exhibiting seasonal difference.

  18. Fourier analysis of polar cap electric field and current distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical study of high-latitude electric fields and currents, using analytic Fourier analysis methods, is conducted. A two-dimensional planar model of the ionosphere with an enhanced conductivity auroral belt and field-aligned currents at the edges is employed. Two separate topics are treated. A field-aligned current element near the cusp region of the polar cap is included to investigate the modifications to the convection pattern by the east-west component of the interplanetary magnetic field. It is shown that a sizable one-cell structure is induced near the cusp which diverts equipotential contours to the dawnside or duskside, depending on the sign of the cusp current. This produces characteristic dawn-dusk asymmetries to the electric field that have been previously observed over the polar cap. The second topic is concerned with the electric field configuration obtained in the limit of perfect shielding, where the field is totally excluded equatorward of the auroral oval. When realistic field-aligned current distributions are used, the result is to produce severely distorted, crescent-shaped equipotential contours over the cap. Exact, analytic formulae applicable to this case are also provided.

  19. Spectral and polarization analysis of micropulsations observed at ATS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W.; Cummings, W. D.; Mcpherron, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Results are reported for an analysis of low frequency oscillations in the earth's magnetic field as observed at the synchronous orbit by the magnetometer experiment on board ATS 1. Oscillations in the range .002 f .02 H3 for the period Dec. 1966 through Dec. 1967 were studied. The analysis combines a detailed, computer-processed, spectral analysis of selected events with a less detailed manual analysis of all events in the two year time interval from Dec. 1966 to Dec. 1968. The computer analysis revealed that a given event is often characterized by a dominat, narrow, spectral peak whose associated oscillations are almost entirely limited to a plane, together with several minor peaks. Dynamic spectral analyses revealed that minor spectral peaks appear as short isolated bursts. The sense of rotation of the perturbation vector tends to change from right-handed elliptical at the beginning of a burst to left-handed elliptical at the end. The major axis of the polarization ellipse is inclined by typically 30 deg east of radial.

  20. BAYESIAN SEMI-BLIND COMPONENT SEPARATION FOR FOREGROUND REMOVAL IN INTERFEROMETRIC 21 cm OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Le; Timbie, Peter T.; Bunn, Emory F.; Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory S.; Sutter, P. M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we present a new Bayesian semi-blind approach for foreground removal in observations of the 21 cm signal measured by interferometers. The technique, which we call H i Expectation–Maximization Independent Component Analysis (HIEMICA), is an extension of the Independent Component Analysis technique developed for two-dimensional (2D) cosmic microwave background maps to three-dimensional (3D) 21 cm cosmological signals measured by interferometers. This technique provides a fully Bayesian inference of power spectra and maps and separates the foregrounds from the signal based on the diversity of their power spectra. Relying only on the statistical independence of the components, this approach can jointly estimate the 3D power spectrum of the 21 cm signal, as well as the 2D angular power spectrum and the frequency dependence of each foreground component, without any prior assumptions about the foregrounds. This approach has been tested extensively by applying it to mock data from interferometric 21 cm intensity mapping observations under idealized assumptions of instrumental effects. We also discuss the impact when the noise properties are not known completely. As a first step toward solving the 21 cm power spectrum analysis problem, we compare the semi-blind HIEMICA technique to the commonly used Principal Component Analysis. Under the same idealized circumstances, the proposed technique provides significantly improved recovery of the power spectrum. This technique can be applied in a straightforward manner to all 21 cm interferometric observations, including epoch of reionization measurements, and can be extended to single-dish observations as well.

  1. Performance analysis of ultrasonic ranging using a digital polarity correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, T.; Nakahira, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents performance analysis of the distance measurement using a digital polarity correlator applied to the ultrasonic ranging system, consisting of piezoelectric transducers for pulse echo operation and a pulse compression filter using chirp signals. Analytical and simulation results show that the technique of one-bit correlation is as effective as two-bit correlation with respect to signal-to-noise ratios and probability of detecting a target, and further that both methods approach results obtained from a complete correlation of received signals with a reference signal, in the case that the threshold of the received signals is adjusted with regards to the noise level. Experimental results show close agreement with the presented theory.

  2. Pattern recognition analysis of polar clouds during summer and winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Elizabeth E.

    1992-01-01

    A pattern recognition algorithm is demonstrated which classifies eighteen surface and cloud types in high-latitude AVHRR imagery based on several spectral and textural features, then estimates the cloud properties (fractional coverage, albedo, and brightness temperature) using a hybrid histogram and spatial coherence technique. The summertime version of the algorithm uses both visible and infrared data (AVHRR channels 1-4), while the wintertime version uses only infrared data (AVHRR channels 3-5). Three days of low-resolution AVHRR imagery from the Arctic and Antarctic during January and July 1984 were analyzed for cloud type and fractional coverage. The analysis showed significant amounts of high cloudiness in the Arctic during one day in winter. The Antarctic summer scene was characterized by heavy cloud cover in the southern ocean and relatively clear conditions in the continental interior. A large region of extremely low brightness temperatures in East Antarctica during winter suggests the presence of polar stratospheric cloud.

  3. Improving video foreground segmentation with an object-like pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoliu; Lv, Wei; Liu, Huawei; You, Xing; Li, Baoqing; Yuan, Xiaobing

    2015-03-01

    Foreground segmentation in video frames is quite valuable for object and activity recognition, while the existing approaches often demand training data or initial annotation, which is expensive and inconvenient. We propose an automatic and unsupervised method of foreground segmentation given an unlabeled and short video. The pixel-level optical flow and binary mask features are converted into the normal probabilistic superpixels, therefore, they are adaptable to build the superpixel-level conditional random field which aims to label the foreground and background. We exploit the fact that the appearance and motion features of the moving object are temporally and spatially coherent in general, to construct an object-like pool and background-like pool via the previous segmented results. The continuously updated pools can be regarded as the "prior" knowledge of the current frame to provide a reliable way to learn the features of the object. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach exceeds the current methods, both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  4. Analysis of Polar Reversals of Solar Cycle 22 and 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of synoptic magnetograms, one to three activity complexes (systems of active regions) were identified in each reversal as the main cause of polar field reversals in each cycle. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed lagging-polarity flux from these complexes was found to correlate well in time with the polar field changes. In each case significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with lagging-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. This result indicates the importance of the Joy's law tilt and consequent high-latitude polarity bias in polar reversals.This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Summer Research Assistantship (SRA) Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  5. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; ...

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rgmore » is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.« less

  6. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; Heller, William T.

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rg is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.

  7. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; Heller, William T.

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rg is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.

  8. NLO QCD method of the polarized semiinclusive DIS data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sissakian, A.N.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Ivanov, O.N.

    2006-05-01

    Method of polarized semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data analysis in the next to leading order (NLO) QCD is developed. Within the method one first directly extracts in NLO few first truncated (available to measurement) Mellin moments of the quark helicity distributions. Second, using these moments as an input to the proposed modification of the Jacobi polynomial expansion method (MJEM), one eventually reconstructs the local quark helicity distributions themselves. All numerical tests demonstrate that MJEM allows us to reproduce with the high precision the input local distributions even inside the narrow Bjorken x region accessible for experiment. It is of importance that only four first input moments are sufficient to achieve a good quality of reconstruction. The application of the method to the simulated SIDIS data on the pion production is considered. The obtained results encourage one that the proposed NLO method can be successfully applied to the SIDIS data analysis. The analysis of HERMES data on pion production is performed. To this end the pion difference asymmetries are constructed from the measured by HERMES standard semi-inclusive spin asymmetries. The LO results of the valence distribution reconstruction are in a good accordance with the respective leading order SMC and HERMES results, while the NLO results are in agreement with the existing NLO parametrizations on these quantities.

  9. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS OF AN ANISOTROPIC UNIVERSE MODEL: SYSTEMATICS AND POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Groeneboom, Nicolaas E.; Eriksen, Hans Kristian; Ackerman, Lotty; Wehus, Ingunn Kathrine E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.n E-mail: i.k.wehus@fys.uio.n

    2010-10-10

    We revisit the anisotropic universe model previously developed by Ackerman, Carroll, and Wise (ACW), and generalize both the theoretical and computational framework to include polarization and various forms of systematic effects. We apply our new tools to simulated Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data in order to understand the potential impact of asymmetric beams, noise misestimation, and potential zodiacal light emission. We find that neither has any significant impact on the results. We next show that the previously reported ACW signal is also present in the one-year WMAP temperature sky map presented by Liu and Li, where data cuts are more aggressive. Finally, we re-analyze the five-year WMAP data taking into account a previously neglected (-i){sup l-l'}-term in the signal covariance matrix. We still find a strong detection of a preferred direction in the temperature map. Including multipoles up to l = 400, the anisotropy amplitude for the W band is found to be g = 0.29 {+-} 0.031, nonzero at 9{sigma}. However, the corresponding preferred direction is also shifted very close to the ecliptic poles at (l, b) = (96, 30), in agreement with the analysis of Hanson and Lewis, indicating that the signal is aligned along the plane of the solar system. This strongly suggests that the signal is not of cosmological origin, but most likely is a product of an unknown systematic effect. Determining the nature of the systematic effect is of vital importance, as it might affect other cosmological conclusions from the WMAP experiment. Finally, we provide a forecast for the Planck experiment including polarization.

  10. Building hospital TQM teams: effective polarity analysis and maximization.

    PubMed

    Hurst, J B

    1996-09-01

    Building and maintaining teams require careful attention to and maximization of such polar opposites (¿polarities¿) as individual and team, directive and participatory leadership, task and process, and stability and change. Analyzing systematic elements of any polarity and listing blocks, supports, and flexible ways to maximize it will prevent the negative consequences that occur when treating a polarity like a solvable problem. Flexible, well-timed shifts from pole to pole result in the maximization of upside and minimization of downside consequences.

  11. Geomorphometric analysis of selected Martian craters using polar coordinate transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyar, Zoltán; Koma, Zsófia; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    Centrally symmetric landform elements are very common features on the surface of the planet Mars. The most conspicuous ones of them are the impact craters of various size. However, a closer look on these features reveals that they show often asymmetric patterns as well. These are partially related to the geometry of the trajectory of the impacting body, but sometimes it is a result of surface processes (e.g., freeze/thaw cycles, mass movements). Geomorphometric studies have already been carried out to reveal these pecularities. Our approach, the application of polar coordinate transformation (PCT) very sensitively enhances the non-radial and non-circular shapes. We used digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from the ESA Mars Express HRSC imagery. The original DTM or its derivatives (e.g. slope angle or aspect) are PCT transformed. We analyzed the craters inter alia with scattergrams in polar coordinates. The resulting point cloud can be used directly for the analysis, but in some cases an interpolation should be applied to enhance certain non-circular features (especially in case of smaller craters). Visual inspection of the crater slopes, coloured by the aspect, reveals smaller features. Some of them are processing artefacts, but many of them are related to local undulations in the topography or indications of mass movements. In many cases the undulations of the crater rim are due to erosional processes. The drawbacks of the technology are related to the uneven resolution of the projected image: features in the crater centre should be left out from the analysis because PCT has a low resolution around the projection center. Furthermore, the success of the PCT depends on the correct definition of the projection centre: erroneously centered images are not suitable for analysis. The PCT transformed images are also suitable for radial averaging and calculation of standard deviations, resulting in typical, comparable craters shapes. These studies may lead to a deeper

  12. The analysis of long-wave infrared polarization signal of typical material targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Shi, Zhi-guang; Chen, Xiao-tian; Song, Shu-li

    2016-09-01

    Infrared polarization imaging is a new kind of infrared detection technology developed in recent ten years. Different from the traditional detection method of infrared imaging, infrared polarization imaging can not only obtain infrared radiation intensity information of targets, but also obtain the infrared radiation polarization information. So the polarization of the target scene is the physical basis of infrared polarization imaging detection. On the basis of the research about infrared polarization imaging theory, the characteristics of long-wave infrared polarization detection was analyzed in this paper. Firstly, the paper studied long-wave infrared polarization state and interaction effect which coming from the spontaneous emission of target and environment, then designed the analysis experiment about long-wave infrared polarization characteristics that coming from spontaneous radiation, further and verified the forming mechanism of long wave infrared polarization. Through the several experiments that the long wave polarization information of different material objects being measured, a physical phenomenon was found that with the long-wave thermal radiation transmitting form high temperature object to low temperature object, the polarization characteristics transfer process had been happened at the same time, and the degree of this transfer was associated with the material and self-temperature of the objects.

  13. Analysis of polarization decay of reinforced concrete in saltwater

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Boy, J.H.

    1996-11-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), polarization resistance, and polarization decay measurements techniques were used to analyze uncoated steel reinforcing rods encased in concrete and exposed to saltwater. A nested equivalent circuit containing a Warburg impedance was utilized to analyze the results. When rust is present on the steel, the Warburg impedance dominated the impedance response.

  14. Behavioral analysis of polarization vision in tethered flying locusts.

    PubMed

    Mappes, M; Homberg, U

    2004-01-01

    For spatial navigation many insects rely on compass information derived from the polarization pattern of the sky. We demonstrate that tethered flying desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) show e-vector-dependent yaw-torque responses to polarized light presented from above. A slowly rotating polarizer (5.3 degrees s(-1)) induced periodic changes in yaw torque corresponding to the 180 degrees periodicity of the stimulus. Control experiments with a rotating diffuser, a weak intensity pattern, and a stationary polarizer showed that the response is not induced by intensity gradients in the stimulus. Polarotaxis was abolished after painting the dorsal rim areas of the compound eyes black, but remained unchanged after painting the eyes except the dorsal rim areas. During rotation of the polarizer, two e-vectors (preferred and avoided e-vector) induced no turning responses: they were broadly distributed from 0 to 180 degrees but, for a given animal, were perpendicular to each other. The data demonstrate polarization vision in the desert locust, as shown previously for bees, flies, crickets, and ants. Polarized light is perceived through the dorsal rim area of the compound eye, suggesting that polarization vision plays a role in compass navigation of the locust.

  15. Improved Contrast of Subretinal Structures using Polarization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Stephen A.; Elsner, Ann E.; Mellem-Kairala, Mariane B.; Simmons, Ruthanne B.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To improve the ability to detect and quantify the early retinal changes associated with aging, age-related maculopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. METHODS A computational approach was implemented for analyzing images using a readily available polarimeter that is used for glaucoma diagnosis. This device, the GDx Nerve Fiber Analyzer (Laser Diagnostic Technologies, Inc., San Diego, CA), takes a series of images as a function of the polarization angle of the illuminating light. For each of 20 input polarizations, pairs of retinal images are digitized. One image is made of the light returning from the eye that is polarized parallel to the input light, and the other image is made of the light that is rotated by 90° from the input polarization. Using the raw data from these 40 images, and a simplified model of the polarization properties of the eye, we calculated the amount of light that returns in a parallel polarized state, and the amount of light that is depolarized by multiple scattering. Measurements were made in seven subjects with small drusen. RESULTS The depolarized light image produced a 3.4 times higher contrast of drusen and subretinal changes than the parallel polarized light images. CONCLUSIONS Polarization-sensitive imaging combined with a simple computational approach allows the measurement of the retinal distribution of multiply scattered light. With this technique, retinal imaging of age-related changes in retinal and subretinal tissue can be improved. PMID:12939329

  16. Polarization of neutron star surface emission: a systematic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverna, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    New-generation X-ray polarimeters currently under development promise to open a new window in the study of high-energy astrophysical sources. Among them, neutron stars (NSs) appear particularly suited for polarization measurements. Radiation from the (cooling) surface of an NS is expected to exhibit a large intrinsic polarization degree due to the star strong magnetic field (≈ 10 ^{12}-10 ^{15} G). We present an efficient method for computing the observed polarization fraction and polarization angle in the case of radiation coming from the entire surface of an NS, accounting for both vacuum polarization and geometrical effects due to the extended emitting region. Our approach is fairly general and is illustrated in the case of blackbody emission from an NS with either a dipolar or a (globally) twisted magnetic field.

  17. 2. VIEW OF ROOT CELLAR (Feature 11) IN FOREGROUND, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF ROOT CELLAR (Feature 11) IN FOREGROUND, WITH REAR ROOF OF HOUSE (Feature 10) AT LEFT, AND ROOF OF BUTCHER SHOP/FREIGHT DEPOT (Feature 9) IN CENTER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Leesburg Townsite, Root Cellar, Napias Creek, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

  18. 78. (Credit JTL) Mixing chambers (19241926) in foreground, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. (Credit JTL) Mixing chambers (1924-1926) in foreground, looking west along south facade of station. Settling basins to left, new filter house (1942) in background. Aerators added in 1930-31 to remove carbon dioxide from water. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  19. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  20. 4. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin in foreground with Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28) uphill in background, looking southeast. At the extreme right is the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B) and the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 72. NORTHEAST SIDE OF NITROGEN EXCHANGERS IN FOREGROUND; FUEL APRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. NORTHEAST SIDE OF NITROGEN EXCHANGERS IN FOREGROUND; FUEL APRON IN BACKGROUND. NORTHEAST CORNER OF WEST CAMERA TOWER ALSO IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 7. POWERHOUSE, FOREGROUND ON CEILING EXCITER FLATBELT PULLEYS, BACK RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. POWERHOUSE, FOREGROUND ON CEILING EXCITER FLATBELT PULLEYS, BACK RIGHT, WOODEN PERSONAL FACILITY LOCATED IN POWERHOUSE LOWER LEVEL LOOKING SOUTH - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  3. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, FROM THE NORTHEAST ATOP EAST WING (FOREGROUND), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, FROM THE NORTHEAST ATOP EAST WING (FOREGROUND), OF GREAT KIVA (RECONSTUCTED IN BACKGROUND) AND A SMALLER KIVA (MIDDLE GROUND) - Aztec Ruins, Great Kiva, New Mexico 44 near junction of U.S. 550, Aztec, San Juan County, NM

  4. 18. CLOSEUP OF NITROGEN REGENERATOR IN FOREGROUND AND VERMICULITE STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. CLOSE-UP OF NITROGEN REGENERATOR IN FOREGROUND AND VERMICULITE STORAGE TOWER FOR THE LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 2. In the foreground is the fan which removed fumes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. In the foreground is the fan which removed fumes from the galvanizing area in building #8. In the background are the waste treatment tanks for the acids and alkali used in the zinc-electro-plating process. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  6. View of Plum Street regulator in foreground, containing 18" vitrified ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Plum Street regulator in foreground, containing 18" vitrified clay pipe, in background are the Riverfront Park and the Route 51 Bridge. WPA retaining wall (Haer no. Pa-398) is right. - Plum Street Regulator, Plum Street at Monongahela River, Elizabeth, Allegheny County, PA

  7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. NOTE THE FLOOR TO CEILING WINDOWS OF THE LIVING ROOM. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. View to west - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. View to east northeast. Southwest operating shelters in foreground to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to east northeast. Southwest operating shelters in foreground to left. East-end operating shelters in distant background, to right center - St. Mary's Falls Canal, Soo Locks, Sabin Lock Subcomplex, St. Mary's River at Falls, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  10. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF INTERNAL POLICE POST IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF INTERNAL POLICE POST IN FOREGROUND AND MILITARY POLICE POST IN BACKGROUND ALONG ENTRANCE ROAD, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley off U.S. Highway 395, 6 miles South of Independence, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  11. Ford Service Building in foreground with new facade covering front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ford Service Building in foreground with new facade covering front elevation. Original facade can be seen on side. Original was eight-story reinforced concrete Albert Kahn design with exposed structural frame. One-story addition on north side. Stone veneer covers south and west facades of the building in strips - Ford Service Building, 7310 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  12. 24. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING MAIN TRANSMISSION IN LEFT FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING MAIN TRANSMISSION IN LEFT FOREGROUND, GASOLINE-POWERED WAUKESHA AUXILIARY DRIVE MOTOR AT CENTER, AND ONE OF TWO MAIN ELECTRIC DRIVE MOTORS AT LEFT CENTER - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND BUILDING F IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. 8X10 black and white gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, Air Station Contract 1247, Sewer System. 1956. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 2. East front of building, with vehicle inspection in foreground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. East front of building, with vehicle inspection in foreground. View to northwest. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  15. 23. BACKING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. MAIN ENGINE STEP DRUM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BACKING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. MAIN ENGINE STEP DRUM IN CENTER. TO RIGHT NOTE CYLINDER, PISTON ROD CROSSHEAD. AT END OF CRANKSHAFT NOTE WRIST PIN AND CRANE DISK. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER No. 2., AND GENERATOR UNITS BEHIND EXCITER No. 2 IN BACKGROUND. EXCITER No. 1 GENERATOR HAS A COVER OVER TOP HALF OF COMMUTATOR ELEMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  17. 2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical cow house opposite from the one pictured. In the background are: Robinson-Aiken Slave Building and Kitchens (SC-276) on left, and Robinson-Aiken Service Building and Stable (SC-275) on right. - Robinson-Aiken Cow House, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  18. 18. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROUGH FORGED TOOLS (FOREGROUND) WHICH ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROUGH FORGED TOOLS (FOREGROUND) WHICH ARE PRE-HEATED IN THE FURNACE (REAR RIGHT) AND THEN FORGED WITH THE BRADLEY HAMMER (LEFT) AS SHOWN BY JAMES GLASPELL - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  19. View of unit 42 flywheel with plant crew in foreground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of unit 42 flywheel with plant crew in foreground. From left to right; Asst Superintendent James L. Wine; Paul W. Bragg; Garry N. Dobbins, Robert L. Gregory. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  20. 74. Rocky Knob Recreation area contact station. In the foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Rocky Knob Recreation area contact station. In the foreground is one of the Rocky Fins which is representative of the area. In the background is the contact station which opened as a gas station in September 1949. Facing northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  1. 251. Rocky Knob Recreation Area contact station. In the foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    251. Rocky Knob Recreation Area contact station. In the foreground S one of the rock fins which is representative of the area. In the background is the contact station which opened as a gas station in September 1949. Facing northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. Bayesian power spectrum inference with foreground and target contamination treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasche, J.; Lavaux, G.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents a joint and self-consistent Bayesian treatment of various foreground and target contaminations when inferring cosmological power spectra and three-dimensional density fields from galaxy redshift surveys. This is achieved by introducing additional block-sampling procedures for unknown coefficients of foreground and target contamination templates to the previously presented ARES framework for Bayesian large-scale structure analyses. As a result, the method infers jointly and fully self-consistently three-dimensional density fields, cosmological power spectra, luminosity-dependent galaxy biases, noise levels of the respective galaxy distributions, and coefficients for a set of a priori specified foreground templates. In addition, this fully Bayesian approach permits detailed quantification of correlated uncertainties amongst all inferred quantities and correctly marginalizes over observational systematic effects. We demonstrate the validity and efficiency of our approach in obtaining unbiased estimates of power spectra via applications to realistic mock galaxy observations that are subject to stellar contamination and dust extinction. While simultaneously accounting for galaxy biases and unknown noise levels, our method reliably and robustly infers three-dimensional density fields and corresponding cosmological power spectra from deep galaxy surveys. Furthermore, our approach correctly accounts for joint and correlated uncertainties between unknown coefficients of foreground templates and the amplitudes of the power spectrum. This effect amounts to correlations and anti-correlations of up to 10 per cent across wide ranges in Fourier space.

  3. 52. VIEW OF HONEYWELL PROPELLANT UTILIZATION TEST SET (FOREGROUND) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF HONEYWELL PROPELLANT UTILIZATION TEST SET (FOREGROUND) AND GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET LOCATED IMMEDIATELY SOUTH OF DEMULTIPLEX BAY, IN THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE TELEMETRY ROOM (ROOM 106) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. DETAIL OF JAMES LEAK CONFEDERATE HEADSTONE (RIGHT FOREGROUND), WITH CANNON, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF JAMES LEAK CONFEDERATE HEADSTONE (RIGHT FOREGROUND), WITH CANNON, FLAGPOLE, CONFEDERATE MONUMENT, CANNONBALL PYRAMID AND ARC OF UNKNOWN U.S. SOLDIER HEADSTONES IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Oak Woods Cemetery, Confederate Mound, 1035 East 67th Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON THE FIRST BENCH, POWDER HILLS ARE PRIMED FOR DOLOMITE EXTRACTION. ON THE SECOND BENCH, THE DRILL TEAM IS LAYING OUT THE NEXT SHOTS. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Steel storehouse in foreground. Streetscape looking eastsoutheast shows heavy material ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steel storehouse in foreground. Streetscape looking east-southeast shows heavy material storehouse (building no. 544), and main supply warehouse (building no. 624) (Haer no. Pa-387-V) to left. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Steel Storehouse, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND WAS ONCE ENCLOSED AS PART OF THE SHOP. THE TRAM LINE AND SNOWSHED RAN TO THE RIGHT (SOUTH) TO EAGLE MINE PORTAL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. A LINE POLE 1 IN FOREGROUND AND MYSTIC LAKE POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 1 IN FOREGROUND AND MYSTIC LAKE POWERHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. A LINE POLE 1 IS A MODERN REPLACEMENT STRUCTURE WITH BROWN PORCELAIN SUSPENSION-TYPE INSULATORS. VIEW TO EAST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  9. 9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and Clenny Run, with intersection of State Routes 92 and 100 beyond, Brandywine Creek State Park in background, mixed deciduous trees along top of hill - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  10. 6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET TUNNEL PORTAL (LEFT) AND POWERHOUSE AND ENTRANCE PORTAL TO DAM INTERIOR (RIGHT). NOTE RELEASE OF WATER FROM NEEDLE VALVE NUMBER 2 IN VALVEHOUSE ON DAM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  11. View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. Orientation Target #2 in background. Image looking northeast - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. View of Antenna #2 (foreground), and Antenna #1 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #2 (foreground), and Antenna #1 surface doors. Orientation Target #1 in background. Image looking northwest - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. 47. FEEDER CANAL AT WILL'S BASIN. BOATS IN THE FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. FEEDER CANAL AT WILL'S BASIN. BOATS IN THE FOREGROUND SHOW THE CONTRAST BETWEEN A FULLY LOADED CANAL BOAT (LEFT) AND AN EMPTY ONE (RIGHT). D, L & W RAILROAD'S DOUBLE INTERSECTION PRATT TRUSS BRIDGE IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  14. 21. VIEW, LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSMISSION, IN FOREGROUND, ATTACHED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSMISSION, IN FOREGROUND, ATTACHED TO REDUCTION GEAR HOUSING WHICH IS FLANKED BY THE TWO MAIN ELECTRIC DRIVE MOTORS, WITH ELECTRICAL CABINETS AND OPERATOR'S DESK IN BACKGROUND - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. 16. FOREGROUND (LEFT TO RIGHT) EXHAUST AND INTAKE DUCTS. SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. FOREGROUND (LEFT TO RIGHT) EXHAUST AND INTAKE DUCTS. SOUTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT OF LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  16. 20. View from rear door; space in foreground is transverse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View from rear door; space in foreground is transverse room connecting north and south cell blocks; room at right center with screened window was presumably visiting room; view to southwest, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  17. 52. SLABBING AND BLOOMING MILLS AND FOUNDRY (IN FOREGROUND), AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. SLABBING AND BLOOMING MILLS AND FOUNDRY (IN FOREGROUND), AS SEEN FROM THE CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE. AT RIGHT, REAR, IS THE BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE. VIEW LOOKING NORTH. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. 7. VIEW OF THE MODERN SUBSTATION (FOREGROUND), WITH THE OLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF THE MODERN SUBSTATION (FOREGROUND), WITH THE OLD SWITCHING BUILDING IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  19. Detail of north end of the Electrical Shop (foreground) and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north end of the Electrical Shop (foreground) and Sheet Metal Shop, note the metal-frame windows in the Electrical Shop, view facing east - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  20. 34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  1. 14. ELEVATED CAMERA STAND IN FOREGROUND, FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ELEVATED CAMERA STAND IN FOREGROUND, FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE (BLDG. 0545) IN CENTER, AIR SUPPLY BUILDING AND PROTECTIVE BERM IN BACKGROUND. Looking north northeast from Camera Road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 125. NORTH PLANT AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY IN FOREGROUND AND ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. NORTH PLANT AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY IN FOREGROUND AND ASSEMBLY PLANT/WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 1601/1606/1701) IN BACKGROUND. FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. REAR ELEVATION WITH BASE OF PALM TREE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION WITH BASE OF PALM TREE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTH/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 23. DETAIL OF PIPELINE PIERS, LOOKING EAST. FOREGROUND IS SLOPED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DETAIL OF PIPELINE PIERS, LOOKING EAST. FOREGROUND IS SLOPED TYPE, NEXT ONE IS PERPENDICULAR TYPE A COMPRESSION COUPLING, USED TO REPAIR A BROKEN PIPE SECTION, CAN BE SEEN AT BOTTOM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  5. VIEW OF TAIL SERVICE MASTS, PORT TSM IN THE FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TAIL SERVICE MASTS, PORT TSM IN THE FOREGROUND, FROM THE CORNER WHERE SIDES 1 AND 2 MEET - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. Semi-Automatic Removal of Foreground Stars from Images of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Zsolt

    1996-07-01

    A new procedure, designed to remove foreground stars from galaxy proviles is presented here. Although several programs exist for stellar and faint object photometry, none of them treat star removal from the images very carefully. I present my attempt to develop such a system, and briefly compare the performance of my software to one of the well-known stellar photometry packages, DAOPhot (Stetson 1987). Major steps in my procedure are: (1) automatic construction of an empirical 2D point spread function from well separated stars that are situated off the galaxy; (2) automatic identification of those peaks that are likely to be foreground stars, scaling the PSF and removing these stars, and patching residuals (in the automatically determined smallest possible area where residuals are truly significant); and (3) cosmetic fix of remaining degradations in the image. The algorithm and software presented here is significantly better for automatic removal of foreground stars from images of galaxies than DAOPhot or similar packages, since: (a) the most suitable stars are selected automatically from the image for the PSF fit; (b) after star-removal an intelligent and automatic procedure removes any possible residuals; (c) unlimited number of images can be cleaned in one run without any user interaction whatsoever. (SECTION: Computing and Data Analysis)

  7. Analytical analysis for impact of polarization aberration of projection lens on lithographic imaging quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lina; Li, Sikun; Wang, Xiangzhao; Yan, Guanyong

    2015-03-01

    In high-NA and hyper-NA lithography systems, the polarization aberration of projection lens leads to imaging degradations. Typically, numerical simulations are used to explore the relationship. In this paper, analytical analysis for the impact of polarization aberration of projection lens on the aerial image of alternating phase-shift mask (Alt-PSM) is realized. The analytical expressions of image placement error (IPE) and best focus shift (BFS) caused by polarization aberration are derived from the intensity of aerial image. The derived expressions match simulation results extremely well, and can be used to understand more fully the detrimental impact of polarization aberration on lithographic imaging quality. The linear relationships between IPE and odd items of Pauli-Zernike polarization aberrations, as well as that between BFS and even items of Pauli-Zernike polarization aberrations are established, using linear polarization illumination. The accuracy of the linear relationships is assessed by the least square method.

  8. Polar Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis in the Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Hoffman, Robert A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This Summary of Research is being submitted to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in fulfillment of the final reporting requirement under Grant NAG5-7943, which terminated on March 31, 2002. The following contains a summary of the significant accomplishments of the Polar Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI) team during the period of the grant, April 1, 1999 through March 31, 2002, and a listing of all of the publications that resulted from work carried out under the grant. Also included below is a listing of the numerous public outreach activities that took place during the period of the grant in which the Polar mission and Polar PWI science were discussed.

  9. X-ray analysis of a polar plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, I. A.; Webb, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    Polar plumes have been detected in X-rays with the Skylab S-054 experiment. Observations of one well-observed plume are analyzed and the plasma pressure is determined. An isothermal model in hydrostatic equilibrium is found to require unacceptably low temperatures. A hydrodynamic model is proposed which is consistent with earlier white light and EUV observations. Calculations indicate that the total outward mass flux in polar plumes is comparable to that in high speed solar wind streams expected from a polar coronal hole.

  10. Polarization analysis of target imaging in an underwater environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yalong; Gilerson, Alexander; Carrizo, Carlos; Ibrahim, Amir; Ahmed, Samir

    2014-05-01

    Polarized light fields contain more information than simple irradiance and such capabilities provide an advanced tool for underwater imaging. We used a Monte Carlo technique to simulate the vector point spread function for a broad range of water parameters from clear to turbid coastal waters. We also analyzed the impact of light scattered by suspended particles between the target and the camera on the polarized image together with the light from the target. This knowledge is expected to contribute to solutions of the inverse problem of the restoration of the target polarization characteristics from its underwater image.

  11. Polarized Light in Coastal Waters: Hyperspectral and Multiangular Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    angle. Normalized radiances and degrees of polarization are compared with simulated ones obtained with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code for the... Monte Carlo model," Appl. Opt. 41, 2724-2733 (2002). 31. World Climate Research Program (WCRP), "A Preliminary Cloudless Standard Atmosphere for...also in presence of a phytoplankton bloom (moderately turbid waters ). Reported data showed high instability of the percent polarization in the

  12. CMB Foreground Surveys with the New Sensitive Wideband Continuum Backend on the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B.; Weintraub, L.; Pearson, T.; Sievers, J.; Shepherd, M.; Readhead, A.

    2005-12-01

    The California Institute of Technology and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory have constructed a new continuum backend for use with the 26 to 40 GHz pseudo-correlation receiver on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The backend simultaneously measures RF power across the full 14 GHz receiver band in two feeds and two polarizations, and is capable of executing a rapid beam switch to suppress the effects of receiver gain fluctuations. Combined with the GBT's large and excellent surface the CCB will give unprecedented cm-wave sensitivity to study CMB discrete-source foregrounds and very small-scale anisotropies. We present an overview of the instrument and our early science program, which aims to more precisely measure the small-scale excess power seen by the Cosmic Background Imager.

  13. Polarization analysis for magnetic field imaging at RADEN in J-PARC/MLF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Takenao; Hiroi, Kosuke; Su, Yuhua; Kai, Tetsuya; Nakatani, Takeshi; Oikawa, Kenichi; Segawa, Mariko; Hayashida, Hirotoshi; Parker, Joseph D.; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Zhang, Shuoyuan; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2017-06-01

    Polarized neutron imaging is an attractive method for visualizing magnetic fields in a bulk object or in free space. In this technique polarization of neutrons transmitted through a sample is analyzed position by position to produce an image of the polarization distribution. In particular, the combination of three-dimensional spin analysis and the use of a pulsed neutron beam is very effective for the quantitative evaluation of both field strength and direction by means of the analysis of the wavelength dependent polarization vector. Recently a new imaging instrument “RADEN” has been constructed at the beam line of BL22 of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at J-PARC, which is dedicated to energy-resolved neutron imaging experiments. We have designed a polarization analysis apparatus for magnetic field imaging at the RADEN instrument and have evaluated its performance.

  14. Analysis of the COS B data for evidence of linear polarization of Vela pulsar gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, John R.; Mayer-Hasselwander, Hans A.; Strong, Andy W.

    1990-01-01

    The COS B spark chamber telescope observations of the Vela pulsar were analyzed for gamma-ray polarization. No significant quadrupole moment is found in the azimuthal distribution of the electron-positron pair production planes. However, analysis of the sensitivity indicates that even 100-percent polarization would not be detected. Therefore, the null result does not constrain the polarization of the Vela pulsar gamma-ray emission. This result contradicts the report of Caraveo et al. (1988) of possible evidence for polarization of the Vela pulsar gamma rays.

  15. Analysis of the COS B data for evidence of linear polarization of Vela pulsar gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, John R.; Mayer-Hasselwander, Hans A.; Strong, Andy W.

    1990-01-01

    The COS B spark chamber telescope observations of the Vela pulsar were analyzed for gamma-ray polarization. No significant quadrupole moment is found in the azimuthal distribution of the electron-positron pair production planes. However, analysis of the sensitivity indicates that even 100-percent polarization would not be detected. Therefore, the null result does not constrain the polarization of the Vela pulsar gamma-ray emission. This result contradicts the report of Caraveo et al. (1988) of possible evidence for polarization of the Vela pulsar gamma rays.

  16. [Analysis of the polarization properties of snow in a different melting state].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Li; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Zhang, Xia; Sun, Tian-Lin; Liang, Ren-Feng; Liu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Nowdays, under the circumstance of global warming, the traditional study of solid-state snow can not meet the current needs. The present paper involves qualitative analysis of the polarization reflectance spectrum of snow in a different melting state. Special attention is paid to the investigation of the relationship among polarization angles, azimuth angles, the light incidence zenith angles, the detection zenith angles and the different types of snowmelt. It turns out that all these factors have certain influences on the polarization reflectance spectrum of different types of snowmelt. At the waveband of the visible light, the polarization reflectance of snowmelt is the largest at 90 degrees, and the smallest at 0 degrees. The wider the detection angles and the incidence angles, the larger the polarization reflectance. Anomalies (unusual phenomena), different from other spectra, occur when the polarization reflectance spectrum of snowmelt is observed at different azimuth angles. The characteristics of polarization spectra at some certain wavebands play an important role in determining the water content of snowmelt, and meanwhile with the increase of which, the polarization reflectance will go down obviously. These rules have laid a solid foundation for the quantitative analysis of snowmelt properties by using polarization spectrum in the future and are also of great importance in fresh water management as well as monitoring natural disasters such as the spring flood.

  17. Discussion on data correction for Polarization Analysis with a 3He spin filter analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, Earl; Salhi, Zahir; Kentzinger, Emmanuel; Mattauch, Stefan; Ioffe, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Fully polarized neutron reflectometry and grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering are effective methods to explore magnetic structures on the nm to μm length scales. This paper is an outline of how to fully correct for the polarization analysis (PA) inefficiencies of such an instrument and to determine the error contributions of the neutron polarizer and analyzer. This discussion considers the exact case of the polarization analysis instrumentation used on the MARIA neutron reflectometer at the MLZ or for a general polarized neutron scattering instrument using at least one 3He neutron spin filter that has the capability for adiabatic fast passage nuclear magnetic resonance flipping of the 3He polarization. This paper will work to build a conceptual understanding of how the inefficiencies of neutron polarization elements affect measured data in order to stress and encourage the application of PA corrections and to help perform successful measurements. Then, using data from a fully polarized neutron reflectometer test measurement we show how it is possible to recover signals on the order of, or even smaller than, the inefficiencies, or bleed-through, of the neutron polarization devices used.

  18. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) of polar Herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Michael; Qiu, Shiran; Elsner, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The complexity of aquatic systems makes it challenging to assess the environmental fate of chiral micropolutants. As an example, chiral herbicides are frequently detected in the environment (Buser and Muller, 1998); however, hydrological data is needed to determine their degradability from concentration measurements. Otherwise declining concentrations cannot unequivocally be attributed to degradation, but could also be caused by dilution effects. In contrast, isotope ratios or enantiomeric ratios are elegant alternatives that are independent of dilution and can even deliver insights into reaction mechanisms. To combine the advantages of both approaches we developed an enatioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) method to investigate the fate of the chiral herbicides 4-CPP ((RS)-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-propionic acid), mecoprop (2-(4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-propionic acid) and dichlorprop (2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid). After testing the applicable concentration range of the method, enantioselective isotope fractionation was investigated by microbial degradation using dichlorprop as a model compound. The method uses enantioselective gas-chromatography (GC) to separate enantiomers. Subsequently samples are combusted online to CO2 and carbon isotope ratios are determined for each enantiomer by isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry (IRMS). Because the analytes contain a polar carboxyl-group, samples were derivatised prior to GC-IRMS analysis with methanolic BF3 solution. Precise carbon isotope analysis (2σ ≤0.5‰) was achieved with a high sensitivity of ≥ 7 ng C that is needed on column for one analysis. Microbial degradation of the model compound dichlorprop was conducted with Delftia acidovorans MC1 and pronounced enantiomer fractionation, but no isotope fractionation was detected. The absence of isotope fractionation can be explained by two scenarios: either the degrading enzyme has no isotopic preference, or another step in the reaction without an isotopic

  19. Blazed wire-grid polarizer for plasmon-enhanced polarization extinction: design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhun; Sim, Eunji; Kim, Donghyun

    2017-04-03

    We explore plasmon-enhanced wire-gird polarizers (WGPs) to achieve improved polarimetric performance with more relaxed fabrication parameters compared to conventional WGP. A WGP designed with a blazed wire-grid profile was considered for plasmonic enhancement. The results show that a blazed WGP can achieve extremely high polarimetric extinction at a longer wire-grid period (Λ) compared to conventional WGP structure. Under the optimum geometrical parameters, a blazed WGP may attain an extinction ratio of over 40 dB at Λ = 800 nm, which may allow photolithography for fabrication. In contrast, conventional WGPs obtained comparable performance at Λ = 200 nm, requiring more difficult lithographic techniques. The study can therefore be of significant importance for WGPs to be more widely available for diverse applications.

  20. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B IN FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B IN FOREGROUND. NOTE THE GABLE VENT AND CONCRETE SLAB OF THE CARPORT (TO THE RIGHT OF UNIT B). VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. VIEW SHOWING THE ENTRY THROUGH THE RETAINING WALL (FOREGROUND) TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING THE ENTRY THROUGH THE RETAINING WALL (FOREGROUND) TO THE CONCRETE SLAB. NOTE THE 1¾" MOUNTING BOLTS FOR THE STEEL PLATE BASE OF THE 5" GUN, SET IN THE GUN BLOCK. STEEL REINFORCING RODS PROTRUDING FROM THE BROKEN TOPS OF THE RETAINING WALLS ARE ALSO VISIBLE. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, South Gun Emplacement, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. View of east entrance to Flume Tunnel #2. In foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east entrance to Flume Tunnel #2. In foreground, covered decking (covered by debris) protects the flume below it (not visible). The extreme top of the tunnel entrance is visible in the middle of the picture, just beyond the covered decking. This is typical of gravity tunnel entrances and the only photograph representing these features in the system. Looking south - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Tunnel No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  3. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON THE FIRST BENCH, POWDER HILLS ARE PRIMED FOR DOLOMITE EXTRACTION. ON THE SECOND BENCH, THE DRILL TEAM IS LAYING OUT THE NEXT SHOTS. ON THE TOP BENCH, A 245 CATERPILLAR LOADER FILLS A 55-TON CATERPILLAR ROCK TRUCK WITH EXTRACTED DOLOMITE FOR TRANSPORT TO THE DOLOMITE CRUSHING AND SCREENING PLANT. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Salting out the polar polymorph: analysis by alchemical solvent transformation.

    PubMed

    Duff, Nathan; Dahal, Yuba Raj; Schmit, Jeremy D; Peters, Baron

    2014-01-07

    We computationally examine how adding NaCl to an aqueous solution with α- and γ-glycine nuclei alters the structure and interfacial energy of the nuclei. The polar γ-glycine nucleus in pure aqueous solution develops a melted layer of amorphous glycine around the nucleus. When NaCl is added, a double layer is formed that stabilizes the polar glycine polymorph and eliminates the surface melted layer. In contrast, the non-polar α-glycine nucleus is largely unaffected by the addition of NaCl. To quantify the stabilizing effect of NaCl on γ-glycine nuclei, we alchemically transform the aqueous glycine solution into a brine solution of glycine. The alchemical transformation is performed both with and without a nucleus in solution and for nuclei of α-glycine and γ-glycine polymorphs. The calculations show that adding 80 mg/ml NaCl reduces the interfacial free energy of a γ-glycine nucleus by 7.7 mJ/m(2) and increases the interfacial free energy of an α-glycine nucleus by 3.1 mJ/m(2). Both results are consistent with experimental reports on nucleation rates which suggest: J(α, brine) < J(γ, brine) < J(α, water). For γ-glycine nuclei, Debye-Hückel theory qualitatively, but not quantitatively, captures the effect of salt addition. Only the alchemical solvent transformation approach can predict the results for both polar and non-polar polymorphs. The results suggest a general "salting out" strategy for obtaining polar polymorphs and also a general approach to computationally estimate the effects of solvent additives on interfacial free energies for nucleation.

  5. Solution to the galactic foreground problem for LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Jeff; Cornish, Neil J.

    2007-02-01

    Low frequency gravitational wave detectors, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), will have to contend with large foregrounds produced by millions of compact galactic binaries in our galaxy. While these galactic signals are interesting in their own right, the unresolved component can obscure other sources. The science yield for the LISA mission can be improved if the brighter and more isolated foreground sources can be identified and regressed from the data. Since the signals overlap with one another, we are faced with a “cocktail party” problem of picking out individual conversations in a crowded room. Here we present and implement an end-to-end solution to the galactic foreground problem that is able to resolve tens of thousands of sources from across the LISA band. Our algorithm employs a variant of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, which we call the blocked annealed Metropolis-Hastings (BAM) algorithm. Following a description of the algorithm and its implementation, we give several examples ranging from searches for a single source to searches for hundreds of overlapping sources. Our examples include data sets from the first round of mock LISA data challenges.

  6. Polarization sensitivity analysis of an earth remote sensing instrument - The MODIS-N phase B study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, E.; Silverglate, P.; Ftaclas, C.; Turner, A.

    1992-01-01

    Polarization analysis software that employs Jones matrix formalism to calculate the polarization sensitivity of an instrument design was developed at Hughes Danbury Optical Systems. The code is capable of analyzing the full ray bundle at its angles of incidence for each optical surface. Input is based on the system ray trace and the thin film coating design at each surface. The MODIS-N (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) system is used to demonstrate that it is possible to meet stringent requirements on polarization insensitivity associated with planned remote sensing instruments. Analysis indicates that a polarization sensitivity less than or equal to 2 percent was achieved in all desired spectral bands at all pointing angles, per specification. Polarization sensitivities were as high as 10 percent in similar remote sensing instruments.

  7. Polarized Discourse in the Egyptian News: Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eissa, Mohammed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate ideological structures of polarized discourse coded in the reports of two online news websites: egyptindependent and ikwanweb. The study focuses on online news reports relating to three interrelated events: the issuing of a constitutional declaration by Egyptian president, the aftermath clashes outside…

  8. EXPLORING THE COSMIC REIONIZATION EPOCH IN FREQUENCY SPACE: AN IMPROVED APPROACH TO REMOVE THE FOREGROUND IN 21 cm TOMOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jingying; Xu, Haiguang; Guo, Xueying; Li, Weitian; Liu, Chengze; An, Tao; Wang, Yu; Gu, Junhua; Martineau-Huynh, Olivier; Wu, Xiang-Ping E-mail: zishi@sjtu.edu.cn

    2013-02-15

    With the intent of correctly restoring the redshifted 21 cm signals emitted by neutral hydrogen during the cosmic reionization processes, we re-examine the separation approaches based on the quadratic polynomial fitting technique in frequency space in order to investigate whether they work satisfactorily with complex foreground by quantitatively evaluating the quality of restored 21 cm signals in terms of sample statistics. We construct the foreground model to characterize both spatial and spectral substructures of the real sky, and use it to simulate the observed radio spectra. By comparing between different separation approaches through statistical analysis of restored 21 cm spectra and corresponding power spectra, as well as their constraints on the mean halo bias b and average ionization fraction x{sub e} of the reionization processes, at z = 8 and the noise level of 60 mK we find that although the complex foreground can be well approximated with quadratic polynomial expansion, a significant part of the Mpc-scale components of the 21 cm signals (75% for {approx}> 6 h {sup -1} Mpc scales and 34% for {approx}> 1 h {sup -1} Mpc scales) is lost because it tends to be misidentified as part of the foreground when the single-narrow-segment separation approach is applied. The best restoration of the 21 cm signals and the tightest determination of b and x{sub e} can be obtained with the three-narrow-segment fitting technique as proposed in this paper. Similar results can be obtained at other redshifts.

  9. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Foreground Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Nolta, M. R.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Wright, E. L.; Halpern, M.

    2003-01-01

    The WMAP mission has mapped the full sky to determine the geometry, content, and evolution of the universe. Full sky maps are made in five microwave frequency bands to separate the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from foreground emission, including diffuse Galactic emission and Galactic and extragalactic point sources. We define masks that excise regions of high foreground emission, so CMB analyses can became out with minimal foreground contamination. We also present maps and spectra of the individual emission components, leading to an improved understanding of Galactic astrophysical processes. The effectiveness of template fits to remove foreground emission from the WMAP data is also examined. These efforts result in a CMB map with minimal contamination and a demonstration that the WMAP CMB power spectrum is insensitive to residual foreground emission. We use a Maximum Entropy Method to construct a model of the Galactic emission components. The observed total Galactic emission matches the model to less than 1% and the individual model components are accurate to a few percent. We find that the Milky Way resembles other normal spiral galaxies between 408 MHz and 23 GHz, with a synchrotron spectral index that is flattest (beta(sub s) approx. -2.5) near star-forming regions, especially in the plane, and steepest (beta(sub s) approx. -3) in the halo. This is consistent with a picture of relativistic cosmic ray electron generation in star-forming regions and diffusion and convection within the plane. The significant synchrotron index steepening out of the plane suggests a diffusion process in which the halo electrons are trapped in the Galactic potential long enough to suffer synchrotron and inverse Compton energy losses and hence a spectral steepening. The synchrotron index is steeper in the WMAP bands than in lower frequency radio surveys, with a spectral break near 20 GHz to beta(sub s) less than -3. The modeled thermal dust spectral

  10. Preliminary Analysis of IGS Reprocessed Orbit and Polar Motion Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J. R.; Griffiths, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) are reanalyzing the history of global network GPS data collected since 1994 in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. This is the first reprocessing by the IGS, but it is expected to be repeated in the future as further analysis and reference frame changes occur. All eight final-product ACs are participating, together with three other related groups. First partial results consisting of IGS combined weekly SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2008. A snapshot of the available AC weekly SINEX files was used covering the reprocessed years 2000 through 2007 plus the IGS regular operational solutions for 2008 (from week 1460 onward). Meanwhile, the full reprocessing campaign will continue to completion by about the end of 2009 and will cover the period 1994 to present with long-term consistent, combined SINEX, orbit, and clock products. We have examined the reprocessed AC orbit and polar motion (PM) estimates from the 1024 days (or 1025 for differences) of results till the end of 2007. These parameters are linked since PM is sensed in the GPS modeling as a global diurnal sinusoidal motion of the terrestrial frame relative to the satellite frame. Any similar type errors in the orbital frame can bias the PM and PM rate estimates. For the orbits, each daily AC satellite ephemeris for each pair of consecutive days has been fit to the extended CODE orbit model, extrapolated to the mid-point epoch between the days, and the geocentric satellite position differences computed to give time series of orbit repeatabilities. Occasional data gaps have been filled by linear interpolation, FFT power spectra computed, and the spectra stacked over the full GPS constellation and lightly smoothed. Our analysis reveals considerable diversity among AC orbits. Several show broad semi-annual (probably related mostly to eclipsing) and fortnightly spectral peaks, as well as

  11. Planck intermediate results: L. Evidence of spatial variation of the polarized thermal dust spectral energy distribution and implications for CMB B-mode analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; ...

    2017-02-28

    The characterization of the Galactic foregrounds has been shown to be the main obstacle in thechallenging quest to detect primordial B-modes in the polarized microwave sky. In this paper, we make use of the Planck-HFI 2015 data release at high frequencies to place new constraints on the properties of the polarized thermal dust emission at high Galactic latitudes. Here, we specifically study the spatial variability of the dust polarized spectral energy distribution (SED), and its potential impact on the determination of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r. We use the correlation ratio of the CBBℓ angular power spectra between the 217 andmore » 353 GHz channels as a tracer of these potential variations, computed on different high Galactic latitude regions, ranging from 80% to 20% of the sky. The new insight from Planck data is a departure of the correlation ratio from unity that cannot be attributed to a spurious decorrelation due to the cosmic microwave background, instrumental noise, or instrumental systematics. The effect is marginally detected on each region, but the statistical combination of all the regions gives more than 99% confidence for this variation in polarized dust properties. In addition, we show that the decorrelation increases when there is a decrease in the mean column density of the region of the sky being considered, and we propose a simple power-law empirical model for this dependence, which matches what is seen in the Planck data. We explore the effect that this measured decorrelation has on simulations of the BICEP2-Keck Array/Planck analysis and show that the 2015 constraints from these data still allow a decorrelation between the dust at 150 and 353 GHz that is compatible with our measured value. In conclusion, using simplified models, we show that either spatial variation of the dust SED or of the dust polarization angle are able to produce decorrelations between 217 and 353 GHz data similar to the values we observe in the data.« less

  12. Mariner 9 Photoclinometric Analysis of the South Polar Layered Deposits on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bridges, N. T.

    2000-01-01

    Photoclinometric analysis of Mariner 9 narrow-angle (approx. 80 m/pixel) images of the south polar layered deposits indicates that even relatively rough terrains in the images studied rarely include slopes greater than 10 degrees.

  13. Monte Carlo Algorithms for a Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Eriksen, H. K.; ODwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.; Gorski, K.; Knox, L.; Chu, M.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the review of Bayesian approach to Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) analysis, numerical implementation with Gibbs sampling, a summary of application to WMAP I and work in progress with generalizations to polarization, foregrounds, asymmetric beams, and 1/f noise is given.

  14. Monte Carlo Algorithms for a Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Eriksen, H. K.; ODwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.; Gorski, K.; Knox, L.; Chu, M.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the review of Bayesian approach to Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) analysis, numerical implementation with Gibbs sampling, a summary of application to WMAP I and work in progress with generalizations to polarization, foregrounds, asymmetric beams, and 1/f noise is given.

  15. On the Statistical Analysis of X-Ray Polarization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmayer, T. E.; Kallman, T. R.

    2013-08-01

    In many polarimetry applications, including observations in the X-ray band, the measurement of a polarization signal can be reduced to the detection and quantification of a deviation from uniformity of a distribution of measured angles of the form A + Bcos 2(phi - phi0) (0 < phi < π). We explore the statistics of such polarization measurements using Monte Carlo simulations and χ2 fitting methods. We compare our results to those derived using the traditional probability density used to characterize polarization measurements and quantify how they deviate as the intrinsic modulation amplitude grows. We derive relations for the number of counts required to reach a given detection level (parameterized by β the "number of σ's" of the measurement) appropriate for measuring the modulation amplitude a by itself (single interesting parameter case) or jointly with the position angle phi (two interesting parameters case). We show that for the former case, when the intrinsic amplitude is equal to the well-known minimum detectable polarization, (MDP) it is, on average, detected at the 3σ level. For the latter case, when one requires a joint measurement at the same confidence level, then more counts are needed than what was required to achieve the MDP level. This additional factor is amplitude-dependent, but is ≈2.2 for intrinsic amplitudes less than about 20%. It decreases slowly with amplitude and is ≈1.8 when the amplitude is 50%. We find that the position angle uncertainty at 1σ confidence is well described by the relation σphi = 28.°5/β.

  16. On the Statistical Analysis of X-ray Polarization Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, T. E.; Kallman, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    In many polarimetry applications, including observations in the X-ray band, the measurement of a polarization signal can be reduced to the detection and quantification of a deviation from uniformity of a distribution of measured angles of the form alpha plus beta cosine (exp 2)(phi - phi(sub 0) (0 (is) less than phi is less than pi). We explore the statistics of such polarization measurements using both Monte Carlo simulations as well as analytic calculations based on the appropriate probability distributions. We derive relations for the number of counts required to reach a given detection level (parameterized by beta the "number of sigma's" of the measurement) appropriate for measuring the modulation amplitude alpha by itself (single interesting parameter case) or jointly with the position angle phi (two interesting parameters case). We show that for the former case when the intrinsic amplitude is equal to the well known minimum detectable polarization (MDP) it is, on average, detected at the 3sigma level. For the latter case, when one requires a joint measurement at the same confidence level, then more counts are needed, by a factor of approximately equal to 2.2, than that required to achieve the MDP level. We find that the position angle uncertainty at 1sigma confidence is well described by the relation sigma(sub pi) equals 28.5(degrees) divided by beta.

  17. Statistical Analysis of Crossed Undulator for Polarization Control in a SASE FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    There is a growing interest in producing intense, coherent x-ray radiation with an adjustable and arbitrary polarization state. In this paper, we study the crossed undulator scheme (K.-J. Kim, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 445, 329 (2000)) for rapid polarization control in a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free electron laser (FEL). Because a SASE source is a temporally chaotic light, we perform a statistical analysis on the state of polarization using FEL theory and simulations. We show that by adding a small phase shifter and a short (about 1.3 times the FEL power gain length), 90{sup o} rotated planar undulator after the main SASE planar undulator, one can obtain circularly polarized light--with over 80% polarization--near the FEL saturation.

  18. Coherent receiving efficiency in satellite-ground coherent laser communication system based on analysis of polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shiqi; Zhang, Dai; Zhao, Qingsong; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Qi

    2017-06-01

    Aimed at analyzing the coherent receiving efficiency of a satellite-ground coherent laser communication system, polarization state of the received light is analyzed. We choose the circularly polarized, partially coherent laser as transmitted light source. The analysis process includes 3 parts. Firstly, an theoretical model to analyze received light's polarization state is constructed based on Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) and cross spectral density function matrix. Then, analytic formulas to calculate coherent receiving efficiency are derived in which both initial ellipticity modification and deflection angle between polarization axes of the received light and the intrinsic light are considered. At last, numerical simulations are operated based on our study. The research findings investigate variations of polarization state and obtain analytic formulas to calculate the coherent receiving efficiency. Our study has theoretical guiding significances in construction and optimization of satellite-ground coherent laser communication system.

  19. One hybrid model combining singular spectrum analysis and LS + ARMA for polar motion prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yi; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Xin; Wei, Xiaobei; Li, Wudong

    2017-01-01

    Accurate real-time polar motion parameters play an important role in satellite navigation and positioning and spacecraft tracking. To meet the needs for real-time and high-accuracy polar motion prediction, a hybrid model that integrated singular spectrum analysis (SSA), least-squares (LS) extrapolation and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model was proposed. SSA was applied to separate the trend, the annual and the Chandler components from a given polar motion time series. LS extrapolation models were constructed for the separated trend, annual and Chandler components. An ARMA model was established for a synthetic sequence that contained the remaining SSA component and the residual series of LS fitting. In applying this hybrid model, multiple sets of polar motion predictions with lead times of 360 days were made based on an IERS 08 C04 series. The results showed that the proposed method could effectively predict the polar motion parameters.

  20. Planck 2015 results. X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A. W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    Planck has mapped the microwave sky in temperature over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz and in polarization over seven frequency bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive an internally consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. Component separation dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) reconstruction is described in a companion paper. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided for each component, with an angular resolution varying between 7.´5 and 1deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4μK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are internal degeneracies among the spinning dust, free-free, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external low-frequency experiments will be essential to break these degeneracies. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zero-points. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100-353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperature-to-polarization

  1. Planck 2015 results: X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps

    DOE PAGES

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; ...

    2016-09-20

    We report that Planck has mapped the microwave sky in temperature over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz and in polarization over seven frequency bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive an internally consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. Component separation dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) reconstruction is described in a companion paper. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps andmore » the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided for each component, with an angular resolution varying between 7.5 and 1deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4μK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are internal degeneracies among the spinning dust, free-free, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external low-frequency experiments will be essential to break these degeneracies. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zero-points. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100–353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of

  2. A monophasic extraction strategy for the simultaneous lipidome analysis of polar and nonpolar retina lipids.

    PubMed

    Lydic, Todd A; Busik, Julia V; Reid, Gavin E

    2014-08-01

    Lipid extraction using a monophasic chloroform/methanol/water mixture, coupled with functional group selective derivatization and direct infusion nano-ESI-high-resolution/accurate MS, is shown to facilitate the simultaneous analysis of both highly polar and nonpolar lipids from a single retina lipid extract, including low abundance highly polar ganglioside lipids, nonpolar sphingolipids, and abundant glycerophospholipids. Quantitative comparison showed that the monophasic lipid extraction method yielded similar lipid distributions to those obtained from established "gold standard" biphasic lipid extraction methods known to enrich for either highly polar gangliosides or nonpolar lipids, respectively, with only modest relative ion suppression effects. This improved lipid extraction and analysis strategy therefore enables detailed lipidome analyses of lipid species across a broad range of polarities and abundances, from minimal amounts of biological samples and without need for multiple lipid class-specific extractions or chromatographic separation prior to analysis.

  3. Polarized galactic synchrotron and dust emission and their correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Steve K.; Page, Lyman A. E-mail: page@princeton.edu

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of the level of polarized dust and synchrotron emission using the WMAP9 and Planck data. The primary goal of this study is to inform the assessment of foreground contamination in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements below ℓ ∼ 200 from 23 to 353 GHz. We compute angular power spectra as a function of sky cut based on the Planck 353 GHz polarization maps. Our primary findings are the following. (1) There is a spatial correlation between the dust emission as measured by Planck at 353 GHz and the synchrotron emission as measured by WMAP at 23 GHz with ρ ≈ 0.4 or greater for ℓ < 20 and f{sub sky} ≥ 0.5, dropping to ρ ≈ 0.2 for 30 < ℓ < 200. (2) A simple foreground model with dust, synchrotron, and their correlation fits well to all possible cross spectra formed with the WMAP and Planck 353 GHz data given the current uncertainties. (3) In the 50% cleanest region of the polarized dust map, the ratio of synchrotron to dust amplitudes at 90 GHz for 50 ≤ ℓ ≤110 is 0.3{sub −0.2}{sup +0.3}. Smaller regions of sky can be cleaner although the uncertainties in our knowledge of synchrotron emission are larger. A high-sensitivity measurement of synchrotron below 90 GHz will be important for understanding all the components of foreground emission near 90 GHz.

  4. Analysis of polarization characteristics of plant canopies using ground-based remote sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sid'ko, A. F.; Botvich, I. Yu.; Pisman, T. I.; Shevyrnogov, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents results and analysis of a study on polarized characteristics of the reflectance factor of different plant canopies under field conditions, using optical remote sensing techniques. Polarization characteristics were recorded from the elevated work platform at heights of 10-18 m in June and July. Measurements were performed using a double-beam spectrophotometer with a polarized light filter attachment, within the spectral range from 400 to 820 nm. The viewing zenith angle was below 20 degree. Birch (Betila pubescens), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), wheat (Triticum acstivum) [L.] crops, corn (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) crops, and various grass canopies were used in this study. The following polarization characteristics were studied: the reflectance factor of the canopy with the polarizer adjusted to transmit the maximum and minimum amounts of light (Rmax and Rmin), polarized component of the reflectance factor (Rq), and the degree of polarization (Р). Wheat, corn, and grass canopies have higher Rmax and Rmin values than forest plants. The Rq and P values are higher for the birch than for the pine within the wavelength range between 430 and 740 nm. The study shows that polarization characteristics of plant canopies may be used as an effective means of decoding remote sensing data.

  5. Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (Phase 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogurt, Alan; Bennett, Charles

    . PIPER is the only sub- orbital mission capable of probing CMB polarization over the full sky, with sensitivity on angular scales greater than 20 deg where the inflationary signal cleanly separates from the lensing foreground. The PIPER team has exceptional experience in all aspects of the proposed work, including detector development, polarization modulation, instrument integration, and cryogenic ballooning. The team includes the Instrument Integration Lead and Instrument Test Lead for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) as well as the lead authors for the systematic error papers for the ground-breaking COBE-DMR, COBE-FIRAS, and WMAP instruments. The team has demonstrated expertise in data analysis including pipeline development, foreground modeling, and cosmological parameter fitting. PIPER began development in 2009 and is nearing completion. With first flight scheduled soon, the development schedule compares favorably to other suborbital CMB instruments of similar complexity. PIPER will probe the limits of sensitivity from a suborbital platform while developing instrumentation, observing techniques, and foreground models for an eventual space mission.

  6. Planck intermediate results: XXXVIII. E- and B-modes of dust polarization from the magnetized filamentary structure of the interstellar medium

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; ...

    2016-02-09

    The quest for a B-mode imprint from primordial gravity waves on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) requires the characterization of foreground polarization from Galactic dust. In this paper, we present a statistical study of the filamentary structure of the 353 GHz Planck Stokes maps at high Galactic latitude, relevant to the study of dust emission as a polarized foreground to the CMB. We filter the intensity and polarization maps to isolate filaments in the range of angular scales where the power asymmetry between E-modes and B-modes is observed. Using the Smoothed Hessian Major Axis Filament Finder (SMAFF),more » we identify 259 filaments at high Galactic latitude, with lengths larger or equal to 2° (corresponding to 3.5 pc in length for a typical distance of 100 pc). Thesefilaments show a preferred orientation parallel to the magnetic field projected onto the plane of the sky, derived from their polarization angles. We present mean maps of the filaments in Stokes I, Q, U, E, and B, computed by stacking individual images rotated to align the orientations of the filaments. Combining the stacked images and the histogram of relative orientations, we estimate the mean polarization fraction of the filaments to be 11%. Furthermore, we show that the correlation between the filaments and the magnetic field orientations may account for the E and B asymmetry and the CℓTE/CℓEE ratio, reported in the power spectra analysis of the Planck353 GHz polarization maps. Finally, future models of the dust foreground for CMB polarization studies will need to take into account the observed correlation between the dust polarization and the structure of interstellar matter.« less

  7. Planck intermediate results. XXXVIII. E- and B-modes of dust polarization from the magnetized filamentary structure of the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Ferrière, K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Soler, J. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-02-01

    The quest for a B-mode imprint from primordial gravity waves on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) requires the characterization of foreground polarization from Galactic dust. We present a statistical study of the filamentary structure of the 353 GHz Planck Stokes maps at high Galactic latitude, relevant to the study of dust emission as a polarized foreground to the CMB. We filter the intensity and polarization maps to isolate filaments in the range of angular scales where the power asymmetry between E-modes and B-modes is observed. Using the Smoothed Hessian Major Axis Filament Finder (SMAFF), we identify 259 filaments at high Galactic latitude, with lengths larger or equal to 2° (corresponding to 3.5 pc in length for a typical distance of 100 pc). Thesefilaments show a preferred orientation parallel to the magnetic field projected onto the plane of the sky, derived from their polarization angles. We present mean maps of the filaments in Stokes I, Q, U, E, and B, computed by stacking individual images rotated to align the orientations of the filaments. Combining the stacked images and the histogram of relative orientations, we estimate the mean polarization fraction of the filaments to be 11%. Furthermore, we show that the correlation between the filaments and the magnetic field orientations may account for the E and B asymmetry and the CℓTE/CℓEE ratio, reported in the power spectra analysis of the Planck353 GHz polarization maps. Future models of the dust foreground for CMB polarization studies will need to take into account the observed correlation between the dust polarization and the structure of interstellar matter.

  8. Photocopy of photograph entitled, on back, "Bldg in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph entitled, on back, "Bldg in foreground - 1st hospital". That building is 511 and in the background is the Red Cross Building with steeple. The photograph dates to the 1920's and in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Public Affairs Office, building 120. Photograph in public domain as it is not copyrighted. Compare to CO-172-5. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. Markov random fields for static foreground classification in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Jack K.; Lu, Thomas T.

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel technique for classifying static foreground in automated airport surveillance systems between abandoned and removed objects by representing the image as a Markov Random Field. The proposed algorithm computes and compares the net probability of the region of interest before and after the event occurs, hence finding which fits more naturally with their respective backgrounds. Having tested on a dataset from the PETS 2006, PETS 2007, AVSS20074, CVSG, VISOR, CANDELA and WCAM datasets, the algorithm has shown capable of matching the results of the state-of-the-art, is highly parallel and has a degree of robustness to noise and illumination changes.

  10. Isentropic analysis of polar cold air mass streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiki; Kanno, Yuki

    2015-04-01

    1. Introduction A diagnostic method is presented of polar cold air mass streams defined below a threshold potential temperature. The isentropic threshold facilitates a Lagrangian view of the cold air mass streams from diabatic generation to disappearance. 2. Mass-weighted isentropic zonal mean (MIM) cold air streams In winter hemispheres, MIM's mass stream functions show a distinct extratropical direct (ETD) cell in addition to the Hadley cell. The mass stream functions have local maxima at around (280K, 45N) for NH winter and, around (280K, 50S) for SH winter. Thus, =280K may be appropriate to a threshold of the polar cold air mass for both hemispheres. The high-latitude downward motion indicates the diabatic generation of cold air mass, whereas the mid-latitude equatorward flow does its outbreak. The strength of equatorward flow is under significant control of wave-mean flow interactions. 3. Geographical distribution of the cold air mass streams in the NH winter In the NH winter, the polar cold air mass flux has two distinct mainstreams, hereafter called as East Asian (EA) stream and the North American (NA) stream. The former grows over the northern part of the Eurasian continent, turns down southeastward toward East Asia and disappears over the western North Pacific Ocean. The latter grows over the Arctic Ocean, flows toward the East Coast of North America and disappears over the western North Atlantic Ocean. These coincide well with main routes of cold surges. 4. Comparison between NH and SH winter streams The cold air mass streams in NH winter are more asymmetric than those in SH winter. The NH total cold air mass below =280K is about 1.5 times greater than the SH one. These come mainly from the topography and land-sea distribution. The mid-latitude mountains steer the cold air mass streams on the northern sides and enhance the residence time over its genesis region.

  11. Microarray analysis of circular RNA expression patterns in polarized macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Yao; Li, Xueqin; Zhang, Mengying; Lv, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are generated from diverse genomic locations and are a new player in the regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression. Recent studies have revealed that circRNAs play a crucial role in fine-tuning the level of microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of gene expression by sequestering miRNAs. The interaction of circRNAs with disease-associated miRNAs suggests that circRNAs are important in the pathology of disease. However, the effects and roles of circRNAs in macrophage polarization have yet to be explored. In the present study, we performed a circRNA microarray to compare the circRNA expression profiles of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) under two distinct polarizing conditions (M1 macrophages induced by interferon-γ and LPS stimulation, and M2 macrophages induced by interleukin-4 stimulation). Our results showed that a total of 189 circRNAs were differentially expressed between M1 and M2 macrophages. Differentially expressed circRNAs with a high fold-change were selected for validation by RT-qPCR: circRNA-003780, circRNA-010056, and circRNA-010231 were upregulated and circRNA-003424, circRNA-013630, circRNA-001489 and circRNA-018127 were downregulated (fold-change >4, P<0.05) in M1 compared to M2, which was found to correlate with the microarray data. Furthermore, the most differentially expressed circRNAs within all the comparisons were annotated in detail with circRNA/miRNA interaction information using miRNA target prediction software. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the role of circRNAs in macrophage differentiation and polarization. PMID:28075448

  12. Significance of dual polarized long wavelength radar for terrain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    Long wavelength systems with improved penetration capability have been considered to have the potential for minimizing the vegetation contribution and enhancing the surface return variations. L-band imagery of the Arkansas geologic test site provides confirmatory evidence of this effect. However, the increased wavelength increases the sensitivity to larger scale structure at relatively small incidence angles. The regularity of agricultural and urban scenes provides large components in the low frequency-large scale portion of the roughness spectrum that are highly sensitive to orientation. The addition of a cross polarized channel is shown to enable the interpreter to distinguish vegetation and orientational perturbations in the surface return.

  13. Neptune's polar cusp region - Observations and magnetic field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lazarus, A. J.; Vasyliunas, V. M.; Szabo, A.; Steinberg, J.; Ness, N. F.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper confirms and extends the results of Szabo et al. (1991) (which demonstrated some similarities of the Neptune's polar cusp region to the earth's cusp), but uses a different approach requiring plasma and vector magnetic field quantities. In addition, various MHD properties of the cusp-magnetopause boundary, which separates the cusp from the magnetosheath allowing thermal anisotropy, are obtained, including the magnetopause (MP) normal, mass, and normal momentum flux, the boundary speed (and thickness), and their relationships. Results demonstrate that the MP velocity is composed of two components: a propagation speed and the other component consistent with the rotational motion of the magnetosphere.

  14. Analysis of star pair latitudes. [for polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Star pair latitude observations form the basis for the pole positions reported by the International Polar Motion Service (IMPS). The IPMS processes these observations to produce a mean pole position. However, the time series of observations contains high-frequency information which is lost in the calculation of the mean pole. In this study, 2931 star pair observations are analyzed. A possible large excitation at one cycle per solar day is observed. The average power level in the frequency band of the tesseral tides is seen to be high, although the peaks cannot be conclusively identified as tidal phenomena.

  15. Broad-bandwidth Metamaterial Antireflection Coatings for Sub-Millimeter Astronomy and CMB Foreground Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Jeff

    Sub-millimeter observations are crucial for answering questions about star and galaxy formation; understanding galactic dust foregrounds; and for removing these foregrounds to detect the faint signature of inflationary gravitational waves in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Achieving these goals requires improved, broad-band antireflection coated lenses and half-wave plates (HWPs). These optical elements will significantly boost the sensitivity and capability of future sub-millimeter and CMB missions. We propose to develop wide-bandwidth metamaterial antireflection coatings for silicon lenses and sapphire HWPs with 3:1 ratio bandwidth that are scalable across the sub-millimeter band from 300 GHz to 3 THz. This is an extension of our successful work on saw cut metamaterial AR coatings for silicon optics at millimeter wave lengths. These, and the proposed coatings consist of arrays of sub-wavelength scale features cut into optical surfaces that behave like simple dielectrics. We have demonstrated saw cut 3:1 bandwidth coatings on silicon lenses, but these coatings are limited to the millimeter wave band by the limitations of dicing saw machining. The crucial advance needed to extend these broad band coatings throughout the sub-millimeter band is the development of laser cut graded index metamaterial coatings. The proposed work includes developing the capability to fabricate these coatings, optimizing the design of these metamaterials, fabricating and testing prototype lenses and HWPs, and working with the PIPER collaboration to achieve a sub-orbital demonstration of this technology. The proposed work will develop potentially revolutionary new high performance coatings for the sub-millimeter bands, and cary this technology to TRL 7 paving the way for its use in space. We anticipate that there will be a wide range of applications for these coatings on future NASA balloons and satellites.

  16. Foreground Bias from Parametric Models of Far-IR Dust Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    We use simple toy models of far-IR dust emission to estimate the accuracy to which the polarization of the cosmic microwave background can be recovered using multi-frequency fits, if the parametric form chosen for the fitted dust model differs from the actual dust emission. Commonly used approximations to the far-IR dust spectrum yield CMB residuals comparable to or larger than the sensitivities expected for the next generation of CMB missions, despite fitting the combined CMB plus foreground emission to precision 0.1 percent or better. The Rayleigh-Jeans approximation to the dust spectrum biases the fitted dust spectral index by (Delta)(Beta)(sub d) = 0.2 and the inflationary B-mode amplitude by (Delta)(r) = 0.03. Fitting the dust to a modified blackbody at a single temperature biases the best-fit CMB by (Delta)(r) greater than 0.003 if the true dust spectrum contains multiple temperature components. A 13-parameter model fitting two temperature components reduces this bias by an order of magnitude if the true dust spectrum is in fact a simple superposition of emission at different temperatures, but fails at the level (Delta)(r) = 0.006 for dust whose spectral index varies with frequency. Restricting the observing frequencies to a narrow region near the foreground minimum reduces these biases for some dust spectra but can increase the bias for others. Data at THz frequencies surrounding the peak of the dust emission can mitigate these biases while providing a direct determination of the dust temperature profile.

  17. Foreground Bias from Parametric Models of Far-IR Dust Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    We use simple toy models of far-IR dust emission to estimate the accuracy to which the polarization of the cosmic microwave background can be recovered using multi-frequency fits, if the parametric form chosen for the fitted dust model differs from the actual dust emission. Commonly used approximations to the far-IR dust spectrum yield CMB residuals comparable to or larger than the sensitivities expected for the next generation of CMB missions, despite fitting the combined CMB plus foreground emission to precision 0.1 percent or better. The Rayleigh-Jeans approximation to the dust spectrum biases the fitted dust spectral index by (Delta)(Beta)(sub d) = 0.2 and the inflationary B-mode amplitude by (Delta)(r) = 0.03. Fitting the dust to a modified blackbody at a single temperature biases the best-fit CMB by (Delta)(r) greater than 0.003 if the true dust spectrum contains multiple temperature components. A 13-parameter model fitting two temperature components reduces this bias by an order of magnitude if the true dust spectrum is in fact a simple superposition of emission at different temperatures, but fails at the level (Delta)(r) = 0.006 for dust whose spectral index varies with frequency. Restricting the observing frequencies to a narrow region near the foreground minimum reduces these biases for some dust spectra but can increase the bias for others. Data at THz frequencies surrounding the peak of the dust emission can mitigate these biases while providing a direct determination of the dust temperature profile.

  18. Enhancement of hidden structures of early skin fibrosis using polarization degree patterns and Pearson correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Sviridov, Alexander P; Chernomordik, Victor; Hassan, Moinuddin; Boccara, Albert C; Russo, Angelo; Smith, Paul; Gandjbakhche, Amir

    2005-01-01

    The skin of athymic nude mice is irradiated with a single dose of x-ray irradiation that initiated fibrosis. Digital photographs of the irradiated mice are taken by illuminating the mouse skin with linearly polarized probe light of 650 nm. The specific pattern of the surface distribution of the degree of polarization enables the detection of initial skin fibrosis structures that were not visually apparent. Data processing of the raw spatial distributions of the degree of polarization based on Fourier filtering of the high-frequency noise improves subjective perception of the revealed structure in the images. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis provides information about skin structural size and directionality.

  19. Recent advancements of wide-angle polarization analysis with 3He neutron spin filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. C.; Gentile, T. R.; Ye, Q.; Kirchhoff, A.; Watson, S. M.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Qiu, Y.; Broholm, C.

    2016-09-01

    Wide-angle polarization analysis with polarized 3He based neutron spin filters (NSFs) has recently been employed on the Multi-Axis Crystal Spectrometer (MACS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). Over the past several years, the apparatus has undergone many upgrades to address the fundamental requirements for wide angle polarization analysis using spin exchange optical pumping based 3He NSFs. In this paper, we report substantial improvements in the on-beam-line performance of the apparatus and progress toward routine user capability. We discuss new standard samples used for 3He NSF characterization and the flipping ratio measurement on MACS. We further discuss the management of stray magnetic fields produced by operation of superconducting magnets on the MACS instrument, which can significantly reduce the 3He polarization relaxation time. Finally, we present the results of recent development of horseshoe-shaped wide angle cells.

  20. Object-Based Multiple Foreground Video Co-Segmentation via Multi-State Selection Graph.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huazhu; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Bao; Lin, Stephen; Ward, Rabab Kreidieh

    2015-11-01

    We present a technique for multiple foreground video co-segmentation in a set of videos. This technique is based on category-independent object proposals. To identify the foreground objects in each frame, we examine the properties of the various regions that reflect the characteristics of foregrounds, considering the intra-video coherence of the foreground as well as the foreground consistency among the different videos in the set. Multiple foregrounds are handled via a multi-state selection graph in which a node representing a video frame can take multiple labels that correspond to different objects. In addition, our method incorporates an indicator matrix that for the first time allows accurate handling of cases with common foreground objects missing in some videos, thus preventing irrelevant regions from being misclassified as foreground objects. An iterative procedure is proposed to optimize our new objective function. As demonstrated through comprehensive experiments, this object-based multiple foreground video co-segmentation method compares well with related techniques that co-segment multiple foregrounds.

  1. Improving video foreground segmentation and propagation through multifeature fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoliu; Wang, Yan; Yuan, Xiaobing; Li, Baoqing; Ding, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zebin

    2015-11-01

    Video foreground segmentation lays the foundation for many high-level visual applications. However, how to dig up the effective features for foreground propagation and how to intelligently fuse the different information are still challenging problems. We aim to deal with the above-mentioned problems, and the goal is to accurately propagate the object across the rest of the frames given an initially labeled frame. Our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) we describe the object features with superpixel-based appearance and motion clues from both global and local viewpoints. Furthermore, the objective confidences for both the appearance and motion features are also introduced to balance the different clues. (2) All the features and their confidences are intelligently fused by the improved Dempster-Shafer evidence theory instead of the empirical parameters tuning used in many algorithms. Experimental results on the two well-known SegTrack and SegTrack v2 datasets demonstrate that our algorithm can yield high-quality segmentations.

  2. Analysis of polar urinary metabolites for metabolic phenotyping using supercritical fluid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arundhuti; Knappy, Christopher; Lewis, Matthew R; Plumb, Robert S; Wilson, Ian D; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Smith, Norman W

    2016-06-03

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is frequently used for the analysis and separation of non-polar metabolites, but remains relatively underutilised for the study of polar molecules, even those which pose difficulties with established reversed-phase (RP) or hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) methodologies. Here, we present a fast SFC-MS method for the analysis of medium and high-polarity (-7≤cLogP≤2) compounds, designed for implementation in a high-throughput metabonomics setting. Sixty polar analytes were first screened to identify those most suitable for inclusion in chromatographic test mixtures; then, a multi-dimensional method development study was conducted to determine the optimal choice of stationary phase, modifier additive and temperature for the separation of such analytes using SFC. The test mixtures were separated on a total of twelve different column chemistries at three different temperatures, using CO2-methanol-based mobile phases containing a variety of polar additives. Chromatographic performance was evaluated with a particular emphasis on peak capacity, overall resolution, peak distribution and repeatability. The results suggest that a new generation of stationary phases, specifically designed for improved robustness in mixed CO2-methanol mobile phases, can improve peak shape, peak capacity and resolution for all classes of polar analytes. A significant enhancement in chromatographic performance was observed for these urinary metabolites on the majority of the stationary phases when polar additives such as ammonium salts (formate, acetate and hydroxide) were included in the organic modifier, and the use of water or alkylamine additives was found to be beneficial for specific subsets of polar analytes. The utility of these findings was confirmed by the separation of a mixture of polar metabolites in human urine using an optimised 7min gradient SFC method, where the use of the recommended column and co

  3. Orienting Ocean Bottom Seismic Sensors from Ship Noise Polarization Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barruol, Guilhem; Dreo, Richard; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Scholz, John R.; Sigloch, Karin; Geay, Bruno; Bouillon, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    For the RHUM-RUM project (Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel, www.rhum-rum.net), a network of 57 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) was installed on the ocean floor around La Réunion Island in the SW Indian Ocean. Part of the network happened to be located beneath a route of heavy ship traffic connecting SE-Asia and the South-Atlantic region. We analysed the ship noise recorded on the OBS and show that it can be used for determining the horizontal orientations of the seismic instruments as they were recording on the ocean floor. The OBS, provided by the German DEPAS and the French INSU OBS national pools, were equipped with wide-band or broad-band three-components seismic and hydro-acoustic sensors. They were deployed in Nov. 2012 by R/V Marion Dufresne and recovered by R/V Meteor one year later. Depending on the configuration, the OBS recorded for 8 to 13 months. By combining the trajectories of passing ships - provided by AIS (Automatic Identification system) GPS data - with our geophysical data recorded on the ocean floor, we show that both hydro-acoustic and seismic spectral analyses exhibit clear signals associated with vessels between 1 and 50 Hz, in the high-frequency range of our instruments. Large cargo vessels are detected several hours before and after their closest point of approach (CPA) and show clear Doppler effects which put quantitative constraints on their distances and speeds. By analysing the continuous noise polarization on the three seismic components, we show that the polarization of the noise emitted by ships passing in the neighbourhood of an ocean-bottom seismometer can be used for retrieving the orientation of the OBS horizontal components on the ocean floor with respect to the geographic reference frame. We find good agreement between OBS orientations thus calculated from ship noise and the OBS orientations determined independently from teleseismic body and surface wave polarization methods (Scholz et al., GJI

  4. FOREGROUND MODEL AND ANTENNA CALIBRATION ERRORS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF THE SKY-AVERAGED λ21 cm SIGNAL AT z∼ 20

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, G.; McQuinn, M.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-01-20

    The most promising near-term observable of the cosmic dark age prior to widespread reionization (z ∼ 15-200) is the sky-averaged λ21 cm background arising from hydrogen in the intergalactic medium. Though an individual antenna could in principle detect the line signature, data analysis must separate foregrounds that are orders of magnitude brighter than the λ21 cm background (but that are anticipated to vary monotonically and gradually with frequency, e.g., they are considered {sup s}pectrally smooth{sup )}. Using more physically motivated models for foregrounds than in previous studies, we show that the intrinsic spectral smoothness of the foregrounds is likely not a concern, and that data analysis for an ideal antenna should be able to detect the λ21 cm signal after subtracting a ∼fifth-order polynomial in log ν. However, we find that the foreground signal is corrupted by the angular and frequency-dependent response of a real antenna. The frequency dependence complicates modeling of foregrounds commonly based on the assumption of spectral smoothness. Our calculations focus on the Large-aperture Experiment to detect the Dark Age, which combines both radiometric and interferometric measurements. We show that statistical uncertainty remaining after fitting antenna gain patterns to interferometric measurements is not anticipated to compromise extraction of the λ21 cm signal for a range of cosmological models after fitting a seventh-order polynomial to radiometric data. Our results generalize to most efforts to measure the sky-averaged spectrum.

  5. Observations and analysis of oil spills using polarized imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, S. A.; Duncan, M. E.; Johnson, W. R.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1991-01-01

    On Saturday, July 28, 1990, a train of barges collided with the Greek tanker Shinoussa in Galveston Bay off Red Fish Island near Texas City, Texas. The first barge sank and the second began to leak while the third barge in the chain and the Shinoussa both escaped without damage. The NASA Flight Science Support Office sponsored a graduate student from SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry and a student from Texas, to survey the damage. The purpose of these surveys was to correlate aircraft base data with orbital data obtained during the Space Shuttle Polarization Experiment and existing laboratory data to evaluate the potential for an application such as oil spill monitoring and mapping. NASA has no charter with the local response agencies to support oil spill monitoring and cleanup.

  6. Observations and analysis of oil spills using polarized imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, S. A.; Duncan, M. E.; Johnson, W. R.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1991-01-01

    On Saturday, July 28, 1990, a train of barges collided with the Greek tanker Shinoussa in Galveston Bay off Red Fish Island near Texas City, Texas. The first barge sank and the second began to leak while the third barge in the chain and the Shinoussa both escaped without damage. The NASA Flight Science Support Office sponsored a graduate student from SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry and a student from Texas, to survey the damage. The purpose of these surveys was to correlate aircraft base data with orbital data obtained during the Space Shuttle Polarization Experiment and existing laboratory data to evaluate the potential for an application such as oil spill monitoring and mapping. NASA has no charter with the local response agencies to support oil spill monitoring and cleanup.

  7. Variation in winter diet of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears inferred from stable isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, E.H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Ringed seals (Phoca hispida Schreber, 1775 = Pusa hispida (Schreber, 1775)) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus (Erxleben, 1777)) represent the majority of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) annual diet. However, remains of lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758) are available in the southern Beaufort Sea and their dietary contribution to polar bears has been unknown. We used stable isotope (13C/12C, δ13C, 15N/14N, and δ15N) analysis to determine the diet composition of polar bears sampled along Alaska’s Beaufort Sea coast in March and April 2003 and 2004. The mean δ15N values of polar bear blood cells were 19.5‰ (SD = 0.7‰) in 2003 and 19.9‰ (SD = 0.7‰) in 2004. Mixing models indicated bowhead whales composed 11%–26% (95% CI) of the diets of sampled polar bears in 2003, and 0%–14% (95% CI) in 2004. This suggests significant variability in the proportion of lower trophic level prey in polar bear diets among individuals and between years. Polar bears depend on sea ice for hunting seals, and the temporal and spatial availabilities of sea ice are projected to decline. Consumption of low trophic level foods documented here suggests bears may increasingly scavenge such foods in the future.

  8. Foreground marker controlled watershed on digital radiographic image for weld discontinuity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Halim, Suhaila; Zahid, Akhma; Abdul Razak, Nurul Syafinaz; Ibrahim, Arsmah; Manurung, Yupiter HP; Jayes, Mohd Idris

    2013-04-01

    Radiography is one of the most common and widely used non-destructive testing (NDT) technique in inspecting weld discontinuity in welded joints. Conventionally, radiography inspector is requires to do the inspection analysis manually on weld discontinuity based on visual characteristics such as location, shape, length and density. The results can be very subjective, time consuming and inconsistent. Hence, semi-automated inspection using digital image processing and segmentation technique can be applied for weld discontinuity detection. The goal of this work is to detect the weld discontinuity on digital radiographic image using Foreground Marker Controlled Watershed. It is usually implemented in image processing because it always generates closed contour for each region in the image. In this paper, image enhancement on radiographic image is aim to remove image noise and improve image contrast. Then, marker controlled watershed with foreground markers is applied on the image to detect the discontinuity. The accuracy of the technique is evaluated using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The accuracy of the technique has been compared with the ground truth and the result shows that the accuracy is 67% and area under the curve is 0.7134. The application of image processing technique in detecting weld discontinuity is able to assist radiographer to improve the inconsistent results in evaluating the radiographic image.

  9. Detection of degree-scale B-mode polarization and studying cosmic polarization rotation with the BICEP1 and BICEP2 telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Jonathan Philip

    The BICEP1 and BICEP2 telescopes studied the temperature and polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 2006 -- 2008 and 2010 -- 2012, respectively, producing the deepest maps of polarization created to date. From BICEP2 three-year data, we detect B-mode polarization at the degree-scale above the expectation from lensed-ΛCDM to greater than 5sigma significance, consistent with that expected from gravitational waves created during Inflation. Instrumental systematic effects have been characterized and ruled out, and galactic foreground contamination is disfavored by the data. Additionally, correlations between temperature and B-mode polarization and between E-mode and B-mode polarization show evidence of polarization rotation of --1° to 5sigma significance; however, adding systematic uncertainty reduces this significance to ˜ 2sigma. These measurements, combined with other CMB and astrophysical measurements, point to possible parity violating physics like cosmic birefringence, but more precise calibration techniques are required to break the degeneracy between cosmic polarization rotation and systematic effects. Improved calibration is possible with current generation technology and may be achieved within the next few years. In this work, I present experimental and analysis techniques employed for BICEP1 and BICEP2 to measure B-mode polarization and temperature and polarization correlations, as well as the scientific motivation, results, and a path forward for future measurements.

  10. Tokamak-independent software analysis suite for multi-spectral line-polarization MSE diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S. D.; Mumgaard, R. T.

    2016-07-20

    A tokamak-independent analysis suite has been developed to process data from Motional Stark Effect (mse) diagnostics. The software supports multi-spectral line-polarization mse diagnostics which simultaneously measure emission at the mse σ and π lines as well as at two "background" wavelengths that are displaced from the mse spectrum by a few nanometers. This analysis accurately estimates the amplitude of partially polarized background light at the σ and π wavelengths even in situations where the background light changes rapidly in time and space, a distinct improvement over traditional "time-interpolation" background estimation. The signal amplitude at many frequencies is computed using a numerical-beat algorithm which allows the retardance of the mse photo-elastic modulators (pem's) to be monitored during routine operation. It also allows the use of summed intensities at multiple frequencies in the calculation of polarization direction, which increases the effective signal strength and reduces sensitivity to pem retardance drift. The software allows the polarization angles to be corrected for calibration drift using a system that illuminates the mse diagnostic with polarized light at four known polarization angles within ten seconds of a plasma discharge. As a result, the software suite is modular, parallelized, and portable to other facilities.

  11. Tokamak-independent software analysis suite for multi-spectral line-polarization MSE diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S. D.; Mumgaard, R. T.

    2016-07-20

    A tokamak-independent analysis suite has been developed to process data from Motional Stark Effect (mse) diagnostics. The software supports multi-spectral line-polarization mse diagnostics which simultaneously measure emission at the mse σ and π lines as well as at two "background" wavelengths that are displaced from the mse spectrum by a few nanometers. This analysis accurately estimates the amplitude of partially polarized background light at the σ and π wavelengths even in situations where the background light changes rapidly in time and space, a distinct improvement over traditional "time-interpolation" background estimation. The signal amplitude at many frequencies is computed using a numerical-beat algorithm which allows the retardance of the mse photo-elastic modulators (pem's) to be monitored during routine operation. It also allows the use of summed intensities at multiple frequencies in the calculation of polarization direction, which increases the effective signal strength and reduces sensitivity to pem retardance drift. The software allows the polarization angles to be corrected for calibration drift using a system that illuminates the mse diagnostic with polarized light at four known polarization angles within ten seconds of a plasma discharge. As a result, the software suite is modular, parallelized, and portable to other facilities.

  12. Tokamak-independent software analysis suite for multi-spectral line-polarization MSE diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. D.; Mumgaard, R. T.

    2016-11-01

    A tokamak-independent analysis suite has been developed to process data from Motional Stark Effect (mse) diagnostics. The software supports multi-spectral line-polarization mse diagnostics which simultaneously measure emission at the mse σ and π lines as well as at two "background" wavelengths that are displaced from the mse spectrum by a few nanometers. This analysis accurately estimates the amplitude of partially polarized background light at the σ and π wavelengths even in situations where the background light changes rapidly in time and space, a distinct improvement over traditional "time-interpolation" background estimation. The signal amplitude at many frequencies is computed using a numerical-beat algorithm which allows the retardance of the mse photo-elastic modulators (pem's) to be monitored during routine operation. It also allows the use of summed intensities at multiple frequencies in the calculation of polarization direction, which increases the effective signal strength and reduces sensitivity to pem retardance drift. The software allows the polarization angles to be corrected for calibration drift using a system that illuminates the mse diagnostic with polarized light at four known polarization angles within ten seconds of a plasma discharge. The software suite is modular, parallelized, and portable to other facilities.

  13. Tokamak-independent software analysis suite for multi-spectral line-polarization MSE diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Scott, S D; Mumgaard, R T

    2016-11-01

    A tokamak-independent analysis suite has been developed to process data from Motional Stark Effect (mse) diagnostics. The software supports multi-spectral line-polarization mse diagnostics which simultaneously measure emission at the mse σ and π lines as well as at two "background" wavelengths that are displaced from the mse spectrum by a few nanometers. This analysis accurately estimates the amplitude of partially polarized background light at the σ and π wavelengths even in situations where the background light changes rapidly in time and space, a distinct improvement over traditional "time-interpolation" background estimation. The signal amplitude at many frequencies is computed using a numerical-beat algorithm which allows the retardance of the mse photo-elastic modulators (pem's) to be monitored during routine operation. It also allows the use of summed intensities at multiple frequencies in the calculation of polarization direction, which increases the effective signal strength and reduces sensitivity to pem retardance drift. The software allows the polarization angles to be corrected for calibration drift using a system that illuminates the mse diagnostic with polarized light at four known polarization angles within ten seconds of a plasma discharge. The software suite is modular, parallelized, and portable to other facilities.

  14. Tokamak-independent software analysis suite for multi-spectral line-polarization MSE diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Scott, S. D.; Mumgaard, R. T.

    2016-07-20

    A tokamak-independent analysis suite has been developed to process data from Motional Stark Effect (mse) diagnostics. The software supports multi-spectral line-polarization mse diagnostics which simultaneously measure emission at the mse σ and π lines as well as at two "background" wavelengths that are displaced from the mse spectrum by a few nanometers. This analysis accurately estimates the amplitude of partially polarized background light at the σ and π wavelengths even in situations where the background light changes rapidly in time and space, a distinct improvement over traditional "time-interpolation" background estimation. The signal amplitude at many frequencies is computed using amore » numerical-beat algorithm which allows the retardance of the mse photo-elastic modulators (pem's) to be monitored during routine operation. It also allows the use of summed intensities at multiple frequencies in the calculation of polarization direction, which increases the effective signal strength and reduces sensitivity to pem retardance drift. The software allows the polarization angles to be corrected for calibration drift using a system that illuminates the mse diagnostic with polarized light at four known polarization angles within ten seconds of a plasma discharge. As a result, the software suite is modular, parallelized, and portable to other facilities.« less

  15. Theoretical and experimental examination of SFG polarization analysis at acetonitrile-water solution surfaces.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kengo; Peng, Qiling; Qiao, Lin; Wang, Lin; Joutsuka, Tatsuya; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Ye, Shen; Morita, Akihiro

    2017-03-16

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is widely used to observe molecular orientation at interfaces through a combination of various types of polarization. The present work thoroughly examines the relation between the polarization dependence of SFG signals and the molecular orientation, by comparing SFG measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of acetonitrile/water solutions. The present SFG experiment and MD simulations yield quite consistent results on the ratios of χ((2)) elements, supporting the reliability of both means. However, the subsequent polarization analysis tends to derive more upright tilt angles of acetonitrile than the direct MD calculations. The reasons for discrepancy are examined in terms of three issues; (i) anisotropy of the Raman tensor, (ii) cross-correlation, and (iii) orientational distribution. The analysis revealed that the issues (i) and (iii) are the main causes of errors in the conventional polarization analysis of SFG spectra. In methyl CH stretching, the anisotropy of Raman tensor cannot be estimated from the simple bond polarizability model. The neglect of the orientational distribution is shown to systematically underestimate the tilt angle of acetonitrile. Further refined use of polarization analysis in collaboration with MD simulations should be proposed.

  16. Analysis of protein-ligand interactions by fluorescence polarization

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ana M.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of the associations between biomolecules is required both to predict and understand the interactions that underpin all biological activity. Fluorescence polarization (FP) provides a non-disruptive means of measuring the association of a fluorescent ligand with a larger molecule. We describe an FP assay in which binding of fluorescein-labelled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to N-terminal fragments of IP3 receptors can be characterised at different temperatures and in competition with other ligands. The assay allows the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) changes of ligand binding to be determined. The method is applicable to any purified ligand-binding site for which an appropriate fluorescent ligand is available. FP can be used to measure low-affinity interactions in real-time without use of radioactive materials, it is non-destructive, and with appropriate care it can resolve ΔH° and ΔS°. The first part of the protocol, protein preparation, may take several weeks, while the FP measurements, once they have been optimised, would normally take 1-6 h. PMID:21372817

  17. Polar Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis in the Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Menietti, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) is a region where solar wind momentum and energy is transferred to the magnetosphere. Enhanced "broadband" electric plasma waves from less than 5 Hz to l0(exp 5) Hz and magnetic waves from less than 5 Hz to the electron cyclotron frequency are characteristic of the LLBL. Analyses of Polar plasma waves show that these "broadband" waves are actually discrete electrostatic and electromagnetic modes as well as solitary bipolar pulses (electron holes). It is noted that all wave modes can be generated by approx. 100 eV to approx. 10 keV auroral electrons and protons. We will review wave-particle interactions, with focus on cross- diffusion rates and the contributions of such interactions toward the formation of the boundary layer. In summary, we will present a scenario where the global solar wind-magnetosphere interaction is responsible for the auroral zone particle beams, and hence for the generation of plasma waves and the formation of the boundary layer. It is speculated that all planetary magnetospheres will have boundary layers and they will be characterized by similar currents and plasma wave modes.

  18. Polar Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis in the Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    The low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) is a region where solar wind momentum and energy is transferred to the magnetosphere. Enhanced "broadband" electric plasma waves from less than 5 Hz to 10(exp 5) Hz and magnetic waves from less than 5 Hz to the electron cyclotron frequency are characteristic of the LLBL. Analyses of Polar plasma waves show that these "broadband" waves are actually discrete electrostatic and electromagnetic modes as well as solitary bipolar pulses (electron holes). It is noted that all wave modes can be generated by approx. 100 eV to approx. 10 keV auroral electrons and protons. We will review wave-particle interactions, with focus on cross-diffusion rates and the contributions of such interactions toward the formation of the boundary layer. In summary, we will present a scenario where the global solar wind-magnetosphere interaction is responsible for the auroral zone particle beams, and hence for the generation of plasma waves and the formation of the boundary layer. It is speculated that all planetary magnetospheres will have boundary layers and they will be characterized by similar currents and plasma wave modes.

  19. The Importance of Wide-field Foreground Removal for 21 cm Cosmology: A Demonstration with Early MWA Epoch of Reionization Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, J. C.; Hazelton, B. J.; Beardsley, A. P.; Barry, N. A.; Martinot, Z. E.; Sullivan, I. S.; Morales, M. F.; Bell, M. E.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dillon, Joshua. S.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A. M.; Feng, L.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jacobs, D. C.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, Han-Seek; Kittiwisit, P.; Kratzenberg, E.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, Sourabh; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tegmark, M.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present observations, simulations, and analysis demonstrating the direct connection between the location of foreground emission on the sky and its location in cosmological power spectra from interferometric redshifted 21 cm experiments. We begin with a heuristic formalism for understanding the mapping of sky coordinates into the cylindrically averaged power spectra measurements used by 21 cm experiments, with a focus on the effects of the instrument beam response and the associated sidelobes. We then demonstrate this mapping by analyzing power spectra with both simulated and observed data from the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that removing a foreground model that includes sources in both the main field of view and the first sidelobes reduces the contamination in high k∥ modes by several per cent relative to a model that only includes sources in the main field of view, with the completeness of the foreground model setting the principal limitation on the amount of power removed. While small, a percent-level amount of foreground power is in itself more than enough to prevent recovery of any Epoch of Reionization signal from these modes. This result demonstrates that foreground subtraction for redshifted 21 cm experiments is truly a wide-field problem, and algorithms and simulations must extend beyond the instrument’s main field of view to potentially recover the full 21 cm power spectrum.

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF WIDE-FIELD FOREGROUND REMOVAL FOR 21 cm COSMOLOGY: A DEMONSTRATION WITH EARLY MWA EPOCH OF REIONIZATION OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pober, J. C.; Hazelton, B. J.; Beardsley, A. P.; Barry, N. A.; Martinot, Z. E.; Sullivan, I. S.; Morales, M. F.; Carroll, P.; Bell, M. E.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Emrich, D.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; De Oliveira-Costa, A.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Ewall-Wice, A. M.; and others

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present observations, simulations, and analysis demonstrating the direct connection between the location of foreground emission on the sky and its location in cosmological power spectra from interferometric redshifted 21 cm experiments. We begin with a heuristic formalism for understanding the mapping of sky coordinates into the cylindrically averaged power spectra measurements used by 21 cm experiments, with a focus on the effects of the instrument beam response and the associated sidelobes. We then demonstrate this mapping by analyzing power spectra with both simulated and observed data from the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that removing a foreground model that includes sources in both the main field of view and the first sidelobes reduces the contamination in high k{sub ∥} modes by several per cent relative to a model that only includes sources in the main field of view, with the completeness of the foreground model setting the principal limitation on the amount of power removed. While small, a percent-level amount of foreground power is in itself more than enough to prevent recovery of any Epoch of Reionization signal from these modes. This result demonstrates that foreground subtraction for redshifted 21 cm experiments is truly a wide-field problem, and algorithms and simulations must extend beyond the instrument’s main field of view to potentially recover the full 21 cm power spectrum.

  1. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  2. Real-time two-level foreground detection and person-silhouette extraction enhanced by body-parts tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, Rada; Desserée, Elodie; Bouakaz, Saida

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss foreground detection and human body silhouette extraction and tracking in monocular video systems designed for human motion analysis applications. Vision algorithms face many challenges when it comes to analyze human activities in non-controlled environments. For instance, issues like illumination changes, shadows, camouflage and occlusions make the detection and the tracking of a moving person a hard task to accomplish. Hence, advanced solutions are required to analyze the content of video sequences. We propose a real-time, two-level foreground detection, enhanced by body parts tracking, designed to efficiently extract person silhouette and body parts for monocular video-based human motion analysis systems. We aim to find solutions for different non-controlled environment challenges, which make the detection and the tracking of a moving person a hard task to accomplish. On the first level, we propose an enhanced Mixture of Gaussians, built on both chrominanceluminance and chrominance-only spaces, which handles global illumination changes. On the second level, we improve segmentation results, in interesting areas, by using statistical foreground models updated by a high-level tracking of body parts. Each body part is represented with a set of template characterized by a feature vector built in an initialization phase. Then, high level tracking is done by finding blob-template correspondences via distance minimization in feature space. Correspondences are then used to update foreground models, and a graph cut algorithm, which minimizes a Markov random field energy function containing these models, is used to refine segmentation. We were able to extract a refined silhouette in the presence of light changes, noise and camouflage. Moreover, the tracking approach allowed us to infer information about the presence and the location of body parts even in the case of partial occlusion.

  3. Demonstration of distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing with PM fiber using polarization crosstalk analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hongxin; Zhao, Ziwei; Feng, Ting; Ding, Dongliang; Li, Zhihong; Yao, X. Steve

    2016-11-01

    Polarization crosstalk is a phenomenon that the powers of two orthogonal polarization modes propagating in a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber couple into each other. Because there is certain mathematical relationship between the polarization crosstalk signals and external perturbations such as stress and temperature variations, stress and temperature sensing in PM fiber can be simultaneously achieved by measuring the strengths and locations of polarization crosstalk signals. In this paper, we report what we believe the first distributed temperature sensing demonstration using polarization crosstalk analysis in PM fibers. Firstly, by measuring the spacing changes between two crosstalk peaks at different fiber length locations, we obtained the temperature sensing coefficient (TSC) of approximately -0.73 μm/(°C•m), which means that the spacing between two crosstalk peaks induced at two locations changes by 0.73 μm when the temperature changes by 1 °C over a fiber length of 1 meter. Secondly, in order to bring different temperature values at different axial locations along a PM fiber to verify the distributed temperature sensing, four heating-strips are used to heat different fiber sections of the PM fiber under test, and the temperatures measured by the proposed fiber sensing method according to the obtained TSC are almost consistent with those of heating-strips measured by a thermoelectric thermometer. As a new type of distributed fiber temperature sensing technique, we believe that our method will find broad applications in the near future.

  4. Analysis of JPSS J1 VIIRS Polarization Sensitivity Using the NIST T-SIRCUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntire, Jeffrey W.; Young, James B.; Moyer, David; Waluschka, Eugene; Oudrari, Hassan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    The polarization sensitivity of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) J1 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) measured pre-launch using a broadband source was observed to be larger than expected for many reflective bands. Ray trace modeling predicted that the observed polarization sensitivity was the result of larger diattenuation at the edges of the focal plane filter spectral bandpass. Additional ground measurements were performed using a monochromatic source (the NIST T-SIRCUS) to input linearly polarized light at a number of wavelengths across the bandpass of two VIIRS spectral bands and two scan angles. This work describes the data processing, analysis, and results derived from the T-SIRCUS measurements, comparing them with broadband measurements. Results have shown that the observed degree of linear polarization, when weighted by the sensor's spectral response function, is generally larger on the edges and smaller in the center of the spectral bandpass, as predicted. However, phase angle changes in the center of the bandpass differ between model and measurement. Integration of the monochromatic polarization sensitivity over wavelength produced results consistent with the broadband source measurements, for all cases considered.

  5. The thermospheric auroral red line polarization: confirmation of detection and first quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilensten, Jean; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Lamy, Hervé; Simon, Cyril; Bommier, Véronique; Amblard, Pierre-Olivier; Moen, Joran; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2013-04-01

    The thermospheric atomic oxygen red line is among the brightest in the auroral spectrum. Previous obser- vations in Longyearbyen, Svalbard indicated that it may be intrinsically polarized but a possible contamination by light pollution could not be ruled out. During the winter 2010 / 2011, the polarization of the red line was measured for the first time at the Polish Hornsund polar base without contam- ination. Two methods of data analysis are presented to com- pute the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) and angle of linear polarization (AoLP): one is based on averaging and the other one on filtering. Results are compared and are in qualitative agreement. For solar zenith angles (SZA) larger than 108° (with no contribution from Rayleigh scattering), the DoLP ranges between 2 and 7%. The AoLP is more or less aligned with the direction of the magnetic field line in agreement with the theoretical predictions of Bommier et al. (2010). However, the AoLP values range between ± 20° around this direction, depending on the auroral conditions. Correlations between the polarization parameters and the red line intensity I were considered. The DoLP decreases when I increases, confirming a trend observed during the obser- vations in Longyearbyen. However, for small values of I, DoLP varies within a large range of values, while for large values of I, DoLP is always small. The AoLP also varies with the red line intensity, slightly rotating around the mag- netic field line. The present research project has been supported by the French Polar Institute (IPEV No 1026) and by the European project COST ES0803 "Developing space weather products and services in Europe". It is also part of the European project COST MP1104 "Polarization as a tool to study the Solar System and beyond" and the European FP7 Project ESPAS, Grant agreement no: 283676.

  6. Polarization Analysis Equipment in SANS-J-II: Study of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane for Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Putra, Ananda; Koizumi, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi; Oku, Takayuki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi

    In small angle neutron scattering spectrometer, SANS-J-II at Japan Research Reactor No. 3 (JRR-3), a polarization analysis setup has been equipped, which is composed of transmission-type supermirror polarizer, radial-bender-type supermirror analyzer, π flipper, and solenoids for generating guide magnetic field. This setup was applied to the structural study of polymer electrolyte membrane, Nafion under water-swollen state. The sample is known to exhibit several characteristic peaks at wide angle region, which is related to water transporting channels. By use of polarization analysis technique, the coherent and incoherent contributions were successfully separated. Consequently, we obtained reliable information about decaying power law of ionic cluster peak and the shape of the broad peak, relating to ordering with short distance (5.6 Å).

  7. Absolute flatness testing of skip-flat interferometry by matrix analysis in polar coordinates.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Gang; Yin, Lu; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Ri-Hong

    2016-03-20

    A new method utilizing matrix analysis in polar coordinates has been presented for absolute testing of skip-flat interferometry. The retrieval of the absolute profile mainly includes three steps: (1) transform the wavefront maps of the two cavity measurements into data in polar coordinates; (2) retrieve the profile of the reflective flat in polar coordinates by matrix analysis; and (3) transform the profile of the reflective flat back into data in Cartesian coordinates and retrieve the profile of the sample. Simulation of synthetic surface data has been provided, showing the capability of the approach to achieve an accuracy of the order of 0.01 nm RMS. The absolute profile can be retrieved by a set of closed mathematical formulas without polynomial fitting of wavefront maps or the iterative evaluation of an error function, making the new method more efficient for absolute testing.

  8. Planck intermediate results: XXXVIII. E- and B-modes of dust polarization from the magnetized filamentary structure of the interstellar medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Ferrière, K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Soler, J. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-02-09

    The quest for a B-mode imprint from primordial gravity waves on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) requires the characterization of foreground polarization from Galactic dust. In this paper, we present a statistical study of the filamentary structure of the 353 GHz Planck Stokes maps at high Galactic latitude, relevant to the study of dust emission as a polarized foreground to the CMB. We filter the intensity and polarization maps to isolate filaments in the range of angular scales where the power asymmetry between E-modes and B-modes is observed. Using the Smoothed Hessian Major Axis Filament Finder (SMAFF), we identify 259 filaments at high Galactic latitude, with lengths larger or equal to 2° (corresponding to 3.5 pc in length for a typical distance of 100 pc). Thesefilaments show a preferred orientation parallel to the magnetic field projected onto the plane of the sky, derived from their polarization angles. We present mean maps of the filaments in Stokes I, Q, U, E, and B, computed by stacking individual images rotated to align the orientations of the filaments. Combining the stacked images and the histogram of relative orientations, we estimate the mean polarization fraction of the filaments to be 11%. Furthermore, we show that the correlation between the filaments and the magnetic field orientations may account for the E and B asymmetry and the CTE/CEE ratio, reported in the power spectra analysis of the Planck353 GHz polarization maps. Finally, future models of the dust foreground for CMB polarization studies will need to take into account the observed correlation between the dust polarization and the structure of interstellar matter.

  9. Functional and proteomic analysis of Ceratonova shasta (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) polar capsules reveals adaptations to parasitism.

    PubMed

    Piriatinskiy, Gadi; Atkinson, Stephen D; Park, Sinwook; Morgenstern, David; Brekhman, Vera; Yossifon, Gilad; Bartholomew, Jerri L; Lotan, Tamar

    2017-08-21

    Myxozoa is a diverse, speciose group of microscopic parasites, recently placed within the phylum Cnidaria. Myxozoans are highly reduced in size and complexity relative to free-living cnidarians, yet they have retained specialized organelles known as polar capsules, akin to the nematocyst stinging capsules of free-living species. Whereas in free-living cnidarians the stinging capsules are used for prey capture or defense, in myxozoans they have the essential function of initiating the host infection process. To explore the evolutionary adaptation of polar capsules to parasitism, we used as a model organism Ceratonova shasta, which causes lethal disease in salmonids. Here, we report the first isolation of C. shasta myxospore polar capsules using a tailored dielectrophoresis-based microfluidic chip. Using electron microscopy and functional analysis we demonstrated that C. shasta tubules have no openings and are likely used to anchor the spore to the host. Proteomic analysis of C. shasta polar capsules suggested that they have retained typical structural and housekeeping proteins found in nematocysts of jellyfish, sea anemones and Hydra, but have lost the most important functional group in nematocysts, namely toxins. Our findings support the hypothesis that polar capsules and nematocysts are homologous organelles, which have adapted to their distinct functions.

  10. Galactic Foreground Contribution to the BEAST Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, Jorge; Bersanelli, Marco; Burigana, Carlo; Childers, Jeff; Figueiredo, Newton; Kangas, Miikka; Lubin, Philip; Maino, Davide; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Marvil, Josh; Meinhold, Peter; O'Dwyer, Ian; O'Neill, Hugh; Platania, Paola; Seiffert, Michael; Stebor, Nathan; Tello, Camilo; Villela, Thyrso; Wandelt, Benjamin; Wuensche, Carlos Alexandre

    2005-05-01

    We report limits on the Galactic foreground emission contribution to the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) Ka- and Q-band CMB anisotropy maps. We estimate the contribution from the cross-correlations between these maps and the foreground emission templates of an Hα map, a destriped version of the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, and a combined 100 μm IRAS DIRBE map. Our analysis samples the BEAST ~10° declination band into 24 one-hour (R.A.) wide sectors with ~7900 pixels each, where we calculate (1) the linear correlation coefficient between the anisotropy maps and the templates; (2) the coupling constants between the specific intensity units of the templates and the antenna temperature at the BEAST frequencies; and (3) the individual foreground contributions to the BEAST anisotropy maps. The peak sector contributions of the contaminants in the Ka-band are of 56.5% free-free with a coupling constant of 8.3+/-0.4 μK R-1, and 67.4% dust with 45.0+/-2.0 μK MJy-1 sr-1. In the Q band the corresponding values are of 64.4% free-free with 4.1+/-0.2 μK R-1 and 67.5% dust with 24.0+/-1.0 μK MJy-1 sr-1. Using a lower limit of 10% in the relative uncertainty of the coupling constants, we can constrain the sector contributions of each contaminant in both maps to <20% in 21 (free-free), 19 (dust), and 22 (synchrotron) sectors. At this level, all these sectors are found outside of the |b|=14.6d region. By performing the same correlation analysis as a function of Galactic scale height, we conclude that the region within b=+/-17.5d should be removed from the BEAST maps for CMB studies in order to keep individual Galactic contributions below ~1% of the map's rms.

  11. Improved Diffuse Foreground Subtraction with the ILC Method: CMB Map and Angular Power Spectrum Using Planck and WMAP Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudevan, Vipin; Aluri, Pavan K.; Yadav, Sarvesh Kumar; Saha, Rajib; Souradeep, Tarun

    2017-06-01

    We report an improved technique for diffuse foreground minimization from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) maps using a new multiphase iterative harmonic space internal-linear-combination (HILC) approach. Our method nullifies a foreground leakage that was present in the old and usual iterative HILC method. In phase 1 of the multiphase technique, we obtain an initial cleaned map using the single iteration HILC approach over the desired portion of the sky. In phase 2, we obtain a final CMB map using the iterative HILC approach; however, now, to nullify the leakage, during each iteration, some of the regions of the sky that are not being cleaned in the current iteration are replaced by the corresponding cleaned portions of the phase 1 map. We bring all input frequency maps to a common and maximum possible beam and pixel resolution at the beginning of the analysis, which significantly reduces data redundancy, memory usage, and computational cost, and avoids, during the HILC weight calculation, the deconvolution of partial sky harmonic coefficients by the azimuthally symmetric beam and pixel window functions, which in a strict mathematical sense, are not well defined. Using WMAP 9 year and Planck 2015 frequency maps, we obtain foreground-cleaned CMB maps and a CMB angular power spectrum for the multipole range 2≤slant {\\ell }≤slant 2500. Our power spectrum matches the published Planck results with some differences at different multipole ranges. We validate our method by performing Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, we show that the weights for HILC foreground minimization have the intrinsic characteristic that they also tend to produce a statistically isotropic CMB map.

  12. 4. OVERVIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, BLD 5 RIGHT FOREGROUND, BLDG. 44/16 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERVIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, BLD 5 RIGHT FOREGROUND, BLDG. 44/16 LEFT FOREGROUND. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  13. Selection and applicability of quenching agents for the analysis of polar iodinated disinfection byproducts.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Tao, Yuxian; Xian, Qiming

    2016-11-01

    Iodide is widely present in drinking water sources as well as wastewater effluents. Chlorination and chloramination are the most commonly used disinfection methods. During chlorination or chloramination of drinking water/wastewater effluents, iodide may be oxidized to hypoiodous acid, which may further react with organic matter to form iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Recently, several new polar iodinated DBPs have been identified in drinking water as well as chlorinated wastewater effluents, and they have drawn increasing concerns due to their high toxicity. In DBPs studies, the selection of an appropriate quenching agent is critical to prevent further formation or any decomposition of DBPs during the holding time between sample collection and analysis. A previous study reported the applicability of different quenching agents for the analysis of various categories of chlorinated and brominated DBPs. But the applicability of quenching agents for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs has not been reported. In this study, four different quenching agents (sodium sulfite, sodium thiosulfate, ascorbic acid and sodium borohydride) were tested for their suitability for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs, and ascorbic acid was selected as the suitable quenching agent. Furthermore, it was found that ascorbic acid was applicable for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs under the quenching agent doses of 0-0.42 mmol/L (stoichiometric amounts equivalent to 0-30 mg/L Cl2), contact times within 24 h, and pHs in the range of 6-8. Therefore, ascorbic acid was a widely applicable quenching agent for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs under various conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphological Analysis of Annual Recurrence of Dark Dune Spots on Southern Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, A.; Ganti, T.; Berczi, Sz.; Gesztesi, A.; Szathmary, E.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the Mars Global Surveyor narrow-angle images of the dark dune spots (DDSs) in three subsequent Martian winters and springs in Southern Polar Region resulted in the recognition that year by year DDSs reappeared on the same place with almost the same configuration. Comparison of the 1999 and 2001 high-resolution images showed a very interest recovery process.

  15. Polar symmetry in three-dimensional analysis of laminates with angle plies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An improved procedure for the three dimensional finite element analysis of an angle ply laminate with a circular hole is discussed. The procecure exploits polar symmetry and is the basis for a new finite element computer code. For the broad class of laminates that contain angle plies, this code requires only one half as much computing capacity as conventional codes.

  16. Improvement of Epicentral Direction Estimation by P-wave Polarization Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Mitsutaka

    2016-04-01

    Polarization analysis has been used to analyze the polarization characteristics of waves and developed in various spheres, for example, electromagnetics, optics, and seismology. As for seismology, polarization analysis is used to discriminate seismic phases or to enhance specific phase (e.g., Flinn, 1965)[1], by taking advantage of the difference in polarization characteristics of seismic phases. In earthquake early warning, polarization analysis is used to estimate the epicentral direction using single station, based on the polarization direction of P-wave portion in seismic records (e.g., Smart and Sproules(1981) [2], Noda et al.,(2012) [3]). Therefore, improvement of the Estimation of Epicentral Direction by Polarization Analysis (EEDPA) directly leads to enhance the accuracy and promptness of earthquake early warning. In this study, the author tried to improve EEDPA by using seismic records of events occurred around Japan from 2003 to 2013. The author selected the events that satisfy following conditions. MJMA larger than 6.5 (JMA: Japan Meteorological Agency). Seismic records are available at least 3 stations within 300km in epicentral distance. Seismic records obtained at stations with no information on seismometer orientation were excluded, so that precise and quantitative evaluation of accuracy of EEDPA becomes possible. In the analysis, polarization has calculated by Vidale(1986) [4] that extended the method proposed by Montalbetti and Kanasewich(1970)[5] to use analytical signal. As a result of the analysis, the author found that accuracy of EEDPA improves by about 15% if velocity records, not displacement records, are used contrary to the author's expectation. Use of velocity records enables reduction of CPU time in integration of seismic records and improvement in promptness of EEDPA, although this analysis is still rough and further scrutiny is essential. At this moment, the author used seismic records that obtained by simply integrating acceleration

  17. Small angle scattering polarization biopsy: a comparative analysis of various skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimnyakov, D. A.; Alonova, M. V.; Yermolenko, S. B.; Ivashko, P. V.; Reshetnikova, E. M.; Galkina, E. M.; Utz, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    An approach to differentiation of the morphological features of normal and pathological human epidermis on the base of statistical analysis of the local polarization states of laser light forward scattered by in-vitro tissue samples is discussed. The eccentricity and the azimuth angle of local polarization ellipses retrieved for various positions of the focused laser beam on the tissue surface, and the coefficient of collimated transmittance are considered as the diagnostic parameters for differentiation. The experimental data obtained with the psoriasis, discoid lupus erythematosus, alopecia, lichen planus, scabies, demodex, and normal skin samples are presented.

  18. High Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmayr, Remi; Azuma, Kumiko; Yamada, Hironobu; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Takata, Morimasa

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) technology for ice core analyses has been developed to reconstruct the past changes of the climate system 1), 2). Compared with traditional analyses of discrete samples, a CFA system offers much faster and higher depth resolution analyses. It also generates a decontaminated sample stream without time-consuming sample processing procedure by using the inner area of an ice-core sample.. The CFA system that we have been developing is currently able to continuously measure stable water isotopes 3) and electrolytic conductivity, as well as to collect discrete samples for the both inner and outer areas with variable depth resolutions. Chemistry analyses4) and methane-gas analysis 5) are planned to be added using the continuous water stream system 5). In order to optimize the resolution of the current system with minimal sample volumes necessary for different analyses, our CFA system typically melts an ice core at 1.6 cm/min. Instead of using a wire position encoder with typical 1mm positioning resolution 6), we decided to use a high-accuracy CCD Laser displacement sensor (LKG-G505, Keyence). At the 1.6 cm/min melt rate, the positioning resolution was increased to 0.27mm. Also, the mixing volume that occurs in our open split debubbler is regulated using its weight. The overflow pumping rate is smoothly PID controlled to maintain the weight as low as possible, while keeping a safety buffer of water to avoid air bubbles downstream. To evaluate the system's depth-resolution, we will present the preliminary data of electrolytic conductivity obtained by melting 12 bags of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core. The samples correspond to different climate intervals (Greenland Stadial 21, 22, Greenland Stadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 7, Greenland Stadial 8). We will present results for the Greenland Stadial -8, whose depths and ages are between 1723.7 and 1724.8 meters, and 35.520 to

  19. Analysis of broadcasting satellite service feeder link power control and polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical analyses of carrier to interference power ratios (C/Is) were performed in assessing 17.5 GHz feeder links using (1) fixed power and power control, and (2) orthogonal linear and orthogonal circular polarizations. The analysis methods and attenuation/depolarization data base were based on CCIR findings to the greatest possible extent. Feeder links using adaptive power control were found to neither cause or suffer significant C/I degradation relative to that for fixed power feeder links having similar or less stringent availability objectives. The C/Is for sharing between orthogonal linearly polarized feeder links were found to be significantly higher than those for circular polarization only in links to nominally colocated satellites from nominally colocated Earth stations in high attenuation environments.

  20. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E.; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of scientific applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, our microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression with single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, the technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth, with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health. PMID:26530004

  1. Depolarization ratio, SNR estimation, and polarization sensitivity analysis for a commercial Raman depolarization lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdikos, George; Georgoussis, George

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we focus on the estimation of the Signal-to-Noise (SNR) ratio of a 3-channel commercial (Raymetics) volcanic ash detection system, (LR111-D300), already operating in UK, and also, we perform a basic lidar polarization sensitivity analysis. The results show that SNR values are higher than 10 for ranges up to 13 km for daytime conditions. This is a quite good result compared with other values presented in bibliography and prove that such system is able to detect volcanic ash detection over a range of 20 km. We also assess the lidar polarization sensitivity and then, we estimate the linear depolarization ratio. By careful choice of the optical components (emitting and receiving optics), it has been shown that uncertainties of polarization states at receiver (and thus too depolarization ratio estimation) can be much reduced.

  2. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; ...

    2015-11-04

    Here, interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of science applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, this microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression withmore » single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange experiments. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, our technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health.« less

  3. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E.; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-11-04

    Here, interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of science applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, this microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression with single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange experiments. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, our technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health.

  4. Penetration of polar brominated DBPs through the activated carbon columns during total organic bromine analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xiangru; Krasner, Stuart W; Shang, Chii; Zhai, Hongyan; Liu, Jiaqi; Yang, Mengting

    2011-10-01

    Total organic bromine (TOBr) is a collective parameter representing all the brominated organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water samples. TOBr can be measured using the adsorption-pyrolysis method according to Standard Method 5320B. This method involves that brominated organic DBPs are separated from inorganic halides and concentrated from aqueous solution by adsorption onto the activated carbon (AC). Previous studies have reported that some commonly known brominated DBPs can partially penetrate through the AC during this adsorption step. In this work, the penetration of polar brominated DBPs through AC and ozone-modified AC was explored with two simulated drinking water samples and one chlorinated wastewater effluent sample. Polar brominated DBPs were selectively detected with a novel precursor ion scan method using electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The results show that 3.4% and 10.4% of polar brominated DBPs (in terms of total ion intensity) in the chlorinated Suwannee River fulvic acid and humic acid samples, respectively, penetrated through the AC, and 19.6% of polar brominated DBPs in the chlorinated secondary wastewater effluent sample penetrated through the AC. The ozone-modification of AC minimized the penetration of polar brominated DBPs during the TOBr analysis.

  5. Analysis of polar and non-polar VOCs from ambient and source matrices: Development of a new canister autosampler which meets TO-15 QA/QC criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, M.L.W.; Neal, D.; Uchtman, R.; Naughton, V.

    1997-12-31

    Approximately 108 of the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) specified in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are classified as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Of the 108 VOCs, nearly 35% are oxygenated or polar compounds. While more than one sample introduction technique exists for the analysis of these air toxics, SUMMA{reg_sign} canister sampling is suitable for the most complete range of analytes. A broad concentration range of polar and non-polar species can be analyzed from canisters. A new canister autosampler, the Tekmar AUTOCan{trademark} Elite autosampler, has been developed which incorporates the autosampler and concentrator into a single unit. Analysis of polar and non-polar VOCs has been performed. This paper demonstrates adherence to the technical acceptance objectives outlined in the TO-15 methodology including initial calibration, daily calibration, blank analysis, method detection limits and laboratory control samples. The analytical system consists of a Tekmar AUTOCan{trademark} Elite autosampler interfaced to a Hewlett Packard{reg_sign} 5890/5972 MSD.

  6. Magnetization stability analysis of the Stoner-Wohlfarth model under a spin-polarized current with a tilted polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Sun, Z. Z.

    2014-02-14

    The stationary-state solutions of magnetization dynamics under a spin-polarized current that was polarized in an arbitrary direction were investigated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation for a single-domain magnet. Taking into consideration the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, the equilibrium directions of the magnetization vectors were analytically obtained by solving an algebraic cubic equation. It was found that one to three pairs of magnetization equilibrium states existed, depending on the current intensity and the direction of the spin polarization. By numerically analyzing the stabilities of these equilibrium states, the threshold switching current for the reversing the magnetic vector was obtained under different current polarization configurations, which may be useful for use in future spintronics devices.

  7. Analysis of guided-resonance-based polarization beam splitting in photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Onur; Fan, Shanhui; Solgaard, Olav

    2008-11-01

    We present an analysis of the phase and amplitude responses of guided resonances in a photonic crystal slab. Through this analysis, we obtain the general rules and conditions under which a photonic crystal slab can be employed as a general elliptical polarization beam splitter, separating an incoming beam equally into its two orthogonal constituents, so that half the power is reflected in one polarization state, and half the power is transmitted in the other state. We show that at normal incidence a photonic crystal slab acts as a dual quarter-wave retarder in which the fast and slow axes are switched for reflection and transmission. We also analyze the case where such a structure operates at oblique incidences. As a result we show that the effective dielectric constant of the photonic crystal slab imposes the Brewster angle as a boundary, separating two ranges of angles with different mechanisms of polarization beam splitting. We show that the diattenuation can be tuned from zero to one to make the structure a circular or linear polarization beam splitter. We verify our analytical analysis through finite-difference time-domain simulations and experimental measurements at infrared wavelengths.

  8. Wavelet analysis of polar vortex variability over the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glovin, Grant M.; Arbetter, Todd E.; Lynch, Amanda H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent increases in extreme weather events in the Northern Hemisphere have been linked to amplified planetary waves. Changes in planetary wave properties are linked to changes in climate; hence, finding a mechanism that links the planetary wave variability under climatic forcing and midlatitude blocking events has engendered a great deal of interest. In this study, wavelet analysis is applied to time series of planetary wave phase speeds at high latitudes as a first step to assessing the potential for identifying these mechanisms in the observational record. A circumpolar multiannual cycle increase is found but signals also demonstrate a complex westward propagation pattern with periods of intense wave variability. Significant correlations between wavelet power at all time scales and albedo, snow cover, atmospheric ozone levels, and surface air temperature are demonstrated.

  9. Runoff Analysis Considering Orographical Features Using Dual Polarization Radar Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hui-seong; Shin, Hyun-seok; Kang, Na-rae; Lee, Choong-Ke; Kim, Hung-soo

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the necessity for rainfall estimation and forecasting using the radar is being highlighted, due to the frequent occurrence of torrential rainfall resulting from abnormal changes of weather. Radar rainfall data represents temporal and spatial distributions properly and replace the existing rain gauge networks. It is also frequently applied in many hydrologic field researches. However, the radar rainfall data has an accuracy limitation since it estimates rainfall, by monitoring clouds and precipitation particles formed around the surface of the earth(1.5-3km above the surface) or the atmosphere. In a condition like Korea where nearly 70% of the land is covered by mountainous areas, there are lots of restrictions to use rainfall radar, because of the occurrence of beam blocking areas by topography. This study is aiming at analyzing runoff and examining the applicability of (R(Z), R(ZDR) and R(KDP)) provided by the Han River Flood Control Office(HRFCO) based on the basin elevation of Nakdong river watershed. For this purpose, the amount of radar rainfall of each rainfall event was estimated according to three sub-basins of Nakdong river watershed with the average basin elevation above 400m which are Namgang dam, Andong dam and Hapcheon dam and also another three sub-basins with the average basin elevation below 150m which are Waegwan, Changryeong and Goryeong. After runoff analysis using a distribution model, Vflo model, the results were reviewed and compared with the observed runoff. This study estimated the rainfall by using the radar-rainfall transform formulas, (R(Z), R(Z,ZDR) and R(Z,ZDR,KDP) for four stormwater events and compared the results with the point rainfall of the rain gauge. As the result, it was overestimated or underestimated, depending on rainfall events. Also, calculation indicates that the values from R(Z,ZDR) and R(Z,ZDR,KDP) relatively showed the most similar results. Moreover the runoff analysis using the estimated radar rainfall is

  10. ISO Lensing Studies: background galaxies and foreground cluster properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Martinez, Ricardo

    2003-02-01

    A number of ISO programmes, totaling over 100 hours of observation time, made use of the gravitational lensing phenomenon to extend the sensitivity of ISO observations. Substantial results derived from those programmes have been published, or are in the peer review process, addressing the MIR properties of the background lensed galaxy population. These results, which have important implications for galaxy evolution, and which resolve a large fraction of the 15 and 7 μm infrared-background light, will be briefly summarised. But the data has much further potential. Little has been published to date concerning the implications of the ISO lensing data for the foreground clusters themselves, nor addressing the overlap between the observed ISO sources and lensed populations seen at X-Ray and Sub-mm wavelengths. We report briefly on an ongoing programme to systematically reassess the set of ISO observations of lensing galaxy clusters and to describe and compare the IR properties of the clusters themselves. The overlap between ISO source lists and recently published lists of X-Ray and Sub-mm sources in the same fields is under study.

  11. COSMOG: Cosmology Oriented Sub-mm Modeling of Galactic Foregrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Leisawitz, D.

    2004-01-01

    With upcoming missions in mid- and far-Infrared there is a need for software packages to reliably simulate the planned observations. This would help in both planning the observation and scanning strategy and in developing the concepts of the far-off missions. As this workshop demonstrated, many of the new missions are to be in the far-IR range of the electromagnetic spectrum and at the same time will map the sky with a sub-arcsec angular resolution. We present here a computer package for simulating foreground maps for the planned sub-mm and far-IR missions. such as SPECS. The package allows to study confusion limits and simulate cosmological observations for specified sky location interactively and in real time. Most of the emission at wavelengths long-ward of approximately 50 microns is dominated by Galactic cirrus and Zodiacal dust emission. Stellar emission at these wavelengths is weak and is for now neglected. Cosmological sources (distant and not-so-distant) galaxies for specified cosmologies will be added. Briefly, the steps that the algorithm goes through is described.

  12. SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN POLARIZING FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETERS FOR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagler, Peter C.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan

    2015-11-15

    The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both of these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing FTSs, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS—emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects—and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.

  13. Systematic Effects in Polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometers for Cosmic Microwave Background Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, Peter C.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan; Tucker, Gregory S.

    2015-11-01

    The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both of these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing FTSs, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS—emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects—and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.

  14. Analysis of polarization radar returns from ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, A.; Sturniolo, O.; Prodi, F.

    Using a modified T-matrix code, some polarimetric single-scattering radar parameters ( Zh,v, LDR h,v, ρhv, ZDR and δhv) from populations of ice crystals in ice phase at 94 GHz, modeled with axisymmetric prolate and oblate spheroidal shapes for a Γ-size distribution with different α parameter ( α=0, 1, 2) and characteristic dimension Lm varying from 0.1 to 1.8 mm, have been computed. Some of the results for different radar elevation angles and different orientation distribution for fixed water content are shown. Deeper analysis has been carried out for pure extensive radar polarimetric variables; all of them are strongly dependent on the shapes (characterised by the aspect ratio), the canting angle and the radar elevation angle. Quantities like ZDR or δhv at side incidence or LDR h and ρhv at vertical incidence can be used to investigate the preferred orientation of the particles and, in some cases, their habits. We analyze scatterplots using couples of pure extensive variables. The scatterplots with the most evident clustering properties for the different habits seem to be those in the ( ZDR [ χ=0°], δhv [ χ=0°]), in the ( ZDR [ χ=0°], LDR h [ χ=90°]) and in the ( ZDR [ χ=0°], ρhv [ χ=90°]) plane. Among these, the most appealing one seems to be that involving ZDR and ρhv variables. To avoid the problem of having simultaneous measurements with a side and a vertical-looking radar, we believe that measurements of these two extensive variables using a radar with an elevation angle around 45° can be an effective instrument to identify different habits. In particular, this general idea can be useful for future space-borne polarimetric radars involved in the studies of high ice clouds. It is also believed that these results can be used in next challenge of developing probabilistic and expert methods for identifying hydrometeor types by W-band radars.

  15. Characterization of foreground emission on degree angular scales for CMB B-mode observations . Thermal dust and synchrotron signal from Planck and WMAP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krachmalnicoff, N.; Baccigalupi, C.; Aumont, J.; Bersanelli, M.; Mennella, A.

    2016-04-01

    We quantify the contamination from polarized diffuse Galactic synchrotron and thermal dust emissions to the B modes of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies on the degree angular scale, using data from the Planck and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellites. We compute power spectra of foreground polarized emissions in 352 circular sky patches located at Galactic latitude | b | > 20°, each of which covers about 1.5% of the sky. We make use of the spectral properties derived from Planck and WMAP data to extrapolate, in frequency, the amplitude of synchrotron and thermal dust B-mode spectra in the multipole bin centered at ℓ ≃ 80. In this way we estimate the amplitude and frequency of the foreground minimum for each analyzed region. We detect both dust and synchrotron signal on degree angular scales and at a 3σ confidence level in 28 regions. Here the minimum of the foreground emission is found at frequencies between 60 and 100 GHz with an amplitude expressed in terms of the equivalent tensor-to-scalar ratio, rFG,min, between ~0.06 and ~1. Some of these regions are located at high Galactic latitudes in areas close to the ones that are being observed by suborbital experiments. In all the other sky patches where synchrotron or dust B modes are not detectable with the required confidence, we put upper limits on the minimum foreground contamination and find values of rFG,min between ~0.05 and ~1.5 in the frequency range 60-90 GHz. Our results indicate that, with the current sensitivity at low frequency, it is not possible to exclude the presence of synchrotron contamination to CMB cosmological B modes at the level requested to measure a gravitational waves signal with r ≃ 0.01 at frequency ≲100 GHz anywhere. Therefore, more accurate data are essential in order to better characterize the synchrotron polarized component and, eventually, to remove its contamination to CMB signal through foreground cleaning.

  16. Earth orientation from lunar laser ranging and an error analysis of polar motion services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) data are obtained on the basis of the timing of laser pulses travelling from observatories on earth to retroreflectors placed on the moon's surface during the Apollo program. The modeling and analysis of the LLR data can provide valuable insights into earth's dynamics. The feasibility to model accurately the lunar orbit over the full 13-year observation span makes it possible to conduct relatively long-term studies of variations in the earth's rotation. A description is provided of general analysis techniques, and the calculation of universal time (UT1) from LLR is discussed. Attention is also given to a summary of intercomparisons with different techniques, polar motion results and intercomparisons, and a polar motion error analysis.

  17. Stability and bifurcation analysis of spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nianqiang; Susanto, H.; Cemlyn, B. R.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J.

    2017-07-01

    A detailed stability and bifurcation analysis of spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is presented. We consider both steady-state and dynamical regimes. In the case of steady-state operation, we carry out a small-signal (asymptotic) stability analysis of the steady-state solutions for a representative set of spin-VCSEL parameters. Compared with full numerical simulation, we show this produces surprisingly accurate results over the whole range of pump ellipticity, and spin-VCSEL bias up to 1.5 times the threshold. We then combine direct numerical integration of the extended spin-flip model and standard continuation technique to examine the underlying dynamics. We find that the spin VCSEL undergoes a period-doubling or quasiperiodic route to chaos as either the pump magnitude or polarization ellipticity is varied. Moreover, we find that different dynamical states can coexist in a finite interval of pump intensity, and observe a hysteresis loop whose width is tunable via the pump polarization. Finally we report a comparison of stability maps in the plane of the pump polarization against pump magnitude produced by categorizing the dynamic output of a spin VCSEL from time-domain simulations, against supercritical bifurcation curves obtained by the standard continuation package auto. This helps us better understand the underlying dynamics of the spin VCSELs.

  18. Long-term Optical Polarization Variability and Multiwavelength Analysis of Blazar Mrk 421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraija, N.; Benítez, E.; Hiriart, D.; Sorcia, M.; López, J. M.; Mújica, R.; Cabrera, J. I.; de Diego, J. A.; Rojas-Luis, M.; Salazar-Vázquez, F. A.; Galván-Gámez, A.

    2017-09-01

    The results of 8 yr R-band photopolarimetric data of blazar Mrk 421 collected from 2008 February to 2016 May are presented, along with extensive multiwavelength observations covering radio to TeV γ-rays around the flares observed in 2008 May, 2010 March, and 2013 April. The most important results are found in 2013, when the source displayed in the R band a very high brightness state of 11.29 ± 0.03 mag (93.60 ± 1.53 mJy) on April 10 and a polarization degree of 11.00% ± 0.44% on May 13. The analysis of the optical data shows that the polarization variability is due to the superposition of two polarized components that might be produced in two distinct emitting regions. An intranight photopolarimetric variability study carried out over seven nights after the 2013 April maximum found flux and polarization variations on the nights of April 14, 15, 16, and 19. In addition, the flux shows a minimum variability timescale of Δt = 2.34 ± 0.12 hr, and the polarization degree presents variations of ∼1%–2% on a timescale of Δ t ∼ minutes. Also, a detailed analysis of the intranight data shows a coherence length of the large-scale magnetic field of {l}B≃ 0.3 pc, which is the same order of magnitude as the distance traveled by the relativistic shocks. This result suggests that there is a connection between the intranight polarimetric variations and spatial changes of the magnetic field. Analysis of the complete R-band data along with the historical optical light curve found for this object shows that Mrk 421 varies with a period of 16.26 ± 1.78 yr.

  19. FMRI analysis of contrast polarity processing in face-selective cortex in humans and monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xiaomin; Nasr, Shahin; Devaney, Kathryn J.; Holt, Daphne J.; Tootell, Roger B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Recognition is strongly impaired when the normal contrast polarity of faces is reversed. For instance, otherwise-familiar faces become very difficult to recognize when viewed as photographic negatives. Here, we used fMRI to demonstrate related properties in visual cortex: 1) fMRI responses in the human Fusiform Face Area (FFA) decreased strongly (26%) to contrast-reversed faces across a wide range of contrast levels (5.3-100% RMS contrast), in all subjects tested. In a whole brain analysis, this contrast polarity bias was largely confined to the Fusiform Face Area (FFA; p < 0.0001), with possible involvement of a left occipital face-selective region. 2) It is known that reversing facial contrast affects three image properties in parallel (absorbance, shading, and specular reflection). Here, comparison of FFA responses to those in V1 suggests that the contrast polarity bias is produced in FFA only when all three component properties were reversed simultaneously, which suggests a prominent non-linearity in FFA processing. 3) Across a wide range (180°) of illumination source angles, 3D face shapes without texture produced response constancy in FFA, without a contrast polarity bias. 4) Consistent with psychophysics, analogous fMRI biases for normal contrast polarity were not produced by non-face objects, with image statistics similar to the face stimuli. 5) Using fMRI, we also demonstrated a contrast polarity bias in awake behaving macaque monkeys, in the cortical region considered homologous to human FFA. Thus common cortical mechanisms may underlie facial contrast processing across ~ 25 million years of primate evolution. PMID:23518007

  20. fMRI analysis of contrast polarity in face-selective cortex in humans and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiaomin; Nasr, Shahin; Devaney, Kathryn J; Holt, Daphne J; Tootell, Roger B H

    2013-08-01

    Recognition is strongly impaired when the normal contrast polarity of faces is reversed. For instance, otherwise-familiar faces become very difficult to recognize when viewed as photographic negatives. Here, we used fMRI to demonstrate related properties in visual cortex: 1) fMRI responses in the human Fusiform Face Area (FFA) decreased strongly (26%) to contrast-reversed faces across a wide range of contrast levels (5.3-100% RMS contrast), in all subjects tested. In a whole brain analysis, this contrast polarity bias was largely confined to the Fusiform Face Area (FFA; p<0.0001), with possible involvement of a left occipital face-selective region. 2) It is known that reversing facial contrast affects three image properties in parallel (absorbance, shading, and specular reflection). Here, comparison of FFA responses to those in V1 suggests that the contrast polarity bias is produced in FFA only when all three component properties were reversed simultaneously, which suggests a prominent non-linearity in FFA processing. 3) Across a wide range (180°) of illumination source angles, 3D face shapes without texture produced response constancy in FFA, without a contrast polarity bias. 4) Consistent with psychophysics, analogous fMRI biases for normal contrast polarity were not produced by non-face objects, with image statistics similar to the face stimuli. 5) Using fMRI, we also demonstrated a contrast polarity bias in awake behaving macaque monkeys, in the cortical region considered homologous to human FFA. Thus common cortical mechanisms may underlie facial contrast processing across ~25 million years of primate evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Foreground Segmentation in Depth Imagery Using Depth and Spatial Dynamic Models for Video Surveillance Applications

    PubMed Central

    del-Blanco, Carlos R.; Mantecón, Tomás; Camplani, Massimo; Jaureguizar, Fernando; Salgado, Luis; García, Narciso

    2014-01-01

    Low-cost systems that can obtain a high-quality foreground segmentation almost independently of the existing illumination conditions for indoor environments are very desirable, especially for security and surveillance applications. In this paper, a novel foreground segmentation algorithm that uses only a Kinect depth sensor is proposed to satisfy the aforementioned system characteristics. This is achieved by combining a mixture of Gaussians-based background subtraction algorithm with a new Bayesian network that robustly predicts the foreground/background regions between consecutive time steps. The Bayesian network explicitly exploits the intrinsic characteristics of the depth data by means of two dynamic models that estimate the spatial and depth evolution of the foreground/background regions. The most remarkable contribution is the depth-based dynamic model that predicts the changes in the foreground depth distribution between consecutive time steps. This is a key difference with regard to visible imagery, where the color/gray distribution of the foreground is typically assumed to be constant. Experiments carried out on two different depth-based databases demonstrate that the proposed combination of algorithms is able to obtain a more accurate segmentation of the foreground/background than other state-of-the art approaches. PMID:24469352

  2. Contamination of the Epoch of Reionization power spectrum in the presence of foregrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Peter H.; Lentati, Lindley; Alexander, Paul; Carilli, Chris L.

    2016-11-01

    We construct foreground simulations comprising spatially correlated extragalactic and diffuse Galactic emission components and calculate the `intrinsic' (instrument-free) two-dimensional spatial power spectrum and the cylindrically and spherically averaged three-dimensional k-space power spectra of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) and our foreground simulations using a Bayesian power spectral estimation framework. This leads us to identify a model-dependent region of optimal signal estimation for our foreground and EoR models, within which the spatial power in the EoR signal relative to the foregrounds is maximized. We identify a target field-dependent region, in k-space, of intrinsic foreground power spectral contamination at low k⊥ and k∥ and a transition to a relatively foreground-free intrinsic EoR window in the complement to this region. The contaminated region of k-space demonstrates that simultaneous estimation of the EoR and foregrounds is important for obtaining statistically robust estimates of the EoR power spectrum; biased results will be obtained from methodologies that ignore their covariance. Using simulated observations with frequency-dependent uv-coverage and primary beam, with the former derived for the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array in 37-antenna and 331-antenna configuration, we recover instrumental power spectra consistent with their intrinsic counterparts. We discuss the implications of these results for optimal strategies for unbiased estimation of the EoR power spectrum.

  3. Background, foreground and nearby matter influence on strong gravitational lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroszynski, M.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.

    2012-07-01

    We investigate strong lensing by non-singular finite isothermal ellipsoids taking into account the influence of the matter along the line of sight and in the close lens vicinity. We compare three descriptions of light propagation: the full approach taking into account all matter inhomogeneities along the rays; the single plane approach, where we take into account the influence of the strong lens neighbours but neglect the foreground and background objects; and the single lens approach. In each case, we simulate many strong lensing configurations placing a point source at the same redshift but in different locations inside the region surrounded by caustics. We further analyse configurations of four or five images. For every simulated strong lensing configuration, we attempt to fit a simplified lens model using a single isothermal ellipsoid or a single isothermal ellipsoid with external shear. The single lens fits to configurations obtained in the full approach are rejected in majority of cases with 95 per cent significance. For configurations obtained in the single plane approach, the rejection rate is substantially lower. Also the inclusion of external shear in simplified modelling improves the chances of obtaining acceptable fits, but the problem is not solved completely. The quantitative estimates of the rates of rejection of simplified models depend on the required accuracy of the models, and we present few illustrative examples, which show that both matter close to the lens and matter along the rays do have important influence on lens modelling. We also estimate the typical value of the external shear and compare the fitted parameters of the simplified models with the parameters of the lenses used in the simulations.

  4. Measuring the tensor to scalar ratio from CMB B-modes in the presence of foregrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betoule, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Delabrouille, J.; Le Jeune, M.; Cardoso, J.-F.

    2009-09-01

    Aims: We investigate the impact of polarised foreground emission on the performances of future CMB experiments aiming to detect primordial tensor fluctuations in the early universe. In particular, we study the accuracy that can be achieved in measuring the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in the presence of foregrounds. Methods: We designed a component separation pipeline, based on the Smica method, aimed at estimating r and the foreground contamination from the data with no prior assumption on the frequency dependence or spatial distribution of the foregrounds. We derived error bars accounting for the uncertainty on foreground contribution. We used the current knowledge of galactic and extra-galactic foregrounds as implemented in the Planck sky model (PSM) to build simulations of the sky emission. We applied the method to simulated observations of this modelled sky emission, for various experimental setups. Instrumental systematics are not considered in this study. Results: Our method, with Planck data, permits us to detect r=0.1 from B-modes only at more than 3σ. With a future dedicated space experiment, such as EPIC, we can measure r=0.001 at ˜ 6 σ for the most ambitious mission designs. Most of the sensitivity to r comes from scales 20 ≤ ℓ ≤ 150 for high r values, shifting to lower ℓ's for progressively smaller r. This shows that large-scale foreground emission does not prevent proper measurement of the reionisation bump for full sky experiments. We also investigate the observation of a small but clean part of the sky. We show that diffuse foregrounds remain a concern for a sensitive ground-based experiment with a limited frequency coverage when measuring r < 0.1. Using the Planck data as additional frequency channels to constrain the foregrounds in such ground-based observations reduces the error by a factor two but does not allow detection of r=0.01. An alternate strategy, based on a deep field space mission with a wide frequency coverage, would allow us

  5. Planck 2015 results: XXV. Diffuse low-frequency Galactic foregrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Désert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A. W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vidal, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, we discuss the Galactic foreground emission between 20 and 100 GHz based on observations by Planck and WMAP. The total intensity in this part of the spectrum is dominated by free-free and spinning dust emission, whereas the polarized intensity is dominated by synchrotron emission. The Commander component-separation tool has been used to separate the various astrophysical processes in total intensity. Comparison with radio recombination line templates verifies the recovery of the free-free emission along the Galactic plane. Comparison of the high-latitude Hα emission with our free-free map shows residuals that correlate with dust optical depth, consistent with a fraction (≈30%) of Hα having been scattered by high-latitude dust. We highlight a number of diffuse spinning dust morphological features at high latitude. There is substantial spatial variation in the spinning dust spectrum, with the emission peak (in Iν) ranging from below 20 GHz to more than 50 GHz. There is a strong tendency for the spinning dust component near many prominent H ii regions to have a higher peak frequency, suggesting that this increase in peak frequency is associated with dust in the photo-dissociation regions around the nebulae. The emissivity of spinning dust in these diffuse regions is of the same order as previous detections in the literature. Over the entire sky, the Commander solution finds more anomalous microwave emission (AME) than the WMAP component maps, at the expense of synchrotron and free-free emission. This can be explained by the difficulty in separating multiple broadband components with a limited number of frequency maps. Future surveys, particularly at 5–20 GHz, will greatly improve the separation by constraining the synchrotron spectrum. We combine Planck and WMAP data to make the highest signal-to-noise ratio maps yet of the intensity of the all-sky polarized synchrotron emission at frequencies above a few GHz. Most of the high

  6. Faraday tomography of the local interstellar medium with LOFAR: Galactic foregrounds towards IC 342

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eck, C. L.; Haverkorn, M.; Alves, M. I. R.; Beck, R.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Enßlin, T.; Farnes, J. S.; Ferrière, K.; Heald, G.; Horellou, C.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Jelić, V.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Sobey, C.; Sridhar, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the interstellar medium (ISM), but are difficult to detect and characterize. The new generation of low-frequency radio telescopes, such as the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR: a Square Kilometre Array-low pathfinder), provides advancements in our capability of probing Galactic magnetism through low-frequency polarimetry. Maps of diffuse polarized radio emission and the associated Faraday rotation can be used to infer properties of, and trace structure in, the magnetic fields in the ISM. However, to date very little of the sky has been probed at high angular and Faraday depth resolution. We observed a 5° by 5° region centred on the nearby galaxy IC 342 (ℓ = 138.2°,b = + 10.6°) using the LOFAR high-band antennae in the frequency range 115-178 MHz. We imaged this region at 4'.5x3'.8 resolution and performed Faraday tomography to detect foreground Galactic polarized synchrotron emission separated by Faraday depth (different amounts of Faraday rotation). Our Faraday depth cube shows a rich polarized structure, with up to 30 K of polarized emission at 150 MHz. We clearly detect two polarized features that extend over most of the field, but are clearly separated in Faraday depth. Simulations of the behaviour of the depolarization of Faraday-thick structures at such low frequencies show that such structures would be too strongly depolarized to explain the observations. These structures are therefore rejected as the source of the observed polarized features. Only Faraday thin structures will not be strongly depolarized at low frequencies; producing such structures requires localized variations in the ratio of synchrotron emissivity to Faraday depth per unit distance. Such variations can arise from several physical phenomena, such as a transition between regions of ionized and (mostly) neutral gas. We conclude that the observed polarized emission is Faraday thin, and propose that the emission originates from two mostly neutral clouds in the local ISM

  7. Analysis of elliptically polarized cavity backed antennas using a combined FEM/MoM/GTD technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, M. D.; Fralick, D. T.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation pattern prediction analysis of elliptically polarized cavity backed aperture antennas in a finite ground plane is carried out using a combined finite element method (FEM)/method of moments (MoM)/geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) technique. The magnetic current on the cavity-backed aperture in an infinite ground plane is calculated using the combined FEM/MoM analysis. GTD, including the slope diffraction contribution, is used to calculate the diffracted fields due to both soft and hard polarizations at the edges of the finite ground plane. Numerical results for the radiation patterns of a cavity backed circular spiral microstrip patch antenna excited by a coaxial probe in a finite rectangular ground plane are computed and compared with experimental results.

  8. A method for analysis of vanillic acid in polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieman, M. M.; Greaves, J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2015-02-01

    Biomass burning generates a wide range of organic compounds that are transported via aerosols to the polar ice sheets. Vanillic acid is a product of conifer lignin combustion, which has previously been observed in laboratory and ambient biomass burning aerosols. In this study a method was developed for analysis of vanillic acid in melted polar ice core samples. Vanillic acid was chromatographically separated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected using electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Using a 100 μL injection loop and analysis time of 4 min, we obtained a detection limit of 77 ppt (parts per trillion by mass) and an analytical precision of ±10%. Measurements of vanillic acid in Arctic ice core samples from the Siberian Akademii Nauk core are shown as an example application of the method.

  9. A quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2017-09-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the chemical reactions involved in polar ozone depletion in the stratosphere and of the relevant reaction pathways and cycles. While the reactions involved in polar ozone depletion are well known, quantitative estimates of the importance of individual reactions or reaction cycles are rare. In particular, there is no comprehensive and quantitative study of the reaction rates and cycles averaged over the polar vortex under conditions of heterogeneous chemistry so far. We show time series of reaction rates averaged over the core of the polar vortex in winter and spring for all relevant reactions and indicate which reaction pathways and cycles are responsible for the vortex-averaged net change of the key species involved in ozone depletion, i.e., ozone, chlorine species (ClOx, HCl, ClONO2), bromine species, nitrogen species (HNO3, NOx) and hydrogen species (HOx). For clarity, we focus on one Arctic winter (2004-2005) and one Antarctic winter (2006) in a layer in the lower stratosphere around 54 hPa and show results for additional pressure levels and winters in the Supplement. Mixing ratios and reaction rates are obtained from runs of the ATLAS Lagrangian chemistry and transport model (CTM) driven by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim reanalysis data. An emphasis is put on the partitioning of the relevant chemical families (nitrogen, hydrogen, chlorine, bromine and odd oxygen) and activation and deactivation of chlorine.

  10. Analysis of millimetre-wave polarization diverse multiple-input multiple-output capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Nicholas P.; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Hansen, Hedley J.

    2015-01-01

    Millimetre-waves offer the possibility of wide bandwidth and consequently high data rate for wireless communications. For both uni- and dual-polarized systems, signals sent over a link may suffer severe degradation due to antenna misalignment. Orientation robustness may be enhanced by the use of mutual orthogonality in three dimensions. Multiple-input multiple-output polarization diversity offers a way of improving signal reception without the limitations associated with spatial diversity. Scattering effects often assist propagation through multipath. However, high path loss at millimetre-wave frequencies may limit any reception enhancement through scattering. We show that the inclusion of a third orthogonal dipole provides orientation robustness in this setting, as well as in a rich scattering environment, by means of a Rician fading channel model covering all orientations for a millimetre-wave, tri-orthogonal, half-wave dipole transmitter and receiver employing polarization diversity. Our simulation extends the analysis into three dimensions, fully exploiting individual sub-channel paths. In both the presence and absence of multipath effects, capacity is observed to be higher than that of a dual-polarized system over the majority of a field of view. PMID:27019723

  11. Analysis of millimetre-wave polarization diverse multiple-input multiple-output capacity.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Nicholas P; Ng, Brian W-H; Hansen, Hedley J; Abbott, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Millimetre-waves offer the possibility of wide bandwidth and consequently high data rate for wireless communications. For both uni- and dual-polarized systems, signals sent over a link may suffer severe degradation due to antenna misalignment. Orientation robustness may be enhanced by the use of mutual orthogonality in three dimensions. Multiple-input multiple-output polarization diversity offers a way of improving signal reception without the limitations associated with spatial diversity. Scattering effects often assist propagation through multipath. However, high path loss at millimetre-wave frequencies may limit any reception enhancement through scattering. We show that the inclusion of a third orthogonal dipole provides orientation robustness in this setting, as well as in a rich scattering environment, by means of a Rician fading channel model covering all orientations for a millimetre-wave, tri-orthogonal, half-wave dipole transmitter and receiver employing polarization diversity. Our simulation extends the analysis into three dimensions, fully exploiting individual sub-channel paths. In both the presence and absence of multipath effects, capacity is observed to be higher than that of a dual-polarized system over the majority of a field of view.

  12. Design and numerical analysis of a polarization-insensitive quantum well optoelectronic integrated amplifier-switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, E.; Ahmadi, V.

    2009-03-01

    A quantum well optoelectronic integrated amplifier-switch is proposed, in which the device operation mode (amplification or switching) is independent of input light polarization. It is composed of a tensile-strained periodic coupled-double-quantum well heterojunction phototransistor and a compressive strained multi quantum wells laser diode. This structure shows unresolved heavy hole and light hole transitions due to applying tensile strain in absorption region of phototransistor. Hence, the absorption spectra for TE and TM polarizations are almost equal which provide polarization independent operation. A rigorous numerical analysis based on the device rate equations for dynamic response and relative intensity noise is presented, for which we calculate the laser diode gain and phototransistor electroabsorption coefficient. The Hamiltonian of strained quantum well structure is numerically solved by Transfer matrix method taking into accounts the valence band mixing between heavy hole and light hole. In order to calculate the electroabsorption coefficient, the exciton equation is solved numerically in momentum space using Gaussian Quadrature method. Langevin noise in laser part, phototransistor current noise, input power noise and noise due to the internal optical feedback from laser to phototransistor are considered as the device noise sources. It is shown that the higher gain of the phototransistor for TM polarization and lower threshold current of compressive strained laser diode lead to reduction of the RIN in amplification mode.

  13. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens α-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears.

  14. Analysis of power efficiencies of polar transmitter and HPA in OFDM communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Heung-Gyoon

    2014-02-01

    Polar transmitter is known as good candidates for high data rate systems such as OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) because they can obtain high-efficiency switched-mode radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers. But it is important to consider the nonlinear effects and power efficiency of the amplifier in the OFDM communication systems. High PAPR (peak-to-average power ratio) causes performance degradation by non-linear distortion in OFDM communication system. So to avoid non-linear distortion, back-off is needed. In addition, output of amplifier is lower and the power efficiency is reduced because of back-off. In this article, we compare PAE (power added efficiency) of polar transmitter in OFDM system and PAE of HPA (high power amplifier) in OFDM system. Also, we analyse PAE according to back-off in DFT-spread OFDM (discrete Fourier transform-spread OFDM), which is PAPR reduction method and we compare with PAE of polar transmitter in OFDM system. And we analyse output spectrum of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM system. Through spectrum analysis, we analyse PAE of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM, which is satisfied with output spectrum mask of 3rd generation long term evolution (3G LTE) and also compare with PAE polar transmitter of OFDM system, which is satisfied with spectrum mask. Finally, we analyse PAE according to modulation method and analyse PAE of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM at same bit error rate.

  15. Analysis of Properties of the North and South Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Byrne, S.; Richardson, M. I.; Vasavada, A. R.; Titus, T. N.; Bell, J. F.; McConnochie, T. H.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the many questions of Martian exploration is to uncover the history of Mars, through analysis of the polar layered deposits (PLD). Martian polar ice caps hold most of the exposed water ice on the surface of Mars and yet their history and physical processes involved in their formation are unclear. We will attempt to contribute to our knowledge of the composition and stratigraphy of the PLD. In this work we present the latest imaging data acquired by the Mars Odyssey THermal EMission Imaging System (THEMIS) [1] and place it into context of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data. We have discussed the North Polar data in [5]. This work concentrates on data acquired over the South pole of Mars and compares properties of North and South PLD. We are primarily interested in properties of the layers in both ice caps : their continuity, morphology and stratigraphy. These questions can be addressed by THEMIS VIS color images, along with MOC high resolution data and MOLA Digital Elevation Models (DEM). We will investigate thermophysical properties of the layered deposits employing THEMIS IR images. Based on the data obtained by the orbiting spacecraft and described here, we will attempt to expose major directions for modeling and further understanding of the physical processes involved in the formation of the polar layered terrain

  16. Method for analysis of polar volatile trace components in aqueous samples by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Johan; Roeraade, Johan

    2005-05-15

    A new method has been developed for direct analysis of volatile polar trace compounds in aqueous samples by gas chromatography. Water samples are injected onto a short packed precolumn containing anhydrous lithium chloride. A capillary column is coupled in series with the prefractionation column for final separation of the analytes. The enrichment principle of the salt precolumn is reverse to the principles employed in conventional methods such as SPE or SPME in which a sorbent or adsorbent is utilized to trap or concentrate the analytes. Such methods are not efficient for highly polar compounds. In the LiCl precolumn concept, the water matrix is strongly retained on the hygroscopic salt, whereas polar as well as nonpolar volatile organic compounds show very low retention and are eluted ahead of the water. After transfer of the analytes to the capillary column, the retained bulk water is removed by backflushing the precolumn at elevated temperature. For direct injections of 120 microL of aqueous samples, the combined time for injection and preseparation is only 3.5 min. With this procedure, direct repetitive automated analyses of highly volatile polar compounds such as methanol or tetrahydrofuran can be performed, and a limit of quantification in the low parts-per-billion region utilizing a flame ionization detector is demonstrated.

  17. Neutron xyz - polarization analysis at a time-of-flight instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, Georg; Stewart, John Ross; Andersen, Ken

    2015-01-01

    When implementing a dedicated polarization analysis setup at a neutron time-of-flight instrument with a large area detector, one faces enormous challenges. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made towards this goal over the last few years. This paper addresses systematic limitations of the traditional method that is used to make these measurements, and a possible strategy to overcome these limitations. This will be important, for diffraction as well as inelastic experiments, where the scattering occurs mostly out-of-plane.

  18. Simplified polarization demultiplexing based on Stokes vector analysis for intensity-modulation direct-detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Yan, Lianshan; Chen, Zhiyu; Yi, Anlin; Pan, Yan; Jiang, Lin; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin

    2016-10-01

    A simple and effective polarization demultiplexing method is proposed based on the improved Stokes vector analysis and digital signal processor algorithm for the intensity-modulation direct-detection optical communication systems. Such a scheme could significantly simplify optical receivers with low system cost. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed method and show that only 1- and 1.7-dB power penalties are measured for 10- and 25-km transmissions compared to back-to-back case.

  19. Analysis of Coordinated Observations in the Region of the Day Side Polar Cleft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    currents ) Magnetosphere; Ionospheric plasma convection, Ionosphere coupling Solar wind , Polar cleft , ,’-- 19. ABSTRACT (Continue oh reverse if necessary...ionosphere with the magnetosphere and solar wind . This is accomplished through the coordinated analysis of a variety of electrodynamic observations utilizing...between the solar wind and high latitude ionosphere. A model based upon this electrical connection utilizing large scale field-aligned currents in the cleft

  20. [Accuracy analysis on a sort of polarized measurement in remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-gang; Hong, Jin; Qiao, Yan-li; Sun, Xiao-bing; Wang, Yuan-jun

    2008-10-01

    Angular error of polarizer in polarimetric measurement is an important element affecting the measurement accuracy of degree of polarization, so angular error of polarizer should be considered in remote sensing of high-accuracy quantitative polarization. Simulation study shows that polarimetric measurement is relative to the polarization state (polarization angle or degree of polarization) of incident light in a specific measurement system of polarization. In the measurement mode of polarizer setting (0 degree, 60 degrees, 120 degrees), there is a maximum error of polarization measurement at the 0 degree or 180 degrees polarization angle while a minimum error at the 30 degrees, 90 degrees and 150 degrees polarization angle; In the measurement mode of polarizer setting (0 degree, 45 degrees, 90 degrees), there is a maximum error of polarization measurement near the 45 degrees polarization angle while a minimum error at the 0 degree, 90 degrees and 135 degrees polarization angle. The larger degree of polarization of incident light often contributes to the bigger measurement error except for incident light with several polarization angles. So the polarization measurement may be evaluated by the average degree of polarizatioo of linearly polarized light introduced in this paper. It is indicated that the measurement mode of polarizer setting (0 degree, 60 degrees, 120 degrees) is better than that of (0 degree, 45 degrees, 90 degrees).

  1. Analysis of human knee osteoarthritic cartilage using polarization sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Grønhaug, Kirsten M.; Romijn, Elisabeth I.; Drogset, Jon O.; Lilledahl, Magnus B.

    2014-05-01

    Osteoarthritis is one of the most prevalent joint diseases in the world. Although the cause of osteoarthritis is not exactly clear, the disease results in a degradation of the quality of the articular cartilage including collagen and other extracellular matrix components. We have investigated alterations in the structure of collagen fibers in the cartilage tissue of the human knee using mulitphoton microscopy. Due to inherent high nonlinear susceptibility, ordered collagen fibers present in the cartilage tissue matrix produces strong second harmonic generation (SHG) signals. Significant morphological differences are found in different Osteoarthritic grades of cartilage by SHG microscopy. Based on the polarization analysis of the SHG signal, we find that a few locations of hyaline cartilage (mainly type II collagen) is being replaced by fibrocartilage (mainly type I cartilage), in agreement with earlier literature. To locate the different types and quantify the alteration in the structure of collagen fiber, we employ polarization-SHG microscopic analysis, also referred to as _-tensor imaging. The image analysis of p-SHG image obtained by excitation polarization measurements would represent different tissue constituents with different numerical values at pixel level resolution.

  2. Signal enhancement in polarized light imaging by means of independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Dammers, Jürgen; Axer, Markus; Grässel, David; Palm, Christoph; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Pietrzyk, Uwe

    2010-01-15

    Polarized light imaging (PLI) enables the evaluation of fiber orientations in histological sections of human postmortem brains, with ultra-high spatial resolution. PLI is based on the birefringent properties of the myelin sheath of nerve fibers. As a result, the polarization state of light propagating through a rotating polarimeter is changed in such a way that the detected signal at each measurement unit of a charged-coupled device (CCD) camera describes a sinusoidal signal. Vectors of the fiber orientation defined by inclination and direction angles can then directly be derived from the optical signals employing PLI analysis. However, noise, light scatter and filter inhomogeneities interfere with the original sinusoidal PLI signals. We here introduce a novel method using independent component analysis (ICA) to decompose the PLI images into statistically independent component maps. After decomposition, gray and white matter structures can clearly be distinguished from noise and other artifacts. The signal enhancement after artifact rejection is quantitatively evaluated in 134 histological whole brain sections. Thus, the primary sinusoidal signals from polarized light imaging can be effectively restored after noise and artifact rejection utilizing ICA. Our method therefore contributes to the analysis of nerve fiber orientation in the human brain within a micrometer scale.

  3. Numerical analysis of fundamental characteristics of superconducting magnetic bearings for a polarization modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terachi, Yusuke; Terao, Yutaka; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Yuki; Matsumura, Tomotake; Sugai, Hajime; Utsunomiya, Shin; Kataza, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Ryo

    2017-07-01

    We have carried out numerical analysis of mechanical properties of a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB). A contactless bearing operating at below 10 K with low rotational energy loss is an attractive feature to be used as a rotational mechanism of a polarization modulator for a cosmic microwave background experiment. In such application, a rotor diameter of about 400 mm forces us to employ a segmented magnet. As a result, there is inevitable spatial gap between the segments. In order to understand the path towards the design optimizations, 2D and 3D FEM analyses were carried out to examine fundamental characteristics of the SMBs for a polarization modulator. Two axial flux type SMBs were dealt with in the analysis: (a) the SMB with axially magnetized permanent magnets (PMs), and (b) the SMB with radially magnetized PMs and steel components for magnetic flux paths. Magnetic flux lines and density distributions, electromagnetic force characteristics, spring constants, etc. were compared among some variations of the SMBs. From the numerical analysis results, it is discussed what type, configuration and design of SMBs are more suitable for a polarization modulator.

  4. A novel ensemble method to integrate with different technologies for moving foreground detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yi-Tung; Wang, Shuenn-Jyi; Tsai, Chung-Hsien; Lin, Pei-Ru; Chen, Wen-Pin

    2015-12-01

    Moving foreground detection can be used for the intelligent surveillance system and computer vision as an important step for many applications. Previous researchers have developed many different moving foreground detection technologies, such as background subtraction and optical flow. However, as far as we knew, there was few literature investigated ensemble method in integrate with various foreground detection technologies in real-time. In this paper, we present a new approach inspired from the ensemble system of machine learning to detect moving foreground by using weighted matrix with spatial characteristics. Furthermore, the weighted values can be automatically scaled over time for optimal flexibility and parameterization in our method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only provide compared performance with the state-of-the-art methods, but also satisfy real-time applications.

  5. 79th Street Rotunda, former fountain in foreground, now Boat Basin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79th Street Rotunda, former fountain in foreground, now Boat Basin Cafe, looking west. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  6. MAIN GENERATOR EXCITER UNIT IN FOREGROUND, WITH CYCLOPS 75TON CRANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GENERATOR EXCITER UNIT IN FOREGROUND, WITH CYCLOPS 75-TON CRANE IN BACKGROUND. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  7. SECTION A, WITH PENNSYLVANIA MONUMENT AT LEFT FOREGROUND AND 28TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION A, WITH PENNSYLVANIA MONUMENT AT LEFT FOREGROUND AND 28TH NEW YORK REGIMENT MONUMENT AT RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Culpeper National Cemetery, 305 U.S. Avenue, Culpeper, Culpeper County, VA

  8. View of slow sand filters with pump house/chlorinator in foreground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of slow sand filters with pump house/chlorinator in foreground. Clear well tank located behind pump house and trees. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  9. TOWER 1 IN CENTER,REPLACEMENT MODEL SINGLE CHAIR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER 1 IN CENTER,REPLACEMENT MODEL SINGLE CHAIR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST UP THE LIFT LINE. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  10. East façade, Burton Park Club House, with Amphitheater in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East façade, Burton Park Club House, with Amphitheater in foreground, view to north from Amphitheater stage (90 mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  11. Foreground Detection on Depth Maps Using Skeletal Representation of Object Silhouettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, D.; Mestetskiy, L.

    2017-05-01

    This article considers the problem of foreground detection on depth maps. The problem of finding objects of interest on images appears in many object detection, recognition and tracking applications as one of the first steps. However, this problem becomes too complicated for RGB images with multicolored or constantly changing background and in presence of occlusions. Depth maps provide valuable information about distance to the camera for each point of the scene, making it possible to explore object detection methods, based on depth features. We define foreground as a set of objects silhouettes, nearest to the camera relative to the local background. We propose a method of foreground detection on depth maps based on medial representation of objects silhouettes which does not require any machine learning procedures and is able to detect foreground in near real-time in complex scenes with occlusions, using a single depth map. Proposed method is implemented to depth maps, obtained from Kinect sensor.

  12. THE APPLICATION OF CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM BASED FOREGROUND SUBTRACTION METHOD IN 21 cm SKY SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Junhua; Xu Haiguang; Wang Jingying; Chen Wen; An Tao

    2013-08-10

    We propose a continuous wavelet transform based non-parametric foreground subtraction method for the detection of redshifted 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization. This method works based on the assumption that the foreground spectra are smooth in frequency domain, while the 21 cm signal spectrum is full of saw-tooth-like structures, thus their characteristic scales are significantly different. We can distinguish them in the wavelet coefficient space easily and perform the foreground subtraction. Compared with the traditional spectral fitting based method, our method is more tolerant to complex foregrounds. Furthermore, we also find that when the instrument has uncorrected response error, our method can also work significantly better than the spectral fitting based method. Our method can obtain similar results with the Wp smoothing method, which is also a non-parametric method, but our method consumes much less computing time.

  13. 4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15-MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD HOUSE (left), OLD PUMP STATION (center), AND EAST FILTER BUILDING (background) - Dalecarlia Water Treatment Plant, 5900 MacArthur Boulevard, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. The Application of Continuous Wavelet Transform Based Foreground Subtraction Method in 21 cm Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Junhua; Xu, Haiguang; Wang, Jingying; An, Tao; Chen, Wen

    2013-08-01

    We propose a continuous wavelet transform based non-parametric foreground subtraction method for the detection of redshifted 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization. This method works based on the assumption that the foreground spectra are smooth in frequency domain, while the 21 cm signal spectrum is full of saw-tooth-like structures, thus their characteristic scales are significantly different. We can distinguish them in the wavelet coefficient space easily and perform the foreground subtraction. Compared with the traditional spectral fitting based method, our method is more tolerant to complex foregrounds. Furthermore, we also find that when the instrument has uncorrected response error, our method can also work significantly better than the spectral fitting based method. Our method can obtain similar results with the Wp smoothing method, which is also a non-parametric method, but our method consumes much less computing time.

  15. 1. General view of HABS no. IA190 east front (foreground), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of HABS no. IA-190 east front (foreground), HABS no. IA-191 in background (right) and HABS no. IA-192 in background (left). - 860 Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway (Cottage), Des Moines, Polk County, IA

  16. 20. VIEW OF NEWER 7LEVER INTERLOCKING MACHINE IN FOREGROUND, NEXT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF NEWER 7-LEVER INTERLOCKING MACHINE IN FOREGROUND, NEXT TO ORIGINAL INTERLOCKING MACHINE, THIRD FLOOR - South Station Tower No. 1 & Interlocking System, Dewey Square, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. Degree Angular Scale Interferometer 3 Year Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitch, E. M.; Kovac, J. M.; Halverson, N. W.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Pryke, C.; Smith, M. W. E.

    2005-05-01

    We present the analysis of the complete 3 yr data set obtained with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) polarization experiment, operating from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station. New data obtained at the end of the 2002 austral winter and throughout the 2003 season were added to the data from which the first detection of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation was reported. The analysis of the combined data supports, with increased statistical power, all of the conclusions drawn from the initial data set. In particular, the detection of E-mode polarization is increased to the 6.3 σ confidence level, TE cross-polarization is detected at 2.9 σ, and B-mode polarization is consistent with zero, with an upper limit well below the level of the detected E-mode polarization. The results are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the cosmological model that has emerged from CMB temperature measurements. The analysis also demonstrates that contamination of the data by known sources of foreground emission is insignificant.

  18. Pre-implantation diagnosis of aneuploidy by polar body and blastomere FISH analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Munne, S.; Cohen, J.; Grifo, J.

    1994-09-01

    For preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of aneuploidy in human in-vitro fertilization (IVF), two blastomeres per embryo should be analyzed to minimize errors caused by FISH and mosaicism. But the biopsy of two cells from an 8-cell embryo can be detrimental. This can be substituted by initial FISH analysis of the first polar body (PB) and subsequent single blastomere analysis. Simultaneous FISH analysis of chromosomes X, Y, 18, 13/21 was used for first polar body aneuploidy analysis. Normal divalents appeared as single-dotted signals corresponding to their two chromatids. We found that pre-division of chromatids increased dramatically with time in culture. All but three pre-division events involved separation of chromatids within the PB or the egg, with a total of two chromatids in each. We concluded that PB aneuploidy analysis is safe when performed within 6 hours after egg retrieval. For our first clinical case we chose a 39 year-old female carrier of an X-linked disease already selected for FISH pre-implantation diagnosis. Eight polar bodies from 12 eggs were analyzed: six showed a normal X181321 complement of divalents; one had an extra chromatid for 13/21 (egg {number_sign}8); and one had a missing chromatid for 13/21 (egg {number_sign}10). After insemination, six fertilized eggs developed into embryos, including egg {number_sign}10 but not egg {number_sign}8. At day 3 of development, a single blastomere per embryo was analyzed by FISH. According to the blastomere analysis, one embryo was haploid, one tetraploid. The two normal female embryos were replaced and pregnancy and CFS results are pending. These results suggest that this technique can be successfully applied for PGD of major aneuploidies in IVF patients over 35. In addition, it indicates that studies on pre-division should be performed on eggs within six hours of retrieval.

  19. An imaging technique using rotational polarization microscopy for the microstructure analysis of carbon/carbon composites.

    PubMed

    Miaoling, Li; Lehua, Qi; Hejun, Li

    2012-01-01

    A novel image analysis technique was proposed for microstructure investigation of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. The rotational polarization microscopy was developed to meet the special imaging requirements. The samples of C/C composites were observed in reflection polarized light microscope, where the analyzer was rotated instead of the stage, and the polarizer was taken out. The bireflectance of like-graphite negative uniaxial crystal was analyzed. It was the theoretic foundation of image collection and data processing. The analyzer was rotated through 36 × 10° intervals without any movement of the specimen. The polished cross-section of C/C composites took micrographs at each analyzer orientation. All image data collected from the same field of view were processed by image registration and image fusion. The synthesized images were obtained by calculating the maximum and minimum gray values and their differences at each point of the million pixels at 18 orientations of the analyzer. They are unique and quite reliable to be applied to analyze the microstructure of C/C composites. Subsequently, image segmentation was performed, and the feature parameters of each component were calculated. Good agreement was found between the results from image analysis and experimental data.

  20. Integration of Induced Polarization Imaging, Ground Penetrating Radar and geochemical analysis to characterize hydrocarbon spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Orozco, Adrian; Kreutzer, Ingrid; Bücker, Matthias; Nguyen, Frederic; Hofmann, Thilo; Döberl, Gernot

    2015-04-01

    Because of their capability to provide spatially continuous data, Induced Polarization (IP) Imaging and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) have recently emerged as alternative non-invasive methods for the characterization of contaminated sites. In particular, the IP method has demonstrated to be sensitive to both, changes in the chemical composition of groundwater as a result of dissolved pollutants, and to the geometry of the pore space due to the occurrence of contaminants in non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Although promising, an adequate interpretation of the IP imaging results requires geochemical information obtained from the analysis of soil and water samples. However, to date just rare studies have investigated the IP response at the field scale due to different contaminant concentrations. To demonstrate the advantages of an integrated geophysical and geochemical site investigation, we present studies from different hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. We observed a linear correlation between the polarization effect and the contaminant concentration for dissolved contaminants in the saturated zone. A negligible polarization effect was observed, however, in areas associated with the occurrence of contaminants in NAPL. Compared to the contaminant distribution obtained from the geochemical analysis only, the images obtained from time-domain IP measurements significantly improved the delineation of the contaminant plume. As a first step, GPR data collected along the same profiles provided complementary structural information and improved the interpretation of the IP images. The resolution of the electrical images was further improved using regularization constraints, based on the GPR and geochemical data, in the inversion of IP data.

  1. Geometry of magnetosonic shocks and plane-polarized waves: Coplanarity Variance Analysis (CVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.

    2005-02-01

    Minimum Variance Analysis (MVA) is frequently used for the geometrical organization of a time series of vectors. The Coplanarity Variance Analysis (CVA) developed in this paper reproduces the layer geometry involving coplanar magnetosonic shocks or plane-polarized wave trains (including normals and coplanarity directions) 300 times more precisely (<0.1°) than MVA using the same input data. The CVA technique exploits the eigenvalue degeneracy of the covariance matrix present at planar structures to find a consistent normal to the coplanarity plane of the fluctuations. Although Tangential Discontinuities (TDs) have a coplanarity plane, the eigenvalues of their covariance matrix are usually not degenerate; accordingly, CVA does not misdiagnose TDs as shocks or plane-polarized waves. Together CVA and MVA may be used to sort between the hypotheses that the time series is caused by a one-dimensional current layer that has magnetic disturbances that are (1) coplanar, linearly polarized (shocks/plane waves), (2) intrinsically helical (rotational/tangential discontinuities), or (3) neither 1 nor 2.

  2. Teleseismic P-wave polarization analysis at the Gräfenberg array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano, L.; Meier, T.; Krüger, F.; Keers, H.; Weidle, C.

    2016-12-01

    P-wave polarization at the Gräfenberg array (GRF) in southern Germany is analysed in terms of azimuthal deviations and deviations in the vertical polarization using 20 yr of broad-band recordings. An automated procedure for estimating P-wave polarization parameters is suggested, based on the definition of a characteristic function, which evaluates the polarization angles and their time variability as well as the amplitude, linearity and the signal-to-noise ratio of the P wave. P-wave polarization at the GRF array is shown to depend mainly on frequency and backazimuth and only slightly on epicentral distance indicating depth-dependent local anisotropy and lateral heterogeneity. A harmonic analysis is applied to the azimuthal anomalies to analyse their periodicity as a function of backazimuth. The dominant periods are 180° and 360°. At low frequencies, between 0.03 and 0.1 Hz, the observed fast directions of azimuthal anisotropy inferred from the 180° periodicity are similar across the array. The average fast direction of azimuthal anisotropy at these frequencies is N20°E with an uncertainty of about 8° and is consistent with fast directions of Pn-wave propagation. Lateral velocity gradients determined for the low-frequency band are compatible with the Moho topography of the area. A more complex pattern in the horizontal fast axis orientation beneath the GRF array is observed in the high-frequency band between 0.1 and 0.5 Hz, and is attributed to anisotropy in the upper crust. A remarkable rotation of the horizontal fast axis orientation across the suture between the geological units Moldanubicum and Saxothuringicum is observed. In contrast, the 360° periodicity at high frequencies is rather consistent across the array and may either point to lower velocities in the upper crust towards the Bohemian Massif and/or to anisotropy dipping predominantly in the NE-SW direction. Altogether, P-wave polarization analysis indicates the presence of layered lithospheric

  3. OPENING THE 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION WINDOW: MEASUREMENTS OF FOREGROUND ISOLATION WITH PAPER

    SciTech Connect

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki; Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, Dave; Dexter, Matthew; MacMahon, Dave; Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Patricia J.; Manley, Jason; Walbrugh, William P.; Stefan, Irina I.

    2013-05-10

    We present new observations with the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization with the aim of measuring the properties of foreground emission for 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) experiments at 150 MHz. We focus on the footprint of the foregrounds in cosmological Fourier space to understand which modes of the 21 cm power spectrum will most likely be compromised by foreground emission. These observations confirm predictions that foregrounds can be isolated to a {sup w}edge{sup -}like region of two-dimensional (k , k{sub Parallel-To })-space, creating a window for cosmological studies at higher k{sub Parallel-To} values. We also find that the emission extends past the nominal edge of this wedge due to spectral structure in the foregrounds, with this feature most prominent on the shortest baselines. Finally, we filter the data to retain only this ''unsmooth'' emission and image its specific k{sub Parallel-To} modes. The resultant images show an excess of power at the lowest modes, but no emission can be clearly localized to any one region of the sky. This image is highly suggestive that the most problematic foregrounds for 21 cm EoR studies will not be easily identifiable bright sources, but rather an aggregate of fainter emission.

  4. Numerical and experimental analysis of polarization dependent gain vector in Brillouin amplification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shan; Xie, Shangran; Liu, Fei; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Min

    2017-04-01

    The polarization dependent gain (PDG) of Brillouin amplification systems is numerically investigated in detail by solving a new model describing the evolution of PDG vector along the fiber with random birefringence. In this model both the modulus and orientation of the PDG vector are considered. By including the temporal distribution of fiber birefringence, the statistical properties of the PDG vector, including its mean value and standard deviation, are presented as function of fiber beat length, input pump power and fiber length, which can be directly applied in practice to estimate the performance of Brillouin amplification systems in term of its polarization dependence. Experimental results on a Brillouin amplification system are also reported to support the validity of our model. The analysis presented here helps to gain insight for the properties of PDG vector in any SBS systems.

  5. Low time resolution analysis of polar ice cores cannot detect impulsive nitrate events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.; Melott, A. L.; Laird, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ice cores are archives of climate change and possibly large solar proton events (SPEs). Wolff et al. (2012) used a single event, a nitrate peak in the GISP2-H core, which McCracken et al. (2001a) time associated with the poorly quantified 1859 Carrington event, to discredit SPE-produced, impulsive nitrate deposition in polar ice. This is not the ideal test case. We critique the Wolff et al. analysis and demonstrate that the data they used cannot detect impulsive nitrate events because of resolution limitations. We suggest reexamination of the top of the Greenland ice sheet at key intervals over the last two millennia with attention to fine resolution and replicate sampling of multiple species. This will allow further insight into polar depositional processes on a subseasonal scale, including atmospheric sources, transport mechanisms to the ice sheet, postdepositional interactions, and a potential SPE association.

  6. Full Polarization Analysis of Resonant Superlattice and Forbidden x-ray Reflections in Magnetite

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S.B.; Bland, S.R.; Detlefs, B.; Beale, T.A.W.; Mazzoli, C.; Joly, Y.; Hatton, P.D.; Lorenzo, J.E.; Brabers, V.A.M.

    2009-12-02

    Despite being one of the oldest known magnetic materials, and the classic mixed valence compound, thought to be charge ordered, the structure of magnetite below the Verwey transition is complex and the presence and role of charge order is still being debated. Here, we present resonant x-ray diffraction data at the iron K-edge on forbidden (0, 0, 2n+1){sub C} and superlattice (0, 0, 2n+1/2)C reflections. Full linear polarization analysis of the incident and scattered light was conducted in order to explore the origins of the reflections. Through simulation of the resonant spectra we have confirmed that a degree of charge ordering takes place, while the anisotropic tensor of susceptibility scattering is responsible for the superlattice reflections below the Verwey transition. We also report the surprising result of the conversion of a significant proportion of the scattered light from linear to nonlinear polarization.

  7. Constraints on CPT violation from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe three year polarization data: A wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cabella, Paolo; Silk, Joseph; Natoli, Paolo

    2007-12-15

    We perform a wavelet analysis of the temperature and polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) delivered by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment in search for a parity-violating signal. Such a signal could be seeded by new physics beyond the standard model, for which the Lorentz and CPT symmetries may not hold. Under these circumstances, the linear polarization direction of a CMB photon may get rotated during its cosmological journey, a phenomenon also called cosmological birefringence. Recently, Feng et al. have analyzed a subset of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and BOOMERanG 2003 angular power spectra of the CMB, deriving a constraint that mildly favors a nonzero rotation. By using wavelet transforms we set a tighter limit on the CMB photon rotation angle {delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}3.0 ({delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}6.0) at the one (two) {sigma} level, consistent with a null detection.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Repeat Track Estimation Techniques for Detection of Elevation Change in Polar Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, R. E.; Urban, T. J.; Schutz, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    Interest in elevation change detection in the polar regions has increased recently due to concern over the potential sea level rise from the melting of the polar ice caps. Repeat track analysis can be used to estimate elevation change rate by fitting elevation data to model parameters. Several aspects of this method have been tested to improve the recovery of the model parameters. Elevation data from ICESat over Antarctica and Greenland from 2003-2007 are used to test several grid sizes and types, such as grids based on latitude and longitude and grids centered on the ICESat reference groundtrack. Different sets of parameters are estimated, some of which include seasonal terms or alternate types of slopes (linear, quadratic, etc.). In addition, the effects of including crossovers and other solution constraints are evaluated. Simulated data are used to infer potential errors due to unmodeled parameters.

  9. Multi-instrument data analysis for interpretation of the Martian North polar layered deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirino, Melissa; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Witasse, Olivier; Frigeri, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The Martian polar caps have engendered substantial study due to their spiral morphology, layered structure and the seasonal variability in thickness of the uppermost H2O and CO2 ice layers. We demonstrate a multi-instrument study of exposed and buried north polar layers using data from ESA's Mars Express (MEx) and NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions. We perform analysis of high resolution images from MRO's HiRISE, which provide textural and morphological information about surface features larger than 0.3m, with NIR hyperspectral data from MRO CRISM, which allows study of surface mineralogy at a maximum resolution of 18 m/pixel. Stereo-derived topography is provided by MEx's HRSC. Together with these surficial observations we interpret radargrams from MRO SHARAD to obtain information about layered structures at a horizontal resolution between 0.3 and 3 kilometers and a free-space vertical resolution of 15 meters (vertical resolution depends on the dielectric properties of the medium). This combination of datasets allows us to attempt to correlate polar layering, made visible by dielectric interfaces between beds, with surface mineralogies and structures outcropping at specific stratigraphic levels. We analyse two opposite areas of the north polar cap with the intention to characterise in multiple datasets each geologic unit identified in the north polar cap's stratigraphy (mapped by e.g. [1]). We selected deposits observed in Chasma Boreale and Olympia Cavi because these areas allow us to observe and map strata at opposing sides of the north polar cap. Using the CRISM Analysis Tool and spectral summary parameters [2] we map the spectral characteristics of the two areas that show H2O and CO2 ice layering exposed on polar scarps. Through spatial-registration in a GIS with HRSC topography and HiRISE imagery we assess the mineralogical and morphological characteristics of exposed layers. In order to constrain the cross section between the two selected

  10. Influence of Planck foreground masks in the large angular scale quadrant CMB asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, L.; Cabella, P.; Villela, T.; Zhao, W.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The measured cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular distribution shows high consistency with the ΛCDM model, which predicts cosmological isotropy as one of its fundamental characteristics. However, isotropy violations were reported in CMB temperature maps of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and confirmed by Planck satellite data. Aims: Our purpose is to investigate the influence of different sky cuts (masks) employed in the analysis of CMB angular distribution, in particular in the excess of power in the southeastern quadrant (SEQ) and the lack of power in the northeastern quadrant (NEQ), found in both WMAP and Planck data. Methods: We compared the two-point correlation function (TPCF) computed for each quadrant of the CMB foreground-cleaned temperature maps to 1000 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations generated assuming the ΛCDM best-fit power spectrum using four different masks, from the least to the most severe one: mask-rulerminimal, UT78, U73, and U66. In addition to the quadrants and for a better understanding of these anomalies, we computed the TPCF using the mask-rulerminimal for circular regions in the map where the excess and lack of power are present. We also compared, for completeness, the effect of Galactic cuts (+/-10, 20, 25, and 30 degrees above/below the Galactic plane) in the TPCF calculations as compared to the MC simulations. Results: We found consistent results for three masks, namely mask-rulerminimal, U73, and U66. The results indicate that the excess of power in the SEQ tends to vanish as the portion of the sky covered by the mask increases and the lack of power in the NEQ remains virtually unchanged. A different result arises for the newly released UT78 Planck mask. When this mask is applied, the NEQ is no longer anomalous. On the other hand, the excess of power in the SEQ becomes the most significant one among the masks. Nevertheless, the asymmetry between the SEQ and NEQ is independent of the mask and it disagrees

  11. Analysis of Properties of the North Polar Layered Deposits: THEMIS Data in Context of MGS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Byrne, S.; Richardson, M. I.; Vasavada, A. R.; Titus, T. N.; Bell, J. F.; McConnochie, T. H.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the many questions of Martian exploration is to uncover the history of Mars, through analysis of the polar layered deposits (PLD). Martian polar ice caps hold most of the exposed water on the surface on Mars and yet their history and physical processed involved in their formation are unclear. We will attempt to contribute to our knowledge of the composition and stratigraphy of the polar deposits. In this work we present the latest imaging data acquired by the Mars Odyssey THermal EMission Imaging System (THEMIS) and place it into context of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data. THEMIS provides capabilities for imaging in both thermal IR and visible color wavelengths. These observations are affected by atmospheric scattering and topography. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instruments on board of the MGS spacecraft can provide context information for THEMIS data. Of particular interest are Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images, which provide high resolution data. We are primarily interested in the seasonal evolution of ice cap temperatures during the first northern summer of THEMIS observations. Morphology, stratigraphy and composition of the layered deposits can be addressed by THEMIS VIS color images, along with MOC high resolution data and MOLA Digital Elevation Models (DEM). This work is intentionally descriptive. Based on the knowledge obtained by the orbiting spacecraft and described here, we will attempt to expose major directions for modeling and further understanding of of the physical processes involved in the formation of the polar layered terrain 2 Available data 2.1 THEMIS IR The THEMIS IR camera has 10 bands from 6 to 15 m. Due to to signal-to-noise restrictions the most useful band for polar observations is band 9 (12.57 m ). Band 10 (14.88 m ) data can be used for atmospheric calibration. An example of seasonal evolution observed by the THEMIS IR subsystem is shown in Figure 1. We have projected all IR

  12. Systematic analysis of long-range interactions between vibrating polar bialkali molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu, Olivier; Vexiau, Romain; Lepers, Maxence; Aymar, Mireille; Bouloufa, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    The determination of the long-range anisotropic interactions between polar bialkali molecules is of crucial importance for the achievement of a quantum gas of ultracold polar molecules. In particular, the dispersion coefficient C6 of the van der Waals interaction depends on the dynamic polarizability of the molecule evaluated at imaginary frequencies, expressed as a sum over all possible radiative transitions of electronic dipole moments. Using a mixture of up-to-date spectroscopic data and accurate ab initio data for potential energy curves, and permanent and transition dipole moments, we have obtained the values of the dispersion coefficients between identical polar molecules (LiNa, LiK, LiRb, LiCs, NaK, NaRb, NaCs, KRb, KCs, RbCs) in an arbitrary vibrational level of their electronic ground state. A careful analysis of the importance of the various kinds of transitions contributing to the sum has been performed. The C6 values significantly decrease with increasing vibrational levels towards the sum of the C6 coefficients between the four involved atomic pairs. For the lowest vibrational levels the C6 parameter varies from about 10^4 atomic units for KRb up to 10^7 atomic units for NaCs, which will lead to different collisional regimes at ultracold temperature.

  13. Polarization analysis of excitons in monolayer and bilayer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dery, Hanan; Song, Yang

    2015-09-01

    The polarization analysis of optical transitions in monolayer and bilayer transition-metal dichalcogenides provides invaluable information on the spin and valley (pseudospin) degrees of freedom. To explain optical properties of a given monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide, one should consider (i) the order of its spin-split conduction bands, (ii) whether intervalley scattering is prone to phonon bottleneck, (iii) and whether valley mixing by electron-hole exchange can take place. Using these principles, we present a consistent physical picture that elucidates a variety of features in the optical spectra of these materials. We explain the differences between optical transitions in monolayer MoSe2 and monolayer WSe2, finding that indirect excitons in the latter correspond to several low-energy optical transitions that so far were attributed to excitons bound to impurities. A possible mechanism that can explain the vanishing polarization in MoSe2 is discussed. Finally, we consider the effect of an out-of-plane electric field, showing that it can reduce the initial polarization of bright excitons due to a Rashba-type coupling with dark excitons.

  14. XPS analysis of Al/EPDM bondlines from IUS SRM-1 polar bosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemminger, Carol S.; Marquez, Nicholas

    1993-03-01

    A temperature-stress rupture method using partial immersion in liquid nitrogen was developed for the aluminum/EPDM rubber insulation bondline of the IUS SRM-1 polar bosses in order to investigate a corrosion problem. Subsequent XPS analysis of the ruptured bondline followed changes in the locus of failure as corrosion progressed. Samples from the forward polar bosses had a predominantly noncorroded appearance on the ruptured surfaces. The locus of failure was predominantly through the primer layer, which is distinguished by a high concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbon. The aft polar boss segments analyzed were characterized by the presence of corrosion over the entire mid-section of the ruptured aluminum to insulation bondline. The predominant corrosion product detected was aluminum oxide/hydroxide. The corroded bondline sections had significantly higher concentrations of aluminum oxide/hydroxide than the noncorroded areas, and lower concentrations of primer material. The temperature-stress rupture appeared to progress most readily through areas of thickened aluminum oxide/hydroxide infiltrated into the primer layer. In general there was a very good correlation between the calculated Cl:Al atomic % ratio, and the visual characterization of the extent of corrosion. The Cl:Al ratio, which represents the primer to corrosion product ratio at the locus of failure, varied from 0.4 to 47. With only a few exceptions, surfaces with a predominantly noncorroded appearance had Cl:Al ratios greater than 2, and surfaces with a heavily corroded appearance had Cl:Al ratios less than 1.

  15. A new method for photoelastic fringe analysis from a single image using elliptically polarized white light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, S.; Takashi, M.

    1998-11-01

    A new two-dimensional photoelastic method for the analysis of fringe order and the principal direction of birefringence from a single image combining an elliptically polarized white light and color image processing is demonstrated. To determine fringe order, a database-search approach based on the primary color analysis is employed. After determining fringe order, the principal direction of birefringence is obtained by solving a non-linear equation. The equation of emerging light intensity is derived and the theory of the proposed method is described. Then, the successful application of the method to photoelastic analysis is shown. It is emphasized that the proposed method can be applicable to time-varying phenomena since multiple exposures are not necessary for sufficient data acquisition for the completion of stress analysis.

  16. How can the polar dome be identified in meteorological analysis model data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Daniel; Bozem, Heiko; Gutmann, Robert; Hoor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The thermal stratification of the lower atmosphere at high latitudes causes an isolation of polar regions from lower latitudes. A transport barrier establishes in the region where isentropic surfaces slope upward from near surface to higher altitudes. This barrier is also known as the polar dome. For adiabatic flow the transport of air masses from midlatitudes into high latitudes occurs almost along the isentropic surfaces. Only diabatic processes related to clouds, radiation, or turbulence can foster a transport across the barrier. Such processes can be identified by the material rate of change of potential temperature which have to occur in the vicinity of the polar dome. Thus, to identify regions of exchange, it is first crucial to know where the transport barrier is located. The question arises then which meteorological variables may be suited to identify the location of this transport barrier. A second question is how the shape of the polar dome changes during different time periods of the year? For this we use gridded analysis model data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) with high spatial resolution for several time periods during 2014 and 2015. Especially, we focus on time periods during spring and summer when extensive in-situ measurement campaigns took place in the high Arctic. We define four metrics to identify the location, i.e., the latitude, of the transport barrier at various altitudes, e.g., the surface or a surface of constant pressure in the lower troposphere. These metrics are based on (1) a constant value of potential temperature that intersects a given altitude, (2) the strongest gradient of potential temperature on a given altitude level, and (3) the relative difference between equivalent potential temperature and potential temperature at the surface. The last metric is based on a Lagrangian analysis for which ten days forward and backward trajectories are calculated, starting at each grid point between 45

  17. A monophasic extraction strategy for the simultaneous lipidome analysis of polar and nonpolar retina lipids[S

    PubMed Central

    Lydic, Todd A.; Busik, Julia V.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid extraction using a monophasic chloroform/methanol/water mixture, coupled with functional group selective derivatization and direct infusion nano-ESI-high-resolution/accurate MS, is shown to facilitate the simultaneous analysis of both highly polar and nonpolar lipids from a single retina lipid extract, including low abundance highly polar ganglioside lipids, nonpolar sphingolipids, and abundant glycerophospholipids. Quantitative comparison showed that the monophasic lipid extraction method yielded similar lipid distributions to those obtained from established “gold standard” biphasic lipid extraction methods known to enrich for either highly polar gangliosides or nonpolar lipids, respectively, with only modest relative ion suppression effects. This improved lipid extraction and analysis strategy therefore enables detailed lipidome analyses of lipid species across a broad range of polarities and abundances, from minimal amounts of biological samples and without need for multiple lipid class-specific extractions or chromatographic separation prior to analysis. PMID:24879804

  18. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products.

  19. Validation of heart rate monitor Polar RS800 for heart rate variability analysis during exercise.

    PubMed

    Hernando, David; Garatachea, Nuria; Almeida, Rute; Casajús, Jose Antonio; Bailón, Raquel

    2016-09-27

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during exercise is an interesting non-invasive tool to measure the cardiovascular response to the stress of exercise. Wearable heart rate monitors are a comfortable option to measure RR intervals while doing physical activities. It is necessary to evaluate the agreement between HRV parameters derived from the RR series recorded by wearable devices and those derived from an ECG during dynamic exercise of low to high intensity.23 male volunteers performed an exercise stress test on a cycle ergometer. Subjects wore a Polar RS800 device while ECG was also recorded simultaneously to extract the reference RR intervals. A time-frequency spectral analysis was performed to extract the instantaneous mean heart rate (HRM), and the power of low frequency (PLF) and high frequency (PHF) components, the latter centred on the respiratory frequency. Analysis was done in intervals of different exercise intensity based on oxygen consumption. Linear correlation, reliability and agreement were computed in each interval.The agreement between the RR series obtained from the Polar device and from the ECG is high throughout the whole test, although the shorter the RR is, the more differences there are. Both methods are interchangeable when analysing HRV at rest. At high exercise intensity, HRM and PLF still presented a high correlation (ρ>0.8) and excellent reliability and agreement indices (above 0.9). However, the PHF measurements from the Polar showed reliability and agreement coefficients around 0.5 or lower when the level of the exercise increases (for levels of O2 above 60%).

  20. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ENTITLED "GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF POLARIZED PARTON DESTRIBUTIONS IN THE RHIC ERA" (VOLUME 86).

    SciTech Connect

    DESHPANDE,A.; VOGELSANG, W.

    2007-10-08

    The determination of the polarized gluon distribution is a central goal of the RHIC spin program. Recent achievements in polarization and luminosity of the proton beams in RHIC, has enabled the RHIC experiments to acquire substantial amounts of high quality data with polarized proton beams at 200 and 62.4 GeV center of mass energy, allowing a first glimpse of the polarized gluon distribution at RHIC. Short test operation at 500 GeV center of mass energy has also been successful, indicating absence of any fundamental roadblocks for measurements of polarized quark and anti-quark distributions planned at that energy in a couple of years. With this background, it has now become high time to consider how all these data sets may be employed most effectively to determine the polarized parton distributions in the nucleon, in general, and the polarized gluon distribution, in particular. A global analysis of the polarized DIS data from the past and present fixed target experiments jointly with the present and anticipated RHIC Spin data is needed.

  1. Frequency Dependent Polarization Analysis of Ambient Seismic Noise Recorded at Broadband Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, K.; Hawley, V.

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of ambient seismic noise is becoming increasingly relevant to modern seismology. Advances in computational speed and storage have made it feasible to analyze years and even decades of continuous seismic data in short amounts of time. Therefore, it is now possible to perform longitudinal studies of station performance in order to identify degradation or mis-installation of seismic equipment. Long-term noise analysis also provides insight into the evolution of the ocean wave climate, specifically whether the frequency and intensity of storms have changed as global temperatures have changed. Here we present a new approach to polarization analysis of seismic noise recorded by three-component seismometers. Essentially, eigen-decomposition of the 3-by-3 Hermitian spectral matrix associated with a sliding window of data is applied to yield various polarization attributes as a function of time and frequency. This in turn yields fundamental information about the composition of seismic noise, such as the extent to which it is polarized, its mode of propagation, and the direction from which it arrives at the seismometer. The polarization attributes can be viewed as function of time or binned over 2D frequency-time space to deduce regularities in the ambient noise that are unbiased by transient signals from earthquakes and explosions. We applied the algorithm to continuous data recorded in 2009 by the seismic station SLM, located in central North America. A rich variety of noise sources was observed. At low frequencies (<0.05 Hz) we observed a tilt-related signal that showed some elliptical motion in the horizontal plane. In the microseism band of 0.05-0.25 Hz, we observed Rayleigh energy arriving from the northeast, but with three distinct peaks instead of the classic single and double frequency peaks. At intermediate frequencies of 0.5-2.0 Hz, the noise was dominated by non-fundamental-mode Rayleigh energy, most likely P and Lg waves. At the highest frequencies (>3

  2. Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis for multilayered chiral spin textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucassen, Juriaan; Kloodt-Twesten, Fabian; Frömter, Robert; Oepen, Hans Peter; Duine, Rembert A.; Swagten, Henk J. M.; Koopmans, Bert; Lavrijsen, Reinoud

    2017-09-01

    We show that scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) that is sensitive to both in-plane magnetization components can be used to image the out-of-plane magnetized multi-domain state in multilayered chiral spin textures. By depositing a thin layer of Fe on top of the multilayer, we image the underlying out-of-plane domain state through the mapping of its stray fields in the Fe. We also demonstrate that SEMPA can be used to image the domain wall chirality in these systems after milling away the capping layer and imaging the topmost magnetic layer directly.

  3. Analysis of star pair latitudes. [earth tides tesseral harmonics, and polar wandering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Star pair latitude observations forming the basis for the pole positions reported by the International Polar Motion Service (IPMS) are processed to produce a mean pole position. However, the time series of raw observations contains high frequency information which is lost in the calculation of the mean pole. Analysis of 2931 star pair observations reveals a possible large excitation at one cycle per solar day. The average power level in the frequency band of the tesseral tides is seen to be high, although the peaks do not occur at the expected tidal frequencies.

  4. Tandem LC columns for the simultaneous retention of polar and nonpolar molecules in comprehensive metabolomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Chalcraft, Kenneth R; McCarry, Brian E

    2013-11-01

    The tandem use of hydrophilic interaction LC columns with RP columns in series configuration has resulted in the retention of both polar and nonpolar components in complex biological samples (mouse serum) in a single analysis. This approach successfully coupled various columns with orthogonal separation characteristics, employed a single solvent gradient program compatible with the two columns and used ESI coupled to a TOF mass spectrometer for detection. Ion suppression, a common problem in ESI, was virtually eliminated for components eluting with apparent capacity factors >0.7. Retention time reproducibility with the tandem columns performed over three days with over 100 injections was comparable to that observed for single columns alone. This method was applied to the analysis of a pooled mouse serum sample and afforded highly reproducible data for up to 3000 mass spectral features. This approach was implemented with a conventional LC-MS system and should find broad applicability in the comprehensive analysis of complex mixtures containing a wide range of compound polarities.

  5. The analysis of polar clouds from AVHRR satellite data using pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L.; Ebert, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The cloud cover in a set of summertime and wintertime AVHRR data from the Arctic and Antarctic regions was analyzed using a pattern recognition algorithm. The data were collected by the NOAA-7 satellite on 6 to 13 Jan. and 1 to 7 Jul. 1984 between 60 deg and 90 deg north and south latitude in 5 spectral channels, at the Global Area Coverage (GAC) resolution of approximately 4 km. This data embodied a Polar Cloud Pilot Data Set which was analyzed by a number of research groups as part of a polar cloud algorithm intercomparison study. This study was intended to determine whether the additional information contained in the AVHRR channels (beyond the standard visible and infrared bands on geostationary satellites) could be effectively utilized in cloud algorithms to resolve some of the cloud detection problems caused by low visible and thermal contrasts in the polar regions. The analysis described makes use of a pattern recognition algorithm which estimates the surface and cloud classification, cloud fraction, and surface and cloudy visible (channel 1) albedo and infrared (channel 4) brightness temperatures on a 2.5 x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude grid. In each grid box several spectral and textural features were computed from the calibrated pixel values in the multispectral imagery, then used to classify the region into one of eighteen surface and/or cloud types using the maximum likelihood decision rule. A slightly different version of the algorithm was used for each season and hemisphere because of differences in categories and because of the lack of visible imagery during winter. The classification of the scene is used to specify the optimal AVHRR channel for separating clear and cloudy pixels using a hybrid histogram-spatial coherence method. This method estimates values for cloud fraction, clear and cloudy albedos and brightness temperatures in each grid box. The choice of a class-dependent AVHRR channel allows for better separation of clear and cloudy pixels than

  6. Analysis and study of the distribution of polar and non-polar pesticides in wastewater effluents from modern and conventional treatments.

    PubMed

    Barco-Bonilla, Nieves; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis

    2010-12-10

    The analysis of a wide range of pesticides in wastewaters (WWs) undergoing different treatments (both modern and conventional) has been studied. The need for optimizing specific extraction methods for each WW effluent based on their physico-chemical characteristics has been considered. A distribution study was performed to establish if the filtration step before extraction is a correct procedure since pesticides can be more prone to be in the aqueous or the solid phase, depending on their hydrophobicity. This evaluation demonstrated that pesticides are distributed between the aqueous phase and the suspended particulate matter (SPM; e.g. pyrethroids are only found in the SPM). The proposed methodologies involved the determination of 39 polar and 139 non-polar pesticides using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE) for the extraction of the aqueous phase and the SPM, respectively. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS) were used in the determination stage. WW samples from four different technologies were evaluated: membrane bioreactor, extended aeration, maturation pond and anaerobic pond. Validation data for the four effluents studied were generated, obtaining adequate precision values (estimated as % relative standard deviation, RSD) in almost all cases (<25%). The methods showed limits of detection at 0.01-0.20μgL(-1) and limits of quantification from 0.02 to 0.50μgL(-1). The proposed methods were applied to the analysis of real samples collected from an experimental WW treatment plant, detecting non-polar and polar pesticides at concentrations in the range 0.02-1.94μgL(-1) and 0.02-0.33μgL(-1), respectively.

  7. Evaluation of Octopus Polar Trend Analysis for detection of glaucomatous progression.

    PubMed

    Holló, Gábor; Naghizadeh, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the clinical usefulness of Polar Trend Analysis (PTA) of the Octopus Field Analysis software for detection of glaucoma progression in medically treated glaucoma. One eye each of 52 participants underwent Octopus Normal G2 perimetry and imaging with the RTVue-100 optical coherence tomograph at 6-month intervals (median follow-up 5 years). The eyes were classified as progressors or nonprogressors with PTA, which graphically presents pointwise linear regression analysis of focal defect at the corresponding nerve fiber angle at the disc margin. Polar Trend Analysis progression was defined as more than 1 significantly progressing test point location per sector. Progression of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness parameters were evaluated with linear regression analysis. Seventeen eyes were classified as PTA progressors (all in the inferotemporal or superotemporal areas or in both), and 35 eyes as nonprogressors. Frequencies of statistically significant RNFLT and GCC progressions did not differ significantly between the groups for any peripapillary area (p>0.05 for all comparisons). Significant inferior average RNFLT progression occurred in 50% of the PTA progressor eyes. Long-term measurement variability during the follow-up period was significantly higher in the PTA progressor group for inferior and superior GCC thickness and inferior average RNFLT (p<0.001 for all comparisons). In glaucoma, PTA may indicate glaucomatous progression earlier than linear regression analysis of the RNFLT and GCC parameters. It may already draw attention to glaucomatous progression when the alteration of the corresponding structural parameters is represented only by increased long-term variability.

  8. Modelling and simulation of large-scale polarized dust emission over the southern Galactic cap using the GASS Hi data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, T.; Boulanger, F.; Martin, P. G.; Bracco, A.; Vansyngel, F.; Aumont, J.; Bock, J. J.; Doré, O.; Haud, U.; Kalberla, P. M. W.; Serra, P.

    2017-05-01

    The Planck survey has quantified polarized Galactic foregrounds and established that they are a main limiting factor in the quest for the cosmic microwave background B-mode signal induced by primordial gravitational waves during cosmic inflation. Accurate separation of the Galactic foregrounds therefore binds this quest to our understanding of the magnetized interstellar medium. The two most relevant empirical results from analysis of Planck data are line of sight depolarization arising from fluctuations of the Galactic magnetic field orientation and alignment of filamentary dust structures with the magnetic field at high Galactic latitude. Furthermore, Planck and H I emission data in combination indicate that most of the filamentary dust structures are in the cold neutral medium. The goal of this paper is to test whether these salient observational results, taken together, can account fully for the statistical properties of the dust polarization over a selected low column density region comprising 34% of the southern Galactic cap (b ≤ -30°). To do this, we construct a dust model that incorporates H I column density maps as tracers of the dust intensity structures and a phenomenological description of the Galactic magnetic field. By adjusting the parameters of the dust model, we were able to reproduce the Planck dust observations at 353GHz in the selected region. Realistic simulations of the polarized dust emission enabled by such a dust model are useful for testing the accuracy of component separation methods, studying non-Gaussianity, and constraining the amount of decorrelation with frequency.

  9. Multiscale analysis of polarization-resolved third-harmonic generation microscopy from ordered lipid assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerley, Maxwell; Mahou, Pierre; Débarre, Delphine; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy is a biocompatible avenue for probing ordered molecular assemblies in biological tissues. As in linear optics, the nonlinear optical response from ordered systems is polarization-sensitive. This dependence can be used to identify and characterize local molecular ordering with micrometer-scale 3D resolution in a nonlinear microscope. In particular, third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy is a nonlinear optical modality sensitive to the electronic nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of a material. THG microscopy can be used to map χ(3) spatial variations (i.e. material interfaces), and to probe birefringence. In principle, polarization-resolved THG (P-THG) can therefore be used to probe ordered molecular arrays. However, the orientation, distribution, and nonlinear optical properties of the molecules near the beam focus all affect the detected signal. It is therefore necessary to develop a theoretical method which decouples these effects and permits the extraction of orientational information from P-THG images. In this report, we first present P-THG images of model systems (lipid droplets, multilamellar lipid vesicles) and biological tissues (human skin biopsy) which establish that P-THG is sensitive to lipid ordering and that it is maximized when excitation polarization is parallel to the ordered lipid molecules, giving impetus for the development of a thorough theoretical analysis. We then outline a multiscale model spanning the molecular (nm) and ensemble (μm) scales predicting the PTHG signal, consisting of three main steps: (i) calculation of the molecular electronic hyperpolarizability; (ii) determination of the anisotropic χ(3) for various molecular distribution parameters; and (iii) numerical calculations of the P-THG signal from lipid-water interfaces. This analysis links the measured P-THG response to lipid molecular structure and ordering.

  10. Analysis of Multi-Polarization Switching in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Using Multi-peak gain model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chuan; Chen, Yu-Fong; Chin, Pei-Hou; Quadir, Shaham; Li, Yueh-Chen; Wu, Yu-Heng; Yen, Tsu-Chiang

    2013-03-01

    This research investigated the mulit-polarization switching (MPS) in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) at constant temperature by simple multi-peak gain model.In experimental results, the phenomenon of the polarization switching (PS) in the VCSEL were arduous to definite quantitative analysis. A simple multi-peak gain model which included the temperature effect and current effect was established to match the MPS in the VCSEL. Simulation results match the experimental results well and shoe that the variation of temperature is a affecting factor of MPS. Therefore, the simple multi-peak gain model contributed a good understanding of multi-polarization switching in VCSELs.

  11. Time-Domain Pure-state Polarization Analysis of Surface Waves Traversing California

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Walter, W R; Lay, T; Wu, R

    2003-11-04

    A time-domain pure-state polarization analysis method is used to characterize surface waves traversing California parallel to the plate boundary. The method is applied to data recorded at four broadband stations in California from twenty-six large, shallow earthquakes which occurred since 1988, yielding polarization parameters such as the ellipticity, Euler angles, instantaneous periods, and wave incident azimuths. The earthquakes are located along the circum-Pacific margin and the ray paths cluster into two groups, with great-circle paths connecting stations MHC and PAS or CMB and GSC. The first path (MHC-PAS) is in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS), and the second (CMB-GSC) traverses the Sierra Nevada Batholith parallel to and east of the SAFS. Both Rayleigh and Love wave data show refractions due to lateral velocity heterogeneities under the path, indicating that accurate phase velocity and attenuation analysis requires array measurements. The Rayleigh waves are strongly affected by low velocity anomalies beneath Central California, with ray paths bending eastward as waves travel toward the south, while Love waves are less affected, providing observables to constrain the depth extent of the anomalies. Strong lateral gradients in the lithospheric structure between the continent and the ocean are the likely cause of the path deflections.

  12. Polarized Light Scanning Cryomacroscopy, Part II: Thermal Modeling and Analysis of Experimental Observations

    PubMed Central

    Feig, Justin S.G.; Solanki, Prem K.; Eisenberg, David P.; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing thermal analysis tools and explaining experimental observations made by means of polarized-light cryomacroscopy (Part I). Thermal modeling is based on finite elements analysis (FEA), where two model parameters are extracted from thermal measurements: (i) the overall heat transfer coefficient between the cuvette and the cooling chamber, and (ii) the effective thermal conductivity within the cryoprotective agent (CPA) at the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range. The effective thermal conductivity takes into account enhanced heat transfer due to convection currents within the CPA, creating the so-called Bénard cells. Comparison of experimental results with simulation data indicates that the uncertainty in simulations due to the propagation of uncertainty in measured physical properties exceeds the uncertainty in experimental measurements, which validates the modeling approach. It is shown in this study that while a cavity may form in the upper-center portion of the vitrified CPA, it has very little effect on estimating the temperature distribution within the domain. This cavity is driven by thermal contraction of the CPA, with the upper-center of the domain transitioning to glass last. Finally, it is demonstrated in this study that additional stresses may develop within the glass transition temperature range due to nonlinear behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient. This effect is reported here for the first time in the context of cryobiology, using the capabilities of polarized-light cryomacroscopy. PMID:27343139

  13. Polarized light scanning cryomacroscopy, part II: Thermal modeling and analysis of experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Feig, Justin S G; Solanki, Prem K; Eisenberg, David P; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    This study aims at developing thermal analysis tools and explaining experimental observations made by means of polarized-light cryomacroscopy (Part I). Thermal modeling is based on finite elements analysis (FEA), where two model parameters are extracted from thermal measurements: (i) the overall heat transfer coefficient between the cuvette and the cooling chamber, and (ii) the effective thermal conductivity within the cryoprotective agent (CPA) at the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range. The effective thermal conductivity takes into account enhanced heat transfer due to convection currents within the CPA, creating the so-called Bénard cells. Comparison of experimental results with simulation data indicates that the uncertainty in simulations due to the propagation of uncertainty in measured physical properties exceeds the uncertainty in experimental measurements, which validates the modeling approach. It is shown in this study that while a cavity may form in the upper-center portion of the vitrified CPA, it has very little effect on estimating the temperature distribution within the domain. This cavity is driven by thermal contraction of the CPA, with the upper-center of the domain transitioning to glass last. Finally, it is demonstrated in this study that additional stresses may develop within the glass transition temperature range due to nonlinear behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient. This effect is reported here for the first time in the context of cryobiology, using the capabilities of polarized-light cryomacroscopy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A comparison of concentration techniques for the analysis of polar compounds in canister samples

    SciTech Connect

    Cardin, D.B.; Deschenes, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    The analysis of polar volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) in ambient air by GC/MS requires sample preconcentration to achieve 0.1 ppb detection limits. Necessary sample volumes can exceed 300 c resulting in the co-collection of approximately 3--6 {micro}l of water, depending on the humidity of the sample. This much water will degrade column performance and will cause signal attenuation in benchtop mass spectrometers making quantification of target analytes difficult. A concentration system utilizing yet a third water management technique called Cold Trap Dehydration (CTD) will be presented. Using this technique, water can be substantially eliminated without loss of polar VOCs of interest. CO{sub 2} is also eliminated before GC/MS injection resulting in superior chromatographic performance and a more consistent GC/MS response for the extreme light VOCs. The preconcentrator uses the same hardware trapping configuration for Cold Trap Dehydration as it does for Automated 2-Dimensional Chromatography and Microscale Purge and Trap, and can select any one of the three applications under software control. To determine which approach is best for TO14 and CAAA Title 3 compounds, all three water management procedures will be examined and compared. Data will be presented showing detection limits and %RSD`s from the analysis of PVOCs in canisters using the 3-stage Entech 2000/2016CM Automated preconcentration system and an HP 5972 GC/MS.

  15. A new mean filter ratio technique for edge detection and foreground extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad M.; Islam, Mohammed N.; Asari, K. V.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2008-08-01

    Edge detection is the primary step in image segmentation and target detection applications. The edge operators proposed so far in the literature, namely, Canny, Sobel, Prewitt, provide a number of unwanted edges which complicate the foreground object detection process. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed for edge detection and foreground segmentation employing two mean filters of different window sizes. A ratio of the filtered images is taken and normalized. Then a threshold is applied on the histogram of the resultant image to derive the final output which can detect the edges and hence separate the foreground from the background. Performance of the proposed method has been investigated through computer simulation and compared with other existing edge detection techniques using complex reallife image sequences, which verifies that the technique provides better detection results for any input scene.

  16. Quantitative analysis of domain texture in polycrystalline barium titanate by polarized Raman microprobe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakashita, Tatsuo; Chazono, Hirokazu; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    A quantitative determination of domain distribution in polycrystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3, henceforth BT) ceramics has been pursued with the aid of a microprobe polarized Raman spectrometer. The crystallographic texture and domain orientation distribution of BT ceramics, which switched upon applying stress according to ferroelasticity principles, were determined from the relative intensity of selected phonon modes, taking into consideration a theoretical analysis of the angular dependence of phonon mode intensity for the tetragonal BT phase. Furthermore, the angular dependence of Raman intensity measured in polycrystalline BT depended on the statistical distribution of domain angles in the laser microprobe, which was explicitly taken into account in this work for obtaining a quantitative analysis of domain orientation for in-plane textured BT polycrystalline materials.

  17. Temperature-polarization correlations from tensor fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Crittenden, R.G.; Coulson, D.; Turok, N.G. |

    1995-11-15

    We study the polarization-temperature correlations on the cosmic microwave sky resulting from an initial scale-invariant spectrum of tensor (gravity wave) fluctuations, such as those which might arise during inflation. The correlation function has the opposite sign to that for scalar fluctuations on large scales, raising the possibility of a direct determination of whether the microwave anisotropies have a significant tensor component. We briefly discuss the important problem of estimating the expected foreground contamination.

  18. Simulated In Situ Measurements and Structural Analysis of Reconnection-Driven Solar Polar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Merrill A.; Uritsky, Vadim M.; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. R.

    2015-04-01

    Solar polar jets are observed to originate in regions within the open field of solar coronal holes. These so called “anemone” regions are associated with an embedded dipole topology, consisting of a fan-separatrix and a spine line emanating from a null point occurring at the top of the dome shaped fan surface (Antiochos 1998). In this study, we analyze simulations using the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS) that take into account gravity, solar wind, and spherical geometry to generate polar jets by reconnection between a twisted embedded bipole and the surrounding open field (Karpen et al. 2015). These new simulations confirm and extend previous Cartesian studies of polar jets based on this mechanism (Pariat et al. 2009, 2010, 2015). Focusing on the plasma density, velocity, and magnetic field, we interpolate the adaptively gridded simulation data onto a regular grid, and analyze the signatures that the jet produces as it propagates outward from the solar surface. The trans-Alfvénic nature of the jet front is confirmed by temporally differencing the plasma mass density and comparing the result with the local Alfvén speed. We perform a preliminary analysis of the magnetized plasma turbulence, and examine how the turbulence affects the overall structure of the jet. We also conduct simulated spacecraft fly-throughs of the jet, illustrating the signatures that spacecraft such as Solar Probe Plus may encounter in situ as the jet propagates into the heliosphere. These fly-throughs are performed in several different velocity regimes to better model the changing velocity of Solar Probe Plus relative to the Sun and its jets over the course of the mission.This research was supported by NASA grant NNG11PL10A 670.036 to CUA/IACS (M.A.R. and V.M.U.) and the Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology (J.T.K. and C.R.D.) program.

  19. Polarization analysis of VLF/ELF chorus waves observed at two ground stations at subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez C., C.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ozaki, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Chorus waves are naturally occurring and very intense electromagnetic whistler-mode wave emissions, generated near the geomagnetic equator and propagating through the geomagnetic field lines to the ionosphere. They are believed to be of a major contribution to the acceleration and loss of radiation belt particles (Omura et al., 2007, Inan et al., 1982). The spatial and temporal variations of the acceleration region of radiation belt electrons might be directly linked to the spatial and temporal variations of Very Low Frequency/Extremely Low Frequency (VLF/ELF) ionospheric exit point. Hence this research will focus on studying VLF/ELF chorus characteristics at frequencies of 0.003-30kHz with the objective of locating their ionospheric exit point. During February 17 - 25, 2012, the VLF-CHAIN campaign observed VLF/ELF emissions at subauroral latitudes using two loop antennas at Athabasca (MLAT=61.31, L=4.3) and Fort Vermillion (MLAT=64.51, L=5.4), Canada. Since the end of this campaign, continuous measurements of VLF/ELF waves with a sampling rate of 100 kHz, have been made at Athabasca. We have developed a polarization and spectral analysis method that has been successfully tested with an artificial wave with known polarization parameters. We intend to apply this process to raw data from both ground stations. The objective is to study the temporal variations of polarization parameters for several types of chorus wave emissions observed during the VLF-CHAIN campaign, such as, quasi-periodic emissions, falling-tone and rising-tone chorus, as well as bursty-patch emissions.

  20. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of nitrogen-containing intact polar lipids.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Stam, Axel; Middelburg, Jack J; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2015-12-15

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of nitrogen in amino acids has proven a valuable tool in many fields (e.g. ecology). Several intact polar lipids (IPLs) also contain nitrogen, and their nitrogen isotope ratios have the potential to elucidate food-web interactions or metabolic pathways. Here we have developed novel methodology for the determination of δ(15)N values of nitrogen-containing headgroups of IPLs using gas chromatography coupled with isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Intact polar lipids with nitrogen-containing headgroups were hydrolyzed and the resulting compounds were derivatized by (1) acetylation with pivaloyl chloride for compounds with amine and hydroxyl groups or (2) esterification using acidified 2-propanol followed by acetylation with pivaloyl chloride for compounds with both carboxyl and amine groups. The δ(15)N values of the derivatives were subsequently determined using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Intact polar lipids with ethanolamine and amino acid headgroups, such as phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine, were successfully released from the IPLs and derivatized. Using commercially available pure compounds it was established that δ(15)N values of ethanolamine and glycine were not statistically different from the offline-determined values. Application of the technique to microbial cultures and a microbial mat showed that the method works well for the release and derivatization of the headgroup of phosphatidylethanolamine, a common IPL in bacteria. A method to enable CSIA of nitrogen of selected IPLs has been developed. The method is suitable for measuring natural stable nitrogen isotope ratios in microbial lipids, in particular phosphatidylethanolamine, and will be especially useful for tracing the fate of nitrogen in deliberate tracer experiments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Histochemical analysis of polarizing colors of collagen using Picrosirius Red staining in oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Velidandla, Surekha; Gaikwad, Pravin; Ealla, Kranti Kiran Reddy; Bhorgonde, Kavitha D; Hunsingi, Prahalad; Kumar, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral Submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a common potentially malignant disease, which is characterized by generalized fibrosis of the oral soft tissues. It is due to disproportion in the collagen deposition and degradation. The excess deposition of collagen results in juxta epithelial fibro elastic changes and epithelial atrophy. Neoplastic changes in the epithelium usually precede the changes in the connective tissue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes in birefringence of collagen using picrosirius stain and compare with haematoxylin and eosin stained section. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted on 50 subjects, which included 45 patients diagnosed with different functional and histopathological grades of OSMF and 5 in control group. Picrosirius red stain was used to analyze collagen both histopathologically and qualitatively using polarizing microscopy. Chi-square test at p value <0.05 was used to analyze the results and the significance was tabulated. Results: Collagen fibers showed mixed birefringence with a shift in polarizing colour from yellow to red-orange in lamina propria, around the muscle and blood vessels, which was correlating with the conventional H&E stain. Conclusion: The results of present study show a significant change in birefringence of collagen between the various components of connective tissue. This change in birefringence colors and arrangement of collagen fibers might give an assumption of impending neoplastic change in OSMF. How to cite the article: Velidandla S, Gaikwad P, Ealla KK, Bhorgonde KD, Hunsingi P, Kumar A. Histochemical analysis of polarizing colors of collagen using Picrosirius Red staining in oral submucous fibrosis. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):33-8. PMID:24653600

  2. Progovac on Polarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Laurence R.; Lee, Young-Suk

    1995-01-01

    This article presents an analysis and review of Ljiljana Progovac's "Negative and Positive Polarity: A Binding Approach" (1994). It concludes that by pushing a syntactic analysis of polarity to, if not beyond, its limits, Progovac has focused attention on the work that remains for any approach to polarity to resolve. Contains 59…

  3. Video background tracking and foreground extraction via L1-subspace updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierantozzi, Michele; Liu, Ying; Pados, Dimitris A.; Colonnese, Stefania

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of online foreground extraction from compressed-sensed (CS) surveillance videos. A technically novel approach is suggested and developed by which the background scene is captured by an L1- norm subspace sequence directly in the CS domain. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to outliers, disturbances, and rank selection. Subtraction of the L1-subspace tracked background leads then to effective foreground/moving objects extraction. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  4. Revealing the Galactic H II Region G84.9+0.5 through 5 GHz Continuum and Polarization Emission and a Voigt Profile Analysis of Radio Recombination Line Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T. J.; Kothes, R.; Kerton, C. R.; Arvidsson, K.

    2007-09-01

    We present new λ = 6 cm radio observations (Stokes I, Q, and U and hydrogen recombination line) of the Galactic object G84.9+0.5, previously classified as a supernova remnant. Radio recombination line (RRL) emission near 6 cm is detected in deep GBT observations, and we are able to separate the 7.6 mK line detected from this object (appearing at vLSR=-40 km s-1) from the line emitted by ionized gas of W80 in the foreground (Tl=5.4 mK; vLSR~0 km s-1) along the same line of sight (LOS). Detection of RRL emission from G84.9+0.5 and the absence of polarized emission at 6 cm imply that this object is an H II region. Rather than a Gaussian, a Voigt function better describes the extended line profile of G84.9+0.5, which has a low-level ``wing'' extending into its negative-velocity end. A Monte Carlo analysis of noisy synthetic spectra is presented, and it is concluded the wing is not spurious. Two physical explanations for the wing (pressure broadening and an outflow of gas) are considered. We favor that of a champagne-type outflow in the gas flowing along the inside wall of a known molecular cloud in the vicinity of the nebula (at -40 km s-1), making G84.9+0.5 a ``blister'' type H II region viewed face-on. We find Te=9900 K and ne=20 cm-3 from a non-LTE analysis of the peak toward the RRL, and a total H II mass of 440 Msolar. A distance of 4.9 kpc is determined for this object. An IR analysis using MSX and 2MASS data is presented, showing H II region colors for G84.9+0.5 and identifying a possible exciting star for this H II region.

  5. TLC and 31P-NMR analysis of low polarity phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; MacKenzie, Andrew; Scott, Dawn

    2009-04-01

    High-performance TLC and (31)P-NMR were assessed as methods of observing the presence of numerous low polarity phospholipids: bis-phosphatidic acid (BPA), semi-lyso bis-phosphatidic acid (SLBPA), N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE), N-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxo-butyl)-phosphatidylethanolamine (diacetone adduct of PE, DOBPE), N-acetyl PE, phosphatidylmethanol (PM), phosphatidylethanol (PEt), phosphatidyl-n-propanol (PP), phosphatidyl-n-butanol (PB). Both techniques are non-discriminative and do not require the prior isolation of individual lipids. It appears that 2D TLC is superior to (31)P NMR in the analysis of low polarity phospholipids. All phosphatidylalcohols were well separated by 2D TLC. However, some compounds which can present difficulty in separation by 2D-TLC (e.g., SLBPA and NAPE; or DOBPE and N-acetyl PE) were easily distinguished using (31)P NMR so the methods are complimentary. A disadvantage of 2D TLC is that Rf values can vary with different brands and batches of TLC plates. The chemical shifts of (31)P NMR were less variable, and so a library of standards may not be necessary for peak identification. Another advantage of (31)P NMR is the ease of quantification of phospholipids. The applicability of the methods was tested on natural extracts of fish brain and cabbage stem.

  6. Highly concentrated emulsions: 1. Average drop size determination by analysis of incoherent polarized steady light transport.

    PubMed

    Paruta-Tuarez, Emilio; Fersadou, Hala; Sadtler, Véronique; Marchal, Philippe; Choplin, Lionel; Baravian, Christophe; Castel, Christophe

    2010-06-01

    The analysis of incoherent polarized steady light transport is reported as a convenient technique for the drop size determination in highly concentrated oil-in-water emulsions. The studied system consists in heptane-in-water emulsions stabilized with a copolymeric surfactant (Synperonic PE®/L64). Hundred grams of parent emulsions, at two volume fractions of dispersed phase (φ=0.958 and 0.937) were prepared using a semi-batch process. Then, they were diluted with the aqueous phase to obtain volume fractions ranging from 0.886 to 0.958. The use of a copolymeric surfactant allows the dilution of the highly concentrated emulsions without any change in the particle size distribution as confirmed by laser diffraction measurements. We found that the polarization technique allows the determination of the film thickness between water drops rather than their sizes. Consequently, we propose a geometrical relationship to determine an average drop size from the film thickness. The sensitivity of this alternative technique to detect changes in average drop size was studied by changing some process and formulation parameters. Drop size determination in highly concentrated emulsions via this method is useful since the measurement protocol neither involves dilution nor induces structural changes in the emulsion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of spectral resolution and optical rejection ratio of Brillouin optical spectral analysis using polarization pulling.

    PubMed

    Preussler, Stefan; Zadok, Avi; Wiatrek, Andrzej; Tur, Moshe; Schneider, Thomas

    2012-06-18

    High-resolution, wide-bandwidth optical spectrum analysis is essential to the measuring and monitoring of advanced optical, millimeter-wave, and terahertz communication systems, sensing applications and device characterization. One category of high-resolution spectrum analyzers reconstructs the power spectral density of a signal under test by scanning a Brillouin gain line across its spectral extent. In this work, we enhance both the resolution and the optical rejection ratio of such Brillouin-based spectrometers using a combination of two techniques. First, two Brillouin loss lines are superimposed upon a central Brillouin gain to reduce its bandwidth. Second, the vector attributes of stimulated Brillouin scattering amplification in standard, weakly birefringent fibers are used to change the signal state of polarization, and a judiciously aligned output polarizer discriminates between amplified and un-amplified spectral contents. A frequency resolution of 3 MHz, or eight orders of magnitude below the central optical frequency, is experimentally demonstrated. In addition, a weak spectral component is resolved in the presence of a strong adjacent signal, which is 30 dB stronger and detuned by only 60 MHz. The measurement method involves low-bandwidth direct detection, and does not require heterodyne beating. The measurement range of the proposed method is scalable to cover the C + L bands, depending on the tunable pump source. The accuracy of the measurements requires that the pump frequencies are well calibrated.

  8. Finite element analysis of the dynamic behavior of radially polarized Functionally Graded Piezoelectric (FGP) structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Ramkumar; Cui, Fangsen

    2016-04-01

    In the traditional layered piezoelectric structures, high stress concentrations could cause the structural failure in interlayer surfaces due to repeated strain reversals. To overcome the performance limitations of these structures, the concept of Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) has been introduced to improve the lifetime, integrity, and reliability of these structures. In this paper, the free and forced vibration of radially polarized Functionally Graded Piezoelectric (FGP) cylinders under different sets of loading are studied. Material properties such as piezoelectric, elastic and permittivity are assumed to change along its thickness, based on a specific gradation function. Four-parameter power law distribution is used to grade the volume fraction of the constituents comprising of PZT-5A and PZT-5H. Material property is assumed to be temperature dependent for a few numerical studies. The present modeling approach is validated by comparing the free and forced vibration of radially polarized Functionally Graded Piezoelectric (FGP) cylinders with those reported in the literature. The effects of material composition, loading and boundary conditions on the dynamic behavior of FGP cylinder are described. Since the modeling of functionally graded piezoelectric systems is challenging, the present study can help in the design and analysis of FGP cylinders.

  9. Analysis of polar peptides using a silica hydride column and high aqueous content mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Kulsing, Chadin; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-09-01

    The retention behavior of a set of polar peptides separated on a silica hydride stationary phase was examined with a capillary HPLC system coupled to ESI-MS detection. The mobile phases consisted of formic acid or acetic acid/acetonitrile/water mixtures with the acetonitrile content ranging from 5 to 80% v/v. The effects on peptide retention of these two acidic buffer additives and their concentrations in the mobile phase were systematically investigated. Strong retention of the peptides on the silica hydride phase was observed with relatively high-organic low-aqueous mobile phases (i.e. under aqueous normal-phase conditions). However, when low concentrations of acetic acid were employed as the buffer additive, strong retention of the peptides was also observed even when high aqueous content mobile phases were employed. This unique feature of the stationary phase therefore provides an opportunity for chromatographic analysis of polar peptides with water-rich eluents, a feature usually not feasible with traditional RP sorbents, and thus under conditions more compatible with analytical green chemistry criteria. In addition, both isocratic and gradient elution procedures can be employed to optimize peptide separations with excellent reproducibility and resolution under these high aqueous mobile phase conditions with this silica hydride stationary phase.

  10. Multiscale and cross entropy analysis of auroral and polar cap indices during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Sumesh; Prince, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve general monoscale information entropy methods like permutation and sample entropy in characterizing the irregularity of complex magnetospheric system, it is necessary to extend these entropy metrics to a multiscale paradigm. We propose novel multiscale and cross entropy method for the analysis of magnetospheric proxies such as auroral and polar cap indices during geomagnetic disturbance times. Such modified entropy metrics are certainly advantageous in classifying subsystems such as individual contributions of auroral electrojets and field aligned currents to high latitude magnetic perturbations during magnetic storm and polar substorm periods. We show that the multiscale entropy/cross entropy of geomagnetic indices vary with scale factor. These variations can be attributed to changes in multiscale dynamical complexity of non-equilibrium states present in the magnetospheric system. These types of features arise due to imbalance in injection and dissipation rates of energy with variations in magnetospheric response to solar wind. We also show that the multiscale entropy values of time series decrease during geomagnetic storm times which reveals an increase in temporal correlations as the system gradually shifts to a more orderly state. Such variations in entropy values can be interpreted as the signature of dynamical phase transitions which arise at the periods of geomagnetic storms and substorms that confirms several previously found results regarding emergence of cooperative dynamics, self-organization and non-Markovian nature of magnetosphere during disturbed periods.

  11. An Example of the Informative Potential of Polar Coordinate Analysis: Sprint Tactics in Elite 1,500-m Track Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragón, Sonia; Lapresa, Daniel; Arana, Javier; Anguera, M. Teresa; Garzón, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Polar coordinate analysis is a powerful data reduction technique based on the Zsum statistic, which is calculated from adjusted residuals obtained by lag sequential analysis. Its use has been greatly simplified since the addition of a module in the free software program HOISAN for performing the necessary computations and producing…

  12. An Example of the Informative Potential of Polar Coordinate Analysis: Sprint Tactics in Elite 1,500-m Track Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragón, Sonia; Lapresa, Daniel; Arana, Javier; Anguera, M. Teresa; Garzón, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Polar coordinate analysis is a powerful data reduction technique based on the Zsum statistic, which is calculated from adjusted residuals obtained by lag sequential analysis. Its use has been greatly simplified since the addition of a module in the free software program HOISAN for performing the necessary computations and producing…

  13. Three-parameter error analysis method based on rotating coordinates in rotating birefringent polarizer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi

    2015-11-01

    We propose error analysis using a rotating coordinate system with three parameters of linearly polarized light—incidence angle, azimuth angle on the front surface, and angle between the incidence and vibration planes—and demonstrate the method on a rotating birefringent prism system. The transmittance and angles are calculated plane-by-plane using a birefringence ellipsoid model and the final transmitted intensity equation is deduced. The effects of oblique incidence, light interference, beam convergence, and misalignment of the rotation and prism axes are discussed. We simulate the entire error model using MATLAB and conduct experiments based on a built polarimeter. The simulation and experimental results are consistent and demonstrate the rationality and validity of this method.

  14. Three-parameter error analysis method based on rotating coordinates in rotating birefringent polarizer system

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi

    2015-11-15

    We propose error analysis using a rotating coordinate system with three parameters of linearly polarized light—incidence angle, azimuth angle on the front surface, and angle between the incidence and vibration planes—and demonstrate the method on a rotating birefringent prism system. The transmittance and angles are calculated plane-by-plane using a birefringence ellipsoid model and the final transmitted intensity equation is deduced. The effects of oblique incidence, light interference, beam convergence, and misalignment of the rotation and prism axes are discussed. We simulate the entire error model using MATLAB and conduct experiments based on a built polarimeter. The simulation and experimental results are consistent and demonstrate the rationality and validity of this method.

  15. Three-parameter error analysis method based on rotating coordinates in rotating birefringent polarizer system.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi

    2015-11-01

    We propose error analysis using a rotating coordinate system with three parameters of linearly polarized light--incidence angle, azimuth angle on the front surface, and angle between the incidence and vibration planes--and demonstrate the method on a rotating birefringent prism system. The transmittance and angles are calculated plane-by-plane using a birefringence ellipsoid model and the final transmitted intensity equation is deduced. The effects of oblique incidence, light interference, beam convergence, and misalignment of the rotation and prism axes are discussed. We simulate the entire error model using MATLAB and conduct experiments based on a built polarimeter. The simulation and experimental results are consistent and demonstrate the rationality and validity of this method.

  16. Analysis of extreme-ultraviolet observations of a polar coronal hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mariska, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Emission gradient curves for extreme-ultraviolet resonance lines of lithiumlike ions have been constructed from spectroheliograms of a northern polar coronal hole observed on August 14, 1973, with the Harvard experiment on Skylab. An emission-measure analysis indicates both reduced density and coronal temperature in the coronal hole. The boundary geometry of the coronal hole is determined, and a temperature-density model that is consistent with the observed intensities is constructed. The model gives a conductive flux of 60,000 erg/sq cm per sec at 1.03 solar radii. The boundary geometry and density distribution are combined with typical solar-wind parameters at the earth to determine an outflow velocity of 15 km/s at 1.08 solar radii.

  17. 32. Interior of fabrication buildingrolling loft table in foreground/hull of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Interior of fabrication building-rolling loft table in foreground/hull of stardust #2 in middle. C-clamps and lofting patterns for minesweeper construction located along walls. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  18. Foreground effect on the J-factor estimation of classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Koji; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Ibe, Masahiro; Sugai, Hajime; Hayashi, Kohei; Horigome, Shun-ichi

    2017-07-01

    The gamma-ray observation of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) is a promising approach to search for the dark matter annihilation (or decay) signal. The dSphs are the nearby satellite galaxies with a clean environment and dense dark matter halo so that they give stringent constraints on the O(1) TeV dark matter. However, recent studies have revealed that current estimation of astrophysical factors relevant for the dark matter searches are not conservative, where the various non-negligible systematic uncertainties are not taken into account. Among them, the effect of foreground stars on the astrophysical factors has not been paid much attention, which becomes more important for deeper and wider stellar surveys in the future. In this article, we assess the effects of the foreground contamination by generating the mock samples of stars and using a model of future spectrographs. We investigate various data cuts to optimize the quality of the data and find that the cuts on the velocity and surface gravity can efficiently eliminate the contamination. We also propose a new likelihood function that includes the foreground distribution function. We apply this likelihood function to the fit of the three types of the mock data (Ursa Minor, Draco with large dark matter halo and Draco with small halo) and three cases of the observation. The likelihood successfully reproduces the input J-factor value while the fit without considering the foreground distribution gives a large deviation from the input value by a factor of 3.

  19. Overview of RyantoRainbow Line 1 (foreground) and Line 2 (center) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Ryan-to-Rainbow Line 1 (foreground) and Line 2 (center) in context with Morony-to-Rainbow 100kv Transmission Line (background) about on-half mile southwest of Ryan Dam. View to north - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Ryan-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  20. 9. Acircuit weather cover in foreground, personnel access hatch, transporter/erector ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. A-circuit weather cover in foreground, personnel access hatch, transporter/erector grounding points at right center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  1. A novel approach to extract closed foreground object contours in video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanidou, Giounona; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach for the detection of closed contours of foreground objects in videos. The proposed methodology begins with an initial localization of contours that is achieved via background subtraction technique that makes use of mixture of Gaussian distributions to model the background. The features that are used to realize an approximate foreground contour segmentation consist of magnitude of gradient at multiple orientations and phase congruency. In the next stage, canny edges of the incoming frames are computed at multiple scales and thresholds using the saturation and value components of HSV image. The approximate foreground contour is refined by reflecting it on the detected edges. A color ratio based noise and shadow line removal technique has been devised to remove the falsely segmented noise and strong shadow edges. Ultimately, to ensure closed contours, edge completion algorithm by anisotropic diffusion is applied. Once the contour is completed, it undergoes flood fill to define the foreground areas. Detailed experimental results on benchmark dataset showed that the proposed framework performs well in most of the different background scenarios. It effectively tackles the presence of shadows, illumination changes, some cases of dynamic background and thermal videos.

  2. 2. VIEW OF WASTE HOUSE/SECTION 16 IN FOREGROUND CENTER, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WASTE HOUSE/SECTION 16 IN FOREGROUND CENTER, WITH NAPPING BUILDING/SECTION 12 AT LEFT, CLOTH ROOM/SECTION 15 IN CENTER, SHOWING SAWTOOTH MONITOR ROOF. MILL NO. 1/SECTION 4 IS AT EXTREME RIGHT: BOOTT MILLS AND CHIMNEY IN BACKGROUND (ACROSS BRIDGE STREET), LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. April 1989 - Massachusetts Mills, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  3. Effects of Numerical Versus Foreground-Only Icon Displays on Understanding of Risk Magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Stone, Eric R; Gabard, Alexis R; Groves, Aislinn E; Lipkus, Isaac M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to advance knowledge of how to measure gist and verbatim understanding of risk magnitude information and to apply this knowledge to address whether graphics that focus on the number of people affected (the numerator of the risk ratio, i.e., the foreground) are effective displays for increasing (a) understanding of absolute and relative risk magnitudes and (b) risk avoidance. In 2 experiments, the authors examined the effects of a graphical display that used icons to represent the foreground information on measures of understanding (Experiments 1 and 2) and on perceived risk, affect, and risk aversion (Experiment 2). Consistent with prior findings, this foreground-only graphical display increased perceived risk and risk aversion; however, it also led to decreased understanding of absolute (although not relative) risk magnitudes. Methodologically, this work shows the importance of distinguishing understanding of absolute risk from understanding of relative risk magnitudes, and the need to assess gist knowledge of both types of risk. Substantively, this work shows that although using foreground-only graphical displays is an appealing risk communication strategy to increase risk aversion, doing so comes at the cost of decreased understanding of absolute risk magnitudes.

  4. 3. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING T1032 IN FOREGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING T-1032 IN FOREGROUND ON LEFT. T-1032, T-1031, T-1030 & T-1029 CAN ALSO BE SEEN IN BACKGROUND ON RIGHT. - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1032, North side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  5. 140° view showing: Pigeon Wash, foreground; Lake Mead NRA Approved ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140° view showing: Pigeon Wash, foreground; Lake Mead NRA Approved Road 148, middleground; and part of the Cockscomb Range, background. This negative forms a 360° composite panoramic when joined with AZ-2-78 and AZ-2-79. See AZ-2-89 for color version. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  6. NORTH EMBANKMENT IN FOREGROUND, WITH (LR) SUBSTATION (MI98D), POWERHOUSE (MI98C), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH EMBANKMENT IN FOREGROUND, WITH (L-R) SUBSTATION (MI-98-D), POWERHOUSE (MI-98-C), AND COOKE DAM POND IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTH - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, North Embankment, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  7. A foreground object features-based stereoscopic image visual comfort assessment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, G.; Ying, H.; Yu, M.; Ding, S.; Peng, Z.; Shao, F.

    2014-11-01

    Since stereoscopic images provide observers with both realistic and discomfort viewing experience, it is necessary to investigate the determinants of visual discomfort. By considering that foreground object draws most attention when human observing stereoscopic images. This paper proposes a new foreground object based visual comfort assessment (VCA) metric. In the first place, a suitable segmentation method is applied to disparity map and then the foreground object is ascertained as the one having the biggest average disparity. In the second place, three visual features being average disparity, average width and spatial complexity of foreground object are computed from the perspective of visual attention. Nevertheless, object's width and complexity do not consistently influence the perception of visual comfort in comparison with disparity. In accordance with this psychological phenomenon, we divide the whole images into four categories on the basis of different disparity and width, and exert four different models to more precisely predict its visual comfort in the third place. Experimental results show that the proposed VCA metric outperformance other existing metrics and can achieve a high consistency between objective and subjective visual comfort scores. The Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) are over 0.84 and 0.82, respectively.

  8. OBLIQUE VIEW SHOING THE OR&L BRIDGE IN THE FOREGROUND. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW SHOING THE OR&L BRIDGE IN THE FOREGROUND. NOTE THE ARC-PLAN END STACHION AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE OR&L BRIDGE AND THE WAIKELE CANAL BRIDGE, WHICH CAN BE SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING WEST. - Waikele Canal Bridge and Highway Overpass, Farrington Highway and Waikele Stream, Waipahu, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Foreground contamination in Lyα intensity mapping during the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, Asantha; Silva, Marta; Santos, Mario G.

    2014-04-10

    The intensity mapping of Lyα emission during the epoch of reionization will be contaminated by foreground emission lines from lower redshifts. We calculate the mean intensity and the power spectrum of Lyα emission at z ∼ 7 and estimate the uncertainties according to the relevant astrophysical processes. We find that the low-redshift emission lines from 6563 Å Hα, 5007 Å [O III], and 3727 Å [O II] will be strong contaminants on the observed Lyα power spectrum. We make use of both the star formation rate and luminosity functions to estimate the mean intensity and power spectra of the three foreground lines at z ∼ 0.5 for Hα, z ∼ 0.9 for [O III], and z ∼ 1.6 for [O II], as they will contaminate the Lyα emission at z ∼ 7. The [O II] line is found to be the strongest. We analyze the masking of the bright survey pixels with a foreground line above some line intensity threshold as a way to reduce the contamination in an intensity mapping survey. We find that the foreground contamination can be neglected if we remove pixels with fluxes above 1.4 × 10{sup –20} W m{sup –2}.

  10. Complete reionization constraints from Planck 2015 polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Chen He; Miranda, Vinicius; Hu, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    We conduct an analysis of the Planck 2015 data that is complete in reionization observables from the large angle polarization E -mode spectrum in the redshift range 6 analysis can be used to infer constraints on any model for reionization in the same range; we develop an effective likelihood approach for applying these constraints to models. By allowing for an arbitrary ionization history, this technique tests the robustness of inferences on the total optical depth from the usual steplike transition assumption, which is important for the interpretation of many other cosmological parameters such as the dark energy and neutrino mass. The Planck 2015 data not only allow a high redshift z >15 component to the optical depth but prefer it at the 2 σ level. This preference is associated with excess power in the multipole range 10 ≲ℓ≲20 and may indicate high redshift ionization sources or unaccounted for systematics and foregrounds in the 2015 data.

  11. Sea state monitoring over Socotra Rock (Ieodo) by dual polarization SAR image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, J.; Yun, H.; yun, H.

    2013-12-01

    The application SAR in sea state monitoring have been conducted in the large number of fields such as the vessel tracing using the wake in SAR amplitude, the measurement of sea wave height and the oil spill detection. The true merit of SAR application in sea state monitoring is the full independence from the climate conditions. Hence, it is highly useful to secure safety of the anthropogenic activities in ocean and the understanding of the marine environment. Especially the dual and full polarization modes of new L band and X band SAR such as Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR)'s Fine Beam double Polarization (FDB) and Polarimetry mode (PLR) and terraSAR-X polarization mode provided innovative means to extract sea state information exploiting the different amplitude and phase angle responses by electromagnetic and sea wave interactions. Thus a sample projects for mining the maximum possible sea state information from the ALOS PLASAR FDB SAR/InSAR pairs compared with the in-suit observation of sea state is being conducted. Test site was established over Socotra Rock (Ieodo in Korean), which is located at the Western Sea of Korea. At first, it aimed the measurement of sea waves using ALOS PLASAR multi-polarization images and its doppler-shift analysis. Together with sea state monitoring, auxiliary data analyses to combine the sea state outputs with the other in-orbital sensing image and non image information to trace the influence of sea states in the marine environment are actively undergoing. For instance, MERIS chlorophyll-a products are under investigation to identify the correlation with sea state. However, an significant obstacles to apply SAR interpretation scheme for mining sea state is the temporal gap between SAR image acquisitions in spite of the improved revising time of contemporary in-orbital SAR sensors. To tackle this problem, we are also introducing the multi view angle optical sensor

  12. Large-mode-area single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fiber: design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajeet; Saini, Than Singh; Naik, Kishor Dinkar; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    A rectangular core photonic crystal fiber structure has been presented and analyzed for single-polarization single-mode operation. Single-polarization is obtained with asymmetric design and by introducing different loss for x-polarization and y-polarization of fundamental modes. Single-polarization single-mode operation of the proposed photonic crystal fiber is investigated in detail by using a full vector finite element method with an anisotropic perfectly matched layer. The variations of the confinement loss and effective mode area of x-polarization and y-polarization of fundamental modes have been simulated by varying the structural parameters of the proposed photonic crystal fiber. At the optimized parameters, confinement loss and effective mode area is obtained as 0.94 dB/m and 60.67  μm2 for y-polarization as well as 26.67 dB/m and 67.23  μm2 for x-polarization of fundamental modes, respectively, at 1.55 μm. Therefore simulation results confirmed that, 0.75 m length of fiber will be sufficient to get a y-polarized fundamental mode with an effective mode area as large as 60.67  μm2.

  13. The application analysis of the multi-angle polarization technique for ocean color remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongchao; Zhu, Jun; Yin, Huan; Zhang, Keli

    2017-02-01

    The multi-angle polarization technique, which uses the intensity of polarized radiation as the observed quantity, is a new remote sensing means for earth observation. With this method, not only can the multi-angle light intensity data be provided, but also the multi-angle information of polarized radiation can be obtained. So, the technique may solve the problems, those could not be solved with the traditional remote sensing methods. Nowadays, the multi-angle polarization technique has become one of the hot topics in the field of the international quantitative research on remote sensing. In this paper, we firstly introduce the principles of the multi-angle polarization technique, then the situations of basic research and engineering applications are particularly summarized and analysed in 1) the peeled-off method of sun glitter based on polarization, 2) the ocean color remote sensing based on polarization, 3) oil spill detection using polarization technique, 4) the ocean aerosol monitoring based on polarization. Finally, based on the previous work, we briefly present the problems and prospects of the multi-angle polarization technique used in China's ocean color remote sensing.

  14. On the eigenvalue analysis using HH-VV dual-polarization SAR data and its applications to monitoring of coastal oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Mitsunobu; Ouchi, Kazuo; Yang, Chan-Su

    2013-06-01

    In the conventional SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) polarimetry, fully polarimetric HH-HV-VH-VV quad polarization data are used. The advantage of using quad-polarization data is more information on the scattering objects than the single- and quad-polarization data; while the disadvantages are narrower swath and less frequent data takes. To fill the gap in-between, the present study examines the polarimetric analysis using HH-VV dual polarization. The model-based three- and four-component scattering power decomposition analyses are not possible with dual-polarization data, and thus, the study is focused on the eigenvalue decomposition analysis by comparing the entropy and mean alpha angle derived from dual-polarization data with those derived from quad polarization data, acquired by ALOS-PALSAR (Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array L-band SAR) PLR (PoLaRimetric mode) and TerraSAR-X dual-polarization SpotLight mode over the Tokyo Bay, Japan. The preliminary results indicate that the values of dual-polarization entropy and alpha angle are almost the same as the quad-polarization values, indicating that dual-polarization data are as capable as quad-polarization data in the eigenvalue decomposition. The technique is then applied to estimating the underwater laver cultivation fields and ship detection.

  15. Foregrounds for observations of the cosmological 21 cm line. I. First Westerbork measurements of Galactic emission at 150 MHz in a low latitude field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, G.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Brentjens, M. A.; Ciardi, B.; Harker, G.; Jelić, V.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Labropoulos, P.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, J.; Thomas, R. M.; Yatawatta, S.; Zaroubi, S.

    2009-06-01

    Context: The cosmological 21 cm line promises to be a formidable tool for cosmology, allowing the investigation of the end of the so-called dark ages, when the first galaxies formed. Aims: Astrophysical foregrounds are expected to be about three orders of magnitude greater than the cosmological signal and therefore represent a serious contamination of the cosmological 21 cm line. Detailed knowledge of both their intensity and polarization structure on the relevant angular scale of 1-30 arcmin will be essential for extracting the cosmological signal from the data. Methods: We present the first results from a series of observations conducted with the Westerbork telescope in the 140-160 MHz range with a 2 arcmin resolution aimed at characterizing the properties of the foregrounds for epoch of reionization experiments. The polarization data were analysed through the rotation measure synthesis technique. We computed total intensity and polarization angular power spectra. Results: For the first time we have detected fluctuations in the Galactic diffuse emission on scales greater than 13 arcmin at 150 MHz, in the low Galactic latitude area known as Fan region, centred at α = 3^h10^m, δ = 65° 30'. Those fluctuations have an rms of 14 K. The total intensity power spectrum shows a power-law behaviour down to ℓ 900 with slope β^I_ℓ = -2.2 ± 0.3. The detection of diffuse emission at smaller angular scales is limited by residual point sources. We measured an rms confusion noise of 3 mJy beam-1. Diffuse polarized emission was also detected for the first time at this frequency. The polarized signal shows complex structure both spatially and along the line of sight. The polarization power spectrum is not affected by residual point sources and is only limited by the thermal noise. It shows a power-law behaviour down to ℓ 2700 with slope β^P_ℓ = -1.65 ± 0.15. The rms of polarization fluctuations is 7.2 K on 4 arcmin scales. Conclusions: The measured total intensity

  16. THE LISA GRAVITATIONAL WAVE FOREGROUND: A STUDY OF DOUBLE WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiter, Ashley J.; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Larson, Shane L. E-mail: kbelczyn@nmsu.ed E-mail: gabriel.j.williams@gmail.co

    2010-07-10

    Double white dwarfs (WDs) are expected to be a source of confusion-limited noise for the future gravitational wave observatory LISA. In a specific frequency range, this 'foreground noise' is predicted to rise above the instrumental noise and hinder the detection of other types of signals, e.g., gravitational waves arising from stellar-mass objects inspiraling into massive black holes. In many previous studies, only detached populations of compact object binaries have been considered in estimating the LISA gravitational wave foreground signal. Here, we investigate the influence of compact object detached and Roche-Lobe overflow (RLOF) Galactic binaries on the shape and strength of the LISA signal. Since >99% of remnant binaries that have orbital periods within the LISA sensitivity range are WD binaries, we consider only these binaries when calculating the LISA signal. We find that the contribution of RLOF binaries to the foreground noise is negligible at low frequencies, but becomes significant at higher frequencies, pushing the frequency at which the foreground noise drops below the instrumental noise to >6 mHz. We find that it is important to consider the population of mass-transferring binaries in order to obtain an accurate assessment of the foreground noise on the LISA data stream. However, we estimate that there still exists a sizeable number ({approx}11,300) of Galactic double WD binaries that will have a signal-to-noise ratio >5, and thus will be potentially resolvable with LISA. We present the LISA gravitational wave signal from the Galactic population of WD binaries, show the most important formation channels contributing to the LISA disk and bulge populations, and discuss the implications of these new findings.

  17. Multifrequency Beam Characterization and Systematics for the Keck Array, BICEP3, and Future CMB Polarization Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkare, Kirit S.; BICEP/Keck Array Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The BICEP/Keck Array cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments located at the South Pole are a series of small-aperture refracting telescopes focused on the degree-scale B-mode signature of inflationary gravitational waves. These highly-targeted experiments have produced the world's deepest maps of CMB polarization, leading to the most stringent constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio to date: sigma(r) = 0.024 and r < 0.09 from B-modes alone, and r < 0.07 in combination with other datasets. These constraints will rapidly improve with upcoming measurements at the multiple frequencies needed to separate Galactic foregrounds from the CMB, and in combination with higher-resolution experiments to remove B-modes induced by gravitational lensing. The primary instrumental systematic for pair differencing CMB experiments is temperature-to-polarization leakage from mismatched co-located orthogonally polarized beams. We present extensive far field beam measurements taken in situ at the South Pole, and demonstrate how the resulting high-fidelity beam maps for each detector are used in dedicated simulations to predict the expected leakage in the final CMB maps, focusing on the 95, 150, and 220 GHz beams present in the BK15 dataset. We discuss prospects for dealing with temperature-to-polarization leakage in next-generation CMB experiments with hundreds of thousands of detectors, and how the beams systematics levels we achieve with current instrument and analysis technology will scale with detector count.

  18. Cell growth characteristics from angle- and polarization-resolved light scattering: Prospects for two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herran Cuspinera, Roxana M.; Hore, Dennis K.

    2016-11-01

    We highlight the potential of generalized two-dimensional correlation analysis for the fingerprinting of cell growth in solution monitored by light scattering, where the synchronous and asynchronous responses serve as a sensitive marker for the effect of growth conditions on the distribution of cell morphologies. The polarization of the scattered light varies according to the cell size distribution, and so the changes in the polarization over time are an excellent indicator of the dynamic growth conditions. However, direct comparison of the polarization-, time-, and angle-resolved signals between different experiments is hindered by the subtle changes in the data, and the inability to easily adapt models to account for these differences. Using Mie scattering simulations of different growth conditions, and some preliminary experimental data for a single set of conditions, we illustrate that correlation analysis provides rapid and sensitive qualitative markers of growth characteristics.

  19. Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis analysis of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-06-11

    This paper describes the application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples. Using hexamethonium bromide (HMB) as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate buffer at pH 9.2, the resolution of nitrate and nitrite was accomplished in less than 3 minutes. RPCE was compared with ion chromatographic (IC) and cadmium reduction flow injection analysis (Cd-FIA) methods which are the two most commonly used standard methods for the analysis of natural water samples for nitrate and nitrite. When compared with the ion chromatographic method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite, RPCE reduced analysis time, decreased detection limits by a factor of 10, cut laboratory wastes by more than two orders of magnitude, and eliminated interferences commonly associated with IC. When compared with the cadmium reduction method, RPCE had the advantage of simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite, could be used in the presence of various metallic ions that normally interfere in cadmium reduction, and decreased detection limits by a factor of 10.

  20. Time Series miRNA-mRNA integrated analysis reveals critical miRNAs and targets in macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liangqun; McCurdy, Sara; Huang, Sijia; Zhu, Xun; Peplowska, Karolina; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Boisvert, William A.; Garmire, Lana X.

    2016-01-01

    Polarization of macrophages is regulated through complex signaling networks. Correlating miRNA and mRNA expression over time after macrophage polarization has not yet been investigated. We used paired RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq experiments to measure the mRNA and miRNA expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages over a time-series of 8 hours. Bioinformatics analysis identified 31 differentially expressed miRNAs between M1 and M2 polarized macrophages. The top 4 M1 miRNAs (miR-155-3p, miR-155-5p, miR-147-3p and miR-9-5p) and top 4 M2 miRNAs (miR-27a-5p, let-7c-1-3p, miR-23a-5p and miR-23b-5p) were validated by qPCR. Interestingly, M1 specific miRNAs could be categorized to early- and late-response groups, in which three new miRNAs miR-1931, miR-3473e and miR-5128 were validated as early-response miRNAs. M1 polarization led to the enrichment of genes involved in immune responses and signal transduction, whereas M2 polarization enriched genes involved in cell cycle and metabolic processes. C2H2 zinc-finger family members are key targets of DE miRNAs. The integrative analysis between miRNAs and mRNAs demonstrates the regulations of miRNAs on nearly four thousand differentially expressed genes and most of the biological pathways enriched in macrophage polarization. In summary, this study elucidates the expression profiles of miRNAs and their potential targetomes during macrophage polarization. PMID:27981970