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Sample records for polarized atomic photofragments

  1. An investigation of polarized atomic photofragments using the ion imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bracker, A.S.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis describes measurement and analysis of the recoil angle dependence of atomic photofragment polarization (atomic v-J correlation). This property provides information on the electronic rearrangement which occurs during molecular photodissociation. Chapter 1 introduces concepts of photofragment vector correlations and reviews experimental and theoretical progress in this area. Chapter 2 described the photofragment ion imaging technique, which the author has used to study the atomic v-J correlation in chlorine and ozone dissociation. Chapter 3 outlines a method for isolating and describing the contribution to the image signal which is due exclusively to angular momentum alignment. Ion imaging results are presented and discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses a different set of experiments on the three-fragment dissociation of azomethane. 122 refs.

  2. Photodissociation of HI and DI: Polarization of atomic photofragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alex

    2005-02-01

    The complete angular momentum distributions and vector correlation coefficients (orientation and alignment) of ground state I(P3/22) and excited state I(P1/22) atoms resulting from the photodissociation of HI have been computed as a function of photolysis energy. The orientation and alignment parameters aQ(K)(p) that describe the coherent and incoherent contributions to the angular momentum distributions from the multiple electronic states accessed by parallel and perpendicular transitions are determined using a time-dependent wave packet treatment of the dissociation dynamics. The dynamics are based on potential energy curves and transition dipole moments that have been reported previously [R. J. LeRoy, G. T. Kraemer, and S. Manzhos, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 9353 (2002)] and used to successfully model the scalar (total cross section and branching fraction) and lowest order vector (anisotropy parameter β) properties of the photodissociation. Predictions of the aQ(K)(p), parameters for the isotopically substituted species DI are reported and contrasted to the analogous HI results. The resulting polarization for the corresponding H/D partners are also determined and demonstrate that both H and D atoms produced can be highly spin polarized. Comparison of these predictions for HI and DI with experimental measurement will provide the most stringent test of the current model for the electronic structure and the interpretation of the dissociation based on noncoupled excited state dynamics.

  3. Photodissociation of HI and DI: polarization of atomic photofragments.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex

    2005-02-22

    The complete angular momentum distributions and vector correlation coefficients (orientation and alignment) of ground state I((2)P(32)) and excited state I((2)P(12)) atoms resulting from the photodissociation of HI have been computed as a function of photolysis energy. The orientation and alignment parameters a(Q) ((K))(p) that describe the coherent and incoherent contributions to the angular momentum distributions from the multiple electronic states accessed by parallel and perpendicular transitions are determined using a time-dependent wave packet treatment of the dissociation dynamics. The dynamics are based on potential energy curves and transition dipole moments that have been reported previously [R. J. LeRoy, G. T. Kraemer, and S. Manzhos, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 9353 (2002)] and used to successfully model the scalar (total cross section and branching fraction) and lowest order vector (anisotropy parameter beta) properties of the photodissociation. Predictions of the a(Q) ((K))(p), parameters for the isotopically substituted species DI are reported and contrasted to the analogous HI results. The resulting polarization for the corresponding H/D partners are also determined and demonstrate that both H and D atoms produced can be highly spin polarized. Comparison of these predictions for HI and DI with experimental measurement will provide the most stringent test of the current model for the electronic structure and the interpretation of the dissociation based on noncoupled excited state dynamics.

  4. Measurement of Br photofragment orientation and alignment from HBr photodissociation: Production of highly spin-polarized hydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Rakitzis, T. Peter; Samartzis, P.C.; Toomes, R.L.; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N.

    2004-10-15

    The orientation and alignment of the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} and {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} Br photofragments from the photodissociation of HBr is measured at 193 nm in terms of a{sub q}{sup (k)}(p) parameters, using slice imaging. The A {sup 1}{pi} state is excited almost exclusively, and the measured a{sub q}{sup (k)}(p) parameters and the spin-orbit branching ratio show that the dissociation proceeds predominantly via nonadiabatic transitions to the a {sup 3}{pi} and 1 {sup 3}{sigma}{sup +} states. Conservation of angular momentum shows that the electrons of the nascent H atom cofragments (recoiling parallel to the photolysis polarization) are highly spin polarized: about 100% for the Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channel, and 86% for the Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) channel. A similar analysis is demonstrated for the photodissociation of HCl.

  5. Two-photon state selection and angular momentum polarization probed by velocity map imaging: Application to H atom photofragment angular distributions from the photodissociation of two-photon state selected HCl and HBr

    SciTech Connect

    Manzhos, Sergei; Romanescu, Constantin; Loock, Hans-Peter; Underwood, Jonathan G.

    2004-12-15

    A formalism for calculating the angular momentum polarization of an atom or a molecule following two-photon excitation of a J-selected state is presented. This formalism is used to interpret the H atom photofragment angular distributions from single-photon dissociation of two-photon rovibronically state selected HCl and HBr prepared via a Q-branch transition. By comparison of the angular distributions measured using the velocity map imaging technique with the theoretical model it is shown that single-photon dissociation of two-photon prepared states can be used for pathway identification, allowing for the identification of the virtual state symmetry in the two-photon absorption and/or the symmetry of the dissociative state. It is also shown that under conditions of excitation with circularly polarized light, or for excitation via non-Q-branch transitions with linearly polarized light the angular momentum polarization is independent of the dynamics of the two-photon transition and analytically computable.

  6. Two-photon state selection and angular momentum polarization probed by velocity map imaging: application to H atom photofragment angular distributions from the photodissociation of two-photon state selected HCl and HBr.

    PubMed

    Manzhos, Sergei; Romanescu, Constantin; Loock, Hans-Peter; Underwood, Jonathan G

    2004-12-15

    A formalism for calculating the angular momentum polarization of an atom or a molecule following two-photon excitation of a J-selected state is presented. This formalism is used to interpret the H atom photofragment angular distributions from single-photon dissociation of two-photon rovibronically state selected HCl and HBr prepared via a Q-branch transition. By comparison of the angular distributions measured using the velocity map imaging technique with the theoretical model it is shown that single-photon dissociation of two-photon prepared states can be used for pathway identification, allowing for the identification of the virtual state symmetry in the two-photon absorption and/or the symmetry of the dissociative state. It is also shown that under conditions of excitation with circularly polarized light, or for excitation via non-Q-branch transitions with linearly polarized light the angular momentum polarization is independent of the dynamics of the two-photon transition and analytically computable.

  7. Atomic polarization in the photodissociation of diatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Clark, A P; Brouard, M; Quadrini, F; Vallance, C

    2006-12-28

    The angular momentum polarization of atomic photofragments provides a detailed insight into the dynamics of the photodissociation process. In this article, the origins of electronic angular momentum polarization are introduced and experimental and theoretical methods for the measurement or calculation of atomic orientation and alignment parameters described. Many diatomic photodissociation systems are surveyed, in order to provide an overview both of the historical development of the field and of the most state-of-the-art contemporary studies.

  8. The parity-adapted basis set in the formulation of the photofragment angular momentum polarization problem: the role of the Coriolis interaction.

    PubMed

    Shternin, Peter S; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S

    2008-05-21

    We present a theoretical framework for calculating the recoil-angle dependence of the photofragment angular momentum polarization taking into account both radial and Coriolis nonadiabatic interactions in the diatomic/linear photodissociating molecules. The parity-adapted representation of the total molecular wave function has been used throughout the paper. The obtained full quantum-mechanical expressions for the photofragment state multipoles have been simplified by using the semiclassical approximation in the high-J limit and then analyzed for the cases of direct photodissociation and slow predissociation in terms of the anisotropy parameters. In both cases, each anisotropy parameter can be presented as a linear combination of the generalized dynamical functions fK(q,q',q,q') of the rank K representing contribution from different dissociation mechanisms including possible radial and Coriolis nonadiabatic transitions, coherent effects, and the rotation of the recoil axis. In the absence of the Coriolis interactions, the obtained results are equivalent to the earlier published ones. The angle-recoil dependence of the photofragment state multipoles for an arbitrary photolysis reaction is derived. As shown, the polarization of the photofragments in the photolysis of a diatomic or a polyatomic molecule can be described in terms of the anisotropy parameters irrespective of the photodissociation mechanism.

  9. High-resolution Rydberg tagging time-of-flight measurements of atomic photofragments by single-photon vacuum ultraviolet laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Brant; Zhou Jingang; Yang Lei; Ng, C. Y.

    2008-12-15

    By coupling a comprehensive tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser system to a velocity-mapped ion imaging apparatus, we show that high-resolution high-n Rydberg tagging time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of nascent atomic photofragments formed by laser photodissociation can be made using single-photon VUV laser photoexcitation. To illustrate this single-photon Rydberg tagging TOF method, we present here the results of the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF measurements of O({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and S({sup 3}P{sub 2}) formed in the photodissociation of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} at 193.3 and 202.3 nm, respectively. These results are compared to those obtained by employing the VUV laser photoionization time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging technique. The fact that the kinetic energy resolutions achieved in the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF measurements of O and S atoms are found to be higher than those observed in the VUV laser photoionization, time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging studies show that the single-photon VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF method is useful and complementary to state-of-the-art time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging measurements of heavier atomic photofragments, such as O and S atoms. Furthermore, the general agreement observed between the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF and velocity-mapped ion imaging experiments supports the conclusion that the lifetimes of the tagged Rydberg states of O and S atoms are sufficiently long to allow the reliable determination of state-resolved UV photodissociation cross sections of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} by using the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF method.

  10. Laser detection of spin-polarized hydrogen from HCl and HBr photodissociation: comparison of H- and halogen-atom polarizations.

    PubMed

    Sofikitis, Dimitris; Rubio-Lago, Luis; Bougas, Lykourgos; Alexander, Andrew J; Rakitzis, T Peter

    2008-10-14

    Thermal HCl and HBr molecules were photodissociated using circularly polarized 193 nm light, and the speed-dependent spin polarization of the H-atom photofragments was measured using polarized fluorescence at 121.6 nm. Both polarization components, described by the a(0)(1)(perpendicular) and Re[a(1)(1)(parallel, perpendicular)] parameters which arise from incoherent and coherent dissociation mechanisms, are measured. The values of the a(0)(1)(perpendicular) parameter, for both HCl and HBr photodissociation, are within experimental error of the predictions of both ab initio calculations and of previous measurements of the polarization of the halide cofragments. The experimental and ab initio theoretical values of the Re[a(1)(1)(parallel, perpendicular)] parameter show some disagreement, suggesting that further theoretical investigations are required. Overall, good agreement occurs despite the fact that the current experiments photodissociate molecules at 295 K, whereas previous measurements were conducted at rotational temperatures of about 15 K.

  11. Molecular ion photofragment spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bustamente, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    A new molecular ion photofragment spectrometer is described which features a supersonic molecular beam ion source and a radio frequency octapole ion trap interaction region. This unique combination allows several techniques to be applied to the problem of detecting a photon absorption event of a molecular ion. In particular, it may be possible to obtain low resolution survey spectra of exotic molecular ions by using a direct vibrational predissociation process, or by using other more indirect detection methods. The use of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measuring the lifetime of the O/sub 2//sup +/(/sup 4/..pi../sub u/) metastable state which is found to consist of two main components: the /sup 4/..pi../sub 5/2/ and /sup 4/..pi../sub -1/2/ spin components having a long lifetime (approx. 129 ms) and the /sup 4/..pi../sub 3/2/ and /sup 4/..pi../sub 1/2/ spin components having a short lifetime (approx. 6 ms).

  12. Communication: Angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J. Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2013-12-14

    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He){sub 200}, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe{sub 200} studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

  13. Communication: angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2013-12-14

    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He)200, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe200 studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

  14. Communication: Angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J. Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2013-12-01

    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He)200, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe200 studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

  15. Polarization phenomena in multiphoton ionization of atoms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, V. L.

    1973-01-01

    The theory of multiphoton ionization for an atomic system of arbitrary complexity is developed using a density matrix formalism. An expression is obtained which determines the differential N-photon ionization cross section as a function of the polarization states of the target atom and the incident radiation. The parameters which characterize the photo-electron angular distribution are related to the general reduced matrix elements for the N-photon transition. Two-photon ionization of unpolarized atoms is treated as an illustration of the use of the theory. The dependence of the multiphoton ionization cross section on the polarization state of the incident radiation, which has been observed in two- and three-photon ionization of Cs, is accounted for by the theory. Finally, the photoelectron spin polarization produced by the multiphoton ionization of unpolarized atoms, like the analogous polarization resulting from single-photon ionization, is found to depend on the circular polarization of the incident radiation.

  16. Polarization phenomena in multiphoton ionization of atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, V. L.

    1973-01-01

    The theory of multiphoton ionization for an atomic system of arbitrary complexity is developed using a density matrix formalism. An expression is obtained which determines the differential N-photon ionization cross section as a function of the polarization states of the target atom and the incident radiation. The parameters which characterize the photoelectron angular distribution are related to the general reduced matrix elements for the N-photon transition. Two-photon ionization of unpolarized atoms is treated as an illustration of the use of the theory. The dependence of the multiphoton ionization cross section on the polarization state of the incident radiation, which has been observed in two- and three-photon ionization of Cs, is accounted for by the theory. Finally, the photoelectron spin polarization produced by the multiphoton ionization of unpolarized atoms, like the analogous polarization resulting from single-photon ionization, is found to depend on the circular polarization of the incident radiation.

  17. Complete Measurement of S(1D2) Photofragment Alignment from Abel-Invertible Ion Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitzis, T. Peter; Samartzis, Peter C.; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N.

    2001-09-01

    A novel method to measure directly the photofragment alignment from Abel-invertible two-dimensional ion images, as a function of photofragment recoil velocity, is demonstrated for S(1D2) atoms from the photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide at 223 nm. The results are analyzed in terms of coherent and incoherent contributions from two dissociative states, showing that the phase differences of the asymptotic wave functions of the fast and slow recoil-velocity channel are approximately π/2 and 0, respectively.

  18. Assembling Ultracold Polar Molecules From Single Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lee R.; Hutzler, Nicholas R.; Yu, Yichao; Zhang, Jessie T.; Ni, Kang-Kuen

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules are promising candidates for studying quantum many-body phenomena and building quantum information systems, due to their long-range, anisotropic, and tunable interactions. This calls for a technique to create low entropy samples of ultracold polar molecules with a large dipole moment. The lowest entropy molecular gas to date was created from atomic quantum gases in bulk or in optical lattices. The entropy is limited by that of the constituent atomic gases. We propose a method that addresses this limitation by assembling sodium cesium (NaCs) molecules from individually manipulated atoms. First, we load single Na and Cs atoms in separate optical tweezers from MOTs. We will cool them to their motional ground state using Raman sideband cooling and then merge them into a single tweezer. The tweezer confinement provides enhanced wavefunction overlap between the atom pair and molecule states. Using coherent two-photon techniques, we will then transfer the atom pair into a molecule. Our method offers reduced apparatus complexity and cycle time, single-site manipulation and imaging resolution, and should be readily extended to different species.

  19. Ultrafast charge transfer and atomic orbital polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Deppe, M.; Foehlisch, A.; Hennies, F.; Nagasono, M.; Beye, M.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Echenique, P. M.; Wurth, W.

    2007-11-07

    The role of orbital polarization for ultrafast charge transfer between an atomic adsorbate and a substrate is explored. Core hole clock spectroscopy with linearly polarized x-ray radiation allows to selectively excite adsorbate resonance states with defined spatial orientation relative to the substrate surface. For c(4x2)S/Ru(0001) the charge transfer times between the sulfur 2s{sup -1}3p*{sup +1} antibonding resonance and the ruthenium substrate have been studied, with the 2s electron excited into the 3p{sub perpendicular}* state along the surface normal and the 3p{sub parallel}* state in the surface plane. The charge transfer times are determined as 0.18{+-}0.07 and 0.84{+-}0.23 fs, respectively. This variation is the direct consequence of the different adsorbate-substrate orbital overlap.

  20. Photofragment Translational Spectroscopy of Propargyl Radicals at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Goncher, S.J.; Moore, D.T.; Sveum, N.E.; Neumark, D.M.

    2007-12-21

    The photodissociation of propargyl radical, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}, and its perdeuterated isotopolog was investigated using photofragment translational spectroscopy. Propargyl radicals were produced by 193 nm photolysis of allene entrained in a molecular beam expansion, and then photodissociated at 248 nm. photofragment time-of-flight spectra were measured at a series of laboratory angles using electron impact ionization coupled to a mass spectrometer. Data for ion masses corresponding to C{sub 3}H{sub 2}{sup +}, C{sub 3}H{sup +}, C{sub 3}{sup +}, and the analogous deuterated species show that both H and H{sub 2} loss occur. The translational energy distributions for these processes have average values = 5.7 and 15.9 kcal/mol, respectively, and are consistent with dissociation on the ground state following internal conversion, with no exit barrier for H loss but a tight transition state for H{sub 2} loss. The translational energy distribution for H atom loss is similar to that in previous work on propargyl in which the H atom, rather than the heavy fragment, was detected. The branching ratio for H loss/H{sub 2} loss was determined to be 97.6/2.4 {+-} 1.2, in good agreement with RRKM results.

  1. Photodissociation of ozone at 276nm by photofragment imaging and high resolution photofragment translational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D.A.; Suits, A.G.

    1996-11-01

    The photodissociation of ozone at 276 nm is investigated using both state resolved ion imaging and high-resolution photofragment translational spectroscopy. Ion images from both [3+1] and [2+1] resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of the O({sup 1}D) photofragment are reported. All images show strong evidence of O({sup 1}D) orbital alignment. Photofragment translation spectroscopy time-of-flight spectra are reported for the O{sub 2} ({sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}) photofragment. Total kinetic energy release distributions determined form these spectra are generally consistent with those distributions determined from imaging data. Observed angular distributions are reported for both detection methods, pointing to some unresolved questions for ozone dissociation in this wavelength region.

  2. Polarized Electron-Noble Gas Atom Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayaratna, Kanishka Palipana

    In this first study of inelastic collisions of transversely polarized electrons and noble gas atoms, the importance of integrated Stokes parameter measurements of the emitted radiation for untangling various atomic interactions such as those due to Coulomb and spin-orbit forces, and exchange, is discussed. A complete theoretical formulation based on the angular momentum algebra under the L-S coupling is presented and the experimental results are compared with the results of the above calculations and also with the results of the first-order distorted -wave Born approximation (DWB1) theory. In addition, this study represents the first careful attempts made to observe inelastic "Mott scattering" optically via measurements of the Stokes parameter eta _1 for the well L-S coupled excited state, np^5(n+1)p[ 5/2]_3( ^3D_3), where n = 2, 3, 4, and 5 for Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe respectively. We also studied the breakdown of L-S coupling in a non-well L-S coupled excited state, 4p^55p[ 5/2]_2 in Kr, due to the presence of strong spin-orbit forces within the atom. The optical excitation function measurements of all the above states and the 3^3P_ {J} state of He are presented. Most importantly, the polarimeter expressions for the first heavy noble gas optical electron polarimeters based on the exchange excitation of the np^5(n+1)p[ 5/2] _3(^3D_3) states by polarized electrons are derived and their validity is tested via measurements of eta_1. Their efficiencies are compared with that of an already existing He optical electron polarimeter. Moreover, the effectiveness of a Kr optical electron polarimeter is tested via a comparison -calibration measurement of an inline Mott polarimeter in addition to a measurement done with a He optical electron polarimeter.

  3. Polarization of atomic radiation in stochastic plasma fields

    SciTech Connect

    Savchenko, V.I.; Fisch, N.J.

    1997-05-12

    When a laser pulse of certain polarization or an electron beam excites atoms in a plasma, the atomic spectrum of the radiation emitted by the atoms exhibits differently polarized line core and line wings. This unusual effect, which is predicted to occur under a variety of conditions, can be accompanied by the appearance of the forbidden component in the spectrum, with polarization opposite to that of the exciting laser pulse.

  4. Line space theory of Resonant Four-Wave Mixing: New prospects for all-optical studies of photofragment states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzov, A. P.; Radi, P. P.

    2017-04-01

    Based on the line-space quantum formalism, the potential of Resonant Four-Wave Mixing spectroscopy as a new tool to study rotational and translational anisotropy of photofragments produced by absorption of plane-polarized photons is theoretically addressed. Synergy of the flexible polarization setup, fine quantum state resolution and of the possibility to study translational recoil distributions, makes the tool unsurpassed among the all-optical means to interrogate the photofragment states. It allows to directly separate signals induced by the rotational anisotropy which remain silent in the most of laser-induced fluorescence responses and thus opens new ways to study rotational helicity, a crucial signature of the photolysis pathway.

  5. Imaging detection of spin-polarized hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broderick, Bernadette M.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Smolin, Andrey G.; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.; Suits, Arthur G.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that a two-color high-n Rydberg excitation of hydrogen atoms using a circularly polarized tagging laser may be combined with pulsed-field ionization to allow for direct velocity map imaging of the H atom spin polarization. In this proof-of-principle study we only detect the incoherent spin polarization for a single velocity component in the 213 nm dissociation of HBr, but anticipate that by combining this strategy with slice imaging, the full velocity dependent H atom spin polarization may be obtained in a single experimental geometry.

  6. Polarization gradient cooling of single atoms in optical dipole traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Yue-Sum; Steiner, Matthias; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2017-09-01

    We experimentally investigate σ+-σ- polarization gradient cooling (PGC) of a single 87Rb atom in a tightly focused dipole trap and show that the cooling limit strongly depends on the polarization of the trapping field. For optimized cooling light power, the temperature of the atom reaches 10.4 (6 )μ K in a linearly polarized trap, approximately five times lower than in a circularly polarized trap. The inhibition of PGC is qualitatively explained by the fictitious magnetic fields induced by the trapping field. We further demonstrate that switching the trap polarization from linear to circular after PGC induces only minor heating.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of spin-polarization transfer of polarized Xe atoms dissolving into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Imai, Hirohiko; Takagi, Yoshihiro

    2004-04-22

    We detect the free-induction signals of xenon atoms polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. The temperature dependence of dissolution and spin-polarization transfer of xenon atoms to ethanol is measured by simultaneous detection of both xenon and proton signals. The polarization of proton is efficiently enhanced in the xenon-saturated solution at low magnetic fields. The large polarization and chemical shift enable us to obtain clearly the distribution image of xenon atoms near the gas-liquid and liquid-liquid boundaries. Therefore the localization of polarized xenon atoms is observed near the surface. By time-resolved magnetic resonance imaging of polarized xenon and polarization-enhanced proton, the spin dynamics is qualitatively studied for the nuclear spins interacting with each other in a dense solution. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  8. Interactions between Rydberg atoms and ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Haruza, Marek; Bigelow, Nicholas P.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate dipolar interactions arising in a hybrid system containing both ultracold polar molecules and atomic Rydberg states. Ultracold NaCs molecules are produced by photoassociation from laser cooled mixtures of sodium and cesium atoms and detected through resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI). Rydberg atoms with large dipole moments are excited in the atomic cloud using a multi-photon process and detected via field-ionization. We look for evidence of the interactions in the observed spectra.

  9. VCSEL polarization control for chip-scale atomic clocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Wendt, Joel Robert; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Keeler, Gordon Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Mytek, LLC have collaborated to develop a monolithically-integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) assembly with controllable polarization states suitable for use in chip-scale atomic clocks. During the course of this work, a robust technique to provide polarization control was modeled and demonstrated. The technique uses deeply-etched surface gratings oriented at several different rotational angles to provide VCSEL polarization stability. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) model was used to optimize the design for high polarization selectivity and fabrication tolerance. The new approach to VCSEL polarization control may be useful in a number of defense and commercial applications, including chip-scale atomic clocks and other low-power atomic sensors.

  10. The role of fullerene shell upon stuffed atom polarization potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusia, Miron; Chernysheva, Larissa

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated that the polarization of the fullerene shell considerably alters the polarization potential of an atom, stuffed inside a fullerene. This essentially affects the electron elastic scattering phases as well as corresponding cross-sections. We illustrate the general trend by concrete examples of electron scattering upon endohedrals that are formed when Ne and Ar atom are stuffed inside fullerene C60. To obtain the presented results, we have suggested a simplified approach that permits to incorporate the effect of fullerenes polarizability into the endohedrals polarization potential. By applying this approach, we obtained numeric results that show strong variations in shape and magnitudes of scattering phases and cross-sections due to effect of fullerene polarization upon the endohedral polarization potential. Using concrete examples we have demonstrated that the elastic scattering of electrons upon endohedrals is an entirely quantum mechanical process, where addition of even a single atom can qualitatively alter the multi-particle cross-section.

  11. Frequency redistribution function for the polarized two-term atom

    SciTech Connect

    Casini, R.; Landi Degl'Innocenti, M.; Manso Sainz, R.; Landolfi, M.

    2014-08-20

    We present a generalized frequency redistribution function for the polarized two-term atom in an arbitrary magnetic field. This result is derived within a new formulation of the quantum problem of coherent scattering of polarized radiation by atoms in the collisionless regime. The general theory, which is based on a diagrammatic treatment of the atom-photon interaction, is still a work in progress. However, the results anticipated here are relevant enough for the study of the magnetism of the solar chromosphere and of interest for astrophysics in general.

  12. Dynamic lossless polarization gate using a coherently prepared atomic medium.

    PubMed

    Wu, J X; Zhu, Chengjie; Yang, Y P

    2015-11-01

    We propose a dynamic lossless all-optical polarization gate using coherently prepared atomic media. We show that the loss/gain of two circularly polarized components of a linearly polarized probe field can be simultaneously eliminated by locking the power of the pump field and the external magnetic field intensity simultaneously. Using the polarization selective Kerr phase shift method, we can write π/2 (-π/2) phase shift to the right (left) circularly polarized component of the linearly polarized probe field with a choice of "magic" wavelength for the probe field. Consequently, the linear polarization state for the probe field acquires a 90° rotation at the exit of the medium. The scheme proposed in this Letter is helpful for applications in optical and quantum information processing and computation.

  13. Enhanced sensitivity in H photofragment detection by two-color reduced-Doppler ion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epshtein, Michael; Portnov, Alexander; Kupfer, Rotem; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana

    2013-11-01

    Two-color reduced-Doppler (TCRD) and one-color velocity map imaging (VMI) were used for probing H atom photofragments resulting from the ˜243.1 nm photodissociation of pyrrole. The velocity components of the H photofragments were probed by employing two counterpropagating beams at close and fixed wavelengths of 243.15 and 243.12 nm in TCRD and a single beam at ˜243.1 nm, scanned across the Doppler profile in VMI. The TCRD imaging enabled probing of the entire velocity distribution in a single pulse, resulting in enhanced ionization efficiency, as well as improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. These advantages were utilized for studying the pyrrole photodissociation at ˜243.1 and 225 nm, where the latter wavelength provided only a slight increase in the H yield over the self-signal from the probe beams. The TCRD imaging enabled obtaining high quality H+ images, even for the low H photofragment yields formed in the 225 nm photolysis process, and allowed determining the velocity distributions and anisotropy parameters and getting insight into pyrrole photodissociation.

  14. Enhanced sensitivity in H photofragment detection by two-color reduced-Doppler ion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Epshtein, Michael; Portnov, Alexander; Kupfer, Rotem; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana

    2013-11-14

    Two-color reduced-Doppler (TCRD) and one-color velocity map imaging (VMI) were used for probing H atom photofragments resulting from the ∼243.1 nm photodissociation of pyrrole. The velocity components of the H photofragments were probed by employing two counterpropagating beams at close and fixed wavelengths of 243.15 and 243.12 nm in TCRD and a single beam at ∼243.1 nm, scanned across the Doppler profile in VMI. The TCRD imaging enabled probing of the entire velocity distribution in a single pulse, resulting in enhanced ionization efficiency, as well as improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. These advantages were utilized for studying the pyrrole photodissociation at ∼243.1 and 225 nm, where the latter wavelength provided only a slight increase in the H yield over the self-signal from the probe beams. The TCRD imaging enabled obtaining high quality H{sup +} images, even for the low H photofragment yields formed in the 225 nm photolysis process, and allowed determining the velocity distributions and anisotropy parameters and getting insight into pyrrole photodissociation.

  15. Role of a fullerene shell upon stuffed atom polarization potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2016-02-01

    We have demonstrated that the polarization of the fullerene shell considerably alters the polarization potential of an atom, stuffed inside a fullerene. This essentially affects the electron elastic scattering phases as well as corresponding cross sections. We illustrate the general trend by particular examples of electron scattering upon endohedrals Ne@C60 and Ar@C60. To obtain the presented results, we have suggested a simplified approach that permits to incorporate the effect of fullerenes polarizability into the Ne@C60 and Ar@C60 polarization potential. By applying this approach, we obtained numeric results that show strong variations in shape and magnitudes of scattering phases and cross sections due to effect of fullerene polarization upon the endohedral polarization potential.

  16. Atomic and Electronic Structure of Polar Oxide Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija

    2014-01-17

    In this project we developed fundamental understanding of atomic and electronic mechanisms for stabilization of polar oxide interfaces. An integrated experimental and theoretical methodology was used to develop knowledge on this important new class of ionic materials with limited dimensionality, with implications for multiple branches of the basic and applied energy sciences.

  17. The Physics of Spin-Polarized Atomic Vapors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    formula (82) (Ref. II). shift methods. In this paper we present the basic theory of spin ex- lower third-body pressures. Essentially the same relaxa- change...polarization during the 129Xe relaxa- The voltages on the capacitors are tion transient the left side of R,, in Fig. 17 is essentially "FM F) at ground...exchange is described by non-linear rate equa- tions. The nonlinearity is essential if one is to account for the spin polarization of both atoms which are

  18. Nondestructive detection of polar molecules via Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeppenfeld, M.

    2017-04-01

    A highly sensitive, general, and preferably nondestructive technique to detect polar molecules would greatly advance a number of fields, in particular quantum science with cold and ultracold molecules. Here, we propose using resonant energy transfer between molecules and Rydberg atoms to detect molecules. Based on an energy transfer cross-section of > 10-6 cm2 for sufficiently low collision energies, a near unit efficiency non-destructive detection of basically any polar molecule species in a well-defined internal state should be possible.

  19. Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas; Käsebier, Thomas; Szeghalmi, Adriana; Knez, Mato; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-10-25

    In this work, an effective multistep process toward fabrication of an iridium wire grid polarizer for UV applications involving a frequency doubling process based on ultrafast electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition is presented. The choice of iridium as grating material is based on its good optical properties and a superior oxidation resistance. Furthermore, atomic layer deposition of iridium allows a precise adjustment of the structural parameters of the grating much better than other deposition techniques like sputtering for example. At the target wavelength of 250 nm, a transmission of about 45% and an extinction ratio of 87 are achieved.

  20. Highly Nuclear-Spin-Polarized Deuterium Atoms from the UV Photodissociation of Deuterium Iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofikitis, Dimitris; Glodic, Pavle; Koumarianou, Greta; Jiang, Hongyan; Bougas, Lykourgos; Samartzis, Peter C.; Andreev, Alexander; Rakitzis, T. Peter

    2017-06-01

    We report a novel highly spin-polarized deuterium (SPD) source, via the photodissociation of deuterium iodide at 270 nm. I (P2 3 /2) photofragments are ionized with m -state selectivity, and their velocity distribution measured via velocity-map slice imaging, from which the D polarization is determined. The process produces ˜100 % electronically polarized D at the time of dissociation, which is then converted to ˜60 % nuclear D polarization after ˜1.6 ns . These production times for SPD allow collision-limited densities of ˜1 018 cm-3 and at production rates of ˜1 021 s-1 which are 1 06 and 1 04 times higher than conventional (Stern-Gerlach separation) methods, respectively. We discuss the production of SPD beams, and combining high-density SPD with laser fusion, to investigate polarized D-T, D -He 3 , and D-D fusion.

  1. Polarization enhanced Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance with an atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Michael W.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Espy, Michelle A.; Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) has been demonstrated for the detection of 14-N in explosive compounds. Application of a material specific radio-frequency (RF) pulse excites a response typically detected with a wire- wound antenna. NQR is non-contact and material specific, however fields produced by NQR are typically very weak, making demonstration of practical utility challenging. For certain materials, the NQR signal can be increased by transferring polarization from hydrogen nuclei to nitrogen nuclei using external magnetic fields. This polarization enhancement (PE) can enhance the NQR signal by an order of magnitude or more. Atomic magnetometers (AM) have been shown to improve detection sensitivity beyond a conventional antenna by a similar amount. AM sensors are immune to piezo-electric effects that hamper conventional NQR, and can be combined to form a gradiometer for effective RF noise cancellation. In principle, combining polarization enhancement with atomic magnetometer detection should yield improvement in signal-to-noise ratio that is the product of the two methods, 100-fold or more over conventional NQR. However both methods are even more exotic than traditional NQR, and have never been combined due to challenges in operating a large magnetic field and ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensor in proximity. Here we present NQR with and without PE with an atomic magnetometer, demonstrating signal enhancement greater than 20-fold for ammonium nitrate. We also demonstrate PE for PETN using a traditional coil for detection with an enhancement factor of 10. Experimental methods and future applications are discussed.

  2. Optical lattice polarization effects on hyperpolarizability of atomic clock transitions.

    PubMed

    Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Ovsiannikov, V D; Pal'chikov, V G

    2006-10-27

    The light-induced frequency shift due to hyperpolarizability (i.e., terms of second-order in intensity) is studied for a forbidden optical transition, J = 0 --> J = 0. A simple universal dependence on the field ellipticity is obtained. This result allows minimization of the second-order light shift with respect to the field polarization for optical lattices operating at a magic wavelength (at which the first-order shift vanishes). We show the possibility for the existence of a magic elliptical polarization, for which the second-order frequency shift vanishes. The optimal polarization of the lattice field can be either linear, circular, or magic elliptical. The obtained results could improve the accuracy of lattice-based atomic clocks.

  3. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet photofragment excitation spectroscopy of OCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pibel, Charles D.; Ohde, Kyoko; Yamanouchi, Kaoru

    1994-07-01

    Photofragment excitation (PHOFEX) spectroscopy of OCS in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) has been carried out using tunable VUV excitation of jet-cooled OCS, followed by ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection of the S (1S) photofragment via the S (3D°1-1S) transition. The PHOFEX spectrum near 154 nm is better resolved than previous absorption spectra, and new features are visible. The LIF spectrum of the S (1S) photofragment may be successfully modeled using the product recoil anisotropy (β=1.8±0.2) and CO (v,J) product state distribution previously measured for photodissociation of OCS at 157 nm [Strauss et al., J. Chem. Phys. 90, 5364 (1989)].

  4. High intensity polarized atomic beam source for polarized internal storage ring targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemenz, P.

    1989-05-01

    In collaboration with the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) für Kernphysik in Heidelberg and the University of Marburg we presently design and construct a high intensity polarized atomic beam source. It is intended to deliver 1*1017 atoms/sec in one hyperfine state into a storage cell for FILTEX. FILTEX is an abbreviation for FILTer EXperiment aiming to polarize storage ring beams. The structure and the vacuum chambers of this source are completed and installed at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring (TSR). Vacuum pumps, gauges etc. are mounted and partly connected to a logical operation system. When atomic beam nozzle and skimmer geometries and distances as well as the nozzle temperature are optimized, the final geometrical arrangement or our new hybrid sixpole magnets will be decided and the whole source should be completed by the end of 1989.

  5. Electronic Spectroscopy of Trapped PAH Photofragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joblin, Christine; Bonnamy, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    The PIRENEA set-up combines an ion cyclotron resonance cell mass spectrometer with cryogenic cooling in order to study the physical and chemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of astrophysical interest. In space, PAHs are submitted to UV photons that lead to their dissociation. It is therefore of interest to study fragmentation pathways and search for species that might be good interstellar candidates because of their stability. Electronic spectroscopy can bring major insights into the structure of species formed by photofragmentation. This is also a way to identify new species in space as recently illustrated in the case of C60^+. In PIRENEA, the trapped ions are not cold enough, and thus we cannot use complexation with rare gas in order to record spectroscopy, as was nicely performed in the work by Campbell et al. on C60^+. We are therefore using the dissociation of the trapped ions themselves instead, which requires in general a multiple photon scheme. This leads to non-linear effects that affect the measured spectrum. We are working on improving this scheme in the specific case of the photofragment obtained by H-loss from 1-methylpyrene cation (CH_3-C16H9^+). A recent theoretical study has shown that a rearrangement can occur from 1-pyrenemethylium cation (CH_2-C16H9^+) to a system containing a seven membered ring (tropylium like pyrene system). This study also reports the calculated electronic spectra of both isomers, which are specific enough to distinguish them, and as a function of temperature. We will present experiments that have been performed to study the photophysics of these ions using the PIRENEA set-up and a two-laser scheme for the action spectroscopy. J. Montillaud, C. Joblin, D. Toublanc, Astron. & Astrophys. 552 (2013), id.A15 E.K. Campbell, M. Holz, D. Gerlich, and J.P. Maier, Nature 523 (2015), 322-323 F. Useli-Bacchitta, A. Bonnamy, G. Malloci, et al., Chem. Phys. 371 (2010), 16-23; J. Zhen, A. Bonnamy, G. Mulas, C

  6. Polarization dependence in inelastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in a circularly polarized laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buică, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically study the influence of laser polarization in inelastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field in the domain of field strengths below 107 V/cm and high projectile energies. A semi-perturbative approach is used in which the interaction of the projectile electrons with the laser field is described by Gordon-Volkov wave functions, while the interaction of the hydrogen atom with the laser field is described by first-order time-dependent perturbation theory. A closed analytical solution is derived in laser-assisted inelastic electron-hydrogen scattering for the 1 s → nl excitation cross section which is valid for both circular and linear polarizations. For the excitation of the n=2 levels simple analytical expressions of differential cross section are derived for laser-assisted inelastic scattering in the perturbative domain, and the differential cross sections by the circularly and linearly polarized laser fields and their ratios for one- and two-photon absorption are calculated as a function of the scattering angle. Detailed numerical results for the angular dependence and the resonance structure of the differential cross sections are discussed for the 1 s → 4 l excitations of hydrogen in a circularly polarized laser field.

  7. PHYSICS OF POLARIZED SCATTERING AT MULTI-LEVEL ATOMIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2015-03-01

    The symmetric peak observed in linear polarization in the core of the solar sodium D{sub 1} line at 5896 Å has remained enigmatic since its discovery nearly two decades ago. One reason is that the theory of polarized scattering has not been experimentally tested for multi-level atomic systems in the relevant parameter domains, although the theory is continually being used for the interpretation of astrophysical observations. A laboratory experiment that was set up a decade ago to find out whether the D{sub 1} enigma is a problem of solar physics or quantum physics revealed that the D{sub 1} system has a rich polarization structure in situations where standard scattering theory predicts zero polarization, even when optical pumping of the m state populations of the hyperfine-split ground state is accounted for. Here we show that the laboratory results can be modeled in great quantitative detail if the theory is extended to include the coherences in both the initial and final states of the scattering process. Radiative couplings between the allowed dipole transitions generate coherences in the initial state. Corresponding coherences in the final state are then demanded by a phase closure selection rule. The experimental results for the well understood D{sub 2} line are used to constrain the two free parameters of the experiment, collision rate and optical depth, to suppress the need for free parameters when fitting the D{sub 1} results.

  8. Magnetic trapping of cold bromine atoms.

    PubMed

    Rennick, C J; Lam, J; Doherty, W G; Softley, T P

    2014-01-17

    Magnetic trapping of bromine atoms at temperatures in the millikelvin regime is demonstrated for the first time. The atoms are produced by photodissociation of Br2 molecules in a molecular beam. The lab-frame velocity of Br atoms is controlled by the wavelength and polarization of the photodissociation laser. Careful selection of the wavelength results in one of the pair of atoms having sufficient velocity to exactly cancel that of the parent molecule, and it remains stationary in the lab frame. A trap is formed at the null point between two opposing neodymium permanent magnets. Dissociation of molecules at the field minimum results in the slowest fraction of photofragments remaining trapped. After the ballistic escape of the fastest atoms, the trapped slow atoms are lost only by elastic collisions with the chamber background gas. The measured loss rate is consistent with estimates of the total cross section for only those collisions transferring sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the trapping potential.

  9. Comparison of absorption, fluorescence, and polarization spectroscopy of atomic rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashman, Seth; Stifler, Cayla; Romero, Joaquin

    2015-05-01

    An ongoing spectroscopic investigation of atomic rubidium utilizes a two-photon, single-laser excitation process. Transitions accessible with our tunable laser include 5P1 / 2F' <-- 5S1 / 2 F and 5P3 / 2F' <-- 5S1 / 2 F . The laser is split into a pump and probe beam to allow for Doppler-free measurements of transitions between hyperfine levels. The pump and probe beams are overlapped in a counter-propagating geometry and the laser frequency scans over a transition. Absorption, fluorescence and polarization spectroscopy techniques are applied to this basic experimental setup. The temperature of the vapor cell and the power of the pump and probe beams have been varied to explore line broadening effects and signal-to-noise of each technique. This humble setup will hopefully grow into a more robust experimental arrangement in which double resonance, two-laser excitations are used to explore hyperfine state changing collisions between rubidium atoms and noble gas atoms. Rb-noble gas collisions can transfer population between hyperfine levels, such as 5P3 / 2 (F' = 3) <-- Collision 5P3 / 2 (F ' = 2) , and the probe beam couples 7S1 / 2 (F'' = 2) <-- 5P3 / 2 (F' = 3) . Polarization spectroscopy signal depends on the rate of population transfer due to the collision as well as maintaining the orientation created by the pump laser. Fluorescence spectroscopy relies only on transfer of population due to the collision. Comparison of these techniques yields information regarding the change of the magnetic sublevels, mF, during hyperfine state changing collisions.

  10. Resonant quenching of Rydberg atomic states by highly polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narits, A. A.; Mironchuk, E. S.; Lebedev, V. S.

    2016-06-01

    The results of theoretical studies of the resonant quenching and ion-pair formation processes induced by collisions of Rydberg atoms with highly polar molecules possessing small electron affinities are reported. We elaborate an approach for describing collisional dynamics of both processes and demonstrate the predominant role of resonant quenching channel of reaction for the destruction of Rydberg states by electron-attaching molecules. The approach is based on the solution of the coupled differential equations for the transition amplitudes between the ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule formed during a collision of particles. It takes into account the possibility of the dipole-bound anion decay in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core and generalizes previous models of charge-transfer processes involving Rydberg atoms to the cases, when the multistate Landau-Zener approaches become inapplicable. Our calculations for {{Rb}}({nl}) atom perturbed by {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4{{SO}}3, {{CH}}2{CHCN}, {{CH}}3{{NO}}2, {{CH}}3{CN}, {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}2{{{O}}}3, and {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}4{{{O}}}3 molecules show that the curves representing the dependence of the resonant quenching cross sections on the principal quantum number n are bell-shaped with the positions of maxima being shifted towards lower values of n and the peak values, {σ }{max}({{q})}, several times higher than those for the ion-pair formation, {σ }{max}({{i})}. We obtain a simple power relation between the energy of electron affinity of a molecule and the position of maximum in n-dependence of the resonant quenching cross section. It can be used as an additional means for determining small binding energies of dipole-bound anions from the experimental data on resonant quenching of Rydberg states by highly polar molecules.

  11. Hollow beams of simple polarization for trapping and storing atoms.

    PubMed

    Herman, R M; Wiggins, T A

    2002-01-01

    We propose a scheme for producing and magnifying a hollow beam, as might be desired for purposes of storing and guiding cold atoms, through the use of a simple spherically aberrating lens and a projection lens. The field is a superposition of J0 Bessel fields, so that simple (linear, circular) polarizations can be utilized. analyze some of the beam properties through analytical approximations. Some examples of field zeros along the optical axis are given, together with some of their characteristics. Numerical calculations largely confirm the validity of the analytical expressions. For the most important zero nearly all of the beam power is contained within the first two Bessel spacings, with a resulting highly efficient trapping. Isophotes are calculated and displayed for the region surrounding this null point. They have regular shapes, for which we give an approximate expression.

  12. Polarization-dependent atomic dipole traps behind a circular aperture for neutral-atom quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen-Christandl, Katharina; Copsey, Bert D.

    2011-02-15

    The neutral-atom quantum computing community has successfully implemented almost all necessary steps for constructing a neutral-atom quantum computer. We present computational results of a study aimed at solving the remaining problem of creating a quantum memory with individually addressable sites for quantum computing. The basis of this quantum memory is the diffraction pattern formed by laser light incident on a circular aperture. Very close to the aperture, the diffraction pattern has localized bright and dark spots that can serve as red-detuned or blue-detuned atomic dipole traps. These traps are suitable for quantum computing even for moderate laser powers. In particular, for moderate laser intensities ({approx}100 W/cm{sup 2}) and comparatively small detunings ({approx}1000-10 000 linewidths), trap depths of {approx}1 mK and trap frequencies of several to tens of kilohertz are achieved. Our results indicate that these dipole traps can be moved by tilting the incident laser beams without significantly changing the trap properties. We also explored the polarization dependence of these dipole traps. We developed a code that calculates the trapping potential energy for any magnetic substate of any hyperfine ground state of any alkali-metal atom for any laser detuning much smaller than the fine-structure splitting for any given electric field distribution. We describe details of our calculations and include a summary of different notations and conventions for the reduced matrix element and how to convert it to SI units. We applied this code to these traps and found a method for bringing two traps together and apart controllably without expelling the atoms from the trap and without significant tunneling probability between the traps. This approach can be scaled up to a two-dimensional array of many pinholes, forming a quantum memory with single-site addressability, in which pairs of atoms can be brought together and apart for two-qubit gates for quantum computing.

  13. Polarization-dependent atomic dipole traps behind a circular aperture for neutral-atom quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen-Christandl, Katharina; Copsey, Bert D.

    2011-02-01

    The neutral-atom quantum computing community has successfully implemented almost all necessary steps for constructing a neutral-atom quantum computer. We present computational results of a study aimed at solving the remaining problem of creating a quantum memory with individually addressable sites for quantum computing. The basis of this quantum memory is the diffraction pattern formed by laser light incident on a circular aperture. Very close to the aperture, the diffraction pattern has localized bright and dark spots that can serve as red-detuned or blue-detuned atomic dipole traps. These traps are suitable for quantum computing even for moderate laser powers. In particular, for moderate laser intensities (~100 W/cm2) and comparatively small detunings (~1000-10 000 linewidths), trap depths of ~1 mK and trap frequencies of several to tens of kilohertz are achieved. Our results indicate that these dipole traps can be moved by tilting the incident laser beams without significantly changing the trap properties. We also explored the polarization dependence of these dipole traps. We developed a code that calculates the trapping potential energy for any magnetic substate of any hyperfine ground state of any alkali-metal atom for any laser detuning much smaller than the fine-structure splitting for any given electric field distribution. We describe details of our calculations and include a summary of different notations and conventions for the reduced matrix element and how to convert it to SI units. We applied this code to these traps and found a method for bringing two traps together and apart controllably without expelling the atoms from the trap and without significant tunneling probability between the traps. This approach can be scaled up to a two-dimensional array of many pinholes, forming a quantum memory with single-site addressability, in which pairs of atoms can be brought together and apart for two-qubit gates for quantum computing.

  14. Higher multipole contributions to the probability of multiphoton ionization of polarized atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Marmo, S.I.; Ovsyannikov, V.D.

    1995-08-01

    Analytic expressions are derived for invariant atomic parameters that determine the dependence of the multiphoton ionization cross section on polarization multipoles of an initial state. Cross sections for the two-photon ionization of hydrogen and alkali metal atoms from the polarized P and D states are calculated numerically. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Modelization of nanospace interaction involving a ferromagnetic atom: a spin polarization effect study by thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, K S V; Chen, Xu; Gupta, S

    2014-04-01

    Ab initio studies of ferromagnetic atom interacting with carbon nanotubes have been reported in the literature that predict when the interaction is strong, a higher hybridization with confinement effect will result in spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom. The spin polarization effect on the thermal oxidation to form its oxide is modeled here for the ferromagnetic atom and its alloy, as the above studies predict the 4s electrons are polarized in the atom. The four models developed here provide a pathway for distinguishing the type of interaction that exists in the real system. The extent of spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom has been examined by varying the amount of carbon nanotubes in the composites in the thermogravimetric experiments. In this study we report the experimental results on the CoNi alloy which appears to show selective spin polarization. The products of the thermal oxidation has been analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  16. Effects of atomic hydrogen and deuterium exposure on high polarization GaAs photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    M. Baylac; P. Adderley; J. Brittian; J. Clark; T. Day; J. Grames; J. Hansknecht; M. Poelker; M. Stutzman; A. T. Wu; A. S. Terekhov

    2005-12-01

    Strained-layer GaAs and strained-superlattice GaAs photocathodes are used at Jefferson Laboratory to create high average current beams of highly spin-polarized electrons. High electron yield, or quantum efficiency (QE), is obtained only when the photocathode surface is atomically clean. For years, exposure to atomic hydrogen or deuterium has been the photocathode cleaning technique employed at Jefferson Laboratory. This work demonstrates that atomic hydrogen cleaning is not necessary when precautions are taken to ensure that clean photocathode material from the vendor is not inadvertently dirtied while samples are prepared for installation inside photoemission guns. Moreover, this work demonstrates that QE and beam polarization can be significantly reduced when clean high-polarization photocathode material is exposed to atomic hydrogen from an rf dissociator-style atomic hydrogen source. Surface analysis provides some insight into the mechanisms that degrade QE and polarization due to atomic hydrogen cleaning.

  17. A method for measuring the spin polarization of 129Xe by using an atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Linlin; Zhou, Binquan; Lei, Guanqun; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhai, Yueyang; Wang, Zhuo; Fang, Jiancheng

    2017-08-01

    We propose a method for the precise determination of nuclear spin polarization, based on the atomic magnetometers, which employs the effective magnetic field produced by the spin polarization of 129Xe nuclei. This effective magnetic field can be estimated by measuring the initial induced voltage of the Free Induction Decay (FID) signal of the 129Xe nuclei, which is based on the calibration coefficient between the transverse magnetic field and the output voltage signal of the atomic magnetometer, by using an off-resonant transverse driven magnetic field. Compared with the method based on measuring the longitudinal relaxation time of the 129Xe nuclei and the spin polarization of alkali-metal atoms, our method can directly measure the nuclear spin polarization, without being affected by inaccuracies in the measurement of the spin polarization of alkali-metal atoms.

  18. Characteristics of Spontaneous Emission of Polarized Atoms in Metal Dielectric Multiple Layer Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-Ming; Gu, Ben-Yuan; Zhou, Yun-Song

    2007-11-01

    The spontaneous emission (SE) progress of polarized atoms in a stratified structure of air-dielectric(D0)-metal(M)-dielectric(D1)-air can be controlled effectively by changing the thickness of the D1 layer and rotating the polarized direction of atoms. It is found that the normalized SE rate of atoms located inside the D0 layer crucially depends on the atomic position and the thickness of the D1 layer. When the atom is located near the D0-M interface, the normalized atomic SE rate as a function of the atomic position is abruptly onset for the thin D1 layer. However, with the increasing thickness of the D1 layer, the corresponding curve profile exhibits plateau and stays nearly unchanged. The substantial change of the SE rate stems from the excitation of the surface plasmon polaritons in metal-dielectric interface, and the feature crucially depends on the thickness of D1 layer. If atoms are positioned near the D0-air interface, the substantial variation of the normalized SE rate appears when rotating the polarized direction of atoms. These findings manifest that the atomic SE processes can be flexibly controlled by altering the thickness of the dielectric layer D1 or rotating the orientation of the polarization of atoms.

  19. Above-threshold ionization of noble gases in elliptically polarized fields: Effects of atomic polarization on photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, YanLan; Yu, ShaoGang; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2017-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the atomic polarization effect on photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in above-threshold ionization of noble gases with elliptically polarized laser fields at wavelength of 800 nm, ellipticity of 0.25, and intensity of 1.5 ×1014W/cm2 . Simulations based on a semiclassical model that includes both the ionic Coulomb potential and the atomic polarization effect show surprisingly little difference between PADs for Ar, Kr, and Xe, which is in good agreement with recent experimental observations. Our calculations reveal that the atomic polarization effect increases the distance of the tunnel exit point of the photoelectron to the parent ion and weakens the strength of the interaction between the parent ion and the photoelectron on its subsequent classical propagation. As a result, the forward-scattering electrons which contribute to the main lobes in PADs are substantially suppressed. Our results indicate that the insensitivity of PADs for Ar, Kr, and Xe may be closely related to the influence of the atomic polarization effect on the photoelectron dynamics in the strong laser field.

  20. Steady-state multipole moments of atoms in a resonant field with elliptical polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taichenachev, A. V.; Basalaev, M. Yu; Lazebny, D. B.; Yudin, V. I.

    2014-07-01

    Steady-state multipole moments of atoms ρK q of the rank K ⩽ 2 are analytically calculated for all closed dipole transitions Jg → Je in a resonant radiation field with arbitrary intensity and arbitrary elliptical polarization. The nonlinear propagation of a monochromatic elliptically polarized wave through a medium consisting of atoms with resonant transition Jg → Je is considered as an application.

  1. Two-photon ionization of atomic hydrogen with elliptically polarized light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassaee, A.; Rustgi, M. L.; Long, S. A. T.

    1988-01-01

    The theory of two-photon ionization of a hydrogenic state in the nonrelativistic dipole approximation is generalized for elliptically polarized light. An application to the metastable 2S state of atomic hydrogen is made. Significant differences in the angular distribution of the outgoing electrons are found depending upon the polarization of the photons. It is claimed that two-photon ionization employing elliptically polarized photons from lasers may provide an additional test for the theories of multiphoton ionization.

  2. Atomic processes in strong bichromatic elliptically polarized laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Odžak, S. Hasović, E.; Gazibegović-Busuladžić, A.; Čerkić, A. Fetić, B.; Kramo, A.; Busuladžić, M.; Milošević, D. B.

    2016-03-25

    Nonlinear quantum-mechanical phenomena in strong laser fields, such as high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) are significantly modified if the applied laser field is bichromatic and/or elliptically polarized. Numerical results obtained within the strong-field approximation are presented for two special cases. We show results for HHG by plasma ablation in a bichromatic linearly polarized laser field. We also consider the ATI process in bicircular field which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields.

  3. Observation and optimization of 4He atomic polarization spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Teng; Peng, Xiang; Gong, Wei; Zhan, Yuanzhi; Lin, Zaisheng; Luo, Bin; Guo, Hong

    2013-03-15

    Polarization spectroscopy in (4)He around 1083 nm is observed and optimized with a distributed feedback fiber laser and is applied for frequency stabilization. In order to improve the accuracy and long-term stability of the frequency-locking performance, a power stabilization module is added, and the dependences of the peak-to-peak amplitude and frequency difference (width) of the polarization spectroscopy signal on various pump and probe powers are investigated.

  4. Reaction mechanism studies of unsaturated molecules using photofragment translational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Longfellow, C.A. |

    1996-05-01

    A number of molecules have been studied using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy. In Chapter One a brief introduction to the experimental technique is given. In Chapter Two the infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) of acetic acid is discussed. Carbon dioxide and methane were observed for the first time as products from dissociation under collisionless conditions. Chapter Three relates an IRMPD experiment of hexafluoropropene. The predominant channel produces CFCF{sub 3} or C{sub 2}F{sub 4} and CF{sub 2}, with the heavier species undergoing further dissociation to two CF{sub 2} fragments. In Chapter Four the ultraviolet (UV) dissociation of hexafluoropropene is investigated. Chapter Five explores the IRMPD of octafluoro-1-butene and octafluoro-2-butene.

  5. Photofragment translational spectroscopy of three body dissociations and free radicals

    SciTech Connect

    North, Simon William

    1995-04-01

    This dissertation describes several three-body dissociations and the photodissociation of methyl radicals studied using photofragment translational spectroscopy. The first chapter provides an introduction to three body dissociation, examines current experimental methodology, and includes a discussion on the treatment of photofragment translational spectroscopy data arising from three-body fragmentation. The ultraviolet photodissociation of azomethane into two methyl radicals and nitrogen is discussed in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the photodissociation of acetone at 248 nm and 193 nm. At 248 nm the translational energy release from the initial C-C bond cleavage matches the exit barrier height and a comparison with results at 266 nm suggests that T> is invariant to the available energy. A fraction of the nascent CH3CO radicals spontaneously dissociate following rotational averaging. The T> for the second C-C bond cleavage also matches the exit barrier height. At 193 nm the experimental data can be successfully fit assuming that the dynamics are analogous to those at 248 nm. A simplified model of energy partitioning which adequately describes the experimental results is discussed. Experiments on acetyl halides provide additional evidence to support the proposed acetone dissociation mechanism. A value of 17.0±1.0 kcal/mole for the barrier height, CH3CO decomposition has been determined. The photodissociation of methyl radical at 193 nm and 212.8 nm is discussed in the chapter 5. The formation of CH2(1Al) and H (2S) was the only single photon dissociation pathway observed at both wavelengths.

  6. The atomic structure of polar and non-polar InGaN quantum wells and the green gap problem.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, C J; Griffiths, J T; Tang, F; Oehler, F; Findlay, S D; Zheng, C; Etheridge, J; Martin, T L; Bagot, P A J; Moody, M P; Sutherland, D; Dawson, P; Schulz, S; Zhang, S; Fu, W Y; Zhu, T; Kappers, M J; Oliver, R A

    2017-05-01

    We have used high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), aberration-corrected quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (Q-STEM), atom probe tomography (APT) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the atomic structure of (0001) polar and (11-20) non-polar InGaN quantum wells (QWs). This paper provides an overview of the results. Polar (0001) InGaN in QWs is a random alloy, with In replacing Ga randomly. The InGaN QWs have atomic height interface steps, resulting in QW width fluctuations. The electrons are localised at the top QW interface by the built-in electric field and the well-width fluctuations, with a localisation energy of typically 20meV. The holes are localised near the bottom QW interface, by indium fluctuations in the random alloy, with a localisation energy of typically 60meV. On the other hand, the non-polar (11-20) InGaN QWs contain nanometre-scale indium-rich clusters which we suggest localise the carriers and produce longer wavelength (lower energy) emission than from random alloy non-polar InGaN QWs of the same average composition. The reason for the indium-rich clusters in non-polar (11-20) InGaN QWs is not yet clear, but may be connected to the lower QW growth temperature for the (11-20) InGaN QWs compared to the (0001) polar InGaN QWs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantum diffraction effects on the atomic polarization collision in partially ionized dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Young-Dae

    2014-04-15

    The influence of quantum diffraction on the electron-atom polarization collision process is investigated in partially ionized dense plasmas. The pseudopotential model and eikonal method are employed to obtain the eikonal phase shift and eikonal cross section as functions of the impact parameter, collision energy, Debye length, electron de Broglie wavelength, and atomic polarizability. The results show that the eikonal phase shift for the electron-hydrogen atom polarization collision decreases with an increase of the electron de Broglie wavelength. It is important to note that the influence of quantum diffraction produces the repulsive part in the electron-atom polarization interaction. It is also found that the quantum diffraction effect enhances the differential eikonal cross section. Additionally, the total eikonal cross section decreases with increasing electron de Broglie wavelength. The variations of the eikonal cross section due to the influence of finite size of the de Broglie wavelength and Debye radius are also discussed.

  8. Inelastic and reactive collisions with polarized excited Na atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H.; Hertel, I.V.; Lee, Y.T.

    1985-07-01

    Polarization effects in inelastic collisions of laser state-prepared Na(3/sup 2/P, M/sub J/) with Na/sup +/ leading to Na(3/sup 2/D) or Na(3/sup 2/S) are discussed for the energy range E/sub cm/ = 5-47.5eV. Studies with linearly polarized light can be explained with a simple ''locking'' model of the Na(P)-orbital. The investigations employing circularly polarized light are a very sensitive test of the models describing the nonadiabatic angular momentum coupling between electronic and nuclear motion. The dynamical effects of the electronic spin on the angular momentum transfer are discussed. Recent crossed-beam experiments on the Na + O/sub 2/ -> NaO = O reaction in the energy range E/sub cm/ = 0/3-0.8eV show a pronounced dependence on the electric electronic symmetry of Na. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Atomic-scale compensation phenomena at polar interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Matthew F; Luo, Weidong; Oxley, Mark P; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2010-01-01

    The interfacial screening charge that arises to compensate electric fields of dielectric or ferroelectric thin films is now recognized as the most important factor in determining the capacitance or polarization of ultrathin ferroelectrics. Here we investigate using aberration-corrected electron microscopy and density-functional theory to show how interfaces cope with the need to terminate ferroelectric polarization. In one case, we show evidence for ionic screening, which has been predicted by theory but never observed. For a ferroelectric film on an insulating substrate, we found that compensation can be mediated by an interfacial charge generated, for example, by oxygen vacancies.

  10. Spin-polarized atomic nitrogen and the 7Sigma + u state of N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, R. F.; Stwalley, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    The first self-consistent field (SCF) calculation of the repulsive 7Sigma + u state of molecular nitrogen is presented. This calculation is used with attractive dispersion to provide a model potential for electron spin-polarized atomic nitrogen N appropriate in the range of 2.5-20A(O). Potential parameters obtained from the calculation are used to provide estimates of equilibrium thermodynamic properties of spin-polarized N in the quantum theorem of corresponding states framework. Consideration is given to increased stability of spin-polarized N with respect to single electron spin-flip processes, as compared to spin-polarized H.

  11. Atomic and electronic structure of polar oxide interfaces: Electron microscopy and density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarov, Vlado

    Polar oxide interfaces are formed when two polar oxide surfaces join. The apparent presence of an electric dipole moment in the repeat unit parallel to the surface/interface closely relate the polar oxide interfaces instability to that of the of polar oxide surfaces. In this thesis, we combined Electron Microscopy and Density Functional Theory to study how the interface polarity affects the atomic and electronic structure of polar oxide interfaces, by using Fe3O4(111)/MgO(111) as a model system. The formation of Fe nanoinclusions found at the interface and within the polar Fe3 O4(111) film is proposed to be new stabilization mechanism for the magnetite film. High-resolution electron microscopy imaging of the interface together with first principle calculations suggest an atomically abrupt substrate-film interface determined with Fe monolayer in octahedral position (FeB). This interface stacking (O/Mg/O/3FeB/O) provides lowest total interface (system) energy and the most effectively screening of the MgO(111) substrate surface polarity. The results of our study suggest that surface polarity could be used as an additional growth parameter in creating novel material structures, such as metals in oxide matrices.

  12. Production of excited atomic hydrogen and deuterium from H2 and D2photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, J.D.; Furst, J.E.; Gay, T.J.; Gould, H.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.; Machacek, J.R.; Martin, F.; McLaughlin, K.W.; Sanz-Vicario, J.L.

    2006-09-17

    We have measured the production of both Ly alpha and H alphafluorescence from atomic H and D for the photodissociation of H2 and D2by linearly polarized photons with energies between 24 and 60 eV. In thisenergy range, excited photofragments result primarily from the productionof doubly excited molecular species which promptly autoionize ordissociate into two neutrals. Our data are compared with ab initiocalculations of the dissociation process, in which both doubly excitedstate production and prompt ionization (nonresonant) channels areconsidered. Agreement between our experimental data and that of earlierwork, and with our theoretical calculations, is qualitative atbest.

  13. Optical cooling and trapping of highly magnetic atoms: the benefits of a spontaneous spin polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreon, Davide; Sidorenkov, Leonid A.; Bouazza, Chayma; Maineult, Wilfried; Dalibard, Jean; Nascimbene, Sylvain

    2017-03-01

    From the study of long-range-interacting systems to the simulation of gauge fields, open-shell lanthanide atoms with their large magnetic moment and narrow optical transitions open novel directions in the field of ultracold quantum gases. As for other atomic species, the magneto-optical trap (MOT) is the working horse of experiments but its operation is challenging, due to the large electronic spin of the atoms. Here we present an experimental study of narrow-line dysprosium MOTs. We show that the combination of radiation pressure and gravitational forces leads to a spontaneous polarization of the electronic spin. The spin composition is measured using a Stern–Gerlach separation of spin levels, revealing that the gas becomes almost fully spin-polarized for large laser frequency detunings. In this regime, we reach the optimal operation of the MOT, with samples of typically 3× {10}8 atoms at a temperature of 15 μK. The spin polarization reduces the complexity of the radiative cooling description, which allows for a simple model accounting for our measurements. We also measure the rate of density-dependent atom losses, finding good agreement with a model based on light-induced Van der Waals forces. A minimal two-body loss rate β ∼ 2× {10}-11 cm3 s–1 is reached in the spin-polarized regime. Our results constitute a benchmark for the experimental study of ultracold gases of magnetic lanthanide atoms.

  14. General model of depolarization and transfer of polarization of singly ionized atoms by collisions with hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derouich, M.

    2017-02-01

    Simulations of the generation of the atomic polarization is necessary for interpreting the second solar spectrum. For this purpose, it is important to rigorously determine the effects of the isotropic collisions with neutral hydrogen on the atomic polarization of the neutral atoms, ionized atoms and molecules. Our aim is to treat in generality the problem of depolarizing isotropic collisions between singly ionized atoms and neutral hydrogen in its ground state. Using our numerical code, we computed the collisional depolarization rates of the p-levels of ions for large number of values of the effective principal quantum number n* and the Unsöld energy Ep. Then, genetic programming has been utilized to fit the available depolarization rates. As a result, strongly non-linear relationships between the collisional depolarization rates, n* and Ep are obtained, and are shown to reproduce the original data with accuracy clearly better than 10%. These relationships allow quick calculations of the depolarizing collisional rates of any simple ion which is very useful for the solar physics community. In addition, the depolarization rates associated to the complex ions and to the hyperfine levels can be easily derived from our results. In this work we have shown that by using powerful numerical approach and our collisional method, general model giving the depolarization of the ions can be obtained to be exploited for solar applications.

  15. Atomic dipole polarization in charge-transfer complexes with halogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Bartashevich, E V; Tsirelson, V G

    2013-02-21

    The polarization effects associated with halogen bonding for the series of charge-transfer complexes D(m)···X-Y, where donor molecules D(m) = NH(3), H(2)O, H(2)S, C(2)H(4), CO and X-Y = Cl(2), ClF, Br(2), BrCl, ICl, I(2), are characterized in terms of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules using the B3LYP/6-311** Kohn-Sham wave functions. We study the electrostatic potential features of separate donor and acceptor molecules, the change in atomic charges as well as the atomic electric dipole moments and their components, and the intra-atomic electron density dipole polarization and the bonding dipole moments resulting from the electron density redistribution between the molecules in the charge-transfer complexes. The equation linking the most negative electrostatic potential values in the donor molecules and the most positive values in dihalogen molecules with the stretching force constants was found using two-factor regression. It is demonstrated that the dipole polarization of the acceptor atom mirrors the strength of halogen bonding in complexes in a series of different donors and acceptors. An exponential relationship between the magnitude of the total atomic electric dipole moment of the acceptor atom and the intermolecular stretching force constant is established for weakly bounded complexes.

  16. Experimental investigations of relaxation of spin polarized atoms on coated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskar, N.D.

    1993-05-01

    The interaction of spin polarized cesium atoms on coated surfaces is examined. Coated surfaces find extensive applications in atomic devices-hydrogen masers and advanced rubidium frequency standards utilize wall coatings to obtain very narrow hyperfine resonances. A Cs atomic beam is hyperfine or spin polarized by optical pumping techniques using a single mode AlGaAs diode laser. The ground state distribution is probed before and after scattering from coated surfaces using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The coatings under investigations are paraffin and organosilanes and these are known to be very weakly relaxing surfaces for polarized alkali atoms. The spin relaxation properties of paraffin and organosilane coatings have been studied in glass cell-vapor environment. In our experiments using polarized atomic beams, our goal is to examine in detail the hyperfine and spin relaxation properties of these coatings in a carefully controlled environment which is not possible in the gas cell environment. We measure the spin relaxation probability per wall collision as a function of temperature of the surface. Results of our studies will be presented.

  17. Theoretical Issues Involving Traps for Neutral Spin-Polarized Atoms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-15

    of 4 "corner cube" laser trap for potassium atoms based on a near-resoDapt CW TtIf’ ("doughnut mode) alexandrite laser beam with cooling rovided b e...Allied alexandrite laser, is now available and since the multiphoton ionization rate 2 is particularly low for K. ! ° ° . . . .. . i .. . ..... 4.4 -Jr...waist ., wo so the trap has something like an hourglass shape. I -~~~~~ o - w ° 4 . 4.~ The Allied alexandrite laser is not yet commercially available

  18. Pulsed laser photofragment emission for detection of mercuric chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoops, Alexandra A.; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2006-08-01

    The viability of pulsed laser photofragment emission (PFE) is evaluated for the in situ measurement of vapor-phase mercuric chloride (HgCl2) concentration in combustion flue gas. Dispersed emissions from both the Hg (63P1) and HgCl (B2Σ+) photoproducts are presented, and the dependence of the HgCl2 PFE signal originating from Hg (63P1) on the collisional environment is examined for buffer-gas mixtures of N2, O2, and CO2. Integrated PFE intensity measurements as a function of buffer gas pressure support the assumption that the primary effect of the relevant flue gas constituents is to quench emission from Hg (63P1). The quenching rate constants for PFE from HgCl2 were measured to be 1.37 (±0.16)×105 Torr-1 s-1 for N2, 9.35 (±0.25)×106 Torr-1 s-1 for O2, and 1.49 (±0.29)×106 Torr-1 s-1 for CO2. These values are in good accord with literature values for the quenching of Hg (63P1). The emission cross section for Hg (63P1) generated by photodissociation of HgCl2 in 760 Torr N2 is found to be 1.0 (±0.2)×10-25 m2 by comparing the PFE signal to N2 Raman scattering.

  19. Fluorescence Emission and Excitation Spectra of Photo-Fragmented Nitrobenzene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, Christopher J.; Tanjaroon, Chakree; Johnson, J. Bruce; Allen, Susan D.; Reeve, Scott W.

    2012-06-01

    Upon absorption of a UV photon, nitrobenzene readily dissociates into C_6H_5, NO_2, C_6H_5NO, O, C_6H_5O, and NO through three different channels. We have recorded high resolution emission and excitation spectra of the NO resulting from photo-fragmented nitrobenzene using a pulsed picosecond tunable laser and a nanosecond dye laser. Specifically, the lasers probed the A^2Σ^+→ X^2π(1/2,3/2) NO band system between 225-260 nm using an one or two color process. In a one color process, the same energy (wavelength) photon is used to dissociate nitrobenzene and excite NO. In a two color process, photons of a particular energy are used to dissociate the nitrobenzene while photons of a different energy are used to probe the resultant NO. We have determined the rotational and vibrational temperatures of the nascent NO. And, we have examined the effect of the relative timing of the two photons on the fluorescence spectra to extract information about the photodissociation dynamics. Lin, M.-F.; Lee, Y. T.; Ni, C.-K.; Xu, S. and Lin, M. C. J. Chem. Phys., AIP, 2007, 126.

  20. Photofragment image analysis using the Onion-Peeling Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2003-07-01

    With the growing popularity of the velocity map imaging technique, a need for the analysis of photoion and photoelectron images arose. Here, a computer program is presented that allows for the analysis of cylindrically symmetric images. It permits the inversion of the projection of the 3D charged particle distribution using the Onion Peeling Algorithm. Further analysis includes the determination of radial and angular distributions, from which velocity distributions and spatial anisotropy parameters are obtained. Identification and quantification of the different photolysis channels is therefore straightforward. In addition, the program features geometry correction, centering, and multi-Gaussian fitting routines, as well as a user-friendly graphical interface and the possibility of generating synthetic images using either the fitted or user-defined parameters. Program summaryTitle of program: Glass Onion Catalogue identifier: ADRY Program Summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRY Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computer: IBM PC Operating system under which the program has been tested: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows NT Programming language used: Delphi 4.0 Memory required to execute with typical data: 18 Mwords No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9 911 434 Distribution format: zip file Keywords: Photofragment image, onion peeling, anisotropy parameters Nature of physical problem: Information about velocity and angular distributions of photofragments is the basis on which the analysis of the photolysis process resides. Reconstructing the three-dimensional distribution from the photofragment image is the first step, further processing involving angular and radial integration of the inverted image to obtain velocity and angular distributions. Provisions have to be made to correct for slight distortions of the image, and to

  1. A laser driven source of spin polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, M.; Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.; Jones, C.E.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Young, L.; Toporkov, D.

    1993-07-01

    Recent results from a laser-driven source of polarized hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) are presented. The performance of the source is described as a function of atomic flow rate and magnetic field. The data suggest that because atomic densities in the source are high, the system can approach spin-temperature equilibrium although applied magnetic fields are much larger than the critical field of the atoms. The authors also observe that potassium contamination in the source emittance can be reduced to a negligible amount using a teflon-lined transport tube.

  2. Giant molecules composed of polar molecules and atoms in mixed dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ran; Tan, Shina

    2014-05-01

    Two or three polar molecules, confined to one or two dimensions, can form stable bound states with a single atom living in three dimensions, if the molecule and the atom can interact resonantly such that their mixed dimensional scattering length is large. We call these bound states ``giant molecules'' since it's a molecule composed of smaller molecules and atoms. We study their properties using techniques including exact numerical solution, exact qunatum diffusion Monte Carlo (QMC), Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), and semiclassical approximation. These bound states have a hierarchical structure reminiscent of the celestial systems.

  3. Quantum Theory of a Polarization Phase Gate in an Atomic Tripod Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Rebic, S.; Vitali, D.; Ottaviani, C.; Tombesi, P.; Artoni, M.; Cataliotti, F.; Corbalan, R.

    2005-08-15

    We present the quantum theory of a polarization phase gate that can be realized in a sample of ultracold rubidium atoms driven into a tripod configuration. The main advantages of this scheme are its relative simplicity and inherent symmetry. It is shown that conditional phase shifts of order {pi} can be attained.

  4. Spin-polarized metastable-atom deexcitation spectroscopy study of Xenon-adsorbed iron surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Yasushi; Kurahashi, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Taku; Sun, Xia; Wang, Zhongping

    2007-03-01

    The electron spin polarization at the interface between nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic medias is one of the essential factors that may alter the spin transport phenomena. To investigate fundamental aspects of induced spin polarization we have examined the adsorbate-covered magnetic surfaces by means of spin polarized metastable-atom deexcitation spectroscopy (SPMDS). Use of spin-polarized metastable helium atoms in triplet states moving at thermal energies gives rise to the ultimate surface sensitivity. Although Xenon can adsorb on surfaces at low temperatures by the van der Waals force, no electron exchange with surfaces, especially no spin interaction, is expected because of its closed shell structure. SPMDS spectra measured for Xenon-adsorbed iron surfaces show three prominent peaks that are the same as those previously reported for other surfaces by D. M. Oro, et al. [Phys. Rev. A 49 (1994) 4703]. Two peaks (^2P1/2, ^2P3/2) at higher kinetic energies exhibit clear spin asymmetries while the other low energy peak has no appreciable spin asymmetry. The spin asymmetries will be discussed on the basis of spin polarization and deexcitation processes of metastable atoms.

  5. Spin polarization measurements of ferromagnetic atomic chains on a superconductor: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yonglong; Jeon, Sangjun; Drozdov, Ilya; Li, Jian; Bernevig, Andrei; Yazdani, Ali

    Introduction of magnetic defects in superconductors gives rise to spin polarized in-gap Shiba states. Recently chains of magnetic atoms, which give rise to a band of Shiba states, have been proposed as a platform for topological superconductivity. Spectroscopic evidence for in-gap Shiba states and Majorana end mode has been reported in previous studies of self-assembled chains of ferromagnetic Fe atoms on the surface of Pb. In this talk, we introduce the technique of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (SP-STM) and discuss how we prepare tips that can show spin contrast at zero magnetic field, without disrupting superconductivity on the Pb surface. We use this technique, combined with the use of a vector magnet to orient the tip magnetization to probe the spin polarization of the Shiba states induced by the Fe atomic chains onto the Pb surface. A key to interpreting such experiments with spin-polarized STM tip is to understand the role of spin-polarization in the setpoint effect, which will be discussed in the next talk. Work supported by ONR and Moore Foundation.

  6. Polarization spectra of excited-state-Mg(3[ital p])--rare-gas-atom optical collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lasell, R.A.; Olsgaard, D.A.; Havey, M.D. ); Kuprianov, D.V. )

    1994-07-01

    Experimental, polarization-dependent excitation spectra for excited-state-Mg--rare-gas-atom optical collisions are reported. In these first studies of the process, polarized Mg atoms in the 3[ital p] [sup 1][ital P][sub 1] level are produced by absorption of linearly polarized light tuned to the 3[ital s] [sup 1][ital S][sub 0][r arrow]3[ital p] [sup 1][ital P][sub 1] resonance transition at 285.2 nm. Detuning-dependent, collision-induced polarization spectra are measured in a [plus minus]200-cm[sup [minus]1] range around the Mg 3[ital p] [sup 1][ital P][sub 1][r arrow]5[ital s] [sup 1][ital S][sub 0] transition at 571.2 nm. The spectra correspond to probing transient Mg-Ne and Mg-Ar molecules on 3[ital p] [sup 1][Pi][sub 1][r arrow]5[ital s] [sup 1][Sigma][sub 0][sup +] and 3[ital p] [sup 1][Sigma][sub 0][sup +][r arrow]5[ital s] [sup 1][Sigma][sub 0][sup +] electronic transitions. Measurements of these excited-state polarization spectra for Mg-Ne optical collisions reveal that for detunings to the red of the atomic Mg 3[ital p] [sup 1][ital P][sub 1][r arrow]5[ital s] [sup 1][ital S][sub 0] transition, electronic linear polarization greater than 50% survives far into the molecular regime. This represents a direct measure of the polarization important to alignment-dependent inelastic processes in alkaline-earth-metal--rare-gas-atom collisions. The polarization spectra are discussed in terms of existing information on the interatomic potentials and through an axial recoil limit for the polarization degree for parallel and perpendicular molecular transitions. Rate coefficients [ital k] for disalignment of Mg 3[ital p] [sup 1][ital P][sub 1] atoms by collisions with Ar [[ital k]=9.4(5)[times]10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 3]/s] and with Ne [[ital k]=6.5(7)[times]10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 3]/s] are also extracted from the data.

  7. Low-Entropy States of Neutral Atoms in Polarization-Synthesized Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robens, Carsten; Zopes, Jonathan; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    We create low-entropy states of neutral atoms by utilizing a conceptually new optical-lattice technique that relies on a high-precision, high-bandwidth synthesis of light polarization. Polarization-synthesized optical lattices provide two fully controllable optical lattice potentials, each of them confining only atoms in either one of the two long-lived hyperfine states. By employing one lattice as the storage register and the other one as the shift register, we provide a proof of concept using four atoms that selected regions of the periodic potential can be filled with one particle per site. We expect that our results can be scaled up to thousands of atoms by employing an atom-sorting algorithm with logarithmic complexity, which is enabled by polarization-synthesized optical lattices. Vibrational entropy is subsequently removed by sideband cooling methods. Our results pave the way for a bottom-up approach to creating ultralow-entropy states of a many-body system.

  8. Low-Entropy States of Neutral Atoms in Polarization-Synthesized Optical Lattices.

    PubMed

    Robens, Carsten; Zopes, Jonathan; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-02-10

    We create low-entropy states of neutral atoms by utilizing a conceptually new optical-lattice technique that relies on a high-precision, high-bandwidth synthesis of light polarization. Polarization-synthesized optical lattices provide two fully controllable optical lattice potentials, each of them confining only atoms in either one of the two long-lived hyperfine states. By employing one lattice as the storage register and the other one as the shift register, we provide a proof of concept using four atoms that selected regions of the periodic potential can be filled with one particle per site. We expect that our results can be scaled up to thousands of atoms by employing an atom-sorting algorithm with logarithmic complexity, which is enabled by polarization-synthesized optical lattices. Vibrational entropy is subsequently removed by sideband cooling methods. Our results pave the way for a bottom-up approach to creating ultralow-entropy states of a many-body system.

  9. Electron-atom bremsstrahlung: Double-differential cross section and polarization correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerokhin, Vladimir A.; Surzhykov, Andrey

    2010-12-01

    The leading-order electron-atom bremsstrahlung is investigated within the rigorous relativistic approach based on the partial-wave representation of the Dirac wave functions in the external atomic field. Approximating the atomic target by an effective local potential, we calculate the double-differential cross section and the polarization correlations in a wide range of the impact energies. Connection between the bremsstrahlung at the hard-photon end point of the spectrum and the continuum-threshold limit of the radiative recombination is studied. A detailed analysis of the screening effect and the energy dependence of the polarization correlations is presented, with the main focus on the high-impact-energy region.

  10. Nonlinear polarization response of a gaseous medium in the regime of atom stabilization in a strong radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, E. A.; Popov, A. M.; Tikhonova, O. V.

    2013-03-01

    The nonlinear polarization response of a quantum system modeling a silver atom in the field of high-intensity radiation in the IR and UV spectral ranges has been studied by direct numerical integration of a nonstationary Schrödinger equation. The domains of applicability of perturbation theory and polarization expansion in powers of the field intensity are determined. The contribution of excited atoms and electrons in a continuum to the atomic polarization response at the field frequency, which arises due to the radiation-induced excitation and photoionization processes, is analyzed. Features of the nonlinear response to an external field under conditions of atom stabilization are considered.

  11. Telecom-Wavelength Atomic Quantum Memory in Optical Fiber for Heralded Polarization Qubits.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jeongwan; Saglamyurek, Erhan; Puigibert, Marcel lí Grimau; Verma, Varun; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-10-02

    Polarization-encoded photons at telecommunication wavelengths provide a compelling platform for practical realizations of photonic quantum information technologies due to the ease of performing single qubit manipulations, the availability of polarization-entangled photon-pair sources, and the possibility of leveraging existing fiber-optic links for distributing qubits over long distances. An optical quantum memory compatible with this platform could serve as a building block for these technologies. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of an atomic quantum memory that directly allows for reversible mapping of quantum states encoded in the polarization degree of freedom of a telecom-wavelength photon. We show that heralded polarization qubits at a telecom wavelength are stored and retrieved with near-unity fidelity by implementing the atomic frequency comb protocol in an ensemble of erbium atoms doped into an optical fiber. Despite remaining limitations in our proof-of-principle demonstration such as small storage efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface reveals the potential for use in future quantum information processing.

  12. Moøller polarimetry with polarized atomic hydrogen at MESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, P. Aguar; Aulenbacher, K.; Tyukin, V.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of parity violation (PV) electron scattering experiments are planned to be carried out at the Institut für Kernphysik in Mainz. These experiments will be performed at low energies of 100-200 MeV using the new accelerator MESA (Mainz Energy recovering Superconducting Accelerator). One of the main challenges of such experiments is to achieve an accuracy in beam polarization measurements that must be below 0.5%. This very high accuracy can be reached using polarized atomic hydrogen gas, stored in an ultra-cold magnetic trap, as the target for electron beam polarimetry based on Mo/ller scattering. Electron spin-polarized atomic hydrogen can be stored at high densities of 1016 cm-2, over relatively long time periods, in a high magnetic field (8T) and at low temperatures (0.3K). The gradient force splits the ground state of the hydrogen into four states with different energies. Atoms in the low energy states are trapped in the strong magnetic field region whereas the high energy states are repelled and pumped away. The physics of ultra-cold atomic hydrogen in magnetic traps and the status of the Mainz Hydro-Mo/ller project will be presented.

  13. Sensing Noncollinear Magnetism at the Atomic Scale Combining Magnetic Exchange and Spin-Polarized Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, Nadine; Gerritsen, Jan W; Wegner, Daniel; Khajetoorians, Alexander A

    2017-09-13

    Storing and accessing information in atomic-scale magnets requires magnetic imaging techniques with single-atom resolution. Here, we show simultaneous detection of the spin-polarization and exchange force with or without the flow of current with a new method, which combines scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy. To demonstrate the application of this new method, we characterize the prototypical nanoskyrmion lattice formed on a monolayer of Fe/Ir(111). We resolve the square magnetic lattice by employing magnetic exchange force microscopy, demonstrating its applicability to noncollinear magnetic structures for the first time. Utilizing distance-dependent force and current spectroscopy, we quantify the exchange forces in comparison to the spin-polarization. For strongly spin-polarized tips, we distinguish different signs of the exchange force that we suggest arises from a change in exchange mechanisms between the probe and a skyrmion. This new approach may enable both nonperturbative readout combined with writing by current-driven reversal of atomic-scale magnets.

  14. Atomic mechanism of polarization-controlled surface reconstruction in ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Heng-Jui; Huang, Yen-Lin; Chu, Ying-Hao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Feng, Bin; Jiang, Ying; Shibata, Naoya; Wang, En-Ge; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    At the ferroelectric surface, the broken translational symmetry induced bound charge should significantly alter the local atomic configurations. Experimentally revealing the atomic structure of ferroelectric surface, however, is very challenging due to the strong spatial variety between nano-sized domains, and strong interactions between the polarization and other structural parameters. Here, we study surface structures of Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 thin film by using the annular bright-field imaging. We find that six atomic layers with suppressed polarization and a charged 180° domain wall are at negatively poled surfaces, no reconstruction exists at positively poled surfaces, and seven atomic layers with suppressed polarization and a charged 90° domain wall exist at nominally neutral surfaces in ferroelastic domains. Our results provide critical insights into engineering ferroelectric thin films, fine grain ceramics and surface chemistry devices. The state-of-the-art methodology demonstrated here can greatly advance our understanding of surface science for oxides.

  15. Moøller polarimetry with polarized atomic hydrogen at MESA

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolomé, P. Aguar; Aulenbacher, K.; Tyukin, V.

    2013-11-07

    A new generation of parity violation (PV) electron scattering experiments are planned to be carried out at the Institut für Kernphysik in Mainz. These experiments will be performed at low energies of 100-200 MeV using the new accelerator MESA (Mainz Energy recovering Superconducting Accelerator). One of the main challenges of such experiments is to achieve an accuracy in beam polarization measurements that must be below 0.5%. This very high accuracy can be reached using polarized atomic hydrogen gas, stored in an ultra-cold magnetic trap, as the target for electron beam polarimetry based on Mo/ller scattering. Electron spin-polarized atomic hydrogen can be stored at high densities of 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, over relatively long time periods, in a high magnetic field (8T) and at low temperatures (0.3K). The gradient force splits the ground state of the hydrogen into four states with different energies. Atoms in the low energy states are trapped in the strong magnetic field region whereas the high energy states are repelled and pumped away. The physics of ultra-cold atomic hydrogen in magnetic traps and the status of the Mainz Hydro-Mo/ller project will be presented.

  16. Atomic polarizations necessary for coherent infrared intensity modeling with theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Richter, Wagner E; Silva, Arnaldo F; Bruns, Roy E

    2017-04-07

    The inclusion of atomic polarizations for describing molecular electronic structure changes on vibration is shown to be necessary for coherent infrared intensity modeling. Atomic charges from the ChelpG partition scheme and atomic charges and dipoles from Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) were employed within two different models to describe the stretching and bending vibrational intensities of the C-H, C-F, and C=O groups. The model employing the QTAIM parameters was the Charge-Charge Transfer and Dipolar Polarization model (QTAIM/CCTDP), and the model employing the ChelpG charges was the Equilibrium Charge-Charge Flux (ChelpG/ECCF). The QTAIM/CCTDP models result in characteristic proportions of the charge-charge transfer-dipolar polarization contributions even though their sums giving the total intensities do not discriminate between these vibrations. According to the QTAIM/CCTDP model, the carbon monoxide intensity has electronic structure changes similar to those of the carbonyl stretches whereas they resemble those of the CH stretches for the ChelpG/ECCF model.

  17. Atomic mechanism of polarization-controlled surface reconstruction in ferroelectric thin films

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Heng-Jui; Huang, Yen-Lin; Chu, Ying-Hao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Feng, Bin; Jiang, Ying; Shibata, Naoya; Wang, En-Ge; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    At the ferroelectric surface, the broken translational symmetry induced bound charge should significantly alter the local atomic configurations. Experimentally revealing the atomic structure of ferroelectric surface, however, is very challenging due to the strong spatial variety between nano-sized domains, and strong interactions between the polarization and other structural parameters. Here, we study surface structures of Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 thin film by using the annular bright-field imaging. We find that six atomic layers with suppressed polarization and a charged 180° domain wall are at negatively poled surfaces, no reconstruction exists at positively poled surfaces, and seven atomic layers with suppressed polarization and a charged 90° domain wall exist at nominally neutral surfaces in ferroelastic domains. Our results provide critical insights into engineering ferroelectric thin films, fine grain ceramics and surface chemistry devices. The state-of-the-art methodology demonstrated here can greatly advance our understanding of surface science for oxides. PMID:27090766

  18. Laser Photofragment Spectroscopy of Carbon-Hydrogen Ion and Positively Charged Silicon-Dihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitham, Christopher James

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Laser photofragment studies have been carried out on the molecular ions, CH^+ and SiH_2^+. The experiments involved irradiating a mass selected fast-ion-beam of the parent molecular ion with tunable dye laser radiation and the subsequent detection of photofragment ions. For CH^+, C^+ photofragments were detected following the excitation from X^1Sigma^+ ground state levels to rotationally quasibound levels of the A ^1Pi state. Frequencies and linewidths of the resonances were measured for ^{12}CH^+, ^{13}CH^+ and CD^+. The data is used in the evaluation of various models of the dissociation dynamics involving tunnelling through a rotational barrier in the effective potential curve and coupling to other electronic states via non-adiabatic interactions. A new electronic band system has been proposed for the dense region of photofragment lines around 540 nm. This involves excitation of transitions between bound triplet levels just below the first two dissociation limits C^+(^2P) + H and C(^3P) + H^+ . C^+ fragments are detected following radiative decay into the near-threshold continua above the C^+(^2 P) + H limit. For SiH_2^+, high resolution single mode photofragment spectra have been recorded for Sigma sub-bands of the A-B_1-X^2A _1 system. For one band at 18,380 cm^{-1} a rotationally dependent branching into the two channels, Si^+ and SiH^+, seems to occur. In addition a band system consisting of simple rotational branches has been observed in both photofragment channels right across the wavenumber region scanned (16,500-18,700 cm^{-1}). These are believed to originate from transitions between highly excited bending levels of the X and A states.

  19. Optical lattice polarization effects on magnetically induced optical atomic clock transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.; Oates, C. W.

    2007-08-15

    We derive the frequency shift for a forbidden optical transition J=0{yields}J{sup '}=0 caused by the simultaneous actions of an elliptically polarized lattice field and a static magnetic field. We find that a simple configuration of lattice and magnetic fields leads to a cancellation of this shift to first order in lattice intensity and magnetic field. In this geometry, the second-order lattice intensity shift can be minimized as well by use of optimal lattice polarization. Suppression of these shifts could considerably enhance the performance of the next generation of atomic clocks.

  20. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization and Relaxation of H and D Atoms in Solid Mixtures of Hydrogen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheludiakov, S.; Ahokas, J.; Järvinen, J.; Vainio, O.; Lehtonen, L.; Vasiliev, S.; Lee, D. M.; Khmelenko, V. V.

    2017-04-01

    We report on a study of dynamic nuclear polarization and electron and nuclear spin relaxation of atomic hydrogen and deuterium in solid molecular matrices of H2, D2, and HD mixtures. The electron and nuclear spin relaxation times (T_{1e} and T_{1N}) were measured within the temperature range 0.15-2.5 K in a magnetic field of 4.6 T, conditions which ensure a high polarization of electron spins. We found that T_{1e} is nearly temperature independent in this temperature range, while T_{1N} decreased by two orders of magnitude upon raising temperature. Such strong temperature dependence is typical for the nuclear Orbach mechanism of relaxation via the electron spins. We found that the nuclear spins of H atoms in solid D2 and D2{:}HD can be efficiently polarized by the Overhauser effect. Pumping the forbidden transitions of H atoms also leads to DNP, with the efficiency strongly dependent on the concentration of D atoms. This behavior indicates the cross effect mechanism of the DNP and nuclear relaxation, which turns out to be well resolved in the conditions of our experiments. Efficient DNP of H atoms was also observed when pumping the middle D line located in the center of the ESR spectrum. This phenomenon can be explained in terms of clusters or pairs of H atoms with a strong exchange interaction. These clusters have partially allowed transitions in the center of the ESR spectrum, and DNP may be created via the resolved cross effect.

  1. Atomic magnetic resonance induced by amplitude-, frequency-, or polarization-modulated light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujić, Z. D.; Weis, A.

    2013-07-01

    In recent years diode laser sources have become widespread and reliable tools in magneto-optical spectroscopy. In particular, laser-driven atomic magnetometers have found a wide range of practical applications. More recently, so-called magnetically silent variants of atomic magnetometers have been developed. While in conventional magnetometers the magnetic resonance transitions between atomic sublevels are phase-coherently driven by a weak oscillating magnetic field, silent magnetometers use schemes in which either the frequency or the amplitude of the light beam is modulated. Here we present a theoretical model that yields algebraic expressions for the parameters of the multiple resonances that occur when either amplitude-, frequency-, or polarization-modulated light of circular polarization is used to drive the magnetic resonance transition in a transverse magnetic field. The relative magnitudes of the resonances that are observed in the transmitted light intensity at harmonic m of the Larmor frequency ωL (either by DC or phase sensitive detection at harmonics q of the modulation frequency ωmod) of the transmitted light are expressed in terms of the Fourier coefficients of the modulation function. Our approach is based on an atomic multipole moment representation that is valid for spin-oriented atomic states with arbitrary angular momentum F in the low light power limit. We find excellent quantitative agreement with an experimental case study using (square-wave) amplitude-modulated light.

  2. Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Zibrov, Sergei A.; Velichansky, Vladimir L.; Novikova, Irina; Phillips, David F.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Zibrov, Alexander S.; Taichenachev, Alexey V.; Yudin, Valery I.

    2010-01-15

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental characterization of the coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance excited on the D{sub 1} line of {sup 87}Rb atoms by bichromatic linearly polarized laser light. We observe high-contrast transmission resonances (up to approx =25%), which makes this excitation scheme promising for miniature all-optical atomic clock applications. We also demonstrate cancellation of the first-order light shift by proper choice of the frequencies and relative intensities of the two laser-field components. Our theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  3. The spin polarized linear response from density functional theory: Theory and application to atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Fias, Stijn Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2014-11-14

    Within the context of spin polarized conceptual density functional theory, the spin polarized linear response functions are introduced both in the [N, N{sub s}] and [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representations. The mathematical relations between the spin polarized linear response functions in both representations are examined and an analytical expression for the spin polarized linear response functions in the [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representation is derived. The spin polarized linear response functions were calculated for all atoms up to and including argon. To simplify the plotting of our results, we integrated χ(r, r′) to a quantity χ(r, r{sup ′}), circumventing the θ and ϕ dependence. This allows us to plot and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table within the two different representations. For the first time, χ{sub αβ}(r, r{sup ′}), χ{sub βα}(r, r{sup ′}), and χ{sub SS}(r, r{sup ′}) plots have been calculated and discussed. By integration of the spin polarized linear response functions, different components to the polarisability, α{sub αα}, α{sub αβ}, α{sub βα}, and α{sub ββ} have been calculated.

  4. Photoionization of Synchrotron-Radiation-Excited Atoms: Separating Partial Cross Sections by Full Polarization Control

    SciTech Connect

    Aloiese, S.; Meyer, M.; Cubaynes, D.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.

    2005-06-10

    Resonant atomic excitation by synchrotron radiation and subsequent ionization by a tunable dye laser is used to study the photoionization of short-lived Rydberg states in Xe. By combining circular and linear polarization of the synchrotron as well as of the laser photons the partial photoionization cross sections were separated in the region of overlapping autoionizing resonances of different symmetry and the parameters of the resonances were extracted.

  5. Polarization effects in the interaction between multi-level atoms and two optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colín-Rodríguez, R.; Flores-Mijangos, J.; Hernández-Gómez, S.; Jáuregui, R.; López-Hernández, O.; Mojica-Casique, C.; Ponciano-Ojeda, F.; Ramírez-Martínez, F.; Sahagún, D.; Volke-Sepúlveda, K.; Jiménez-Mier, J.

    2015-06-01

    Polarized velocity selective spectra for rubidium atoms in a room temperature cell are presented. The experiments were performed in the lambda configuration (D2 manifold) and in the 5s\\to 5{{p}3/2}\\to 5{{d}j} ladder configuration. For the lambda configuration the effect of the probe beam intensity in the absorption and polarization spectra are compared with results of a rate equation approximation. Good overall agreement between experiment and theory is found. The results indicate different saturation rates for each of the atomic transitions. Distinctive polarization signals with hyperfine-resolved components are found for the ladder 5{{d}3/2} and 5{{d}5/2} upper states. Fluorescence detection of the 420 nm that results from the second step in the cascade decay 5{{d}j}\\to 6{{p}{{j\\prime }}}\\to 5s was used in the ladder experiments. This fluorescence was also used for the detection of the 5{{p}3/2}\\to 6{{p}3/2} electric dipole forbidden transition in atomic rubidium that occurs at 911 nm. The 6{{p}3/2} hyperfine structure was resolved in this continuous wave, non-dipole excitation.

  6. Photofragment Coincidence Imaging of Small I- (H2O)n Clusters Excited to the Charge-transfer-to-solvent State

    SciTech Connect

    Neumark, D. E. Szpunar, K. E. Kautzman, A. E. Faulhaber, and D. M.; Kautzman, K.E.; Faulhaber, A.E.; Faulhaber, A.E.

    2005-11-09

    The photodissociation dynamics of small I{sup -}(H{sub 2}O){sub n} (n = 2-5) clusters excited to their charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) states have been studied using photofragment coincidence imaging. Upon excitation to the CTTS state, two photodissociation channels were observed. The major channel ({approx}90%) is a 2-body process forming neutral I + (H{sub 2}O){sub n} photofragments, and the minor channel is a 3-body process forming I + (H{sub 2}O){sub n-1} + H{sub 2}O fragments. Both process display translational energy (P(E{sub T})) distributions peaking at E{sub T} = 0 with little available energy partitioned into translation. Clusters excited to the detachment continuum rather than to the CTTS state display the same two channels with similar P(E{sub T}) distributions. The observation of similar P(E{sub T}) distributions from the two sets of experiments suggests that in the CTTS experiments, I atom loss occurs after autodetachment of the excited (I(H{sub 2}O){sub n}{sup -})* cluster, or, less probably, that the presence of the excess electron has little effect on the departing I atom.

  7. Photofragment coincidence imaging of small I-(H2O)n clusters excited to the charge-transfer-to-solvent state.

    PubMed

    Szpunar, David E; Kautzman, Kathryn E; Faulhaber, Ann Elise; Neumark, Daniel M

    2006-02-07

    The photodissociation dynamics of small I-(H2O)n(n=2-5) clusters excited to their charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) states have been studied using photofragment coincidence imaging. Upon excitation to the CTTS state, two photodissociation channels were observed. The major channel (approximately 90%) is a two-body process forming neutral I+(H2O)n photofragments, and the minor channel is a three-body process forming I+(H2O)n-1+H2O fragments. Both processes display translational energy [P(ET)] distributions peaking at ET=0 with little available energy partitioned into translation. Clusters excited to the detachment continuum rather than to the CTTS state display the same two channels with similar P(ET) distributions. The observation of similar P(ET) distributions from the two sets of experiments suggests that in the CTTS experiments, I atom loss occurs after autodetachment of the excited [I(H2O)n-]* cluster or, less probably, that the presence of the excess electron has little effect on the departing I atom.

  8. Ground-state atomic polarization relaxation-time measurement of Rb filled hypocycloidal core-shaped Kagome HC-PCF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, T. D.; Ilinova, E.; McFerran, J. J.; Jouin, J.; Debord, B.; Alharbi, M.; Thomas, P.; Gérôme, F.; Benabid, F.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the measurement of ground-state atomic polarization relaxation time of Rb vapor confined in five different hypocycloidal core-shape Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fibers made with uncoated silica glass. We are able to distinguish between wall-collision and transit-time effects in an optical waveguide and deduce the contribution of the atom’s dwell time at the core wall surface. In contrast with conventional macroscopic atomic cell configuration, and in agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, the measured relaxation times were found to be at least one order of magnitude longer than the limit set by atom-wall collisional from thermal atoms. This extended relaxation time is explained by the combination of a stronger contribution of the slow atoms in the atomic polarization build-up, and of the relatively significant contribution of dwell time to the relaxation process of the ground state polarization.

  9. Quasistatic limit of the strong-field approximation describing atoms in intense laser fields: Circular polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Jaroslaw H.

    2011-03-15

    In the recent work of Vanne and Saenz [Phys. Rev. A 75, 063403 (2007)] the quasistatic limit of the velocity gauge strong-field approximation describing the ionization rate of atomic or molecular systems exposed to linearly polarized laser fields was derived. It was shown that in the low-frequency limit the ionization rate is proportional to the laser frequency {omega} (for a constant intensity of the laser field). In the present work I show that for circularly polarized laser fields the ionization rate is proportional to {omega}{sup 4} for H(1s) and H(2s) atoms, to {omega}{sup 6} for H(2p{sub x}) and H(2p{sub y}) atoms, and to {omega}{sup 8} for H(2p{sub z}) atoms. The analytical expressions for asymptotic ionization rates (which become nearly accurate in the limit {omega}{yields}0) contain no summations over multiphoton contributions. For very low laser frequencies (optical or infrared) these expressions usually remain with an order-of-magnitude agreement with the velocity gauge strong-field approximation.

  10. Knee structure in double ionization of noble atoms in circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Jingtao

    2017-01-01

    Nonsequential double ionization is characterized by a knee structure in the plot of double-ionization probability versus laser intensity. In circularly polarized (CP) laser fields, this structure has only been observed for Mg atoms. By choosing laser fields according to a scaling law, we exhibit the knee structure in CP laser fields for Ar and He atoms. The collision of the ionized electron with the core enhances the ionization of the second electron and forms the knee structure. The electron recollision is universal in CP laser fields, but the ionization probability in the knee region decreases as the wavelength of the driven field increases. For experimental observations, it is beneficial to use target atoms with small ionization potentials and laser fields with short wavelengths.

  11. Atomic scattering spectroscopy for determination of the polarity of semipolar AlN grown on ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Ueno, Kohei; Oshima, Masaharu; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2013-11-04

    Determination of the polarity of insulating semipolar AlN layers was achieved via atomic scattering spectroscopy. The back scattering of neutralized He atoms on AlN surfaces revealed the atomic alignment of the topmost layers of semipolar AlN and the ZnO substrate. Pole figures of the scattering intensity were used to readily determine the polarity of these wurtzite-type semipolar materials. In addition, we found that +R-plane AlN epitaxially grows on −R-plane ZnO, indicating that the polarity flips at the semipolar AlN/ZnO interface. This polarity flipping is possibly explained by the appearance of −c and m-faces on the −R ZnO surfaces, which was also revealed by atomic scattering spectroscopy.

  12. Atomic structure of defects in GaN:Mg grown with Ga polarity

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Tomaszewicz, T.; Zakharov, D.; Jasinski, J.; O'Keef e, M.A.

    2004-04-15

    The atomic structure of characteristic defects (Mg-rich hexagonal pyramids and truncated pyramids) in GaN:Mg thin films grown with Ga polarity was determined at atomic resolution by direct reconstruction of the scattered electron wave in a transmission electron microscope. Small cavities were present inside the defects. The inside walls of the cavities were covered by GaN which grew with reverse polarity compared to the matrix. It was proposed that lateral overgrowth of the cavities restores matrix polarity on the defect base. Exchange of Ga and N sublattices within the defect compared to the matrix lead to a 0.6 +- 0.2 Angstrom displacement between the Ga sublattices of these two areas. A [1100]/3 shift with change from AB stacking in the matrix to BC within the entire pyramid is observed. Changes in the shape of the NKa edge and oxygen presence on the defect walls were detected using electron energy loss spectroscopy. These observations explain the Mg compensation and decrease of acceptor concentration in heavily doped GaN:Mg.

  13. Spin Polarization Measurements of Ferromagnetic Atomic Chains on a Supercondcutor: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sangjun; Xie, Yonglong; Drozdov, Ilya K.; Li, Jian; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Yazdani, Ali

    A key property of the Majorana fermions edge mode when realized at the edge of a topological superconductor is their spin. Unlike other low energy excitation in a conventional superconductor, which are made up of time-reverse partners of up and down spin, Majorana is expected to have a definite spin orientation. We utilize the technique of spin-polarized STM as described in the last talk to probe the nature of Majorana excitations in chains of Fe atoms on the surface of Pb. Previous effort on this system has detected signature of Majorana as a zero bias peak at end of such chains. While this previous study shows evidence of ferromagnetism and spin-orbit coupling in such atomic chains on Pb, they did not probe the spin properties of the end mode specifically. We describe energy-resolved spin-polarized STM experiments designed to probe whether the previously reported zero energy end modes are spin-polarized or not. Work supported by ONR and the Moore Foundation.

  14. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Runbing; Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm{sup 2}, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  15. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Runbing; Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm2, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  16. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging of the Earth's Magnetosphere: NASA/POLAR Spacecraft Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Harlan; Blake, J. Bernard; Henderson, Michael; Jorgensen, Anders; Reeves, Geoff

    1998-11-01

    The NASA POLAR spacecraft has been routinely measuring energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) on a global scale from its high apogee (9 R_E), polar orbit. POLAR can identify ENAs when it is in a region of low ion flux. This occurs during large portions of its orbit when it dwells in the high latitude magnetospheric lobes. We find that significant ENA signals from the inner magnetosphere are recorded even during periods of magnetic quiesence when the main source of ENAs, the ring current, is nearly in a resting state. While the ENA data stream is not strictly continuous (it is interrupted when POLAR passes through hot ion populations), we have compiled a comprehensive data base from which long term trends may be tracked. We show that the recently-described ENA metric (Jorgensen et al., 1997), the Global Energetic Neutral Index (GENI), can be used to gauge storm activity over extended periods. We shall present the GENI index and associated ENA images for several events and demonstrate both the temporal and spatial information provided by this novel magnetospheric imaging technique

  17. Ab initio thermodynamic study on two-dimensional atomic nucleation on ZnO polar surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rui; Zhao, Qing; Xu, Jun; Liu, Banggui; Leprince-Wang, Yamin; Yu, Dapeng

    2017-08-01

    Structures of the two-dimensional atomic nuclei on ZnO (0001)-Zn and (000 1 bar)-O polar surfaces were studied by first principles density functional theory. The polarity-dependent nucleation dynamics was investigated by simulating two-dimensional (2D) nuclei consisting of 1-8 ZnO monomers on both polar surfaces. According to total energy calculations, average binding energy per ZnO monomer of the surface nuclei was analyzed to investigate if the nucleation and growth will proceed reasonably in physics. We found nucleation on (0001)-Zn surface was easier than that on (000 1 bar)-O surface. By using atomistic thermodynamics analysis, we calculated the Gibbs free energy of formation of these nuclei and made a comparison between the two polar surfaces. On (0001)-Zn surface, the critical Gibbs free energy of formation is much lower than that on (000 1 bar)-O surface under the same supersaturation, which leads to a much larger ZnO growth rate and rougher morphology, in accordance with experimental results. In addition, energetic analysis of nucleation at real thermodynamic conditions was achieved by introducing the temperature- and pressure-dependent chemical potentials of ZnO precursors.

  18. Nonadiabatic theory of strong-field atomic effects under elliptical polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xu; Eberly, J. H.

    2012-12-14

    Elliptically polarized laser fields provide a new channel for access to strong-field processes that are either suppressed or not present under linear polarization. Quantum theory is mostly unavailable for their analysis, and we report here results of a systematic study based on a classical ensemble theory with solution of the relevant ab inito time-dependent Newton equations for selected model atoms. The study's approach is necessarily nonadiabatic, as it follows individual electron trajectories leading to single, double, and triple ionizations. Of particular interest are new results bearing on open questions concerning experimental reports of unexplained species dependences as well as double-electron release times that are badly matched by a conventional adiabatic quantum tunneling theory. We also report the first analysis of electron trajectories for sequential and non-sequential triple ionization.

  19. Nonadiabatic theory of strong-field atomic effects under elliptical polarization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Eberly, J H

    2012-12-14

    Elliptically polarized laser fields provide a new channel for access to strong-field processes that are either suppressed or not present under linear polarization. Quantum theory is mostly unavailable for their analysis, and we report here results of a systematic study based on a classical ensemble theory with solution of the relevant ab inito time-dependent Newton equations for selected model atoms. The study's approach is necessarily nonadiabatic, as it follows individual electron trajectories leading to single, double, and triple ionizations. Of particular interest are new results bearing on open questions concerning experimental reports of unexplained species dependences as well as double-electron release times that are badly matched by a conventional adiabatic quantum tunneling theory. We also report the first analysis of electron trajectories for sequential and non-sequential triple ionization.

  20. Stabilization of circular Rydberg atoms by circularly polarized infrared laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Askeland, S.; Soerngaard, S. A.; Nepstad, R.; Foerre, M.; Pilskog, I.

    2011-09-15

    The ionization dynamics of circular Rydberg states in strong circularly polarized infrared (800 nm) laser fields is studied by means of numerical simulations with the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We find that at certain intensities, related to the radius of the Rydberg states, atomic stabilization sets in, and the ionization probability decreases as the intensity is further increased. Moreover, there is a strong dependence of the ionization probability on the rotational direction of the applied laser field, which can be understood from a simple classical analogy.

  1. Investigating tunneling process of atom exposed in circularly polarized strong-laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, MingHu; Xin, PeiPei; Chu, TianShu; Liu, HongPing

    2017-03-01

    We propose a method for studying the tunneling process by analyzing the instantaneous ionization rate of a circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that, for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obvious time delay phase shift of more than 190 attoseconds is observed. Further study shows that the atom has a longer tunneling time in the ionization under a shorter wavelength laser pulse. In our method, a Wigner rotation technique is employed to numerically solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of a single-active electron in a three-dimensional spherical coordinate system.

  2. Reaction dynamics. Vibrational relaxation and microsolvation of DF after F-atom reactions in polar solvents.

    PubMed

    Dunning, G T; Glowacki, D R; Preston, T J; Greaves, S J; Greetham, G M; Clark, I P; Towrie, M; Harvey, J N; Orr-Ewing, A J

    2015-01-30

    Solvent-solute interactions influence the mechanisms of chemical reactions in solution, but the response of the solvent is often slower than the reactive event. Here, we report that exothermic reactions of fluorine (F) atoms in d3-acetonitrile and d2-dichloromethane involve efficient energy flow to vibrational motion of the deuterium fluoride (DF) product that competes with dissipation of the energy to the solvent bath, despite strong solvent coupling. Transient infrared absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations show that after DF forms its first hydrogen bond on a subpicosecond time scale, DF vibrational relaxation and further solvent restructuring occur over more than 10 picoseconds. Characteristic dynamics of gas-phase F-atom reactions with hydrogen-containing molecules persist in polar organic solvents, and the spectral evolution of the DF products serves as a probe of solvent reorganization induced by a chemical reaction. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Electron impact polarization of atomic spectral lines. I - A general theoretical scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Degl'innocenti, Egidio L.

    1992-01-01

    A suitable theoretical scheme able to describe, in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, the phenomenon of atomic line polarization by electron impact is developed. Starting from the general principles of quantum mechanics and assuming the Born approximation, the rate equations for the density matrix elements of a multilevel atomic system, interacting with a nonrelativistic electron beam having any kind of angular distribution, are derived in full generality. The resulting theory generalizes the previous ones by accounting for the collisional rates and the cross sections concerning both inelastic and superelastic collisions (in any geometrical situation), and, moreover, by taking into account the coherences among Zeeman sublevels split by a magnetic field. As an example of particular relevance, the general formulas derived in the first sections of the paper are subsequently particularized to the case of the electric dipole interaction.

  4. Electron impact polarization of atomic spectral lines. I - A general theoretical scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Degl'innocenti, Egidio L.

    1992-01-01

    A suitable theoretical scheme able to describe, in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, the phenomenon of atomic line polarization by electron impact is developed. Starting from the general principles of quantum mechanics and assuming the Born approximation, the rate equations for the density matrix elements of a multilevel atomic system, interacting with a nonrelativistic electron beam having any kind of angular distribution, are derived in full generality. The resulting theory generalizes the previous ones by accounting for the collisional rates and the cross sections concerning both inelastic and superelastic collisions (in any geometrical situation), and, moreover, by taking into account the coherences among Zeeman sublevels split by a magnetic field. As an example of particular relevance, the general formulas derived in the first sections of the paper are subsequently particularized to the case of the electric dipole interaction.

  5. Optimal densities of alkali metal atoms in an optically pumped K-Rb hybrid atomic magnetometer considering the spatial distribution of spin polarization.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yosuke; Sato, Daichi; Kamada, Keigo; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2016-07-11

    An optically pumped K-Rb hybrid atomic magnetometer can be a useful tool for biomagnetic measurements due to the high spatial homogeneity of its sensor property inside a cell. However, because the property varies depending on the densities of potassium and rubidium atoms, optimization of the densities is essential. In this study, by using the Bloch equations of K and Rb and considering the spatial distribution of the spin polarization, we confirmed that the calculation results of spin polarization behavior are in good agreement with the experimental data. Using our model, we calculated the spatial distribution of the spin polarization and found that the optimal density of K atoms is 3 × 1019 m-3 and the optimal density ratio is nK/nRb ~ 400 to maximize the output signal and enhance spatial homogeneity of the sensor property.

  6. Accessing the quantum Hall regime in cold atom traps using circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Yan, Bin; Greene, Chris H.

    2016-05-01

    There has been considerable interest in designing cold atom experiments to explore the quantum Hall effect with the extreme control allowed in such trapped atom systems. Many theoretical proposals and experimental attempts have been made in the effort to construct a cold atom fractional quantum Hall experiment, but so far, the fractional quantum Hall regime has proven difficult to achieve in experimental setups. One method for reaching the quantum Hall effect consists of rapidly rotating a cold atom system in a harmonic trap to near the centrifugal limit, where the system's Hamiltonian matches the two-dimensional magnetic field Hamiltonian. This condition could be reached in a few-body system through a scheme which increases the angular momentum of the particles in the trap through precision photon excitations. According to the hyperspherical framework from few-body theory, when particle interactions break the harmonic energy spectrum degeneracy, it becomes possible for circularly polarized light to excite the system selectively into the high angular momentum states required for the quantum Hall effect. We will discuss possible experimental systems where this technique could be applicable and challenges that these systems may face.

  7. A reconfigurable parity-time symmetric meta-atom for polarization and phase control (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Brian; Dionne, Jennifer; Alaeian, Hadiseh; Jankovic, Vladan; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Metasurfaces offer exotic optical properties, which often originate from carefully designed material geometries. With locked geometries, these metasurfaces are difficult or impossible to change post-fabrication. Here, we theoretically explore a nano-scale coaxial structure capable of adjustably manipulating the polarization, phase, and spatial distribution of light through the introduction of parity-time (PT) symmetric perturbations. Coaxial waveguides possess degenerate modes, corresponding to different orbital angular momentum (OAM) states. The degeneracy of OAM modes can be lifted through the introduction of any non-zero amount of gain and loss into the structure in a way that matches the azimuthal periodicity of the degenerate mode pair. New hybrid complex conjugate modes are created which lose their pure OAM nature and are either amplifying or lossy. We confirm this behavior using both a Hamiltonian formulation and degenerate perturbation theory, and propose this selective excitation and absorption scheme as a new method of filtering for mode division multiplexing in on-chip nanophotonic systems. In addition to the creation of new hybrid modes, we show that these PT-symmetric perturbations in coaxial apertures are capable of converting incident circularly polarized light into linearly polarized light with unity efficiency. Further, due to the localization of field intensity within the gain sections, it is possible to rotate linear polarization and induce up to a pi-phase shift. We describe how our PT-symmetric coaxial aperture could function as a reconfigurable meta-atom for phase, amplitude, and polarization controlled meta-surfaces, and discuss routes toward unity-efficiency, reconfigurable holography.

  8. Beta-asymmetry studies on polarized 82Rb atoms in a TOP trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, M.; Vieira, D. J.; Wu, J.; Zhao, X.; Boulay, M. G.; Hime, A.

    2004-12-01

    Atoms of 82Rb (t 1/2 = 76 s) confined in a time-orbiting-potential (TOP) magnetic trap make a favorable source for β-asymmetry studies by providing an essentially massless source of highly polarized atoms. An offline mass separator is coupled to a double magneto-optical trap (MOT) and TOP trap system. Once in the TOP trap the magnetic trap's rotating bias field defines the polarization axis and allows one to measure the correlation between the nuclear spin direction and the β emission direction using a single positron detector. A proof-of-principle experiment using this method has demonstrated that the parity violating (β→ṡJ→) correlation can be studied. Here we outline improvements to the experiment with the goal of a 1% measurement of the β-asymmetry correlation parameter A in the Gamow-Teller decay of 82Rb which in the semi-leptonic sector would pose a competitive test of the Standard Model.

  9. Production of Excited Atomic Hydrogen and Deuterium from HD Photodissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, J. R.; Bozek, J. D.; Furst, J. E.; Gay, T. J.; Gould, H.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; McLaughlin, K. W.

    2008-05-01

    We have measured the production of Lyα, Hα, and Hβ fluorescence from atomic H and D for the photodissociation of HD by linearly-polarized photons with energies between 20 and 66 eV. In this energy range, excited photofragments result primarily from the production of doubly-excited molecular species which promptly autoionize or dissociate into two neutrals. Theoretical calculation are not yet available for HD, but comparison between the relative cross sections for H2, D2 and HD targets and the available theory for H2 and D2 [1] allow for an estimate of the relative strength of each dissociation channel in this energy range. [1] J. D. Bozek et al., J. Phys. B 39, 4871 (2006). Support provided by the NSF (Grant PHY-0653379), DOE (LBNL/ALS) and ANSTO (Access to Major Research Facilities Programme).

  10. Atomic origin of the spin-polarization of the Co2FeAl Heusler compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jaw-Yeu; Lam, Tu-Ngoc; Lin, Yan-Cheng; Chang, Shu-Jui; Lin, Hong-Ji; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Using synchrotron x-ray techniques, we studied the Co2FeAl spin-polarization state that generates the half-metallicity of the compound during an A2 (low-spin)  →  B2 (high-spin) phase transition. Given the advantage of element specificity of x-ray techniques, we could fingerprint the structural and magnetic cross-reactions between Co and Fe within a complex Co2FeAl structure deposited on a MgO (0 0 1) substrate. X-ray diffraction and extended x-ray absorption fine structure investigations determined that the Co atoms preferably populate the (1/4,1/4,1/4) and (3/4,3/4,3/4) sites during the development of the B2 phase. X-ray magnetic spectroscopy showed that although the two magnetic elements were ferromagnetically coupled, they interacted in a competing manner via a charge-transfer effect, which enhanced Co spin polarization at the expense of Fe spin polarization during the phase transition. This means that the spin-polarization of Co2FeAl was electronically dominated by Fe in A2 whereas the charge transfer turned the dominance to Co upon B2 formation. Helicity-dependent x-ray absorption spectra also revealed that only the minority state of Co/Fe was involved in the charge-transfer effect whereas the majority state was independent of it. Despite an overall increase of Co2FeAl magnetization, the charge-transfer effect created an undesired trade-off during the Co-Fe exchange interactions, because of the presence of twice as many X sites (Co) as Y sites (Fe) in the Heusler X 2 YZ formula. This suggests that the spin-polarization of Co2FeAl is unfortunately regulated by compromising the enhanced X (Co) sites and the suppressed Y (Fe) sites, irrespective of the development of the previously known high-spin-polarization phase of B2. This finding provides a possible cause for the limited half-metallicity of Co2FeAl discovered recently. Electronic tuning between the X and Y sites is necessary to further increase the spin-polarization, and likely the half

  11. Direct observation of the spin polarization in Au atomic wires on Si(553)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, H. W.; Jung, S. W.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, K. S.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, T.; Namatame, H.; Kimura, A.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-09-01

    The spin-resolved electronic band structure of Au-induced metallic atomic wires on a vicinal silicon surface, Si(553), was investigated using spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. We directly measured the spin polarization of three partially filled one-dimensional metallic bands, a one-third-filled band, and the doublet of nearly half-filled bands. For the half-filled doublet, the strong apparent spin polarization was observed near the Fermi energy with a minor out-of-plane spin component. This observation is consistent with the Rashba-type spin-orbit splitting and with a recent experiment on a similar doublet of Si(557)-Au. In contrast, the one-third-filled band does not show a substantial spin polarization within the experimental accuracy, indicating a much smaller spin splitting, if any. These results are discussed for the origin of the partially filled bands and for the intriguing broken-symmetry ground state observed at low temperature.

  12. Polarization rotation of slow light with orbital angular momentum in ultracold atomic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ruseckas, Julius; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Oehberg, Patrik; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2007-11-15

    We consider the propagation of slow light with an orbital angular momentum (OAM) in a moving atomic medium. We have derived a general equation of motion and applied it in analyzing propagation of slow light with an OAM in a rotating medium, such as a vortex lattice. We have shown that the OAM of slow light manifests itself in a rotation of the polarization plane of linearly polarized light. To extract a pure rotational phase shift, we suggest to measure a difference in the angle of the polarization plane rotation by two consecutive light beams with opposite OAM. The differential angle {delta}{alpha}{sub l} is proportional to the rotation frequency of the medium {omega}{sub rot} and the winding number l of light, and is inversely proportional to the group velocity of light. For slow light the angle {delta}{alpha}{sub l} should be large enough to be detectable. The effect can be used as a tool for measuring the rotation frequency {omega}{sub rot} of the medium.

  13. Product polarization distribution: Stereodynamics of the reaction of atom H and radical NH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhai, Hong-Sheng; Gao, Ya-Li

    2008-06-01

    The product angular momentum polarization of the reaction of H+NH is calculated via the quasiclassical trajectory method (QCT) based on the extended London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato (LEPS) potential energy surface (PES) at a collision energy of 5.1 kcal/mol. The calculated results of the vector correlations are denoted by using the angular distribution functions. The polarization-dependent differential cross sections (PDDCSs) demonstrate that the rotational angular momentum of the product H2 is aligned and oriented along the direction perpendicular to the scattering plane. Vector correlation shows that the angular momentum of the product H2 is aligned in the plane perpendicular to the velocity vector. It suggests that the reaction proceeds preferentially when the reactant velocity vector lies in a plane containing all three atoms. The orientation and alignment of the product angular momentum affects the scattering direction of the product molecules. The polarization-dependent differential cross sections (PDDCSs) reveal that scattering is predominantly in the backward hemisphere.

  14. Gradient-echo 3D imaging of Rb polarization in fiber-coupled atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Savukov, I

    2015-07-01

    The analogy between atomic and nuclear spins is exploited to implement 3D imaging of polarization inside the cell of an atomic magnetometer. The resolution of 0.8mm×1.2mm×1.4mm has been demonstrated with the gradient-echo imaging method. The imaging can be used in many applications. One such an application is the evaluation of active volume of an atomic magnetometer for sensitivity analysis and optimization. It has been found that imaging resolution is limited due to de-phasing from spin-exchange collisions and diffusion in the presence of gradients, and for a given magnetometer operational parameters, the imaging sequence has been optimized. Diffusion decay of the signal in the presence of gradients has been modeled numerically and analytically, and the analytical results, which agreed with numerical simulations, have been used to fit the spin-echo gradient measurements to extract the diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficient was found in agreement with previous measurements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Atomic structure of defects in GaN:Mg grown with Ga polarity

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Tomaszewicz, T.; Zakharov, D.; Jasinski, J.; O'Keefe, M.A.; Hautakangas, S.; Laakso, A.; Saarinen, K.

    2003-11-25

    Electron microscope phase images, produced by direct reconstruction of the scattered electron wave from a focal series of high-resolution images, were used to determine the nature of defects formed in GaN:Mg crystals. We studied bulk crystals grown from dilute solutions of atomic nitrogen in liquid gallium at high pressure and thin films grown by the MOCVD method. All the crystals were grown with Ga-polarity. In both types of samples the majority of defects were three dimensional Mg-rich hexagonal pyramids with bases on the (0001) plane and six walls on {l_brace}11{und 2}3{r_brace} planes seen in cross-section as triangulars. Some other defects appear in cross-section as trapezoidal (rectangular) defects as a result of presence of truncated pyramids. Both type of defects have hollow centers. They are decorated by Mg on all six side walls and a base. The GaN which grows inside on the defect walls shows polarity inversion. It is shown that change of polarity starts from the defect tip and propagates to the base, and that the stacking sequence changes from ab in the matrix to bc inside the defect. Exchange of the Ga sublattice with the N sublattice within the defect leads to 0.6 {+-} 0.2{angstrom} displacement between Ga sublattices outside and inside the defects. It is proposed that lateral overgrowth of the cavities formed within the defect takes place to restore matrix polarity on the defect base.

  16. Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Minghu; Feng, Liqiang; Lü, Rui; Chu, Tianshu E-mail: tschu008@163.com

    2014-02-21

    We show that by introducing Wigner rotation technique into the solution of time-dependent Schrödinger equation in length gauge, computational efficiency can be greatly improved in describing atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses. The methodology with Wigner rotation technique underlying our openMP parallel computational code for circularly polarized laser pulses is described. Results of test calculations to investigate the scaling property of the computational code with the number of the electronic angular basis function l as well as the strong field phenomena are presented and discussed for the hydrogen atom.

  17. Laser intensity determination using nonadiabatic tunneling ionization of atoms in close-to-circularly polarized laser fields.

    PubMed

    Quan, Wei; Yuan, MingHu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Chen, YongJu; Wang, YanLan; Sun, RenPing; Xiao, ZhiLei; Gong, Cheng; Hua, LinQiang; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2016-10-03

    We conceive an improved procedure to determine the laser intensity with the momentum distributions from nonadiabatic tunneling ionization of atoms in the close-to-circularly polarized laser fields. The measurements for several noble gas atoms are in accordance with the semiclassical calculations, where the nonadiabatic effect and the influence of Coulomb potential are included. Furthermore, the high-order above-threshold ionization spectrum in linearly polarized laser fields for Ar is measured and compared with the numerical calculation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the single-active-electron approximation to test the accuracy of the calibrated laser intensity.

  18. Dynamic Atomic Reconstruction: How Fe3O4 Thin Films Evade Polar Catastrophe for Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. F.; Hu, Z.; Klein, S.; Liu, X. H.; Sutarto, R.; Tanaka, A.; Cezar, J. C.; Brookes, N. B.; Lin, H.-J.; Hsieh, H. H.; Chen, C. T.; Rata, A. D.; Tjeng, L. H.

    2016-10-01

    Polar catastrophe at the interface of oxide materials with strongly correlated electrons has triggered a flurry of new research activities. The expectations are that the design of such advanced interfaces will become a powerful route to engineer devices with novel functionalities. Here, we investigate the initial stages of growth and the electronic structure of the spintronic Fe3O4/MgO (001 ) interface. Using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have discovered that the so-called A-sites are completely missing in the first Fe3O4 monolayer. This discovery allows us to develop an unexpected but elegant growth principle in which, during deposition, the Fe atoms are constantly on the move to solve the divergent electrostatic potential problem, thereby ensuring epitaxy and stoichiometry at the same time. This growth principle provides a new perspective for the design of interfaces.

  19. Tunneling wave packets of atoms from intense elliptically polarized fields in natural geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Meng; Li, Min; Liu, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yunquan

    2017-02-01

    We study strong-field tunneling of atoms in intense elliptically polarized laser fields in natural tunneling geometry. We obtain the temporal- and spatial-dependent tunneling ionization rates, the transverse and longitudinal momentum distributions, and the position distributions of the tunnel exit in parabolic coordinates. The tunneling electron wave packets at the tunnel exit are three dimensionally characterized for both momentum and spatial distributions. The conjunction between the tunneling point and the classical propagation of the widely used semiclassical model are naturally connected. We further calculate the ellipticity-dependent photoelectron momentum distributions on the detector, which are validated by comparison with the exact results through numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The theory clarifies crucial questions about strong-field tunneling ionization, which has important implications for the attoclock with elliptical or circular fields, photoelectron holography, molecular orbital imaging, etc.

  20. Bose-Einstein condensation and heat capacity of two-dimensional spin-polarized atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sugheir, M. K.; Ghassib, H. B.; Awawdeh, M.

    2011-07-15

    The static fluctuation approximation (SFA) is used to study the condensate fraction and the specific heat capacity of finite two-dimensional spin-polarized atomic hydrogen. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in this system. The transition temperature at different densities decreases as the number of particles of the system increases. At low density, a sharp peak in the specific heat capacity is observed at the transition temperature. On the other hand, as the density of the system increases, the transition temperature becomes no longer well-defined, and a hump is observed in the specific heat capacity around the transition temperature. A qualitative comparison of our results to published results for finite Bose systems shows good agreement.

  1. Tailoring polarity in a layered nickelate with single atomic layer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anand; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Zhou, Hua; Balachandran, Prasanna; Fabbris, Gilberto; Hoffman, Jason; Haskel, Daniel; Rondinelli, James

    2014-03-01

    Many of the 3d transition metal oxides share a common structural MO6 building unit--a central transition metal (TM) cation octahedrally coordinated with oxygen nearest neighbors. The electronic states in these materials can be modified by tailoring the M-O bonds, which typically include the application of epitaxial strain in thin films, or pressure and isovalent cation substitution in bulk samples. Here, we present a new route to tailor the M-O bonds without changes to the strain state or stoichiometry in two-dimensional perovskite nickelate (n =1 in the Ruddlesden Popper series). We do this by tailoring the dipolar electrostatic interactions at the unit cell level in nominally non-polar LaSrNiO4 via single atomic layer-by-layer synthesis using oxide-MBE. We reconstruct the response of the crystal lattice to the induced polarity using a x-ray phase retrieval technique (COBRA). We find that the response of the O anions to the resulting local electric fields distorts the M-O bonds, being largest for the apical oxygens (Oap) . It also alters the Ni valence.

  2. Selective detection of angular-momentum-polarized Auger electrons by atomic stereography.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Fujita, Masayoshi; Ohta, Takuya; Maejima, Naoyuki; Matsui, Hirosuke; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2015-01-09

    When a core level is excited by circularly polarized light, the angular momentum of light is transferred to the emitted photoelectron, which can be confirmed by the parallax shift of the forward focusing peak (FFP) direction in a stereograph of atomic arrangement. No angular momentum has been believed to be transferred to normal Auger electrons resulting from the decay process filling core hole after photoelectron ejection. We succeeded in detecting a non-negligible circular dichroism contrast in a normal Auger electron diffraction from a nonmagnetic Cu(001) surface far off from the absorption threshold. Moreover, we detected angular-momentum-polarized Cu L(3)M(4,5)M(4,5) Auger electrons at the L(3) absorption threshold, where the excited core electron is trapped at the conduction band. From the kinetic energy dependence of the Auger electron FFP parallax shift, we found that the angular momentum is transferred to the Auger electron most effectively in the case of the (1)S(0) two-hole creation.

  3. Sensitive determination of the spin polarization of optically pumped alkali-metal atoms using near-resonant light

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhichao; Long, Xingwu; Yuan, Jie; Fan, Zhenfang; Luo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A new method to measure the spin polarization of optically pumped alkali-metal atoms is demonstrated. Unlike the conventional method using far-detuned probe light, the near-resonant light with two specific frequencies was chosen. Because the Faraday rotation angle of this approach can be two orders of magnitude greater than that with the conventional method, this approach is more sensitive to the spin polarization. Based on the results of the experimental scheme, the spin polarization measurements are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. PMID:27595707

  4. Sensitive determination of the spin polarization of optically pumped alkali-metal atoms using near-resonant light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhichao; Long, Xingwu; Yuan, Jie; Fan, Zhenfang; Luo, Hui

    2016-09-01

    A new method to measure the spin polarization of optically pumped alkali-metal atoms is demonstrated. Unlike the conventional method using far-detuned probe light, the near-resonant light with two specific frequencies was chosen. Because the Faraday rotation angle of this approach can be two orders of magnitude greater than that with the conventional method, this approach is more sensitive to the spin polarization. Based on the results of the experimental scheme, the spin polarization measurements are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of this approach.

  5. Sensitive determination of the spin polarization of optically pumped alkali-metal atoms using near-resonant light.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhichao; Long, Xingwu; Yuan, Jie; Fan, Zhenfang; Luo, Hui

    2016-09-06

    A new method to measure the spin polarization of optically pumped alkali-metal atoms is demonstrated. Unlike the conventional method using far-detuned probe light, the near-resonant light with two specific frequencies was chosen. Because the Faraday rotation angle of this approach can be two orders of magnitude greater than that with the conventional method, this approach is more sensitive to the spin polarization. Based on the results of the experimental scheme, the spin polarization measurements are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of this approach.

  6. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden–Popper layered oxide

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden–Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure. PMID:27578622

  7. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden–Popper layered oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-08-31

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), A n+1 B n O 3n+1 , thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Sr n+1 Ti n O 3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure.

  8. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden–Popper layered oxide

    DOE PAGES

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; ...

    2016-08-31

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), A n+1 B n O 3n+1 , thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Sr n+1 Ti n O 3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases.more » We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure.« less

  9. The Role of Atomic Polarization in the Thermodynamics of Chloroform Partitioning to Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Vorobyov, Igor; Bennett, W F Drew; Tieleman, D Peter; Allen, Toby W; Noskov, Sergei

    2012-02-14

    In spite of extensive research and use in medical practice, the precise molecular mechanism of volatile anesthetic action remains unknown. The distribution of anesthetics within lipid bilayers and potential targeting to membrane proteins is thought to be central to therapeutic function. Therefore, obtaining a molecular level understanding of volatile anesthetic partitioning into lipid bilayers is of vital importance to modern pharmacology. In this study we investigate the partitioning of the prototypical anesthetic, chloroform, into lipid bilayers and different organic solvents using molecular dynamics simulations with potential models ranging from simplified coarse-grained MARTINI to additive and polarizable CHARMM all-atom force fields. Many volatile anesthetics display significant inducible dipole moments, which correlate with their potency, yet the exact role of molecular polarizability in their stabilization within lipid bilayers remains unknown. We observe that explicit treatment of atomic polarizability makes it possible to accurately reproduce solvation free energies in solvents with different polarities, allowing for quantitative studies in heterogeneous molecular distributions, such as lipid bilayers. We calculate the free energy profiles for chloroform crossing lipid bilayers to reveal a role of polarizability in modulating chloroform partitioning thermodynamics via the chloroform-induced dipole moment and highlight competitive binding to the membrane core and toward the glycerol backbone that may have significant implications for understanding anesthetic action.

  10. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden-Popper layered oxide.

    PubMed

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J; Schlom, Darrell G; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-08-31

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure.

  11. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden-Popper layered oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-08-01

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure.

  12. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Selective Deflection of Polarized Light Via Coherently Driven Four-Level Atoms in a Double-Λ Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yu

    2010-05-01

    We study the interaction of a weak probe field, having two circular polarized components, i.e., σ- and σ+ polarization, with an optically dense medium of four-level atoms in a double-Λ configuration, which is mediated by the electromagnetically induced transparency with a polarized control light with spatially inhomogeneous profile. We analyse the deflection of the polarized probe light and we find that we can selectively determine which circular component will be deflected after the polarized probe light enters the atom medium via adjusting the polarization and detuning of the control field.

  13. Determination of thermodynamic affinities of various polar olefins as hydride, hydrogen atom, and electron acceptors in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying; Zhang, Song-Chen; Zhang, Min; Shen, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Xiao-Qing

    2013-07-19

    A series of 69 polar olefins with various typical structures (X) were synthesized and the thermodynamic affinities (defined in terms of the molar enthalpy changes or the standard redox potentials in this work) of the polar olefins obtaining hydride anions, hydrogen atoms, and electrons, the thermodynamic affinities of the radical anions of the polar olefins (X(•-)) obtaining protons and hydrogen atoms, and the thermodynamic affinities of the hydrogen adducts of the polar olefins (XH(•)) obtaining electrons in acetonitrile were determined using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The pure C═C π-bond heterolytic and homolytic dissociation energies of the polar olefins (X) in acetonitrile and the pure C═C π-bond homolytic dissociation energies of the radical anions of the polar olefins (X(•-)) in acetonitrile were estimated. The remote substituent effects on the six thermodynamic affinities of the polar olefins and their related reaction intermediates were examined using the Hammett linear free-energy relationships; the results show that the Hammett linear free-energy relationships all hold in the six chemical and electrochemical processes. The information disclosed in this work could not only supply a gap of the chemical thermodynamics of olefins as one class of very important organic unsaturated compounds but also strongly promote the fast development of the chemistry and applications of olefins.

  14. Development of Two-Photon Pump Polarization Spectroscopy Probe Technique Tpp-Psp for Measurements of Atomic Hydrogen .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satija, Aman; Lucht, Robert P.

    2015-06-01

    Atomic hydrogen (H) is a key radical in combustion and plasmas. Accurate knowledge of its concentration can be used to better understand transient phenomenon such as ignition and extinction in combustion environments. Laser induced polarization spectroscopy is a spatially resolved absorption technique which we have adapted for quantitative measurements of H atom. This adaptation is called two-photon pump, polarization spectroscopy probe technique (TPP-PSP) and it has been implemented using two different laser excitation schemes. The first scheme involves the two-photon excitation of 1S-2S transitions using a linearly polarized 243-nm beam. An anisotropy is created amongst Zeeman states in 2S-3P levels using a circularly polarized 656-nm pump beam. This anisotropy rotates the polarization of a weak, linearly polarized probe beam at 656 nm. As a result, the weak probe beam "leaks" past an analyzer in the detection channel and is measured using a PMT. This signal can be related to H atom density in the probe volume. The laser beams were created by optical parametric generation followed by multiple pulse dye amplification stages. This resulted in narrow linewidth beams which could be scanned in frequency domain and varied in energy. This allowed us to systematically investigate saturation and Stark effect in 2S-3P transitions with the goal of developing a quantitative H atom measurement technique. The second scheme involves the two-photon excitation of 1S-2S transitions using a linearly polarized 243-nm beam. An anisotropy is created amongst Zeeman states in 2S-4P transitions using a circularly polarized 486-nm pump beam. This anisotropy rotates the polarization of a weak, linearly polarized probe beam at 486 nm. As a result the weak probe beam "leaks" past an analyzer in the detection channel and is measured using a PMT. This signal can be related to H atom density in the probe volume. A dye laser was pumped by third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser to create a laser beam

  15. Atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effects determine infrared CH intensities of hydrocarbons: a quantum theory of atoms in molecules model.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arnaldo F; Richter, Wagner E; Meneses, Helen G C; Bruns, Roy E

    2014-11-14

    Atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effects determine most of the infrared fundamental CH intensities of simple hydrocarbons, methane, ethylene, ethane, propyne, cyclopropane and allene. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules/charge-charge flux-dipole flux model predicted the values of 30 CH intensities ranging from 0 to 123 km mol(-1) with a root mean square (rms) error of only 4.2 km mol(-1) without including a specific equilibrium atomic charge term. Sums of the contributions from terms involving charge flux and/or dipole flux averaged 20.3 km mol(-1), about ten times larger than the average charge contribution of 2.0 km mol(-1). The only notable exceptions are the CH stretching and bending intensities of acetylene and two of the propyne vibrations for hydrogens bound to sp hybridized carbon atoms. Calculations were carried out at four quantum levels, MP2/6-311++G(3d,3p), MP2/cc-pVTZ, QCISD/6-311++G(3d,3p) and QCISD/cc-pVTZ. The results calculated at the QCISD level are the most accurate among the four with root mean square errors of 4.7 and 5.0 km mol(-1) for the 6-311++G(3d,3p) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. These values are close to the estimated aggregate experimental error of the hydrocarbon intensities, 4.0 km mol(-1). The atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effect is much larger than the charge effect for the results of all four quantum levels. Charge transfer-counter polarization effects are expected to also be important in vibrations of more polar molecules for which equilibrium charge contributions can be large.

  16. Simultaneous electromagnetically induced transparency for two circularly polarized lasers coupled to the same linearly polarized laser in a four-level atomic system in the W scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrim, Cristian; Nelson, Chris

    2011-03-15

    Electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) can be produced in a four-level atomic system in the W scheme using a linearly polarized optical field for simultaneously slowing down two {sigma}{sup +} and {sigma}{sup -} circularly polarized optical fields. This four-level atomic system can be set up with a |{sup 1}S{sub 0}> ground state and three Zeeman levels of the |{sup 1}P{sub 1}> excited state of any alkali-metal atom placed in a weak magnetic field. We apply our W scheme to ultracold magnesium atoms for neglecting the collisional dephasing. Atomic coherences are reported after solving a density matrix master equation including radiative relaxations from Zeeman states of the |{sup 1}P{sub 1}> multiplet to the |{sup 1}S{sub 0}> ground state. The EIT feature is analyzed using the transit time between the normal dispersive region and the EIT region. The evolution of the EIT feature with the variation of the coupling field is discussed using an intuitive dressed-state representation. We analyze the sensitivity of an EIT feature to pressure broadening of the excited Zeeman states.

  17. Spin-polarized hydrogen Rydberg time-of-flight: Experimental measurement of the velocity-dependent H atom spin-polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Bernadette M.; Lee, Yumin; Doyle, Michael B.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Suits, Arthur G.; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.

    2014-05-15

    We have developed a new experimental method allowing direct detection of the velocity dependent spin-polarization of hydrogen atoms produced in photodissociation. The technique, which is a variation on the H atom Rydberg time-of-flight method, employs a double-resonance excitation scheme and experimental geometry that yields the two coherent orientation parameters as a function of recoil speed for scattering perpendicular to the laser propagation direction. The approach, apparatus, and optical layout we employ are described here in detail and demonstrated in application to HBr and DBr photolysis at 213 nm. We also discuss the theoretical foundation for the approach, as well as the resolution and sensitivity we achieve.

  18. Improved sliced velocity map imaging apparatus optimized for H photofragments

    SciTech Connect

    Ryazanov, Mikhail; Reisler, Hanna

    2013-04-14

    Time-sliced velocity map imaging (SVMI), a high-resolution method for measuring kinetic energy distributions of products in scattering and photodissociation reactions, is challenging to implement for atomic hydrogen products. We describe an ion optics design aimed at achieving SVMI of H fragments in a broad range of kinetic energies (KE), from a fraction of an electronvolt to a few electronvolts. In order to enable consistently thin slicing for any imaged KE range, an additional electrostatic lens is introduced in the drift region for radial magnification control without affecting temporal stretching of the ion cloud. Time slices of {approx}5 ns out of a cloud stretched to Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 50 ns are used. An accelerator region with variable dimensions (using multiple electrodes) is employed for better optimization of radial and temporal space focusing characteristics at each magnification level. The implemented system was successfully tested by recording images of H fragments from the photodissociation of HBr, H{sub 2}S, and the CH{sub 2}OH radical, with kinetic energies ranging from <0.4 eV to >3 eV. It demonstrated KE resolution Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1%-2%, similar to that obtained in traditional velocity map imaging followed by reconstruction, and to KE resolution achieved previously in SVMI of heavier products. We expect it to perform just as well up to at least 6 eV of kinetic energy. The tests showed that numerical simulations of the electric fields and ion trajectories in the system, used for optimization of the design and operating parameters, provide an accurate and reliable description of all aspects of system performance. This offers the advantage of selecting the best operating conditions in each measurement without the need for additional calibration experiments.

  19. Bifurcations in the hydrogen atom in the presence of a circularly polarized microwave field and a static magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Lanchares, V.; Inarrea, M.; Salas, J.P.

    1997-09-01

    In a classical model, the dynamics of the hydrogen atom subjected to a circularly polarized microwave field and a magnetic field is shown to belong to the family of so-called biparametric quadratic Hamiltonians. The energy-level structure is studied in terms of the parametric bifurcations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. High-frequency waves in plasma formed as a result of tunnel ionization of atoms by circularly polarized radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagin, K. Yu.; Mamontova, T. V.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    New dependencies of frequency and damping decrement of high-frequency longitudinal waves on the wave vector in photoionized plasma formed by tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of circularly polarized radiation are found. Weakly damped longitudinal waves with a frequency much higher than the electron Langmuir frequency are predicted.

  1. Atomically-resolved mapping of polarization and electric fields across ferroelectric-oxide interfaces by Z-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Hye Jung; Kalinin, Sergei; Morozovska, A. N.; Huijben, Mark; Chu, Ying-Hao; Yu, P; Ramesh, R.; Eliseev, E. A.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Pennycook, Stephen J; Borisevich, Albina Y

    2011-01-01

    Direct atomic displacement mapping at ferroelectric interfaces by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy(STEM) (a-STEM image, b-corresponding displacement profile) is combined with Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire theory to obtain the complete interface electrostatics in real space, including separate estimates for the polarization and intrinsic interface charge contributions.

  2. Wave-mixing interference in three-photon resonant atomic excitation with cross-polarized angled beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, V.

    2006-09-15

    Three-photon excitation and associated wave mixing near the 6s and 6s{sup '} resonances of xenon have been studied utilizing resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization in angled beams with different polarizations. It has been shown that a complete cancellation of three-photon resonant atomic excitation caused by the well-known destructive wave-mixing interference occurs in s and p polarization of angled beams but distinct resonance ionization enhancement is observed when pump beams have orthogonal polarization planes. Pressure-induced evolution of the resonance ionization peak in cross-polarized beams is identical to that observed with counterpropagating beams. The reason for such resonance ionization enhancement is unknown and cannot be explained within the frame work of existing theory. The effect may result from some peculiarities of wave-mixing interference in a multilevel atomic system, where different degenerate magnetic sublevels of the upper atomic state and multiple interfering excitation processes are involved. Another possibility is that the resonance ionization enhancement results from a process where weak counterpropagating light is generated within the excitation region of cross-polarized angled beams.

  3. Positron-electron correlation-polarization potentials for the calculation of positron collisions with atoms and molecules*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Jan

    2017-02-01

    We present correlation-polarization potentials for the calculation of scattering cross sections of positrons with atoms and molecules. The potentials are constructed from a short-range correlation term and a long-range polarization term. For the short-range correlation term we present four different potentials that are derived from multi-component density functionals. For the long-range polarization term we employ a multi-term expansion. Quantum scattering calculations are presented for low energy collisions of positrons with two atomic targets (argon and krypton) and two molecular targets (nitrogen and methane). For collision energies below the threshold for Positronium formation our calculations of scattering cross sections are in good agreement with recent data sets from experiments and theory. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Low-Energy Interactions related to Atmospheric and Extreme Conditions", edited by S. Ptasinska, M. Smialek-Telega, A. Milosavljevic and B. Sivaraman.

  4. Photoluminescence polarization anisotropy for studying long-range structural ordering within semiconductor multi-atomic alloys and organic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Prutskij, T.; Percino, J.; Orlova, T.; Vavilova, L.

    2013-12-04

    Long-range structural ordering within multi-component semiconductor alloys and organic crystals leads to significant optical anisotropy and, in particular, to anisotropy of the photoluminescence (PL) emission. The PL emission of ternary and quaternary semiconductor alloys is polarized if there is some amount of the atomic ordering within the crystal structure. We analyze the polarization of the PL emission from the quaternary GaInAsP semiconductor alloy grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) and conclude that it could be caused by low degree atomic ordering within the crystal structure together with the thermal biaxial strain due to difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the layer and the substrate. We also study the state of polarization of the PL from organic crystals in order to identify different features of the crystal PL spectrum.

  5. Measuring the spin polarization of alkali-metal atoms using nuclear magnetic resonance frequency shifts of noble gases

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. H.; Luo, H.; Qu, T. L. Yang, K. Y.; Ding, Z. C.

    2015-10-15

    We report a novel method of measuring the spin polarization of alkali-metal atoms by detecting the NMR frequency shifts of noble gases. We calculated the profile of {sup 87}Rb D1 line absorption cross sections. We then measured the absorption profile of the sample cell, from which we calculated the {sup 87}Rb number densities at different temperatures. Then we measured the frequency shifts resulted from the spin polarization of the {sup 87}Rb atoms and calculated its polarization degrees at different temperatures. The behavior of frequency shifts versus temperature in experiment was consistent with theoretical calculation, which may be used as compensative signal for the NMRG closed-loop control system.

  6. Spin-orbit-induced photoelectron spin polarization in angle-resolved photoemission from both atomic and condensed matter targets.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Ulrich; Dil, J Hugo

    2012-05-02

    The existence of highly spin polarized photoelectrons emitted from non-magnetic solids as well as from unpolarized atoms and molecules has been found to be very common in many studies over the past 40 years. This so-called Fano effect is based upon the influence of the spin-orbit interaction in the photoionization or the photoemission process. In a non-angle-resolved photoemission experiment, circularly polarized radiation has to be used to create spin polarized photoelectrons, while in angle-resolved photoemission even unpolarized or linearly polarized radiation is sufficient to get a high spin polarization. In past years the Rashba effect has become very important in the angle-resolved photoemission of solid surfaces, also with an observed high photoelectron spin polarization. It is the purpose of the present topical review to cross-compare the spin polarization experimentally found in angle-resolved photoelectron emission spectroscopy of condensed matter with that of free atoms, to compare it with the Rashba effect and topological insulators to describe the influence and the importance of the spin-orbit interaction and to show and disentangle the matrix element and phase shift effects therein.The relationship between the energy dispersion of these phase shifts and the emission delay of photoelectron emission in attosecond-resolved photoemission is also discussed. Furthermore the influence of chiral structures of the photo-effect target on the spin polarization, the interferences of different spin components in coherent superpositions in photoemission and a cross-comparison of spin polarization in photoemission from non-magnetic solids with XMCD on magnetic materials are presented; these are all based upon the influence of the spin-orbit interaction in angle-resolved photoemission.

  7. Partial dissociative emission cross sections and product state distributions of the resulting photofragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2016-12-01

    This paper relates the partial cross section of a continuous optical emission into a given scattering channel of the lower electronic state to the photofragment population. This allows one to infer partial emission cross sections 'non-optically' from product state distributions; in computations, explicit construction of exact scattering states is therefore avoided. Applications to the emission spectra of NaI, CO2, and pyrrole are given. It is also demonstrated that a similar relationship holds between partial cross sections of dissociative photoionization and distributions of ionic fragments over final product channels.

  8. A dead-zone free ⁴He atomic magnetometer with intensity-modulated linearly polarized light and a liquid crystal polarization rotator.

    PubMed

    Wu, T; Peng, X; Lin, Z; Guo, H

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical (4)He atomic magnetometer experimental scheme based on an original Bell-Bloom configuration. A single intensity-modulated linearly polarized laser beam is used both for generating spin polarization within a single (4)He vapor and probing the spin precessing under a static magnetic field. The transmitted light signal from the vapor is then phase-sensitively detected at the modulation frequency and its harmonics, which lead to the atomic magnetic resonance signals. Based on this structure, a liquid crystal is added in our magnetometer system and constitutes a polarization rotator. By controlling the voltage applied on the liquid crystal, the light linear polarization vector can be kept perpendicular with the ambient magnetic field direction, which in turn provides the maximum resonance signal amplitude. Moreover, the system exhibits a magnetic-field noise floor of about 2pT/√Hz, which is not degraded due to the presence of the liquid crystal and varying magnetic field direction. The experiment results prove that our method can eliminate the dead-zone effect, improve the system spatial isotropy, and thus be suitable in mobile applications.

  9. Electron emission perpendicular to the polarization direction in laser-assisted XUV atomic ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, A. A.; Della Picca, R.; Arbó, D. G.

    2017-08-01

    We present a theoretical study of ionization of the hydrogen atom due to an XUV pulse in the presence of an infrared (IR) laser with both fields linearly polarized in the same direction. In particular, we study the energy distribution of photoelectrons emitted perpendicularly to the polarization direction. As we previously showed in Gramajo et al. [Phys. Rev. A 94, 053404 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.053404] for parallel emission, by means of a very simple semiclassical model which considers electron trajectories born at different ionization times, the electron energy spectrum can be interpreted as the interplay of intra- and intercycle interferences. However, contrary to the case of parallel emission the intracycle interference pattern stems from the coherent superposition of four electron trajectories giving rise to (i) interference of electron trajectories born during the same half cycle (intra-half-cycle interference) and (ii) interference between electron trajectories born during the first half cycle with those born during the second half cycle (inter-half-cycle interference). The intercycle interference is responsible for the formation of the sidebands. We also show that the destructive inter-half-cycle interference for the absorption and emission of an even number of IR laser photons is responsible for the characteristic sidebands in the perpendicular direction separated by twice the IR photon energy. This contrasts with the emission along the polarization axis (all sideband orders are present) since intra-half-cycle interferences do not exist in that case. The intracycle interference pattern works as a modulation of the sidebands and, in the same way, it is modulated by the intra-half-cycle interference pattern. We analyze the dependence of the energy spectrum on the laser intensity and the time delay between the XUV pulse and the IR laser. Finally, we show that our semiclassical simulations are in very good agreement with quantum calculations within the

  10. Strong-field atomic ionization in an elliptically polarized laser field and a constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rylyuk, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Within the framework of the quasistationary quasienergy state (QQES) formalism, the tunneling and multiphoton ionization of atoms and ions subjected to a perturbation by a high intense laser radiation field of an arbitrary polarization and a constant magnetic field are considered. On the basis of the exact solution of the Schrödinger equation and the Green's function for the electron moving in an arbitrary laser field and crossed constant electric and magnetic fields, the integral equation for the complex quasienergy and the energy spectrum of the ejected electron are derived. Using the "imaginary-time" method, the extremal subbarrier trajectory of the photoelectron moving in a nonstationary laser field and a constant magnetic field are considered. Within the framework of the QQES formalism and the quasiclassical perturbation theory, ionization rates when the Coulomb interaction of the photoelectron with the parent ion is taken into account at arbitrary values of the Keldysh parameter are derived. The high accuracy of rates is confirmed by comparison with the results of numerical calculations. Simple analytical expressions for the ionization rate with the Coulomb correction in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes in the case of an elliptically polarized laser beam propagating at an arbitrary angle to the constant magnetic field are derived and discussed. The limits of small and large magnetic fields and low and high frequency of a laser field are considered in details. It is shown that in the presence of a nonstationary laser field perturbation, the constant magnetic field may either decrease or increase the ionization rate. The analytical consideration and numerical calculations also showed that the difference between the ionization rates for an s electron in the case of right- and left-elliptically polarized laser fields is especially significant in the multiphoton regime for not-too-high magnetic fields and decreases as the magnetic field increases. The paper

  11. Photofragment imaging study of the CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate of the OH +allene reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Arjun S.; Justine Bell, M.; Lau, Kai-Chung; Butler, Laurie J.

    2007-10-01

    These velocity map imaging experiments characterize the photolytic generation of one of the two radical intermediates formed when OH reacts via an addition mechanism with allene. The CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate is generated photolytically from the photodissociation of 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol at 193nm. Detecting the Cl atoms using [2+1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization evidences an isotropic angular distribution for the Cl +CH2CCH2OH photofragments, a spin-orbit branching ratio for Cl(P1/22):Cl(P3/22) of 0.28, and a bimodal recoil kinetic energy distribution. Conservation of momentum and energy allows us to determine from this data the internal energy distribution of the nascent CH2CCH2OH radical cofragment. To assess the possible subsequent decomposition pathways of this highly vibrationally excited radical intermediate, we include electronic structure calculations at the G3//B3LYP level of theory. They predict the isomerization and dissociation transition states en route from the initial CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate to the three most important product channels for the OH +allene reaction expected from this radical intermediate: formaldehyde+C2H3, H +acrolein, and ethene+CHO. We also calculate the intermediates and transition states en route from the other radical adduct, formed by addition of the OH to the center carbon of allene, to the ketene+CH3 product channel. We compare our results to a previous theoretical study of the O +allyl reaction conducted at the CBS-QB3 level of theory, as the two reactions include several common intermediates.

  12. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging with the POLAR CEPPAD/ IPS Instrument : Initial Forward Modeling Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Moore, K. R.; Spence, H. E.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the primary function of the CEPPAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current. detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper. we present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies.

  13. Energetic neutral atom imaging with the Polar CEPPAD/IPS instrument: Initial forward modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, M.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Moore, K.R.; Spence, H.E.; Jorgensen, A.M.; Fennell, J.F.; Blake, J.B.; Roelof, E.C.

    1997-12-31

    Although the primary function of the CEP-PAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current, detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper, the authors present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies.

  14. Chiral Nematic Structure of Cellulose Nanocrystal Suspensions and Films; Polarized Light and Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Derek G.; Mu, Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Cellulosic liquid crystalline solutions and suspensions form chiral nematic phases that show a rich variety of optical textures in the liquid crystalline state. These ordered structures may be preserved in solid films prepared by evaporation of solvent or suspending medium. Film formation from aqueous suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was investigated by polarized light microscopy, optical profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). An attempt is made to interpret qualitatively the observed textures in terms of the orientation of the cellulose nanocrystals in the suspensions and films, and the changes in orientation caused by the evaporative process. Mass transfer within the evaporating droplet resulted in the formation of raised rings whose magnitude depended on the degree of pinning of the receding contact line. AFM of dry films at short length scales showed a radial orientation of the CNC at the free surface of the film, along with a radial height variation with a period of approximately P/2, ascribed to the anisotropic shrinkage of the chiral nematic structure. PMID:28793684

  15. Production of Excited Atomic Hydrogen and Deuterium from H2, D2 and HD Photodissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, J. R.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.; Furst, J. E.; Gay, T. J.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Landers, A. L.; McLaughlin, K. W.

    2009-10-01

    We have measured the production of Lyα and Hα fluorescence from atomic H and D resulting from the photodissociation of H2, D2 and HD by linearly-polarized photons with energies between 20 and 65 eV. In this energy range, excited photofragments result primarily from the production of doubly-excited molecular species which promptly autoionize or dissociate into two neutrals. Comparison between the relative cross sections of H2 and D2 and the available theory show only qualitative agreement. We will discuss the various systematic effects which affect this and other types of synchrotron-based measurements in this energy range. Support provided by the NSF (Grant PHY-0653379), DOE (LBNL/ALS) and ANSTO (Access to Major Research Facilities Programme).

  16. Production of Atomic Hydrogen and Deuterium from H2, D2 and HD Photodissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, J. R.; Andrianarijaona, V. A.; Furst, J. E.; Gay, T. J.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Landers, A. L.; Litaker, E. T.; McLaughlin, K. W.

    2010-03-01

    We have measured the production of Lyα and Hα fluorescence from atomic H and D resulting from the photodissociation of H2, D2 and HD by linearly-polarized photons with energies between 22 and 64 eV. In this energy range, excited photofragments result primarily from the production of doubly-excited molecular species which promptly autoionize or dissociate into two neutrals. Comparison between the current relative cross section results, previous absolute and relative experimental results and the available theory show only qualitative agreement. We will discuss the various systematic effects which affect this and other types of synchrotron-based measurements in this energy range. Support provided by the NSF (Grant PHY-0653379), DOE (LBNL/ALS) and ANSTO (Access to Major Research Facilities Programme).

  17. Polarization dependence of the direct two photon transitions of 87Rb atoms by erbium: Fiber laser frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shaoyang; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Zhao, Jianye; Zhou, Dawei; Wang, Qing; Yu, Qi; Li, Kunqian; Qi, Xianghui; Chen, Xuzong

    2016-11-01

    The femtosecond fiber-based optical frequency combs have been proved to be powerful tools for investigating the energy levels of atoms and molecules. In this paper, an Er-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb has been implemented for studying the polarization dependence of 5S-5D two-photon transitions in thermal gas of atomic rubidium 87 using an entirely symmetrical optical configuration. By changing the polarization states of the counter-propagating light beams, the polarization dependence of direct two photon transition spectrum is demonstrated, and a dramatic variation (up to 5.5 times) of the two-photon transitions strength has been observed. The theory for the polarization dependence of two photon transition based on the second-order perturbation was established, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The measurement results indicate that the polarization state manipulation with the existing frequency comb is used for femtosecond optical frequency comb based two photon transition spectroscopic purposes, which will improve the precision measurement of the absolute transition frequency and related applications.

  18. Polarization squeezing of light by single passage through an atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Barreiro, S.; Valente, P.; Failache, H.; Lezama, A.

    2011-09-15

    We have studied relative-intensity fluctuations for a variable set of orthogonal elliptic polarization components of a linearly polarized laser beam traversing a resonant {sup 87}Rb vapor cell. Significant polarization squeezing at the threshold level (-3dB) required for the implementation of several continuous-variable quantum protocols was observed. The extreme simplicity of the setup, which is based on standard polarization components, makes it particularly convenient for quantum information applications.

  19. Spin exchange in the excitation of spin-polarized Na atoms by Ne/sup +/-ion impact

    SciTech Connect

    Jitschin, W.; Osimitsch, S.; Reihl, H.; Mueller, D.W.; Kleinpoppen, H.; Lutz, H.O.

    1986-11-01

    The 3s-3p excitation of spin-polarized Na atoms by Ne/sup +/ ions has been studied for impact energies E/sub lab/ = 200 eV to 6 keV, i.e., in the adiabatic regime. The total excitation cross section and the three Stokes polarization parameters of the fluorescence light have been measured. The linear polarization of the light shows a preferential excitation of the chemically bondm/sub l/chemically bond = 1 magnetic substates. The circular polarization probes the spin orientation of the excited 3p state. At the highest impact energies investigated the experimental data are compatible with conservation of spin orientation during the collision. With decreasing impact energy, the spin polarization of the final 3p state becomes smaller than the spin polarization of the initial 3s state. This apparent spin depolarization is attributed to the exchange interaction between the Na valence electron and the unfilled Ne/sup +/ 2p/sup 5/ core in the quasimolecule formed during the collision.

  20. Angle-differential cross sections and spin-asymmetry parameters for spin-polarized electron-impact excitation of spin-polarized cesium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, G.; Förster, S.; Pavlović, N.; Roth, B.; Bartschat, K.; Bray, I.

    2004-07-01

    Relative angle-differential cross sections and spin-asymmetry parameters are presented for spin-polarized electron-impact excitation of spin-polarized cesium atoms for incident projectile energies ranging from 5 eV to 25 eV . The experimental data, obtained in the angular range of 40° to 140° , are compared with predictions from a nonrelativistic convergent close-coupling treatment for the differential cross section and the (spin) exchange asymmetry and from a semirelativistic R matrix with pseudostates approach. The latter also yields nonzero values for two other spin asymmetries that require the presence of explicitly relativistic effects such as the spin-orbit interaction. The overall agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions is satisfactory.

  1. TRINAT apparatus for measurements of correlations from the beta decay of magneto-optically trapped polarized alkali atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelov, Alexandre; Behr, J. A.; Kurchaninov, L.; Olchanski, K.; Smale, S.; Behling, S.; Melconian, D.; Fenker, B.; Mehlman, M.; Shilding, P. D.; Anholm, M.; Ashery, D.; Gwinner, G.; Trinat Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Measurements of correlations from beta decay of highly polarized atoms from MOT requires a fast transition between trapping and polarization/measurement cycles to reduce an unwanted expansion of decaying atoms. To achieve this, we have developed an apparatus employing AC MOT, which required placing high-current and low-inductance coils of magnetic quadrupole inside the stainless steel vacuum vessel and allowed us to reduce a time gap between trapping and measurement cycles (the quadrupole magnetic field in the trap region has to become less than 50 mG) to less than 100 μs. The nuclear detection system consists of an electrostatic spectrometer of recoiling ions and shake-off electrons with MCP based detectors in back-to-back geometry as well as two scintillator based β - telescopes, normal to the MCP-MCP axis. This system allowed us to successfully measure the beta asymmetry in the β+ decay of polarized 37K atoms with significantly reduced backgrounds. Time-varying magnetic field from the AC MOT and stationary guiding electric field allowed us to probe the energy distribution of the shakeoff electrons in the range 5 -30 eV. NSERC, NRC through TRIUMF, DOE ER40773 and ER41747, State of Texas, Israel Science Foundation.

  2. Identification of 6H-SiC polar faces with pull-off force of atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Di; Song, Youting; Yang, Junwei; Chen, Hongxiang; Guo, Liwei; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-12-01

    Distinguishing SiC (0001) Si-face from SiC (000-1) C-face without any damages is extremely important because the two polar faces have different physical and chemical properties which seriously influence the quality of a homoepitaxy or heteroepitaxy thin film on it. Here, a convenient and nondestructive detection method is developed to distinguish the Si-face and C-face of a (0001) oriented SiC wafer by employing a pull-off force measurement using atomic force microscopy. It is found that the pull-off force from a Si-face of 6H-SiC is about two times of that from a C-face, no matter it is a two-face chemical mechanical polishing or etched 6H-SiC wafer. The method developed here is suitable to identify polar faces of materials only if the two polar faces having different surface energy.

  3. Spin Polarization of Rb and Cs np ^{2}P_{3/2} (n=5, 6) Atoms by Circularly Polarized Photoexcitation of a Transient Diatomic Molecule.

    PubMed

    Mironov, A E; Hewitt, J D; Eden, J G

    2017-03-17

    We report the selective population of Rb or Cs np ^{2}P_{3/2} (n=5, 6; F=4, 5) hyperfine states by the photodissociation of a transient, alkali-rare gas diatomic molecule. Circularly polarized (σ^{-}), amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) on the D_{2} line of Rb or Cs (780.0 and 852.1 nm, respectively) is generated when Rb-Xe or Cs-Xe ground state collision pairs are photoexcited by a σ^{+}-polarized optical field having a wavelength within the D_{2} blue satellite continuum, associated with the B^{2}Σ_{1/2}^{+}←X^{2}Σ_{1/2}^{+} (free←free) transition of the diatomic molecule. The degree of spin polarization of Cs (6p ^{2}P_{3/2}), specifically, is found to be dependent on the interatomic distance (R) at which the excited complex is born, a result attributed to the structure of the B^{2}Σ_{1/2}^{+} state. For Cs-Xe atomic pairs, tuning the wavelength of the optical field from 843 to 848 nm varies the degree of circular polarization of the ASE from 63% to almost unity because of the perturbation, in the 5≤R≤6  Å interval, of the ^{2}Σ_{1/2}^{+} potential by a dσ molecular orbital associated with a higher ^{2}Λ electronic state. Monitoring only the Cs 6p ^{2}P_{3/2} spin polarization reveals a previously unobserved interaction of CsXe (B^{2}Σ_{1/2}^{+}) with the lowest vibrational levels of a ^{2}Λ state derived from Cs (5d)+Xe. By inserting a molecular intermediate into the alkali atom excitation mechanism, these experiments realize electronic spin polarization through populating no more than two np ^{2}P_{3/2} hyperfine states, and demonstrate a sensitive spectroscopic probe of R-dependent state-state interactions and their impact on interatomic potentials.

  4. Detection of mercuric chloride by photofragment emission using a frequency-converted fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoops, Alexandra A.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Kliner, Dahv. A. V.; Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Moore, Sean W.

    2007-07-01

    A real-time, noninvasive approach for detecting trace amounts of vapor-phase mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in combustion flue gas is demonstrated using a near-infrared pulsed fiber amplifier that is frequency converted to the ultraviolet. Excitation of the HgCl2(1∏1u ← 1∑1g+) transition at 213 nm generates 253.7 nm emission from the Hg (63P1) photoproduct that is proportional to the concentration of HgCl2. A measured quadratic dependence of the HgCl2 photofragment emission (PFE) signal on the laser irradiance indicates that the photodissociation process involves two-photon excitation. Additionally, low concentrations of HgCl2 are detected with the PFE approach in an environment characteristic of coal-fired power-plant flue gas using this compact solid-state laser source. A detection limit of 0.7 ppb is extrapolated from these results.

  5. A cryogenically cooled photofragment fluorescence instrument for measuring stratospheric water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, Elliot M.; Schwab, James J.; Nee, Jan Bai; Schwab, M. J.; Anderson, James G.

    1990-01-01

    An instrument developed for high-resolution daytime measurements of water vapor in the stratosphere using the technique of photofragment fluorescence is examined. A detailed description of all aspects of the instrument, as well as the results of its first two flights, are presented. The main areas of concern were optical baffling, cryogen transfer, water vapor measurement without contamination, and a dual path absorption measurement. Results of the second flight test indicate that the problems of instrument and gondola contamination, identified in the first flight test, were solved. A signal-to-noise ratio of about 50:1 for 10 sec of averaging throughout the stratosphere is achieved, as well as an altitude resolution of better than 100 m.

  6. Detection of mercuric chloride by photofragment emission using a frequency-converted fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Hoops, Alexandra A; Reichardt, Thomas A; Kliner, Dahv A V; Koplow, Jeffrey P; Moore, Sean W

    2007-07-01

    A real-time, noninvasive approach for detecting trace amounts of vapor-phase mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) in combustion flue gas is demonstrated using a near-infrared pulsed fiber amplifier that is frequency converted to the ultraviolet. Excitation of the HgCl(2) ([see text]) transition at 213 nm generates 253.7 nm emission from the Hg (6(3)P(1)) photoproduct that is proportional to the concentration of HgCl(2). A measured quadratic dependence of the HgCl(2) photofragment emission (PFE) signal on the laser irradiance indicates that the photodissociation process involves two-photon excitation. Additionally, low concentrations of HgCl(2) are detected with the PFE approach in an environment characteristic of coal-fired power-plant flue gas using this compact solid-state laser source. A detection limit of 0.7 ppb is extrapolated from these results.

  7. Dipolar and charge transfer effects on the atomic stabilization of ZnO polar surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolari, Arrigo; Bazzani, Mirco; Catellani, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We present a DFT study of ZnO polar surfaces, and discuss our results in terms of charge redistribution and polarization field. Beyond some refinements in the methodology that allow to take fully in account the electrostatic contribution of polar compounds, we describe in a unified way the electronic properties of short range reconstructions at these polar surfaces. Our analysis allows to interpret as fictitious the metallicity of clean (1 × 1) surfaces, and to describe the stabilizing role of surface defects and hydroxylation.

  8. Implementation of Outstanding Electronic Transport in Polar Covalent Boron Nitride Atomic Chains: another Extraordinary Odd-Even Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Weiqi; Liu, Linhua; Feng, Jikang; Jiang, Yongyuan; Tian, Wei Quan

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the unique electronic transport properties of the junctions composed of boron nitride atomic chains bridging symmetric graphene electrodes with point-contacts is executed through non-equilibrium Green’s function technique in combination with density functional theory. Compared with carbon atomic chains, the boron nitride atomic chains have an alternative arrangement of polar covalent B-N bonds and different contacts coupling electrodes, showing some unusual properties in functional atomic electronic devices. Remarkably, they have an extraordinary odd-even behavior of conductivity with the length increase. The rectification character and negative differential resistance of nonlinear current-voltage characteristics can be achieved by manipulating the type of contacts between boron nitride atomic chains bridges and electrodes. The junctions with asymmetric contacts have an intrinsic rectification, caused by stronger coupling in the C-N contact than the C-B contact. On the other hand, for symmetric contact junctions, it is confirmed that the transport properties of the junctions primarily depend on the nature of contacts. The junctions with symmetric C-N contacts have higher conductivity than their C-B contacts counterparts. Furthermore, the negative differential resistances of the junctions with only C-N contacts is very conspicuous and can be achieved at lower bias. PMID:27211110

  9. Implementation of Outstanding Electronic Transport in Polar Covalent Boron Nitride Atomic Chains: another Extraordinary Odd-Even Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Weiqi; Liu, Linhua; Feng, Jikang; Jiang, Yongyuan; Tian, Wei Quan

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical investigation of the unique electronic transport properties of the junctions composed of boron nitride atomic chains bridging symmetric graphene electrodes with point-contacts is executed through non-equilibrium Green’s function technique in combination with density functional theory. Compared with carbon atomic chains, the boron nitride atomic chains have an alternative arrangement of polar covalent B-N bonds and different contacts coupling electrodes, showing some unusual properties in functional atomic electronic devices. Remarkably, they have an extraordinary odd-even behavior of conductivity with the length increase. The rectification character and negative differential resistance of nonlinear current-voltage characteristics can be achieved by manipulating the type of contacts between boron nitride atomic chains bridges and electrodes. The junctions with asymmetric contacts have an intrinsic rectification, caused by stronger coupling in the C-N contact than the C-B contact. On the other hand, for symmetric contact junctions, it is confirmed that the transport properties of the junctions primarily depend on the nature of contacts. The junctions with symmetric C-N contacts have higher conductivity than their C-B contacts counterparts. Furthermore, the negative differential resistances of the junctions with only C-N contacts is very conspicuous and can be achieved at lower bias.

  10. Implementation of Outstanding Electronic Transport in Polar Covalent Boron Nitride Atomic Chains: another Extraordinary Odd-Even Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Weiqi; Liu, Linhua; Feng, Jikang; Jiang, Yongyuan; Tian, Wei Quan

    2016-05-23

    A theoretical investigation of the unique electronic transport properties of the junctions composed of boron nitride atomic chains bridging symmetric graphene electrodes with point-contacts is executed through non-equilibrium Green's function technique in combination with density functional theory. Compared with carbon atomic chains, the boron nitride atomic chains have an alternative arrangement of polar covalent B-N bonds and different contacts coupling electrodes, showing some unusual properties in functional atomic electronic devices. Remarkably, they have an extraordinary odd-even behavior of conductivity with the length increase. The rectification character and negative differential resistance of nonlinear current-voltage characteristics can be achieved by manipulating the type of contacts between boron nitride atomic chains bridges and electrodes. The junctions with asymmetric contacts have an intrinsic rectification, caused by stronger coupling in the C-N contact than the C-B contact. On the other hand, for symmetric contact junctions, it is confirmed that the transport properties of the junctions primarily depend on the nature of contacts. The junctions with symmetric C-N contacts have higher conductivity than their C-B contacts counterparts. Furthermore, the negative differential resistances of the junctions with only C-N contacts is very conspicuous and can be achieved at lower bias.

  11. Atom-Based Radio-Frequency Field Calibration and Polarization Measurement Using Cesium n DJ Floquet States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yuechun; Hao, Liping; Han, Xiaoxuan; Bai, Suying; Raithel, Georg; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang

    2017-07-01

    We investigate atom-based electric-field calibration and polarization measurement of a 100-MHz linearly polarized radio-frequency (rf) field using cesium Rydberg-atom electromagnetically induced transparency in a room-temperature vapor cell. The calibration method is based on matching experimental data with the results of a theoretical Floquet model. The utilized 60 DJ fine-structure Floquet levels exhibit J - and mj-dependent ac Stark shifts and splittings, and they develop even-order rf-modulation sidebands. The Floquet map of cesium 60 DJ fine-structure states exhibits a series of exact crossings between states of different mj's which are not rf coupled. These exact level crossings are employed to perform a rapid and precise (±0.5 %) calibration of the rf electric field. We also map out three series of narrow avoided crossings between fine-structure Floquet levels of equal mj's and different J 's, which are weakly coupled by the rf field via a Raman process. The coupling leads to narrow avoided crossings that can also be applied as spectroscopic markers for rf-field calibration. We further find that the line-strength ratio of intersecting Floquet levels with different mj's provides a fast and robust measurement of the rf field's polarization.

  12. Two-Photon Emission of a Hydrogenlike Atom with Photon Polarization and Electron Spin States Taken into Account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelev, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    The process of two-photon emission ( Ze)* → ( Ze) + 2 γ of a hydrogenlike atom is considered with spin states of the electron and polarization of the photons taken into account, which had not been done before. A general expression for the probability of the process per unit time has been obtained for different polarization states of the photons with a formulation of hard and soft selection rules for the quantum numbers m and l. It is shown that by virtue of the established specifics of the properties of the two-photon emission process (absence of a Zeeman effect and dependence of the probability on the polarization states of the photons), it can in principle be identified against the background of single-photon emission ( Ze)* → ( Ze) + γ, despite the presence of additional small factors: 1) α = e 2/ ћc ≈ 1/137 of the perturbation theory in e, and 2) the square of the atomic expansion parameter ( Zα)2 in the expression for the probability.

  13. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  14. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

  15. Spin polarization of {sup 87}Rb atoms with ultranarrow linewidth diode laser: Numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. G.; Jiang, Q. Y.; Zhan, X.; Chen, Y. D.; Luo, H.

    2016-08-15

    In order to polarize {sup 87}Rb vapor effectively with ultranarrow linewidth diode laser, we studied the polarization as a function of some parameters including buffer gas pressure and laser power. Moreover, we also discussed the methods which split or modulate the diode laser frequency so as to pump the two ground hyperfine levels efficiently. We obtained some useful results through numerical simulation. If the buffer gas pressure is so high that the hyperfine structure is unresolved, the polarization is insensitive to laser frequency at peak absorption point so frequency splitting and frequency modulation methods do not show improvement. At low pressure and laser power large enough, where the hyperfine structure is clearly resolved, frequency splitting and frequency modulation methods can increase polarization effectively. For laser diodes, frequency modulation is easily realized with current modulation, so this method is attractive since it does not add any other components in the pumping laser system.

  16. Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Microfluorescence Reveals Polarized Distribution of Atomic Elements during Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Bruna S.; Rehen, Stevens K.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying pluripotency and differentiation in embryonic and reprogrammed stem cells are unclear. In this work, we characterized the pluripotent state towards neural differentiated state through analysis of trace elements distribution using the Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Naive and neural-stimulated embryoid bodies (EB) derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem (ES and iPS) cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 µm to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. Results show that these embryo-like aggregates exhibit self-organization at the atomic level. Metallic elements content rises and consistent elemental polarization pattern of P and S in both mouse and human pluripotent stem cells were observed, indicating that neural differentiation and elemental polarization are strongly correlated. PMID:22195032

  17. Magneto-optical polarization rotation in a ladder-type atomic system for tunable offset locking

    SciTech Connect

    Parniak, Michał Leszczyński, Adam; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate an easily tunable locking scheme for stabilizing frequency-sum of two lasers on a two-photon ladder transition based on polarization rotation in warm rubidium vapors induced by magnetic field and circularly polarized drive field. Unprecedented tunability of the two-photon offset frequency is due to strong splitting and shifting of magnetic states in external field. In our experimental setup, we achieve two-photon detuning of up to 700 MHz.

  18. Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules Charge-Charge Transfer-Dipolar Polarization Classification of Infrared Intensities.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Leonardo José; Richter, Wagner Eduardo; Silva, Arnaldo F; Bruns, Roy Edward

    2017-10-02

    Fundamental infrared intensities of gas-phase molecules are sensitive probes of changes in electronic structure accompanying small molecular distortions. Models containing charge, charge transfer and dipolar polarization effects are necessary for a successful classification of the C-H, C-F and C-Cl stretching and bending intensities. C-H stretching and in-plane bending vibrations involving sp3 carbon atoms have small equilibrium charge contributions and are accurately modeled by the charge transfer- counterpolarization contribution and its interaction with equilibrium charge movement. Large C-F and C=O stretching intensities have dominant equilibrium charge movement contributions compared to their charge transfer-dipolar polarization ones and are accurately estimated by equilibrium charge and the interaction contribution. The C-F and C-Cl bending modes have charge and charge transfer-dipolar polarization contribution sums that are of similar size but opposite sign to their interaction values resulting in small intensities. Experimental in-plane C-H bends have small average intensities of 12.6±10.4 km mol-1 owing to negligible charge contributions and charge transfer-counterpolarization cancellations, whereas their average out-of-plane experimental intensities are much larger, 65.7±20.0 km mol-1,as charge transfer is zero and only dipolar polarization takes place. The C-F bending intensities have large charge contributions but very small intensities. Their average experimental out-of-plane intensity of 9.9±12.6 km mol-1 arises from the cancellation of large charge contributions by dipolar polarization contributions. The experimental average in-plane C-F bending intensities, 5.8±7.3 km mol-1 is also small owing to charge and charge transfer-counterpolarization sums being cancelled by their interaction contributions. Models containing only atomic charges and their fluxes are incapable of describing electronic structure changes for simple molecular distortions that

  19. Polarization functions for the modified m6-31G basis sets for atoms Ga through Kr.

    PubMed

    Mitin, Alexander V

    2013-09-05

    The 2df polarization functions for the modified m6-31G basis sets of the third-row atoms Ga through Kr (Int J Quantum Chem, 2007, 107, 3028; Int J. Quantum Chem, 2009, 109, 1158) are proposed. The performances of the m6-31G, m6-31G(d,p), and m6-31G(2df,p) basis sets were examined in molecular calculations carried out by the density functional theory (DFT) method with B3LYP hybrid functional, Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of the second order (MP2), quadratic configuration interaction method with single and double substitutions and were compared with those for the known 6-31G basis sets as well as with the other similar 641 and 6-311G basis sets with and without polarization functions. Obtained results have shown that the performances of the m6-31G, m6-31G(d,p), and m6-31G(2df,p) basis sets are better in comparison with the performances of the known 6-31G, 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31G(2df,p) basis sets. These improvements are mainly reached due to better approximations of different electrons belonging to the different atomic shells in the modified basis sets. Applicability of the modified basis sets in thermochemical calculations is also discussed.

  20. Detection of mercuric chloride by photofragment emission using a frequency-converted fiber amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hoops, A.A.; Reichardt, T.A.; Kliner, D.A.V.; Koplow, J.P.; Moore, S.W.

    2007-07-15

    A real-time, noninvasive approach for detecting trace amounts of vapor-phase mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in combustion flue gas is demonstrated using a near-infrared pulsed fiber amplifier that is frequency converted to the ultraviolet. Excitation of the HgCl{sub 2} (1{Pi}1{sub u}{l_arrow} 1{Sigma}1g+) transition at 213 nm generates 253.7 nm emission from the Hg (6{sup 3}P{sub 1}) photoproduct that is proportional to the concentration of HgC1{sub 2}. A measured quadratic dependence of the HgCl{sub 2} photofragment emission (PFE) signal on the laser irradiance indicates that the photodissociation process involves two-photon excitation. Additionally, low concentrations of HgCl{sub 2} are detected with the PFE approach in an environment characteristic of coal-fired power-plant flue gas using this compact solid-state laser source. A detection limit of 0.7 ppb is extrapolated from these results.

  1. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene: tropospheric probes for Cl- and Br-atom reactions during the polar sunrise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariya, P. A.; Catoire, V.; Sander, R.; Niki, H.; Harris, G. W.

    1997-11-01

    We report the results of laboratory and modeling investigations of the atmospheric fate of chlorinated ethenes and their rôle as indicators of halogen reactions in the springtime Arctic troposphere. The kinetics and mechanism of the gas-phase reactions of Cl- and Br-atoms with tetrachloroethene were studied using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) in 93.3kPa air and T = 296± 2 K. Along with our previous study on Cl and Br atom reactions of trichloroethene, using the known rate of the Cl + ethane reaction as reference, the values of 7.2±0.2×10-11 and 3.8±0.2×10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 were obtained for the Cl-atom reaction rate constants of tri- and tetrachloroethene, respectively. For the Br-atom reactions, using ethene and propane as the reference molecules, we report the absolute values of 1.1±0.1×10-13 and 9.0±0.1×10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for the rates of Br attack on tri- and tetrachloroethene. The major products were XCl2C-C(O)Cl (X = H in trichloroethene and X = Cl in tetrachloroethene) and XBrClC-C(O)Cl in Cl-atom and Br-atom initiated reactions, respectively. We also observed phosgene and formyl chloride in the reactions of trichloroethene and phosgene in the tetrachloroethene reactions and report the branching ratios for these

  2. Cylindrical Vector Beams for Rapid Polarization-Dependent Measurements in Atomic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-05

    www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-24-25035. 16. S. Tripathi and K. C. Toussaint, Jr., “Rapid Mueller matrix polarimetry based on parallelized...optical trapping [11], atom guiding [12], laser machining [13], charged particle acceleration [14,15], and polarimetry [16]. Yet despite numerous

  3. Photon statistics and polarization correlations at telecommunications wavelengths from a warm atomic ensemble.

    PubMed

    Willis, R T; Becerra, F E; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L

    2011-07-18

    We present measurements of the polarization correlation and photon statistics of photon pairs that emerge from a laser-pumped warm rubidium vapor cell. The photon pairs occur at 780 nm and 1367 nm and are polarization entangled. We measure the autocorrelation of each of the generated fields as well as the cross-correlation function, and observe a strong violation of the two-beam Cauchy-Schwartz inequality. We evaluate the performance of the system as source of heralded single photons at a telecommunication wavelength. We measure the heralded autocorrelation and see that coincidences are suppressed by a factor of ≈ 20 from a Poissonian source at a generation rate of 1500 s(-1), a heralding efficiency of 10%, and a narrow spectral width.

  4. Ionization of hydrogen atom by n-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xianghe; Tang, Jingjing; Yang, Qingbo; Zhang, Jingtao

    2017-06-01

    The energy-dependent phenomena of the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) for different above-threshold ionization (ATI) peaks are investigated by means of the ionization of H atom in few-pulse laser fields with different optical cycle numbers. We find that for one-cycle laser pulse, the PADs and the photoelectron energy spectra are inversion asymmetric, and the emitting direction is not dependent on the photoelectric energy, but only on the carrier-envelope (CE) phase of the laser pulse. For three-cycle laser pulse, although the photoelectron energy spectra are still inversion asymmetric, the emitting direction is dependent on the photoelectric energy, besides the CE phase. This energy-dependent phenomena becomes more obvious for six-cycle laser pulse. When the number of the optical cycle is twelve, however, the photoelectron energy spectra are almost inversion symmetric especially for the low-order ATI peaks, and the bright rings in the momentum distributions are nearly perfect and isotropic. The phenomena show that if the number of cycles of the laser pulse are larger, the ionization behaviors of atom will extend to that of atom in an infinitely monochromatic plane wave.

  5. Energy levels of a polarizable linear polar molecule in a dc electric field obtained by analogy with the nonrelativistic hydrogen atom

    SciTech Connect

    Sekatskii, S. K.

    2007-05-15

    We note that an equation governing the dynamics of a polarizable linear polar molecule in a dc electric field coincides with one of two equations describing a hydrogen atom in the prolate spheroidal coordinate system. Using this analogy, as well as the known algebra of the angular momentum and Runge-Lenz-Pauli operators for the case of a hydrogen atom, the energy levels of a polarizable linear polar molecule in a dc electric field are calculated. For some cases, these energy values are exact.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography, nonlinear, and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Kirillin, Mikhail Yu.; Dudenkova, Varvara V.; Timashev, Peter S.; Kotova, Svetlana L.; Kiseleva, Elena B.; Timofeeva, Lidia B.; Belkova, Galina V.; Solovieva, Anna B.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Gelikonov, Gregory V.; Fiks, Ilya I.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Gladkova, Natalia D.

    2016-12-01

    A combination of approaches to the image analysis in cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT) and high-resolution imaging by nonlinear microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the different stages of atherosclerotic plaque development is studied. This combination allowed us to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the disorganization of collagen in the atherosclerotic arterial tissue (reduction and increase of CP backscatter), at the fiber (change of the geometric distribution of fibers in the second-harmonic generation microscopy images) and fibrillar (violation of packing and different nature of a basket-weave network of fibrils in the AFM images) organization levels. The calculated CP channel-related parameters are shown to have a statistically significant difference between stable and unstable (also called vulnerable) plaques, and hence, CP OCT could be a potentially powerful, minimally invasive method for vulnerable plaques detection.

  7. Limits on the monopole polarization magnetic field from measurements of the electric dipole moments of atoms, molecules, and the neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flambaum, V. V.

    1997-03-01

    A radial magnetic field can induce a time-invariance-violating electric-dipole moment (EDM) in quantum systems. The EDMs of the Tl, Cs, Xe, and Hg atoms and the neutron that are produced by such a field are estimated. The contributions of such a field to the constants, χ of the T, P-odd interactions χeN.s/s and χNN.I/I are also estimated for the TlF, HgF, and YbF molecules [where s (I) is the electron (nuclear) spin and N is the molecular axis]. The best limit on the contact monopole field can be obtained from the measured value of the Tl EDM. The possibility of such a field being produced from polarization of the vacuum of electrically charged magnetic monopoles (dyons) by a Coulomb field is discussed, as well as the limit on these dyons. An alternative mechanism involves chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields in QCD.

  8. Quantum Drude oscillator model of atoms and molecules: Many-body polarization and dispersion interactions for atomistic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Andrew P.; Crain, Jason; Sokhan, Vlad P.; Whitfield, Troy W.; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2013-04-01

    Treating both many-body polarization and dispersion interactions is now recognized as a key element in achieving the level of atomistic modeling required to reveal novel physics in complex systems. The quantum Drude oscillator (QDO), a Gaussian-based, coarse grained electronic structure model, captures both many-body polarization and dispersion and has linear scale computational complexity with system size, hence it is a leading candidate next-generation simulation method. Here, we investigate the extent to which the QDO treatment reproduces the desired long-range atomic and molecular properties. We present closed form expressions for leading order polarizabilities and dispersion coefficients and derive invariant (parameter-free) scaling relationships among multipole polarizability and many-body dispersion coefficients that arise due to the Gaussian nature of the model. We show that these “combining rules” hold to within a few percent for noble gas atoms, alkali metals, and simple (first-row hydride) molecules such as water; this is consistent with the surprising success that models with underlying Gaussian statistics often exhibit in physics. We present a diagrammatic Jastrow-type perturbation theory tailored to the QDO model that serves to illustrate the rich types of responses that the QDO approach engenders. QDO models for neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, designed to reproduce gas phase properties, are constructed and their condensed phase properties explored via linear scale diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) and path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations. Good agreement with experimental data for structure, cohesive energy, and bulk modulus is found, demonstrating a degree of transferability that cannot be achieved using current empirical models or fully ab initio descriptions.

  9. Mapping orientational order in a bulk heterojunction solar cell with polarization-dependent photoconductive atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Christopher J; Collins, Samuel D; Love, John A; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A; Wynands, David; Bazan, Guillermo C; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Heeger, Alan J

    2014-08-26

    New methods connecting molecular structure, self-organization, and optoelectronic performance are important for understanding the current generation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials. In high power conversion efficiency (PCE) OPVs, light-harvesting small-molecules or polymers are typically blended with fullerene derivatives and deposited in thin films, forming a bulk heterojunction (BHJ), a self-assembled three-dimensional nanostructure of electron donors and acceptors that separates and transports charges. Recent data suggest micrometer-scale orientational order of donor domains exists within this complex nanomorphology, but the link to the optoelectronic properties is yet unexplored. Here we introduce polarization-dependent, photoconductive atomic force microscopy (pd-pcAFM) as a combined probe of orientational order and nanoscale optoelectronic properties (∼20 nm resolution). Using the donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl[2,2'-bithiophen]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole), p-DTS(FBTTh2)2, we show significant spatial dependence of the nanoscale photocurrent with polarized light in both pristine and BHJ blends (up to 7.0% PCE) due to the local alignment of the molecular transition dipoles. By mapping the polarization dependence of the nanoscale photocurrent, we estimate the molecular orientation and orientational order parameter. Liquid crystalline disclinations are observed in all films, in agreement with complementary electron microscopy experiments, and the order parameter exceeds 0.3. The results demonstrate the utility of pd-pcAFM to investigate the optical/structural anisotropy that exists within a well-performing BHJ system and its relationship to optoelectronic properties on both the nanometer and micrometer length scales.

  10. Magnetic circular dichroism in the ion yield of polarized chromium atoms at the 2p edge

    SciTech Connect

    Pruemper, G.; Viefhaus, J.; Becker, U.; Kroeger, S.; Mueller, R.; Zimmermann, P.; Martins, M.

    2003-09-01

    The effect of magnetic dichroism in the partial and total ion yield of chromium, i.e., the absorption of polarized chromium vapor was observed in the gas phase. The measurements were performed at the 2p edge and at photon energies above the 2p edge. The structure of the dichroism at the 2p edge can be understood by including the coupling of the 2p hole with the 3d and 4s shells. Our experimental results for the dichroism at the 2p edge are similar to results of solid-state experiments. Implications for the sum rules used as a standard tool to calculate the spin and orbital momentum are discussed.

  11. Polarization spectroscopy and laser-locking for excitation of ultracold potassium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, Charles; Eberhart, Max; Adamson, Philip

    2016-05-01

    We report on the use of polarization spectroscopy to lock the frequency of an external-cavity diode laser to a the 4s - 4 p1/2 (770 nm), 4s - 4 p3/2 (767 nm) and 4s - 5 p1/2 and 4s - 5 p3/2 (405 nm) transitions in potassium. A rate equation model is in good agreement with the observed lineshapes and the D2 transition lineshapes agree with prior experiments. We have used the dispersion shaped lines to lock the frequency of lasers for probing a magneto-optical trap's density on the D1 line and for stepwise excitation of potassium Rydberg states using the 4s - 5 p3/2 transition. The technique has proven particularly helpful by enabling modulation-free locking of blue diode lasers. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1126599.

  12. Three-dimensional Doppler, polarization-gradient, and magneto-optical forces for atoms and molecules with dark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, J. A.; Tarbutt, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically investigate the damping and trapping forces in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (MOT), by numerically solving the optical Bloch equations. We focus on the case where there are dark states because the atom is driven on a ‘type-II’ system where the angular momentum of the excited state, F\\prime , is less than or equal to that of the ground state, F. For these systems we find that the force in a three-dimensional light field has very different behaviour to its one dimensional counterpart. This differs from the more commonly used ‘type-I’ systems (F\\prime =F+1) where the 1D and 3D behaviours are similar. Unlike type-I systems where, for red-detuned light, both Doppler and sub-Doppler forces damp the atomic motion towards zero velocity, in type-II systems in 3D, the Doppler force and polarization gradient force have opposite signs. As a result, the atom is driven towards a non-zero equilibrium velocity, v 0, where the two forces cancel. We find that {v}02 scales linearly with the intensity of the light and is fairly insensitive to the detuning from resonance. We also discover a new magneto-optical force that alters the normal MOT force at low magnetic fields and whose influence is greatest in the type-II systems. We discuss the implications of these findings for the laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of molecules where type-II transitions are unavoidable in realising closed optical cycling transitions.

  13. Inter-atomic bonding and dielectric polarization in Gd3+ incorporated Co-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, R. A.; Desai, S. S.; Patange, S. M.; Jadhav, S. S.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2017-04-01

    A series of ferrite with a chemical composition Co0.7Zn0.3GdxFe2-xO4 (where x=0.0 to x=0.1) were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern were used to determine the crystal structure and phase formation of the prepared samples. Scanning electron microscopy is used to study the surface morphology of the prepared samples. Elastic properties were determined from the infrared spectroscopy. Debye temperature, wave velocities, elastic constants found to increase with the increase in Gd3+ substitution. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of Gd3+ substitution and frequency. Dielectric constant decreased with the increase in frequency and Gd3+ substitution. Behavior of dielectric properties was explained on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization which in accordance with Koops phenomenological theory. Real and imaginary part of impedance was studied as a function of resistance and Gd3+ substitution. The behavior of impedance is systematically discussed on the basis of resistance-capacitance circuit.

  14. Universal ultracold collision rates for polar molecules of two alkali-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julienne, Paul; Hanna, Thomas; Idziaszek, Zbigniew

    2011-05-01

    Highly reactive ultracold polar molecules have universal near-threshold reaction rate constants that depend only on the long-range interaction potential, as shown for the KRb molecule. We extend these calculations to estimate universal reaction rate constants for the bosonic and fermionic isotopes of the reactive species LiNa, LiK, LiRb, LiCs, and also the universal vibrational quenching rate constants for vibrationally excited states of the non-reactive species NaK, NaRb, NaCs, KCs, and RbCs. We also examine the variation with electric field of the universal collision rates for these species in quasi-2D geometry in a one-dimensional optical lattice. For many of these species an electric field of a few kV/cm perpendicular to the lattice plane should be effective in shielding the molecules from destructive collisions even at relatively modest lattice confinement strength. Supported by an AFOSR MURI and a Polish government grant.

  15. High-speed atomic force microscopy reveals strongly polarized movement of clostridial collagenase along collagen fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Itami, Masahiro; Kodera, Noriyuki; Ando, Toshio; Konno, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial collagenases involved in donor infection are widely applied in many fields due to their high activity and specificity; however, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which bacterial collagenases degrade insoluble collagen in host tissues. Using high-speed atomic force microscopy, we simultaneously visualized the hierarchical structure of collagen fibrils and the movement of a representative bacterial collagenase, Clostridium histolyticum type I collagenase (ColG), to determine the relationship between collagen structure and collagenase movement. Notably, ColG moved ~14.5 nm toward the collagen N terminus in ~3.8 s in a manner dependent on a catalytic zinc ion. While ColG was engaged, collagen molecules were not only degraded but also occasionally rearranged to thicken neighboring collagen fibrils. Importantly, we found a similarity of relationship between the enzyme-substrate interface structure and enzyme migration in collagen-collagenase and DNA-nuclease systems, which share a helical substrate structure, suggesting a common strategy in enzyme evolution. PMID:27373458

  16. Velocity map imaging study of BrCl photodissociation at 467 nm: determination of all odd-rank (K = 1 and 3) anisotropy parameters for the Cl(2P(3/2)0) photofragments.

    PubMed

    Smolin, Andrey G; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S; Vieuxmaire, Olivier P J; Ashfold, Michael N R; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2006-03-07

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and velocity map imaging of the Cl(2P(3/2)0) fragments of BrCl photolysis at 467.16 nm have been used to obtain a complete set of orientation parameters (with ranks K = 1 and 3) describing the polarization of the electronic angular momentum. The experiments employ two geometries distinguished only by the circular or linear polarization of the photolysis laser beam. Normalized difference images constructed from the data accumulated using a right or left circularly polarized probe-laser beam, counterpropagating with the photolysis laser, were fitted to basis images corresponding to contributions from various odd-rank anisotropy parameters. Expressions are given for the difference images in terms of the K = 1 and 3 anisotropy parameters, which describe coherent and incoherent parallel and perpendicular excitation and dissociation mechanisms. The nonzero values of the anisotropy parameters are indicative of nonadiabatic dissociation dynamics, with likely contributions from flux on the A 3Pi1,B 3Pi(0+),C 1Pi1, and X 1sigma+(0+) states as well as one further omega = 1 state, all of which correlate adiabatically to Cl(2P(3/2)0) + Br(2P(3/2)0) photofragments. The magnitudes of the parameters depend both on the amplitudes of dissociative flux in these states, and also on the phases accumulated by the nuclear wave functions for different dissociation pathways.

  17. Multiphoton ionization of the calcium atom by linearly and circularly polarized laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Buica, Gabriela; Nakajima, Takashi

    2010-04-15

    We theoretically study multiphoton ionization of the Ca atom irradiated by the second (photon energy 3.1 eV) and third (photon energy 4.65 eV) harmonics of Ti:sapphire laser pulses (photon energy 1.55 eV). Because of the dense energy level structure the second and third harmonics of a Ti:sapphire laser are nearly single-photon resonant with the 4s4p {sup 1}P{sup o} and 4s5p {sup 1}P{sup o} states, respectively. Although two-photon ionization takes place through the near-resonant intermediate states with the same symmetry in both cases, it turns out that there are significant differences between them. The photoelectron energy spectra exhibit the absence or presence of substructures. More interestingly, the photoelectron angular distributions clearly show that the main contribution to the ionization processes by the third harmonic arises from the far-off-resonant 4s4p {sup 1}P{sup o} state rather than the near-resonant 4s5p {sup 1}P{sup o} state. These findings can be attributed to the fact that the dipole moment for the 4s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e}-4s5p {sup 1}P{sup o} transition is much smaller than that for the 4s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e}-4s4p {sup 1}P{sup o} transition.

  18. Development of a linear-type double reflectron for focused imaging of photofragment ions from mass-selected complex ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okutsu, Kenichi; Nakashima, Yuji; Yamazaki, Kenichiro; Fujimoto, Keita; Nakano, Motoyoshi; Ohshimo, Keijiro; Misaizu, Fuminori

    2017-05-01

    An ion imaging apparatus with a double linear reflectron mass spectrometer has been developed, in order to measure velocity and angular distributions of mass-analyzed fragment ions produced by photodissociation of mass-selected gas phase complex ions. The 1st and the 2nd linear reflectrons were placed facing each other and controlled by high-voltage pulses in order to perform the mass-separation of precursor ions in the 1st reflectron and to observe the focused image of the photofragment ions in the 2nd reflectron. For this purpose, metal meshes were attached on all electrodes in the 1st reflectron, whereas the mesh was attached only on the last electrode in the 2nd reflectron. The performance of this apparatus was evaluated using imaging measurement of Ca+ photofragment ions from photodissociation reaction of Ca+Ar complex ions at 355 nm photoexcitation. The focused ion images were obtained experimentally with the double linear reflectron at the voltages of the reflection electrodes close to the predictions by ion trajectory simulations. The velocity and angular distributions of the produced Ca+ ([Ar] 4p1, 2P3/2) ion were analyzed from the observed images. The binding energy D0 of Ca+Ar in the ground state deduced in the present measurement was consistent with those determined theoretically and by spectroscopic measurements. The anisotropy parameter β of the transition was evaluated for the first time by this instrument.

  19. Hyperfine polarization and its normal gradient coefficient of (87)Rb atoms in the vicinity (approximately 10(-5) cm) of coated and uncoated Pyrex glass surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, K; Wu, Z

    2003-09-12

    We have made regionally specific measurement of the hyperfine polarization of 87Rb atoms in the vicinity ( approximately 10(-5) cm) of coated and uncoated Pyrex glass surfaces. We find that the polarization near an uncoated surface decreases rapidly with decreasing distance from the surface whereas for a silicone-coated surface the polarization is independent of the distance from the surface. We have also determined the normal gradient coefficient micro (S.I) of the hyperfine polarization in uncoated cells. In a representative uncoated cell, at a Rb density 7.35 x 10(13) cm(-3) and a pump beam intensity 1.3 W/cm(2), we find micro(S.I)=24+/-7 microm(-1).

  20. Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization.

    PubMed

    Strelkov, V V; Gonoskov, A A; Gonoskov, I A; Ryabikin, M Yu

    2011-07-22

    We investigate numerically and analytically the polarization properties of high-order harmonics generated by an atom in intense elliptically polarized laser field. The offset angle of the harmonic polarization ellipse can be well described with the semiclassic "simple-man" high-harmonic generation model. The harmonic ellipticity itself, however, can be hardly understood within this model. We show that this ellipticity originates from quantum-mechanical uncertainty of the electron motion. We develop a theoretical approach describing this ellipticity and, more generally, the time evolution of the high-harmonic polarization state within the laser cycle. The analytical results are verified with the exact numerical solution; to make the comparison accurately, we develop a specific technique for separating the contributions of quantum paths in the numerical calculation.

  1. Atomic resolution tomography reconstruction of tilt series based on a GPU accelerated hybrid input-output algorithm using polar Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiangwen; Gao, Wenpei; Zuo, Jian-Min; Yuan, Jiabin

    2015-02-01

    Advances in diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have greatly improved the prospect of three-dimensional (3D) structure reconstruction from two-dimensional (2D) images or diffraction patterns recorded in a tilt series at atomic resolution. Here, we report a new graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated iterative transformation algorithm (ITA) based on polar fast Fourier transform for reconstructing 3D structure from 2D diffraction patterns. The algorithm also applies to image tilt series by calculating diffraction patterns from the recorded images using the projection-slice theorem. A gold icosahedral nanoparticle of 309 atoms is used as the model to test the feasibility, performance and robustness of the developed algorithm using simulations. Atomic resolution in 3D is achieved for the 309 atoms Au nanoparticle using 75 diffraction patterns covering 150° rotation. The capability demonstrated here provides an opportunity to uncover the 3D structure of small objects of nanometers in size by electron diffraction.

  2. Polarization and bonding of the intrinsic characteristic contours of hydrogen and fluorine atoms of forming a hydrogen fluoride molecule based on an ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Zhao, Dong-Xia; Wu, Yang

    2004-08-01

    The spatial changing feature of the shapes and sizes of the system consisted of one hydrogen atom and one fluorine atom of forming a hydrogen fluoride molecule is investigated. We give formalism of the potential acting on an electron in a molecule and derive its concrete expression in Hartree-Fock self-consistent molecular orbital theory including configuration interaction. The program of calculating the potential acting on an electron in a molecule is programmed and compiled in the framework of the MELD program package. We formulate briefly the approach of the molecular intrinsic characteristic contour (MICC) which is defined in terms of the classical turning points of electronic motion. The MICC for a molecular system is intrinsic and can be calculated by means of an ab initio CI method. Then, the polarization and bonding features of the intrinsic characteristic contours of hydrogen and fluorine atoms forming a hydrogen fluoride molecule are presented and discussed from ab initio calculations. Furthermore, electron density distribution as an added dimension has been demonstrated on the changing MICC and thus the vivid polarization and bonding features for a chemical process have been shown. It seems that at the early stage (internuclear distance Ind=5.0-20.0 a.u.) the fluorine atom gives more enthusiastic with the sensitive and expanded polarization to welcome coupling with the hydrogen atom while the latter has little response even "shy" with shrinking a bit its size at the beginning of putting the two atoms into a system and it is only around the critical point, the contact point (Ind=4.73 a.u.), that both of them stretch their hands and arms to meet and then fuse together.

  3. VISIONS: Remote Observations of a Spatially-Structured Filamentary Source of Energetic Neutral Atoms near the Polar Cap Boundary During an Auroral Substorm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Chornay, D.; Clemmons, J.; Keller, J. W.; Klenzing, J.; Kujawski, J.; McLain, J.; Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Zettergren, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report initial results from the VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm (VISIONS) rocket that flew through and near several regions of enhanced auroral activity and also sensed regions of ion outflow both remotely and directly. The observed neutral atom fluxes were largest at the lower energies and generally higher in the auroral zone than in the polar cap. In this paper, we focus on data from the latter half of the VISIONS trajectory when the rocket traversed the polar cap region. During this period, many of the energetic neutral atom spectra show a peak at 100 electronvolts. Spectra with peaks around 100 electronvolts are also observed in the Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA) data consistent with these ions comprising the source population for the energetic neutral atoms. The EIA observations of this low energy population extend only over a few tens of kilometers. Furthermore, the directionality of the arriving energetic neutral atoms is consistent with either this spatially localized source of energetic ions extending from as low as about 300 kilometers up to above 600 kilometers or a larger source of energetic ions to the southwest.

  4. VISIONS: Remote Observations of a Spatially-Structured Filamentary Source of Energetic Neutral Atoms near the Polar Cap Boundary During an Auroral Substorm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Chornay, D.; Clemmons, J.; Keller, J. W.; Klenzing, J.; Kujawski, J.; McLain, J.; Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Zettergren, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report initial results from the VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm (VISIONS) rocket that flew through and near several regions of enhanced auroral activity and also sensed regions of ion outflow both remotely and directly. The observed neutral atom fluxes were largest at the lower energies and generally higher in the auroral zone than in the polar cap. In this paper, we focus on data from the latter half of the VISIONS trajectory when the rocket traversed the polar cap region. During this period, many of the energetic neutral atom spectra show a peak at 100 electronvolts. Spectra with peaks around 100 electronvolts are also observed in the Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA) data consistent with these ions comprising the source population for the energetic neutral atoms. The EIA observations of this low energy population extend only over a few tens of kilometers. Furthermore, the directionality of the arriving energetic neutral atoms is consistent with either this spatially localized source of energetic ions extending from as low as about 300 kilometers up to above 600 kilometers or a larger source of energetic ions to the southwest.

  5. Dual Species Noble Gas Nuclear Spin Polarizer for a New Search for the Atomic EDM of Xe-129 at FRM-II (Munich Research Reactor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Jared; Coulter, Daniel; Frisbie, Dustin; Fromm, Steven; Huneau, Jake; Rabga, Tenzin; Underwood, Walter; Singh, Jaideep; Fierlinger, Peter; Kraegeloh, Eva; Kuchler, Florian; Lins, Tobias; Marino, Mike; Meinel, Jonas; Neissen, Benjamin; Stuiber, Stefan; Fan, Isaac; Kilian, Wolfgang; Knappe-Gruenberg, Silvia; Trahms, Lutz; Chupp, Tim; Degenkolb, Skyler; Sachdeva, Natasha; Gong, Fei; Babcock, Earl; Fierlinger Group Team; Chupp Laboratory Team; Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Collaboration; Juelich CenterNeutron Science Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Electric dipole moments are believed to be very sensitive probes of CP violation beyond the Standard Model. A new search for the atomic electric dipole moment of Xe-129 is currently underway at FRM-II in Munich. Our technique takes advantage of a state of the art magnetically shielded room, ultra-sensitive magnetometry using SQUIDs, and control of systematics using a He-3 co-magnetometer. Our goal is an order of magnitude improvement over the previous Xe-129 atomic EDM limit. We will describe the design and construction of a noble gas polarizer using spectrally-narrow diode lasers. Technische Universitaet Muenchen.

  6. Master equation theory applied to the redistribution of polarized radiation in the weak radiation field limit. III. Theory for the multilevel atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommier, Véronique

    2016-06-01

    Context. We discuss the case of lines formed by scattering, which comprises both coherent and incoherent scattering. Both processes contribute to form the line profiles in the so-called second solar spectrum, which is the spectrum of the linear polarization of such lines observed close to the solar limb. However, most of the lines cannot be simply modeled with a two-level or two-term atom model, and we present a generalized formalism for this purpose. Aims: The aim is to obtain a formalism that is able to describe scattering in line centers (resonant scattering or incoherent scattering) and in far wings (Rayleigh/Raman scattering or coherent scattering) for a multilevel and multiline atom. Methods: The method is designed to overcome the Markov approximation, which is often performed in the atom-photon interaction description. The method was already presented in the two first papers of this series, but the final equations of those papers were for a two-level atom. Results: We present here the final equations generalized for the multilevel and multiline atom. We describe the main steps of the theoretical development, and, in particular, how we performed the series development to overcome the Markov approximation. Conclusions: The statistical equilibrium equations for the atomic density matrix and the radiative transfer equation coefficients are obtained with line profiles. The Doppler redistribution is also taken into account because we show that the statistical equilibrium equations must be solved for each atomic velocity class.

  7. Indium segregation in N-polar InGaN quantum wells evidenced by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonef, Bastien; Catalano, Massimo; Lund, Cory; Denbaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji; Mishra, Umesh K.; Kim, Moon J.; Keller, Stacia

    2017-04-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) in scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography are used to characterize N-polar InGaN/GaN quantum wells at the nanometer scale. Both techniques first evidence the incorporation of indium in the initial stage of the barrier layer growth and its suppression by the introduction of H2 during the growth of the barrier layer. Accumulation of indium at step edges on the vicinal N-polar surface is also observed by both techniques with an accurate quantification obtained by atom probe tomography (APT) and its 3D reconstruction ability. The use of EDX allows for a very accurate interpretation of the APT results complementing the limitations of both techniques.

  8. Investigation of the reaction of hydroxy and carbon monoxide to form hydrogen and carbon dioxide by Photoelectron-Photofragment Coincidence spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion beam trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher Joseph

    2011-12-01

    The HOCO radical plays a crucial role in a wide variety of chemical processes, including atmospheric CO2 regulation and combustion chemistry, as an intermediate in the elementary reaction OH + CO → H + CO2 . However, scant information exists on this species due to the difficulties in studying it. Previous photoelectron-photofragment coincidence (PPC) studies performed in this laboratory have identified key processes occurring on the HOCO potential energy surface, but are complicated by the presence of internal excitation in the precursor anions, leading to uncertainties in product energies and dynamics. To address this, a new instrument has been constructed which incorporates a cryogenically cooled linear electrostatic storage device, providing a cold source of anions for dissociative photodetachment studies by PPC spectroscopy. The enhanced resolution and well-characterized energetics provided by this instrument have allowed the fundamental energetics and processes occurring on the HOCO potential energy surface to be studied in unprecedented detail. New data shows unambiguous confirmation of the presence of tunneling in the reaction HOCO → H + CO2. Careful study of this product channel has led to the generation a model one-dimensional potential barrier describing this process directly from experimental tunneling data, and tunneling lifetimes over a range of relevant internal energies to be predicted. High resolution photodetachment experiments provide a reassignment of the electron affinities of both cis- and trans-HOCO and the determination of several normal mode frequencies not previously measured in the gas phase, each with the support of high-level ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Further details on the previously-unknown isomer well depths and the process of isomerization have been extracted using this information. Finally, nonresonant two-photon photodetachment studies of NO2 -, a species with striking electronic structure similarities to HOCO

  9. Ultra-wideband, Wide Angle and Polarization-insensitive Specular Reflection Reduction by Metasurface based on Parameter-adjustable Meta-Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jianxun; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zengrui; (Lamar) Yang, Yaoqing; Che, Yongxing; Qi, Kainan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized for suppressing the specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section (RCS). Square ring structure is chosen as the basic meta-atoms. A new physical mechanism based on size adjustment of the basic meta-atoms is proposed for ultra-wideband manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves. Based on hybrid array pattern synthesis (APS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the selection and distribution of the basic meta-atoms are optimized simultaneously to obtain the ultra-wideband diffusion scattering patterns. The metasurface can achieve an excellent RCS reduction in an ultra-wide frequency range under x- and y-polarized normal incidences. The new proposed mechanism greatly extends the bandwidth of RCS reduction. The simulation and experiment results show the metasurface can achieve ultra-wideband and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction for both normal and wide-angle incidences. The proposed methodology opens up a new route for realizing ultra-wideband diffusion scattering of EM wave, which is important for stealth and other microwave applications in the future.

  10. Ultra-wideband, Wide Angle and Polarization-insensitive Specular Reflection Reduction by Metasurface based on Parameter-adjustable Meta-Atoms.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianxun; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zengrui; Lamar Yang, Yaoqing; Che, Yongxing; Qi, Kainan

    2017-02-09

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized for suppressing the specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section (RCS). Square ring structure is chosen as the basic meta-atoms. A new physical mechanism based on size adjustment of the basic meta-atoms is proposed for ultra-wideband manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves. Based on hybrid array pattern synthesis (APS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the selection and distribution of the basic meta-atoms are optimized simultaneously to obtain the ultra-wideband diffusion scattering patterns. The metasurface can achieve an excellent RCS reduction in an ultra-wide frequency range under x- and y-polarized normal incidences. The new proposed mechanism greatly extends the bandwidth of RCS reduction. The simulation and experiment results show the metasurface can achieve ultra-wideband and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction for both normal and wide-angle incidences. The proposed methodology opens up a new route for realizing ultra-wideband diffusion scattering of EM wave, which is important for stealth and other microwave applications in the future.

  11. Ultra-wideband, Wide Angle and Polarization-insensitive Specular Reflection Reduction by Metasurface based on Parameter-adjustable Meta-Atoms

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jianxun; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zengrui; (Lamar) Yang, Yaoqing; Che, Yongxing; Qi, Kainan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized for suppressing the specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section (RCS). Square ring structure is chosen as the basic meta-atoms. A new physical mechanism based on size adjustment of the basic meta-atoms is proposed for ultra-wideband manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves. Based on hybrid array pattern synthesis (APS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the selection and distribution of the basic meta-atoms are optimized simultaneously to obtain the ultra-wideband diffusion scattering patterns. The metasurface can achieve an excellent RCS reduction in an ultra-wide frequency range under x- and y-polarized normal incidences. The new proposed mechanism greatly extends the bandwidth of RCS reduction. The simulation and experiment results show the metasurface can achieve ultra-wideband and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction for both normal and wide-angle incidences. The proposed methodology opens up a new route for realizing ultra-wideband diffusion scattering of EM wave, which is important for stealth and other microwave applications in the future. PMID:28181593

  12. Polarization of Lyman-Alpha Radiation from Atomic Hydrogen Excited by Electron Impact form Near Threshold to 1800 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. K.; Slevin, J. A.; Dziczek, D.; McConkey, J. W.; Bray, Igor

    1998-01-01

    The polarization of Lyman-a radiation, produced by electron-impact excitation of atomic hydrogen, has been measured over the extended energy range from near threshold to 1800 eV. Measurements were obtained in a crossed-beam experiment using a silica-reflection linear polarization analyzer in tandem with a vacuum-ultraviolet monochromator to isolate the emitted line radiation. Comparison with various theoretical calculations shows that the present experimental results are in good agreement with theory over the entire range of electron-impact energies and, in particular, are in excellent agreement with theoretical convergent-close-coupling (CCC) calculations performed in the present work. Our polarization data are significantly different from the previous experimental measurements of Ott, Kauppila, and Fite.

  13. The effect of atomic structure on interface spin-polarization of half-metallic spin valves: Co{sub 2}MnSi/Ag epitaxial interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nedelkoski, Zlatko; Hasnip, Philip J.; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Higgins, Edward; Lazarov, Vlado K.; Sanchez, Ana M.; Bell, Gavin R.; Oogane, Mikihiko; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2015-11-23

    Using density functional theory calculations motivated by aberration-corrected electron microscopy, we show how the atomic structure of a fully epitaxial Co{sub 2}MnSi/Ag interfaces controls the local spin-polarization. The calculations show clear difference in spin-polarization at Fermi level between the two main types: bulk-like terminated Co/Ag and Mn-Si/Ag interfaces. Co/Ag interface spin-polarization switches sign from positive to negative, while in the case of Mn-Si/Ag, it is still positive but reduced. Cross-sectional atomic structure analysis of Co{sub 2}MnSi/Ag interface, part of a spin-valve device, shows that the interface is determined by an additional layer of either Co or Mn. The presence of an additional Mn layer induces weak inverse spin-polarisation (−7%), while additional Co layer makes the interface region strongly inversely spin-polarized (−73%). In addition, we show that Ag diffusion from the spacer into the Co{sub 2}MnSi electrode does not have a significant effect on the overall Co{sub 2}MnSi /Ag performance.

  14. Photofragment slice imaging studies of pyrrole and the Xe⋯pyrrole cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Lago, L.; Zaouris, D.; Sakellariou, Y.; Sofikitis, D.; Kitsopoulos, T. N.; Wang, F.; Yang, X.; Cronin, B.; Devine, A. L.; King, G. A.; Nix, M. G. D.; Ashfold, M. N. R.; Xantheas, S. S.

    2007-08-01

    The photolysis of pyrrole has been studied in a molecular beam at wavelengths of 250, 240, and 193.3nm, using two different carrier gases, He and Xe. A broad bimodal distribution of H-atom fragment velocities has been observed at all wavelengths. Near threshold at both 240 and 250nm, sharp features have been observed in the fast part of the H-atom distribution. Under appropriate molecular beam conditions, the entire H-atom lo iable index in order to predict the changes in the highest occupied molecular orbital eigenvalue due to doping.

  15. Control of electronic magnetic state population via light polarization in the 5p 3/2 \\rightarrow 6p 3/2 electric quadrupole transition in atomic rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojica-Casique, C.; Ponciano-Ojeda, F.; Hernández-Gómez, S.; López-Hernández, O.; Flores-Mijangos, J.; Ramírez-Martínez, F.; Sahagún, D.; Jáuregui, R.; Jiménez-Mier, J.

    2017-01-01

    Doppler-free optical double-resonance spectroscopy is used to study the 5{s}1/2\\to 5{p}3/2\\to 6{p}3/2 excitation sequence in room-temperature rubidium atoms. This involves a 5{s}1/2\\to 5{p}3/2 electric dipole preparation step followed by the 5{p}3/2\\to 6{p}3/2 electric quadrupole excitation. A detailed experimental and theoretical study of the dependance on the excitation beams polarization from the 420 nm decay fluorescence (6{p}3/2\\to 5{s}1/2) is presented. When a circularly polarized preparation beam is used, it produces a strongly oriented 5{p}3/2 intermediate state. In this case a linear quadrupole excitation beam transfers the oriented state to the 6{p}3/2 hyperfine states. For linearly polarized preparation and quadrupole excitation beams the spectra of the 6{p}3/2 hyperfine lines follow a cosine squared dependence on the angle between the polarization directions. As a consequence, it is shown that the choice of polarization configuration allows direct use of the electric quadrupole transition selection rules to control the populations of the 6{p}3/2 hyperfine magnetic sublevels in the absence of external fields. This is achieved by independently enhancing or suppressing either {{Δ }}{M}F=+/- 1 or ±2 electric quadrupole transitions.

  16. Atomic-scale observation of a graded polar discontinuity and a localized two-dimensional electron density at an insulating oxide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.-P.; Lin, J. G.; Jeng, H. T.; Cheng, S.-L.; Pong, W. F.; Shao, Y. C.; Chin, Y. Y.; Lin, H.-J.; Chen, C. W.; Yang, J.-R.; Chen, C. H.; Chu, M.-W.

    2013-02-01

    Using atomically resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, the atomic-plane-by-atomic-plane, unit-cell-by-unit-cell stoichiometry, and charge characteristics of the oxide interface (Nd0.35Sr0.65)MnO3/SrTiO3, with a primitive polar discontinuity of (Nd0.35Sr0.65O)0.35+-(TiO2)0, were thoroughly investigated. (Nd0.35Sr0.65)MnO3 is a strongly correlated insulator and the interface was characterized to be insulating. The cell-specific stoichiometric evaluation unveiled an extensive interdiffusion across the interface. The plane-specific charge characterization revealed that the interdiffusion grades the primitive polar discontinuity. Despite the graded polar discontinuity, a charge transfer inversely into (Nd0.35Sr0.65)MnO3 was firmly resolved with a length scale of ˜2 nm and a charge density on the order of ˜1013/cm2 and is effectively mediated by an asymmetric Ti interdiffusion. The intricate electronic correlations of the interfacial (Nd0.35Sr0.65)MnO3 unit cells and the interdiffusion-induced chemical disorder tend to render the charges localized, resulting in a localized two-dimensional electron density and thus the insulating interface, in distinct contrast to the conventional understanding of a vanishing charge density for an insulating interface and the metallic two-dimensional electron gas found at other classical polar-discontinuous interface systems. A potential strain manipulation on the electronic localization of the electron density was also proposed.

  17. The influence of higher spatial harmonics of atomic polarization on the saturated absorption resonance upon excitation of open dipole transitions by a field of counterpropagating waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhnikov, D. V.; Novokreshchenov, A. S.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of a double structure of saturated absorption resonance in the field of counterpropagating light waves interacting with an atomic gas is studied. The experimental observation of this effect was first reported in 2011 in a work by our colleagues at the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Laboratory of Frequency Standards). The essence of the effect lies in the fact that, on exciting an open dipole transition, another, narrower, resonance of an opposite sign can be observed at the center of the ordinary saturated absorption resonance. A theoretical analysis of this effect has also been performed in this work in terms of a simple spectroscopic model of an atom with two nondegenerate energy levels without taking into account higher spatial harmonics of atomic polarization and polarizations of light waves (scalar model). The present work is devoted to the development of a theory of the formation of a central narrow resonance for the example of a real F g = 1 → F e = 1 atomic transition and to the study of its main characteristics (amplitude, width, contrast, and amplitude-to-width ratio). In addition, the theoretical results obtained without taking into account the influence of higher spatial harmonics and with inclusion of the influence of first higher harmonics are compared. This comparison shows that their influence on the parameters of the new nonlinear resonance is strong even in moderately intense light fields ( R γ, where R is the Rabi frequency). The results of this study can be of interest for quantum metrology, as well as for many experiments in which the laser-radiation frequency is stabilized by the saturated absorption resonance on open dipole transitions in atoms and molecules.

  18. An analysis of the effects of semicore polarization on the dielectric and electronic structure properties of closed shell atoms, molecules and solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Amandeep

    Understanding the effect of semicore polarization is crucial in order to get a good description of the dielectric properties and electronic structure of several systems. We study the effect of semicore polarization by employing several core-valence partitions in the description of the pseudopotentials (PPs). We propose a new approach to identifying and rationalizing the contribution of core electron polarization to the dielectric screening, based on ab initio calculations of the dielectric matrix in its eigenpotential basis. We also present calculations of phonon frequencies, dielectric constants, electronic band structures, Born-effective charges and quasi-particle energies of several systems, and we discuss the quantitative effect of including core polarization. One of our findings illustrate the need to include semicore electrons in the valence to accurately describe electronic structure properties for some systems. Another of our findings also illustrate efficient ways of approximating the spectral decomposition of dielectric matrices used, e.g., in many-body perturbation theory and dielectric constant calculations, with substantial computational gains for large systems composed of heavy atoms.

  19. Spin-polarization study of CO molecules adsorbed on Fe(110) using metastable-atom deexcitation spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Förster, S.; Li, Q. X.; Kurahashi, M.; Suzuki, T.; Zhang, J. W.; Yamauchi, Y.; Baum, G.; Steidl, H.

    2007-01-01

    The spin-resolved electronic states of CO molecules adsorbed on Fe(110) surfaces are investigated using spin-polarized metastable-atom deexcitation spectroscopy (SPMDS) measurements and first-principles calculation. The existence of the adsorbate-induced 2π* state, which is partially filled by electron backdonation, is detected directly by SPMDS and reproduced by the calculation of local density of states and subtracted densities. Positive spin asymmetries for 4σ , 5σ/1π , and 2π* peaks observed in SPMDS spectra are well described by the calculated spin density and plane-averaged density of states, which indicate negative-spin polarization towards vacuum side even at the low CO coverage.

  20. Spin Polarization of Rb and Cs n p P2 3/2 (n =5 , 6) Atoms by Circularly Polarized Photoexcitation of a Transient Diatomic Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A. E.; Hewitt, J. D.; Eden, J. G.

    2017-03-01

    We report the selective population of Rb or Cs n p P2 3/2 (n =5 , 6; F =4 , 5) hyperfine states by the photodissociation of a transient, alkali-rare gas diatomic molecule. Circularly polarized (σ-), amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) on the D2 line of Rb or Cs (780.0 and 852.1 nm, respectively) is generated when Rb-Xe or Cs-Xe ground state collision pairs are photoexcited by a σ+-polarized optical field having a wavelength within the D2 blue satellite continuum, associated with the B Σ2 1/2 +←X Σ2 1/2 + (free←free ) transition of the diatomic molecule. The degree of spin polarization of Cs (6 p P3/2 2 ), specifically, is found to be dependent on the interatomic distance (R ) at which the excited complex is born, a result attributed to the structure of the B Σ2 1/2 + state. For Cs-Xe atomic pairs, tuning the wavelength of the optical field from 843 to 848 nm varies the degree of circular polarization of the ASE from 63% to almost unity because of the perturbation, in the 5 ≤R ≤6 Å interval, of the Σ2 1/2 + potential by a d σ molecular orbital associated with a higher Λ 2 electronic state. Monitoring only the Cs 6 p P3/2 2 spin polarization reveals a previously unobserved interaction of CsXe (B Σ2 1/2 + ) with the lowest vibrational levels of a Λ 2 state derived from Cs (5 d )+Xe . By inserting a molecular intermediate into the alkali atom excitation mechanism, these experiments realize electronic spin polarization through populating no more than two n p P2 3/2 hyperfine states, and demonstrate a sensitive spectroscopic

  1. The antiphase boundary in half-metallic Heusler alloy Co2Fe(Al,Si): atomic structure, spin polarization reversal, and domain wall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelkoski, Zlatko; Sanchez, Ana M.; Ghasemi, Arsham; Hamaya, Kohei; Evans, Richard F. L.; Bell, Gavin R.; Hirohata, Atsufumi; Lazarov, Vlado K.

    2016-11-01

    Atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of an antiphase boundary in the half-metallic Co2Fe(Al,Si) full Heusler alloy. By employing the density functional theory calculations, we show that this defect leads to reversal of the sign of the spin-polarization in the vicinity of the defect. In addition, we show that this defect reduces the strength of the exchange interactions, without changing the ferromagnetic ordering across the boundary. Atomistic spin calculations predict that this effect reduces the width of the magnetic domain wall compared to that in the bulk.

  2. International Symposium on Correlation and Polarization in Electron-Atom Collisions Held in Pasadena, California on 1-2 August 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-02

    Collisions With Heavy Atoms 12:15 - 1:30 LUNCH 1:30 - 2:10 p.m. 0. Berger, University of Munster ’Elastic Scattering of Polarized Electrons From Mercury ...scattering of electrons from Hg and Pb. /I/ G.F. Hanne, Comments At. Mol. Phys. 14 (1983) 163 4 ELASTIC SCATTERING OF POLARISED ELECTRONS FROM MERCURY ...parameters S, T and U has been measured at various fixed Lnergies between 25 eV and 350 eV for mercury and xenon. The polarised electrons are produced

  3. Atomic Description of the Interface between Silica and Alumina in Aluminosilicates through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface-Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy and First-Principles Calculations.

    PubMed

    Valla, Maxence; Rossini, Aaron J; Caillot, Maxime; Chizallet, Céline; Raybaud, Pascal; Digne, Mathieu; Chaumonnot, Alexandra; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Copéret, Christophe

    2015-08-26

    Despite the widespread use of amorphous aluminosilicates (ASA) in various industrial catalysts, the nature of the interface between silica and alumina and the atomic structure of the catalytically active sites are still subject to debate. Here, by the use of dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy (DNP SENS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we show that on silica and alumina surfaces, molecular aluminum and silicon precursors are, respectively, preferentially grafted on sites that enable the formation of Al(IV) and Si(IV) interfacial sites. We also link the genesis of Brønsted acidity to the surface coverage of aluminum and silicon on silica and alumina, respectively.

  4. Effect of atomic vibrations in XANES: polarization-dependent damping of the fine structure at the Cu K-edge of (creat)2CuCl4.

    PubMed

    Šipr, Ondřej; Vackář, Jiří; Kuzmin, Alexei

    2016-11-01

    Polarization-dependent damping of the fine structure in the Cu K-edge spectrum of creatinium tetrachlorocuprate [(creat)2CuCl4] in the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) region is shown to be due to atomic vibrations. These vibrations can be separated into two groups, depending on whether the respective atoms belong to the same molecular block; individual molecular blocks can be treated as semi-rigid entities while the mutual positions of these blocks are subject to large mean relative displacements. The effect of vibrations can be efficiently included in XANES calculations by using the same formula as for static systems but with a modified free-electron propagator which accounts for fluctuations in interatomic distances.

  5. Circularly polarized high harmonics generated by a bicircular field from inert atomic gases in the p state: A tool for exploring chirality-sensitive processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    S -matrix theory of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) is generalized to multielectron atoms. In the multielectron case the harmonic power is expressed via a coherent sum of the time-dependent dipoles, while for the one-electron models a corresponding incoherent sum appears. This difference is important for the inert atomic gases having a p ground state as used in a recent HHG experiment with a bicircular field [Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015), 10.1038/nphoton.2014.293]. We investigate HHG by such a bicircular field, which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields of frequency r ω and s ω . Selection rules for HHG by a bicircular field are analyzed from the aspects of dynamical symmetry of the system, conservation of the projection of the angular momentum on a fixed quantization axis, and the quantum number of the initial and final atomic ground states. A distinction is made between the selection rules for atoms with closed [J. Phys. B 48, 171001 (2015), 10.1088/0953-4075/48/17/171001] and nonclosed shells. An asymmetry in emission of the left- and right-circularly polarized harmonics is found and explained by using a semiclassical model and the electron probability currents which are related to a nonzero magnetic quantum number. This asymmetry can be important for the application of such harmonics to the exploration of chirality-sensitive processes and for generation of elliptic or even circular attosecond pulse trains. Such attosecond pulse trains are analyzed for longer wavelengths than in Opt. Lett. 40, 2381 (2015), 10.1364/OL.40.002381, and for various field-component intensities.

  6. Production of Excited Atomic Hydrogen and Deuterium from H2 and D2 Photodissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, T. J.; Bozek, J. D.; Furst, J. E.; Gould, H.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Machacek, J. R.; Martin, F.; McLaughlin, K. W.; Sanz-Vicario, J. L.

    2007-06-01

    We have measured the production of both Lyα and Hα fluorescence from atomic H and D for the photodissociation of H2 and D2 by linearly-polarized photons with energies between 24 and 60 eV. In this energy range, excited photofragments result primarily from the production of doubly-excited molecular species which promptly autoionize or dissociate into two neutrals. Our data are compared with ab initio calculations of the dissociation process, in which both doubly-excited state production and prompt ionization through non-resonant channels are considered. Agreement between our experimental data and that of earlier work [1], and with our theoretical calculations, is qualitative at best. [1] E.Melero Garc'ia, J.'Alvarez Ruiz, S.Menmuir, E.Rachlew, P.Erman, A.Kivim"aki, M.Glass-Maujean, R.Richter, and M.Coreno, J.Phys.B 39, 205 (2006). Support provided by the NSF (Grant PHY-0354946), DOE (LBNL/ALS) and ANSTO (Access to Major Research Facilities Programme).

  7. Signatures of a conical intersection in photofragment distributions and absorption spectra: Photodissociation in the Hartley band of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2014-08-21

    Photodissociation of ozone in the near UV is studied quantum mechanically in two excited electronic states coupled at a conical intersection located outside the Franck-Condon zone. The calculations, performed using recent ab initio PESs, provide an accurate description of the photodissociation dynamics across the Hartley/Huggins absorption bands. The observed photofragment distributions are reproduced in the two electronic dissociation channels. The room temperature absorption spectrum, constructed as a Boltzmann average of many absorption spectra of rotationally excited parent ozone, agrees with experiment in terms of widths and intensities of diffuse structures. The exit channel conical intersection contributes to the coherent broadening of the absorption spectrum and directly affects the product vibrational and translational distributions. The photon energy dependences of these distributions are strikingly different for fragments created along the adiabatic and the diabatic paths through the intersection. They can be used to reverse engineer the most probable geometry of the non-adiabatic transition. The angular distributions, quantified in terms of the anisotropy parameter β, are substantially different in the two channels due to a strong anticorrelation between β and the rotational angular momentum of the fragment O{sub 2}.

  8. Measuring the Quenching of no Fluorescence Produced from the Excitation of Photo-Fragmented Nitrobenzene Using a Picosecond Laser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, Christopher J.; Tanjaroon, Chakree; Johnson, J. Bruce; Reeve, Scott W.; Allen, Susan D.

    2013-06-01

    The military is interested in using spectroscopic methods to detect nitroaromatic compounds related to explosives. Upon absorption of a UV photon, nitrobenzene can dissociate into C_6H_5O and NO. Wynn, et al. have shown that looking at NO fluorescence from the photodissociated nitrobenzene could be a possible detection method. However, the fluorescence can easily be quenched by molecular oxygen and other constituents in air. We have measured fluorescence lifetimes of the nascent NO resulting from photo-fragmented nitrobenzene using a pulsed picosecond tunable laser (pulse width ≈15 ps) by means of a two-color process. In the two-color process, photons of a particular energy dissociated the nitrobenzene while photons of a different energy probed the A^2Σ^+← X^2Π_{(1/2,3/2)} NO band system between 225-260 nm. We have performed the measurements with different background pressures of He, N_2, and air. We present the results of these measurements which indicate considerable quenching of the NO fluorescence due to oxygen. Wynn, C. M.; Palmacci, S.; Kunz, R. R.; and Rothschild, M.Opt. Express, OSA, 2010, 18, 5399-5406

  9. Intermediate photofragment distributions as probes of non-adiabatic dynamics at conical intersections: application to the Hartley band of ozone.

    PubMed

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu

    2015-11-21

    Quantum dynamics at a reactive two-state conical intersection lying outside the Franck-Condon zone is studied for a prototypical reaction of ultraviolet photodissociation of ozone in the Hartley band. The focus is on the vibrational distributions in the two electronic states at intermediate interfragment distances near the intersection. Such intermediate distributions of strongly interacting photofragments contain unique information on the location and shape of the conical intersection. Multidimensional Landau-Zener modeling provides a framework to reverse engineer the molecular geometry-dependent Massey parameter of the intersection from the intermediate distributions. The conceptual approach is demonstrated for the intermediate O-O bond stretch distributions which become strongly inverted on adiabatic passage through the intersection. It is further demonstrated that intermediate distributions can be reconstructed from the photoemission spectrum of the dissociating molecule. The illustration, given using quantum mechanical calculations of resonance Raman profiles for ozone, completes a practicable cycle of conversion of intermediate distributions into topographic features of the conical intersection.

  10. Internal energy dependence of the photodissociation dynamics of O3(-) using cryogenic photoelectron-photofragment coincidence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ben B; Benitez, Yanice; Lunny, Katharine G; Continetti, Robert E

    2017-09-07

    Photoelectron-photofragment coincidence (PPC) spectra of ozonide, O3(-), were measured at 388 nm (Ehν = 3.20 eV) using a newly constructed cryogenic octopole accumulation trap coupled to a PPC spectrometer. The photoelectron spectra reveal three processes consisting of a stable photodetachment channel, and two distinct photodissociation pathways yielding (1) O2 + O(-) or (2) O + O2(-). The first photodissociation pathway is observed in the PPC spectra by photodetachment of the O(-) product by a second photon, and produces electronically excited O2((1)Δg). The O2(-) product of the second photodissociation pathway undergoes autodetachment for O2(-)((2)Πg, v″ > 4), a process greatly enhanced by vibrational excitation of the precursor O3(-). Cooling anions thermalized at 300 K to <17 K in a cryogenic octopole accumulation trap essentially turns off this autodetachment pathway. The product kinetic energy distribution in coincidence with the autodetached electrons from O2(-)(v″ = 4) exhibits resolved features consistent with bend (ν2), asymmetric stretch (ν3) and a stretching combination band (ν1 + ν3) in the intermediate electronic state, illustrating the insights that can be gained from kinematically complete measurements. These results are discussed in the context of the low-lying excited states of O3(-).

  11. Atomic polarizabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, M. S.; Mitroy, J.; Clark, Charles W.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  12. Noncontact atomic force microscopy imaging of atomic structure and cation defects of the polar MgAl2O4 (100) surface: Experiments and first-principles simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Morten K.; Foster, Adam S.; Canova, Filippo F.; Hinnemann, Berit; Helveg, Stig; Meinander, Kristoffer; Besenbacher, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jeppe V.

    2011-12-01

    Atom-resolved noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) was recently used to reveal that the insulating spinel MgAl2O4(100) surface, when prepared under vacuum conditions, adopts a structurally well-defined Al and O-rich structure (Al4-O4-Al4 termination) consisting of alternating Al and double-O rows, which are, however, interrupted by defects identified as interchanged Mg in the surface layers (so-called antisite defects). From an interplay of futher NC-AFM experiments and first-principles NC-AFM image simulations, we present here a detailed analysis of the NC-AFM contrast on the MgAl2O4(100) surface. Experiments show that the contrast on MgAl2O4(100) in atom-resolved NC-AFM is dominated by two distinctly different types of contrast modes, reflecting two oppositely charged tip-apex terminations. In this paper, we analyze the contrast associated with these imaging modes and show that a positively charged tip-apex (presumably Mg2+) interacts most strongly with the oxygen atoms, thus imaging the oxygen lattice, whereas a negatively charged tip-apex (O2-) will reveal the cation sublattice on MgAl2O4. The analysis of force-vs-distance calculations for the two tips shows that this qualitative picture, developed in our previous study, holds for all realistic tip-surface imaging parameters, but the detailed resolution on the O double rows and Al rows changes as a function of tip-surface distance, which is also observed experimentally. We also provide an analysis of the tip dependency and tip-surface distance dependency for the NC-AFM contrast associated with single Al vacancies and Mg-Al antisite defects on the MgAl2O4(100) surface and show that it is possible on the basis of NC-AFM image simulations to discriminate between the Al3+ and Mg2+ species in antisite defects and hypothetical Al vacancies.

  13. Direct detection of atomic ions from molecular photofragmentation during nonresonant multiphoton ionization of sputtered species

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Burnett, J.W.; White, J.M.

    1993-09-01

    The photoionization of sputtered Cu, Al, and Ru atoms and dimers was investigated by measuring velocity distributions using both resonant and nonresonant photoionization. Nonresonant ionization produced an atomic distribution that peaked at the same velocity as the respective dimer distribution, indicating that virtually all the nonresonant atomic ion signal is from photofragmented dimers. Various mechanisms of dimer photofragmentation are discussed. Domination of the atomic photoion channel by molecule fragmentation appears to be a general phenomenon that must be accounted for in all gas-phase multiphoton nonresonant ionization experiments at easily achievable laser power densities ({le} 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}).

  14. Protecting a quantum memory for a photonic polarization qubit in a cold atomic ensemble by dynamical decoupling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuelong; Chen, Lirong; Xu, Zhongxiao; Wang, Hai

    2014-09-22

    We report an experimental demonstration of storage of photonic polarization qubit (PPQ) protected by dynamical decoupling (DD). PPQ's states are stored as a superposition of two spin waves by electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT). Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) DD sequences are applied to the spin-wave superposition to suppress its decoherence. Thus, the quantum process fidelity remains better than 0.8 for up to 800 μs storage time, which is 3.4-times longer than the corresponding storage time of ~180 μs without the CPMG sequences. This work is a key step towards the storage of single-photon polarization qubit protected by the CPMG sequences.

  15. Joule heating and spin-transfer torque investigated on the atomic scale using a spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope.

    PubMed

    Krause, S; Herzog, G; Schlenhoff, A; Sonntag, A; Wiesendanger, R

    2011-10-28

    The influence of a high spin-polarized tunnel current onto the switching behavior of a superparamagnetic nanoisland on a nonmagnetic substrate is investigated by means of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. A detailed lifetime analysis allows for a quantification of the effective temperature rise of the nanoisland and the modification of the activation energy barrier for magnetization reversal, thereby using the nanoisland as a local thermometer and spin-transfer torque analyzer. Both the Joule heating and spin-transfer torque are found to scale linearly with the tunnel current. The results are compared to experiments performed on lithographically fabricated magneto-tunnel junctions, revealing a very high spin-transfer torque switching efficiency in our experiments.

  16. Effects of nitrogen dopants on the atomic step kinetics and electronic structures of O-polar ZnO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhan, Huahan; Zhou, Yinghui; Wu, Yaping; Chen, Xiaohang; Wang, Huiqiong; Kang, Junyong

    2016-02-21

    Oxygen-polar ZnO films are grown in step flow mode by molecular beam epitaxy. Driven by the step flow anisotropy, the growth leads to the occurrence of specific hexagonal pits in the surface. The specific pits are formed by interlacing steps of the {10̄1̄4} facets, thus quenching the macroscopic dipole moment along the c-axis and satisfying the stabilization principles. Nitrogen (N) doping trials are then performed on the basis of the stable surface. In doping, growth remains in step flow mode but the step flow anisotropy vanishes, resulting in an obvious change of the surface morphology. Besides, a distinct acceptor state appears by in situ scanning tunneling spectroscopy analysis. First-principles calculations reveal that N readily substitutes for step-edge Zn and acts as NO2 adsorbed at the step edge. Desorption of the NO2 facilitates the formation of NO-VZn shallow acceptor complexes, which contributes to the appearance of the acceptor state. According to the peculiarities of N dopants on the O-polar surface, vicinal O-polar substrates (e.g., {10̄1̄4} substrate) are promising in ZnO : N due to the easily achieved step flow growth and high density of step edges for N incorporation.

  17. Ultracold photoassociative ionization collisions in an atomic beam: Optical field intensity and polarization dependence of the rate constant

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, C.; Napolitano, R.; Wang, Y.; Weiner, J. )

    1995-01-01

    We report here measurements of two-body photoassociative ionization collisions between sodium atoms within an ultranarrow velocity class selected from a well-collimated, thermal atomic beam. Doppler-shifted excitation of the Na(3[ital s] [sup 2][ital S][sub 1/2];[ital F]=1)[r arrow]Na(5[ital p] [sup 2][ital P][sub 3/2]) transition at 285 nm by a single-mode laser defines the narrow velocity class that subsequently populates the [ital F]=2 hyperfine level of the Na ground state by optical pumping. Probe laser beam excitation tuned near the Na(3[ital s] [sup 2][ital S][sub 1/2];[ital F]=2)[r arrow]Na(3[ital p] [sup 2][ital P][sub 3/2];[ital F]=3) transition produced photoassociative ionization with an average collision energy [ital E][sub [ital K

  18. Identification of Photofragments from One-Color Resonantly-Enhanced (˜{A}-˜{X}) Multi-Photon Photodissociation of Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Muthike, Angelar K.; Field, Robert W.

    2017-06-01

    One-color (212-220 nm) multi-photon photodissociation of acetylene, resonantly enhanced by the ˜{A}(S_1)-˜{X} transition, gives rise to strong photofragment fluorescence signals in the visible and near UV regions. In this work, fluorescence signals from the photofragments, generated with three intermediate S_1 levels (trans 3^4, trans 3^5, and cis 3^16^1), are studied, both in the flow cell and supersonic jet conditions. In the flow cell (˜3 torr), the dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectra of the photofragments are obtained. For all three S_1 levels, we observe C_2 Swan band (d^3Π_g-a^3Π_u) and C_2 Deslandres-d'Azambuja band (C^1Π_g-A^1Π_u) emissions, with the former approximately four times more intense than the latter. In the supersonic jet condition (collision-free), fluorescence time-traces at selected wavelength regions are analyzed. We confirm the presence of the two C_2 emission bands and their relative intensity observed in the DF spectra. In the supersonic jet condition, we also observe long lifetime visible fluorescence signal (>3 μs lifetime), which is likely due to emissions from C_2H fragment, based on previous vacuum UV photolysis studies of acetylene. The photodissociation mechanism is inferred, based on our analysis of the flow cell DF spectra and the fluorescence time-traces obtained in the supersonic jet condition. The C_2H fragment is likely generated from one-photon photodissociation of S_1 acetylene, and an additional photon dissociates the C_2H fragment into the C_2 C and d states.

  19. Removal of Chromophore-Proximal Polar Atoms Decreases Water Content and Increases Fluorescence in a Near Infrared Phytofluor.

    PubMed

    Lehtivuori, Heli; Bhattacharya, Shyamosree; Angenent-Mari, Nicolaas M; Satyshur, Kenneth A; Forest, Katrina T

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encoded fluorescent markers have revolutionized cell and molecular biology due to their biological compatibility, controllable spatiotemporal expression, and photostability. To achieve in vivo imaging in whole animals, longer excitation wavelength probes are needed due to the superior ability of near infrared light to penetrate tissues unimpeded by absorbance from biomolecules or autofluorescence of water. Derived from near infrared-absorbing bacteriophytochromes, phytofluors are engineered to fluoresce in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, although high quantum yield remains an elusive goal. An invariant aspartate residue is of utmost importance for photoconversion in native phytochromes, presumably due to the proximity of its backbone carbonyl to the pyrrole ring nitrogens of the biliverdin (BV) chromophore as well as the size and charge of the side chain. We hypothesized that the polar interaction network formed by the charged side chain may contribute to the decay of the excited state via proton transfer. Thus, we chose to further probe the role of this amino acid by removing all possibility for polar interactions with its carboxylate side chain by incorporating leucine instead. The resultant fluorescent protein, WiPhy2, maintains BV binding, monomeric status, and long maximum excitation wavelength while minimizing undesirable protoporphyrin IXα binding in cells. A crystal structure and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy reveal that water near the BV chromophore is excluded and thus validate our hypothesis that removal of polar interactions leads to enhanced fluorescence by increasing the lifetime of the excited state. This new phytofluor maintains its fluorescent properties over a broad pH range and does not suffer from photobleaching. WiPhy2 achieves the best compromise to date between high fluorescence quantum yield and long illumination wavelength in this class of fluorescent proteins.

  20. Atomic-level structure characterization of biomass pre- and post-lignin treatment by dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Perras, Frederic A.; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Ximing; Mosier, Nathan S.; Pruski, Marek; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M.

    2016-12-27

    Here, lignocellulosic biomass is a promising sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels, biomaterials, and biospecialty chemicals. However, efficient utilization of biomass has been limited by our poor understanding of its molecular structure. Here, we report a dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced solid-state (SS)NMR study of the molecular structure of biomass, both pre- and postcatalytic treatment. This technique enables the measurement of 2D homonuclear 13C–13C correlation SSNMR spectra under natural abundance, yielding, for the first time, an atomic-level picture of the structure of raw and catalytically treated biomass samples. We foresee that further such experiments could be used to determine structure–function relationships and facilitate the development of more efficient, and chemically targeted, biomass-conversion technologies.

  1. Atomic-Level Structure Characterization of Biomass Pre- and Post-Lignin Treatment by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization-Enhanced Solid-State NMR.

    PubMed

    Perras, Frédéric A; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Ximing; Mosier, Nathan S; Pruski, Marek; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2017-01-26

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels, biomaterials, and biospecialty chemicals. However, efficient utilization of biomass has been limited by our poor understanding of its molecular structure. Here, we report a dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced solid-state (SS)NMR study of the molecular structure of biomass, both pre- and postcatalytic treatment. This technique enables the measurement of 2D homonuclear (13)C-(13)C correlation SSNMR spectra under natural abundance, yielding, for the first time, an atomic-level picture of the structure of raw and catalytically treated biomass samples. We foresee that further such experiments could be used to determine structure-function relationships and facilitate the development of more efficient, and chemically targeted, biomass-conversion technologies.

  2. Atomic-level structure characterization of biomass pre- and post-lignin treatment by dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced solid-state NMR

    DOE PAGES

    Perras, Frederic A.; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Ximing; ...

    2016-12-27

    Here, lignocellulosic biomass is a promising sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels, biomaterials, and biospecialty chemicals. However, efficient utilization of biomass has been limited by our poor understanding of its molecular structure. Here, we report a dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced solid-state (SS)NMR study of the molecular structure of biomass, both pre- and postcatalytic treatment. This technique enables the measurement of 2D homonuclear 13C–13C correlation SSNMR spectra under natural abundance, yielding, for the first time, an atomic-level picture of the structure of raw and catalytically treated biomass samples. We foresee that further such experiments could be used to determine structure–functionmore » relationships and facilitate the development of more efficient, and chemically targeted, biomass-conversion technologies.« less

  3. Remote detected Low-Field MRI using an optically pumped atomic magnetometer combined with a liquid cooled pre-polarization coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilschenz, Ingo; Ito, Yosuke; Natsukawa, Hiroaki; Oida, Takenori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices are widely used in basic and clinical biomagnetic measurements such as low-field magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography primarily because they exhibit high sensitivity at low frequencies and have a wide bandwidth. The main disadvantage of these devices is that they require cryogenic coolants, which are rather expensive and not easily available. Meanwhile, with the advances in laser technology in the past few years, optically pumped atomic magnetometers (OPAMs) have been shown to be a good alternative as they can have adequate noise levels and are several millimeters in size, which makes them significantly easier to use. In this study, we used an OPAM module operating at a Larmor frequency of 5 kHz to acquire NMR and MRI signals. This study presents these initial results as well as our initial attempts at imaging using this OPAM module. In addition, we have designed a liquid-cooled pre-polarizing coil that reduces the measurement time significantly.

  4. Atomic Description of the Interface between Silica and Alumina in Aluminosilicates through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface-Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy and First-Principles Calculations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of amorphous aluminosilicates (ASA) in various industrial catalysts, the nature of the interface between silica and alumina and the atomic structure of the catalytically active sites are still subject to debate. Here, by the use of dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy (DNP SENS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we show that on silica and alumina surfaces, molecular aluminum and silicon precursors are, respectively, preferentially grafted on sites that enable the formation of Al(IV) and Si(IV) interfacial sites. We also link the genesis of Brønsted acidity to the surface coverage of aluminum and silicon on silica and alumina, respectively. PMID:26244620

  5. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution for atoms in strong few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiny, C. P. J.; Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2009-08-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a three-cycle circularly polarized laser pulse interacting with an atom. The photoelectron momentum distributions show counterintuitive shifts, similar to those observed in a recent experiment (Eckle et al 2008 Science 322 1525). The physical origin of the shifts is examined by a detailed investigation of the wave packet after the pulse. We show that the shifts arise as a consequence of an intimate interplay between the external field and the binding potential, and that the shifts occur also at lower intensities than used in the experiment, corresponding to the multiphoton regime. In contrast to the recent experiment we do not invoke the concept of a tunnelling time in our explanation of the shifts.

  6. Modeling the atomtronic analog of an optical polarizing beam splitter, a half-wave plate, and a quarter-wave plate for phonons of the motional state of two trapped atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, Naeimeh; Fani, Marjan; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Saeidian, Shahpoor

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we propose a scheme to model the phonon analog of optical elements, including a polarizing beam splitter, a half-wave plate, and a quarter-wave plate, as well as an implementation of cnot and Pauli gates, by using two atoms confined in a two-dimensional plane. The internal states of the atoms are taken to be Rydberg circular states. Using this model we can manipulate the motional state of the atom, with possible applications in optomechanical integrated circuits for quantum information processing and quantum simulation. Towards this aim, we consider two trapped atoms and let only one of them interact simultaneously with two circularly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

  7. Magnetically polarized Ir dopant atoms in superconducting Ba(Fe1−xIrx)2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, M.P.M.; Kim, M.G.; Kreyssig, A.; Kim, J.W.; Liu, X.; Ryan, P.J.; Thaler, A.; Budko, S.L.; Strassheim, W.; Canfield, P.C.; Hill, J.P.; Goldman, A.I.

    2012-04-25

    We investigate the magnetic polarization of the Ir 5d dopant states in the pnictide superconductor Ba(Fe1−xIrx)2As2 with x=0.027(2) using Ir L3 edge x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS). Despite the fact that doping partially suppresses the antiferromagnetic transition, we find that magnetic order survives around the Ir dopant sites. The Ir states are magnetically polarized with commensurate stripe-like antiferromagnetic order and long correlations lengths, ξmag>2800 and >850 Å, in the ab plane and along the c axis, respectively, driven by their interaction with the Fe spins. This Ir magnetic order persists up to the Néel transition of the majority Fe spins at TN=74(2) K. At 5 K we find that magnetic order coexists microscopically with superconductivity in Ba(Fe1−xIrx)2As2. The energy dependence of the XRMS through the Ir L3 edge shows a non-Lorentzian line shape, which we explain in terms of interference between Ir resonant scattering and Fe nonresonant magnetic scattering.

  8. Kinetic solvent effects on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical with tertiary amides. Control over the hydrogen atom transfer reactivity and selectivity through solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Michela; Mangiacapra, Livia; Bietti, Massimo

    2015-01-16

    A laser flash photolysis study on the role of solvent effects on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from the C-H bonds of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), N-formylpyrrolidine (FPRD), and N-acetylpyrrolidine (APRD) to the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) was carried out. From large to very large increases in the HAT rate constant (kH) were measured on going from MeOH and TFE to isooctane (kH(isooctane)/kH(MeOH) = 5-12; kH(isooctane)/kH(TFE) > 80). This behavior was explained in terms of the increase in the extent of charge separation in the amides determined by polar solvents through solvent-amide dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonding, where the latter interactions appear to play a major role with strong HBD solvents such as TFE. These interactions increase the electron deficiency of the amide C-H bonds, deactivating these bonds toward HAT to an electrophilic radical such as CumO(•), indicating that changes in solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding can provide a convenient method for deactivation of the C-H bond of amides toward HAT. With DMF, a solvent-induced change in HAT selectivity was observed, suggesting that solvent effects can be successfully employed to control the reaction selectivity in HAT-based procedures for the functionalization of C-H bonds.

  9. Energetics of nonpolar and polar compounds in cationic, anionic, and nonionic micelles studied by all-atom molecular dynamics simulation combined with a theory of solutions.

    PubMed

    Date, Atsushi; Ishizuka, Ryosuke; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-21

    Energetic analysis was conducted for nonpolar and polar solutes bound in a cationic micelle of dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), an anionic micelle of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and a nonionic micelle of tetraethylene glycol monododecyl ether (Brij30). All-atom molecular dynamics simulation was performed, and the free energies of binding the solutes in the hydrophobic-core and headgroup regions of the micelles were computed using the energy-representation method. It was found in all the micelles examined that aromatic naphthalene is preferably located more outward than aliphatic propane and that the polar solutes are localized at the interface of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The roles of the surfactant and water were then elucidated by decomposing the free energy into the contributions from the respective species. Water was observed to play a decisive role in determining the binding location of the solute, while the surfactant was found to be more important for the overall stabilization of the solute within the micelle. The effects of attractive and repulsive interactions of the solute with the surfactant and water were further examined, and their competition was analyzed in connection with the preferable location of the solute in the micellar system.

  10. Correlative STED and Atomic Force Microscopy on Live Astrocytes Reveals Plasticity of Cytoskeletal Structure and Membrane Physical Properties during Polarized Migration

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Nathan; Ghézali, Grégory; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S.; Rouach, Nathalie; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2017-01-01

    The plasticity of the cytoskeleton architecture and membrane properties is important for the establishment of cell polarity, adhesion and migration. Here, we present a method which combines stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to correlate cytoskeletal structural information with membrane physical properties in live astrocytes. Using STED compatible dyes for live cell imaging of the cytoskeleton, and simultaneously mapping the cell surface topology with AFM, we obtain unprecedented detail of highly organized networks of actin and microtubules in astrocytes. Combining mechanical data from AFM with optical imaging of actin and tubulin further reveals links between cytoskeleton organization and membrane properties. Using this methodology we illustrate that scratch-induced migration induces cytoskeleton remodeling. The latter is caused by a polarization of actin and microtubule elements within astroglial cell processes, which correlates strongly with changes in cell stiffness. The method opens new avenues for the dynamic probing of the membrane structural and functional plasticity of living brain cells. It is a powerful tool for providing new insights into mechanisms of cell structural remodeling during physiological or pathological processes, such as brain development or tumorigenesis. PMID:28469559

  11. Current mapping of nonpolar a-plane and polar c-plane GaN films by conductive atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shengrui; Jiang, Teng; Lin, Zhiyu; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Linan; Zhang, Jincheng; Li, Peixian; Hao, Yue

    2016-10-01

    Nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN and polar (0001) c-plane GaN films have been grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane (1-102) and c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates, respectively. Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) has been used to investigate the local conductivity of the films. C-AFM shows enhanced current conduction within the etch pits of c-plane GaN and triangular pits of a-plane GaN. The results indicate that the off-axis planes are more electrically active than c-plane and a-plane. Surprisingly, the C-AFM values in triangular pit of the a-plane GaN are much smaller than that in etch pits of the c-plane GaN. The dislocations type related current leakage mechanism is revealed for polar c-plane and nonpolar a-plane GaN films.

  12. Correlative STED and Atomic Force Microscopy on Live Astrocytes Reveals Plasticity of Cytoskeletal Structure and Membrane Physical Properties during Polarized Migration.

    PubMed

    Curry, Nathan; Ghézali, Grégory; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S; Rouach, Nathalie; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2017-01-01

    The plasticity of the cytoskeleton architecture and membrane properties is important for the establishment of cell polarity, adhesion and migration. Here, we present a method which combines stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to correlate cytoskeletal structural information with membrane physical properties in live astrocytes. Using STED compatible dyes for live cell imaging of the cytoskeleton, and simultaneously mapping the cell surface topology with AFM, we obtain unprecedented detail of highly organized networks of actin and microtubules in astrocytes. Combining mechanical data from AFM with optical imaging of actin and tubulin further reveals links between cytoskeleton organization and membrane properties. Using this methodology we illustrate that scratch-induced migration induces cytoskeleton remodeling. The latter is caused by a polarization of actin and microtubule elements within astroglial cell processes, which correlates strongly with changes in cell stiffness. The method opens new avenues for the dynamic probing of the membrane structural and functional plasticity of living brain cells. It is a powerful tool for providing new insights into mechanisms of cell structural remodeling during physiological or pathological processes, such as brain development or tumorigenesis.

  13. Efficient approach to include molecular polarizations using charge and atom dipole response kernels to calculate free energy gradients in the QM/MM scheme.

    PubMed

    Asada, Toshio; Ando, Kanta; Sakurai, Koji; Koseki, Shiro; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2015-10-28

    An efficient approach to evaluate free energy gradients (FEGs) within the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) framework has been proposed to clarify reaction processes on the free energy surface (FES) in molecular assemblies. The method is based on response kernel approximations denoted as the charge and the atom dipole response kernel (CDRK) model that include explicitly induced atom dipoles. The CDRK model was able to reproduce polarization effects for both electrostatic interactions between QM and MM regions and internal energies in the QM region obtained by conventional QM/MM methods. In contrast to charge response kernel (CRK) models, CDRK models could be applied to various kinds of molecules, even linear or planer molecules, without using imaginary interaction sites. Use of the CDRK model enabled us to obtain FEGs on QM atoms in significantly reduced computational time. It was also clearly demonstrated that the time development of QM forces of the solvated propylene carbonate radical cation (PC˙(+)) provided reliable results for 1 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, which were quantitatively in good agreement with expensive QM/MM results. Using FEG and nudged elastic band (NEB) methods, we found two optimized reaction paths on the FES for decomposition reactions to generate CO2 molecules from PC˙(+), whose reaction is known as one of the degradation mechanisms in the lithium-ion battery. Two of these reactions proceed through an identical intermediate structure whose molecular dipole moment is larger than that of the reactant to be stabilized in the solvent, which has a high relative dielectric constant. Thus, in order to prevent decomposition reactions, PC˙(+) should be modified to have a smaller dipole moment along two reaction paths.

  14. Polarized negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  15. Exploring Conceptual Frameworks of Models of Atomic Structures and Periodic Variations, Chemical Bonding, and Molecular Shape and Polarity: A Comparison of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students with High and Low Levels of Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' conceptual frameworks of models of atomic structure and periodic variations, chemical bonding, and molecular shape and polarity, and how these conceptual frameworks influence their quality of explanations and ability to shift among chemical representations. This study employed a purposeful sampling…

  16. Exploring Conceptual Frameworks of Models of Atomic Structures and Periodic Variations, Chemical Bonding, and Molecular Shape and Polarity: A Comparison of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students with High and Low Levels of Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' conceptual frameworks of models of atomic structure and periodic variations, chemical bonding, and molecular shape and polarity, and how these conceptual frameworks influence their quality of explanations and ability to shift among chemical representations. This study employed a purposeful sampling…

  17. Electric field measurements in an atmospheric-pressure microplasma jet using Stark polarization emission spectroscopy of helium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan; Wu, Shuqun; Cheng, Wenxin; Lu, Xinpei

    2017-08-01

    Electric field in an atmospheric-pressure microplasma jet, determined by a non-invasive Stark polarization spectroscopy of He 447.1 nm line, is reported in this work. The microplasma jet was driven by a positive pulsed dc power supply with pulse rising time of 60 ns. First, the electric field strength in the streamer head (Eh) is in the range of 9-17 kV/cm. Second, as the streamer head is shooting out of the tube exit, Eh starts to increase rapidly and then decreases after reaching a maximum of 17 kV/cm, indicating the same tendency of streamer velocity. However, a further analysis reveals that the relationship between the electric field and the streamer velocity is non-linear. Third, although the pulse width plays an important role in the control of the length of plasma plume, it has a minor effect on Eh. Fourth, the electric field strength in the secondary discharge is estimated to be less than 6 kV/cm, which further validates the similarity between the secondary discharge and negative discharge. Finally, over atmospheric-pressure plasmas transferring across the glass tube, the electric field in the head of newborn secondary streamer is about 10 kV/cm.

  18. A study of the surface morphological features of the polar faces of ZnO by atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods and AlN films deposited on ZnO polar faces by PLD

    SciTech Connect

    Suscavage, M.J.; Yip, P.W.; Ryder, D.F. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The effects of both temperature and atmosphere on the resulting morphological features of the polar faces of single crystal ZnO were investigated and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In studies where ZnO was thermally processed in flowing oxygen at atmospheric conditions within the temperature range of 500 C to 900 C for 30 minutes, the Zn-surface showed a tendency to reconstruct with increasing temperature until terraces became evident at 900 C. Terrace heights were as small as 0.9 nm. In contrast, the O-surface was observed to change very little during the O{sub 2}-atmosphere, thermal treatment and remained comparatively rougher than the Zn-surface. ZnO samples which were thermally processed under high vacuum (i.e., 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} Torr) conditions exhibited a more dramatic contrast. The vacuum annealed Zn-surface was observed to develop very smooth surface features (Roughness = 0.09 nm) at annealing temperatures within the 700--800 C range. In contrast, and as expected, the O-surface roughness increased due to surface reduction reactions. In addition to these findings, it is noted that AFM measurements may be utilized as a convenient method to distinguish between the two polar surfaces of ZnO. Aluminum nitride was deposited on the Zn- and O-surfaces from 700 to 850 C by pulsed laser evaporation. X-ray diffraction indicated that the AlN was c-axis oriented with no interface reaction products detected between the ZnO substrate and AlN film.

  19. Using metallic noncontact atomic force microscope tips for imaging insulators and polar molecules: tip characterization and imaging mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gao, David Zhe; Grenz, Josef; Watkins, Matthew Benjamin; Federici Canova, Filippo; Schwarz, Alexander; Wiesendanger, Roland; Shluger, Alexander L

    2014-05-27

    We demonstrate that using metallic tips for noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) imaging at relatively large (>0.5 nm) tip-surface separations provides a reliable method for studying molecules on insulating surfaces with chemical resolution and greatly reduces the complexity of interpreting experimental data. The experimental NC-AFM imaging and theoretical simulations were carried out for the NiO(001) surface as well as adsorbed CO and Co-Salen molecules using Cr-coated Si tips. The experimental results and density functional theory calculations confirm that metallic tips possess a permanent electric dipole moment with its positive end oriented toward the sample. By analyzing the experimental data, we could directly determine the dipole moment of the Cr-coated tip. A model representing the metallic tip as a point dipole is described and shown to produce NC-AFM images of individual CO molecules adsorbed onto NiO(001) in good quantitative agreement with experimental results. Finally, we discuss methods for characterizing the structure of metal-coated tips and the application of these tips to imaging dipoles of large adsorbed molecules.

  20. Physics with Polarized Nuclei.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, William J.; Clegg, Thomas B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses recent advances in polarization techniques, specifically those dealing with polarization of atomic nuclei, and how polarized beams and targets are produced. These techniques have greatly increased the scope of possible studies, and provided the tools for testing fundamental symmetries and the spin dependence of nuclear forces. (GA)

  1. Remote detected Low-Field MRI using an optically pumped atomic magnetometer combined with a liquid cooled pre-polarization coil.

    PubMed

    Hilschenz, Ingo; Ito, Yosuke; Natsukawa, Hiroaki; Oida, Takenori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices are widely used in basic and clinical biomagnetic measurements such as low-field magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography primarily because they exhibit high sensitivity at low frequencies and have a wide bandwidth. The main disadvantage of these devices is that they require cryogenic coolants, which are rather expensive and not easily available. Meanwhile, with the advances in laser technology in the past few years, optically pumped atomic magnetometers (OPAMs) have been shown to be a good alternative as they can have adequate noise levels and are several millimeters in size, which makes them significantly easier to use. In this study, we used an OPAM module operating at a Larmor frequency of 5kHz to acquire NMR and MRI signals. This study presents these initial results as well as our initial attempts at imaging using this OPAM module. In addition, we have designed a liquid-cooled pre-polarizing coil that reduces the measurement time significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrons per atom ratio determination and Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule for P-based polar compounds studied by FLAPW-fourier calculations.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Uichiro; Sato, Hirokazu; Inukai, Manabu; Nishino, Yoichi; Zijlstra, Eeuwe Sieds

    2015-02-02

    The extent to which reliable electrons per atom ratio, e/a, are determined and the validity of the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism are ensured upon increasing ionicity are studied by applying first-principles full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW)-Fourier band calculations to as many as 59 binary compounds formed by adding elements from periods 2-6 to phosphorus in group 15 of the Periodic Table. Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle maps were constructed both by using the Allen electronegativity data and by using an energy difference between the center-of-gravity energies of FLAPW-derived s and p partial densities of states (DOSs) for the equiatomic compounds studied. The determination of e/a and the test of the interference condition, both of which play a key role in the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism, were reliably made for all intermetallic compounds, as long as the ionicity is less than 50%. In the A-P (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) compounds with ionicity exceeding 50%, however, e/a determination becomes unstable, as reflected in its P concentration dependence. New Hume-Rothery electron concentration rules were theoretically found in two families of polar compounds: skutterudite compounds TMP(3), TMAs(3), and TMSb(3) (TM = Co, Ni, Rh, and Ir; cI32) with e/a = 4.34 and TM(3)P (TM = Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni; tI32) with e/a = 2.20.

  3. Quantum Switching of Magnetic Fields by Circularly Polarized Re-Optimized π Laser Pulses: From One-Electron Atomic Ions to Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Ingo; Manz, Jörn

    Circularly polarized re-optimized π laser pulses may induce electronic and/or nuclear ring currents in model systems, from one-electron atomic ions till molecules which should have three-, four-, or higher-fold axes of rotations or reflection-rotations, in order to support doubly or more degenerate, complex-valued eigenstates which support these ring currents. The ring currents in turn induce magnetic fields. The effects are about two orders of magnitude larger than for traditional ring currents which are induced by external magnetic fields. Moreover, the laser pulses allow to control the strengths and shapes of the ring currents and, therefore, also the induced magnetic fields. We present a survey of the development of the field, together with new quantum simulations which document ultrafast switchings of magnetic fields. We discuss various criteria such as strong ring currents with small radii, in order to generate huge magnetic fields, approaching 1,000T, in accord with the Biot-Savart law. Moreover, we consider various methods for monitoring the fields, and for applications, in particular ultrafast deflections of neutrons by means of quantum switching of the ring currents and induced magnetic fields.

  4. Polar catastrophe and the structure of KTa1-xNbxO₃ surfaces: Results from elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, F. A.; Trelenberg, T. W.; Li, J. A.; Fatema, R.; Skofronick, J. G.; Van Winkle, D. H.; Safron, S. A.; Boatner, L. A.

    2015-07-13

    The structure and dynamics of cleaved (001) surfaces of potassium tantalates doped with niobium, KTa1-xNbxO₃ (KTN), with x ranging from 0% to 30%, were measured by helium atom scattering (HAS). Through HAS time-of-flight (TOF) experiments, a dispersionless branch (Einstein phonon branch) with energy of 13-14 meV was observed across the surface Brillouin zone in all samples. When this observation is combined with the results from earlier experimental and theoretical studies on these materials, a consistent picture of the stable surface structure emerges: After cleaving the single-crystal sample, the surface should be composed of equal areas of KO and TaO₂/NbO₂ terraces. The data, however, suggest that K⁺ and O²⁻ ions migrate from the bulk to the surface, forming a charged KO lattice that is neutralized primarily by additional K⁺ ions bridging pairs of surface oxygens. This structural and dynamic modification at the (001) surface of KTN appears due to its formally charged KO(-1) and TaO₂/NbO₂(+1) layers and avoids a “polar catastrophe.” This behavior is contrasted with the (001) surface behavior of the fluoride perovskite KMnF₃ with its electrically neutral KF and MnF₂ layers.

  5. Polar catastrophe and the structure of KTa1-xNbxO₃ surfaces: Results from elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Flaherty, F. A.; Trelenberg, T. W.; Li, J. A.; ...

    2015-07-13

    The structure and dynamics of cleaved (001) surfaces of potassium tantalates doped with niobium, KTa1-xNbxO₃ (KTN), with x ranging from 0% to 30%, were measured by helium atom scattering (HAS). Through HAS time-of-flight (TOF) experiments, a dispersionless branch (Einstein phonon branch) with energy of 13-14 meV was observed across the surface Brillouin zone in all samples. When this observation is combined with the results from earlier experimental and theoretical studies on these materials, a consistent picture of the stable surface structure emerges: After cleaving the single-crystal sample, the surface should be composed of equal areas of KO and TaO₂/NbO₂ terraces.more » The data, however, suggest that K⁺ and O²⁻ ions migrate from the bulk to the surface, forming a charged KO lattice that is neutralized primarily by additional K⁺ ions bridging pairs of surface oxygens. This structural and dynamic modification at the (001) surface of KTN appears due to its formally charged KO(-1) and TaO₂/NbO₂(+1) layers and avoids a “polar catastrophe.” This behavior is contrasted with the (001) surface behavior of the fluoride perovskite KMnF₃ with its electrically neutral KF and MnF₂ layers.« less

  6. Polar catastrophe and the structure of KT a1 - xN bxO3 surfaces: Results from elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, F. A.; Trelenberg, T. W.; Li, J. A.; Fatema, R.; Skofronick, J. G.; Van Winkle, D. H.; Safron, S. A.; Boatner, L. A.

    2015-07-01

    The structure and dynamics of cleaved (001 ) surfaces of potassium tantalates doped with niobium, KT a1 - xN bxO3 (KTN), with x ranging from 0 % to 30 % , were measured by helium atom scattering (HAS). Through HAS time-of-flight (TOF) experiments, a dispersionless branch (Einstein phonon branch) with energy of 13 -14 meV was observed across the surface Brillouin zone in all samples. When this observation is combined with the results from earlier experimental and theoretical studies on these materials, a consistent picture of the stable surface structure emerges: After cleaving the single-crystal sample, the surface should be composed of equal areas of KO and Ta O2/Nb O2 terraces. The data, however, suggest that K+ and O2 - ions migrate from the bulk to the surface, forming a charged KO lattice that is neutralized primarily by additional K+ ions bridging pairs of surface oxygens. This structural and dynamic modification at the (001 ) surface of KTN appears due to its formally charged KO (-1 ) and Ta O2/Nb O2(+1 ) layers and avoids a "polar catastrophe." This behavior is contrasted with the (001 ) surface behavior of the fluoride perovskite KMn F3 with its electrically neutral KF and Mn F2 layers.

  7. Screening method for determination of high levels of cadmium, lead, and copper in foods by polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry using discrete nebulization technique.

    PubMed

    Saito, I; Oshima, H; Kawamura, N; Yamada, M

    1988-01-01

    A screening method for determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in foods was developed. The sample (1-3 g) is digested with HNO3-H2SO4-HClO4 in a centrifuge tube attached to a straight glass tube that prevents loss of HNO3 by volatilization. After digestion, potassium iodide, H2SO4, and MIBK (4-methyl 2-pentanone) are added, and the metals are extracted with MIBK as metal iodides. The MIBK solution is injected and the metals are determined by flame polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry using a discrete nebulization technique. Recoveries of metals from fortified milk powder, unpolished rice, fish, beef, peanut butter, apple, and cabbage were satisfactory. The analytical results for NBS Oyster Tissue and NIES Pepperbush, Chlorella, and Mussel agreed with certified or reference values except lead in Pepperbush. The limits of quantitation for cadmium, lead, and copper were 0.01, 0.09, and 0.02 ppm, respectively. This method is simple and safe for routine analysis of high levels of cadmium, lead, and copper in foods.

  8. Imprint of the Sun’s Evolving Polar Winds on IBEX Energetic Neutral Atom All-sky Observations of the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Dayeh, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Sokół, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    With 7 years of Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), IBEX has shown a clear correlation between dynamic changes in the solar wind and the heliosphere’s response in the formation of ENAs. In this paper, we investigate temporal variations in the latitudinal-dependent ENA spectrum from IBEX and their relationship to the solar wind speed observed at 1 au. We find that the variation in latitude of the transition in ENA spectral indices between low (≲1.8) and high (≳1.8) values, as well as the distribution of ENA spectral indices at high and low latitudes, correlates well with the evolution of the fast and slow solar wind latitudinal structure observed near 1 au. This correlation includes a delay due to the time it takes the solar wind to propagate to the termination shock and into the inner heliosheath, and for ENAs to be generated via charge-exchange and travel back toward 1 au. Moreover, we observe a temporal asymmetry in the steepening of the ENA spectrum in the northern and southern hemispheres, consistent with asymmetries observed in the solar wind and polar coronal holes. While this asymmetry is observed near the upwind direction of the heliosphere, it is not yet observed in the tail direction, suggesting a longer line-of-sight integration distance or different processing of the solar wind plasma downstream of the termination shock.

  9. PREFACE: International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics & 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas L. S.; deHarak, Bruno A.

    2010-01-01

    From 30 July to 1 August 2009, over a hundred scientists from 18 countries attended the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics and the 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions which were held at the W T Young Library of the University of Kentucky, USA. Both conferences were satellite meetings of the XXVI International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) held in Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA, 21-28 July 2009. These symposia covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical topics involving excitation, ionization (single and multiple), and molecular fragmentation, of a wide range of targets by photons and charged particles (polarized and unpolarized). Atomic targets ranged from hydrogen to the heavy elements and ions, while molecular targets ranged from H2 to large molecules of biological interest. On the experimental front, cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS), also known as the Reaction Microscope because of the complete information it gives about a wide variety of reactions, is becoming commonplace and has greatly expanded the ability of researchers to perform previously inaccessible coincidence experiments. Meanwhile, more conventional spectrometers are also advancing and have been used for increasingly sophisticated and exacting measurements. On the theoretical front great progress has been made in the description of target states, and in the scattering calculations used to describe both simple and complex reactions. The international nature of collaborations between theorists and experimentalists is exemplified by, for example, the paper by Ren et al which has a total of 13 authors of whom the experimental group of six is from Heidelberg, Germany, one theoretical group is from Australia, with the remainder of the theoreticians coming from several different institutions in the United States. A total of 52 invited talks and

  10. Atomic quantum state teleportation and swapping.

    PubMed

    Kuzmich, A; Polzik, E S

    2000-12-25

    A set of protocols for atoms-photons and atoms-atoms quantum state teleportation and swapping utilizing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen light is proposed. The protocols work for polarization quantum states of multiphoton light pulses and macroscopic samples of atoms, i.e., for continuous quantum variables. A simple free space interaction of polarized light with a spin polarized atomic ensemble is shown to suffice for these protocols. Feasibility of experimental realization using gas samples of atoms is analyzed.

  11. Optical atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  12. Atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter [Albuquerque, NM; Johnson, Cort N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

  13. Power and polarization dependences of ultra-narrow electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) spectra of 85 Rb atoms in degenerate two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Mohsin; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated ultra-narrow EIA spectral features with respect to variations of polarizations and powers of pump laser beam in a degenerate two-level system of the transition of 85 Rb D2 transition line. Polarizations of the probe laser beam in two separate experiments were fixed at right circular and horizontal linear polarizations, respectively while the polarizations of the pump lasers were varied from initial polarizations same as the probe laser beams to orthogonal to probe polarizations. One homemade laser combined with AOMs was used to the pump and probe laser beams instead of two different lasers to overcome broad linewidths of the homemade lasers. Theoretically, probe absorption coefficients have been calculated from optical Bloch equations of the degenerate two level system prepared by a pump laser beam. In the case of the circular polarization, EIA signal was obtained as expected theoretically although both pump and probe beams have same polarization. The EIA signal become smaller as power increases and polarizations of the pump and probe beams were same. When the polarization of the pump beam was linear polarization, maximum EIA signal was obtained theoretically and experimentally. Experimental EIA spectral shapes with respect to variations of the pump beam polarization shows similar trends as the theoretical results.

  14. Polarization of metastable 129Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tian; Morgan, Steven; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2008-05-01

    We have measured atomic polarization of metastable 129Xe in a pyrex cell by optical pumping, while metastability exchange optical pumping of 3He is routinely done. The atomic polarization of metastable Xe is on the order of 10%. Metastable xenon is created by electrodeless rf discharge. The hyperfine transition of metastable 129Xe is observed by microwave excitation. Atomic polarization can be demonstrated by comparison of the intensities of the transitions between different Zeeman sublevels, while pumping a specific optical transition of metastable Xe with circularly polarized light. This work offers insight into attempts to polarize 129Xe nuclei by metastability exchange optical pumping.

  15. UV PHOTODESORPTION OF METHANOL IN PURE AND CO-RICH ICES: DESORPTION RATES OF THE INTACT MOLECULE AND OF THE PHOTOFRAGMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bertin, Mathieu; Doronin, Mikhail; Philippe, Laurent; Jeseck, Pascal; Michaut, Xavier; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Romanzin, Claire; Ligterink, Niels; Linnartz, Harold

    2016-02-01

    Wavelength-dependent photodesorption rates have been determined using synchrotron radiation for condensed pure and mixed methanol ice in the 7–14 eV range. The VUV photodesorption of intact methanol molecules from pure methanol ices is found to be of the order of 10{sup −5} molecules/photon, that is two orders of magnitude below what is generally used in astrochemical models. This rate gets even lower (<10{sup −6} molecules/photon) when the methanol is mixed with CO molecules in the ices. This is consistent with a picture in which photodissociation and recombination processes are at the origin of intact methanol desorption from pure CH{sub 3}OH ices. Such low rates are explained by the fact that the overall photodesorption process is dominated by the desorption of the photofragments CO, CH{sub 3}, OH, H{sub 2}CO, and CH{sub 3}O/CH{sub 2}OH, whose photodesorption rates are given in this study. Our results suggest that the role of the photodesorption as a mechanism to explain the observed gas phase abundances of methanol in cold media is probably overestimated. Nevertheless, the photodesorption of radicals from methanol-rich ices may stand at the origin of the gas phase presence of radicals such as CH{sub 3}O, therefore, opening new gas phase chemical routes for the formation of complex molecules.

  16. Fluorescence Excitation Spectra of Photo-Fragmented Nitrobenzene Using a Picosecond Laser: Potential Evidence for no Produced by Two Distinct Channels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, Christopher J.; Tanjaroon, Chakree; Johnson, J. Bruce; Reeve, Scott W.; Allen, Susan D.

    2013-06-01

    Upon absorption of a UV photon, nitrobenzene can dissociate into C_6H_5O and NO through two different mechanisms. Evidence for these mechanisms was obtained from velocity map imaging (VMI) studies and theoretical calculations. VMI experiments showed NO produced with two distinct rotational distributions, which the calculations explained as a fast and a slow channel for NO production. We have recorded high resolution fluorescence excitation spectra of the NO resulting from photo-fragmented nitrobenzene using a pulsed picosecond tunable laser (pulse width ≈ 15 ps) by means of a two-color process. In the two-color process, photons of a particular energy dissociated the nitrobenzene while photons of a different energy probed the A^2Σ^+← X^2Π_{(1/2,3/2)} NO band system between 225-260 nm. This laser system allowed us to vary the delay between the photolysis and excitation pulses. At longer delays (>1 ns), we observed an increase in the population of NO, which may be evidence that at least two photolysis channels produce NO. We present the spectra we recorded at various photolysis/probe delays ranging from 0.025 to 1.5 ns. The spectral subtraction method we used to observe the production increase is introduced. Hause, M. L.; Herath, N.; Zhu, R.; Lin, M. C. and Suits, A. G. Nat Chem, Nature Publishing Group, 2011, 3, 932-937

  17. UV Photodesorption of Methanol in Pure and CO-rich Ices: Desorption Rates of the Intact Molecule and of the Photofragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, Mathieu; Romanzin, Claire; Doronin, Mikhail; Philippe, Laurent; Jeseck, Pascal; Ligterink, Niels; Linnartz, Harold; Michaut, Xavier; Fillion, Jean-Hugues

    2016-02-01

    Wavelength-dependent photodesorption rates have been determined using synchrotron radiation for condensed pure and mixed methanol ice in the 7-14 eV range. The VUV photodesorption of intact methanol molecules from pure methanol ices is found to be of the order of 10-5 molecules/photon, that is two orders of magnitude below what is generally used in astrochemical models. This rate gets even lower (<10-6 molecules/photon) when the methanol is mixed with CO molecules in the ices. This is consistent with a picture in which photodissociation and recombination processes are at the origin of intact methanol desorption from pure CH3OH ices. Such low rates are explained by the fact that the overall photodesorption process is dominated by the desorption of the photofragments CO, CH3, OH, H2CO, and CH3O/CH2OH, whose photodesorption rates are given in this study. Our results suggest that the role of the photodesorption as a mechanism to explain the observed gas phase abundances of methanol in cold media is probably overestimated. Nevertheless, the photodesorption of radicals from methanol-rich ices may stand at the origin of the gas phase presence of radicals such as CH3O, therefore, opening new gas phase chemical routes for the formation of complex molecules.

  18. Atomic and nuclear polarization of /sup 12/C, /sup 13/C, and /sup 15/N by beam-foil interaction at 300--400 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, F.Q.; Tang, J.Y.; Deutch, B.I.

    1982-03-01

    Induced nuclear spin polarization P by hyperfine interaction following passage of 0.5 ..mu..A 300--keV beams of /sup 12/C/sup +/, /sup 13/C/sup +/, and /sup 15/N/sup +/ through single tilted carbon foils yields Vertical BarPVertical Bar = (0.4 +- 0.8)%, (3.2 +- 0.6)%, and (5.7 +- 0.9)%, respectively. The nuclear polarizations were enhanced by passage through two tilted foils, and the sign of the polarization flipped by a simple flip of the foil direction with respect to the beam direction. From quantum-beat measurements with circularly polarized light, experimental quantum beat frequencies ..omega.. = 6790 +- 570 and 747 +- 62 MHz for the unresolved 6578--6583 A doublet in CII, and ..omega..(5667 A) = 2860 +- 240, ..omega..(5680 A) = 4810 +- 40 MHz in NII are determined.

  19. The Physics of Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  20. Towards Polarized Antiprotons at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmann, Frank

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the interplay of the nuclear interaction with polarized protons and the electromagnetic interaction with polarized electrons in polarized atoms is crucial to progress towards the PAX goal to eventually produce stored polarized antiproton beams at FAIR. Presently, there exist two competing theoretical scenarios: one with substantial spin filtering of (anti)protons by atomic electrons, and a second one suggesting a self-cancellation of the electron contribution to spin filtering. After a brief review of the PAX physics case for polarized antiprotons at FAIR, a detailed discussion of future investigations, including spin-filtering experiments at COSY-Jülich and at the AD of CERN is presented.

  1. Measurements of Excitation Functions and Line Polarizations for Electron Impact Excitation of the n = 2, 3 States of Atomic Hydrogen in the Energy Range 11 - 2000 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. K.; Ajello, J. M.; Kanik, I.; Slevin, J.; Franklin, B.; Shemansky, D.

    1993-01-01

    The electron-atomic hydrogen scattering system is an important testing ground for theoretical models and has received a great deal of attention from experimentalists and theoreticians alike over the years. A complete description of the excitation process requires a knowledge of many different parameters, and experimental measurements of these parameters have been performed in various laboratories around the world. As far as total cross section data are concerned it has been noted that the discrepancy between the data of Long et al. and Williams for n = 2 excitations needs to be resolved in the interests of any further refinement of theory. We report new measurements of total cross sections and atomic line polarizations for both n=2 and n=3 excitations at energies from threshold to 2000 eV...

  2. Analyzing velocity map images to distinguish the primary methyl photofragments from those produced upon C-Cl bond photofission in chloroacetone at 193 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Alligood, Bridget W.; Straus, Daniel B.; Butler, Laurie J.

    2011-07-21

    We use a combination of crossed laser-molecular beam scattering experiments and velocity map imaging experiments to investigate the three primary photodissociation channels of chloroacetone at 193 nm: C-Cl bond photofission yielding CH{sub 3}C(O)CH{sub 2} radicals, C-C bond photofission yielding CH{sub 3}CO and CH{sub 2}Cl products, and C-CH{sub 3} bond photofission resulting in CH{sub 3} and C(O)CH{sub 2}Cl products. Improved analysis of data previously reported by our group quantitatively identifies the contribution of this latter photodissociation channel. We introduce a forward convolution procedure to identify the portion of the signal, derived from the methyl image, which results from a two-step process in which C-Cl bond photofission is followed by the dissociation of the vibrationally excited CH{sub 3}C(O)CH{sub 2} radicals to CH{sub 3}+ COCH{sub 2}. Subtracting this from the total methyl signal identifies the methyl photofragments that result from the CH{sub 3}+ C(O)CH{sub 2}Cl photofission channel. We find that about 89% of the chloroacetone molecules undergo C-Cl bond photofission to yield CH{sub 3}C(O)CH{sub 2} and Cl products; approximately 8% result in C-C bond photofission to yield CH{sub 3}CO and CH{sub 2}Cl products, and the remaining 2.6% undergo C-CH{sub 3} bond photofission to yield CH{sub 3} and C(O)CH{sub 2}Cl products.

  3. Giant light enhancement in atomic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomsky, O. N. Gadomskaya, I. V.; Altunin, K. K.

    2009-07-15

    We show that the polarizing effect of the atoms in an atomic cluster can lead to full compensation of the radiative damping of excited atomic states, a change in the sign of the dispersion of the atomic polarizability, and giant light enhancement by the atomic cluster.

  4. Cascade effects in the excitation of np{sup 5}(n+1)p states of krypton and xenon atoms by polarized electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, D.H.; Williams, J.F.; Chen, X.J.; Hayes, P.A.; Bartschat, K.; Zeman, V.

    2003-03-01

    The integrated Stokes parameters of the decay photons from the excited np{sup 5}(n+1)p[5/2]{sub 3}, np{sup 5}(n+1)p{sup '}[3/2]{sub 2}, and np{sup 5}(n+1)p{sup '}[3/2]{sub 1} (n=5 and 6) states of Kr and Xe, respectively, are measured from near threshold to 100 eV using incident polarized electrons. The effects of the cascade photons on the Stokes parameters have been investigated using a pulsed beam of polarized electrons. The cascade effects for the final excited states are more significant for the linear polarization P{sub 1} parameter than for the circular polarization P{sub 3} parameter and they do not always have depolarization effects. The integrated state multipoles, determined from the integrated Stokes parameters corrected for cascade effects, are closer to, but not in agreement with, the values from semirelativistic R matrix and relativistic distorted-wave approximation methods.

  5. Photofragment translation spectroscopy of ClN3 at 248 nm: determination of the primary and secondary dissociation pathways.

    PubMed

    Hansen, N; Wodtke, A M; Goncher, S J; Robinson, J C; Sveum, N E; Neumark, D M

    2005-09-08

    Photofragmentation translational spectroscopy was used to identify the primary and secondary reaction pathways in the KrF laser (248 nm) photodissociation of chlorine azide (ClN(3)) under collision-free conditions. Both the molecular channel producing NCl (X (3)Sigma,a (1)Delta) + N(2) and the radical channel producing Cl ((2)P(J)) + N(3) were analyzed in detail. Consistent with previously reported velocity map ion imaging experiments [N. Hansen and A. M. Wodtke, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 10608 (2003)] a bimodal translational energy distribution is seen when Cl atoms are monitored at mz = 35(Cl(+)). Momentum-matched N(3) counterfragments can be seen at mz = 42(N(3) (+)). The characteristics of the observed radical-channel data reflect the formation of linear azide radical and another high-energy form of N(3) (HEF-N(3)) that exhibits many of the characteristics one would expect from cyclic N(3). HEF-N(3) can be directly detected by electron-impact ionization more than 100 mus after its formation. Products of the unimolecular dissociation of HEF-N(3) are observed in the mz = 14(N(+)) and mz = 28(N(2) (+)) data. Anisotropy parameters were determined for the primary channels to be beta = -0.3 for the NCl forming channel and beta = 1.7 and beta = 0.4 for the linear N(3) and HEF-N(3) forming channels, respectively. There is additional evidence for secondary photodissociation of N(3) and of NCl.

  6. Polar rotor scattering as atomic-level origin of low mobility and thermal conductivity of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Liu, Yucheng; Wang, Mingchao; Matsuura, Masato; Shibata, Kaoru; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko; Yamada, Takeshi; Lin, Shangchao; Nakajima, Kenji; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2017-06-01

    Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 exhibits outstanding photovoltaic performances, but the understanding of the atomic motions remains inadequate even though they take a fundamental role in transport properties. Here, we present a complete atomic dynamic picture consisting of molecular jumping rotational modes and phonons, which is established by carrying out high-resolution time-of-flight quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements in a wide energy window ranging from 0.0036 to 54 meV on a large single crystal sample, respectively. The ultrafast orientational disorder of molecular dipoles, activated at ~165 K, acts as an additional scattering source for optical phonons as well as for charge carriers. It is revealed that acoustic phonons dominate the thermal transport, rather than optical phonons due to sub-picosecond lifetimes. These microscopic insights provide a solid standing point, on which perovskite solar cells can be understood more accurately and their performances are perhaps further optimized.

  7. Polarized cells, polar actions.

    PubMed

    Maddock, J R; Alley, M R; Shapiro, L

    1993-11-01

    The recognition of polar bacterial organization is just emerging. The examples of polar localization given here are from a variety of bacterial species and concern a disparate array of cellular functions. A number of well-characterized instances of polar localization of bacterial proteins, including the chemoreceptor complex in both C. crescentus and E. coli, the maltose-binding protein in E. coli, the B. japonicum surface attachment proteins, and the actin tail of L. monocytogenes within a mammalian cell, involve proteins or protein complexes that facilitate bacterial interaction with the environment, either the extracellular milieux or that within a plant or mammalian host. The significance of this observation remains unclear. Polarity in bacteria poses many problems, including the necessity for a mechanism for asymmetrically distributing proteins as well as a mechanism by which polar localization is maintained. Large structures, such as a flagellum, are anchored at the pole by means of the basal body that traverses the peptidoglycan wall. But for proteins and small complexes, whether in the periplasm or the membrane, one must invoke a mechanism that prevents the diffusion of these proteins away from the cell pole. Perhaps the periplasmic proteins are retained at the pole by the presence of the periseptal annulus (35). The constraining features for membrane components are not known. For large aggregates, such as the clusters of MCP, CheA, and CheW complexes, perhaps the size of the aggregate alone prevents displacement. In most cases of cellular asymmetry, bacteria are able to discriminate between the new pole and the old pole and to utilize this information for localization specificity. The maturation of new pole to old pole appears to be a common theme as well. Given numerous examples reported thus far, we propose that bacterial polarity displays specific rules and is a more general phenomenon than has been previously recognized.

  8. A Miniature Wide Band Atomic Magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Technology PCB – Printed Circuit Board Physics Package – The physical structure of the cell, laser diode , and light source. QAM – Quadrature...single, resonant laser . (b) Two- laser design in which one laser , circularly polarized and tuned to the optical resonance, pumps the atoms, and a second... pump laser creates a polarization in the atoms, which is probed by a weak linearly polarized VCSEL. The modulation of the polarization rotation of the

  9. Polar rotor scattering as atomic-level origin of low mobility and thermal conductivity of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Liu, Yucheng; Wang, Mingchao; Matsuura, Masato; Shibata, Kaoru; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko; Yamada, Takeshi; Lin, Shangchao; Nakajima, Kenji; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 exhibits outstanding photovoltaic performances, but the understanding of the atomic motions remains inadequate even though they take a fundamental role in transport properties. Here, we present a complete atomic dynamic picture consisting of molecular jumping rotational modes and phonons, which is established by carrying out high-resolution time-of-flight quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements in a wide energy window ranging from 0.0036 to 54 meV on a large single crystal sample, respectively. The ultrafast orientational disorder of molecular dipoles, activated at ∼165 K, acts as an additional scattering source for optical phonons as well as for charge carriers. It is revealed that acoustic phonons dominate the thermal transport, rather than optical phonons due to sub-picosecond lifetimes. These microscopic insights provide a solid standing point, on which perovskite solar cells can be understood more accurately and their performances are perhaps further optimized. PMID:28665407

  10. Nonspherical Potential due to Orbital Polarization and Its Effect in Atoms —Approach to Hund’s Second Rule in Terms of One-Electron Picture—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Akira

    2008-12-01

    The exchange-correlation functional composed of the Xα-exchange energy and the new type of correlation energy EM is assumed in order to study the effect of the nonspherical spatial distribution of electrons and the degeneracy of the total energy for states with the different ML values in the electronic open-shell configuration lN (l = p,d) of atom, where N is the number of electrons in the open shell characterized by directional quantum number l, ML is an expectation value of the z-component Lz of total angular momentum, and EM depends on ML. Nonspherical quantities such as electron density and one-electron effective potential are made from the partially filled occupation obeying Hund’s first rule in the open shell, and the Kohn-Sham equation is solved by the self-consistent degenerate first-order perturbation theory. Then, the parameters included in EM are succinctly and conveniently determined by imposing the appropriate conditions of degeneracy on the orbital and total energies. These methods are applied to the first-row and 3d transition atoms. Numerically self-consistent results, in which the final occupied orbitals agree with the starting ones used for the construction of electron density, are obtained, and the energies are reasonably acceptable since the occupied orbitals are more low-lying than the empty ones. Furthermore, the degeneracy of total energy with respect to ML is also obtained.

  11. Accurate adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps in atoms and molecules employing the third-order spin-flip algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme for the polarization propagator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrancois, Daniel; Rehn, Dirk R.; Dreuw, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    For the calculation of adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps (STG) in diradicaloid systems the spin-flip (SF) variant of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for the polarization propagator in third order perturbation theory (SF-ADC(3)) has been applied. Due to the methodology of the SF approach the singlet and triplet states are treated on an equal footing since they are part of the same determinant subspace. This leads to a systematically more accurate description of, e.g., diradicaloid systems than with the corresponding non-SF single-reference methods. Furthermore, using analytical excited state gradients at ADC(3) level, geometry optimizations of the singlet and triplet states were performed leading to a fully consistent description of the systems, leading to only small errors in the calculated STGs ranging between 0.6 and 2.4 kcal/mol with respect to experimental references.

  12. Accurate adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps in atoms and molecules employing the third-order spin-flip algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme for the polarization propagator.

    PubMed

    Lefrancois, Daniel; Rehn, Dirk R; Dreuw, Andreas

    2016-08-28

    For the calculation of adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps (STG) in diradicaloid systems the spin-flip (SF) variant of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for the polarization propagator in third order perturbation theory (SF-ADC(3)) has been applied. Due to the methodology of the SF approach the singlet and triplet states are treated on an equal footing since they are part of the same determinant subspace. This leads to a systematically more accurate description of, e.g., diradicaloid systems than with the corresponding non-SF single-reference methods. Furthermore, using analytical excited state gradients at ADC(3) level, geometry optimizations of the singlet and triplet states were performed leading to a fully consistent description of the systems, leading to only small errors in the calculated STGs ranging between 0.6 and 2.4 kcal/mol with respect to experimental references.

  13. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1992-02-01

    Polarized gas targets of atomic hydrogen and deuterium have significant advantages over conventional polarized targets, e.g. chemical and isotopic purity, large polarization including deuteron tensor polarization, absence of strong magnetic fields, rapid polarization reversal. While in principle the beam of polarized atoms from an atomic beam source (Stern-Gerlach spin separation) can be used as a polarized target, the target thickness achieved is too small for most applications. We propose to increase the target thickness by injecting the polarized atoms into a storage cell. Provided the atoms survive several hundred wall collisions without losing their polarization, it will be possible to achieve a target thickness of 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} by injection of polarized atoms from an atomic-beam source into suitable cells. Such targets are very attractive as internal targets in storage rings.

  14. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1992-02-01

    Polarized gas targets of atomic hydrogen and deuterium have significant advantages over conventional polarized targets, e.g. chemical and isotopic purity, large polarization including deuteron tensor polarization, absence of strong magnetic fields, rapid polarization reversal. While in principle the beam of polarized atoms from an atomic beam source (Stern-Gerlach spin separation) can be used as a polarized target, the target thickness achieved is too small for most applications. We propose to increase the target thickness by injecting the polarized atoms into a storage cell. Provided the atoms survive several hundred wall collisions without losing their polarization, it will be possible to achieve a target thickness of 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} by injection of polarized atoms from an atomic-beam source into suitable cells. Such targets are very attractive as internal targets in storage rings.

  15. Atomic layer deposition TiO2-Al2O3 stack: An improved gate dielectric on Ga-polar GaN metal oxide semiconductor capacitors

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Daming; Edgar, James H.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; ...

    2014-10-15

    This research focuses on the benefits and properties of TiO2-Al2O3 nano-stack thin films deposited on Ga2O3/GaN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) for gate dielectric development. This combination of materials achieved a high dielectric constant, a low leakage current, and a low interface trap density. Correlations were sought between the films’ structure, composition, and electrical properties. The gate dielectrics were approximately 15 nm thick and contained 5.1 nm TiO2, 7.1 nm Al2O3 and 2 nm Ga2O3 as determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The interface carbon concentration, as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile, was negligible for GaN pretreated bymore » thermal oxidation in O2 for 30 minutes at 850°C. The RMS roughness slightly increased after thermal oxidation and remained the same after ALD of the nano-stack, as determined by atomic force microscopy. The dielectric constant of TiO2-Al2O3 on Ga2O3/GaN was increased to 12.5 compared to that of pure Al2O3 (8~9) on GaN. In addition, the nano-stack's capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis was small, with a total trap density of 8.74 × 1011 cm-2. The gate leakage current density (J=2.81× 10-8 A/cm2) was low at +1 V gate bias. These results demonstrate the promising potential of plasma ALD deposited TiO2/Al2O3 for serving as the gate oxide on Ga2O3/GaN based MOS devices.« less

  16. Polarization measurement through combination polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yunfeng; Li, Linjun; He, Zhelong; Liu, Yanwei; Ma, Cheng; Shi, Guang; Liu, Lu

    2014-02-01

    Polarization measurement approaches only using polarizer and grating is present. The combination polarizers consists of two polarizers: one is γ degree with the X axis; the other is along the Y axis. Binary grating is covered by the combination polarizers, and based on Fraunhofer diffraction, the diffraction intensity formula is deduced. The polarization state of incident light can be gotten by fitting the diffraction pattern with the deduced formula. Compared with the traditional polarization measurement method, this measurement only uses polarizer and grating, therefore, it can be applied to measure a wide wavelength range without replacing device in theory.

  17. Measuring Gravitation Using Polarization Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    A proposed method of measuring gravitational acceleration would involve the application of polarization spectroscopy to an ultracold, vertically moving cloud of atoms (an atomic fountain). A related proposed method involving measurements of absorption of light pulses like those used in conventional atomic interferometry would yield an estimate of the number of atoms participating in the interferometric interaction. The basis of the first-mentioned proposed method is that the rotation of polarization of light is affected by the acceleration of atoms along the path of propagation of the light. The rotation of polarization is associated with a phase shift: When an atom moving in a laboratory reference interacts with an electromagnetic wave, the energy levels of the atom are Doppler-shifted, relative to where they would be if the atom were stationary. The Doppler shift gives rise to changes in the detuning of the light from the corresponding atomic transitions. This detuning, in turn, causes the electromagnetic wave to undergo a phase shift that can be measured by conventional means. One would infer the gravitational acceleration and/or the gradient of the gravitational acceleration from the phase measurements.

  18. Polarization effects in recoil-induced resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazebnyi, D. B.; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the field polarization on the amplitude of recoil-induced resonances (RIRs) is considered for laser-cooled free atoms and for atoms in a working magneto-optical trap (MOT). For all closed dipole transitions, explicit analytical expressions are obtained for the polarization dependence of the resonance amplitudes within a perturbation theory. Optimal polarization conditions are found for the observation of resonances.

  19. Observation of atomic oxygen O(1S) green-line emission in the summer polar upper mesosphere associated with high-energy (≥30 keV) electron precipitation during high-speed solar wind streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Solheim, Brian; Lee, Regina; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-01-01

    The auroral green-line emission at 557.7 nm wavelength as arising from the atomic oxygen O(1S → 1D) transition typically peaks at an altitude of 100 km specifically in the nightside oval, induced by auroral electrons within an energy range of 100 eV-30 keV. Intense aurora is known as being suppressed by sunlight in summer daytime but usually occurs in low electrical background conductivity. However, in the present study in summer (July) sunlit condition, enhancements of O(1S) emission rates observed by using the Wind Imaging Interferometer/UARS were frequently observed at low altitudes below 90 km, where ice particles are created initially as subvisible and detected as polar mesosphere summer echoes, emerging to be an optical phenomenon of polar mesospheric clouds. The intense O(1S) emission occurring in summer exceeds those occurring in the daytime in other seasons both in occurrence and in intensity, frequently accompanied by occurrences of supersonic neutral velocity (300-1500 m s-1). In the mesosphere, ion motion is controlled by electric field and the momentum is transferred to neutrals. The intense O(1S) emission is well associated with high-energy electron precipitation as observed during an event of high-speed solar wind streams. Meanwhile, since the minimum occurrences of O(1S) emission and supersonic velocity are maintained even in the low precipitation flux, the mechanism responsible is not only related to high-energy electron precipitation but also presumably to the local conditions, including the composition of meteoric-charged ice particles and charge separation expected in extremely low temperatures (<150 K).

  20. Internal polarized targets

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. ); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Reactivity and selectivity patterns in hydrogen atom transfer from amino acid C-H bonds to the cumyloxyl radical: polar effects as a rationale for the preferential reaction at proline residues.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Michela; Basili, Federica; Bietti, Massimo

    2015-04-03

    Absolute rate constants for hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from the C-H bonds of N-Boc-protected amino acids to the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) were measured by laser flash photolysis. With glycine, alanine, valine, norvaline, and tert-leucine, HAT occurs from the α-C-H bonds, and the stability of the α-carbon radical product plays a negligible role. With leucine, HAT from the α- and γ-C-H bonds was observed. The higher kH value measured for proline was explained in terms of polar effects, with HAT that predominantly occurs from the δ-C-H bonds, providing a rationale for the previous observation that proline residues represent favored HAT sites in the reactions of peptides and proteins with (•)OH. Preferential HAT from proline was also observed in the reactions of CumO(•) with the dipeptides N-BocProGlyOH and N-BocGlyGlyOH. The rate constants measured for CumO(•) were compared with the relative rates obtained previously for the corresponding reactions of different hydrogen-abstracting species. The behavior of CumO(•) falls between those observed for the highly reactive radicals Cl(•) and (•)OH and the significantly more stable Br(•). Taken together, these results provide a general framework for the description of the factors that govern reactivity and selectivity patterns in HAT reactions from amino acid C-H bonds.

  2. The RHIC polarized H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.

    2016-02-01

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H- ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H- ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC.

  3. Atomic orientation following predissociation of the C {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} Rydberg state of molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrist, A. J.; Ritchie, G. A. D.

    2013-06-07

    (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization in combination with time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (TOF-MS) has been used to detect both the O({sup 3}P) and O({sup 1}D) fragments produced as a result of predissociation of the C {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} (v= 0) and (v= 1) Rydberg states of O{sub 2}, accessed via two-photon absorption from the ground X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup -} state. In particular, TOF profiles have been recorded at various fixed two-photon absorption wavelengths within the two bands, with circular polarized probe laser light used to probe the angular momentum orientation of these photofragments. All photofragments are found to display coherent orientation resulting from interference between two possible two-photon absorption pathways. The measured orientation is affected by rotational depolarization due to the long lifetime of the excited C state; once this effect is accounted for the orientation is found to be nearly constant over all dissociation wavelengths. The origin of the coherent orientation is attributed to two-photon absorption to different spin-orbit components of the C state.

  4. Chiral atomically thin films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm(-1)) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  5. Chiral atomically thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  6. Design of a tensor polarized deuterium target polarized by spin-exchange with optically pumped NA

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.C.

    1984-05-01

    A proposed design for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10/sup 15/ atoms/cm/sup 2/) for nuclear physics studies in an electron storage ring accelerator is presented. The deuterium atoms undergo electron spin exchange with a highly polarized sodium vapor; this polarization is transferred to the deuterium nuclei via the hyperfine interaction. The deuterium nuclei obtain their tensor polarization through repeated electron spin exchange/hyperfine interactions. The sodium vapor polarization is maintained by standard optical pumping techniques. Model calculations are presented in detail leading to a discussion of the expected performance and the technical obstacles to be surmounted in the development of such a target. 15 references, 10 figures.

  7. Voltage linearity modulation and polarity dependent conduction in metal-insulator-metal capacitors with atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nano-stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Bao; Liu, Wen-Jun; Wei, Lei; Zhang, David Wei; Jiang, Anquan; Ding, Shi-Jin

    2015-07-07

    Excellent voltage linearity of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors is highly required for next generation radio frequency integration circuits. In this work, employing atomic layer deposition technique, we demonstrated how the voltage linearity of MIM capacitors was modulated by adding different thickness of SiO{sub 2} layer to the nano-stack of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}. It was found that the quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance (α) can be effectively reduced from 1279 to −75 ppm/V{sup 2} with increasing the thickness of SiO{sub 2} from zero to 4 nm, which is more powerful than increasing the thickness of ZrO{sub 2} in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} stack. This is attributed to counteraction between the positive α for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} and the negative one for SiO{sub 2} in the MIM capacitors with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stacks. Interestingly, voltage-polarity dependent conduction behaviors in the MIM capacitors were observed. For electron bottom-injection, the addition of SiO{sub 2} obviously suppressed the leakage current; however, it abnormally increased the leakage current for electron top-injection. These are ascribed to the co-existence of shallow and deep traps in ZrO{sub 2}, and the former is in favor of the field-assisted tunnelling conduction and the latter contributes to the trap-assisted tunnelling process. The above findings will be beneficial to device design and process optimization for high performance MIM capacitors.

  8. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  9. Ion-Atom Cold Collisions and Atomic Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Maleki, Lute; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Collisions between ultracold neutral atoms have for some time been the subject of investigation, initially with hydrogen and more recently with laser cooled alkali atoms. Advances in laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms in a Magneto-Optic Trap (MOT) have made cold atoms available as the starting point for many laser cooled atomic physics investigations. The most spectacularly successful of these, the observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) in a dilute ultra-cold spin polarized atomic vapor, has accelerated the study of cold collisions. Experimental and theoretical studies of BEC and the long range interaction between cold alkali atoms is at the boundary of atomic and low temperature physics. Such studies have been difficult and would not have been possible without the development and advancement of laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms. By contrast, ion-atom interactions at low temperature, also very difficult to study prior to modern day laser cooling, have remained largely unexplored. But now, many laboratories worldwide have almost routine access to cold neutral atoms. The combined technologies of ion trapping, together with laser cooling of neutrals has made these studies experimentally feasible and several very important, novel applications might come out of such investigations . This paper is an investigation of ion-atom interactions in the cold and ultra-cold temperature regime. Some of the collisional ion-atom interactions present at room temperature are very much reduced in the low temperature regime. Reaction rates for charge transfer between unlike atoms, A + B(+) approaches A(+) + B, are expected to fall rapidly with temperature, approximately as T(sup 5/2). Thus, cold mixtures of atoms and ions are expected to coexist for very long times, unlike room temperature mixtures of the same ion-atom combination. Thus, it seems feasible to cool ions via collisions with laser cooled atoms. Many of the conventional collisional interactions

  10. Ion-Atom Cold Collisions and Atomic Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Maleki, Lute; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Collisions between ultracold neutral atoms have for some time been the subject of investigation, initially with hydrogen and more recently with laser cooled alkali atoms. Advances in laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms in a Magneto-Optic Trap (MOT) have made cold atoms available as the starting point for many laser cooled atomic physics investigations. The most spectacularly successful of these, the observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) in a dilute ultra-cold spin polarized atomic vapor, has accelerated the study of cold collisions. Experimental and theoretical studies of BEC and the long range interaction between cold alkali atoms is at the boundary of atomic and low temperature physics. Such studies have been difficult and would not have been possible without the development and advancement of laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms. By contrast, ion-atom interactions at low temperature, also very difficult to study prior to modern day laser cooling, have remained largely unexplored. But now, many laboratories worldwide have almost routine access to cold neutral atoms. The combined technologies of ion trapping, together with laser cooling of neutrals has made these studies experimentally feasible and several very important, novel applications might come out of such investigations . This paper is an investigation of ion-atom interactions in the cold and ultra-cold temperature regime. Some of the collisional ion-atom interactions present at room temperature are very much reduced in the low temperature regime. Reaction rates for charge transfer between unlike atoms, A + B(+) approaches A(+) + B, are expected to fall rapidly with temperature, approximately as T(sup 5/2). Thus, cold mixtures of atoms and ions are expected to coexist for very long times, unlike room temperature mixtures of the same ion-atom combination. Thus, it seems feasible to cool ions via collisions with laser cooled atoms. Many of the conventional collisional interactions

  11. Polar Bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.D.; ,; Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  12. Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Murray, Peter J

    2017-02-10

    Macrophage polarization refers to how macrophages have been activated at a given point in space and time. Polarization is not fixed, as macrophages are sufficiently plastic to integrate multiple signals, such as those from microbes, damaged tissues, and the normal tissue environment. Three broad pathways control polarization: epigenetic and cell survival pathways that prolong or shorten macrophage development and viability, the tissue microenvironment, and extrinsic factors, such as microbial products and cytokines released in inflammation. A plethora of advances have provided a framework for rationally purifying, describing, and manipulating macrophage polarization. Here, I assess the current state of knowledge about macrophage polarization and enumerate the major questions about how activated macrophages regulate the physiology of normal and damaged tissues.

  13. Scattering Polarization in the Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, C. U.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Scattering polarization from the photosphere observed close to the solar limb has recently become of interest to study turbulent magnetic fields, abundances, and radiative transfer effects. We extend these studies by measuring the scattering polarization off the limb, i.e. in the chromosphere. However, instrumental effects are much more pronounced and more complicated than those affecting on-disk measurements. In particular, scattered light from the telescope mirrors leads to a new type of instrumental polarization that we describe in detail. The differences between the linearly polarized spectra on the disk and off the limb are often very substantial. Here we show the profiles of HeI D(sub 3), the OI triplet at 777 nm, and the Nal D lines. The change in the latter is in reasonable agreement with the recent modeling efforts of atomic polarization in the lower level by Landi Degl'Innocenti (1998).

  14. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Charles D.

    1991-01-01

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neutrons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  15. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neturons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  16. Homogeneous Atomic Fermi Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yan, Zhenjie; Patel, Parth B.; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Yefsah, Tarik; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the creation of homogeneous Fermi gases of ultracold atoms in a uniform potential. In the momentum distribution of a spin-polarized gas, we observe the emergence of the Fermi surface and the saturated occupation of one particle per momentum state: the striking consequence of Pauli blocking in momentum space for a degenerate gas. Cooling a spin-balanced Fermi gas at unitarity, we create homogeneous superfluids and observe spatially uniform pair condensates. For thermodynamic measurements, we introduce a hybrid potential that is harmonic in one dimension and uniform in the other two. The spatially resolved compressibility reveals the superfluid transition in a spin-balanced Fermi gas, saturation in a fully polarized Fermi gas, and strong attraction in the polaronic regime of a partially polarized Fermi gas.

  17. Electronegativity determination of individual surface atoms by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Jo; Ondráček, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Electronegativity is a fundamental concept in chemistry. Despite its importance, the experimental determination has been limited only to ensemble-averaged techniques. Here, we report a methodology to evaluate the electronegativity of individual surface atoms by atomic force microscopy. By measuring bond energies on the surface atoms using different tips, we find characteristic linear relations between the bond energies of different chemical species. We show that the linear relation can be rationalized by Pauling's equation for polar covalent bonds. This opens the possibility to characterize the electronegativity of individual surface atoms. Moreover, we demonstrate that the method is sensitive to variation of the electronegativity of given atomic species on a surface due to different chemical environments. Our findings open up ways of analysing surface chemical reactivity at the atomic scale.

  18. Electronegativity determination of individual surface atoms by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Jo; Ondráček, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Electronegativity is a fundamental concept in chemistry. Despite its importance, the experimental determination has been limited only to ensemble-averaged techniques. Here, we report a methodology to evaluate the electronegativity of individual surface atoms by atomic force microscopy. By measuring bond energies on the surface atoms using different tips, we find characteristic linear relations between the bond energies of different chemical species. We show that the linear relation can be rationalized by Pauling's equation for polar covalent bonds. This opens the possibility to characterize the electronegativity of individual surface atoms. Moreover, we demonstrate that the method is sensitive to variation of the electronegativity of given atomic species on a surface due to different chemical environments. Our findings open up ways of analysing surface chemical reactivity at the atomic scale. PMID:28443645

  19. Electronegativity determination of individual surface atoms by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Jo; Ondráček, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-04-26

    Electronegativity is a fundamental concept in chemistry. Despite its importance, the experimental determination has been limited only to ensemble-averaged techniques. Here, we report a methodology to evaluate the electronegativity of individual surface atoms by atomic force microscopy. By measuring bond energies on the surface atoms using different tips, we find characteristic linear relations between the bond energies of different chemical species. We show that the linear relation can be rationalized by Pauling's equation for polar covalent bonds. This opens the possibility to characterize the electronegativity of individual surface atoms. Moreover, we demonstrate that the method is sensitive to variation of the electronegativity of given atomic species on a surface due to different chemical environments. Our findings open up ways of analysing surface chemical reactivity at the atomic scale.

  20. Understanding ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julienne, Paul

    2009-05-01

    The successful production of a dense sample of ultracold ground state KRb polar molecules [1] opens the door to a new era of research with dipolar gases and lattices of such species. This feat was achieved by first associating a K and a Rb atom to make a weakly bound Feshbach molecule and then coherently transferring the population to the ground vibrational level of the molecule. This talk focuses on theoretical issues associated with making and using ultracold polar molecules, using KRb as an example [2]. Full understanding of this species and the processes by which it is made requires taking advantage of accurate molecular potentials [3], ab initio calculations [4], and the properties of the long-range potential. A highly accurate model is available for KRb for all bound states below the ground state separated atom limit and could be constructed for other species. The next step is to develop an understanding of the interactions between polar molecules, and their control in the ultracold domain. Understanding long-range interactions and threshold resonances will be crucial for future work. [1] K.-K. Ni, et al, Science 322, 231(2008). [2] P. S. Julienne, arXiv:0812:1233. [3] Pashov et al., Phys. Rev. A76, 022511 (2007). [4] S. Kotochigova, et al., arXiv:0901.1486.

  1. Polar Bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  2. Polar Glaciology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robin, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    Two fields of research on polar ice sheets are likely to be of dominant interest during the 1990s. These are: the role of polar ice sheets in the hydrological cycle ocean-atmosphere-ice sheets-oceans, especially in relation to climate change; and the study and interpretation of material in deep ice cores to provide improved knowledge of past climates and of the varying levels of atmospheric constituents such as CO2, NOx, SO2, aerosols, etc., over the past 200,000 years. Both topics require a better knowledge of ice dynamics. Many of the studies that should be undertaken in polar regions by Earth Observing System require similar instruments and techniques to those used elsewhere over oceans and inland surfaces. However to study polar regions two special requirements need to be met: Earth Observing System satellite(s) need to be in a sufficiently high inclination orbit to cover most of the polar regions. Instruments must also be adapted, often by relatively limited changes, to give satisfactory data over polar ice. The observational requirements for polar ice sheets in the 1990s are summarized.

  3. Real-time detection of S(1D2) photofragments produced from the 1B2(1Σu+) state of CS2 by vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron imaging using 133 nm probe pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horio, Takuya; Spesyvtsev, Roman; Furumido, Yu; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2017-07-01

    Ultrafast photodissociation dynamics from the 1B2(1Σu+) state of CS2 are studied by time-resolved photoelectron imaging using the fourth (4ω, 198 nm) and sixth (6ω, 133 nm) harmonics of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. The 1B2 state of CS2 was prepared with the 4ω pulses, and subsequent dynamics were probed using the 6ω vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) pulses. The VUV pulses enabled real-time detection of S(1D2) photofragments, produced via CS2*(1B2(1Σu+)) → CS(X 1Σ+) + S(1D2). The photoionization signal of dissociating CS2*(1B2(1Σu+)) molecules starts to decrease at about 100 fs, while the S(1D2) fragments appear with a finite (ca. 400 fs) delay time after the pump pulse. Also discussed is the configuration interaction of the 1B2(1Σu+) state based on relative photoionization cross-sections to different cationic states.

  4. Physics with Cold Polarized Positronium

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, David B.

    2009-09-02

    Positronium (Ps) atoms exist in different spin configurations that determine their fundamental properties, such as energy level structure, decay rate and response to a magnetic field. The nature of interactions between Ps atoms is also strongly influenced by their relative spin states; oppositely polarized Ps atoms may exchange particles and scatter into different states, or join together to form molecular positronium. Conversely, interactions between spin aligned Ps atoms cannot lead directly to changes of spin states or molecule formation, but at high densities/low temperatures a collection of such atoms may undergo a phase transition to form a Bose-Einstein condensate. Here I consider some of the physics involved in such interactions and the positron beam parameters required to conduct such experiments.

  5. Polar Plumage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-08

    This Mars MOC image shows dunes in the north polar region of Mars covered by a layer of carbon dioxide frost that accumulated during the winter in 2005. Dark spots indicate areas where frost has begun to sublime away

  6. Polar Dunes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-27

    By high summer, the extensive dune fields of the north polar region are completely defrosted and the number and variety of dunes are readily visible. This image was captured by NASA Mars Odyssey on August 31, 2010.

  7. Polar Cone

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-10

    This MOC image shows a cone-shaped hill, perhaps a remnant of a material that was once more laterally extensive across the area, on a textured plain in the Hyperboreus Labyrinthus region in the north polar region of Mars

  8. Polarizing cues.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.

  9. Polar Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-27

    With the changing of seasons comes changes in weather. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows clouds in the north polar region. The surface is just barely visible in part of the image.

  10. Elliptical polarization of near-resonant linearly polarized probe light in optically pumped alkali metal vapor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingying; Wang, Zhiguo; Jin, Shilong; Yuan, Jie; Luo, Hui

    2017-02-20

    Optically pumped alkali metal atoms currently provide a sensitive solution for magnetic microscopic measurements. As the most practicable plan, Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light is extensively used in spin polarization measurements of alkali metal atoms. In some cases, near-resonant Faraday rotation is applied to improve the sensitivity. However, the near-resonant linearly polarized probe light is elliptically polarized after passing through optically pumped alkali metal vapor. The ellipticity of transmitted near-resonant probe light is numerically calculated and experimentally measured. In addition, we also analyze the negative impact of elliptical polarization on Faraday rotation measurements. From our theoretical estimate and experimental results, the elliptical polarization forms an inevitable error in spin polarization measurements.

  11. Elliptical polarization of near-resonant linearly polarized probe light in optically pumped alkali metal vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingying; Wang, Zhiguo; Jin, Shilong; Yuan, Jie; Luo, Hui

    2017-02-01

    Optically pumped alkali metal atoms currently provide a sensitive solution for magnetic microscopic measurements. As the most practicable plan, Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light is extensively used in spin polarization measurements of alkali metal atoms. In some cases, near-resonant Faraday rotation is applied to improve the sensitivity. However, the near-resonant linearly polarized probe light is elliptically polarized after passing through optically pumped alkali metal vapor. The ellipticity of transmitted near-resonant probe light is numerically calculated and experimentally measured. In addition, we also analyze the negative impact of elliptical polarization on Faraday rotation measurements. From our theoretical estimate and experimental results, the elliptical polarization forms an inevitable error in spin polarization measurements.

  12. Elliptical polarization of near-resonant linearly polarized probe light in optically pumped alkali metal vapor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingying; Wang, Zhiguo; Jin, Shilong; Yuan, Jie; Luo, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Optically pumped alkali metal atoms currently provide a sensitive solution for magnetic microscopic measurements. As the most practicable plan, Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light is extensively used in spin polarization measurements of alkali metal atoms. In some cases, near-resonant Faraday rotation is applied to improve the sensitivity. However, the near-resonant linearly polarized probe light is elliptically polarized after passing through optically pumped alkali metal vapor. The ellipticity of transmitted near-resonant probe light is numerically calculated and experimentally measured. In addition, we also analyze the negative impact of elliptical polarization on Faraday rotation measurements. From our theoretical estimate and experimental results, the elliptical polarization forms an inevitable error in spin polarization measurements. PMID:28216649

  13. Optically pumped polarized ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.W.

    1995-04-01

    Polarized negative hydrogen ions are produced in an optically pumped polarized ion source (OPPIS) as follows. A proton beam is extracted from an ECR ion source, accelerated to an energy of a few kilovolts, and focused into a parallel beam. The proton beam is passed through an optically pumped electron spin polarized alkali vapor target in a large magnetic field where the proton beam is partially neutralized by the pick-up of a polarized electron. The optically pumped alkali vapor target must be in a magnetic field large enough to decouple L and S in the n=2 level of atomic hydrogen so that the radiative decay to the ground level does not result in the loss of electron spin polarization. The large magnetic field also helps avoid radiation trapping limitations on the alkali density. The resulting fast atomic hydrogen beam passes through zero field where Sona transitions convert the electron spin polarization into nuclear spin polarization. The beam then is partially converted into polarized negative hydrogen ions in a sodium vapor target. At the present time the best dc OPPIS (at TRIUMF) produces 120 {mu}A with a polarization of 0.8. The best pulsed OPPIS (at INR in Moscow) produces 400 {mu}A. The use of OPPIS with deuterium has been pioneered at KEK in Japan. There is current research at TRIUMF on the possibility of using multiple spin/charge exchange collisions to increase the available current into the mA range, and there is current research at Osaka in the use of the technique with heavier ions such as helium.

  14. Hepatocyte Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Treyer, Aleksandr; Müsch, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocytes, like other epithelia, are situated at the interface between the organism’s exterior and the underlying internal milieu and organize the vectorial exchange of macromolecules between these two spaces. To mediate this function, epithelial cells, including hepatocytes, are polarized with distinct luminal domains that are separated by tight junctions from lateral domains engaged in cell-cell adhesion and from basal domains that interact with the underlying extracellular matrix. Despite these universal principles, hepatocytes distinguish themselves from other nonstriated epithelia by their multipolar organization. Each hepatocyte participates in multiple, narrow lumina, the bile canaliculi, and has multiple basal surfaces that face the endothelial lining. Hepatocytes also differ in the mechanism of luminal protein trafficking from other epithelia studied. They lack polarized protein secretion to the luminal domain and target single-spanning and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored bile canalicular membrane proteins via transcytosis from the basolateral domain. We compare this unique hepatic polarity phenotype with that of the more common columnar epithelial organization and review our current knowledge of the signaling mechanisms and the organization of polarized protein trafficking that govern the establishment and maintenance of hepatic polarity. The serine/threonine kinase LKB1, which is activated by the bile acid taurocholate and, in turn, activates adenosine monophosphate kinase-related kinases including AMPK1/2 and Par1 paralogues has emerged as a key determinant of hepatic polarity. We propose that the absence of a hepatocyte basal lamina and differences in cell-cell adhesion signaling that determine the positioning of tight junctions are two crucial determinants for the distinct hepatic and columnar polarity phenotypes. PMID:23720287

  15. Intense polarized /sup 3/He ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Slobodrian, R.J.; Bertrand, R.; Grioux, J.; Labrie, R.; Lapainte, R.; Meunier, J.F.; Pigeon, G.; Pouliot, L.; Rioux, C.; Roy, R.

    1985-10-01

    This source is based on the atomic polarization of the 2/sup 3/S/sub 1/ metastable state of the neutral atom. A version suitable for operation on the high voltage terminal of a CN Van de Graaff has been constructed, bench tested and installed in the terminal of a 7.5 MV machine. The polarization of the atomic beam is higher than 90%. It is now fully operational and a current of /sup 3/He/sup +/ of 300 nA has been measured after acceleration.

  16. Surface spin polarization induced ferromagnetic Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Po-Hsun; Li, Wen-Hsien; Wu, Sheng Yun

    2016-05-01

    We report on the observation of ferromagnetic spin polarized moments in 4.5 nm Ag nanoparticles. Both ferromagnetic and diamagnetic responses to an applied magnetic field were detected. The spin polarized moments shown under non-linear thermoinduced magnetization appeared on the surface atoms, rather than on all the atoms in particles. The saturation magnetization departed substantially from the Bloch T3/2-law, showing the existence of magnetic anisotropy. The Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin wave model for Ha-aligned moments was then employed to identify the magnetic anisotropic energy gap of ~0.12 meV. Our results may be understood by assuming the surface magnetism model, in which the surface atoms give rise to polarized moments while the core atoms produce diamagnetic responses.

  17. Rotationally resolved spectroscopy of the A~ 2A1<--X~ 2B1 transition of H2S+ above the barrier to linearity using the mass-analyzed threshold ionization photofragment excitation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songhee; Kang, Tae Yeon; Kim, Sang Kyu

    2010-03-01

    The à A21←X˜ B21 transitions of H2S+ above the barrier to linearity have been investigated with the energy resolution high enough to identify individual rotational transition lines for the first time. The rotational cooling of the cation is achieved either by the direct ionization or mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) technique employed in the vacuum-ultraviolet laser excitation of the jet-cooled H2S. Subsequent photoexcitation leads to the H2S+→H2+S+ dissociation and the S+ product yield taken as a function of the excitation energy gives the photofragment excitation (PHOFEX) spectra. The combined use of MATI and PHOFEX techniques greatly simplifies the spectrum allowing the accurate identification of the rotationally resolved bands which is otherwise a formidable task due to the intrinsic complexity of the à A21←X˜ B21 transition. Highly excited states of Ã(0,7,0), Ã(0,8,0), and Ã(0,9,0) vibronic levels with different K quantum numbers which are located above the barrier to linearity are thoroughly investigated. The bent-to-quasilinear transition of H2S+ above the barrier to linearity shows the characteristics of the Renner-Teller effect, showing the large A rotational constant and strong intensity borrowing of the highly vibrationally excited ground levels such as X˜(0,23,0) or X˜(0,24,0) in the dipole-allowed excitation. Spectroscopic parameters of term values, rotational, and spin-orbit coupling constants are precisely determined in this work, providing the most quantitative spectroscopic structure of the H2S+ to date. Quantum-state dependent photodissociation dynamics are also discussed from spectral features of PHOFEX.

  18. Polarized Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Susan Resneck

    1991-01-01

    On college campuses, the climate is polarized because of intolerance and discrimination, censorship, factionalism, and anger among students and faculty. As a result, the campus is in danger of becoming dominated by political issues and discouraging the exchange of ideas characteristic of a true liberal arts education. (MSE)

  19. Polar Stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  20. Polar Dune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-01

    A large sand sheet with surface dune forms is located on the floor of this crater near the south pole. The polar cap rests against the southern part of the sand sheet. The dune appears bright in this daytime 2001 Mars Odyssey THEMIS IR image.

  1. Polar metals by geometric design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. H.; Puggioni, D.; Yuan, Y.; Xie, L.; Zhou, H.; Campbell, N.; Ryan, P. J.; Choi, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Patzner, J. R.; Ryu, S.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Irwin, J.; Ma, Y.; Fennie, C. J.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Pan, X. Q.; Gopalan, V.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-05-01

    Gauss’s law dictates that the net electric field inside a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium is zero by effective charge screening; free carriers within a metal eliminate internal dipoles that may arise owing to asymmetric charge distributions. Quantum physics supports this view, demonstrating that delocalized electrons make a static macroscopic polarization, an ill-defined quantity in metals—it is exceedingly unusual to find a polar metal that exhibits long-range ordered dipoles owing to cooperative atomic displacements aligned from dipolar interactions as in insulating phases. Here we describe the quantum mechanical design and experimental realization of room-temperature polar metals in thin-film ANiO3 perovskite nickelates using a strategy based on atomic-scale control of inversion-preserving (centric) displacements. We predict with ab initio calculations that cooperative polar A cation displacements are geometrically stabilized with a non-equilibrium amplitude and tilt pattern of the corner-connected NiO6 octahedra—the structural signatures of perovskites—owing to geometric constraints imposed by the underlying substrate. Heteroepitaxial thin-films grown on LaAlO3 (111) substrates fulfil the design principles. We achieve both a conducting polar monoclinic oxide that is inaccessible in compositionally identical films grown on (001) substrates, and observe a hidden, previously unreported, non-equilibrium structure in thin-film geometries. We expect that the geometric stabilization approach will provide novel avenues for realizing new multifunctional materials with unusual coexisting properties.

  2. Polar Metals by Geometric Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T. H.; Puggioni, D.; Yuan, Y.; Xie, L.; Zhou, H.; Campbell, N.; Ryan, P. J.; Choi, Y.; Kim, J. -W.; Patzner, J. R.; Ryu, S.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Irwin, J.; Ma, Y.; Fennie, C. J.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Pan, X. Q.; Gopalan, V.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-05-05

    Gauss's law dictates that the net electric field inside a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium is zero by effective charge screening; free carriers within a metal eliminate internal dipoles that may arise owing to asymmetric charge distributions(1). Quantum physics supports this view(2), demonstrating that delocalized electrons make a static macroscopic polarization, an ill-defined quantity in metals(3)-it is exceedingly unusual to find a polar metal that exhibits long-range ordered dipoles owing to cooperative atomic displacements aligned from dipolar interactions as in insulating phases(4). Here we describe the quantum mechanical design and experimental realization of room-temperature polar metals in thin-film ANiO(3) perovskite nickelates using a strategy based on atomic-scale control of inversion-preserving (centric) displacements(5). We predict with ab initio calculations that cooperative polar A cation displacements are geometrically stabilized with a non-equilibrium amplitude and tilt pattern of the corner-connected NiO6 octahedra-the structural signatures of perovskites-owing to geometric constraints imposed by the underlying substrate. Heteroepitaxial thin-films grown on LaAlO3 (111) substrates fulfil the design principles. We achieve both a conducting polar monoclinic oxide that is inaccessible in compositionally identical films grown on (001) substrates, and observe a hidden, previously unreported(6-10), non-equilibrium structure in thin-film geometries. We expect that the geometric stabilization approach will provide novel avenues for realizing new multifunctional materials with unusual coexisting properties.

  3. Atomic Calligraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imboden, Matthias; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian; Han, Han; Tareen, Ammar; Chang, Jackson; Christopher, Jason; Corman, Benjamin; Bishop, David

    2013-03-01

    Here we present a MEMS based method to fabricate devices with a small number of atoms. In standard semiconductor fabrication, a large amount of material is deposited, after which etching removes what is not wanted. This technique breaks down for structures that approach the single atom limit, as it is inconceivable to etch away all but one atom. What is needed is a bottom up method with single or near single atom precision. We demonstrate a MEMS device that enables nanometer position controlled deposition of gold atoms. A digitally driven plate is swept as a flux of gold atoms passes through an aperture. Appling voltages on four comb capacitors connected to the central plate by tethers enable nanometer lateral precision in the xy plane over 15x15 sq. microns. Typical MEMS structures have manufacturing resolutions on the order of a micron. Using a FIB it is possible to mill apertures as small as 10 nm in diameter. Assuming a low incident atomic flux, as well as an integrated MEMS based shutter with microsecond response time, it becomes possible to deposit single atoms. Due to their small size and low power consumption, such nano-printers can be mounted directly in a cryogenic system at ultrahigh vacuum to deposit clean quench condensed metallic structures.

  4. Atomic supersymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostelecky, V. Alan

    1993-01-01

    Atomic supersymmetry is a quantum-mechanical supersymmetry connecting the properties of different atoms and ions. A short description of some established results in the subject are provided and a few recent developments are discussed including the extension to parabolic coordinates and the calculation of Stark maps using supersymmetry-based models.

  5. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-10-20

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  6. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    PubMed Central

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations. PMID:26481853

  7. Coherent population trapping with polarization modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Peter Guérandel, Stéphane; Clercq, Emeric de

    2016-06-28

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) is extensively studied for future vapor cell clocks of high frequency stability. In the constructive polarization modulation CPT scheme, a bichromatic laser field with polarization and phase synchronously modulated is applied on an atomic medium. A high contrast CPT signal is observed in this so-called double-modulation configuration, due to the fact that the atomic population does not leak to the extreme Zeeman states, and that the two CPT dark states, which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations, add constructively. Here, we experimentally investigate CPT signal dynamics first in the usual configuration, a single circular polarization. The double-modulation scheme is then addressed in both cases: one pulse Rabi interaction and two pulses Ramsey interaction. The impact and the optimization of the experimental parameters involved in the time sequence are reviewed. We show that a simple seven-level model explains the experimental observations. The double-modulation scheme yields a high contrast similar to the one of other high contrast configurations like push-pull optical pumping or crossed linear polarization scheme, with a setup allowing a higher compactness. The constructive polarization modulation is attractive for atomic clock, atomic magnetometer, and high precision spectroscopy applications.

  8. Coherent population trapping with polarization modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Peter; Guérandel, Stéphane; de Clercq, Emeric

    2016-06-01

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) is extensively studied for future vapor cell clocks of high frequency stability. In the constructive polarization modulation CPT scheme, a bichromatic laser field with polarization and phase synchronously modulated is applied on an atomic medium. A high contrast CPT signal is observed in this so-called double-modulation configuration, due to the fact that the atomic population does not leak to the extreme Zeeman states, and that the two CPT dark states, which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations, add constructively. Here, we experimentally investigate CPT signal dynamics first in the usual configuration, a single circular polarization. The double-modulation scheme is then addressed in both cases: one pulse Rabi interaction and two pulses Ramsey interaction. The impact and the optimization of the experimental parameters involved in the time sequence are reviewed. We show that a simple seven-level model explains the experimental observations. The double-modulation scheme yields a high contrast similar to the one of other high contrast configurations like push-pull optical pumping or crossed linear polarization scheme, with a setup allowing a higher compactness. The constructive polarization modulation is attractive for atomic clock, atomic magnetometer, and high precision spectroscopy applications.

  9. Cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Romereim, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive genetic analysis of the dynamic multi-phase process that transforms a small population of lateral plate mesoderm into the mature limb skeleton, the mechanisms by which signaling pathways regulate cellular behaviors to generate morphogenetic forces are not known. Recently, a series of papers have offered the intriguing possibility that regulated cell polarity fine-tunes the morphogenetic process via orienting cell axes, division planes and cell movements. Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical signaling, which may include planar cell polarity, has emerged as a common thread in the otherwise distinct signaling networks that regulate morphogenesis in each phase of limb development. These findings position the limb as a key model to elucidate how global tissue patterning pathways direct local differences in cell behavior that, in turn, generate growth and form. PMID:22064549

  10. Polar Diving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    3 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers exposed by erosion in a trough within the north polar residual cap of Mars, diving beneath a younger covering of polar materials. The layers have, since the Mariner 9 mission in 1972, been interpreted to be composed of a combination of dust and ice in unknown proportions. In this scene, a layer of solid carbon dioxide, which was deposited during the previous autumn and winter, blankets the trough as well as the adjacent terrain. Throughout northern spring, the carbon dioxide will be removed; by summer, the layers will be frost-free.

    Location near: 81.4oN, 352.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  11. Polar Diving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    3 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers exposed by erosion in a trough within the north polar residual cap of Mars, diving beneath a younger covering of polar materials. The layers have, since the Mariner 9 mission in 1972, been interpreted to be composed of a combination of dust and ice in unknown proportions. In this scene, a layer of solid carbon dioxide, which was deposited during the previous autumn and winter, blankets the trough as well as the adjacent terrain. Throughout northern spring, the carbon dioxide will be removed; by summer, the layers will be frost-free.

    Location near: 81.4oN, 352.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  12. Polar Textures

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-08

    This VIS image of the south pole was taken at the end of summer. Frost will soon start to form as the season transitions into fall. Fall in the southern hemisphere means spring in the northern, so the north polar cap is just starting to thaw. Orbit Number: 67893 Latitude: -87.0251 Longitude: 275.679 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2017-04-04 06:19 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21679

  13. Influence of polarity on GaN thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastro, M. A.; Kryliouk, O. M.; Anderson, T. J.; Davydov, A.; Shapiro, A.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of the stability of Ga- and N-polar GaN films was made in different gas ambients (N 2, H 2, NH 3, HCl). The Ga-polar films were observed to undergo a dissociative sublimation, while the N-polar films formed condensed Ga in addition to the gaseous species. The difference in polarity affects the morphology and bonding on the surface, and thus, stability of the atoms bonded to the surface.

  14. Oriented molecule beams: Focusing and orientation of t-butyl iodide with analysis by polarized laser photofragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qi-Xun; Jung, Kyung-Hoon; Bernstein, Richard B.

    1988-08-01

    The tert-butyl iodide molecule is readily focused with the electrostatic hexapole, via its first-order Stark effect as a pseudo-symmetric top. The pulsed, seeded supersonic focused beam, characterized by =Vth/ V0 (where θ is the angle between the molecular dipole axis μ and the electric field E; ±V0 the hexapole ``rod voltage,'' and Vth the so-called threshold voltage), passes into a small homogeneous electric field in which it is oriented. The degree of laboratory orientation achieved is measured using the method of linearly polarized laser-induced photofragmentation [S. R. Gandhi, T. J. Curtiss, and R. B. Bernstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2951 (1987)], operating (at three laser wavelengths) on the I(2P3/2) and I(2P1/2) as well as the t-C4H9 radical photofragments. The results show that the oriented beam molecules of t-butyl iodide (at a rotational temperature near 15 K) have a higher degree of orientation than the prototype CH3I molecules (JKM state-selected and focused similarly), explainable by the greater importance of the so-called hyperfine disorientation effect for the prolate symmetric top (CH3I) than for the t-C4H9I. For the latter, orientations with photofragment up-down asymmetry ratios as large as a factor of 10 can be achieved, suggesting that t-C4H9I is an excellent candidate reagent for reactive asymmetry studies.

  15. The RHIC polarized H{sup −} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A. Atoian, G.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.

    2016-02-15

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H{sup −} ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H{sup −} ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC.

  16. Optical pumping of rubidium atoms frozen in solid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagin, Andrew N.; Regmi, Sameer K.; Pathak, Pawan; Weinstein, Jonathan D.

    2013-12-01

    We have grown crystals of solid argon doped with rubidium atoms. The spectrum of the implanted atoms depends on the crystal-growth temperature and annealing history. We have used optical pumping to polarize the spin state of the implanted atoms and polarization spectroscopy to detect the spin state and measure the spin-relaxation time. In addition to the desired optical pumping, we also observed modification of the absorption spectrum of the rubidium due to the applied light.

  17. Epitaxial growth of polar KTaO3 thin-films on polar perovskite substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J.; Nichols, J.; Hwang, J.; Seo, S. S. A.

    2014-03-01

    The atomic polarity plays an important role in a wide range of physical phenomena at heterointerfaces. For example, the polar/non-polar nature of a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 system induces partial conducting electrons at the heterointerfaces to avoid diverging electrostatic potential, the so-called ``polar catastrophe,'' which results in intriguing two-dimensional transport and magnetic properties. In this presentation, we discuss another system in which the role of the polar interface is important: the KTaO3/GdScO3 (KTO/GSO) polar/polar system. At the KTO/GSO interface, there is a ``polar conflict'' heterointerface along the [001] direction, where the AO and BO2 layers have reversed net charges so that there is a conflict between the chemical bonding and the electrostatic charges, i.e. K1+O2-(1-)/Sc3+O24- (1-) or Ta5+O24- (1 +) /Gd3+O2-(1 +) , which is unstable in the electrostatic point of view. We ask a fundamental question: ``How is the polar conflict resolved in the atomically flat heterointerfaces of such polar/polar systems?'' We have synthesized epitaxial KTO thin films on GSO substrates using pulsed laser deposition. From X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we have observed that the polar conflict is quite effectively avoided by forming only two non-polar mono-layers at the heterointerface, resulting in high-quality epitaxial thin films on top of the layers. Our result suggests a new way to create two-dimensional confined layers using the polar conflict of the heterointerfaces of two polar materials.

  18. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  19. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  20. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  1. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  2. Ion-extraction polarimetry for polarized internal targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.-L.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Buchholz, M.; Bulten, H. J.; Doets, M.; Lang, J.; Neal, J.

    1996-02-01

    We discuss ion extraction from an internal target in a storage ring, separation of atomic and molecular species, and subsequent measurement of the polarization of the atomic ions. This technique can be applied to internal targets of polarized hydrogen, deuterium, 3He and other gases. Here, we report on the development of such a device for a tensor polarized deuterium gas target internal to a medium-energy electron storage ring. Ions were extracted from a storage cell using a spherical deflector and transported to a mass analyzer. In a prototype setup, using electrons from a gun to simulate the electron beam from a storage ring, the tensor polarization of the atomic ions was measured using the 3H(d¯, n) α reaction. The data show that the extraction of ions from a storage-cell target, followed by their mass and polarization analysis, allows the determination of the nuclear polarization of the target independent of its spatial and temporal variations.

  3. Polar Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    10 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded remnants of carbon dioxide ice in the south polar residual cap of Mars. The scarps that outline each small mesa have retreated about 3 meters (10 feet) per Mars year since MGS began orbiting the red planet in 1997.

    Location near: 87.0oS, 31.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  4. Atomic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Connatser, Robert; Cothren, Bobby; Johnson, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed by the University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Center for Applied Optics (CAO) entitled Atomic Research is documented. Atomic oxygen (AO) effects on materials have long been a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The objective of this research effort was to provide technical expertise in the design of instrumentation and experimental techniques for analyzing materials exposed to atomic oxygen in accelerated testing at NASA/MSFC. Such testing was required to answer fundamental questions concerning Space Station Freedom (SSF) candidate materials and materials exposed to atomic oxygen aboard the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The primary UAH task was to provide technical design, review, and analysis to MSFC in the development of a state-of-the-art 5eV atomic oxygen beam facility required to simulate the RAM-induced low earth orbit (LEO) AO environment. This development was to be accomplished primarily at NASA/MSFC. In support of this task, contamination effects and ultraviolet (UV) simulation testing was also to be carried out using NASA/MSFC facilities. Any materials analysis of LDEF samples was to be accomplished at UAH.

  5. Polar ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S.; Grose, W. L.; Jones, R. L.; Mccormick, M. P.; Molina, Mario J.; Oneill, A.; Poole, L. R.; Shine, K. P.; Plumb, R. A.; Pope, V.

    1990-01-01

    The observation and interpretation of a large, unexpected ozone depletion over Antarctica has changed the international scientific view of stratospheric chemistry. The observations which show the veracity, seasonal nature, and vertical structure of the Antarctic ozone hole are presented. Evidence for Arctic and midlatitude ozone loss is also discussed. The chemical theory for Antarctic ozone depletion centers around the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in Antarctic winter and spring; the climatology and radiative properties of these clouds are presented. Lab studies of the physical properties of PSCs and the chemical processes that subsequently influence ozone depletion are discussed. Observations and interpretation of the chemical composition of the Antarctic stratosphere are described. It is shown that the observed, greatly enhanced abundances of chlorine monoxide in the lower stratosphere are sufficient to explain much if not all of the ozone decrease. The dynamic meteorology of both polar regions is given, interannual and interhemispheric variations in dynamical processes are outlined, and their likely roles in ozone loss are discussed.

  6. Polar Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03577 Polar Terrains

    The region surrounding the South Polar Cap contains many different terrain types. This image shows both etched terrain and a region of 'mounds'.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 75S, Longitude 286.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Polar Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03638 Polar Textures

    This image illustrates the variety of textures that appear in the south polar region during late summer.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.5S, Longitude 57.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Polarized tritium target development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    Work began on the development of a completely sealed polarized tritium target for experiments at CEBAF. Because of the similarities between optical pumping of tritium and hydrogen, all prototype work is done with hydrogen. We constructed a test station for filling glassware with hydrogen, where we can dissociate molecular hydrogen and monitor the purity of the gas. A simple two-cell glass system was constructed, consisting of a region in which the molecular hydrogen is dissociated with an RF discharge and a region where the atoms can be optically pumped. So far, a clean discharge was obtained in the glassware. With this system, we plan to investigate ways to eliminate the discharge from the optical pumping region and test the quality of the discharge once the pumping cell is coated with drifilm.

  9. Spin-polarized dark state free CPT state preparation with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Qu, Suping; Gu, Sihong

    2012-03-12

    We have developed and experimentally studied a coherent population trapping (CPT) state preparation scheme for atomic clock application with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers. With realization of constructive interference and spin-polarized dark state free in CPT state preparation, we have obtained CPT resonance signal 3 times larger than that of the conventional scheme used in atomic clock. Polarization fluctuations and CPT signal sensitivity to laser power behaviors are both improved with the scheme. Our study reveals that it is a promising candidate for both normal-size and chip-scale CPT atomic clocks.

  10. Atom Interferometry

    ScienceCinema

    Mark Kasevich

    2016-07-12

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  11. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Kasevich

    2008-05-07

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  12. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, Mark

    2008-05-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton's constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gyroscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be used to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  13. Production and Trapping of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    David, DeMille

    2015-04-21

    We report a set of experiments aimed at the production and trapping of ultracold polar molecules. We begin with samples of laser-cooled and trapped Rb and Cs atoms, and bind them together to form polar RbCs molecules. The binding is accomplished via photoassociation, which uses a laser to catalyze the sticking process. We report results from investigation of a new pathway for photoassociation that can produce molecules in their absolute ground state of vibrational and rotational motion. We also report preliminary observations of collisions between these ground-state molecules and co-trapped atoms.

  14. Quantum teleportation with atoms trapped in cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2004-09-01

    We propose a scheme to implement the quantum teleportation protocol with single atoms trapped in cavities. The scheme is based on the adiabatic passage and the polarization measurement. We show that it is possible to teleport the internal state of an atom trapped in a cavity to an atom trapped in another cavity with the success probability of 1/2 and the fidelity of 1. The scheme is resistant to a number of considerable imperfections such as the violation of the Lamb-Dicke condition, weak atom-cavity coupling, spontaneous emission, and detection inefficiency.

  15. Polar Barchans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, barchan sand dunes of the north polar region of Mars. Barchan dunes are simple, rounded forms with two horns that extend downwind. Inequalities in local wind patterns may result in one horn being extended farther than the other, as is the case for several dunes in this image. The image also shows several barchans may merge to form a long dune ridge. The horns and attendant slip faces on these dunes indicate wind transport of sand from the upper left toward the lower right. The image is located near 77.6oN, 103.6oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  16. Photodissociation of S atom containing amino acid chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Fu; Dyakov, Yuri A.; Lee, Yuan T.; Lin, S. H.; Mebel, Alexander M.; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2007-08-01

    Photodissociation of 3-(methylthio)propylamine and cysteamine, the chromophores of S atom containing amino acid methionine and cysteine, respectively, was studied separately in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. Four dissociation channels were observed for 3-(methylthio)propylamine, including (1) CH3SCH2CH2CH2NH2-->CH3SCH2CH2CH2NH+H, (2) CH3SCH2CH2CH2NH2-->CH3+SCH2CH2CH2NH2, (3) CH3SCH2CH2CH2NH2-->CH3S+CH2CH2CH2NH2, and (4) CH3SCH2CH2CH2NH2-->CH3SCH2+CH2CH2NH2. Two dissociation channels were observed from cysteamine, including (5) HSCH2CH2NH2-->HS+CH2CH2NH2 and (6) HSCH2CH2NH2-->HSCH2+CH2NH2. The photofragment translational energy distributions suggest that reaction (1) and parts of the reactions (2), (3), (5) occur on the repulsive excited states. However, reaction (4), (6) occur only after the internal conversion to the electronic ground state. Since the dissociation from an excited state with a repulsive potential energy surface is very fast, it would not be quenched completely even in the condensed phase. Our results indicate that reactions following dissociation may play an important role in the UV photochemistry of S atom containing amino acid chromophores in the condensed phase. A comparison with the potential energy surface from ab initio calculations and branching ratios from RRKM calculations was made.

  17. Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03581 Polar Layers

    This image shows just one example of the bright and dark markings that appear during summer time. The marks are related to the polar layers. If you happen to see a wild-eyed guy sticking his tongue out at you, you'll know why this image qualifies for the old 'art' category of THEMIS releases.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.6S, Longitude 34.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum.

  19. Optical pumping production of spin polarized hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, R.J.; Happer, W.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1984-09-01

    There has been much interest recently in the production of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen in various fields, including controlled fusion, quantum fluids, high energy, and nuclear physics. One promising method for the development of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen is the utilization of optical pumping with a laser. Optical pumping is a process in which photon angular momentum is converted into electron and nuclear spin. The advent of tunable CW dye lasers (approx. 1 watt) allows the production of greater than 10/sup 18/ polarized atoms/sec. We have begun a program at Princeton to investigate the physics and technology of using optical pumping to produce large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen. Initial experiments have been done in small closed glass cells. Eventually, a flowing system, open target, or polarized ion source could be constructed.

  20. Dynamics of trapped atoms around an optical nanofiber probed through polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Solano, Pablo; Fatemi, Fredrik K; Orozco, Luis A; Rolston, S L

    2017-06-15

    The evanescent field outside an optical nanofiber (ONF) can create optical traps for neutral atoms. We present a non-destructive method to characterize such trapping potentials. An off-resonance linearly polarized probe beam that propagates through the ONF experiences a slow axis of polarization produced by trapped atoms on opposite sides along the ONF. The transverse atomic motion is imprinted onto the probe polarization through the changing atomic index of refraction. By applying a transient impulse, we measure a time-dependent polarization rotation of the probe beam that provides both a rapid and non-destructive measurement of the optical trapping frequencies.

  1. Dynamics of trapped atoms around an optical nanofiber probed through polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Pablo; Fatemi, Fredrik K.; Orozco, Luis A.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-06-01

    The evanescent field outside an optical nanofiber (ONF) can create optical traps for neutral atoms. We present a non-destructive method to characterize such trapping potentials. An off-resonance linearly polarized probe beam that propagates through the ONF experiences a slow axis of polarization produced by trapped atoms on opposite sides along the ONF. The transverse atomic motion is imprinted onto the probe polarization through the changing atomic index of of refraction. By applying a transient impulse, we measure a time-dependent polarization rotation of the probe beam that provides both a rapid and non-destructive measurement of the optical trapping frequencies.

  2. Solar Spectral Lines with Special Polarization Properties for the Calibration of Instrument Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenxian; Casini, Roberto; Judge, Phil; del Pino Alemná, Tanausú

    2017-08-01

    We investigate atomic transitions that have previously been identified as having zero polarization from the Zeeman effect. Our goal is to identify spectral lines that can be used for the calibration of instrumental polarization of large astronomical and solar telescopes, such as the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, which is currently under construction on Haleakala. We use a numerical model that takes into account the generation of scattering polarization and its modification by the presence of a magnetic field (Hanle effect, Zeeman effect, and incomplete Paschen-Back effect). We adopt values for the Landé factors from spectroscopic measurements or semi-empirical results, thus relaxing the common assumption of LS-coupling previously used in the literature. The mechanisms dominating the polarization of particular transitions are identified, and we summarize groups of various spectral lines useful for the polarization calibration of spectro-polarimetric instruments, classified according to their polarization properties.

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on polarized targets in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    Polarization phenomena have played an increasingly important part in the study of nuclei and nucleons in recent years. Polarization studies have been hampered by the relatively few and rather fragile polarized targets which are presently available. The concept of polarized gas targets in storage rings opens a much wider range of possibilities than is available in the external target geometry. This novel method will represent a considerable advance in nuclear physics and will continue to receive much attention in plans for future facilities. An internal, polarized-target station is being planned for the cooler ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Internal targets are compatible with recent designs of electron accelerators proposed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Southeastern Universities Research Association. The key to nuclear-science programs based on internal targets pivots on recent developments in polarized atomic beam methods, which include the more recent laser-driven polarized targets. The workshop drew together a unique group of physicists in the fields of high-energy, nuclear and atomic physics. The meeting was organized in a manner that stimulated discussion among the 58 participants and focused on developments in polarized target technology and the underlying atomic physics. An impressive array of future possibilities for polarized targets as well as current developments in polarized target technology were discussed at the workshop. Abstracts of individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base.

  4. LINE-INTERLOCKING EFFECTS ON POLARIZATION IN SPECTRAL LINES BY RAYLEIGH AND RAMAN SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Stenflo, J. O. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in

    2013-06-20

    The polarized spectrum of the Sun and stars is formed from the scattering of anisotropic radiation on atoms. Interpretation of this spectrum requires the solution of polarized line transfer in multilevel atomic systems. While sophisticated quantum theories of polarized line formation in multilevel atomic systems exist, they are limited by the approximation of complete frequency redistribution in scattering. The partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in line scattering is a necessary component in modeling the polarized spectra of strong lines. The polarized PRD line scattering theories developed so far confine themselves to a two-level or a two-term atom model. In this paper, we present a heuristic approach to the problem of polarized line formation in multilevel atoms taking into account the effects of PRD and a weak magnetic field. Starting from the unpolarized PRD multilevel atom approach of Hubeny et al., we incorporate the polarization state of the radiation field. However, the lower level polarization is neglected. Two iterative methods of solving the polarized PRD line transfer in multilevel atoms are also presented. Taking the example of a five-level Ca II atom model, we present illustrative results for an isothermal one-dimensional model atmosphere.

  5. Atomic arias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The American composer John Adams uses opera to dramatize controversial current events. His 1987 work Nixon in China was about the landmark meeting in 1972 between US President Richard Nixon and Chairman Mao Zedong of China; The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) was a musical re-enactment of an incident in 1985 when Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish tourist on a cruise ship. Adams's latest opera, Doctor Atomic, is also tied to a controversial event: the first atomic-bomb test in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 June 1945. The opera premièred in San Francisco in 2005, had a highly publicized debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2008, and will have another debut on 25 February - with essentially the same cast - at the English National Opera in London.

  6. Atomic rivals

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a memoir of rivalries among the Allies over the bomb, by a participant and observer. Nuclear proliferation began in the uneasy wartime collaboration of the United States, England, Canada, and Free France to produce the atom bomb. Through the changes of history, a young French chemist had a role in almost every act of this international drama. This memoir is based on Goldschmidt's own recollections, interviews with other leading figures, and 3,000 pages of newly declassified documents in Allied archives. From his own start as Marie Curie's lab assistant, Goldschmidt's career was closely intertwined with Frances complicated rise to membership in the nuclear club. As a refugee from the Nazis, he became part of the wartime nuclear energy project in Canada and found himself the only French scientist to work (although briefly) on the American atom bomb project.

  7. Atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S.

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  8. Polarity continuation and frustration in ZnSe nanospirals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Luying; Tu, Fanfan; Jin, Lei; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Gao, Yihua; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    ZnSe nanospirals including structures with polarity continuation and polarity frustration are simultaneously observed at atomic resolution. Through careful analysis of polarity within each dumbbell based on aberration-corrected high-angle annular-dark-field imaging, polarity continuation across parallel polytype interfaces as well as the surrounding Z-shape faulted dipoles is verified. Moreover, polarity frustration across regions with different stacking sequence, which would lead to accumulations of boundary interface charges in the triangular-shaped mixed regions with potential optoelectronic applications, is carefully studied. PMID:25502957

  9. Optical method of atomic ordering estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Prutskij, T.; Attolini, G.

    2013-12-04

    It is well known that within metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) grown semiconductor III-V ternary alloys atomically ordered regions are spontaneously formed during the epitaxial growth. This ordering leads to bandgap reduction and to valence bands splitting, and therefore to anisotropy of the photoluminescence (PL) emission polarization. The same phenomenon occurs within quaternary semiconductor alloys. While the ordering in ternary alloys is widely studied, for quaternaries there have been only a few detailed experimental studies of it, probably because of the absence of appropriate methods of its detection. Here we propose an optical method to reveal atomic ordering within quaternary alloys by measuring the PL emission polarization.

  10. Atomic Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Claudio

    2000-10-01

    Atomic and molecular data are required in a variety of fields ranging from the traditional astronomy, atmospherics and fusion research to fast growing technologies such as lasers, lighting, low-temperature plasmas, plasma assisted etching and radiotherapy. In this context, there are some research groups, both theoretical and experimental, scattered round the world that attend to most of this data demand, but the implementation of atomic databases has grown independently out of sheer necessity. In some cases the latter has been associated with the data production process or with data centers involved in data collection and evaluation; but sometimes it has been the result of individual initiatives that have been quite successful. In any case, the development and maintenance of atomic databases call for a number of skills and an entrepreneurial spirit that are not usually associated with most physics researchers. In the present report we present some of the highlights in this area in the past five years and discuss what we think are some of the main issues that have to be addressed.

  11. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution

    PubMed Central

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide. PMID:27578421

  12. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide.

  13. Atomic-level imaging, processing and characterization of semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Kazmerski, L.L.

    1995-08-22

    A method for selecting and removing single specific atoms from a solid material surface uses photon biasing to break down bonds that hold the selected atom in the lattice and to reduce barrier effects that hold the atom from transferring to a probe. The photon bias is preferably light or other electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength and frequency that approximately matches the wave function of the target atom species to be removed to induce high energy, selective thermionic-like vibration. An electric field potential is then applied between the probe and the surface of the solid material to pull the atom out of the lattice and to transfer the atom to the probe. Different extrinsic atoms can be installed in the lattice sites that are vacated by the removed atoms by using a photon bias that resonates the extrinsic atom species, reversing polarity of the electric field, and blowing gas comprising the extrinsic atoms through a hollow catheter probe. 8 figs.

  14. Atomic-level imaging, processing and characterization of semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    1995-01-01

    A method for selecting and removing single specific atoms from a solid material surface uses photon biasing to break down bonds that hold the selected atom in the lattice and to reduce barrier effects that hold the atom from transferring to a probe. The photon bias is preferably light or other electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength and frequency that approximately matches the wave function of the target atom species to be removed to induce high energy, selective thermionic-like vibration. An electric field potential is then applied between the probe and the surface of the solid material to pull the atom out of the lattice and to transfer the atom to the probe. Different extrinsic atoms can be installed in the lattice sites that are vacated by the removed atoms by using a photon bias that resonates the extrinsic atom species, reversing polarity of the electric field, and blowing gas comprising the extrinsic atoms through a hollow catheter probe.

  15. Atomic Magnetometry for fetal Magnetocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulai, Ibrahim; Walker, Thad; Wakai, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    We present results of using an array of atomic magnetometers in detecting fetal Magnetocardiograms(fMCG). The array consists of four 87-Rb atomic magnetometers operating in the spin exchange relaxation free (SERF) regime. They have a demonstrated sensitivity of 5 - 10 fT /√{ Hz } -limited by the Johnson noise of the magnetic shielding. We report measurements of fMCG on gestational ages as small as 21 weeks and describe the technical challenges and design features that make the measurements possible. We present a method for minimizing the impact of AC Stark Shifts on the magnetometer array performance by relying on diffusion to transport polarized atoms from a pumping region to an AC Stark shift free active region. This work was supported by the NIH.

  16. Self-excitation of Rydberg atoms at a metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordo, V. G.

    2017-08-01

    The novel effect of self-excitation of an atomic beam propagating above a metal surface is predicted and a theory is developed. Its underlying mechanism is positive feedback provided by the reflective surface for the atomic polarization. Under certain conditions the atomic beam flying in the near field of the metal surface acts as an active device that supports sustained atomic dipole oscillations, which generate, in their turn, an electromagnetic field. This phenomenon does not exploit stimulated emission and therefore does not require population inversion in atoms. An experiment with Rydberg atoms in which this effect should be most pronounced is proposed and the necessary estimates are given.

  17. The polarization properties of a tilted polarizer.

    PubMed

    Korger, Jan; Kolb, Tobias; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2013-11-04

    Polarizers are key components in optical science and technology. Thus, understanding the action of a polarizer beyond oversimplifying approximations is crucial. In this work, we study the interaction of a polarizing interface with an obliquely incident wave experimentally. To this end, a set of Mueller matrices is acquired employing a novel procedure robust against experimental imperfections. We connect our observation to a geometric model, useful to predict the effect of polarizers on complex light fields.

  18. Polarization in Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    we refer to the linear polarization as parallel if the polarization vector is in the scattering plane or perpendicular if the polarization vector is...obvious that the different polarization states can all be represented as linear combinations of any of the independent pairs of polarization states...J.C. (1976) “Improvement of underwater visibility by reduction of backscatter with a circular polarization technique, Applied Optics, 6, 321-330

  19. Non-coherent Continuum Scattering as a Line Polarization Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Pino Alemán, T.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2014-03-01

    Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering at neutral hydrogen and Thomson scattering at free electrons. Often a depolarization of the continuum results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non-coherent continuum scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non-coherence of the continuum scattering may modify the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns significantly, even yielding polarization signals above the continuum level in intrinsically unpolarizable lines.

  20. Non-coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Del Pino Alemán, T.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J. E-mail: rsainz@iac.es

    2014-03-20

    Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering at neutral hydrogen and Thomson scattering at free electrons. Often a depolarization of the continuum results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non-coherent continuum scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non-coherence of the continuum scattering may modify the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns significantly, even yielding polarization signals above the continuum level in intrinsically unpolarizable lines.

  1. Inducing electric polarization in ultrathin insulating layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Castro, Jose; Piantek, Marten; Persson, Mats; Serrate, David; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.

    Studies of ultrathin polar oxide films have attracted the interest of researchers for a long time due to their different properties compared to bulk materials. However they present several challenges such as the difficulty in the stabilization of the polar surfaces and the limited success in tailoring their properties. Moreover, recently developed Van der Waals materials have shown that the stacking of 2D-layers trigger new collective states thanks to the interaction between layers. Similarly, interface phenomena emerge in polar oxides, like induced ferroelectricity. This represents a promising way for the creation of new materials with customized properties that differ from those of the isolated layers. Here we present a new approach for the fabrication and study of atomically thin insulating films. We show that the properties of insulating polar layers of sodium chloride (NaCl) can be engineered when they are placed on top of a charge modulated template of copper nitride (Cu2N). STM studies carried out in ultra-high vacuum and at low temperatures over NaCl/Cu2N/Cu(001) show that we are able to build up and stabilize interfaces of polar surface at the limit of one atomic layer showing new properties not present before at the atomic scale.

  2. Scattering of electrons from neon atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, A.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    Scattering of electrons from neon atoms is investigated by the polarized-orbital method. The perturbed orbitals calculated with use of the Sternheimer approximation lead to the polarizability 2.803 a(0)-cube in fairly good agreement with the experimental value 2.66 a(0)-cube. Phase shifts for various partial waves are calculated in the exchange, exchange-adiabatic, and polarized-orbital approximations. They are compared with the previous results. The calculated elastic differential, total, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared with the experimental results. The polarized-orbital approximation yields results which show general improvement over the exchange-adiabatic approximation.

  3. Broadband graphene polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qiaoliang; Zhang, Han; Wang, Bing; Ni, Zhenhua; Lim, Candy Haley Yi Xuan; Wang, Yu; Tang, Ding Yuan; Loh, Kian Ping

    2011-07-01

    Conventional polarizers can be classified into three main modes of operation: sheet polarizer using anisotropic absorption media, prism polarizer by refraction and Brewster-angle polarizer by reflection. These polarizing components are not easily integrated with photonic circuits. The in-line fibre polarizer, which relies on polarization-selective coupling between the evanescent field and birefringent crystal or metal, is a promising alternative because of its compatibility with most fibre-optic systems. Here, we demonstrate the operation of a broadband fibre polarizer based on graphene, an ultrathin two-dimensional carbon material. The out-coupled light in the telecommunication band shows a strong s-polarization effect with an extinction ratio of 27 dB. Unlike polarizers made from thin metal film, a graphene polarizer can support transverse-electric-mode surface wave propagation due to its linear dispersion of Dirac electrons.

  4. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  5. The impacts of surface polarity on the solubility of nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianzhuo; Ou, Xinwen; Su, Jiguo; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-07-28

    In order to study the dependence of water solubility and hydration behavior of nanoparticles on their surface polarity, we designed polar nanoparticles with varying surface polarity by assigning atomic partial charge to the surface of C60. The water solubility of the nanoparticle is enhanced by several orders of magnitude after the introduction of surface polarity. Nevertheless, when the atomic partial charge grows beyond a certain value (qM), the solubility continuously decreases to the level of nonpolar nanoparticle. It should be noted that such qM is comparable with atomic partial charge of a variety of functional groups. The hydration behaviors of nanoparticles were then studied to investigate the non-monotonic dependence of solubility on the surface polarity. The interaction between the polar nanoparticle and the hydration water is stronger than the nonpolar counterpart, which should facilitate the dissolution of the nanoparticles. On the other hand, the surface polarity also reduces the interaction of hydration water with the other water molecules and enhances the interaction between the nanoparticles which may hinder their dispersion. Besides, the introduction of surface polarity disturbs and even rearranges the hydration structure of nonpolar nanoparticle. Interestingly, the polar nanoparticle with less ordered hydration structure tends to have higher water solubility.

  6. Detection of J-coupling using atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Ledbetter, Micah P.; Crawford, Charles W.; Wemmer, David E.; Pines, Alexander; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John; Budker, Dmitry

    2015-09-22

    An embodiment of a method of detecting a J-coupling includes providing a polarized analyte adjacent to a vapor cell of an atomic magnetometer; and measuring one or more J-coupling parameters using the atomic magnetometer. According to an embodiment, measuring the one or more J-coupling parameters includes detecting a magnetic field created by the polarized analyte as the magnetic field evolves under a J-coupling interaction.

  7. Diffusive suppression of AC-Stark shifts in atomic magnetometers

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, I. A.; Wyllie, R.; Kauer, M.; Smetana, G. S.; Wakai, R. T.; Walker, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    In atomic magnetometers, the vector AC-Stark shift associated with circularly polarized light generates spatially varying effective magnetic fields, which limit the magnetometer response and serve as sources of noise. We describe a scheme whereby optically pumping a small subvolume of the magnetometer cell and relying on diffusion to transport polarized atoms allows a magnetometer to be operated with minimal sensitivity to the AC-Stark field. © 2013 Optical Society of America PMID:23503278

  8. Diffusive suppression of AC-Stark shifts in atomic magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulai, I. A.; Wyllie, R.; Kauer, M.; Smetana, G. S.; Wakai, R. T.; Walker, T. G.

    2013-03-01

    In atomic magnetometers, the vector AC-Stark shift associated with circularly polarized light generates spatially varying effective magnetic fields which limit the magnetometer response and serve as sources of noise. We describe a scheme whereby optically pumping a small sub-volume of the magnetometer cell and relying on diffusion to transport polarized atoms allows a magnetometer to be operated with minimal sensitivity to the AC-Stark field.

  9. Atom-by-Atom Construction of a Quantum Device.

    PubMed

    Petta, Jason R

    2017-03-28

    Scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) are conventionally used to probe surfaces with atomic resolution. Recent advances in STM include tunneling from spin-polarized and superconducting tips, time-domain spectroscopy, and the fabrication of atomically precise Si nanoelectronics. In this issue of ACS Nano, Tettamanzi et al. probe a single-atom transistor in silicon, fabricated using the precision of a STM, at microwave frequencies. While previous studies have probed such devices in the MHz regime, Tettamanzi et al. probe a STM-fabricated device at GHz frequencies, which enables excited-state spectroscopy and measurements of the excited-state lifetime. The success of this experiment will enable future work on quantum control, where the wave function must be controlled on a time scale that is much shorter than the decoherence time. We review two major approaches that are being pursued to develop spin-based quantum computers and highlight some recent progress in the atom-by-atom fabrication of donor-based devices in silicon. Recent advances in STM lithography may enable practical bottom-up construction of large-scale quantum devices.

  10. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  11. A high field optical-pumping spin-exchange polarized deuterium source

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.; Kinney, E.R.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Poelker, M.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L.; Zeidman, B. ); Toporkov, D. . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1992-01-01

    Recent results from a prototype high field optical-pumping spin-exchange polarized deuterium source are presented. Atomic polarization as high as 62% have been observed with an intensity of 6.3 [times] 10[sup 17] atoms-sec[sup [minus]1] and 65% dissociation fraction.

  12. Polarized Light in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The application of very sensitive electronic detecting devices during the last decade has revolutionized and revitalized the study of polarization in celestial objects. The nature of polarization, how polaroids work, interstellar polarization, dichroic filters, polarization by scattering, and modern polarimetry are among the topics discussed. (JN)

  13. Cavity Carving of Atomic Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welte, Stephan; Hacker, Bastian; Daiss, Severin; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate entanglement generation of two neutral atoms trapped inside an optical cavity. Entanglement is created from initially separable two-atom states through carving with weak photon pulses reflected from the cavity. A polarization rotation of the photons heralds the entanglement. We show the successful implementation of two different protocols and the generation of all four Bell states with a maximum fidelity of (90 ±2 )%. The protocol works for any distance between cavity-coupled atoms, and no individual addressing is required. Our result constitutes an important step towards applications in quantum networks, e.g., for entanglement swapping in a quantum repeater.

  14. Pulsed optically-pumped polarized H{sup {minus}} ion source development

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.N.; Davydenko, V.I.; Dimov, G.I.; Levy, C.D.P.; Oers, W.T.H. van; Schmor, P.W.; Wight, G.W.; Dutto, G.; Sakae, T.

    1995-09-01

    Results are presented of pulsed optically-pumped polarized H{sup {minus}} ion source (OPPIS) development for high energy accelerators. An atomic hydrogen beam intensity of 2 {times} 10{sup 18} atoms/s within the polarizer acceptance was obtained with an atomic H injector at BINP. A pulsed polarized H{sup {minus}} ion current of about 10--20 mA should be obtainable using this injector. Limitations on beam characteristics due to space-charge were studied. A polarization scheme to avoid space-charge limitations is considered, in which charge-exchange and spin-exchange are combined.

  15. Polarized maser growth

    SciTech Connect

    Melrose, D.B.; Judge, A.C.

    2004-11-01

    A polarized maser is assumed to operate in an anisotropic medium with natural modes polarized differently to the maser. It is shown that when the spatial growth rate and the generalized Faraday rotation rate are comparable, the polarization of the growing radiation is different from those of the maser and medium. In particular, for a lineary polarized maser operating in a medium with linearly polarized natural modes, the growing radiation is partially circularly polarized. This provides a previously unrecognized source of circular polarization that may be relevant to pulsar radio emission.

  16. Polarized electron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Prepost, R.

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  17. Probing a Device's Active Atoms.

    PubMed

    Studniarek, Michał; Halisdemir, Ufuk; Schleicher, Filip; Taudul, Beata; Urbain, Etienne; Boukari, Samy; Hervé, Marie; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Hamadeh, Abbass; Petit-Watelot, Sebastien; Zill, Olivia; Lacour, Daniel; Joly, Loïc; Scheurer, Fabrice; Schmerber, Guy; Da Costa, Victor; Dixit, Anant; Guitard, Pierre André; Acosta, Manuel; Leduc, Florian; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Montaigne, François; Monteblanco, Elmer Nahuel; Arabski, Jacek; Ohresser, Philippe; Beaurepaire, Eric; Weber, Wolfgang; Alouani, Mébarek; Hehn, Michel; Bowen, Martin

    2017-03-13

    Materials science and device studies have, when implemented jointly as "operando" studies, better revealed the causal link between the properties of the device's materials and its operation, with applications ranging from gas sensing to information and energy technologies. Here, as a further step that maximizes this causal link, the paper focuses on the electronic properties of those atoms that drive a device's operation by using it to read out the materials property. It is demonstrated how this method can reveal insight into the operation of a macroscale, industrial-grade microelectronic device on the atomic level. A magnetic tunnel junction's (MTJ's) current, which involves charge transport across different atomic species and interfaces, is measured while these atoms absorb soft X-rays with synchrotron-grade brilliance. X-ray absorption is found to affect magnetotransport when the photon energy and linear polarization are tuned to excite FeO bonds parallel to the MTJ's interfaces. This explicit link between the device's spintronic performance and these FeO bonds, although predicted, challenges conventional wisdom on their detrimental spintronic impact. The technique opens interdisciplinary possibilities to directly probe the role of different atomic species on device operation, and shall considerably simplify the materials science iterations within device research.

  18. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  19. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  20. Crossed elliptical polarization undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Shigemi

    1997-05-01

    The first switching of polarization direction is possible by installing two identical helical undulators in series in a same straight section in a storage ring. By setting each undulator in a circular polarization mode in opposite handedness, one can obtain linearly polarized radiation with any required polarization direction depending on the modulator setting between two undulators. This scheme can be used without any major degradation of polarization degree in any low energy low emittance storage ring.

  1. Development of an optically pumped polarized deuterium target

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.; Holt, R.J.; Green, M.C.; Kowalczyk, R.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a polarized deuterium target for internal use at an electron storage ring is of great interest for fundamental studies in nuclear physics. In order to achieve the maximum allowable target thickness, 10/sup 14/ nuclei/cm/sup 2/, consistent with various constraints imposed by the storage ring environment, a flux of 4 x 10/sup 17/ polarized atom/s must be provided. This flux exceeds the capability of conventional atomic beam sources by an order of magnitude. We have been developing an alternative source based upon the spin-exchange optical pumping method in which the flux is limited only by laser power. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Atomic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, R. G.; Hahn, E. L.

    1984-12-01

    The fundamental principles of atomic-memory effects related to the Loschmidt paradox in the second law of thermodynamics are introduced and illustrated with simple analogies, photographs, and diagrams; and the results of RF and laser experiments are summarized. Nuclear-spin echoes in response to RF pulses and the NMR free-induction decay phenomenon are described, and the extension of these concepts to the visible spectrum in laser-frequency-switching and multipulsed-laser experiments is examined with an emphasis on studies of free-induction decay in LaF3 crystals containing Pr impurities (DeVoe and Brewster). The laser-induced phenomena can be applied to studies of intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, and an improved understanding of the RF effects is needed to enhance the performance of medical NMR imaging systems.

  3. High field optical-pumping spin-exchange polarized deuterium source

    SciTech Connect

    Zghiche, A.; Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.; Kinney, E.R.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L.; Zeidman, B. ); Toporkov, D.K. . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress in the performance of laser-driven source of polarized deuterium is described. Optical pumping of potassium atoms followed by spin exchange scattering with deuterium atoms in a high magnetic field and RF transitions in a medium field was found to produce an intense, highly spin-polarized beam of deuterium atoms. In particular, the atomic polarization of deuterium was determined to be 73{plus minus}3% at an intensity of 2.1 {times} 10{sup 17} Atomsis. The RF transition efficiency was measured and found to be 92{plus minus}5%.

  4. High field optical-pumping spin-exchange polarized deuterium source

    SciTech Connect

    Zghiche, A.; Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.; Kinney, E.R.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L.; Zeidman, B.; Toporkov, D.K.

    1991-12-31

    Recent progress in the performance of laser-driven source of polarized deuterium is described. Optical pumping of potassium atoms followed by spin exchange scattering with deuterium atoms in a high magnetic field and RF transitions in a medium field was found to produce an intense, highly spin-polarized beam of deuterium atoms. In particular, the atomic polarization of deuterium was determined to be 73{plus_minus}3% at an intensity of 2.1 {times} 10{sup 17} Atomsis. The RF transition efficiency was measured and found to be 92{plus_minus}5%.

  5. High harmonic generation with fully tunable polarization by train of linearly polarized pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Ofer; Bordo, Eliyahu; Fleischer, Avner; Cohen, Oren

    2017-02-01

    We propose and demonstrate, analytically and numerically, a scheme for generation of high-order harmonics with fully tunable polarization, from circular through elliptic to linear, while barely changing the other properties of the high harmonic radiation and where the ellipticity values of all the harmonic orders essentially coincide. The high harmonics are driven by a train of quasi-monochromatic linearly polarized pulses that are identical except for their polarization angles, which is the tuning knob. This system gives rise to full control over the polarization of the harmonics while largely preserving the single-cycle, single-atom and macroscopic physics of ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation, where both the driver and high harmonics are linearly polarized.

  6. Polarization Nonlinear Optics of Quadratically Nonlinear Azopolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Konorov, S.O.; Akimov, D.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Petrov, A.N.; Alfimov, M.V.; Yakimanskii, A.V.; Smirnov, N.N.; Ivanova, V.N.; Kudryavtsev, V.V.; Podshivalov, A.A.; Sokolova, I.M.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2005-07-15

    The polarization properties of second harmonic and sum-frequency signals generated by femtosecond laser pulses in films of polymers containing covalent groups of an azobenzothiazole chromophore polarized by an external electric field are investigated. It is shown that the methods of polarization nonlinear optics make it possible to determine the structure of oriented molecular dipoles and reveal important properties of the motion of collectivized {pi}electrons in organic molecules with strong optical nonlinearities. The polarization measurements show that the tensor of quadratic nonlinear optical susceptibility of chromophore fragments oriented by an external field in macromolecules of the noted azopolymers has a degenerate form. This is indicative of a predominantly one-dimensional character of motion of collectivized {pi} electrons along an extended group of atoms in such molecules.

  7. Constructive polarization modulation for coherent population trapping clock

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Peter Danet, Jean-Marie; Holleville, David; Clercq, Emeric de; Guérandel, Stéphane

    2014-12-08

    We propose a constructive polarization modulation scheme for atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). In this scheme, the polarization of a bichromatic laser beam is modulated between two opposite circular polarizations to avoid trapping the atomic populations in the extreme Zeeman sublevels. We show that if an appropriate phase modulation between the two optical components of the bichromatic laser is applied synchronously, the two CPT dark states which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations add constructively. Measured CPT resonance contrasts up to 20% in one-pulse CPT and 12% in two-pulse Ramsey-CPT experiments are reported, demonstrating the potential of this scheme for applications to high performance atomic clocks.

  8. A high volume, batch mode 129Xe polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojna-Pelczar, Anna; Pałasz, Tadeusz

    2017-06-01

    Numerous designs of optical gas polarizers have been proposed, broadening possible applications of the hyperpolarized gases as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. We present a home-made 129Xe polarizer based on the spin exchange optical pumping method. The polarizer operates under 1 bar of the gas mixture (at the maximum temperature of 160 °C) in a high volume optical cell (5025 cm3). Approximately 100 cm3 of 129Xe polarized at 1.50±0.37% is produced in a single cycle of polarization. Operation under standard pressure imposes polarization transfer mainly via van der Waals molecules, resulting in the efficient spin exchange between rubidium and 129Xe atoms. The design, construction and operation of the polarizer are described in details.

  9. Metasurface polarization splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slovick, Brian A.; Zhou, You; Yu, Zhi Gang; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Moitra, Parikshit; Krishnamurthy, Srini; Valentine, Jason

    2017-03-01

    Polarization beam splitters, devices that separate the two orthogonal polarizations of light into different propagation directions, are among the most ubiquitous optical elements. However, traditionally polarization splitters rely on bulky optical materials, while emerging optoelectronic and photonic circuits require compact, chip-scale polarization splitters. Here, we show that a rectangular lattice of cylindrical silicon Mie resonators functions as a polarization splitter, efficiently reflecting one polarization while transmitting the other. We show that the polarization splitting arises from the anisotropic permittivity and permeability of the metasurface due to the twofold rotational symmetry of the rectangular unit cell. The high polarization efficiency, low loss and low profile make these metasurface polarization splitters ideally suited for monolithic integration with optoelectronic and photonic circuits. This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'.

  10. Metasurface polarization splitter.

    PubMed

    Slovick, Brian A; Zhou, You; Yu, Zhi Gang; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Briggs, Dayrl P; Moitra, Parikshit; Krishnamurthy, Srini; Valentine, Jason

    2017-03-28

    Polarization beam splitters, devices that separate the two orthogonal polarizations of light into different propagation directions, are among the most ubiquitous optical elements. However, traditionally polarization splitters rely on bulky optical materials, while emerging optoelectronic and photonic circuits require compact, chip-scale polarization splitters. Here, we show that a rectangular lattice of cylindrical silicon Mie resonators functions as a polarization splitter, efficiently reflecting one polarization while transmitting the other. We show that the polarization splitting arises from the anisotropic permittivity and permeability of the metasurface due to the twofold rotational symmetry of the rectangular unit cell. The high polarization efficiency, low loss and low profile make these metasurface polarization splitters ideally suited for monolithic integration with optoelectronic and photonic circuits.This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'.

  11. Metasurface polarization splitter

    DOE PAGES

    Slovick, Brian A.; Zhou, You; Yu, Zhi Gang; ...

    2017-02-20

    Polarization beam splitters, devices that separate the two orthogonal polarizations of light into different propagation directions, are among the most ubiquitous optical elements. However, traditionally polarization splitters rely on bulky optical materials, while emerging optoelectronic and photonic circuits require compact, chip-scale polarization splitters. Here, we show that a rectangular lattice of cylindrical silicon Mie resonators functions as a polarization splitter, efficiently reflecting one polarization while transmitting the other. We show that the polarization splitting arises from the anisotropic permittivity and permeability of the metasurface due to the twofold rotational symmetry of the rectangular unit cell. Lastly, the high polarization efficiency,more » low loss and low profile make these metasurface polarization splitters ideally suited for monolithic integration with optoelectronic and photonic circuits.« less

  12. The physics of spin polarized gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Gordon D.

    1995-01-01

    Most of our research was connected either directly or indirectly to the study of spin polarized atoms and nuclei, and their applications. In most cases we used lasers to optically pump, and hence polarize, alkali-metal vapors. Spin-exchange collisions were used to transfer the angular momentum to other systems. Of particular interest was our continuing study of the polarization of noble gas nuclei, which are characterized by extremely long spin relaxation times of minutes to many days. During this past research period we have demonstrated several applications of polarized noble gas nuclei that may have important implications for such diverse areas as nondestructive testing and medical diagnostics, as well as many areas in fundamental research. Of particular note is the use of spin-exchange polarized He-3 and Xe-129 for magnetic resonance imaging. At present, our imaging work has focused on the lungs of small animals such as mice and guinea pigs. We believe, however, that our technique would also be useful for nondestructive testing. We have also continued our study of Xe that is polarized in the gaseous state, and subsequently frozen. This novel technique for producing a highly polarized solid has received considerable attention in the NMR community.

  13. Velocity distributions of hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals produced through solar photodissociation of water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Chen, F. Z.

    1993-01-01

    The velocity distributions of H and OH fragments produced through solar photodissociation of gaseous H2O molecules under collisionless conditions are presented. The calculations are carried out using: the most recently available absolute partial cross sections for the production of H and OH through photodissociation of H2O from its absorption onset at 1860 A down to 500 A; the newly available vibrational and rotational energy distributions of both the excited and ground state OH photofragments; the calculated cross sections for the total dissociation processes; and the integrated solar flux in 10 A increments from 500 to 1860 A in the continuum regions and the specific wavelength and flux at the bright solar lines. The calculated results show that the H atoms and the OH radicals produced exhibit multiple velocity groups. Since most current cometary modeling uses a single velocity of 20 km/sec associated with the photodissociation of H2O, the present results may be useful in interpreting the many peaks observed in the velocity distributions of the H Lyman alpha and H alpha of comets.

  14. Velocity distributions of hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals produced through solar photodissociation of water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Chen, F. Z.

    1993-01-01

    The velocity distributions of H and OH fragments produced through solar photodissociation of gaseous H2O molecules under collisionless conditions are presented. The calculations are carried out using: the most recently available absolute partial cross sections for the production of H and OH through photodissociation of H2O from its absorption onset at 1860 A down to 500 A; the newly available vibrational and rotational energy distributions of both the excited and ground state OH photofragments; the calculated cross sections for the total dissociation processes; and the integrated solar flux in 10 A increments from 500 to 1860 A in the continuum regions and the specific wavelength and flux at the bright solar lines. The calculated results show that the H atoms and the OH radicals produced exhibit multiple velocity groups. Since most current cometary modeling uses a single velocity of 20 km/sec associated with the photodissociation of H2O, the present results may be useful in interpreting the many peaks observed in the velocity distributions of the H Lyman alpha and H alpha of comets.

  15. Atomic displacements in ferroelectric trigonal and orthorhombic boracite structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowty, Eric; Clark, J.R.

    1972-01-01

    New crystal-structure refinements of Pca21 boracite, Mg3ClB7O13, and R??{lunate}c ericaite, Fe2.4Mg0.6ClB7O13, show that some boron and oxygen atoms are involved in the 'ferro' transitions as well as the metal and halogen atoms. The atomic displacements associated with the polarity changes are as large as 0.6A??. ?? 1972.

  16. First principles calculation of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Au-Pd atomic chains

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, Mudra R.; Sharma, A. C.

    2015-06-24

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of free standing Au-Pd bimetallic atomic chain is studied using ab-initio method. It is found that electronic and magnetic properties of chains depend on position of atoms and number of atoms. Spin polarization factor for different atomic configuration of atomic chain is calculated predicting a half metallic behavior. It suggests a total spin polarised transport in these chains.

  17. Atomic processes in bicircular fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odžak, S.; Hasović, E.; Becker, W.; Milošević, D. B.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate laser-assisted electron-ion recombination (LAR), high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) of argon atoms by a bicircular laser field, which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields of frequencies rω and sω. The energy of soft x rays generated in the LAR process is analyzed as a function of the incident electron angle and numerical results of direct recombination of electrons with Ar+ ions are presented. We also present the results of HHG by a bicircular field and confirm the selection rules derived earlier for inert-gas atoms in a p ground state. We show that the photoelectron spectra in the ATI process, presented in the momentum plane, as well as the LAR spectra exhibit the same discrete rotational symmetry as the applied field.

  18. Asymmetry in mechanical polarization switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haidong; Liu, Shi; Ye, Ziyu; Yasui, Shintaro; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Rappe, Andrew M.; Gruverman, Alexei

    2017-05-01

    Recent demonstration of a mechanical 180° switching of ferroelectric polarization has enabled an alternative polarization control mechanism based on the flexoelectric coupling between polarization and strain gradient. Mechanical switching is a highly asymmetric phenomenon associated with the inhomogeneous strain induced by an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip pressed against the ferroelectric surface. Here, we demonstrate the asymmetric domain switching behavior in the vicinity of the 180° domain wall in PbTiO3 thin films with respect to the AFM tip scanning direction. The writing-direction-dependent asymmetric domain response has been modeled by molecular dynamics simulation showing asymmetry in domain wall displacement due to the difference in the volume of mechanically switched domains. The obtained results show that the mechanically induced switching dynamics is very different from the conventional 180° switching realized by an external electric field and has to be exploited differently. In particular, nanoscale domain engineering via the tip-induced flexoelectric effect requires careful consideration of asymmetric interaction between the existing domain structures and the strain gradient.

  19. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  20. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  1. The atomic orbitals of the topological atom.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Mayer, István

    2013-06-07

    The effective atomic orbitals have been realized in the framework of Bader's atoms in molecules theory for a general wavefunction. This formalism can be used to retrieve from any type of calculation a proper set of orthonormalized numerical atomic orbitals, with occupation numbers that sum up to the respective Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) atomic populations. Experience shows that only a limited number of effective atomic orbitals exhibit significant occupation numbers. These correspond to atomic hybrids that closely resemble the core and valence shells of the atom. The occupation numbers of the remaining effective orbitals are almost negligible, except for atoms with hypervalent character. In addition, the molecular orbitals of a calculation can be exactly expressed as a linear combination of this orthonormalized set of numerical atomic orbitals, and the Mulliken population analysis carried out on this basis set exactly reproduces the original QTAIM atomic populations of the atoms. Approximate expansion of the molecular orbitals over a much reduced set of orthogonal atomic basis functions can also be accomplished to a very good accuracy with a singular value decomposition procedure.

  2. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  3. A Translational Polarization Rotator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah

    2012-01-01

    We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident liear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.

  4. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  5. North Polar Scarp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the scarp face of the north polar cap near Abalos Mensa. The top part of the image is the polar cap. This image was collected during northern hemisphere summer.

  6. Polarization at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, M.

    1995-01-01

    A highly polarized electron beam is a key feature. for the Current physics program at SLAC. An electron beam polarization of 80% can now be routinely achieved for typically 5000 hours of machine operation per year. Two main Physics programs utilize the polarized beam. Fixed target experiments in End Station A study the collision of polarized electrons with polarized nuclear targets to elucidate the spin structure of the nucleon and to provide an important test of QCD. Using the SLAC Linear Collider, collisions of polarized electrons with unpolarized positrons allow precise measurements of parity violation in the Z-fermion couplings and provide a very precise measurement of tile weak mixing angle. This paper discusses polarized beam operation at SLAC, and gives an overview of the polarized physics program.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Theory and applications of atomic and ionic polarizabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitroy, J.; Safronova, M. S.; Clark, Charles W.

    2010-10-01

    Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics. The dielectric constant and refractive index of any gas are examples of macroscopic properties that are largely determined by the dipole polarizability. When it comes to microscopic phenomena, the existence of alkaline-earth anions and the recently discovered ability of positrons to bind to many atoms are predominantly due to the polarization interaction. An imperfect knowledge of atomic polarizabilities is presently looming as the largest source of uncertainty in the new generation of optical frequency standards. Accurate polarizabilities for the group I and II atoms and ions of the periodic table have recently become available by a variety of techniques. These include refined many-body perturbation theory and coupled-cluster calculations sometimes combined with precise experimental data for selected transitions, microwave spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms and ions, refractive index measurements in microwave cavities, ab initio calculations of atomic structures using explicitly correlated wavefunctions, interferometry with atom beams and velocity changes of laser cooled atoms induced by an electric field. This review examines existing theoretical methods of determining atomic and ionic polarizabilities, and discusses their relevance to various applications with particular emphasis on cold-atom physics and the metrology of atomic frequency standards.

  8. Perspectives for Polarized Antiprotons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenisa, Paolo

    In the framework of the FAIR project the PAX Collaboration has suggested new experiments using polarized protons and antiprotons. In order to provide polarized antiprotons, the proposed mechanisms for the production of a polarized stored have to be investigated. To this aim a series of experiments have already been started with protons at the COSY ring. Additional experiment have to be foreseen at AD ring with antiprotons to define to working parameters of a dedicated Antiproton Polarizer Ring.

  9. Bulk modulus for polar covalent crystals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Qianqian; Tian, Yongjun

    2013-01-01

    A microscopic empirical model of bulk modulus based on atomic-scale parameters is proposed. These parameters include the bond length, the effective bonded valence electron (EBVE) number, and the coordination number product of two bonded atoms, etc. The estimated bulk moduli from our model are in good agreement with experimental values for various polar covalent crystals including ionic crystals. Our current work sheds lights on the nature of bulk modulus, provides useful clues for design of crystals with low compressibility, and is applicable to complex crystals such as minerals of geophysical importance. PMID:24166098

  10. Polarized Ytterbium with orbital Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su; Zhou, Zhengwei; Zhengwei Zhou Team

    2016-05-01

    Orbital Feshbash resonance make progress for Feshbach resonance on alkaline earth atoms. It urge us to control the interaction of alkaline earth atoms using magnetic field without optical heating. In this work, we research the polarized Ytterbium gases with orbital Feshbach resonance. The gases have normal, superfuild, breach pair double, breach pair open phases in BEC region. It only have normal, and superfuild phases in BCS region. We also plot the particle number fixed phase diagrams. The gases have the phase separation region and normal phase region.

  11. Solar polar rotation and its effect on heliospheric neutral fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, J. M.; Grzedzielski, S.; Bzowski, M.

    2016-12-01

    The magnetic field in the solar polar corona exhibit a regular "ray-like" structure associated with large polar coronal holes during solar minimum. The solar rotation twists the magnetic field lines of the expanding fast solar wind over the poles. The twist induces a toroidal component of the polar magnetic field which results in magnetic forces directed towards the rotation axis. That is tantamount to a (weak) zeta pinch, known also in other astrophysical contexts (e.g. AGN plasmas). The pinch compresses the polar solar corona plasma and a cone-like enhancement in the solar wind density forms along the rotation axis. Though the effect is likely very dynamic, a time independent description is used here to get an order-of-magnitude estimate. The weak pinch is treated as a 1st order perturbation to the zero-order radial flow. The obtained density enhancement may affect the near and far heliosphere, modifying the charge-exchange and electron impact ionization rates of neutral atoms in interplanetary space. The charge exchange is the most effective ionization process for hydrogen and oxygen atoms, and electron impact ionization is a significant loss reaction for the helium atoms at close distances to the Sun. The change in the polar density due to the solar polar corona rotation could be of importance in the inner heliosphere for low energy atoms. We will present the influence of this effect on interstellar neutral gas distribution and H ENA fluxes observed by IBEX.

  12. Atomic Energy Basics, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    This booklet is part of the "Understanding the Atom Series," though it is a later edition and not included in the original set of 51 booklets. A basic survey of the principles of nuclear energy and most important applications are provided. These major topics are examined: matter has molecules and atoms, the atom has electrons, the nucleus,…

  13. Playing with Polarizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is how polarized sunglasses block glare, help spot subtle differences in surfaces, and give a clearer view under water. Information on unpolarized and polarized light is provided. The reasons causing glare to occur and how polarizers decrease glare are discussed. (KR)

  14. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Esherick, Peter; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1988-01-01

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other.

  15. Enhanced Polar System (EPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    0603432F Project Name 644052 Polar Satellite Communications (Sunk) Air Force 3600 05 0605432F Project Name 657105 Polar Satellite ...provides continuous protected communication (low probability of interception and detection) over the north polar region using two communications ...payloads on classified host satellites in highly elliptical Molniya orbits. EPS is composed of four segments: the eXtended Data Rate (XDR) Payload

  16. Progovac on Polarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Laurence R.; Lee, Young-Suk

    1995-01-01

    This article presents an analysis and review of Ljiljana Progovac's "Negative and Positive Polarity: A Binding Approach" (1994). It concludes that by pushing a syntactic analysis of polarity to, if not beyond, its limits, Progovac has focused attention on the work that remains for any approach to polarity to resolve. Contains 59…

  17. Polarity at Many Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    An attempt is made to find how polarity arises and is maintained, which is a central issue in development. It is a fundamental attribute of living things and cellular polarity is also important in the development of multicellular organisms and controversial new work indicates that polarization in mammals may occur much earlier than previously…

  18. Graphing Polar Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  19. Polar Ozone Workshop. Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1988-01-01

    Results of the proceedings of the Polar Ozone Workshop held in Snowmass, CO, on May 9 to 13, 1988 are given. Topics covered include ozone depletion, ozonometry, polar meteorology, polar stratospheric clouds, remote sensing of trace gases, atmospheric chemistry and dynamical simulations.

  20. Partial polarizer filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A birefringent filter module comprises, in seriatum. (1) an entrance polarizer, (2) a first birefringent crystal responsive to optical energy exiting the entrance polarizer, (3) a partial polarizer responsive to optical energy exiting the first polarizer, (4) a second birefringent crystal responsive to optical energy exiting the partial polarizer, and (5) an exit polarizer. The first and second birefringent crystals have fast axes disposed + or -45 deg from the high transmitivity direction of the partial polarizer. Preferably, the second crystal has a length 1/2 that of the first crystal and the high transmitivity direction of the partial polarizer is nine times as great as the low transmitivity direction. To provide tuning, the polarizations of the energy entering the first crystal and leaving the second crystal are varied by either rotating the entrance and exit polarizers, or by sandwiching the entrance and exit polarizers between pairs of half wave plates that are rotated relative to the polarizers. A plurality of the filter modules may be cascaded.

  1. Playing with Polarizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is how polarized sunglasses block glare, help spot subtle differences in surfaces, and give a clearer view under water. Information on unpolarized and polarized light is provided. The reasons causing glare to occur and how polarizers decrease glare are discussed. (KR)

  2. Silicon Raman polarizer.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Victor V; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2012-02-15

    We theoretically investigate the polarization properties of Raman amplifiers based on silicon-on-insulator waveguides, and show that it is possible to realize a waveguide Raman polarizer. The Raman polarizer is a special type of Raman amplifier with the property of producing an amplified and highly repolarized beam when it is fed by a relatively weak and unpolarized signal.

  3. Calculation of polarization effects

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful.

  4. Polarity at Many Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    An attempt is made to find how polarity arises and is maintained, which is a central issue in development. It is a fundamental attribute of living things and cellular polarity is also important in the development of multicellular organisms and controversial new work indicates that polarization in mammals may occur much earlier than previously…

  5. Coherent Control of Collective Atomic Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trail, Collin M.

    2011-12-01

    In this thesis I explore the use of collective spin angular momentum as a platform for quantum information processing. In the limit of a large number of atoms, the collective variables of atomic systems have a natural connection to the bosonic algebra of light (known as the Holstein-Primakoff or HP approximation) where components of the collective spin angular momentum effectively act as quadratures, making them natural systems for coupling to light. I have sought to improve previous schemes for the spin squeezing of atomic ensembles, such as the proposal of Takeuchi et. al. based on coherent quantum feedback [39]. In this scheme a beam of linearly polarized light passes through the atomic ensemble (prepared in a coherent state), coupling to the atoms through a state-dependent index of refraction (the Faraday effect). The light is then passed through a wave-plate and reflected back through the atoms for a second pass. This double-pass scheme leads to an effective nonlinearity as the atomic fluctuations are mapped onto the light on the first pass and then back on to the atoms in the second pass. The light acts as a bus coupling each atom to each of the others. This nonlinear interaction forms a shearing of the atomic coherent state that results in squeezing. The light is entangled to the atoms through these interactions, and remains entangled as it escapes the system. This leads to decoherence of the atoms as the light is lost to the environment, reducing the amount of spin squeezing achieved. The first step towards improving the double-pass scheme was to add a quantum eraser step in which the light is disentangled from the squeezed atoms. By first measuring one quadrature of the light, and then performing a measurement-dependent rotation on the atomic ensemble, it is possible to decouple the atoms and light so that the loss of the light does not reduce the atomic squeezing. This results in an improvement of the rate of atomic spin squeezing. A complete model

  6. Study of a polarized hydrogen ion source with deuterium plasma ionizer

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, A.S.; Derevyankin, G.E.; Dudnikov, V.G.; Klenov, V.S.; Nechaeva, L.P.; Plohinsky, Y.V.; Vasil`ev, G.A.; Yakushev, V.P.

    1995-07-15

    A description of the atomic beam polarized hydrogen ion source developed at the INR in Moscow is given. It is capable of producing polarized 100 {mu}sec long H{sup +} beams with currents up to 6 {mu}A. The beam is 85% polarized and has a normal emittance of 2{pi} mm mrad. Additionally polarized H{sup {minus}} beams have currents up to 200 {mu}A and normalized emittance 2.2 {pi} mm mrad. (AIP)

  7. Light scattering from dense cold atomic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bihui; Cooper, John; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically study the propagation of light through a cold atomic medium, where the effects of motion, laser intensity, atomic density, and polarization can all modify the properties of the scattered light. We present two different microscopic models: the "coherent dipole model" and the "random-walk model", both suitable for modeling recent experimental work done in large atomic arrays in the low-light-intensity regime. We use them to compute relevant observables such as the linewidth, peak intensity, and line center of the emitted light. We further develop generalized models that explicitly take into account atomic motion. Those are relevant for hotter atoms and beyond the low-intensity regime. We show that atomic motion can lead to drastic dephasing and to a reduction of collective effects, together with a distortion of the line shape. Our results are applicable to model a full gamut of quantum systems that rely on atom-light interactions, including atomic clocks, quantum simulators, and nanophotonic systems.

  8. Spin polarization of the split Kondo state.

    PubMed

    von Bergmann, Kirsten; Ternes, Markus; Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2015-02-20

    Spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy is employed to quantitatively determine the spin polarization of the magnetic field-split Kondo state. Tunneling conductance spectra of a Kondo-screened magnetic atom are evaluated within a simple model taking into account inelastic tunneling due to spin excitations and two Kondo peaks positioned symmetrically around the Fermi energy. We fit the spin state of the Kondo-screened atom with a spin Hamiltonian independent of the Kondo effect and account for Zeeman splitting of the Kondo peak in the magnetic field. We find that the width and the height of the Kondo peaks scales with the Zeeman energy. Our observations are consistent with full spin polarization of the Kondo peaks, i.e., a majority spin peak below the Fermi energy and a minority spin peak above.

  9. Interface control of bulk ferroelectric polarization

    PubMed Central

    Yu, P.; Luo, W.; Yi, D.; Zhang, J. X.; Rossell, M. D.; Yang, C.-H.; You, L.; Singh-Bhalla, G.; Yang, S. Y.; He, Q.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Erni, R.; Martin, L. W.; Chu, Y. H.; Pantelides, S. T.; Pennycook, S. J.; Ramesh, R.

    2012-01-01

    The control of material interfaces at the atomic level has led to novel interfacial properties and functionalities. In particular, the study of polar discontinuities at interfaces between complex oxides lies at the frontier of modern condensed matter research. Here we employ a combination of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations to demonstrate the control of a bulk property, namely ferroelectric polarization, of a heteroepitaxial bilayer by precise atomic-scale interface engineering. More specifically, the control is achieved by exploiting the interfacial valence mismatch to influence the electrostatic potential step across the interface, which manifests itself as the biased-voltage in ferroelectric hysteresis loops and determines the ferroelectric state. A broad study of diverse systems comprising different ferroelectrics and conducting perovskite underlayers extends the generality of this phenomenon. PMID:22647612

  10. Polarization : Proving ground for methods in radiative transfer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, K. N.; Anusha, L. S.; Sampoorna, M.

    Polarization of solar lines arises due to illumination of radiating atom by anisotropic (limb darkened/brightened) radiation. Modelling the polarized spectra of the Sun and stars requires solution of the line radiative transfer problem in which the relevant polarizing physical mechanisms are incorporated. The purpose of this paper is to describe in what different ways the polarization state of the radiation `complicates' the numerical methods originally designed for scalar radiative transfer. We present several interesting situations involving the solution of polarized line transfer to prove our point. They are (i) Comparison of the polarized approximate lambda iteration (PALI) methods with new approaches like Bi-conjugate gradient method that is faster, (ii) Polarized Hanle scattering line radiative transfer in random magnetic fields, (iii) Difficulties encountered in incorporating polarized partial frequency redistribution (PRD) matrices in line radiative transfer codes, (iv) Technical difficulties encountered in handling polarized specific intensity vector, some components of which are sign changing, (v) Proving that scattering polarization is indeed a boundary layer phenomenon. We provide credible benchmarks in each of the above studies. We show that any new numerical methods can be tested in the best possible way, when it is extended to include polarization state of the radiation field in line scattering.

  11. Versatile Polarization Generation with an Aluminum Plasmonic Metasurface.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pin Chieh; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Chen, Ting-Yu; Chen, Jia-Wern; Liao, Chun Yen; Chu, Cheng Hung; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2017-01-11

    All forms of light manipulation rely on light-matter interaction, the primary mechanism of which is the modulation of its electromagnetic fields by the localized electromagnetic fields of atoms. One of the important factors that influence the strength of interaction is the polarization of the electromagnetic field. The generation and manipulation of light polarization have been traditionally accomplished with bulky optical components such as waveplates, polarizers, and polarization beam splitters that are optically thick. The miniaturization of these devices is highly desirable for the development of a new class of compact, flat, and broadband optical components that can be integrated together on a single photonics chip. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, a reflective metasurface polarization generator (MPG) capable of producing light beams of any polarizations all from a linearly polarized light source with a single optically thin chip. Six polarization light beams are achieved simultaneously including four linear polarizations along different directions and two circular polarizations, all conveniently separated into different reflection angles. With the Pancharatnam-Berry phase-modulation method, the MPG sample was fabricated with aluminum as the plasmonic metal instead of the conventional gold or silver, which allowed for its broadband operation covering the entire visible spectrum. The versatility and compactness of the MPG capable of transforming any incident wave into light beams of arbitrary polarizations over a broad spectral range are an important step forward in achieving a complete set of flat optics for integrated photonics with far-reaching applications.

  12. Pulsed Dynamic Nuclear Polarization with Trityl Radicals.

    PubMed

    Mathies, Guinevere; Jain, Sheetal; Reese, Marcel; Griffin, Robert G

    2016-01-07

    Continuous-wave (CW) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is now established as a method of choice to enhance the sensitivity in a variety of NMR experiments. Nevertheless, there remains a need for the development of more efficient methods to transfer polarization from electrons to nuclei. Of particular interest are pulsed DNP methods because they enable a rapid and efficient polarization transfer that, in contrast with CW DNP methods, is not attenuated at high magnetic fields. Here we report nuclear spin orientation via electron spin-locking (NOVEL) experiments using the polarizing agent trityl OX063 in glycerol/water at a temperature of 80 K and a magnetic field of 0.34 T. (1)H NMR signal enhancements up to 430 are observed, and the buildup of the local polarization occurs in a few hundred nanoseconds. Thus, NOVEL can efficiently dynamically polarize (1)H atoms in a system that is of general interest to the solid-state DNP NMR community. This is a first, important step toward the general application of pulsed DNP at higher fields.

  13. Efficient polarization analysis for focusing neutron instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahn, Jochen; Glavic, Artur

    2017-06-01

    Polarized neutrons are a powerful probe to investigate magnetism in condensed matter on length scales from single atomic distances to micrometers. With the ongoing advancement of neutron optics, that allow to transport beams with increased divergence, the demands on neutron polarizes and analyzers have grown as well. The situation becomes especially challenging for new instruments at pulsed sources, where a large wavelength band needs to be polarized to make efficient use of the time structure of the beam. Here we present a polarization analysis concept for highly focused neutron beams that is based on transmission supermirrors that are bend in the shape of equiangular spirals. The method allows polarizations above 95% and good transmission, without negative impact on other beam characteristics. An example of a compact polarizing device already tested on the AMOR reflectometer is presented as well as the concept for the next generation implementation of the technique that will be installed on the Estia instrument being build for the European Spallation Source.

  14. Polarized ion sources for high-energy accelerators and colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenski, A. N.

    2001-06-01

    The recent progress in polarized ion source development is reviewed. In dc operation a 1.0 mA polarized H- ion current is now available from the Optically-Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS). In pulsed operation a 10 mA polarized H- ion current was demonstrated at the TRIUMF pulsed OPPIS test bench and a 2.5 mA peak current was obtained from an Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at the INR Moscow test bench. The possibilities for future improvements with both techniques are discussed. A new OPPIS for RHIC spin physics is described. The OPPIS reliably delivered polarized beam for the polarized run at RHIC. The results obtained with a new pulsed ABS injector for the IUCF Cooler Ring are also discussed. .

  15. POLARIZED ION SOURCES FOR HIGH ENERGY ACCELERATORS AND COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    ZELENSKI,A.N.

    2000-10-16

    The recent progress in polarized ion source development is reviewed. In dc operation a 1.0 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current is now available from the Optically-Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS) . In pulsed operation a 10 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current was demonstrated at the TRIUMF pulsed OPPIS test bench and a 3.5 mA peak current was obtained from an Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at the INR Moscow test bench. The possibilities for future improvements with both techniques are discussed. A new OPPIS for RHIC spin physics is described. The OPPIS reliably delivered polarized beam for the polarized run at RHIC. The results obtained with a new pulsed ABS injector for the IUCF Cooler Ring are also discussed.

  16. POLARIZED ION SOURCES FOR HIGH ENERGY ACCELERATORS AND COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    ZELENSKI,A.N.

    2000-10-16

    The recent progress in polarized ion source development is reviewed. In dc operation a 1.0 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current is now available from the Optically-Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS). In pulsed operation a 10 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current was demonstrated at the TRIUMF pulsed OPPIS test bench and a 3.5 mA peak current was obtained from an Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at the INR Moscow test bench. The possibilities for future improvements with both techniques are discussed. A new OPPIS for RHIC spin physics is described. The OPPIS reliably delivered polarized beam for the polarized run at RHIC. The results obtained with a new pulsed ABS injector for the IUCF Cooler Ring are also discussed.

  17. Polarization properties of long-lived stimulated photon echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetov, V. A.; Popov, E. N.

    2015-01-01

    The polarization properties of the long-lived stimulated photon echo formed on the transition ja → jb with the atomic levels degenerate in the projections of the angular momenta are studied theoretically. The two particular transitions ja = 1 → jb = 0 and ja = 1 → jb = 1 with degenerate ground state ja = 1 are discussed. For the transitions ja = 1 → jb = 1 the polarizations and areas of the first (‘write’) and the third (‘read’) excitation pulses are found when the echo polarization faithfully reproduces the arbitrary polarization of the weak (single-photon) second (‘information’) pulse, so that this echo scheme may implement the quantum memory for a single-photon polarization qubit, while for the transitions ja = 1 → jb = 0 it is shown, that the echo polarization differs from that of the second pulse at any conditions.

  18. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  19. Circular Polarization in AGNs: Polarity and Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Plotkin, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    Circular polarization (Stokes V) observations potentially provide information on the nature and origin of the underlying magnetic fields in AGNs. We have been systematically monitoring a group of sources with detectable circular polarization (V>0.1 percent, a level set by the instrumental polarization of our system) in all 4 Stokes parameters at 8.0 and 4.8 GHz since 2000, and also at 14.5 GHz since November 2003, with the University of Michigan prime focus paraboloid antenna. These data are compared with historical observations obtained with the same instrument at 8.0 and 4.8 GHz extending back to 1978. Specific goals are to study the temporal spectral behavior of Stokes V and its relation to variability in total flux and linear polarization, and to investigate the question of polarity stability on decade-long time scales using data obtained with the same instrumentation and at the same frequencies. The data are consistent with linear-to-circular mode conversion in partially opaque regions of the source. We find examples of polarity changes with time at one or more frequencies associated with outbursts in total flux and linear polarization, and polarity differences within the 3 frequencies at a single epoch in one case, 3C 279. Such behavior argues against the notion that the sign of Stokes V is a simple tracer of the net flow of magnetic energy from the central engine to the jet or an indicator of the direction of rotation of the spinning central black hole/accretion disk via the winding up of the initial seed magnetic field. This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST-0307629 and by funds from the University of Michigan.

  20. Hyperpolarized Xenon Nuclear Spins Detected by Optical Atomic Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashchuk, V. V.; Granwehr, J.; Kimball, D. F.; Rochester, S. M.; Trabesinger, A. H.; Urban, J. T.; Budker, D.; Pines, A.

    2004-10-01

    We report the use of an atomic magnetometer based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with frequency-modulated light to detect nuclear magnetization of xenon gas. The magnetization of a spin-exchange-polarized xenon sample (1.7 c m3 at a pressure of 5bars, natural isotopic abundance, polarization 1% ), prepared remotely to the detection apparatus, is measured with an atomic sensor. An average magnetic field of ˜10 nG induced by the xenon sample on the 10cm diameter atomic sensor is detected with signal-to-noise ratio ˜10 , limited by residual noise in the magnetic environment. The possibility of using modern atomic magnetometers as detectors of nuclear magnetic resonance and in magnetic resonance imaging is discussed. Atomic magnetometers appear to be ideally suited for emerging low-field and remote-detection magnetic resonance applications.