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Sample records for polarized quark matter

  1. Quark matter symmetry energy and quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2014-01-10

    We extend the confined-density-dependent-mass (CDDM) model to include isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass. Within the confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model, we study the quark matter symmetry energy, the stability of strange quark matter, and the properties of quark stars. We find that including isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass can significantly influence the quark matter symmetry energy as well as the properties of strange quark matter and quark stars. While the recently discovered large mass pulsars PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 with masses around 2 M {sub ☉} cannot be quark stars within the CDDM model, they can be well described by quark stars in the CIDDM model. In particular, our results indicate that the two-flavor u-d quark matter symmetry energy should be at least about twice that of a free quark gas or normal quark matter within the conventional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in order to describe PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 as quark stars.

  2. Quark matter or new particles?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    It has been argued that compression of nuclear matter to somewhat higher densities may lead to the formation of stable quark matter. A plausible alternative, which leads to radically new astrophysical scenarios, is that the stability of quark matter simply represents the stability of new particles compounded of quarks. A specific example is the SU(3)-symmetric version of the alpha particle, composed of spin-zero pairs of each of the baryon octet (an 'octet' particle).

  3. Cool Quark Matter.

    PubMed

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-22

    We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative equation of state of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to O(g^{5}) in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated via a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft nonzero modes are resummed using the hard thermal loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.

  4. Cool Quark Matter.

    PubMed

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-22

    We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative equation of state of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to O(g^{5}) in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated via a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft nonzero modes are resummed using the hard thermal loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium. PMID:27494468

  5. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan-e~Alam; Subhasis~Chattopadhyay; Tapan~Nayak

    2008-10-01

    Quark Matter 2008—the 20th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions was held in Jaipur, the Pink City of India, from 4-10 February, 2008. Organizing Quark Matter 2008 in India itself indicates the international recognition of the Indian contribution to the field of heavy-ion physics, which was initiated and nurtured by Bikash Sinha, Chair of the conference. The conference was inaugurated by the Honourable Chief Minister of Rajasthan, Smt. Vasundhara Raje followed by the key note address by Professor Carlo Rubbia. The scientific programme started with the theoretical overview, `SPS to RHIC and onwards to LHC' by Larry McLerran followed by several theoretical and experimental overview talks on the ongoing experiments at SPS and RHIC. The future experiments at the LHC, FAIR and J-PARC, along with the theoretical predictions, were discussed in great depth. Lattice QCD predictions on the nature of the phase transition and critical point were vigorously debated during several plenary and parallel session presentations. The conference was enriched by the presence of an unprecedented number of participants; about 600 participants representing 31 countries across the globe. This issue contains papers based on plenary talks and oral presentations presented at the conference. Besides invited and contributed talks, there were also a large number of poster presentations. Members of the International Advisory Committee played a pivotal role in the selection of speakers, both for plenary and parallel session talks. The contributions of the Organizing Committee in all aspects, from helping to prepare the academic programme down to arranging local hospitality, were much appreciated. We thank the members of both the committees for making Quark Matter 2008 a very effective and interesting platform for scientific deliberations. Quark Matter 2008 was financially supported by: Air Liquide (New Delhi) Board of Research Nuclear Sciences (Mumbai) Bose

  6. Quark matter and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. |; Fields, B.; Thomas, D.

    1992-01-01

    The possible implications of the quark-hadron transition for cosmology are explored. Possible surviving signatures are discussed. In particular, the possibility of generating a dark matter candidate such as strange nuggets or planetary mass black holes is noted. Much discussion is devoted to the possible role of the transition for cosmological nucleosynthesis. It is emphasized that even an optimized first order phase transition will not significantly alter the nucleosynthesis constraints on the cosmological baryon density nor on neutrino counting. However, it is noted that Be and B observations in old stars may eventually be able to be a signature of a cosmologically significant quark-hadron transition. It is pointed out that the critical point in this regard is whether the observed B/Be ratio can be produced by spallation processes or requires cosmological input. Spallation cannot produce a B/Be ratio below 7.6. A supporting signature would be Be and B ratios to oxygen that greatly exceed galactic values. At present, all data is still consistent with a spallagenic origin.

  7. Quark Matter '87: Concluding remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1988-03-01

    This year marked the beginning of the experimental program at BNL and CERN to probe the properties of ultra dense hadronic matter and to search for the quark-gluon plasma phase of matter. Possible implications of the preliminary findings are discussed. Problems needing further theoretical and experimental study are pointed out. 50 refs.

  8. STRANGE GOINGS ON IN QUARK MATTER.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAFER,T.

    2001-06-05

    We review recent work on how the superfluid state of three flavor quark matter is affected by non-zero quark masses and chemical potentials. The study of hadronic matter at high baryon density has recently attracted a lot of interest. At zero baryon density chiral symmetry is broken by a quark-anti-quark condensate. At high density condensation in the quark-anti-quark channel is suppressed. Instead, attractive interactions in the color anti-symmetric quark-quark channel favor the formation of diquark condensates. As a consequence, cold dense quark matter is expected to be a color superconductor. The symmetry breaking pattern depends on the density, the number of quark flavors, and their masses. A particularly symmetric phase is the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of three flavor quark matter. This phase is believed to be the true ground state of ordinary matter at very large density.

  9. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The

  10. Quark matter as dark matter in modeling galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Farook; Kuhfittig, P. K. F.; Amin, Ruhul; Mandal, Gurudas; Ray, Saibal; Islam, Nasarul

    2012-08-01

    Considering the flat rotation curves as input and treating the matter content in the galactic halo region as quark matter, we have found out a background spacetime metric for the region of the galactic halo. We obtain fairly general conditions that ensure that gravity in the halo region is attractive. We also investigate the stability of circular orbits, along with a different role for quark matter. Bag-model quark matter meeting these conditions therefore provides a suitable model for dark matter.

  11. Hyperon polarization and multiple quark scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Szwed, J.; Wit, R.

    1988-10-01

    The quark scattering off external gluonic field, calculated to second order, and the quark recombination model are used to describe both the ..lambda.. inclusive production cross-section and the ..lambda.. polarization. The model gives good agreement with experimental data. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Strange Quark Matter Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandweiss, J.

    2004-01-01

    The existence of quark states with more than three quarks is allowed in QCD. The stability of such quark matter states has been studied with lattice QCD and phenomenological bag models, but is not well constrained by theory. The addition of strange quarks to the system allows the quarks to be in lower energy states despite the additional mass penalty. There is additional stability from reduced Coulomb repulsion. SQM is expected to have a low Z/A. Stable or metastable massive multiquark states contain u, d, and s quarks.

  13. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The

  14. Quark matter droplets in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

  15. Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Wei, J.-B.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9-11km. We obtain an energy release as large as 3.6 × 10^{53} erg from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars.

  16. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  17. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces. PMID:25541769

  18. Jet substructures of boosted polarized top quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadono, Yoshio; Li, Hsiang-nan

    2014-06-01

    We study jet substructures of a boosted polarized top quark, which undergoes the semileptonic decay t→bℓν, in the perturbative QCD framework. The jet mass distribution (energy profile) is factorized into the convolution of a hard top-quark decay kernel with the bottom-quark jet function (jet energy function). Computing the hard kernel to the leading order in QCD and inputting the latter functions from the resummation formalism, we observe that the jet mass distribution is not sensitive to the helicity of the top quark, but the energy profile is: energy is accumulated faster within a left-hand top jet than within a right-hand one, a feature related to the V-A structure of weak interaction. It is pointed out that the energy profile is a simple and useful jet observable for helicity discrimination of a boosted top quark, which helps identification of physics beyond the standard model at the Large Hadron Collider. The extension of our analysis to other jet substructures, including those associated with a hadronically decaying polarized top quark, is proposed.

  19. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.

  20. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars. PMID:27472110

  1. Strange quark matter fragmentation in astrophysical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulucci, L.; Horvath, J. E.

    2014-06-01

    The conjecture of Bodmer-Witten-Terazawa suggesting a form of quark matter (Strange Quark Matter) as the ground state of hadronic interactions has been studied in laboratory and astrophysical contexts by a large number of authors. If strange stars exist, some violent events involving these compact objects, such as mergers and even their formation process, might eject some strange matter into the interstellar medium that could be detected as a trace signal in the cosmic ray flux. To evaluate this possibility, it is necessary to understand how this matter in bulk would fragment in the form of strangelets (small lumps of strange quark matter in which finite effects become important). We calculate the mass distribution outcome using the statistical multifragmentation model and point out several caveats affecting it. In particular, the possibility that strangelets fragmentation will render a tiny fraction of contamination in the cosmic ray flux is discussed.

  2. Top Quark Physics at a Polarized Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, S.

    1998-02-01

    Top quark pair production is presented at a polarized Muon Collider above the threshold region. The off-diagonal spin basis is the natural basis for this discussion as the top quark pairs are produced in an essentially unique spin configuration for 100% polarization. Modest polarization, say 30%, can lead to 90% of all top quark pair events being in one spin configuration. This will lead to sensitive tests on anomalous top quark couplings.

  3. Quark matter induced extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Kyle

    2011-05-15

    If the dark matter of our Galaxy is composed of nuggets of quarks or antiquarks in a color superconducting phase there will be a small but nonzero flux of these objects through the Earth's atmosphere. A nugget of quark matter will deposit only a small fraction of its kinetic energy in the atmosphere and is likely to be undetectable. If however the impacting object is composed of antiquarks, the energy deposited can be quite large. In this case nuclear annihilations within the nugget will trigger an extensive air shower the particle content of which is similar to that produced by an ultrahigh energy cosmic ray. This paper gives a qualitative description of the basic properties of such a shower. Several distinctions from an air shower initiated by a single ultrahigh energy nucleus will be described, allowing these events to be distinguished from the cosmic ray background. The subtlety of these features may mean that some fraction of the high energy cosmic ray spectrum may in fact be due to this type of dark matter interaction. The estimated flux of dark matter nuggets and the energy deposited in the atmosphere are such that the Pierre Auger Observatory may prove an ideal facility to place constraints on the flux of heavy quark matter objects. This paper attempts to highlight the best techniques to search for a quark matter signature through an extensive air shower signal.

  4. Seismic Search for Strange Quark Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teplitz, Vigdor

    2004-01-01

    Two decades ago, Witten suggested that the ground state of matter might be material of nuclear density made from up, down and strange quarks. Since then, much effort has gone into exploring astrophysical and other implications of this possibility. For example, neutron stars would almost certainly be strange quark stars; dark matter might be strange quark matter. Searches for stable strange quark matter have been made in various mass ranges, with negative, but not conclusive results. Recently, we [D. Anderson, E. Herrin, V. Teplitz, and I. Tibuleac, Bull. Seis. Soc. of Am. 93, 2363 (2003)] reported a positive result for passage through the Earth of a multi-ton "nugget" of nuclear density in a search of about a million seismic reports, to the U.S. Geological Survey for the years 1990-93, not associated with known Earthquakes. I will present the evidence (timing of first signals to the 9 stations involved, first signal directions, and unique waveform characteristics) for our conclusion and discuss potential improvements that could be obtained from exploiting the seismologically quieter environments of the moon and Mars.

  5. Measuring polarization of light quarks at ATLAS and CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kats, Yevgeny

    2015-10-01

    Polarization of strange quarks is preserved to a high degree when they hadronize into Λ baryons, as observed in Z decays at LEP. This opens up the possibility for ATLAS and CMS to use strange-quark polarization measurements as a characterization tool for new physics scenarios that produce such quarks. Measurements in t t ¯ samples would be useful for obtaining additional information about the polarization transfer from the strange quark to the Λ baryon. Already with 100 fb-1 in run 2, t t ¯ samples in ATLAS and CMS become competitive in sensitivity with the Z samples of the LEP experiments. Moreover, while the LEP measurements were done inclusively over all quark flavors, which makes their interpretation dependent on various modeling assumptions, t t ¯ events at the LHC offer multiple handles for disentangling the different contributions experimentally. We also discuss the possibility of measuring polarizations of up and down quarks.

  6. Quark matter and fermionic dark matter compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Chhanda; Mukhopadhyay, Somenath; Basu, Devasish Narayan

    2016-03-01

    Compact stars, made of quark matter and fermionic dark matter with arbitrary masses and interaction strengths, are studied by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation of general relativity. The mass-radius relation for quark matter compact stars is obtained from the MIT bag model equation of state (EoS) with thin crust for different bag constants. The EoS of non-self-annihilating dark matter for an interacting Fermi gas with dark matter particle of 1-100 GeV mass is studied. For sufficiently strong interactions, the maximum stable mass of compact stars and its radius are controlled by the parameter of the interaction, both increasing linearly with the interaction strength. The mass-radius relation for compact stars made of strongly interacting fermions shows that the radius remains approximately constant for a wide range of compact stars.

  7. Fluctuation sound absorption in quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbikov, B. O.; Lukashov, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the sound absorption in quark matter due to the interaction of the sound wave with the precritical fluctuations of the diquark-pair field above Tc. The soft collective mode of the pair field is derived using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau functional with random Langevin forces. The strong absorption near the phase transition line may be viewed as a manifestation of Mandelshtam-Leontovich slow relaxation time theory.

  8. Thermodynamics and Geometry of Strange Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholizade, H.; Altaibayeva, A.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2015-06-01

    We study thermodynamic of strange quark matter (SQM) using the analytic expressions of free and internal energies. We investigate two regimes of the high density and low density separately. As a vital program, in the case of a massless gluon and massless quarks at finite temperature, we also present a geometry of thermodynamics for the gluon and Bosons using a Legendre invariance metric ,it is so called as geometrothermodynamic (GTD) to better understanding of the phase transition. The GTD metric and its second order scalar invariant have been obtained and we clarify the phase transition by study the singularities of the scalar curvature of this Riemannian metric. This method is ensemble dependence and to complete the phase transition, meanwhile we also investigate enthalpy and entropy and internal energy representations. Our work exposes new pictures of the nature of phase transitions in SQM.

  9. Nucleon sigma term and quark condensate in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    K. Tsushima; K. Saito; A. W. Thomas; A. Valcarce

    2007-03-01

    We study the bound nucleon sigma term and its effect on the quark condensate in nuclear matter. In the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model it is shown that the nuclear correction to the sigma term is small and negative. Thus, the correction decelerates the decrease of the quark condensate in nuclear matter. However, the quark condensate in nuclear matter is controlled primarily by the scalar-isoscalar sigma field of the model. It appreciably moderates the decrease relative to the leading term at densities around and larger than the normal nuclear matter density.

  10. Quark and strange quark matter solutions for higher dimensional FRW universe in Lyra geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Sezgin; Caglar, Halife; Taşer, Dogukan; Aktaş, Can

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the higher dimensional flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe for a cloud of string with perfect fluid attached quark and strange quark matter (SQM) in Lyra geometry. Generalized ( n + 2) dimensional flat FRW universe solutions have been achieved with the aid of equation of states (EOS) and deceleration parameter ( q). From the field equations, we have obtained that the cloud of string with perfect fluid does not survive. Since the string tension density vanishes ( λ = 0) for this model, as a result, the cloud of string with perfect-fluid-attached quark and strange quark matter energy-momentum tensor is automatically transformed into a perfect-fluid-attached quark and strange quark matter energy-momentum tensor. Also, our solutions agree with Halford's study. β 2 behaves like a cosmological constant. When t → ∞ the pressure of quark matter and the density go to zero, then, the quark matter transforms into another matter with time. Also our quark matter solutions are in agreement with the present idea.

  11. Dark matter, neutron stars, and strange quark matter.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, M Angeles; Silk, Joseph; Stone, Jirina R

    2010-10-01

    We show that self-annihilating weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter accreted onto neutron stars may provide a mechanism to seed compact objects with long-lived lumps of strange quark matter, or strangelets, for WIMP masses above a few GeV. This effect may trigger a conversion of most of the star into a strange star. We use an energy estimate for the long-lived strangelet based on the Fermi-gas model combined with the MIT bag model to set a new limit on the possible values of the WIMP mass that can be especially relevant for subdominant species of massive neutralinos.

  12. Phenomenological determination of polarized quark distributions in the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanisław

    1996-03-01

    We present a fit to spin asymmetries which gives polarized quark distributions. These functions are closely related to the ones given by the Martin, Roberts and Stirling fit for unpolarized structure functions. The integrals of polarized distributions are discussed and compared with the corresponding quantities obtained from neutron and hyperon β-decay data. We use the combination of proton, neutron and deuteron spin asymmetries in order to determine the coefficients of our polarized quark distributions. Our fit shows that phenomenologically there is no need for taking polarized gluons into account.

  13. GENERAL: Non-Spherical Gravitational Collapse of Strange Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Zade S.; D, Patil K.; N, Mulkalwar P.

    2008-05-01

    We study the non-spherical gravitational collapse of the strange quark null fluid. The interesting feature which emerges is that the non-spherical collapse of charged strange quark matter leads to a naked singularity whereas the gravitational collapse of neutral quark matter proceeds to form a black hole. We extend the earlier work of Harko and Cheng [Phys. Lett. A 266 (2000) 249] to the non-spherical case.

  14. Polarized hyperons probe dynamics of quark spin

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel S. Carman; T. S. Harry Lee; Mac Mestayer; Reinhard Schumacher

    2007-08-01

    Researchers at Jefferson Laboratory demonstrate how two analyses of the same data provide two plausible models of spin transfer in exclusive hyperon production, yielding quite different pictures of quark spin dynamics and challenging existing theories.

  15. Polarization asymmetry zero in heavy quark photoproduction and leptoproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Schmidt, Ivan

    1998-03-01

    We demonstrate two novel features of the sea-quark contributions to the polarized structure functions and photoproduction cross sections, a zero sum rule and a zero crossing point of the polarization asymmetry, which can be traced directly to the dynamics of the perturbative tree-graph gluon-splitting contributions. In particular, we show that the Born contribution of massive quarks arising from photon-gluon fusion gives zero contribution to the logarithmic integral over the polarization asymmetry ∫dν/νΔσ(ν,Q2) for any photon virtuality. The vanishing of this integral in the Bjorken scaling limit then implies a zero gluon-splitting Born contribution to the Gourdin-Ellis-Jaffe sum rule for polarized structure functions from massive sea quarks. The vanishing of the polarization asymmetry at or near the canonical position predicted by perturbative QCD provides an important tool for verifying the dominance of the photon-gluon fusion contribution to charm photoproduction and for validating the effectiveness of this process as a measure of the gluon polarization ΔG(x,Q2) in the nucleon. The displacement of the asymmetry zero from its canonical position is sensitive to the virtuality of the gluon in the photon-gluon fusion subprocess, and it can provide a measure of intrinsic and higher-order sea quark contributions. © 1998

  16. Effects of quark matter and color superconductivity in compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, D.; Grigorian, H.; Aguilera, D. N.; Yasui, S.; Toki, H.

    2003-04-01

    The equation of state for quark matter is derived for a nonlocal, chiral quark model within the mean field approximation. We investigate the effects of a variation of the form factors of the interaction on the phase diagram of quark matter under the condition of β- equilibrium and charge neutrality. Special emphasis is on the occurrence of a diquark condensate which signals a phase transition to color superconductivity and its effects on the equation of state. We calculate the quark star configurations by solving the Tolman- Oppenheimer- Volkoff equations and obtain for the transition from a hot, normal quark matter core of a protoneutron star to a cool diquark condensed one a release of binding energy of the order of ΔMc2 ~ 1053 erg. We study the consequences of antineutrino trapping in hot quark matter for quark star configurations with possible diquark condensation and discuss the claim that this energy could serve as an engine for explosive phenomena. A ``phase diagram'' for rotating compact stars (angular velocity-baryon mass plane) is suggested as a heuristic tool for obtaining constraints on the equation of state of QCD at high densities. It has a critical line dividing hadronic from quark core stars which is correlated with a local maximum of the moment of inertia and can thus be subject to experimental verification by observation of the rotational behavior of accreting compact stars.

  17. Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtun, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.

  18. Higher dimensional strange quark matter solutions in self creation cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şen, R.; Aygün, S.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have generalized the higher dimensional flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe solutions for a cloud of string with perfect fluid attached strange quark matter (SQM) in Self Creation Cosmology (SCC). We have obtained that the cloud of string with perfect fluid does not survive and the string tension density vanishes for this model. However, we get dark energy model for strange quark matter with positive density and negative pressure in self creation cosmology.

  19. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, Yves; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2011-12-01

    Since the early 1980s, the Quark Matter conferences have been the most important forum for presenting results in the field of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The 22nd conference in this series took place in Annecy, France, on 22-29 May 2011, and it attracted a record attendance of almost 800 participants. More than 500 requests to give presentations were received and, based on the recommendations of the International Advisory Committee, almost 200 were selected. This special issue of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics contains the written reports of those oral presentations. Quark Matter 2011 was scheduled to take place six months after the start of the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Hence, these proceedings mark a historical milestone: two decades after starting to prepare for the LHC, the present volume documents the first substantial harvest of LHC heavy-ion data. In addition, these proceedings feature a complete overview of recent theoretical and experimental developments over two orders of magnitude in the center-of-mass energy of heavy-ion collisions. In particular, they include prominently the latest results from the heavy-ion experiments at Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and a broad range of theoretical highlights. Early in the organization of Quark Matter 2011, it was recognized that the novelty of the results expected at this conference argues for a very rapid publication of the proceedings. We would like to thank all who helped meet the ambitious production schedule. In particular, we would like to thank the paper committees of the LHC experiments ATLAS, ALICE and CMS, and the RHIC experiments PHENIX and STAR who ensured, in a coordinated action, that all experimental contributions were received within four weeks of the end of the conference. We would also like to thank the many individual contributors, as well as the anonymous referees appointed by Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics

  20. Hadronization time of heavy quarks in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Taesoo; Berrehrah, Hamza

    2016-09-01

    We study the hadronization time of heavy quark in nuclear matter by using the coalescence model and the spatial diffusion constant of a heavy quark from lattice quantum chromodynamic calculations, assuming that the main interaction of a heavy quark at the critical temperature is hadronization. It is found that the hadronization time of a heavy quark is about 3 fm /c for 2 π TcDs=6 , if a heavy quark is combined with the nearest light antiquark in coordinate space without any correlation between the momentum of a heavy quark and that of a light antiquark which forms a heavy meson. However, the hadronization time reduces to 0.6 - 1.2 fm /c for charm and 0.4 - 0.9 fm /c for bottom, depending on the heavy meson radius, in the presence of momentum correlation. Considering the interspace between quarks and antiquarks at the critical temperature, it seems that the hadronization of a heavy quark does not happen instantaneously but gradually for a considerable time, if started from the thermal distribution of quarks and antiquarks.

  1. PREFACE: Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009) Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Eduardo; Kodama, Takeshi; Padula, Sandra; Takahashi, Jun

    2010-09-01

    The 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009) was held in Brazil from 27 September to 2 October 2009 at Hotel Atlântico, Búzios, Rio de Janeiro. The conference was jointly organized by Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Universidade Estadual Paulista and Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Over 120 scientists from Argentina, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Switzerland, the UK and the USA gathered at the meeting to discuss the physics of hot and dense matter through the signals of strangeness and also the behavior of heavy quarks. Group photograph The topics covered were strange and heavy quark production in nuclear collisions, strange and heavy quark production in elementary processes, bulk matter phenomena associated with strange and heavy quarks, and strangeness in astrophysics. In view of the LHC era and many other upcoming new machines, together with recent theoretical developments, sessions focused on `New developments and new facilities' and 'Open questions' were also included. A stimulating round-table discussion on 'Physics opportunities in the next decade in the view of strangeness and heavy flavor in matter' was chaired in a relaxed atmosphere by Grazyna Odyniec and conducted by P Braun-Munzinger, W Florkowski, K Redlich, K Šafařík and H Stöcker, We thank these colleagues for pointing out to young participants new physics directions to be pursued. We also thank J Dunlop and K Redlich for excellent introductory lectures given on the Sunday evening pre-conference session. In spite of the not-so-helpful weather, the beauty and charm of the town of Búzios helped to make the meeting successful. Nevertheless, the most important contributions were the excellent talks, whose contents are part of these proceedings, given

  2. Quark core of protoneutron stars in the phase diagram of quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sandin, F.; Blaschke, D.

    2007-06-15

    We study the effect of neutrino trapping in newborn quark stars within a three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with self-consistently calculated quark masses. The phase diagrams and equations of state for charge neutral quark matter in {beta} equilibrium are presented, with and without trapped neutrinos. The compact star sequences for different neutrino untrapping scenarios are investigated and the energy release due to neutrino untrapping is found to be of the order of 10{sup 53} erg. We find that hot quark stars characterized, e.g., by an entropy per baryon of 1-2 and a lepton fraction of 0.4, as models for the cores of newborn protoneutron stars, are in the two-flavor color superconducting state. High temperatures and/or neutrino chemical potentials disfavor configurations with a color-flavor-locked phase. Stable quark star solutions with color-flavor-locked cores exist only at low temperatures and neutrino chemical potentials.

  3. Dark matter and dark energy from quark bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Brilenkov, Maxim; Eingorn, Maxim; Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Zhuk, Alexander E-mail: maxim.eingorn@gmail.com E-mail: ai.zhuk2@gmail.com

    2013-08-01

    We calculate the present expansion of our Universe endowed with relict colored objects — quarks and gluons — that survived hadronization either as isolated islands of quark-gluon ''nuggets'' or spread uniformly in the Universe. In the first scenario, the QNs can play the role of dark matter. In the second scenario, we demonstrate that uniform colored objects can play the role of dark energy providing the late-time accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  4. Jet substructures of boosted polarized hadronic top quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadono, Yoshio; Li, Hsiang-nan

    2016-03-01

    We study jet substructures of a boosted polarized top quark, which undergoes the hadronic decay t →b u d ¯, in the perturbative QCD framework, focusing on the energy profile and the differential energy profile. These substructures are factorized into the convolution of a hard top-quark decay kernel with a bottom-quark jet function and a W -boson jet function, where the latter is further factorized into the convolution of a hard W -boson decay kernel with two light-quark jet functions. Computing the hard kernels to leading order in QCD and including the resummation effect in the jet functions, we show that the differential jet energy profile is a useful observable for differentiating the helicity of a boosted hadronic top quark: a right-handed top jet exhibits quick descent of the differential energy profile with the inner test cone radius r , which is attributed to the V -A structure of weak interaction and the dead-cone effect associated with the W -boson jet. The above helicity differentiation may help reveal the chiral structure of physics beyond the standard model at high energies.

  5. Magnetic Phases in Dense Quark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Incera, Vivian de la

    2007-10-26

    In this paper I discuss the magnetic phases of the three-flavor color superconductor. These phases can take place at different field strengths in a highly dense quark system. Given that the best natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of neutron stars, which typically have very large magnetic fields, the magnetic phases here discussed could have implications for the physics of these compact objects.

  6. Final Report for Project. Quark matter under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Incera, Vivian; Ferrer, Efrain

    2015-12-31

    The results obtained in the two years of the grant have served to shine new light on several important questions about the phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under extreme conditions that include quark matter at high density, as well quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures, both in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The interest in including an external magnetic field on these studies is motivated by the generation of large magnetic fields in off-central heavy-ion collisions and by their common presence in astrophysical compact objects, the two scenarios where the physics of quark matter becomes relevant. The tasks carried out in this DOE project led us, among other things, to discover the first connection between the physics of very dense quark matter and novel materials as for instance topological insulators and Weyl semimetals; they allowed us to find a physical explanation for and a solution to a standing puzzle in the apparent effect of a magnetic field on the critical temperature of the QCD chiral transition; and they led us to establish by the first time that the core of the observed two-solar-mass neutron stars could be made up of quark matter in certain inhomogeneous chiral phases in a magnetic field and that this was consistent with current astrophysical observations. A major goal established by the Nuclear Science Advisory committee in its most recent report “Reaching for the Horizon” has been “to truly understand how nuclei and strongly interacting matter in all its forms behave and can predict their behavior in new settings.” The results found in this DOE project have all contributed to address this goal, and thus they are important for advancing fundamental knowledge in the area of nuclear physics and for enhancing our understanding of the role of strong magnetic fields in the two settings where they are most relevant, neutron stars and heavy-ion collisions.

  7. From quark drops to quark stars. Some aspects of the role of quark matter in compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, Germán

    2016-03-01

    We review some recent results about the mechanism of deconfinement of hadronic matter into quark matter in cold neutron stars and protoneutron stars. We discuss the role of finite-size effects and the relevance of temperature and density fluctuations on the nucleation process. We also examine the importance of surface effects for mixed phases in hybrid stars. A small drop of quark matter nucleated at the core of a compact star may grow if the conversion is sufficiently exothermic. In such a case, it may trigger the burning of the stellar core and even the whole star if quark matter is absolutely stable. We explore the physical processes that occur inside the flame and analyze the hydrodynamic evolution of the combustion front. In the last part of this review, we focus on hybrid stars using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with scalar, vector and 't Hooft interactions, paying particular attention to a generalized non-standard procedure for the choice of the "bag constant". We also describe the non-radial oscillation modes of hadronic, hybrid and strange stars with maximum masses above 2M_{odot} and show that the frequency of the p1 and g fluid modes contains key information about the internal composition of compact objects.

  8. Measurement of W Boson Polarization in Top Quark Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Vickey, Trevor Neil

    2004-01-01

    A measurement of the polarization of the W boson from top quark decay is an excellent test of the V-A form of the charged-current weak interaction in the standard model. Since the longitudinal W boson is intimately related to the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism, and the standard model gives a specific prediction for the fraction of longitudinal W bosons from top decays, it is of particular interest for study. This thesis presents a measurement of W boson polarization in top quark decays through an analysis of the cosθ* distribution in the lepton-plus-jets channel of t$\\bar{t}$ candidate events from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. This measurement uses an integrated luminosity of ~ 162 pb-1 of data collected with the CDF Run II detector, resulting in 31 t$\\bar{t}$ candidate events with at least one identified b jet. Using a binned likelihood fit to the cosθ* distribution from the t$\\bar{t}$ candidate events found in this sample, the fraction of W bosons with longitudinal polarization is determined to be F0 = 0.99$+0.29\\atop{-0.35}$stat.) ± 0.19(syst.), F0 > 0.33 @ 95% CL. This result is consistent with the standard model prediction, given a top quark mass of 174.3 GeV/c2, of F0 = 0.701 ± 0.012.

  9. Warm stellar matter within the quark-meson-coupling model

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, P. K.; Providencia, C.; Menezes, D. P.

    2010-10-15

    In the present article, we investigate stellar matter obtained within the quark-meson-coupling (QMC) model for fixed temperature and with the entropy of the order of 1 or 2 Boltzmann units per baryon for neutrino-free matter and matter with trapped neutrinos. A new prescription for the calculation of the baryon effective masses in terms of the free energy is used. Comparing the results of the present work with those obtained from the nonlinear Walecka model, smaller strangeness and neutrino fractions are predicted within QMC. As a consequence, QMC has a smaller window of metastability for conversion into a low-mass blackhole during cooling.

  10. Warm stellar matter within the quark-meson-coupling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, P. K.; Providência, C.; Menezes, D. P.

    2010-10-01

    In the present article, we investigate stellar matter obtained within the quark-meson-coupling (QMC) model for fixed temperature and with the entropy of the order of 1 or 2 Boltzmann units per baryon for neutrino-free matter and matter with trapped neutrinos. A new prescription for the calculation of the baryon effective masses in terms of the free energy is used. Comparing the results of the present work with those obtained from the nonlinear Walecka model, smaller strangeness and neutrino fractions are predicted within QMC. As a consequence, QMC has a smaller window of metastability for conversion into a low-mass blackhole during cooling.

  11. Quark matter nucleation in neutron stars and astrophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, Ignazio; Logoteta, Domenico; Vidaña, Isaac; Providência, Constança

    2016-03-01

    A phase of strong interacting matter with deconfined quarks is expected in the core of massive neutron stars. We investigate the quark deconfinement phase transition in cold (T=0 and hot β -stable hadronic matter. Assuming a first order phase transition, we calculate and compare the nucleation rate and the nucleation time due to quantum and thermal nucleation mechanisms. We show that above a threshold value of the central pressure a pure hadronic star (HS) (i.e. a compact star with no fraction of deconfined quark matter) is metastable to the conversion to a quark star (QS) (i.e. a hybrid star or a strange star). This process liberates an enormous amount of energy, of the order of 1053erg, which causes a powerful neutrino burst, likely accompanied by intense gravitational waves emission, and possibly by a second delayed (with respect to the supernova explosion forming the HS) explosion which could be the energy source of a powerful gamma-ray burst (GRB). This stellar conversion process populates the QS branch of compact stars, thus one has in the Universe two coexisting families of compact stars: pure hadronic stars and quark stars. We introduce the concept of critical mass M_{cr} for cold HSs and proto-hadronic stars (PHSs), and the concept of limiting conversion temperature for PHSs. We show that PHSs with a mass M < M_{cr} could survive the early stages of their evolution without decaying to QSs. Finally, we discuss the possible evolutionary paths of proto-hadronic stars.

  12. Measuring top-quark polarization in top-pair + missing-energy events.

    PubMed

    Berger, Edmond L; Cao, Qing-Hong; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-10-12

    The polarization of a top quark can be sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model. Since the charged lepton from top-quark decay is maximally correlated with the top-quark spin, it is common to measure the polarization from the distribution in the angle between the charged lepton and the top-quark directions. We propose a novel method based on the charged lepton energy fraction and illustrate the method with a detailed simulation of top-quark pairs produced in supersymmetric top squark pair production. We show that the lepton energy ratio distribution that we define is very sensitive to the top-quark polarization but insensitive to the precise measurement of the top-quark energy.

  13. Thermodynamics of quark matter with a chiral imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, Ricardo L. S.; Duarte, Dyana C.; Krein, Gastão; Ramos, Rudnei O.

    2016-10-01

    We show how a scheme of rewriting a divergent momentum integral can conciliate results obtained with the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and recent lattice results for the chiral transition in the presence of a chiral imbalance in quark matter. Purely vacuum contributions are separated from medium-dependent regularized momentum integrals in such a way that one is left with ultraviolet divergent momentum integrals that depend on vacuum quantities only. The scheme is applicable to other commonly used effective models to study quark matter with a chiral imbalance, it allows us to identify the source of their difficulties in reproducing the qualitative features of lattice results, and enhances their predictability and uses in other applications.

  14. The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E

    2012-05-10

    This technical report describes the work done under the DOE grant DE-FG-88ER41723 (final award number DE-SC0005645), "The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter", during the year of 12/01/2010 through 11/30/2011. As planned in the proposal, the performed research focused along two main thrusts: 1) topological effects in hot quark-gluon matter and 2) phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The results of research are presented in 12 papers published in reputable refereed journals (Physical Review Letters, Physical Review, Physics Letters and Nuclear Physics). All of the performed research is directly related to the experimental programs of DOE, especially at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Much of it also has broader interdisciplinary implications - for example, the work on the non-dissipative chiral magnetic current is directly relevant for quantum computing. The attached report describes the performed work in detail.

  15. Quark matter in the Hartree-Fock approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Grassi, F.

    1987-07-01

    An equation of state is computed for quark matter interacting through a phenomenological potential in the Hartree-Fock approximation. It is shown that for color-independent confining potentials, it can be approximated by the Hartree result and leads to a first order mass phase transition. For color-dependent confining potentials, a phase transition from a Fermi sphere to a Fermi shell is possible.

  16. Bulk viscosity of strange quark matter: Urca versus nonleptonic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sa'd, Basil A.; Shovkovy, Igor A.; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2007-06-15

    A general formalism for calculating the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter is developed. Contrary to the common belief that the nonleptonic processes alone give the dominant contribution to the bulk viscosity, the inclusion of the Urca processes is shown to play an important role at intermediate densities when the characteristic r-mode oscillation frequencies are not too high. The interplay of nonleptonic and Urca processes is analyzed in detail.

  17. Hadronic-to-Quark-Matter Phase Transition: Astrophysical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebergal, Brian

    There are three Parts to this Thesis; the first gives an introduction to the search for quark-gluon plasmas, both in theory and experiment, and provides motivation for using astrophysics to complement this search. The second explores the phase transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma in an astrophysical setting, through the conversion of u,d - to u,d,s-quarks via weak reactions. This transition is formulated in terms of a reactive-diffusive-hydrodynamical problem with the effects of neutrino cooling included, as well as the entropy change due to heat released in forming the stable quark phase. These equations are solved numerically with my newly developed, freely-available, numerical code (the BURN-UD CODE) - which is then applied to the problem of neutron matter inside a cold neutron star burning into stable u,d,s-quark matter. Analytic solutions to the equation set are found and used to verify the BURN-UD code and its findings. The most important findings are as follows; (i) the laminar speed of the combustion interface is 0.002 - 0.04 times the speed of light, much faster than previous estimates derived without hydrodynamic considerations, (ii) neutrino cooling (deleptonization) is essential as it results in the unexpected destabilization of the combustion interface, which causes it to halt at lower densities (≈ 2 times nuclear saturation density). Also, (iii) by appealing to this newly discovered deleptonization instability it is shown for the first time exactly why the transition from a neutron star to a u,d,s-quark star must be explosive; these results validate the Quark-Nova model. Instructions are then given on how the BURN-UD code may be used to model relativistic heavy-ion collision experiments as well as the reverse transition, which is expected to have occurred in the first few moments following the Big-Bang. The last Part of this Thesis concerns the phenomenology of color-superconductivity in compact stars, which occurs much later than

  18. SU(2) Higher-order effective quark interactions from polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghin, Fábio L.

    2016-10-01

    Higher order quark effective interactions are found for SU(2) flavor by departing from a non-local quark-quark interaction. By integrating out a component of the quark field, the determinant is expanded in chirally symmetric and symmetry breaking effective interactions up to the fifth order in the quark bilinears. The resulting coupling constants are resolved in the leading order of the longwavelength limit and exact numerical ratios between several of these coupling constants are obtained in the large quark mass limit. In this level, chiral invariant interactions only show up in even powers of the quark bilinears, i.e. O(ψ bar ψ) 2 n (n = 1 , 2 , 3 , . .), whereas (explicit) chiral symmetry breaking terms emerge as O(ψ bar ψ) n being always proportional to some power of the Lagrangian quark mass.

  19. Phase structure of cold magnetized color superconducting quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, PG; Grunfeld, AG; Scoccola, NN

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intense magnetic fields on the behavior of color superconducting cold quark matter is investigated using an SU(2) f NJL-type model for which a novel regulation scheme is introduced. In such a scheme the contributions which are explicitly dependent on the magnetic field turn out to be finite and, thus, do not require to be regularized. As a result of this, non-physical oscillations that arise from regularizing magnetic field dependent terms are naturally removed, and oscillations that are actually physical can be better appreciated. The phase diagrams in the ẽB – μ plane are presented for different values of the diquark coupling.

  20. Shear and bulk viscosities of quark matter from quark-meson fluctuations in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Peixoto, Thiago C.; Roy, Victor; Serna, Fernando E.; Krein, Gastão

    2016-04-01

    We have calculated the temperature dependence of shear η and bulk ζ viscosities of quark matter due to quark-meson fluctuations. The quark thermal width originating from quantum fluctuations of quark-π and quark-σ loops at finite temperature is calculated with the formalism of real-time thermal field theory. Temperature-dependent constituent-quark and meson masses and quark-meson couplings are obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We found a nontrivial influence of the temperature-dependent masses and couplings on the Landau-cut structure of the quark self-energy. Our results for the ratios η /s and ζ /s , where s is the entropy density (also determined in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the quasiparticle approximation), are in fair agreement with results of the literature obtained from different models and techniques. In particular, our result for η /s has a minimum very close to the quantum lower bound, η /s =1 /4 π .

  1. Strange Quark Stars as a Probe of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hao; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate that the observation of old strange quark stars (SQSs) can set important limits on the scattering cross-sections {σ }q between light quarks and non-interacting scalar dark matter (DM). By analyzing a set of 1403 solitary pulsar-like compact stars in the Milky Way, we find that the old solitary pulsar PSR J1801-0857D can set the most stringent upper limits on {σ }q or the cross-sections {σ }p between DM and protons. By converting {σ }q into {σ }p based on effective operator analyses, we show that the resulting {σ }p limit, by assuming PSR J1801-0857D is an SQS, is comparable with that of the current direct detection experiments in terrestrial labs but weaker by several orders of magnitude than that obtained by assuming PSR J1801-0857D is a neutron star (NS), which requires an extremely small {σ }p far beyond the limits of direct detection experiments. Our findings imply that old pulsars are more likely to be identified as SQSs than as NSs in future terrestrial experiments observing scalar DM.

  2. Bulk viscosity of spin-one color superconducting strange quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xinyang; Shovkovy, Igor A.

    2010-10-15

    The bulk viscosity in spin-one color superconducting strange quark matter is calculated by taking into account the interplay between the nonleptonic and semileptonic week processes. In agreement with previous studies, it is found that the inclusion of the semileptonic processes may result in non-negligible corrections to the bulk viscosity in a narrow window of temperatures. The effect is generally more pronounced for pulsars with longer periods. Compared to the normal phase, however, this effect due to the semileptonic processes is less pronounced in spin-one color superconductors. Assuming that the critical temperature of the phase transition is much larger than 40 keV, the main effect of spin-one color superconductivity in a wide range of temperatures is an overall increase of the bulk viscosity with respect to the normal phase. The corresponding enhancement factor reaches up to about 9 in the polar and A phases, about 25 in the planar phase, and about 29 in the color-spin-locked (CSL) phase. This factor is determined by the suppression of the nonleptonic rate in color superconducting matter and, therefore, may be even larger if all quark quasiparticles happen to be gapped.

  3. Equations of state and stability of color-superconducting quark matter cores in hybrid stars

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, B. K.

    2010-01-15

    The stable configurations of nonrotating and rotating hybrid stars composed of color-superconducting quark matter cores are constructed using several equations of state (EOSs). We use a set of diverse EOSs for the nuclear matter which represents the low density phase. The EOSs at higher densities correspond to the quark matter in the color-superconducting phase and are computed within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-like model for different values of the scalar diquark and vector current couplings strengths. The phase transition to the quark matter is computed by a Maxwell construction. We find that the stability of the hybrid stars are mainly governed by the behavior of the EOSs for the color-superconducting quark matter. However the compositions of hybrid stars are sensitive to the EOS of the nuclear matter. The value of the critical rotation frequency for the hybrid star depends strongly on the EOS of the nuclear matter as well as that for the color-superconducting quark matter. Our results indicate that the EOS for the color-superconducting quark matter can be obtained, by adjusting the parameters of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, to yield the stable configurations of the hybrid star having the maximum mass {approx}1.5M{sub {center_dot}}in the nonrotating limit and the critical rotation frequency {approx}1 kHz.

  4. Hydrodynamical study on the conversion of hadronic matter to quark matter: I. Shock-induced conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Sanada, Takahiro; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-02-01

    We study transitions of hadronic matter (HM) to three-flavor quark matter (3QM) locally, regarding the conversion processes as combustion and describing them hydrodynamically. Not only the jump condition on both sides of the conversion front but the structures inside the front are also considered by taking into account what happens during the conversion processes on the time scale of weak interactions as well as equations of state (EOSs) in the mixed phase. Under the assumption that HM is metastable with their free energies being larger than those of 3QM but smaller than those of two-flavor quark matter (2QM), we consider the transition via 2QM triggered by a rapid density rise in a shock wave. Based on the results, we discuss which combustion modes (strong/weak detonation) may be realized. HM is described by an EOS based on the relativistic mean field theory, and 2QMs and 3QMs are approximated by the MIT bag model. We demonstrate for a wide range of the bag constant and strong coupling constant in this combination of EOSs that the combustion may occur in the so-called endothermic regime, in which the Hugoniot curve for combustion runs below the one for the shock wave in the p -V plane and which has no terrestrial counterpart. Elucidating the essential features in this scenario first by a toy model, we then analyze more realistic models. We find that strong detonation always occurs. Depending on the EOS of quark matter as well as the density of HM and the Mach number of the detonation front, deconfinement from HM to 2QM is either completed or not completed in the shock wave. In the latter case, which is more likely if the EOS of quark matter ensures that deconfinement occurs above the nuclear saturation density and that the maximum mass of cold quark stars is larger than 2 M⊙, the conversion continues further via the mixing state of HM and 3QM on the time scale of weak interactions.

  5. Gluons and the Quark Sea at High Energies: Distributions, Polarization, Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Daniel; Diehl, Markus; Milner, Richard; Venugopalan, Raju; Vogelsang, Werner; Kaplan, David; Montgomery, Hugh; Vigdor, Steven; Accardi, A.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Burkardt, M.; Ent, R.; Guzey, V.; Hasch, D.; Kumar, K.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Li, Ying-chuan; Marciano, W.; Marquet, C.; Sabatie, F.; Stratmann, M.; /more authors..

    2012-06-07

    femtoscope scale lepton-collider ever, exceeding the intensity of the HERA collider a thousand fold. HERA, with its center-of-mass (CM) energy of 320 GeV, was built to search for quark substructure. An EIC, with its scientific focus on studying QCD in the regime where the sea quarks and gluons dominate, would have a lower CM energy. In a staged EIC design, the CM energy will range from 50-70 GeV in stage I to approximately twice that for the full design. In addition to being the first lepton collider exploring the structure of polarized protons, an EIC will also be the first electron-nucleus collider, probing the gluon and sea quark structure of nuclei for the first time. Following the same structure as the scientific discussions at the INT, this report is organized around the following four major themes: (1) The spin and flavor structure of the proton; (2) Three dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space; (3) QCD matter in nuclei; and (4) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. In this executive summary, we will briefly outline the outstanding physics questions in these areas and the suite of measurements that are available with an EIC to address these. The status of accelerator and detector designs is addressed at the end of the summary. Tables of golden measurements for each of the key science areas outlined are presented on page 12. In addition, each chapter in the report contains a comprehensive overview of the science topic addressed. Interested readers are encouraged to read these and the individual contributions for more details on the present status of EIC science.

  6. Magnetic moments of octet baryons, angular momenta of quarks, and sea antiquark polarizations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanislaw

    2010-03-01

    One can determine antiquark polarizations in a proton using the information from deep inelastic scattering, {beta} decays of baryons, orbital angular momenta of quarks, as well as their integrated magnetic distributions. The last quantities were determined previously by us performing a fit to magnetic moments of a baryon octet. However, because of the SU(3) symmetry our results depend on two parameters. The quantity {Gamma}{sub V}, measured recently in a COMPASS experiment, gives the relation between these parameters. We can fix the last unknown parameter using the ratio of up and down quark magnetic moments which one can get from the fit to radiative vector meson decays. We calculate antiquark polarizations with the orbital momenta of valence quarks that follow from lattice calculations. The value of the difference of up and down antiquark polarizations obtained in our calculations is consistent with the result obtained in a HERMES experiment.

  7. Hadron energy spectrum in polarized top-quark decays considering the effects of hadron and bottom quark masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi; Balali, Mahboobe

    2016-03-01

    We present the analytical expressions for the next-to-leading order corrections to the partial decay width t(\\uparrow ) rightarrow bW^+, followed by brightarrow H_bX, for nonzero b-quark mass (m_bne 0) in the fixed-flavor-number scheme (FFNs). To make the predictions for the energy distribution of outgoing hadrons H_b, as a function of the normalized H_b-energy fraction x_H, we apply the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme (GM-VFNs) in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization of top quark is evaluated relative to the b-quark momentum. We also study the effects of gluon fragmentation and finite hadron mass on the hadron energy spectrum so that hadron masses are responsible for the low-x_H threshold. In order to describe both the b-quark and the gluon hadronizations in top decays we apply realistic and nonperturbative fragmentation functions extracted through a global fit to the e^+e^- annihilation data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC by relying on their universality and scaling violations.

  8. Density-Dependent Relations among Properties of Hadronic Matter and Applications to Hadron-Quark Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Uechi, Hiroshi; Uechi, Schun T.

    2011-05-06

    Density-dependent relations among the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter and hyperonic matter, and properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars are shown by applying the conserving nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} hadronic mean-field theory. Nonlinear interactions are renormalized self-consistently as effective coupling constants, effective masses, and sources of equations of motion by maintaining thermodynamic consistency to the mean-field approximation. Effective masses and coupling constants at the saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter simultaneously determine the binding energy and saturation properties of hyperonic matter. The coupling constants expected from the hadronic mean-field model and SU(6) quark model for the vector coupling constants are compared by calculating masses of hadron-quark neutron stars. The nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} mean-field approximation with vacuum fluctuation corrections and strange quark matter defined by the MIT-bag model were employed to examine properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars. We found that hadron-(strange) quark stars become more stable at high densities compared to pure hadronic and strange quark stars.

  9. Hydrodynamical study on the conversion of hadronic matter to quark matter. II. Diffusion-induced conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Sanada, Takahiro; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-02-01

    We study transitions of hadronic matter (HM) to three-flavor quark matter (3QM), regarding the conversion processes as combustion and describing them hydrodynamically. Under the assumption that HM is metastable with their free energies being larger than those of 3QM but smaller than those of two-flavor quark matter, we consider in this paper the conversion induced by diffusions of the seed 3QM. This is a sequel to our previous paper, in which the shock-induced conversion was studied in the same framework. We not only pay attention to the jump condition on both sides of the conversion front, but the structures inside the front are also considered by taking into account what happens during the conversion processes on the time scale of weak interactions. We employ for HM Shen's equation of state (EOS), which is based on the relativistic mean field theory, and the bag model-based EOS for quark matter just as in the previous paper. We demonstrated in that paper that in this combination of EOSs, the combustion will occur for a wide range of the bag constant and strong coupling constant in the so-called endothermic regime, in which the Hugoniot curve for combustion runs below the initial state. Elucidating the essential features of the diffusion-induced conversion both in the exothermic and endothermic regimes first by a toy model, we then analyze more realistic models. We find that weak deflagration nearly always occurs and that weak detonation is possible only when the diffusion constant is (unrealistically) large and the critical strange fraction is small. The velocities of the conversion front are ˜103- 107 cm /s depending on the initial temperature and density as well as the parameters in the quark matter EOS and become particularly small when the final state is in the mixed phase. Finally we study linear stability of the laminar weak-deflagration front and find that it is unstable in the exothermic regime (Darrius-Landau instability) but stable in the endothermic

  10. QCD constraints on the shape of polarized quark and gluon distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Burkardt, Matthias; Schmidt, Ivan

    1995-02-01

    We develop simple analytic representations of the polarized quark and gluon distributions in the nucleon at low Q2 which incorporate general constraints obtained from the requirements of color coherence of gluon couplings at x ˜ 0 and the helicity retention properties of perturbative QCD couplings at x ˜ 1. The unpolarized predictions are similar to the Do' distributions given by Martin, Roberts, and Stirling. The predictions for the quark helicity distributions are compared with polarized structure functions measured by the E142 experiment at SLAC and the SMC experiment at CERN.

  11. Probing Valence Quark's Sivers' Distribution with Polarized-Beam Drell-Yan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Paul E.

    2014-09-01

    The E-906/SeaQuest experiment at Fermilab is collecting unpolarized Drell-Yan and J / Φ data. These data will elucidate aspects of the antiquark distributions in nucleon and nuclear structure, including the the flavor asymmetry in the light quark sea and the EMC effect in the sea distributions. Presently, neither the beam nor the target is polarized in SeaQuest. With little or no modification to the spectrometer, the addition of either a polarized target or beam will unleash exciting new opportunities to examine the spin structure of the valence (polarized beam) and sea (polarized target) quark structure of the proton, including the valence and sea quark Sivers' distributions. QCD predicts that the Sivers' distribution measured with polarized Drell-Yan is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the Sivers' distribution measured by semi-inclusive DIS. After a review of SeaQuest's current physics program and spectrometer status, this talk will focus on the achievements that will be made with the addition of a polarized beam from the Fermilab Main Injector, including a precise determination of the Sivers' distribution of a wide range of xBj necessary for this comparison. The E-906/SeaQuest experiment at Fermilab is collecting unpolarized Drell-Yan and J / Φ data. These data will elucidate aspects of the antiquark distributions in nucleon and nuclear structure, including the the flavor asymmetry in the light quark sea and the EMC effect in the sea distributions. Presently, neither the beam nor the target is polarized in SeaQuest. With little or no modification to the spectrometer, the addition of either a polarized target or beam will unleash exciting new opportunities to examine the spin structure of the valence (polarized beam) and sea (polarized target) quark structure of the proton, including the valence and sea quark Sivers' distributions. QCD predicts that the Sivers' distribution measured with polarized Drell-Yan is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign

  12. PREFACE: SQM2007 International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šafařík, Karel; Šándor, Ladislav; Tomášik, Boris

    2008-04-01

    The International Conference on `Strangeness in Quark Matter' (SQM) was held from 24-29 June 2007 at the Congress Hall of the city cultural centre in the charming mediaeval town of Levoča in north-eastern Slovakia. The Institute of Experimental Physics of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Faculty of Science of the P J Šafárik University in Košice shared the duties of main organizers of the conference. SQM2007 was attended by more than 100 participants from about 20 countries. The natural beauty and the rich cultural and historical monuments of the surrounding Spiš (Scepusium) region created an inspiring setting for the scientific, social and cultural framework of the conference. Continuing the trend started at the SQM2006 conference, heavy flavour physics in heavy-ion collisions was a topic given equal importance in the SQM2007 programme alongside strange quark physics. The Symposium for Students, from Students, organized by Christian Klein-Boesing and Boris Tomášik on the basis of the contributed abstracts, was again an integral and successful part of the conference. The jury, drawn from the organizers, awarded William A Horowitz (Columbia University) the title of best student contribution. The good news is that many students and younger researchers attended the conference. This could not have happened without generous support from our sponsors whom we would like to thank for valuable financial support: CERN, Journal of Physics G, the Prešov self-governing region authorities and the Slovak Physical Society. The kind assistance of the mayor of the town of Levoča is also warmly acknowledged. We would like to extend our gratitude to our colleagues and students from the organizing institutions for their diligent work prior to and during the conference, which ensured that everything worked smoothly. Our special thanks go to our secretaries, Adri Chomičová and Mery Šemš'aková, as well as to the management of the SATEL Hotel in Levoča for their highly

  13. Impact of strange quark matter nuggets on pycnonuclear reaction rates in the crusts of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Golf, B.; Hellmers, J.; Weber, F.

    2009-07-15

    This article presents an investigation into the pycnonuclear reaction rates in dense crustal matter of neutron stars contaminated with strange quark matter nuggets. The presence of such nuggets in the crustal matter of neutron stars would be a natural consequence if Witten's strange quark matter hypothesis is correct. The methodology presented in this article is a recreation of a recent representation of nuclear force interactions embedded within pycnonuclear reaction processes. The study then extends the methodology to incorporate distinctive theoretical characteristics of strange quark matter nuggets, like their low charge-per-baryon ratio, and then assesses their effects on the pycnonuclear reaction rates. Particular emphasis is put on the impact of color superconductivity on the reaction rates. Depending on whether quark nuggets are in this novel state of matter, their electric charge properties vary drastically, which turns out to have a dramatic effect on the pycnonuclear reaction rates. Future nuclear fusion network calculations may thus have the potential to shed light on the existence of strange quark matter nuggets and on whether they are in a color superconducting state, as suggested by QCD.

  14. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies: distributions, polarization, tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, D.; Venugopalan, R.; Diehl, M.; Milner, R.; Vogelsang, W.; et al.

    2011-09-30

    This report is based on a ten-week program on Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies, which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This report is organized around the following four major themes: (i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, (ii) three dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, (iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and (iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Beginning with an executive summary, the report contains tables of key measurements, chapter overviews for each of the major scientific themes, and detailed individual contributions on various aspects of the scientific opportunities presented by an EIC.

  15. Quark matter and meson properties in a Nonlocal SU(3) chiral quark model at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Dumm, D.; Contrera, G. A.

    2012-06-15

    We study the finite temperature behavior of light scalar and pseudoscalar meson properties in the context of a three-flavor nonlocal chiral quark model. The model includes mixing with active strangeness degrees of freedom, and takes care of the effect of gauge interactions by coupling the quarks with a background color field. We analyze the chiral restoration and deconfinement transitions, as well as the temperature dependence of meson masses, mixing angles, and decay constants.

  16. Curvature energy effects on strange quark matter nucleation at finite density

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.E. Department of Space Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, Texas 77251 )

    1994-05-15

    We consider the effects of the curvature energy term on thermal strange quark matter nucleation in dense neutron matter. Lower bounds on the temperature at which this process can take place are given and compared to those without the curvature term.

  17. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Heavy Quark Production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, John Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The experimental collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have established that dense nuclear matter with partonic degrees of freedom is formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at 200 GeV. Information from heavy quarks has given significant insight into the dynamics of this matter. Charm and bottom quarks are dominantly produced by gluon fusion in the early stages of the collision, and thus experience the complete evolution of the medium. The production baseline measured in p + p collisions can be described by fixed order plus next to leading log perturbative QCD calculations within uncertainties. In central Au+Au collisions, suppression has been measured relative to the yield in p + p scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, indicating a significant energy loss by heavy quarks in the medium. The large elliptic flow amplitude v2 provides evidence that the heavy quarks flow along with the lighter partons. The suppression and elliptic flow of these quarks are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on Langevin transport models that imply a viscosity to entropy density ratio close to the conjectured quantum lower bound of 1/4pi. However, a full understanding of these phenomena requires measurements of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects, which should be present in Au+Au collisions but are difficult to distinguish experimentally from effects due to interactions with the medium. This thesis presents measurements of electrons at midrapidity from the decays of heavy quarks produced in d+Au collisions at RHIC. A significant enhancement of these electrons is seen at a transverse momentum below 5 GeV/c, indicating strong CNM effects on charm quarks that are not present for lighter quarks. A simple model of CNM effects in Au+Au collisions suggests that the level of suppression in the hot nuclear medium is comparable for all quark flavors.

  18. Transverse momentum dependent quark distributions and polarized Drell-Yan processes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Yuan, F.; Liang, Z.-T.

    2009-09-11

    We study the spin-dependent quark distributions at large transverse momentum. We derive their transverse momentum behaviors in the collinear factorization approach in this region. We further calculate the angular distribution of the Drell-Yan lepton pair production with polarized beams and present the results in terms of the collinear twist-three quark-gluon correlation functions. In the intermediate transverse momentum region, we find that the two pproaches: the collinear factorization and the transverse momentum dependent factorization approaches are consistent in the description of the lepton pair angular distributions.

  19. Polarization effects in hadron structure functions and in quark and gluon fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Einhorn, M.B.

    1986-07-20

    The predictions of QCD for the evolution of the quark and gluon structure functions of a polarized proton are discussed. In fact, the parton polarizations increase with energy, for fixed Feynman x. Thus, polarized protons may be useful for the discovery or investigation of new physical phenomena at very high energy, especially if there are new interactions or particles whose behavior violates one of the natural symmetries of QCD, such as parity. The mean gluon asymmetry grows as l-scriptnQ/sup 2/, which implies that the orbital angular momentum of the gluons grows similarly.

  20. J/{Psi} suppression as an evidence for quark gluon matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, D.

    1998-08-10

    The J/{psi} suppression was originally proposed as a signature of the quark-gluon plasma. Strong suppression of J/{psi} production was indeed observed recently by the NA50 Collaboration at CERN SPS. Is it the first signature of a long-awaited quark-gluon matter, or just a peculiar combination of ''conventional'' effects acting together to produce the puzzling pattern observed experimentally? In this lecture, I am trying to summarize the existing theoretical explanations.

  1. Landau levels of cold dense quark matter in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xin-Jian; Liang, Jun-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The occupied Landau levels of strange quark matter are investigated in the framework of the SU(3) NJL model with a conventional coupling and a magnetic-field dependent coupling respectively. At lower density, the Landau levels are mainly dominated by u and d quarks. Threshold values of the chemical potential for the s quark onset are shown in the μ -B plane. The magnetic-field-dependent running coupling can broaden the region of three-flavor matter by decreasing the dynamical masses of s quarks. Before the onset of s quarks, the Landau level number of light quarks is directly dependent on the magnetic field strength B by a simple inverse proportional relation ki ,max≈Bi0/B with Bd0=5 ×1 019 G , which is approximately 2 times Bu0 of u quarks at a common chemical potential. When the magnetic field increases up to Bd0, almost all three flavors are lying in the lowest Landau level.

  2. Impact of a magnetic field on the thermodynamics of magnetized quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, R. L. S.; Timóteo, V. S.; Avancini, S.; Pinto, M. B.; Krein, G.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the effect of a magnetic field on the thermodynamics of magnetized quark matter at finite temperature. By using the Nambu Jona-Lasino (NJL) model, we show that the lattice results for the quark consensate can be reproduced when the coupling constant G of the model decreases with the magnetic field and the temperature. Our results show that thermodynamic quantities and quark condensates are very sensitive to the dependence of G with the temperature, even in the absence of a magnetic field.

  3. Magnetized strange quark matter in a mass-density-dependent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jia-Xun; Peng, Guang-Xiong; Xia, Cheng-Jun; Xu, Jian-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the properties of strange quark matter (SQM) in a strong magnetic field with quark confinement by the density dependence of quark masses considering the total baryon number conservation, charge neutrality and chemical equilibrium. It is found that an additional term should appear in the pressure expression to maintain thermodynamic consistency. At fixed density, the energy density of magnetized SQM varies with the magnetic field strength. By increasing the field strength an energy minimum exists located at about 6×1019 Gauss when the density is fixed at two times the normal nuclear saturation density.

  4. Nucleation of quark matter in the PQM model

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Bruno W.; Stiele, Rainer; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen; Ramos, Rudnei O.

    2013-03-25

    We use Langer's theory to calculate the surface tension of critical bubbles in a first-order quark-hadron phase transition at moderate and high baryon chemical potential, as predicted by the Polyakov-Quark-Meson (PQM) model at the mean-field level. We define an effective 4-dimensional order parameter, which is used to overestimate the surface tension of nucleating bubbles within the thin-wall approximation. We find relatively low values for the surface tension, {Sigma} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 15MeV/fm{sup 2}. This implies that a metastable state, such as a supercooled quark-gluon plasma (QGP), quickly decays even in regions relatively close to the coexistence line of the phase diagram. Possible consequences for cosmology are briefly outlined.

  5. Isospin properties of quark matter from a 3-flavor NJL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, He; Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Sun, Kai-Jia

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the properties of hot and dense quark matter based on the 3-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model as well as its Polyakov-loop extension (pNJL) with scalar-isovector and vector-isovector couplings. Provided a considerable large isospin asymmetry or isospin chemical potential, isospin splittings of constituent mass, chiral phase transition boundary, and critical point for u and d quarks can be observed for positive isovector coupling constants but are suppressed for negative ones. The quark matter symmetry energy decreases with the increasing isovector coupling constant, and is mostly enhanced in the pNJL model than in the NJL model. A positive scalar-isovector coupling constant is more likely to lead to an unstable isospin asymmetric quark matter. The isovector coupling has been further found to affect particle fractions as well as the equation of state in hybrid stars. Possible effects on the isospin properties of quark matter have also been discussed if the strangeness sector is further broken among the flavor symmetry.

  6. PREFACE: SQM2008-International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter SQM2008-International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Xiao, Zhigang; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2009-06-01

    The International Conference on `Strangeness in Quark Matter' (SQM2008) was held from 5-10 October 2008 at the Tsinghua University campus, Beijing, China. The Department of Physics, Tsinghua University and the School of Physics, Central China Normal University (CCNU) shared the organizational duties of this conference. SQM2008 was attended by more than 200 participants from approximately 20 countries. The SQM2008 scientific programme comprised 49 plenary talks in 14 sessions and 36 parallel talks in 4 sessions. Continuing the tradition of the previous conferences, the talks were mainly dedicated to the most recent progress in strangeness, heavy flavour, collective phenomena and particle productions in relativistic nuclear collisions. In addition, the recent status of various projects on SPS, LHC, FAIR and HIRFL-CSR was also reported. Particularly, with their enjoyable presentations, many young students and junior physicists shared their research with the audience. Thirty posts were presented during the five day conference. We would like to express our gratitude to the sponsors for their generous financial support, which allowed many young researchers to attend the conference: Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, STAR Collaboration, Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), CCNU, Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), China Center of Advanced Science and Technology (CCAST), Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP), Sandong University (SDU), University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), The Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (TPCSF-CAS). The support from Tsinghua University was especially appreciated. We would also like to extend our gratitude to our colleagues and students from the organizing institutions for their diligent work prior to and during the conference that made everything run smoothly. We thank all the speakers for their inspiring

  7. Fault system polarity: A matter of chance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpfer, Martin; Childs, Conrad; Manzocchi, Tom; Walsh, John; Nicol, Andy; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Many normal fault systems and, on a smaller scale, fracture boudinage exhibit asymmetry so that one fault dip direction dominates. The fraction of throw (or heave) accommodated by faults with the same dip direction in relation to the total fault system throw (or heave) is a quantitative measure of fault system asymmetry and termed 'polarity'. It is a common belief that the formation of domino and shear band boudinage with a monoclinic symmetry requires a component of layer parallel shearing, whereas torn boudins reflect coaxial flow. Moreover, domains of parallel faults are frequently used to infer the presence of a common décollement. Here we show, using Distinct Element Method (DEM) models in which rock is represented by an assemblage of bonded circular particles, that asymmetric fault systems can emerge under symmetric boundary conditions. The pre-requisite for the development of domains of parallel faults is however that the medium surrounding the brittle layer has a very low strength. We demonstrate that, if the 'competence' contrast between the brittle layer and the surrounding material ('jacket', or 'matrix') is high, the fault dip directions and hence fault system polarity can be explained using a random process. The results imply that domains of parallel faults are, for the conditions and properties used in our models, in fact a matter of chance. Our models suggest that domino and shear band boudinage can be an unreliable shear-sense indicator. Moreover, the presence of a décollement should not be inferred on the basis of a domain of parallel faults only.

  8. The polarized structure function of the nucleons with a non-extensive statistical quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos

    2013-05-06

    We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the polarized structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution, often used in the statistical models, were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and the chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalization in the nucleon and by {Delta}u and {Delta}d of the polarized functions.

  9. Bulk viscosity of quark-gluon matter in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Agasian, N. O.

    2013-11-15

    On the basis of low-energy QCD theorems, the bulk viscosity {zeta}(T, Micro-Sign , H) is expressed in terms of basic thermodynamic quantities that characterizes quark-gluon matter at finite temperature and a finite baryon density in a magnetic field. Various limiting cases are considered.

  10. Tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distribution functions in a spin-one hadron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumano, S.

    2010-07-01

    It is becoming crucial to understand orbital-angular-momentum contributions for clarifying the nucleon-spin issue in the parton level. Twist-two structure functions b1 and b2 for spin-one hadrons could probe orbital-angular-momentum effects, which reflect a different aspect from current studies for the spin-1/2 nucleon. The structure functions b1 and b2 are described by tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distributions δTq and δTq¯. Using HERMES data on the b1 structure function for the deuteron, we made an analysis of extracting the distributions δTq and δTq¯ in a simple x-dependent functional form. Optimum distributions are proposed for the tensor-polarized valence and antiquark distribution functions from the analysis. A finite tensor polarization is obtained for antiquarks if we impose a constraint that the first moments of tensor-polarized valence-quark distributions vanish.

  11. Color-spin locking phase in two-flavor quark matter for compact star phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, D. N.; Blaschke, D.; Buballa, M.; Yudichev, V. L.

    2005-08-01

    We study a spin-1 single-flavor color-superconducting phase which results from a color-spin locking (CSL) interaction in two-flavor quark matter. This phase is particularly interesting for compact star cooling applications since the CSL phase may survive under charge neutrality constraints implying a mismatch between up- and down-quark chemical potentials which can destroy the scalar diquark condensate. CSL gaps are evaluated within an NJL model and they are found to be consistent with cooling phenomenology if a density dependent coupling constant is used.

  12. Color-spin locking phase in two-flavor quark matter for compact star phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Deborah N.

    We study a spin-1 single flavor color superconducting phase which results from a color-spin locking (CSL) interaction in two-flavor quark matter. This phase is particularly interesting for compact star cooling applications since the CSL phase may survive under charge neutrality constraints implying a mismatch between up- and down-quark chemical potentials which can destroy the scalar diquark condensate. CSL gaps are evaluated within an NJL model and they are found to be consistent with cooling phenomenology if a density dependent coupling constant is used.

  13. A New Phase of Matter: Quark-Gluon Plasma Beyond the Hagedorn Critical Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Berndt

    I retrace the developments from Hagedorn's concept of a limiting temperature for hadronic matter to the discovery and characterization of the quark-gluon plasma as a new state of matter. My recollections begin with the transformation more than 30 years ago of Hagedorn's original concept into its modern interpretation as the "critical" temperature separating the hadron gas and quark-gluon plasma phases of strongly interacting matter. This was followed by the realization that the QCD phase transformation could be studied experimentally in high-energy nuclear collisions. I describe here my personal effort to help develop the strangeness experimental signatures of quark and gluon deconfinement and recall how the experimental program proceeded soon to investigate this idea, at first at the SPS, then at RHIC, and finally at LHC. As is often the case, the experiment finds more than theory predicts, and I highlight the discovery of the "perfectly" liquid quark-gluon plasma at RHIC. I conclude with an outline of future opportunities, especially the search for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram.

  14. Dark matter and triality symmetry of leptons and quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Furui, Sadataka

    2012-11-12

    The radiation in the universe has a mass equivalent of approximately 2% of the luminous matter. Presence of a large amount of non-luminous matter is a problem. In order to solve this puzzle, I use quaternion basis for the leptons, and make an octonion from a combination of two quaternions. With a principle that the electro-magnetic interaction selects one triality and photon couples with a gluon of one triality sector, color-flavor locking becomes natural, and the problem of dark matter may be solved.

  15. Study of Polarized Sea Quark Distributions in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at sq root(s) = 500 GeV with PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Mibe, Tsutomu

    2009-08-04

    The PHENIX spin program studies the flavor structure of the polarized sea quark distributions in polarized proton-proton collisions. Starting from 2009 run, the quark and antiquark polarization, sorted by flavor, will be investigated with the parity-violating single-spin asymmetry of W-boson production at the collision energy of sq root(s) = 500 GeV. High momentum muons from W-boson decay are detected in the PHENIX muon arms. The muon trigger is being upgraded to allow one to select high momentum muons.

  16. Maximum mass of neutron stars with quark matter core

    SciTech Connect

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Masuda, Kota

    2012-11-12

    We propose a new strategy to construct the equation of state (EOS) for neutron stars (NSs) with hadron-quark (H-Q) phase transition, by considering three density-regions. We supplement the EOS at H-Q region, very uncertain due to the confinement-deconfinement problems, by sandwitching in between and matching to the relatively 'well known' EOSs, i.e., the EOS at lower densities (H-phase up to several times nuclear density, calculated from a G-matrix approach) and that at ultra high densities (Q-phase, form a view of asymptotic freedom). Here, as a first step, we try a simple case and discuss the maximum mass of NSs.

  17. String cloud and domain walls with quark matter for a higher dimensional FRW universe in self creation cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halife, Caǧlar; Sezgin, Aygün

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we research a higher dimensional flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe in Barber–s second theory when strange quark matter (SQM) and normal matter (NM) are attached to the string cloud and domain walls. We obtain zero string tension density for this model. We obtain dust quark matter solutions. This result agrees with Kiran and Reddy, Krori et al, Sahoo and Mishra and Reddy. In our solutions the quark matter transforms to other particles over time. We also obtain two different solutions for domain walls with quark and normal matters by using a deceleration parameter. Also, the features of the obtained solutions are discussed and some physical and kinematical quantities are generalized and discussed. Our results are consistent with Yılmaz, Adcox et al and Back et al in four and five dimensions.

  18. Equation of state for nucleonic matter and its quark mass dependence from the nuclear force in lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi; Aoki, Sinya; Doi, Takumi; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Yoichi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Murano, Keiko; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji

    2013-09-13

    Quark mass dependence of the equation of state (EOS) for nucleonic matter is investigated, on the basis of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method with the nucleon-nucleon interaction extracted from lattice QCD simulations. We observe saturation of nuclear matter at the lightest available quark mass corresponding to the pseudoscalar meson mass ≃469  MeV. Mass-radius relation of the neutron stars is also studied with the EOS for neutron-star matter from the same nuclear force in lattice QCD. We observe that the EOS becomes stiffer and thus the maximum mass of neutron star increases as the quark mass decreases toward the physical point.

  19. Measurement of the W boson polarization in top quark decays with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Dumlupinar U. /Gazi U. /TOBB ETU, Ankara /TAEK, Ankara /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents measurements of the polarization ofW bosons in top quark decays, derived from t{bar t} events with missing transverse momentum, one charged lepton and at least four jets, or two charged leptons and at least two jets. Data from pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV were collected with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.04 fb{sup -1}. The measured fractions of longitudinally, left- and right-handed polarization are F{sub 0} = 0.67 {+-} 0.07, F{sub L} = 0.32 {+-} 0.04 and F{sub R} = 0.01 {+-} 0.05, in agreement with the Standard Model predictions. As the polarization of the W bosons in top quark decays is sensitive to the Wtb vertex Lorentz structure and couplings, the measurements were used to set limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb couplings.

  20. Does cell polarity matter during spermatogenesis?

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-01-01

    Cell polarity is crucial to development since apico-basal polarity conferred by the 3 polarity protein modules (or complexes) is essential during embryogenesis, namely the Par (partition defective)-, the CRB (Crumbs)-, and the Scribble-based polarity protein modules. While these protein complexes and their component proteins have been extensively studied in Drosophila and C. elegans and also other mammalian tissues and/or cells, their presence and physiological significance in the testis remain unexplored until the first paper on the Par-based protein published in 2008. Since then, the Par-, the Scribble- and the CRB-based protein complexes and their component proteins in the testis have been studied. These proteins are known to confer Sertoli and spermatid polarity in the seminiferous epithelium, and they are also integrated components of the tight junction (TJ) and the basal ectoplasmic specialization (ES) at the Sertoli cell-cell interface near the basement membrane, which in turn constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). These proteins are also found at the apical ES at the Sertoli-spermatid interface. Thus, these polarity proteins also play a significant role in regulating Sertoli and spermatid adhesion in the testis through their actions on actin-based cytoskeletal function. Recent studies have shown that these polarity proteins are having antagonistic effects on the BTB integrity in which the Par6- and CRB3-based polarity complexes promotes the integrity of the Sertoli cell TJ-permeability barrier, whereas the Scribble-based complex promotes restructuring/remodeling of the Sertoli TJ-barrier function. Herein, we carefully evaluate these findings and provide a hypothetic model regarding their role in the testis in the context of the functions of these polarity proteins in other epithelia, so that better experiments can be designed in future studies to explore their significance in spermatogenesis. PMID:27635303

  1. Does cell polarity matter during spermatogenesis?

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-01-01

    Cell polarity is crucial to development since apico-basal polarity conferred by the 3 polarity protein modules (or complexes) is essential during embryogenesis, namely the Par (partition defective)-, the CRB (Crumbs)-, and the Scribble-based polarity protein modules. While these protein complexes and their component proteins have been extensively studied in Drosophila and C. elegans and also other mammalian tissues and/or cells, their presence and physiological significance in the testis remain unexplored until the first paper on the Par-based protein published in 2008. Since then, the Par-, the Scribble- and the CRB-based protein complexes and their component proteins in the testis have been studied. These proteins are known to confer Sertoli and spermatid polarity in the seminiferous epithelium, and they are also integrated components of the tight junction (TJ) and the basal ectoplasmic specialization (ES) at the Sertoli cell-cell interface near the basement membrane, which in turn constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). These proteins are also found at the apical ES at the Sertoli-spermatid interface. Thus, these polarity proteins also play a significant role in regulating Sertoli and spermatid adhesion in the testis through their actions on actin-based cytoskeletal function. Recent studies have shown that these polarity proteins are having antagonistic effects on the BTB integrity in which the Par6- and CRB3-based polarity complexes promotes the integrity of the Sertoli cell TJ-permeability barrier, whereas the Scribble-based complex promotes restructuring/remodeling of the Sertoli TJ-barrier function. Herein, we carefully evaluate these findings and provide a hypothetic model regarding their role in the testis in the context of the functions of these polarity proteins in other epithelia, so that better experiments can be designed in future studies to explore their significance in spermatogenesis.

  2. Effect of temperature and magnetic field on two-flavor superconducting quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Tanumoy; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effect of turning on temperature for the charge neutral phase of two-flavor color superconducting (2SC) dense quark matter in the presence of constant external magnetic field. Within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, by tuning the diquark coupling strength, we study the interdependent evolution of the quark Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer gap and dynamical mass as functions of temperature and magnetic field. We find that magnetic field B ≳0.02 GeV2 (1 018 G ) leads to anomalous temperature behavior of the gap in the gapless 2SC phase (moderately strong coupling), reminiscent of previous results in the literature found in the limit of weak coupling without magnetic field. The 2SC gap in the strong coupling regime is abruptly quenched at ultrahigh magnetic field due to the mismatched Fermi surfaces of up and down quarks imposed by charge neutrality and oscillation of the gap due to Landau level quantization. The dynamical quark mass also displays strong oscillation and magnetic catalysis at high magnetic field, although the latter effect is tempered by nonzero temperature. We discuss the implications for newly born compact stars with superconducting quark cores.

  3. PERSPECTIVE: Snow matters in the polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodeau, John

    2010-03-01

    to 30 times greater than those found in ice-free areas. The main question to ask is: how might the bromine have become released to the atmosphere? Many ideas have, in fact, been put forward over the last few years as to how such polar ocean-troposphere exchanges can take place. Much of the interest was driven by the so-called 'sudden' ozone depletion episodes first detected in Arctic air during the 1990s alongside simultaneous bromine 'explosions' which were monitored by ground-based instrumentation and satellite (as the radical BrO) over sea-ice covered by snowpack (Hausmann and Platt 1994, Schonhardt et al 2008). The likely precursors suggested, to date, have been sea-salt, frost-flowers and anthropogenic contents rather than organo- bromine matter (Simpson et al 2007). Associated processing routes including the formation of HOBr, the need for acidity, the involvement of trihalide ions and the potential role of freezing processes and the quasi-liquid layer have all been discussed in this context (Abbatt 1994, Neshyba et al 2009, O'Driscoll et al 2006). Computational work has also led to suggestions that preferential surface dispersion of the more highly polarizable halides (iodide and bromide ions) may lead to their direct interfacial reaction with atmospheric ozone leading to BrO or IO formation (Jungwirth and Winter 2008). The involvement of snow micro-algae in the production of halo-compounds such as CHBr3 and CH2Br2 in Antarctica cannot, of course, be ignored following the measurement of these compounds by Sturges and co-workers over 15 years ago (Sturges et al 1993). And the measurement of high levels of nutrient discussed in the recent work by Antony et al (2010) in the ice-cap areas do provide a basis for understanding why micro- algae growth in snow might be promoted. However the question still comes back to: how are these halo-compounds processed to produce 'active' species like BrO radicals, HOBr, Br atoms, Br2 gas or interhalogens such as BrCl? The

  4. Properties of quark matter in a new quasiparticle model with QCD running coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, ZhenYan; Peng, GuangXiong; Xu, JianFeng; Zhang, ShiPeng

    2016-06-01

    The running of the QCD coupling in the effective mass causes thermodynamic inconsistency problem in the conventional quasiparticle model. We provide a novel treatment which removes the inconsistency by an effective bag constant. The chemical potential dependence of the renormalization subtraction point is constrained by the Cauchy condition in the chemical potential space. The stability and microscopic properties of strange quark matter are then studied within the completely self-consistent quasiparticle model, and the obtained equation of state of quark matter is applied to the investigation of strange stars. It is found that our improved model can describe well compact stars with mass about two times the solar mass, which indicates that such massive compact stars could be strange stars.

  5. Electrosphere of macroscopic 'quark nuclei': A source for diffuse MeV emissions from dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, Michael McNeil; Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2010-10-15

    Using a Thomas-Fermi model, we calculate the structure of the electrosphere of the quark antimatter nuggets postulated to comprise much of the dark matter. This provides a single self-consistent density profile from ultrarelativistic densities to the nonrelativistic Boltzmann regime that we use to present microscopically justified calculations of several properties of the nuggets, including their net charge, and the ratio of MeV to 511 keV emissions from electron annihilation. We find that the calculated parameters agree with previous phenomenological estimates based on the observational supposition that the nuggets are a source of several unexplained diffuse emissions from the Galaxy. As no phenomenological parameters are required to describe these observations, the calculation provides another nontrivial verification of the dark-matter proposal. The structure of the electrosphere is quite general and will also be valid at the surface of strange-quark stars, should they exist.

  6. Cold Uniform Matter and Neutron Stars in the Quark-Meson-Coupling Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Stone; P.A.M. Guichon; H.H. Matevosyan; A.W. Thomas

    2007-08-01

    A new density dependent effective baryon-baryon interaction has been recently derived from the quark-meson-coupling (QMC) model, offering impressive results in application to finite nuclei and dense baryon matter. This self-consistent, relativistic quark-level approach is used to construct the Equation of State (EoS) and to calculate key properties of high density matter and cold, slowly rotating neutron stars. The results include predictions for the maximum mass of neutron star models, together with the corresponding radius and central density, as well the properties of neutron stars with mass of order 1.4 M{sub {circle_dot}}. The cooling mechanism allowed by the QMC EoS is explored and the parameters relevant to slow rotation, namely the moment of inertia and the period of rotation investigated. The results of the calculation, which are found to be in good agreement with available observational data, are compared with the predictions of more traditional EoS, based on the A18+{delta}v+UIX* and modified Reid soft core potentials, the Skyrme SkM* interaction and two relativistic mean field (RMF) models for a hybrid stars including quark matter. The QMC EoS provides cold neutron star models with maximum mass 1.9-2.1 M{sub {circle_dot}}, with central density less than 6 times nuclear saturation density (n{sub 0} = 0.16 fm{sup -3}) and offers a consistent description of the stellar mass up to this density limit. In contrast with other models, QMC predicts no hyperon contribution at densities lower than 3n{sub 0}, for matter in {beta}-equilibrium. At higher densities, {Xi}{sup -,0} and {Lambda} hyperons are present. The absence of lighter {Sigma}{sup {+-},0} hyperons is understood as a consequence of antisymmetrization, together with the implementation of the color hyperfine interaction in the response of the quark bag to the nuclear scalar field.

  7. Probing Quark-Gluon Structure of Matter with e-p and e-A Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the strong interaction (QCD) in the truly strong ('non-perturbative') region remains a major challenge in modern physics. Nucleon and nuclei provide natural laboratories to study the strong interaction. The quark-gluon structure of the nucleon and nuclei are important by themselves since they are the main (>99%) part of the visible world. With electroweak interaction well-understood, e-p and e-A are clean means to probe the nucleon and nuclear structure and to study the strong interaction (QCD). Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided us with the most extensive information on the unpolarized and longitudinally-polarized parton (quark and gluon) distributions (PDFs). It has becoming clear that transverse spin and transverse structure (both transverse spatial structure via generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse momentum structure via transverse- momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs)) study are crucial for a more complete understanding of the nucleon structure and the dynamics of the strong interaction(QCD). The transverse spin, GPDs and TMDs have been the subjects of increasingly intense theoretical and experimental study recently. With 12 GeV energy upgrade, Jefferson Lab (JLab) will provide the most precise multi-dimensional map of the TMDs and GPDs in the valence quark region through Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) and Deep-Exclusive experiments, providing a 3-d partonic picture of the nucleon in momentum and spatial spaces. The precision information on TMDs and GPDs will provide access to the quark orbital angular momentum and its correlation with the quark and the nucleon spins. The planned future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) will enable a precision study of the TMDs and GPDs of the sea quarks and gluons, in addition to completing the study in the valence region. The EIC will also open a new window to study the role of gluons in nuclei.

  8. Radiative origin of all quark and lepton masses through dark matter with flavor symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ernest

    2014-03-01

    The fundamental issue of the origin of mass for all quarks and leptons (including Majorana neutrinos) is linked to dark matter, odd under an exactly conserved Z2 symmetry which may or may not be derivable from an U(1)D gauge symmetry. The observable sector interacts with a proposed dark sector which consists of heavy neutral singlet Dirac fermions and suitably chosen new scalars. Flavor symmetry is implemented in a renormalizable context with just the one Higgs doublet (ϕ(+), ϕ(0)) of the standard model in such a way that all observed fermions obtain their masses radiatively through dark matter.

  9. Radiative origin of all quark and lepton masses through dark matter with flavor symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ernest

    2014-03-01

    The fundamental issue of the origin of mass for all quarks and leptons (including Majorana neutrinos) is linked to dark matter, odd under an exactly conserved Z2 symmetry which may or may not be derivable from an U(1)D gauge symmetry. The observable sector interacts with a proposed dark sector which consists of heavy neutral singlet Dirac fermions and suitably chosen new scalars. Flavor symmetry is implemented in a renormalizable context with just the one Higgs doublet (ϕ(+), ϕ(0)) of the standard model in such a way that all observed fermions obtain their masses radiatively through dark matter. PMID:24655241

  10. Three-dimensional super Yang-Mills with compressible quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Kundu, Arnab; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2016-03-01

    We construct the gravity dual of three-dimensional, SU(N c) super Yang-Mills theory with N f flavors of dynamical quarks in the presence of a non-zero quark density N q. The supergravity solutions include the backreaction of N c color D2-branes and N f flavor D6-branes with N q units of electric flux on their worldvolume. For massless quarks, the solutions depend non-trivially only on the dimensionless combination ρ = N c 2 N q/ λ 2 N f 4 , with λ = g YM 2 N c the 't Hooft coupling, and describe renormalization group flows between the super Yang-Mills theory in the ultraviolet and a non-relativistic theory in the infrared. The latter is dual to a hyperscaling-violating, Lifshitz-like geometry with dynamical and hyperscaling-violating exponents z = 5 and θ = 1, respectively. If ρ ≪ 1 then at intermediate energies there is also an approximate AdS4 region, dual to a conformal Chern-Simons-Matter theory, in which the flow exhibits quasi-conformal dynamics. At zero temperature we compute the chemical potential and the equation of state and extract the speed of sound. At low temperature we compute the entropy density and extract the number of low-energy degrees of freedom. For quarks of non-zero mass M q the physics depends non-trivially on ρ and M q N c /λ N f.

  11. Properties of strange quark matter objects with two types of surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Jun; Peng, Guang-Xiong; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-04-01

    We study strange quark matter (SQM) objects ranging from strangelets to strange stars based on our recently proposed unified description. The important interface effects are investigated by adopting a constant surface tension as well as the multiple reflection expansion (MRE) method. It is shown that the properties of SQM objects are strongly affected by the different surface treatments. In the former case, strangelets are more compact, an electric dipole is predicted on the surface of the quark part, and a local minimum of the energy per baryon appears for unusually small values of the surface tension. In the latter case, on the other hand, an electric potential well is formed, and the energy per baryon decreases monotonically with the SQM object's size. It is found that the MRE scenario coincides with the constant-surface-tension one if realistic values are considered. However, the effects of quark depletion on the quark-vacuum interface cannot be solely described by a constant surface tension. Thus we conclude that the MRE scenario is more reasonable.

  12. Density of saturated nuclear matter at large Nc and heavy quark mass limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Cohen, Thomas D.; Datta, Ishaun

    2014-06-01

    We exhibit the existence of stable, saturated nuclear matter in the large Nc and heavy quark mass limits of QCD. In this limit, baryons (with the same spin flavor structure) interact at leading order in Nc via a repulsive interaction due to the Pauli exclusion principle and at subleading order in 1/Nc via the exchange of glueballs. Assuming that the lightest glueball is a scalar, which implies that the subleading baryon interaction is attractive, we find that nuclear matter saturates since the subleading attractive interaction is longer ranged than the leading order repulsive one. We find that the saturated matter is in the form of a crystal with either a face-centered-cubic or a hexagonal-close-packed symmetry with baryon densities of O ({α˜smq[matter is independent of the lightest glueball mass and scalar-glueball-baryon coupling in the extreme large Nc limit or heavy quark limit (or both), which we define precisely in this work.

  13. Baryonic matter onset in two-color QCD with heavy quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scior, Philipp; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2015-11-01

    We study the cold and dense regime in the phase diagram of two-color QCD with heavy quarks within a three-dimensional effective theory for Polyakov loops. This theory is derived from two-color QCD in a combined strong-coupling and hopping expansion. In particular, we study the onset of diquark density as the finite-density transition of the bosonic baryons in the two-color world. In contrast to previous studies of heavy dense QCD, our zero-temperature extrapolations are consistent with a continuous transition without binding energy. They thus provide evidence that the effective theory for heavy quarks is capable of describing the characteristic differences between diquark condensation in two-color QCD and the liquid-gas transition of nuclear matter in QCD.

  14. Exploring the Quark-Gluon Content of Hadrons: From Mesons to Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Matevosyan, Hrayr

    2007-08-01

    Even though Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) was formulated over three decades ago, it poses enormous challenges for describing the properties of hadrons from the underlying quark-gluon degrees of freedom. Moreover, the problem of describing the nuclear force from its quark-gluon origin is still open. While a direct solution of QCD to describe the hadrons and nuclear force is not possible at this time, we explore a variety of developed approaches ranging from phenomenology to first principle calculations at one or other level of approximation in linking the nuclear force to QCD. The Dyson Schwinger formulation (DSE) of coupled integral equations for the QCD Green’s functions allows a non-perturbative approach to describe hadronic properties, starting from the level of QCD n-point functions. A significant approximation in this method is the employment of a finite truncation of the system of DSEs, that might distort the physical picture. In this work we explore the effects of including a more complete truncation of the quark-gluon vertex function on the resulting solutions for the quark 2-point functions as well as the pseudoscalar and vector meson masses. The exploration showed strong indications of possibly large contributions from the explicit inclusion of the gluon 3- and 4-point functions that are omitted in this and previous analyses. We then explore the possibility of extrapolating state of the art lattice QCD calculations of nucleon form factors to the physical regime using phenomenological models of nucleon structure. Finally, we further developed the Quark Meson Coupling model for describing atomic nuclei and nuclear matter, where the quark-gluon structure of nucleons is modeled by the MIT bag model and the nucleon many body interaction is mediated by the exchange of scalar and vector mesons. This approach allows us to formulate a fully relativistic theory, which can be expanded in the nonrelativistic limit to reproduce the well known phenomenological Skyrme

  15. Top quark polarization as a probe of models with extra gauge bosons.

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E. L.; Cao, Q.-H.; Chen, C.-R.; Zhang, H.

    2011-06-13

    New heavy gauge bosons exist in many models of new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. Discovery of these W{prime} and Z{prime} resonances and the establishment of their spins, couplings, and other quantum numbers would shed light on the gauge structure of the new physics. The measurement of the polarization of the SM fermions from the gauge boson decays would decipher the handedness of the coupling of the new states, an important relic of the primordial new physics symmetry. Since the top quark decays promptly, its decay preserves spin information. We show how decays of new gauge bosons into third generation fermions (W{prime} {yields} tb, Z{prime} {yields} t{bar t}) can be used to determine the handedness of the couplings of the new states and to discriminate among various new physics models.

  16. Bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in a density-dependent quark mass model and dissipation of the r mode in strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Xiaoping; Liu Xuewen; Kang Miao; Yang Shuhua

    2004-07-01

    We study the bulk viscosity of the strange quark matter in the density-dependent quark mass model (DDQM) under the background of self-consistent thermodynamics. The correct formula of the viscosity is derived. We also find that the viscosity in the DDQM is larger by two to three orders of magnitude than that in MIT bag model. We calculate the damping time scale due to the coupling of the viscosity and r mode. The numerical results show that the time scale cannot be shorter than 10{sup -1} s.

  17. Possible ferromagnetism in the large N{sub c} and N{sub f} limit of quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Kazuaki; Oka, Makoto; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2007-11-01

    We consider high density quark matter in the large N{sub c} and N{sub f} limit with N{sub f}/N{sub c} fixed. In this limit, the color superconductivity disappears. We discuss that the chiral density wave state is also absent in the limit, if we assume the existence of the nonperturbative magnetic screening effect as indicated by recent lattice study. We argue that ferromagnetism can become a candidate for the ground state if quarks are massive.

  18. Brazovskii-Dyugaev effect on the inhomogeneous chiral transition in quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Shintaro; Lee, Tong-Gyu; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations on the phase boundary between the inhomogeneous chiral phase and the chiral-restored phase in the phase diagram in the plane of temperature and chemical potential. Introducing the composite fields made of quark bilinear fields, we construct an effective action for them in quark matter by way of the correlation function method. Utilizing this effective action, we discuss the effects of the quark-antiquark and particle-hole pair fluctuations to find possible modifications of the vertex functions of the order parameter included in the thermodynamic potential. We find that the most important effect of the pair fluctuations is to change the sign of the fourth-order vertex function to make the phase transition always the first, rather than the second, order (we call it the Brazovskii-Dyugaev effect). Another important effect manifests in the second-order vertex function: it exhibits a singular behavior near the critical point, which prohibits the second-order phase transition. It, together with the fourth-order vertex function, alters the location of the phase boundary.

  19. Compressed supersymmetry and natural neutralino dark matter from top squark-mediated annihilation to top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Stephen P.

    2007-06-01

    The parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model appear to require uncomfortably precise adjustment in order to reconcile the electroweak symmetry breaking scale with the lower mass limits on a neutral Higgs scalar boson. This problem can be significantly ameliorated in models with a running gluino mass parameter that is smaller than the wino mass near the scale of unification of gauge couplings. A compressed superpartner mass spectrum results; compared to models with unified gaugino masses, the ratios of the squark and gluino masses to the lightest superpartner mass are reduced. I argue that in this scenario the annihilation of binolike neutralino pairs to top-antitop quark pairs through top-squark exchange can most naturally play the crucial role in ensuring that the thermal relic dark matter density is not too large, with only a small role played by coannihilations. The lightest superpartner mass must then exceed the top-quark mass, and the lighter top squark cannot decay to a top quark. These conditions have important implications for collider searches.

  20. Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell state in two-color quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Kenji; Iida, Kei

    2007-09-01

    We explore the phase structure of two-color and two-flavor QCD in the space of the quark chemical potential {mu}{sub q} and the isospin chemical potential {mu}{sub I}. Using a mean-field model we calculate the chiral and diquark condensates, {sigma} and {delta}, self-consistently. In weak coupling and in the chiral limit, we confirm the interval of the isospin chemical potential, 0.71{delta}{sub 0}<{mu}{sub I}<0.75{delta}{sub 0}, in which a single plane-wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell (LOFF) phase is favored over isotropic superfluidity and normal quark matter. The LOFF window becomes slightly wider at high density. For stronger coupling with nonzero quark mass, which is relevant to currently available numerical simulations in lattice two-color QCD, the single plane-wave LOFF phase appears only at sufficiently high density. The prediction obtained for the LOFF region could be tested with lattice since we can prove that the present system is free from the fermion sign problem. We draw the energy landscape on which local minima corresponding to the isotropic superfluid phase and the LOFF phase and a local maximum corresponding to the gapless phase are manifest. Our results clearly illustrate the path from the unstable gapless phase down to the LOFF phase.

  1. New upper limit on strange quark matter flux with PAMELA space experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casolino, Marco

    We present an upper limit for search of Strange Quark Matter (SQM) in cosmic rays with PAMELA experiment. These hypothetical particles could be detected as nuclei having high and anomalous mass/charge (A=Z) ratio, exhibiting a low velocity in the PAMELA Time-of-Flight ystem and an high rigidity in the magnetic spectrometer. We will discuss upper limits in terms of normal/strange matter for Z=1,2 up to 8. Furthermore PAMELA can provide an upper limit covering the mass range 10 < A < 10E5, with charge 1 <= Z <= 8 and rigidity 0.4 <= R <= 1200 GV. The upper limit here obtained is complementary in range and region probed with those coming from ground based spectrometers and could constrain some astrophysical production models of SQM.

  2. Measurement of Top Quark Polarization in Top-Antitop Events from Proton-Proton Collisions at s=7TeV Using the ATLAS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. 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S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Sherwood, P.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. 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M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tuna, A. N.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-12-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the polarization of the top quark in top-antitop quark pair events, using 4.7fb-1 of proton-proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at s=7TeV. Final states containing one or two isolated leptons (electrons or muons) and jets are considered. Two measurements of αℓP, the product of the leptonic spin-analyzing power and the top quark polarization, are performed assuming that the polarization is introduced by either a CP conserving or a maximally CP violating production process. The measurements obtained, αℓPCPC=-0.035±0.014(stat)±0.037(syst) and αℓPCPV=0.020±0.016(stat)-0.017+0.013(syst), are in good agreement with the standard model prediction of negligible top quark polarization.

  3. Sea Quark Polarization Measurement Via W-Boson in Forward Rapidity at PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Itaru; Collaboration: PHENIX Forward Muon Trigger Upgrade Collaboration

    2011-12-14

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL provides a unique opportunity to collide polarized protons. One of the hightlight of the spin program at {radical}(s) = 500 GeV is the direct measurement of sea quark contribution to the proton spin via W-boson production by measuring parity violating single spin asymmetry. A new trigger on forward muons in PHENIX identiienAoes and triggers on high momentum Ws suppressing a large number of low momentum muons coming from hadronic decays. Since the original muon trigger will fire on any muon above {approx}2 GeV/c, it will not provide the required rejection factor for 500 GeV running, which is about 4500. New fast readout trigger electronics and timing device were developed and installed to existing muon detection system in PHENIX. The performance of the new muon trigger and the fast turnaround offline analysis result from the first {radical}(s) = 500 GeV production run (Run11) will be discussed.

  4. Trajectory of the cosmic plasma through the quark matter phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Brett

    2016-02-01

    Experimental studies of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) focus on two, in practice distinct, regimes: one in which the baryonic chemical potential μB is essentially zero, the other in which it is of the same order of magnitude as the temperature. The cosmic QGP which dominates the early universe after reheating is normally assumed to be of the first kind, but recently it has been suggested that it might well be of the second: this is the case in the theory of "little inflation." If that is so, then it becomes a pressing issue to fix the trajectory of the Universe, as it cools, through the quark matter phase diagram: in particular, one wishes to know where in that diagram the plasma epoch ends, so that the initial conditions of the hadronic epoch can be determined. Here we combine various tools from strongly coupled QGP theory (the latest lattice results, together with gauge-gravity duality) in order to constrain that trajectory, assuming that little inflation did occur.

  5. Onset transition to cold nuclear matter from lattice QCD with heavy quarks.

    PubMed

    Fromm, M; Langelage, J; Lottini, S; Neuman, M; Philipsen, O

    2013-03-22

    Lattice QCD at finite density suffers from a severe sign problem, which has so far prohibited simulations of the cold and dense regime. Here we study the onset of nuclear matter employing a three-dimensional effective theory derived by combined strong coupling and hopping expansions, which is valid for heavy but dynamical quarks and has a mild sign problem only. Its numerical evaluations agree between a standard Metropolis and complex Langevin algorithm, where the latter is free of the sign problem. Our continuum extrapolated data approach a first order phase transition at μ(B) ≈ m(B) as the temperature approaches zero. An excellent description of the data is achieved by an analytic solution in the strong coupling limit.

  6. Self-consistently thermodynamic treatment for strange quark matter in the effective mass bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Tmurbagan; Liu, Guang-Zhou; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhu, Ming-Feng

    2008-12-01

    In the framework of the effective mass bag model (EMBM) we have performed the thermodynamical treatment for strange quark matter (SQM) self-consistently, which overcomes the inconsistencies in the thermodynamical properties of the system. Because of the existence of the pressure extra term, the SQM equation of state (EOS) becomes stiffer comparing with the one for the original EMBM. It is interesting to find that in our treatment the SQM EOS is almost independent of the strong coupling constant g . In this case the SQM EOS seems to get back to the EOS for the original MIT bag model. However, this treatment still has influence on the EOS for hybrid star matter and the corresponding mass-radius relations. With the increase of the strong coupling constant g , the EOS for hybrid star matter gets obviously stiff. From our treatment we notice that the pressure extra term can make a hybrid star more compact than the one described in the original EMBM and this model is more suitable to describe the hybrid stars with small radii.

  7. Search for dark matter in events with heavy quarks and missing transverse momentum in collisions with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, M.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. 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M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-02-01

    This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with bottom or top quarks in of collisions collected at TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with large missing transverse momentum are selected when produced in association with high-momentum jets of which one or more are identified as jets containing -quarks. Final states with top quarks are selected by requiring a high jet multiplicity and in some cases a single lepton. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations and limits are set on the mass scale of effective field theories that describe scalar and tensor interactions between dark matter and Standard Model particles. Limits on the dark-matter-nucleon cross-section for spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions are also provided. These limits are particularly strong for low-mass dark matter. Using a simplified model, constraints are set on the mass of dark matter and of a coloured mediator suitable to explain a possible signal of annihilating dark matter.

  8. Fast spinning strange stars: possible ways to constrain interacting quark matter parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Bombaci, Ignazio; Logoteta, Domenico; Thampan, Arun V.

    2016-04-01

    For a set of equation of state (EoS) models involving interacting strange quark matter, characterized by an effective bag constant (Beff) and a perturbative quantum chromodynamics corrections term (a4), we construct fully general relativistic equilibrium sequences of rapidly spinning strange stars for the first time. Computation of such sequences is important to study millisecond pulsars and other fast spinning compact stars. Our EoS models can support a gravitational mass (MG) and a spin frequency (ν) at least up to ≈3.0 M⊙ and ≈1250 Hz, respectively, and hence are fully consistent with measured MG and ν values. This paper reports the effects of Beff and a4 on measurable compact star properties, which could be useful to find possible ways to constrain these fundamental quark matter parameters, within the ambit of our EoS models. We confirm that a lower Beff allows a higher mass. Besides, for known MG and ν, measurable parameters, such as stellar radius, radius-to-mass ratio and moment of inertia, increase with the decrease of Beff. Our calculations also show that a4 significantly affects the stellar rest mass and the total stellar binding energy. As a result, a4 can have signatures in evolutions of both accreting and non-accreting compact stars, and the observed distribution of stellar mass and spin and other source parameters. Finally, we compute the parameter values of two important pulsars, PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J1748-2446ad, which may have implications to probe their evolutionary histories, and for constraining EoS models.

  9. Coexistence of Kaon Condensation and Hyperons in Hadronic Matter and Its Relevance to Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, T.; Maruyama, T.; Tatsumi, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coexistence of kaon condensation and hyperons, which may be realized in neutron stars, is investigated on the basis of the relativistic mean-field theory combined with the effective chiral Lagrangian. It is shown that the kaon-condensed phase in hyperon-mixed matter is plausible, but it leads to a significant softening of the equation of state (EOS). We discuss indispensable effects which make the EOS stiffer so as to be consistent with recent neutron-star observations.

  10. Search for dark matter in events with heavy quarks and missing transverse momentum in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.

    2015-02-24

    This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with bottom or top quarks in 20.3 fb–1 of pp collisions collected at √s=8 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with large missing transverse momentum are selected when produced in association with high-momentum jets of which one or more are identified as jets containing b-quarks. Final states with top quarks are selected by requiring a high jet multiplicity and in some cases a single lepton. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations and limits are set on the massmore » scale of effective field theories that describe scalar and tensor interactions between dark matter and Standard Model particles. Limits on the dark-matter–nucleon cross-section for spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions are also provided. These limits are particularly strong for low-mass dark matter. Using a simplified model, constraints are set on the mass of dark matter and of a colored mediator suitable to explain a possible signal of annihilating dark matter.« less

  11. Search for dark matter in events with heavy quarks and missing transverse momentum in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.

    2015-02-24

    This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with bottom or top quarks in 20.3 fb–1 of pp collisions collected at √s=8 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with large missing transverse momentum are selected when produced in association with high-momentum jets of which one or more are identified as jets containing b-quarks. Final states with top quarks are selected by requiring a high jet multiplicity and in some cases a single lepton. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations and limits are set on the mass scale of effective field theories that describe scalar and tensor interactions between dark matter and Standard Model particles. Limits on the dark-matter–nucleon cross-section for spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions are also provided. These limits are particularly strong for low-mass dark matter. Using a simplified model, constraints are set on the mass of dark matter and of a colored mediator suitable to explain a possible signal of annihilating dark matter.

  12. New upper limit on strange quark matter abundance in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space experiment.

    PubMed

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Donato, C; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergè, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2015-09-11

    In this work we present results of a direct search for strange quark matter (SQM) in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space spectrometer. If this state of matter exists it may be present in cosmic rays as particles, called strangelets, having a high density and an anomalously high mass-to-charge (A/Z) ratio. A direct search in space is complementary to those from ground-based spectrometers. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being potentially capable of directly identifying these particles, without any assumption on their interaction model with Earth's atmosphere and the long-term stability in terrestrial and lunar rocks. In the rigidity range from 1.0 to ∼1.0×10^{3}  GV, no such particles were found in the data collected by PAMELA between 2006 and 2009. An upper limit on the strangelet flux in cosmic rays was therefore set for particles with charge 1≤Z≤8 and mass 4≤A≤1.2×10^{5}. This limit as a function of mass and as a function of magnetic rigidity allows us to constrain models of SQM production and propagation in the Galaxy. PMID:26406816

  13. New Upper Limit on Strange Quark Matter Abundance in Cosmic Rays with the PAMELA Space Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; de Donato, C.; de Santis, C.; de Simone, N.; di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A. M.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Mergè, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Pamela Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present results of a direct search for strange quark matter (SQM) in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space spectrometer. If this state of matter exists it may be present in cosmic rays as particles, called strangelets, having a high density and an anomalously high mass-to-charge (A /Z ) ratio. A direct search in space is complementary to those from ground-based spectrometers. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being potentially capable of directly identifying these particles, without any assumption on their interaction model with Earth's atmosphere and the long-term stability in terrestrial and lunar rocks. In the rigidity range from 1.0 to ˜1.0 ×103 GV , no such particles were found in the data collected by PAMELA between 2006 and 2009. An upper limit on the strangelet flux in cosmic rays was therefore set for particles with charge 1 ≤Z ≤8 and mass 4 ≤A ≤1.2 ×105 . This limit as a function of mass and as a function of magnetic rigidity allows us to constrain models of SQM production and propagation in the Galaxy.

  14. New upper limit on strange quark matter abundance in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space experiment.

    PubMed

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Donato, C; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergè, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2015-09-11

    In this work we present results of a direct search for strange quark matter (SQM) in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space spectrometer. If this state of matter exists it may be present in cosmic rays as particles, called strangelets, having a high density and an anomalously high mass-to-charge (A/Z) ratio. A direct search in space is complementary to those from ground-based spectrometers. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being potentially capable of directly identifying these particles, without any assumption on their interaction model with Earth's atmosphere and the long-term stability in terrestrial and lunar rocks. In the rigidity range from 1.0 to ∼1.0×10^{3}  GV, no such particles were found in the data collected by PAMELA between 2006 and 2009. An upper limit on the strangelet flux in cosmic rays was therefore set for particles with charge 1≤Z≤8 and mass 4≤A≤1.2×10^{5}. This limit as a function of mass and as a function of magnetic rigidity allows us to constrain models of SQM production and propagation in the Galaxy.

  15. MAPPING THE DARK MATTER WITH POLARIZED RADIO SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Michael L.; Battye, Richard A.

    2011-07-01

    In a recent paper, we proposed the use of integrated polarization measurements of background galaxies in radio weak gravitational lensing surveys and investigated the potential impact on the statistical measurement of cosmic shear. Here we extend this idea to reconstruct maps of the projected dark matter distribution or lensing convergence field. The addition of polarization can, in principle, greatly reduce shape noise due to the intrinsic dispersion in galaxy ellipticities. We show that maps reconstructed using this technique in the radio band can be competitive with those derived using standard lensing techniques which make use of many more galaxies. In addition, since the reconstruction noise is uncorrelated between these standard techniques and the polarization technique, their comparison can serve as a powerful check for systematics and their combination can reduce noise further. We examine the convergence reconstruction which could be achieved with two forthcoming facilities: (1) a deep survey, covering 1.75 deg{sup 2} using the e-MERLIN instrument currently being commissioned in the UK and (2) the high-resolution, deep wide-field surveys which will eventually be conducted with the Square Kilometre Array.

  16. Quark matter at high density based on an extended confined isospin-density-dependent mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qauli, A. I.; Sulaksono, A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the inclusion of relativistic Coulomb terms in a confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model of strange quark matter (SQM). We found that if we include the Coulomb term in scalar density form, the SQM equation of state (EOS) at high densities is stiffer but if we include the Coulomb term in vector density form it is softer than that of the standard CIDDM model. We also investigate systematically the role of each term of the extended CIDDM model. Compared with what was reported by Chu and Chen [Astrophys. J. 780, 135 (2014)], we found the stiffness of SQM EOS is controlled by the interplay among the oscillator harmonic, isospin asymmetry and Coulomb contributions depending on the parameter's range of these terms. We have found that the absolute stable condition of SQM and the mass of 2 M⊙ pulsars can constrain the parameter of oscillator harmonic κ1≈0.53 in the case the Coulomb term is excluded. If the Coulomb term is included, for the models with their parameters are consistent with SQM absolute stability condition, the 2.0 M⊙ constraint more prefers the maximum mass prediction of the model with the scalar Coulomb term than that of the model with the vector Coulomb term. On the contrary, the high densities EOS predicted by the model with the vector Coulomb is more compatible with the recent perturbative quantum chromodynamics result [1] than that predicted by the model with the scalar Coulomb. Furthermore, we also observed the quark composition in a very high density region depends quite sensitively on the kind of Coulomb term used.

  17. Are superheavy stable quark clusters viable candidates for the dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borštnik, Norma Mankoč; Rosina, Mitja

    2015-08-01

    The explanation for the origin of families of quarks and leptons and their properties is one of the most promising ways to understand the assumptions of the Standard Model. The Spin-Charge-Family theory [N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Lett. B 292 (1992) 25; J. Math. Phys. 34 (1993) 3731; Int. J. Theor. Phys. 40 (2001) 315; Mod. Phys. Lett. A 10 (1995) 587; J. Modern Phys. 4 (2013) 823; arXiv:1312.15; Phys. Rev. D 91 (2015) 065004; [arXiv:1409.7791; arXiv:1312.1542; arXiv:1502.06786v1, http://arXiv.org/abs/1409.4981; A. Borštnik and N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Rev. D 74 (2006) 073013, arXiv:hep-ph/0512062, arXiv:hep-ph/0401043, arXiv:hep-ph/0401055, arXiv:hep-ph/0301029; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, arXiv:1412.5866; G. Bregar et al., New J. Phys. 10 (2008) 093002; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, arXiv:1502.06786v1, arXiv:1412.5866; N. S. M. Borštnik, Proc. 13th Workshop "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models", Bled, 12-22 July 2010, eds. N. S. M. Borštnik et al., DMFA Založništvo, Ljubljana, December 2010, pp. 105-129], which does propose the mechanism for the appearance of families and offers an explanation for all the assumptions of the Standard Model, predicts two decoupled groups of four families. The lightest of the upper four families has stable members, which are correspondingly candidates to constitute the dark matter [G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 083534, arXiv:1412.5866]. In this paper, we study the weak and the "nuclear" (determined by the color interaction among the heavy fifth family quarks) scattering of such a very heavy baryon by ordinary nucleons in order to show that the cross-section is very small and consistent with the observation in most experiments so far, provided that the quark mass of this baryon is about 100TeV or above.

  18. Generalized Beth–Uhlenbeck approach to mesons and diquarks in hot, dense quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Blaschke, D.; Buballa, M.; Dubinin, A.; Röpke, G.; Zablocki, D.

    2014-09-15

    An important first step in the program of hadronization of chiral quark models is the bosonization in meson and diquark channels. This procedure is presented at finite temperatures and chemical potentials for the SU(2) flavor case of the NJL model with special emphasis on the mixing between scalar meson and scalar diquark modes which occurs in the 2SC color superconducting phase. The thermodynamic potential is obtained in the Gaussian approximation for the meson and diquark fields and it is given in the Beth–Uhlenbeck form. This allows a detailed discussion of bound state dissociation in hot, dense matter (Mott effect) in terms of the in-medium scattering phase shift of two-particle correlations. It is shown for the case without meson–diquark mixing that the phase shift can be separated into a continuum and a resonance part. In the latter, the Mott transition manifests itself by a change of the phase shift at threshold by π in accordance with Levinson’s theorem, when a bound state transforms to a resonance in the scattering continuum. The consequences for the contribution of pionic correlations to the pressure are discussed by evaluating the Beth–Uhlenbeck equation of state in different approximations. A similar discussion is performed for the scalar diquark channel in the normal phase. Further developments and applications of the developed approach are outlined.

  19. Connection between the nuclear matter mean-field equation of state and the quark and gluon condensates at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Malheiro, M.; Dey, M.; Delfino, A.; Dey, J. |||

    1997-01-01

    It is known now that chiral symmetry restoration requires the meson-nucleon couplings to be density-dependent in nuclear-matter mean-field models. We further show that, quite generally, the quark and gluon condensates in medium are related to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of nuclear matter and in these models the incompressibility K must be less than 3 times the chemical potential {mu}. In the critical density {rho}{sub c}, the gluon condensate is only reduced by 20{percent}, indicating a larger effective nucleon mass. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Aspects of the strongly interacting matter phase diagram within non-local quark models

    SciTech Connect

    Pagura, V.; Dumm, D. G.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2013-03-25

    We study a nonlocal extension of the so-called Polyakov Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model at finite temperature and chemical potential, considering the impact of the presence of dynamical quarks on the scale parameter appearing in the Polyakov potential. Both real and imaginary chemical potentials are considered. The effect of varying the current quark mass is also investigated.

  1. Higher twists in polarized DIS and the size of the constituent quark

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Sidorov; Christian Weiss

    2006-02-15

    The spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry implies the presence of a short-distance scale in the QCD vacuum, which phenomenologically may be associated with the ''size'' of the constituent quark, rho {approx} 0.3 fm. We discuss the role of this scale in the matrix elements of the twist-4 and 3 quark-gluon operators determining the leading power (1/Q{sup 2}-) corrections to the moments of the nucleon spin structure functions. We argue that the flavor-nonsinglet twist-4 matrix element, f{sub 2}{sup u-d}, has a sizable negative value of the order rho{sup -2}, due to the presence of sea quarks with virtualities {approx} rho{sup -2} in the proton wave function. The twist-3 matrix element, d{sub 2}, is not related to the scale rho{sup -2}. Our arguments support the results of previous calculations of the matrix elements in the instanton vacuum model. We show that this qualitative picture is in agreement with the phenomenological higher-twist correction extracted from an NLO QCD fit to the world data on g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 1}{sup n}, which include recent data from the Jefferson Lab Hall A and COMPASS experiments. We comment on the implications of the short-distance scale rho for quark-hadron duality and the x-dependence of higher-twist contributions.

  2. Astrophysical implications of gapless color-flavor locked quark matter: A hot water bottle for aging neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark; Jotwani, Pooja; Kouvaris, Chris; Kundu, Joydip; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2005-06-01

    The gapless color-flavor locked (gCFL) phase is a candidate for the second-densest phase of matter in the QCD phase diagram, making it a plausible constituent of the core of neutron stars. We show that even a relatively small region of gCFL matter in a star will dominate both the heat capacity CV and the heat loss by neutrino emission Lν. The gCFL phase is characterized by an unusual quasiparticle dispersion relation that makes both its specific heat cV and its neutrino emissivity ɛν parametrically larger than in any other phase of nuclear or quark matter. During the epoch in which the cooling of the star is dominated by direct Urca neutrino emission, the presence of a gCFL region does not strongly alter the cooling history because the enhancements of CV and Lν cancel against each other. At late times, however, the cooling is dominated by photon emission from the surface, so Lν is irrelevant, and the anomalously large heat capacity of the gCFL region keeps the star warm. The temperature drops with time as T˜t-1.4 rather than the canonical T˜t-5. This provides a unique and potentially observable signature of gCFL quark matter.

  3. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-05-01

    The 2013 Strangeness in Quark Matter conference took place at the University of Birmingham in July 2013, in a period of remarkably good weather that gave a very welcome boost to the event. 158 physicists from 25 countries gathered for a week of discussions on the production of strangeness and heavy flavour in heavy ion collisions. The dates for the meeting had been set two years earlier in Cracow, so as to allow it to offer the first major examination of proton-lead collisions from the Large Hadron Collider. It had originally been thought that these collisions would be recorded by the end of 2012, but in the event it turned out that the running period was postponed until January and February of 2013, giving the LHC collaborations - all four major collaborations since LHCb also took part in pPb data taking - very little time to prepare their results. Nevertheless, new results were provided, and their presentation and interpretation formed one of the highlights of the conference. In addition, there was a more detailed assessment of the RHIC beam energy scan, many new heavy flavour results from the RHIC and LHC heavy ion runs and detailed discussions of the future FAIR and NICA programmes. The conference also hosted a good cross-section of current topics in theoretical talks. In the last few years there has been much interest in thermalization and in the use of hydrodynamics to describe the fluctuations visible in higher-order flow coefficients. Discussions of both of these features were well represented, indicating the maturing of this field. We gratefully acknowledge support from The University of Birmingham, CERN, The Extreme Matter Institute (EMMI), the Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Institute of Physics Publishing and from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). This assistance allowed us to support over twenty young physicists, and allowed us to ensure that we had the breadth of programme needed for a successful conference

  4. Broken valence chiral symmetry and chiral polarization of Dirac spectrum in Nf=12 QCD at small quark mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horváth, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The validity of recently proposed equivalence between valence spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (vSChSB) and chiral polarization of low energy Dirac spectrum (ChP) in SU(3) gauge theory, is examined for the case of twelve mass-degenerate fundamental quark flavors. We find that the vSChSB-ChP correspondence holds for regularized systems studied. Moreover, our results suggest that vSChSB occurs in two qualitatively different circumstances: there is a quark mass mc such that for m > mc the mode condensing Dirac spectrum exhibits standard monotonically increasing density, while for mch < m < mc the peak around zero separates from the bulk of the spectrum, with density showing a pronounced depletion at intermediate scales. Valence chiral symmetry restoration may occur at yet smaller masses m < mch, but this has not yet been seen by overlap valence probe, leaving the mch = 0 possibility open. The latter option could place massless Nf=12 theory outside of conformal window. Anomalous behavior of overlap Dirac spectrum for mch < m < mc is qualitatively similar to one observed previously in zero and few-flavor theories as an effect of thermal agitation.

  5. Quark-Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyed, R.; Dey, J.; Dey, M.

    2002-07-01

    We explore the scenario where the core of a neutron star (having experienced a transition to an up and down quark phase) shrinks into the equilibrated quark object after reaching strange quark matter saturation density (where a composition of up, down and strange quarks is the favored state of matter). The overlaying (envelope) material free-falls following the core contraction releasing upto 1053 ergs in energy as radiation, partly as a result of the conversion of envelope material to quarks. This phenomena, we named Quark-Nova, leads to a wide variety of ejectae ranging form the Newtonian, ``dirty" to the ultra-relativistic fireball. The mass range of the corresponding compact remnant (the quark star) ranges from less than 0.3 Msun up to a solar mass. We discuss the connection between Quark-Novae and Gamma ray bursts and suggest the recently studied GRB011211 event as a plausible Quark-Nova candidate.

  6. Measurement of W-boson polarization in top-quark decay using the full CDF Run II data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; De Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d'Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Sorin, V.; Song, H.; Stancari, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Walsh, K.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C., III; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2013-02-01

    We measure the polarization of W bosons from top-quark (t) decays into final states with a charged lepton and jets, tt¯→W+bW-b¯→ℓνbqq¯'b¯, using the full Run II data set collected by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 8.7fb-1. A model-independent method simultaneously determines the fraction of longitudinal (f0) and right-handed (f+) W bosons to yield f0=0.726±0.066(stat)±0.067(syst) and f+=-0.045±0.044(stat)±0.058(syst) with a correlation coefficient of -0.69. Additional results are presented under various standard model assumptions. No significant discrepancies with the standard model are observed.

  7. Magnetized color superconducting cold quark matter within the SU(2 ) f NJL model: A novel regularization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, P.; Grunfeld, A. G.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of intense magnetic fields on the behavior of color superconducting cold quark matter is investigated using an SU(2 ) f Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model for which a novel regulation scheme is introduced. In such a scheme the contributions which are explicitly dependent on the magnetic field turn out to be finite and, thus, do not require to be regularized. As a result of this, nonphysical oscillations that might arise in the alternative regularization schemes previously used in the literature are naturally removed. In this way, a clearer interpretation of the physical oscillations is possible. The sensitivity of our results to the model parametrization is analyzed.

  8. PREFACE: SQM2004 The 8th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleymans, Jean; Steinberg, Peter; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2005-06-01

    The 8th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2004) was held at at the Breakwater Lodge, which is part of the Graduate School of Business of the University of Cape Town. The architecture of the Breakwater Lodge is a stark reminder of the fact that its original purpose was to serve as a municipal jail. It appears that the spectacular background of Table Mountain and the V&A Waterfront and an excellent set of speakers were sufficient to keep the lecture rooms full to capacity, despite the numerous temptations of Cape Town. This is the first time a major heavy ion conference has been held in South Africa, and the timing is fortuitous, with a long-delayed MoU between South Africa and CERN at last being signed and finalized. At last, funding is being made available for South African scientists to play a meaningful role and make contributions to the international effort in heavy ion physics. Despite the substantial distance from the major cities in the northern hemisphere, the conference was very well attended and the number of participants was about 50% larger than originally anticipated. Participants came from China, India, Japan, the United States, Brazil and many European countries. We would like to thank all of the SQM2004 participants for their efforts and, in particlular, all of the plenary and parallel speakers for their hard work in making this conference such a success. Of course, even more thanks go to all the chairpersons of the various sessions who struggled to keep the conference program on the (admittedly tight) schedule. For future conferences, we recommend keeping a bell handy! Photograph Participants gather on the UCT campus with Table Mountain in the backgound. We would like to thank Professor Tony Fairall for a most entertaining after-dinner talk about all that is unusual and fascinating about the southern hemisphere. It could not be emphasized enough that the daily working of the meeting would have ground to a halt without the

  9. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkardt, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Generalized parton distributions provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact parameter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark orbital angular momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.

  10. Charge balance functions in a scenario of continuing charge production in quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-11-01

    We study the charge balance functions of π+π- and K+K- in a scenario of continuing charge creation in a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, using relativistic hydrodynamics and the lattice QCD results of quark susceptibilities and the equation of state of the QGP. We find that the charge balance functions are dominated by their QGP components because most charges are produced before the hadronic stage. The hadronic component of the balance function of π+π- is small but non-negligible. The balance function of K+K- has a negative hadronic component because the strangeness decreases during the system evolution. The correlation between light and strange quarks leads to small enhancements of the balance functions at small rapidity difference.

  11. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Castillo, D.; Blaschke, D.; Kekelidze, V.; Matveev, V.; Sorin, A.

    2016-01-01

    The 15th International Conference Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM) took place at the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (VBLHEP) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna in the period July 6 -11, with a record participation of 244 people from 31 countries! The previous meeting of the series in Birmingham 2013 had collected 158 physicists from 25 countries [J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 509, 011001 (2014)]. At SQM-2015, there was also a record participation of young scientist; every 4th conference attendee did not yet hold a PhD degree! There was a special program of 4 general lectures, a devoted session of parallel talks for Young Talents and the Helmholtz International Summer School (HISS) with 16 lecturers on the topics regarding Dense Matter (29.06.-11.07.) as a satellite event at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (BLTP) and at VBLHEP. Another satellite event was the Round TableWorkshop on Physics at NICA, jointly organized by JINR and the Republic of South Africa on July 5, 2015. The selection of Dubna as the place for SQM-2015 conference by the International Advisory Committee (IAC) demonstrates the broad interest of the community in the progress of the Russian Megascience Project on the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility (NICA) hosted at JINR Dubna. In a few years from now the experiments planned at NICA will produce data that provide new information of unprecedented accuracy which will help to answer some of the key questions which are topical at this conference. The SQM-2015 conference had an ambitious scientific program with 38 plenary talks, 97 parallel talks in 7 topical directions and 39 posters reporting the state of the research and the future directions in the fields of strangeness, heavy avors and bulk physics, suggested by the IAC to be the subtitle of the conference from 2016 onwards. Most of the contributions are represented in these Proceedings which we recommend to the community! We gratefully

  12. Measurement of the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of B quarks using momentum-weighted track charge at SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, T.R.

    1995-11-01

    This thesis presents a direct measurement of the parity-violating parameter A{sub b} by analyzing the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b}. Data were taken at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), with the Stanford Large Detector (SLD), which records the products of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions at a center of mass energy {radical}s = 91.2 GeV/c{sup 2} at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC/SLD experimental apparatus provides a unique and ideal environment for measuring electroweak asymmetries. Heavy flavor decays of the Z{sup 0} were identified inclusively by taking advantage of the long lifetime of B hadrons, the small, stable SLC beam spot, and SLD`s precise tracking detectors. Two analysis techniques for measuring A{sub b} are presented: a binned fit to the left-right forward-backwards asymmetry of tagged events signed with momentum-weighted track charge, and a self-calibrating maximum-likelihood technique using momentum-weighted charge from the two hemispheres in each tagged event. From our 1994-1995 sample of 3.6 pb{sup {minus}1}, having a luminosity-weighted average e{sup {minus}} polarization of 77.3%, and our 1993 sample of 1.8 pb{sup {minus}1}, having a luminosity-weighted polarization of 63.1%, we obtain A{sub b} = 0.848 {plus_minus} 0.046(stat.) {plus_minus} 0.050(syst.).

  13. Measurements of t t ¯ spin correlations and top quark polarization using dilepton final states in p p collisions at √{s }= 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fang, W.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Awad, A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Lomidze, D.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. 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M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. 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U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. 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M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fanzago, F.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'Imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão da Cruz E Silva, C.; di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. 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V.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Korneeva, N.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Savrin, V.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; de La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro de Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. 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V.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; de Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tsai, J. F.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. 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D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; de Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Benelli, G.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Jesus, O.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon de La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; McLean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; MacNeill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lewis, J.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; McBrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Kumar, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Woods, N.; Cms Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of the top quark-antiquark (t t ¯ ) spin correlations and the top quark polarization are presented for t t ¯ pairs produced in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV . The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1 collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurements are performed using events with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons) and two or more jets, where at least one of the jets is identified as originating from a bottom quark. The spin correlations and polarization are measured from the angular distributions of the two selected leptons, both inclusively and differentially, with respect to the invariant mass, rapidity, and transverse momentum of the t t ¯ system. The measurements are unfolded to the parton level and found to be in agreement with predictions of the standard model. A search for new physics in the form of anomalous top quark chromo moments is performed. No evidence of new physics is observed, and exclusion limits on the real part of the chromo-magnetic dipole moment and the imaginary part of the chromo-electric dipole moment are evaluated.

  14. Deconfinement to quark matter in neutron stars - The influence of strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Dexheimer, V.; Negreiros, R.; Schramm, S.; Hempel, M.

    2013-03-25

    We use an extended version of the hadronic SU(3) non-linear realization of the sigma model that also includes quarks to study hybrid stars. Within this approach, the degrees of freedom change naturally as the temperature/density increases. Different prescriptions of charge neutrality, local and global, are tested and the influence of strong magnetic fields and the anomalous magnetic moment on the particle population is discussed.

  15. Enhancement of quark number susceptibility with an alternative pattern of chiral symmetry breaking in dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Masayasu; Takemoto, Shinpei; Sasaki, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    We explore general features of thermodynamic quantities and hadron mass spectra in a possible phase where chiral SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R} symmetry is spontaneously broken while its center Z{sub 2} symmetry remains unbroken. In this phase, chiral symmetry breaking is driven by a quartic quark condensate although a bilinear quark condensate vanishes. A Ginzburg-Landau free energy leads to a new tricritical point between the Z{sub 2} broken and unbroken phases. Furthermore, a critical point can appear even in the chiral limit where explicit breaking is turned off, instead of a tricritical point at which restoration of chiral and its center symmetries takes place simultaneously. The net quark number density exhibits an abrupt change near the restoration of the center symmetry rather than that of the chiral symmetry. Hadron masses in possible phases are also studied in a linear sigma model. We show that, in the Z{sub 2} symmetric phase, the qq-type scalar meson with zero isospin I=0 splits from the qq-type pseudoscalar meson with I=1.

  16. Measurements of tt spin correlations and top-quark polarization using dilepton final states in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=7  TeV.

    PubMed

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Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Smith, W H

    2014-05-01

    Spin correlations and polarization in the top quark-antiquark system are measured using dilepton final states produced in pp collisions at the LHC at sqrt[s]=7  TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.0  fb(-1) collected with the CMS detector. The measurements are performed using events with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons), a significant imbalance in transverse momentum, and two or more jets, where at least one of the jets is identified as originating from a b quark. The spin correlations and polarization are measured through asymmetries in angular distributions of the two selected leptons, unfolded to the parton level. All measurements are found to be in agreement with predictions of the standard model. PMID:24856688

  17. Measurements of tt spin correlations and top-quark polarization using dilepton final states in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=7  TeV.

    PubMed

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Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gao, Y; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Gutsche, O; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hirschauer, J; Hooberman, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Kaadze, K; Klima, B; Kwan, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Martinez Outschoorn, V I; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Mishra, K; Mrenna, S; Musienko, Y; Nahn, S; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Ratnikova, N; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sharma, S; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wu, W; Yang, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bourilkov, D; Cheng, T; Das, S; De Gruttola, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Field, R D; Fisher, M; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Hugon, J; Kim, B; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Low, J F; Matchev, K; Milenovic, P; Mitselmakher, G; Muniz, L; Rinkevicius, A; Shchutska, L; Skhirtladze, N; Snowball, M; Yelton, J; Zakaria, M; Gaultney, V; Hewamanage, S; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bochenek, J; Chen, J; Diamond, B; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Prosper, H; Veeraraghavan, V; Weinberg, M; Baarmand, M M; Dorney, B; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatyan, S; Kurt, P; Moon, D H; O'Brien, C; Silkworth, C; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Duru, F; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Sen, S; Tan, P; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bolognesi, S; Fehling, D; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Swartz, M; Whitbeck, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Kenny, R P; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Sanders, S; Sekaric, J; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Wood, J S; Barfuss, A F; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Saini, L K; Shrestha, S; Svintradze, I; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Baden, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Lu, Y; Marionneau, M; Mignerey, A C; Pedro, K; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Bauer, G; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Chan, M; Di Matteo, L; Dutta, V; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Klute, M; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Ma, T; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Stephans, G S F; Stöckli, F; Sumorok, K; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Yoon, A S; Zanetti, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Gude, A; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Pastika, N; Rusack, R; Singovsky, A; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Cremaldi, L M; Kroeger, R; Oliveros, S; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Keller, J; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Malik, S; Meier, F; Snow, G R; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Jain, S; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Wan, Z; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Haley, J; Massironi, A; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Trocino, D; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Anastassov, A; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Lusito, L; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Velasco, M; Won, S; Berry, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Chan, K M; Drozdetskiy, A; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolb, J; Lannon, K; Luo, W; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Smith, G; Vuosalo, C; Winer, B L; Wolfe, H; Wulsin, H W; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Halyo, V; Hebda, P; Hegeman, J; Hunt, A; Jindal, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Raval, A; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zenz, S C; Zuranski, A; Brownson, E; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Alagoz, E; Benedetti, D; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; De Mattia, M; Everett, A; Hu, Z; Jones, M; Jung, K; Kress, M; Leonardo, N; Lopes Pegna, D; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Parashar, N; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, D C; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Malik, S; Mesropian, C; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Patel, R; Rekovic, V; Robles, J; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Seitz, C; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Bouhali, O; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Krutelyov, V; Montalvo, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Perloff, A; Roe, J; Safonov, A; Sakuma, T; Suarez, I; Tatarinov, A; Toback, D; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Kovitanggoon, K; Kunori, S; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Sharma, M; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wood, J; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sakharov, A; Belknap, D A; Borrello, L; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Duric, S; Friis, E; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Smith, W H

    2014-05-01

    Spin correlations and polarization in the top quark-antiquark system are measured using dilepton final states produced in pp collisions at the LHC at sqrt[s]=7  TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.0  fb(-1) collected with the CMS detector. The measurements are performed using events with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons), a significant imbalance in transverse momentum, and two or more jets, where at least one of the jets is identified as originating from a b quark. The spin correlations and polarization are measured through asymmetries in angular distributions of the two selected leptons, unfolded to the parton level. All measurements are found to be in agreement with predictions of the standard model.

  18. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle. PMID:27514307

  19. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2016-08-12

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle.

  20. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle.

  1. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle. PMID:27514307

  2. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M.

    1995-07-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model`s phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density.

  3. Lunar Seismic Detector to Advance the Search for Strange Quark Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galitzki, Nicholas B.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of small seismic signals on the Moon are needed to study lunar internal structure and to detect possible signals from Strange Quark m&er transit events. The immediate objective is to create a prototype seismic detector using a tunnel diode oscillator with a variable capacitor attached to a proof mass. The device is designed to operate effectively on the Moon, which requires a low power consumption to operate through lunar night, while preserving sensitivity. The goal is capacitance resolution of better than 1 part in 10' and power consumption of less than 1 watt.

  4. Characterization and origin of polar dissolved organic matter from the Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Rostad, C.E.; Davisson, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Polar dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from a surface-water sample from the Great Salt Lake by separating it from colloidal organic matter by membrane dialysis, from less-polar DOM fractions by resin sorbents, and from inorganic salts by a combination of sodium cation exchange followed by precipitation of sodium salts by acetic acid during evaporative concentration. Polar DOM was the most abundant DOM fraction, accounting for 56% of the isolated DOM. Colloidal organic matter was 14C-age dated to be about 100% modern carbon and all of the DOM fractions were 14C-age dated to be between 94 and 95% modern carbon. Average structural models of each DOM fraction were derived that incorporated quantitative elemental and infrared, 13C-NMR, and electrospray/mass spectrometric data. The polar DOM model consisted of open-chain N-acetyl hydroxy carboxylic acids likely derived from N-acetyl heteropolysaccharides that constituted the colloidal organic matter. The less polar DOM fraction models consisted of aliphatic alicyclic ring structures substituted with carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether, ester, and methyl groups. These ring structures had characteristics similar to terpenoid precursors. All DOM fractions in the Great Salt Lake are derived from algae and bacteria that dominate DOM inputs in this lake.

  5. Gravitomagnetic acceleration of accretion disk matter to polar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, John; Mathews, Grant

    2016-03-01

    The motion of the masses of an accretion disk around a black hole creates a general relativistic, gravitomagnetic field (GEM) from the moving matter (be it charged or uncharged) of the accretion disk. This GEM field accelerates moving masses (neutral or charged) near the accretion disk vertically upward and away from the disk, and then inward toward the axis of the disk. As the accelerated material nears the axis with approximately vertical angles, a frame dragging effect contributes to the formation of narrow jets emanating from the poles. This GEM effect is numerically evaluated in the first post Newtonian (1PN) approximation from observable quantities like the mass and velocity of the disk. This GEM force is linear in the total mass of the accretion disk matter and quadratic in the velocity of matter near to the disk with approximately the same velocity. Since these masses and velocities can be quite high in astrophysical contexts, the GEM force, which in other contexts is weak, is quite significant. This GEM effect is compared to the ordinary electromagnetic effects applied to this problem in the past.

  6. Light in condensed matter in the upper atmosphere as the origin of homochirality: circularly polarized light from Rydberg matter.

    PubMed

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM. PMID:19586392

  7. Light in condensed matter in the upper atmosphere as the origin of homochirality: circularly polarized light from Rydberg matter.

    PubMed

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.

  8. Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Chami, M; Santer, R; Dilligeard, E

    2001-05-20

    A radiative transfer code termed OSOA for the ocean-atmosphere system that is able to predict the total and the polarized signals has been developed. The successive-orders-of-scattering method is used. The air-water interface is modeled as a planar mirror. Four components grouped by their optical properties, pure seawater, phytoplankton, nonchlorophyllose matter, and yellow substances, are included in the water column. Models are validated through comparisons with standard models. The numerical accuracy of the method is better than 2%; high computational efficiency is maintained. The model is used to study the influence of polarization on the detection of suspended matter. Polarizing properties of hydrosols are discussed: phytoplankton cells exhibit weak polarization and small inorganic particles, which are strong backscatterers, contribute appreciably to the polarized signal. Therefore the use of the polarized signal to extract the sediment signature promises good results. Also, polarized radiance could improve characterization of aerosols when open ocean waters are treated.

  9. Radiative Transfer Model for the Computation of Radiance and Polarization in an Ocean -Atmosphere System: Polarization Properties of Suspended Matter for Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chami, Malik; Santer, Richard; Dilligeard, Eric

    2001-05-01

    A radiative transfer code termed OSOA for the ocean -atmosphere system that is able to predict the total and the polarized signals has been developed. The successive-orders-of-scattering method is used. The air -water interface is modeled as a planar mirror. Four components grouped by their optical properties, pure seawater, phytoplankton, nonchlorophyllose matter, and yellow substances, are included in the water column. Models are validated through comparisons with standard models. The numerical accuracy of the method is better than 2%; high computational efficiency is maintained. The model is used to study the influence of polarization on the detection of suspended matter. Polarizing properties of hydrosols are discussed: phytoplankton cells exhibit weak polarization and small inorganic particles, which are strong backscatterers, contribute appreciably to the polarized signal. Therefore the use of the polarized signal to extract the sediment signature promises good results. Also, polarized radiance could improve characterization of aerosols when open ocean waters are treated.

  10. Correlation of soil and sediment organic matter polarity to aqueous sorption of nonionic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Wershaw, R. L.; Chiou, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    Polarities of the soiL/sediment organic matter (SOM) in 19 soil and 9 freshwater sediment sam pies were determined from solid-state 13C-CP/MAS NMR spectra and compared with published partition coefficients (K(oc)) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution. Nondestructive analysis of whole samples by solid-state NMR permits a direct assessment of the polarity of SOM that is not possible by elemental analysis. The percent of organic carbon associated with polar functional groups was estimated from the combined fraction of carbohydrate and carboxylamide-ester carbons. A plot of the measured partition coefficients (K(oc)) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vs. percent polar organic carbon (POC) shows distinctly different populations of soils and sediments as well as a roughly inverse trend among the soil/sediment populations. Plots of K(oc) values for CT against other structural group carbon fractions did not yield distinct populations. The results indicate that the polarity of SOM is a significant factor in accounting for differences in K(oc) between the organic matter in soils and sediments. The alternate direct correlation of the sum of aliphatic and aromatic structural carbons with K(oc) illustrates the influence of nonpolar hydrocarbon on solute partition interaction. Additional elemental analysis data of selected samples further substantiate the effect of the organic matter polarity on the partition efficiency of nonpolar solutes. The separation between soil and sediment samples based on percent POC reflects definite differences of the properties of soil and sediment organic matters that are attributable to diagenesis.Polarities of the soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) in 19 soil and 9 freshwater sediment samples were determined from solid-state 13C-CP/MAS NMR spectra and compared with published partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution. Nondestructive analysis of whole samples by solid-state NMR permits a direct

  11. Quark matter in a parallel electric and magnetic field background: Chiral phase transition and equilibration of chiral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, M.; Peng, G. X.

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking for quark matter in the background of static and homogeneous parallel electric field E and magnetic field B . We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a local kernel interaction to compute the relevant quantities to describe chiral symmetry breaking at a finite temperature for a wide range of E and B . We study the effect of this background on the inverse catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking for E and B of the same order of magnitude. We then focus on the effect of the equilibration of chiral density n5 , produced dynamically by an axial anomaly on the critical temperature. The equilibration of n5 , a consequence of chirality-flipping processes in the thermal bath, allows for the introduction of the chiral chemical potential μ5, which is computed self-consistently as a function of the temperature and field strength by coupling the number equation to the gap equation and solving the two within an expansion in E /T2 , B /T2 , and μ52/T2 . We find that even if chirality is produced and equilibrates within a relaxation time τM , it does not change drastically the thermodynamics, with particular reference to the inverse catalysis induced by the external fields, as long as the average μ5 at equilibrium is not too large.

  12. Effects of polar and nonpolar groups on the solubility of organic compounds in soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Vapor sorption capacities on a high-organic-content peat, a model for soil organic matter (SOM), were determined at room temperature for the following liquids: n-hexane, 1,4-dioxane, nitroethane, acetone, acetonitrile, 1-propanol, ethanol, and methanol. The linear organic vapor sorption is in keeping with the dominance of vapor partition in peat SOM. These data and similar results of carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE), benzene, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME), and water on the same peat from earlier studies are used to evaluate the effect of polarity on the vapor partition in SOM. The extrapolated liquid solubility from the vapor isotherm increases sharply from 3-6 wt % for low-polarity liquids (hexane, CT, and benzene) to 62 wt % for polar methanol and correlates positively with the liquid's component solubility parameters for polar interaction (??P) and hydrogen bonding (??h). The same polarity effect may be expected to influence the relative solubilities of a variety of contaminants in SOM and, therefore, the relative deviations between the SOM-water partition coefficients (Kom) and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for different classes of compounds. The large solubility disparity in SOM between polar and nonpolar solutes suggests that the accurate prediction of Kom from Kow or Sw (solute water solubility) would be limited to compounds of similar polarity.

  13. Spin-polarized neutron matter: Critical unpairing and BCS-BEC precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W.

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the critical magnetic field required for complete destruction of S -wave pairing in neutron matter, thereby setting limits on the pairing and superfluidity of neutrons in the crust and outer core of magnetars. We find that for fields B ≥1017 G the neutron fluid is nonsuperfluid—if weaker spin 1 superfluidity does not intervene—a result with profound consequences for the thermal, rotational, and oscillatory behavior of magnetars. Because the dineutron is not bound in vacuum, cold dilute neutron matter cannot exhibit a proper BCS-BEC crossover. Nevertheless, owing to the strongly resonant behavior of the n n interaction at low densities, neutron matter shows a precursor of the BEC state, as manifested in Cooper-pair correlation lengths being comparable to the interparticle distance. We make a systematic quantitative study of this type of BCS-BEC crossover in the presence of neutron fluid spin polarization induced by an ultrastrong magnetic field. We evaluate the Cooper-pair wave function, quasiparticle occupation numbers, and quasiparticle spectra for densities and temperatures spanning the BCS-BEC crossover region. The phase diagram of spin-polarized neutron matter is constructed and explored at different polarizations.

  14. Collective excitations in a superfluid of color-flavor locked quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Kenji; Iida, Kei

    2005-04-01

    We investigate collective excitations coupled with baryon density in a system of massless three-flavor quarks in the collisionless regime. By using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the mean-field approximation, we field-theoretically derive the spectra both for the normal and color-flavor locked (CFL) superfluid phases at zero temperature. In the normal phase, we obtain usual zero sound as a low-lying collective mode in the particle-hole (vector) channel. In the CFL phase, the nature of collective excitations varies in a way dependent on whether the excitation energy, {omega}, is larger or smaller than the threshold given by twice the pairing gap {delta}, at which pair excitations with nonzero total momentum become allowed to break up into two quasiparticles. For {omega}<<2{delta}, a phonon corresponding to fluctuations in the U(1) phase of {delta} appears as a sharp peak in the particle-particle ('H') channel. We reproduce the property known from low-energy effective theories that this mode propagates at a velocity of v{sub H}=1/{radical}(3) in the low momentum regime; the decay constant f{sub H} obtained in the NJL model is identical with the QCD result obtained in the mean-field approximation. We also find that, as the momentum of the phonon increases, the excitation energy goes up and asymptotically approaches {omega}=2{delta}. Above the threshold for pair excitations ({omega}>2{delta}), zero sound manifests itself in the vector channel. By locating the zero sound pole of the vector propagator in the complex energy plane, we investigate the attenuation and energy dispersion relation of zero sound. In the long wavelength limit, the phonon mode, the only low-lying excitation, has its spectral weight in the H channel alone, while the spectral function vanishes in the vector channel. This is due to nontrivial mixing between the H and vector channels in the superfluid medium. We finally extend our study to the case of nonzero temperature. We demonstrate how

  15. Einstein's Gravitational Field Approach to Dark Matter and Dark Energy-Geometric Particle Decay into the Vacuum Energy Generating Higgs Boson and Heavy Quark Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Walter James

    2015-08-01

    During an interview at the Niels Bohr Institute David Bohm stated, "according to Einstein, particles should eventually emerge as singularities, or very strong regions of stable pulses of (the gravitational) field" [1]. Starting from this premise, we show spacetime, indeed, manifests stable pulses (n-valued gravitons) that decay into the vacuum energy to generate all three boson masses (including Higgs), as well as heavy-quark mass; and all in precise agreement with the 2010 CODATA report on fundamental constants. Furthermore, our relativized quantum physics approach (RQP) answers to the mystery surrounding dark energy, dark matter, accelerated spacetime, and why ordinary matter dominates over antimatter.

  16. Current trends in non-accelerator particle physics: 1, Neutrino mass and oscillation. 2, High energy neutrino astrophysics. 3, Detection of dark matter. 4, Search for strange quark matter. 5, Magnetic monopole searches

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yudong |

    1995-07-01

    This report is a compilation of papers reflecting current trends in non-accelerator particle physics, corresponding to talks that its author was invited to present at the Workshop on Tibet Cosmic Ray Experiment and Related Physics Topics held in Beijing, China, April 4--13, 1995. The papers are entitled `Neutrino Mass and Oscillation`, `High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics`, `Detection of Dark Matter`, `Search for Strange Quark Matter`, and `Magnetic Monopole Searches`. The report is introduced by a survey of the field and a brief description of each of the author`s papers.

  17. Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light-matter energy transfer in solids.

    PubMed

    Sommer, A; Bothschafter, E M; Sato, S A; Jakubeit, C; Latka, T; Razskazovskaya, O; Fattahi, H; Jobst, M; Schweinberger, W; Shirvanyan, V; Yakovlev, V S; Kienberger, R; Yabana, K; Karpowicz, N; Schultze, M; Krausz, F

    2016-06-01

    Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz techniques have provided experimental access to this important observable up to frequencies of several terahertz. Here we demonstrate that attosecond metrology extends the resolution to petahertz frequencies of visible light. Attosecond polarization spectroscopy allows measurement of the response of the electronic system of silica to strong (more than one volt per ångström) few-cycle optical (about 750 nanometres) fields. Our proof-of-concept study provides time-resolved insight into the attosecond nonlinear polarization and the light-matter energy transfer dynamics behind the optical Kerr effect and multi-photon absorption. Timing the nonlinear polarization relative to the driving laser electric field with sub-30-attosecond accuracy yields direct quantitative access to both the reversible and irreversible energy exchange between visible-infrared light and electrons. Quantitative determination of dissipation within a signal manipulation cycle of only a few femtoseconds duration (by measurement and ab initio calculation) reveals the feasibility of dielectric optical switching at clock rates above 100 terahertz. The observed sub-femtosecond rise of energy transfer from the field to the material (for a peak electric field strength exceeding 2.5 volts per ångström) in turn indicates the viability of petahertz-bandwidth metrology with a solid-state device. PMID:27251280

  18. Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light–matter energy transfer in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, A.; Bothschafter, E. M.; Sato, S. A.; Jakubeit, C.; Latka, T.; Razskazovskaya, O.; Fattahi, H.; Jobst, M.; Schweinberger, W.; Shirvanyan, V.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Kienberger, R.; Yabana, K.; Karpowicz, N.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.

    2016-06-01

    Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz techniques have provided experimental access to this important observable up to frequencies of several terahertz. Here we demonstrate that attosecond metrology extends the resolution to petahertz frequencies of visible light. Attosecond polarization spectroscopy allows measurement of the response of the electronic system of silica to strong (more than one volt per ångström) few-cycle optical (about 750 nanometres) fields. Our proof-of-concept study provides time-resolved insight into the attosecond nonlinear polarization and the light–matter energy transfer dynamics behind the optical Kerr effect and multi-photon absorption. Timing the nonlinear polarization relative to the driving laser electric field with sub-30-attosecond accuracy yields direct quantitative access to both the reversible and irreversible energy exchange between visible–infrared light and electrons. Quantitative determination of dissipation within a signal manipulation cycle of only a few femtoseconds duration (by measurement and ab initio calculation) reveals the feasibility of dielectric optical switching at clock rates above 100 terahertz. The observed sub-femtosecond rise of energy transfer from the field to the material (for a peak electric field strength exceeding 2.5 volts per ångström) in turn indicates the viability of petahertz-bandwidth metrology with a solid-state device.

  19. Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light-matter energy transfer in solids.

    PubMed

    Sommer, A; Bothschafter, E M; Sato, S A; Jakubeit, C; Latka, T; Razskazovskaya, O; Fattahi, H; Jobst, M; Schweinberger, W; Shirvanyan, V; Yakovlev, V S; Kienberger, R; Yabana, K; Karpowicz, N; Schultze, M; Krausz, F

    2016-05-23

    Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz techniques have provided experimental access to this important observable up to frequencies of several terahertz. Here we demonstrate that attosecond metrology extends the resolution to petahertz frequencies of visible light. Attosecond polarization spectroscopy allows measurement of the response of the electronic system of silica to strong (more than one volt per ångström) few-cycle optical (about 750 nanometres) fields. Our proof-of-concept study provides time-resolved insight into the attosecond nonlinear polarization and the light-matter energy transfer dynamics behind the optical Kerr effect and multi-photon absorption. Timing the nonlinear polarization relative to the driving laser electric field with sub-30-attosecond accuracy yields direct quantitative access to both the reversible and irreversible energy exchange between visible-infrared light and electrons. Quantitative determination of dissipation within a signal manipulation cycle of only a few femtoseconds duration (by measurement and ab initio calculation) reveals the feasibility of dielectric optical switching at clock rates above 100 terahertz. The observed sub-femtosecond rise of energy transfer from the field to the material (for a peak electric field strength exceeding 2.5 volts per ångström) in turn indicates the viability of petahertz-bandwidth metrology with a solid-state device.

  20. Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light-matter energy transfer in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, A.; Bothschafter, E. M.; Sato, S. A.; Jakubeit, C.; Latka, T.; Razskazovskaya, O.; Fattahi, H.; Jobst, M.; Schweinberger, W.; Shirvanyan, V.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Kienberger, R.; Yabana, K.; Karpowicz, N.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.

    2016-06-01

    Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz techniques have provided experimental access to this important observable up to frequencies of several terahertz. Here we demonstrate that attosecond metrology extends the resolution to petahertz frequencies of visible light. Attosecond polarization spectroscopy allows measurement of the response of the electronic system of silica to strong (more than one volt per ångström) few-cycle optical (about 750 nanometres) fields. Our proof-of-concept study provides time-resolved insight into the attosecond nonlinear polarization and the light-matter energy transfer dynamics behind the optical Kerr effect and multi-photon absorption. Timing the nonlinear polarization relative to the driving laser electric field with sub-30-attosecond accuracy yields direct quantitative access to both the reversible and irreversible energy exchange between visible-infrared light and electrons. Quantitative determination of dissipation within a signal manipulation cycle of only a few femtoseconds duration (by measurement and ab initio calculation) reveals the feasibility of dielectric optical switching at clock rates above 100 terahertz. The observed sub-femtosecond rise of energy transfer from the field to the material (for a peak electric field strength exceeding 2.5 volts per ångström) in turn indicates the viability of petahertz-bandwidth metrology with a solid-state device.

  1. Measurement of W-Boson Polarization in Top-quark Decay in ppbar Collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2010-03-01

    We report measurements of the polarization of W bosons from top-quark decays using 2.7 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions collected by the CDF II detector. Assuming a top-quark mass of 175 GeV/c{sup 2}, three measurements are performed. A simultaneous measurement of the fraction of longitudinal (f{sub 0}) and right-handed (f{sub +}) W bosons yields the model-independent results f{sub 0} = 0.88 {+-} 0.11(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst) and f{sub +} = -0.15 {+-} 0.07(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst) with a correlation coefficient of -0.59. A measurement of f{sub 0} (f{sub +}) constraining f{sub +} (f{sub 0}) to its standard model value of 0.0 (0.7) yields f{sub 0} = 0.70 {+-} 0.07(stat) {+-} 0.04(syst) (f{sub +} = 0.01 {+-} 0.02(stat) {+-} 0.05(syst)). All these results are consistent with standard model expectations.

  2. Measurement of top quark polarization in top-antitop events from proton-proton collisions at √s=7  TeV using the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Astbury, A; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, D; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; 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Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brendlinger, K; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brost, E; Brown, G; Brown, J; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bundock, A C; Bunse, M; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Byszewski, M; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminada, L M; Caminal Armadans, R; 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Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Chiefari, G; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choudalakis, G; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christidi, I A; Christov, A; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Cirilli, M; Cirkovic, P; Citron, Z H; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Clemens, J C; Clement, B; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coelli, S; Coffey, L; Cogan, J G; Coggeshall, J; Colas, J; Cole, B; Cole, S; Colijn, A P; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Colon, G; Compostella, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Conidi, M C; Consonni, S M; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cooper-Smith, N J; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Côté, D; Cottin, G; Courneyea, L; Cowan, G; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Crescioli, F; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Cuciuc, C-M; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Cummings, J; Curatolo, M; Cuthbert, C; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; Czyczula, Z; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; D'Orazio, A; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M J; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dafinca, A; Dai, T; Dallaire, F; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Damiani, D S; Daniells, A C; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darlea, G L; Darmora, S; Dassoulas, J A; Davey, W; David, C; Davidek, T; Davies, E; Davies, M; Davignon, O; Davison, A R; Davygora, Y; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Taille, C; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; De Nooij, L; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dechenaux, B; Dedovich, D V; Degenhardt, J; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delemontex, T; Deliot, F; 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Duflot, L; Dufour, M-A; Duguid, L; Dührssen, M; Dunford, M; Duran Yildiz, H; Düren, M; Dwuznik, M; Ebke, J; Edson, W; Edwards, C A; Edwards, N C; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eigen, G; Einsweiler, K; Eisenhandler, E; Ekelof, T; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M; Elles, S; Ellinghaus, F; Ellis, K; Ellis, N; Elmsheuser, J; Elsing, M; Emeliyanov, D; Enari, Y; Endner, O C; Engelmann, R; Engl, A; Erdmann, J; Ereditato, A; Eriksson, D; Ernis, G; Ernst, J; Ernst, M; Ernwein, J; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Esch, H; Escobar, C; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B; Etienne, F; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evangelakou, D; Evans, H; Fabbri, L; Fabre, C; Facini, G; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farooque, T; Farrell, S; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassi, F; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fatholahzadeh, B; Favareto, A; Fayard, L; Federic, P; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, W; Fehling-Kaschek, M; Feligioni, L; Feng, C; Feng, E J; Feng, H; Fenyuk, A B; Ferencei, J; Fernando, W; 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Riu, I; Rivoltella, G; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C; Roda Dos Santos, D; Rodrigues, L; Roe, A; Roe, S; Røhne, O; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Romano, M; Romeo, G; Romero Adam, E; Rompotis, N; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosbach, K; Rose, A; Rose, M; Rosendahl, P L; Rosenthal, O; Rossetti, V; Rossi, E; Rossi, L P; Rosten, R; Rotaru, M; Roth, I; Rothberg, J; Rousseau, D; Royon, C R; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Rubbo, F; Rubinskiy, I; Ruckstuhl, N; Rud, V I; Rudolph, C; Rudolph, M S; Rühr, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rumyantsev, L; Rurikova, Z; Rusakovich, N A; Ruschke, A; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruthmann, N; Ruzicka, P; Ryabov, Y F; Rybar, M; Rybkin, G; Ryder, N C; Saavedra, A F; Saddique, A; Sadeh, I; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sadykov, R; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saleem, M; Salek, D; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvachua Ferrando, B M; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; Salvucci, A; Salzburger, A; Sampsonidis, D; Sanchez, A; Sánchez, J; Sanchez Martinez, V; Sandaker, H; Sander, H G; Sanders, M P; Sandhoff, M; Sandoval, T; Sandoval, C; Sandstroem, R; Sankey, D P C; Sansoni, A; Santoni, C; Santonico, R; Santos, H; Santoyo Castillo, I; Sapp, K; Sapronov, A; Saraiva, J G; Sarangi, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sarrazin, B; Sarri, F; Sartisohn, G; Sasaki, O; Sasaki, Y; Sasao, N; Satsounkevitch, I; Sauvage, G; Sauvan, E; Sauvan, J B; Savard, P; Savinov, V; Savu, D O; Sawyer, C; Sawyer, L; Saxon, D H; Saxon, J; Sbarra, C; Sbrizzi, A; Scanlon, T; Scannicchio, D A; Scarcella, M; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaefer, D; Schaefer, R; Schaelicke, A; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schäfer, U; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Scherzer, M I; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schillo, C; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmidt, E; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schneider, B; Schnellbach, Y J; Schnoor, U; Schoeffel, L; Schoening, A; Schorlemmer, A L S; Schott, M; Schouten, D; Schovancova, J; Schram, M; Schroeder, C; Schroer, N; Schuh, N; Schultens, M J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwartzman, A; Schwegler, Ph; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Schwoerer, M; Sciacca, F G; Scifo, E; Sciolla, G; Scott, W G; Scutti, F; Searcy, J; Sedov, G; Sedykh, E; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekula, S J; Selbach, K E; Seliverstov, D M; Sellers, G; Seman, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Serre, T; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shan, L Y; Shank, J T; Shao, Q T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Sherwood, P; Shimizu, S; Shimojima, M; Shin, T; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Shochet, M J; Short, D; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Shushkevich, S; Sicho, P; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O; Silva, J; Silver, Y; Silverstein, D; 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Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Staude, A; Stavina, P; Steele, G; Steinbach, P; Steinberg, P; Stekl, I; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoerig, K; Stoicea, G; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Stugu, B; Stumer, I; Stupak, J; Sturm, P; Styles, N A; Su, D; Subramania, Hs; Subramaniam, R; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Suhr, C; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Swedish, S; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tam, J Y C; Tamsett, M C; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanasijczuk, A J; Tani, K; Tannoury, N; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Tavares Delgado, A; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, C; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teinturier, M; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tonoyan, A; Topfel, C; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tran, H L; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tua, A; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuggle, J M; Tuna, A N; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Urquijo, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Vahsen, S; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; Vanadia, M; 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Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimin, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2013-12-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the polarization of the top quark in top-antitop quark pair events, using 4.7  fb(-1) of proton-proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at √s=7  TeV. Final states containing one or two isolated leptons (electrons or muons) and jets are considered. Two measurements of α(ℓ)P, the product of the leptonic spin-analyzing power and the top quark polarization, are performed assuming that the polarization is introduced by either a CP conserving or a maximally CP violating production process. The measurements obtained, α(ℓ)P(CPC)=-0.035±0.014(stat)±0.037(syst) and α(ℓ)P(CPV)=0.020±0.016(stat)(-0.017)(+0.013)(syst), are in good agreement with the standard model prediction of negligible top quark polarization.

  3. Heavy-Quark Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frixione, Stefano; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * FIXED-TARGET PRODUCTION * Total cross sections * Single-inclusive distributions * Double-differential distributions * HEAVY-FLAVOUR PRODUCTION AT HERA * Photoproduction cross sections * Charm photoproduction * Bottom photoproduction * Deep-inelastic production * Future physics * Determination of f^{(p)}_{g} * Polarization asymmetries * HERA-B * HEAVY-QUARK PRODUCTION AT HADRON COLLIDERS * Inclusive bottom production * Preliminaries * The effect of higher-order corrections * Comparison with experimental results * boverline{b} correlations * Heavy-quark jets in perturbative QCD * Preliminaries * The structure of heavy-quark jets at the Tevatron * Associated production of heavy quarks with W or γ * Photon plus heavy quarks * W bosons plus heavy quarks * Production of top quarks * Total toverline{t} production cross sections * Top kinematical distributions * HIGHER ORDERS AND RESUMMATION * What are soft-gluon effects * Problems with the x-space resummation formula * Phenomenological applications * HEAVY-FLAVOUR PRODUCTION IN e+e- COLLISIONS * Preliminaries * Fragmentation function * Heavy-quark production via gluon splitting * Correlations * CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK * Acknowledgements * REFERENCES

  4. Antimatter and Dark Matter Search in Space: BESS-Polar Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John W.; Yamamoto, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The apex of the Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer program was reached with the Antarctic flight of BESS-Polar II, during the 2007-2008 Austral Summer, that obtained 24.5 days of data on over 4.7 billion cosmic-ray events. The US-Japan BESS Collaboration uses elementary particle measurements to study the early Universe and provides fundamental data on the spectra of light cosmic-ray elements and isotopes. BESS measures the energy spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons to investigate signatures of possible exotic sources, such as dark-matter candidates, and searches for heavier anti-nuclei that might reach Earth from antimatter domains formed during symmetry breaking processes in the early Universe. Since 1993, BESS has carried out eleven high-latitude balloon flights, two of long duration, that together have defined the study of antiprotons below about 4 GeV, provided standard references for light element and isotope spectra, and set the most sensitive limits on the existence of anti-deuterons and anti-helium, The BESS-Polar II flight took place at Solar Minimum, when the sensitivity of the low-energy antiproton measurements to a primary source is greatest. The rich BESS-Polar II dataset more than doubles the combined data from all earlier BESS flights and has 10-20 times the statistics of BESS data from the previous Solar Minimum. Here, we summarize the scientific results of BESS program, focusing on the results obtained using data from the long-duration flights of BESS-Polar I (2004) and BESS-Polar II.

  5. Role of polarity fractions of effluent organic matter in binding and toxicity of silver and copper.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jisu; Shim, Taeyong; Hur, Jin; Jung, Jinho

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the physicochemical properties of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from industrial and sewage wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the binding and toxicity of Ag and Cu. EfOM was isolated into hydrophobic, transphilic, and hydrophilic fractions depending on its polarity, and was characterized by elemental, specific ultraviolet absorbance, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analyses. Our results suggest that the EfOM consists of microbially derived non-humic substances that have lower aromaticity than the Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM). The Freundlich model was better at explaining the binding of Ag and Cu onto both SR-NOM and EfOM than the Langmuir model. In particular, the hydrophilic fractions of sewage EfOM showed higher binding capacities and affinities for Ag and Cu than the corresponding hydrophobic fractions, resulting in better reduction of the acute toxicity of Ag and Cu towards Daphnia magna. However, in the case of both SR-NOM and industrial EfOM, the hydrophobic fractions were more efficient at reducing metal toxicity. These findings suggest that the EfOM has different physicochemical properties compared with NOM and that the binding and toxicity of heavy metals are largely dependent on the polarity fractions of EfOM. PMID:27318731

  6. Automatic identification of gray and white matter components in polarized light imaging.

    PubMed

    Dammers, Jürgen; Breuer, Lukas; Axer, Markus; Kleiner, Melanie; Eiben, Björn; Grässel, David; Dickscheid, Timo; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Shah, N Joni; Pietrzyk, Uwe

    2012-01-16

    Polarized light imaging (PLI) enables the visualization of fiber tracts with high spatial resolution in microtome sections of postmortem brains. Vectors of the fiber orientation defined by inclination and direction angles can directly be derived from the optical signals employed by PLI analysis. The polarization state of light propagating through a rotating polarimeter is varied in such a way that the detected signal of each spatial unit describes a sinusoidal signal. Noise, light scatter and filter inhomogeneities, however, interfere with the original sinusoidal PLI signals, which in turn have direct impact on the accuracy of subsequent fiber tracking. Recently we showed that the primary sinusoidal signals can effectively be restored after noise and artifact rejection utilizing independent component analysis (ICA). In particular, regions with weak intensities are greatly enhanced after ICA based artifact rejection and signal restoration. Here, we propose a user independent way of identifying the components of interest after decomposition; i.e., components that are related to gray and white matter. Depending on the size of the postmortem brain and the section thickness, the number of independent component maps can easily be in the range of a few ten thousand components for one brain. Therefore, we developed an automatic and, more importantly, user independent way of extracting the signal of interest. The automatic identification of gray and white matter components is based on the evaluation of the statistical properties of the so-called feature vectors of each individual component map, which, in the ideal case, shows a sinusoidal waveform. Our method enables large-scale analysis (i.e., the analysis of thousands of whole brain sections) of nerve fiber orientations in the human brain using polarized light imaging. PMID:21875673

  7. Automatic identification of gray and white matter components in polarized light imaging.

    PubMed

    Dammers, Jürgen; Breuer, Lukas; Axer, Markus; Kleiner, Melanie; Eiben, Björn; Grässel, David; Dickscheid, Timo; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Shah, N Joni; Pietrzyk, Uwe

    2012-01-16

    Polarized light imaging (PLI) enables the visualization of fiber tracts with high spatial resolution in microtome sections of postmortem brains. Vectors of the fiber orientation defined by inclination and direction angles can directly be derived from the optical signals employed by PLI analysis. The polarization state of light propagating through a rotating polarimeter is varied in such a way that the detected signal of each spatial unit describes a sinusoidal signal. Noise, light scatter and filter inhomogeneities, however, interfere with the original sinusoidal PLI signals, which in turn have direct impact on the accuracy of subsequent fiber tracking. Recently we showed that the primary sinusoidal signals can effectively be restored after noise and artifact rejection utilizing independent component analysis (ICA). In particular, regions with weak intensities are greatly enhanced after ICA based artifact rejection and signal restoration. Here, we propose a user independent way of identifying the components of interest after decomposition; i.e., components that are related to gray and white matter. Depending on the size of the postmortem brain and the section thickness, the number of independent component maps can easily be in the range of a few ten thousand components for one brain. Therefore, we developed an automatic and, more importantly, user independent way of extracting the signal of interest. The automatic identification of gray and white matter components is based on the evaluation of the statistical properties of the so-called feature vectors of each individual component map, which, in the ideal case, shows a sinusoidal waveform. Our method enables large-scale analysis (i.e., the analysis of thousands of whole brain sections) of nerve fiber orientations in the human brain using polarized light imaging.

  8. Energy change of a heavy quark in a viscous quark-gluon plasma with fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bing-feng; Hou, De-fu; Li, Jia-rong

    2016-09-01

    When a heavy quark travels through the quark-gluon plasma, the polarization and fluctuating chromoelectric fields will be produced simultaneously in the plasma. The drag force due to those fields exerting in return on the moving heavy quark will cause energy change to it. Based on the dielectric functions derived from the viscous chromohydrodynamics, we have studied the collisional energy change of a heavy quark traversing the viscous quark-gluon plasma including fluctuations of chromoelectric field. Numerical results indicate that the chromoelectric field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the moving heavy quark. Shear viscosity suppresses the fluctuation-induced energy gain and the viscous suppression effect for the charm quark is much more remarkable than that for the bottom quark. While, the fluctuation energy gain is much smaller than the polarization energy loss in magnitude and the net energy change for the heavy quark is at loss.

  9. Search for a Dark Matter Candidate Produced in Association with a Single Top Quark in pp̄ Collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Anzá, F.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; et al

    2012-05-15

    We report a new search for dark matter in a data sample of an integrated luminosity of 7.7 fb⁻¹ of Tevatron pp¯ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV, collected by the CDF II detector. We search for production of a dark-matter candidate, D, in association with a single top quark. We consider the hadronic decay mode of the top quark exclusively, yielding a final state of three jets with missing transverse energy. The data are consistent with the standard model; we thus set 95% confidence level upper limits on the cross section of the process pp̄→t+D as a function of the massmore » of the dark-matter candidate. The limits are approximately 0.5 pb for a dark-matter particle with mass in the range of 0–150 GeV/c².« less

  10. Search for a Dark Matter Candidate Produced in Association with a Single Top Quark in pp̄ Collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Anzá, F.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Dell’Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d’Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D’Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Fuks, B.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Mastrandrea, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Soha, A.; Sorin, V.; Song, H.; Squillacioti, P.; Stancari, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G. L.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Varganov, A.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. L.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Wick, F.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanetti, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2012-05-15

    We report a new search for dark matter in a data sample of an integrated luminosity of 7.7 fb⁻¹ of Tevatron pp¯ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV, collected by the CDF II detector. We search for production of a dark-matter candidate, D, in association with a single top quark. We consider the hadronic decay mode of the top quark exclusively, yielding a final state of three jets with missing transverse energy. The data are consistent with the standard model; we thus set 95% confidence level upper limits on the cross section of the process pp̄→t+D as a function of the mass of the dark-matter candidate. The limits are approximately 0.5 pb for a dark-matter particle with mass in the range of 0–150 GeV/c².

  11. Search for a dark matter candidate produced in association with a single top quark in pp collisions at √[s]=1.96  TeV.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Anzá, F; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fuks, B; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Mastrandrea, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Sorin, V; Song, H; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2012-05-18

    We report a new search for dark matter in a data sample of an integrated luminosity of 7.7  fb-1 of Tevatron pp[over ¯] collisions at √[s]=1.96  TeV, collected by the CDF II detector. We search for production of a dark-matter candidate, D, in association with a single top quark. We consider the hadronic decay mode of the top quark exclusively, yielding a final state of three jets with missing transverse energy. The data are consistent with the standard model; we thus set 95% confidence level upper limits on the cross section of the process pp[over ¯]→t+D as a function of the mass of the dark-matter candidate. The limits are approximately 0.5 pb for a dark-matter particle with mass in the range of 0-150  GeV/c2.

  12. Search for a dark matter candidate produced in association with a single top quark in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Anza, F.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2012-02-01

    We report a new search for dark matter in a data sample of an integrated luminosity of 7.7 fb{sup -1} of Tevatron p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, collected by the CDF II detector. We search for production of a dark matter candidate, D, in association with a single top quark. We consider the hadronic decay mode of the top quark exclusively, yielding a final state of three jets with missing transverse energy. The data are consistent with the standard model; we thus set 95% confidence level upper limits on the cross section of the process p{bar p} {yields} t + D as a function of the mass of the dark-matter candidate. The limits are approximately 0.5 pb for a dark-matter particle with mass in the range of 0 - 150 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  13. Search for the Production of Dark Matter in Association with Top-Quark Pairs in the Single-Lepton Final State in Proton-Proton Collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-06-17

    A search is presented for particle dark matter produced in association with a pair of top quarks in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of s√=8 TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. This search requires the presence of one lepton, multiple jets, and large missing transverse energy. No excess of events is found above the SM expectation, and upper limits are derived on the production cross section. Interpreting the findings in the context of a scalar contact interaction between fermionic dark matter particles and topmore » quarks, lower limits on the interaction scale are set. These limits are also interpreted in terms of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections for the spin-independent scalar operator and they complement direct searches for dark matter particles in the low mass region.« less

  14. Search for the Production of Dark Matter in Association with Top-Quark Pairs in the Single-Lepton Final State in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-06-17

    A search is presented for particle dark matter produced in association with a pair of top quarks in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of s√=8 TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. This search requires the presence of one lepton, multiple jets, and large missing transverse energy. No excess of events is found above the SM expectation, and upper limits are derived on the production cross section. Interpreting the findings in the context of a scalar contact interaction between fermionic dark matter particles and top quarks, lower limits on the interaction scale are set. These limits are also interpreted in terms of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections for the spin-independent scalar operator and they complement direct searches for dark matter particles in the low mass region.

  15. Impacts of Polar Changes on the UV-induced Mineralization of Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Sulzberger, Barbara; Arey, J Samuel

    2016-07-01

    Local climates in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere are influenced by Arctic Amplification and by interactions of the Antarctic ozone hole with climate change, respectively. Polar changes may affect hydroclimatic conditions in temperate regions, for example, by increasing the length and intensity of precipitation events at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. Additionally, global warming has led to the thawing of ancient permafrost soils, particularly in Arctic regions, due to Arctic Amplification. Both heavy precipitation events and thawing of permafrost are increasing the net transfer of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land to surface waters. In aquatic ecosystems, UV-induced oxidation of terrigenous DOM (tDOM) produces atmospheric CO2 and this process is one of several mechanisms by which natural organic matter in aquatic and soil environments may play an important role in climate feedbacks. The Arctic is particularly affected by these processes: for example, melting of Arctic sea ice allows solar UV radiation to penetrate into the ice-free Arctic Ocean and to cause photochemical reactions that result in bleaching and mineralization of tDOM. Open questions, in addition to those shown in the Graphical Abstract, remain regarding the resulting contributions of tDOM photomineralization to CO2 production and global warming.

  16. Impacts of Polar Changes on the UV-induced Mineralization of Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Sulzberger, Barbara; Arey, J Samuel

    2016-07-01

    Local climates in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere are influenced by Arctic Amplification and by interactions of the Antarctic ozone hole with climate change, respectively. Polar changes may affect hydroclimatic conditions in temperate regions, for example, by increasing the length and intensity of precipitation events at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. Additionally, global warming has led to the thawing of ancient permafrost soils, particularly in Arctic regions, due to Arctic Amplification. Both heavy precipitation events and thawing of permafrost are increasing the net transfer of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land to surface waters. In aquatic ecosystems, UV-induced oxidation of terrigenous DOM (tDOM) produces atmospheric CO2 and this process is one of several mechanisms by which natural organic matter in aquatic and soil environments may play an important role in climate feedbacks. The Arctic is particularly affected by these processes: for example, melting of Arctic sea ice allows solar UV radiation to penetrate into the ice-free Arctic Ocean and to cause photochemical reactions that result in bleaching and mineralization of tDOM. Open questions, in addition to those shown in the Graphical Abstract, remain regarding the resulting contributions of tDOM photomineralization to CO2 production and global warming. PMID:27110903

  17. Unexpected manifestation of quark condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Zinovjev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-05-15

    A comparative analysis of some quark ensembles governed by a four-fermion interaction is performed. Arguments in support of the statement that the presence of a gas-liquid phase transition is a feature peculiar to them are adduced. The instability of small quark droplets is discussed and is attributed to the formation of a chiral soliton. The stability of baryon matter is due to a mixed phase of the vacuum and baryon matter.

  18. Stability of Quark Star Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azam, M.; Mardan, S. A.; Rehman, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the stability of quark stars with four different types of inner matter configurations; isotropic, charged isotropic, anisotropic and charged anisotropic by using the concept of cracking. For this purpose, we have applied local density perturbations technique to the hydrostatic equilibrium equation as well as on physical parameters involved in the model. We conclude that quark stars become potentially unstable when inner matter configuration is changed and electromagnetic field is applied.

  19. Quark Gluon Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  20. Quark Gluon Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-05-07

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  1. Exposure to Atmospheric Particulate Matter Enhances Th17 Polarization through the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    PubMed Central

    van Voorhis, Michael; Knopp, Samantha; Julliard, Walker; Fechner, John H.; Zhang, Xiaoji; Schauer, James J.; Mezrich, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Lung diseases, including asthma, COPD, and other autoimmune lung pathologies are aggravated by exposure to particulate matter (PM) found in air pollution. IL-17 has been shown to exacerbate airway disease in animal models. As PM is known to contain aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands and the AHR has recently been shown to play a role in differentiation of Th17 T cells, the aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to PM could impact Th17 polarization in an AHR-dependent manner. This study used both cell culture techniques and in vivo exposure in mice to examine the response of T cells to PM. Initially experiments were conducted with urban dust particles from a standard reference material, and ultimately repeated with freshly collected samples of diesel exhaust and cigarette smoke. The readout for the assays was increased T cell differentiation as indicated by increased generation of IL-17A in culture, and increased populations of IL-17 producing cells by intracellular flow cytometry. The data illustrate that Th17 polarization was significantly enhanced by addition of urban dust in a dose dependent fashion in cultures of wild-type but not AHR-/- mice. The data further suggest that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons played a primary role in this enhancement. There was both an increase of Th17 cell differentiation, and also an increase in the amount of IL-17 secreted by the cells. In summary, this paper identifies a novel mechanism whereby PM can directly act on the AHR in T cells, leading to enhanced Th17 differentiation. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathologic Th17 differentiation and autoimmunity seen after exposure to pollution will allow direct targeting of proteins involved in AHR activation and function for treatment of PM exposures. PMID:24349309

  2. Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter enhances Th17 polarization through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    van Voorhis, Michael; Knopp, Samantha; Julliard, Walker; Fechner, John H; Zhang, Xiaoji; Schauer, James J; Mezrich, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    Lung diseases, including asthma, COPD, and other autoimmune lung pathologies are aggravated by exposure to particulate matter (PM) found in air pollution. IL-17 has been shown to exacerbate airway disease in animal models. As PM is known to contain aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands and the AHR has recently been shown to play a role in differentiation of Th17 T cells, the aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to PM could impact Th17 polarization in an AHR-dependent manner. This study used both cell culture techniques and in vivo exposure in mice to examine the response of T cells to PM. Initially experiments were conducted with urban dust particles from a standard reference material, and ultimately repeated with freshly collected samples of diesel exhaust and cigarette smoke. The readout for the assays was increased T cell differentiation as indicated by increased generation of IL-17A in culture, and increased populations of IL-17 producing cells by intracellular flow cytometry. The data illustrate that Th17 polarization was significantly enhanced by addition of urban dust in a dose dependent fashion in cultures of wild-type but not AHR(-/-) mice. The data further suggest that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons played a primary role in this enhancement. There was both an increase of Th17 cell differentiation, and also an increase in the amount of IL-17 secreted by the cells. In summary, this paper identifies a novel mechanism whereby PM can directly act on the AHR in T cells, leading to enhanced Th17 differentiation. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathologic Th17 differentiation and autoimmunity seen after exposure to pollution will allow direct targeting of proteins involved in AHR activation and function for treatment of PM exposures.

  3. Nucleon transverse spin structure in the valence quark region: Probing color forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziani, Zein-Eddine

    2016-03-01

    The first direct observation that protons are not elementary objects and the discovery that their constituents, dubbed ``partons'', are point-like particles made use of elastic and deep inelastic (DIS) scattering of electrons off protons, respectively. With the advent of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the modern theory of strong interactions, partons were identified as quarks and gluons and an intensive theoretical effort is still underway to grasp the full consequences of this theory. Recently scattering experiments at Jefferson Lab using a 6 GeV polarized electron beam and polarized targets at high luminosity have allowed us to delve deeper into the role of partons dynamics in the nucleon (proton and neutron). These studies of dynamics in the valence quark region are helping us unravel the rich but elusive structure of the confined building blocks of matter and impacting our understanding of the non-perturbative aspects of QCD through comparisons with lattice QCD and models. I will present recent results of measurements of the average color electric and magnetic forces acting on the struck quark in a proton, due to the remnant ``di-quark'' as it start its journey to emerge as a hadron. A flavor separation of the color force acting on the up and down quarks is carried out by combining measurements on polarized protons and neutrons. I will conclude by describing the planned measurements with the 12 GeV upgrade of Jefferson Lab to complete our picture of nucleon transverse spin structure in the valence region.

  4. Stability of detonation fronts leading to quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Barz, H.W.; Csernai, L.P.; Kampfer, B.; Lukacs, B.

    1985-07-01

    The transition from nuclear matter to quark matter in shock fronts is discussed. The relativistic shock equations are considered and applied to quark-matter production in dependence on the bag constant. The problem of shock splitting is discussed as a possible signature of the phase transition. One-dimensional hydrodynamical calculations for a two-phase system of nuclear matter and quark plasma are presented and compared to results of the shock equations for stable and unstable shock fronts.

  5. Vortical susceptibility of finite-density QCD matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristova, A.; Frenklakh, D.; Gorsky, A.; Kharzeev, D.

    2016-10-01

    The susceptibility of finite-density QCD matter to vorticity is introduced, as an analog of magnetic susceptibility. It describes the spin polarization of quarks and antiquarks in finite-density QCD matter induced by rotation. We estimate this quantity in the chirally broken phase using the mixed gauge-gravity anomaly at finite baryon density. It is proposed that the vortical susceptibility of QCD matter is responsible for the polarization of Λ and overline{Λ} hyperons observed recently in heavy ion collisions at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.

  6. New state of nuclear matter: Nearly perfect fluid of quarks and gluons in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. From charged particle density to jet quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic flow; followed by hard probe measurements: high- pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy-flavor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly interacting medium is created in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental flow results from Au+Au at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s≈ 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p+A, d+ Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both

  7. Cold-nuclear-matter effects on heavy-quark production in d+Au collisions at sqrt[S(NN)]=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E-J; Kim, Y-J; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhou, S

    2012-12-14

    The PHENIX experiment has measured electrons and positrons at midrapidity from the decays of hadrons containing charm and bottom quarks produced in d+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt[S(NN)]=200 GeV in the transverse-momentum range 0.85 ≤ p(T)(e) ≤ 8.5 GeV/c. In central d+Au collisions, the nuclear modification factor R(dA) at 1.5matter effects on light- and heavy-flavor mesons could contribute to the observed differences between the π(0) and heavy-flavor-electron nuclear modification factors R(AA).

  8. Possible evidence that pulsars are quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Renxin

    2008-01-10

    It is a pity that the real state of matter in pulsar-like stars is still not determined confidently because of the uncertainty about cold matter at supranuclear density, even 40 years after the discovery of pulsar. Nuclear matter (related to neutron stars) is one of the speculations for the inner constitution of pulsars even from the Landau's time more than 70 years ago, but quark matter (related to quark stars) is an alternative due to the fact of asymptotic freedom of interaction between quarks as the standard model of particle physics develops since 1960s. Therefore, one has to focus on astrophysical observations in order to answer what the nature of pulsars is. In this presentation, I would like to summarize possible observational evidence/hints that pulsar-like stars could be quark stars, and to address achievable clear evidence for quark stars in the future experiments.

  9. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the

  10. Measurement of the correlation between the polar angles of leptons from top quark decays in the helicity basis at √{s }=7 T e V using the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. 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M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A measurement of the correlations between the polar angles of leptons from the decay of pair-produced t and t ¯ quarks in the helicity basis is reported, using proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb-1 at a center-of-mass energy of √{s }=7 TeV collected during 2011. Candidate events are selected in the dilepton topology with large missing transverse momentum and at least two jets. The angles θ1 and θ2 between the charged leptons and the direction of motion of the parent quarks in the t t ¯ rest frame are sensitive to the spin information, and the distribution of cos θ1.cos θ2 is sensitive to the spin correlation between the t and t ¯ quarks. The distribution is unfolded to parton level and compared to the next-to-leading order prediction. A good agreement is observed.

  11. The discovery of quarks.

    PubMed

    Riordan, M

    1992-05-29

    Quarks are widely recognized today as being among the elementary particles of which matter is composed. The key evidence for their existence came from a series of inelastic electron-nucleon scattering experiments conducted between 1967 and 1973 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Other theoretical and experimental advances of the 1970s confirmed this discovery, leading to the present standard model of elementary particle physics.

  12. Properties of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, A. W.

    2014-09-24

    Recent measurements of top-quark properties at the LHC and the Tevatron are presented. Most recent measurements of the top quark mass have been carried out by CMS using $19.7/$fb of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV data including the study of the dependence on event kinematics. ATLAS uses the full Run I data at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV for a "3D" measurement that significantly reduces systematic uncertainties. D0 employs the full Run II data using the matrix element method to measure the top quark mass with significantly reduced systematic uncertainties. Many different measurements of the top quark exist to date and the most precise ones per decay channel per experiment have been combined into the first world combination with a relative precision of 0.44%. Latest updates of measurements of production asymmetries include the measurement of the \\ttbar production asymmetry by D0 employing the full Run II data set, by CMS and ATLAS (including the polarization of the top quark) employing both the full data set at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. CMS uses the full $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV data to measure the top quark polarization in single top production, the ratio ${\\cal R}$ of the branching fractions ${\\cal B}(t \\rightarrow Wb) / {\\cal B}(t \\rightarrow Wq)$ and to search for flavor changing neutral currents. The results from all these measurements agree well with their respective Standard Model expectation.

  13. Collision between variably polarized plane gravitational wave and a shell of null matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, Alexander; Senovilla, Josém. M.

    1989-06-01

    We construct a solution to the Einstein field equations which describes the collision between a variably polarized gravitational wave and a shell of null dust. Depending on the choice of the parameters the variably polarized wave can have an arbitrarily smooth wavefront. The shell of null dust is followed by a constantly polarized plane gravitational wave. Also Grupo de Física Teórica, Departamento de Física, Ingeniería y Radiología Médica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca, Spain.

  14. Top Quark Production Asymmetries AFBt and AFBl

    DOE PAGES

    Berger, Edmond L.; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-02-14

    A large forward-backward asymmetry is seen in both the top quark rapidity distribution AFBt and in the rapidity distribution of charged leptons AFBl from top quarks produced at the Tevatron. We study the kinematic and dynamic aspects of the relationship of the two observables arising from the spin correlation between the charged lepton and the top quark with different polarization states. We emphasize the value of both measurements, and we conclude that a new physics model which produces more right-handed than left-handed top quarks is favored by the present data.

  15. Transverse Force on Quarks in DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Burkardt, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The $x^2$-moment of the twist-3 polarized parton distribution $g_2(x)$ is related to the transverse force acting on the active quark in deep-inelastic scattering off a transversely polarized nucleon immediately after it has absorbed the virtual photon. Lattice calculations of the corresponding matrix element as well as experimental measurements of $g_2(x)$ are used to estimate sign and magnitude of this force. Similarly, the $x^2$-moment of the chirally odd twist-3 unpolarized parton distribution $e(x)$ can be related to the transverse force experienced by a transversely polarized quark ejected from a transversely polarized nucleon.

  16. Getting to the root of plant iron uptake and cell-cell transport: Polarity matters!

    PubMed

    Dubeaux, Guillaume; Zelazny, Enric; Vert, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins play pivotal roles in mediating responses to endogenous and environmental cues. Regulation of membrane protein levels and establishment of polarity are fundamental for many cellular processes. In plants, IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1) is the major root iron transporter but is also responsible for the absorption of other divalent metals such as manganese, zinc and cobalt. We recently uncovered that IRT1 is polarly localized to the outer plasma membrane domain of plant root epidermal cells upon depletion of its secondary metal substrates. The endosome-recruited FYVE1 protein interacts with IRT1 in the endocytic pathway and plays a crucial role in the establishment of IRT1 polarity, likely through its recycling to the cell surface. Our work sheds light on the mechanisms of radial transport of nutrients across the different cell types of plant roots toward the vascular tissues and raises interesting parallel with iron transport in mammals.

  17. Getting to the root of plant iron uptake and cell-cell transport: Polarity matters!

    PubMed

    Dubeaux, Guillaume; Zelazny, Enric; Vert, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins play pivotal roles in mediating responses to endogenous and environmental cues. Regulation of membrane protein levels and establishment of polarity are fundamental for many cellular processes. In plants, IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1) is the major root iron transporter but is also responsible for the absorption of other divalent metals such as manganese, zinc and cobalt. We recently uncovered that IRT1 is polarly localized to the outer plasma membrane domain of plant root epidermal cells upon depletion of its secondary metal substrates. The endosome-recruited FYVE1 protein interacts with IRT1 in the endocytic pathway and plays a crucial role in the establishment of IRT1 polarity, likely through its recycling to the cell surface. Our work sheds light on the mechanisms of radial transport of nutrients across the different cell types of plant roots toward the vascular tissues and raises interesting parallel with iron transport in mammals. PMID:26479146

  18. Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    International Advisory Committee Antinori, FedericoPaic, Guy Braun-Munzinger, PeterPajares, Carlos Cifarelli, LuisaPeitzmann, Thomas Erazmus, BarbaraRedlich, Krzysztof Eskola, KariRiccati, Lodovico Gaardhøje, Jens JørgenRoland, Gunther Gale, CharlesRoy, Christelle Gelis, FrancoisSchukraft, Jürgen Giubellino, PaoloSinha, Bikash Greiner, CarstenSrivastava, Dinesh Gyulassy, MiklosStachel, Johanna Harris, JohnSteinberg, Peter Hatsuda, TetsuoStroth, Joachim Heinz, UlrichSugitate, Toru Jacak, BarbaraTserruya, Itzhak Karsch, FrithjofVelkovska, Julia Kharzeev, DimaWang, Enke Kodama, TakeshiWang, Xin, Nian Lévai, PéterWessels, Johannes Manko, VladislavXu, Nu Müller, BerndtZajc, William Ollitrault, Jean-Yves Organizing Committee Arleo, FrancoisDupieux, Pascal Bastid, NicoleFurget, Christophe Bourgeois, Marie-LaureGranier de Cassagnac, Raphael Bregant, MarcoGuernane, Rachid Carminati, FedericoHervet, Carnita Castillo, JavierKuhn, Christian Cheynis, BrigitteOlivier, Nathalie Conesa, DelValle, Zaida Connor, MichelleRenshall, Lucy Crochet, PhilippeSuire, Christophe Delagrange, HuguesTihinen, Ulla Program Committee Schutz, Yves (Chair)Baldisseri, Alberto Wiedemann, Urs (co-Chair)Safarik, Karel Aurenche, Patrick

  19. Total quality management: a matter of quality polarity analysis and management.

    PubMed

    Hurst, J; Keenan, M; Sipp, R

    1993-03-01

    Alvin Zander claims that group members are often more concerned with personal needs and rights than those of the organization. People tend to have their attention on only half (the upside of their preferred pole and the downside of the other) of the whole "picture" of a polarity. By making a complete, accurate diagram of the entire polarity and continually updating and using it, people can promote collaboration and effectiveness despite the automatic tendency for people to be both blind to the entire situation and individualistically undermining successful management of the polarity over time. In other words, most efforts to produce noteworthy and lasting results in successful implementation of total quality management most likely will be limited--or result in failure--due to the fact that nursing managers, staff, and administrators view autocratic management and employee empowerment as separate choices to be made and are unclear that their day-to-day action impacts both direction and empowerment continually. Polarity analysis and management tend to integrate what appear to be personal and individual needs with those of others in a collaborative partnership. When addressing any polarity, it is important to acknowledge that people at all levels of the organization potentially are paradoxically the greatest resources and the biggest barriers to unprecedented breakthrough results. Overzealous action to reduce autocratic leadership will subsequently affect empowerment negatively and thus ultimately erode direction. Likewise overzealous action to increase empowerment will promote a lack of focus and finally erode organization and compliance. As any group of people begins to experience the recurrence of the ups and downs of both poles, there is increased frustration, resignation, and sense of ineffectiveness.

  20. Quark core impact on hybrid star cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros, Rodrigo; Dexheimer, V. A.; Schramm, S.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the thermal evolution of hybrid stars, objects composed of a quark matter core, enveloped by ordinary hadronic matter. Our purpose is to investigate how important the microscopic properties of the quark core are to the thermal evolution of the star. In order to do that we use a simple Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model for the quark core and a relativistic-mean-field model for the hadronic envelope. By choosing different values for the microscopic parameters (bag constant, strange quark mass, strong coupling constant), we obtain hybrid stars with different quark core properties. We also consider the possibility of color superconductivity in the quark core. With this simple approach, we have found a set of microscopic parameters that lead to a good agreement with those of observed cooling neutron stars. Our results can be used to obtain clues regarding the properties of the quark core in hybrid stars and to refine more sophisticated models for the equation of state of quark matter.

  1. Gravitomagnetic Acceleration of Black Hole Accretion Disk Matter to Polar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, John; Mathews, Grant

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near the accretion disk away from the disk and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Moreover, as the accelerated material nears the axis, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the formation of a narrow polar jet emanating from the poles.

  2. Hybrid neutron stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model and various quark-gluon vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Wei, J.-B.; Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2015-05-01

    We study cold dense quark matter and hybrid neutron stars with a Dyson-Schwinger quark model and various choices of the quark-gluon vertex. We obtain the equation of state of quark matter in beta equilibrium and investigate the hadron-quark phase transition in combination with a hadronic equation of state derived within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many-body theory. Comparing with the results for quark matter within the rainbow approximation, the Ball-Chiu (BC) Ansatz and the 1BC Ansatz for the quark-gluon vertex lead to a reduction of the effective interaction at finite chemical potential, qualitatively similar to the effect of our gluon propagator. We find that the phase transition and the equation of state of the quark or mixed phase and consequently the resulting hybrid star mass and radius depend mainly on a global reduction of the effective interaction due to effects of both the quark-gluon vertex and gluon propagator, but are not sensitive to details of the vertex Ansatz.

  3. Probing Sea Quarks and Gluons: The Electron-Ion Collider Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Tanja

    2014-03-01

    The 21st century holds great promise for reaching a new era for unlocking the mysteries of the structure of the atomic nucleus and the nucleons inside it governed by the theory of strong interactions (QCD). In particular, much remains to be learned about the dynamical basis of the structure of hadrons and nuclei in terms of the fundamental quarks and gluons. One of the main goals of existing and nearly completed facilities is to map out the spin flavor structure of the nucleons in the valence region. A future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would be the world's first polarized electron-proton collider, and the world's first e-A collider, and would seek the QCD foundation of nucleons and nuclei in terms of the sea quarks and gluons, matching to these valence quark studies. The EIC will provide a versatile range of kinematics and beam polarization, as well as beam species, to allow for mapping the spin and spatial structure of the quark sea and gluons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in atomic nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadronic matter from color charge.

  4. Quark catalysis of exothermal nuclear reactions.

    PubMed

    Zweig, G

    1978-09-15

    This article discusses circumstances under which free quarks catalyze exothermal nuclear reactions. It also presents possible methods for removing quarks sequestered by nuclear reaction products. Stable quarks that are negatively charged and significantly heavier than electrons attract positively charged nuclei to form new states of matter. The nuclei and quarks are closely bound, and presumably interact through both electromagnetic and nuclear forces. Nuclear fusion and fission are possible, as well as a new class of plural reactions in which either a quark isobar, isotope, or isotone is created in each individual reaction, with catalysis resulting in the overall system because the net transfer of charge, neutrons, or protons to the quarks is zero. The quark with quantum numbers of üü is a promising catalytic candidate. A satisfactory understanding of which reactions are or are not possible awaits the isolation of free quarks and a description of their strong interactions with matter. Finally, other kinds of stable negatively charged particles (such as heavy leptons), if discovered, can catalyze deuterium fusion reactions if thermal neutrons are used to liberate He(3)-bound catalytic particles. PMID:17743618

  5. Single top quark production and Vtb at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard; /Michigan State U.

    2010-09-01

    Single top quark production via the electroweak interaction was observed by the D0 and CDF collaborations at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab. Multivariate analysis techniques are employed to extract the small single top quark signal. The combined Tevatron cross section is 2.76{sub -0.47}{sup +0.58} pb. This corresponds to a lower limit on the CKM matrix element |V{sub tb}| of 0.77. Also reported are measurements of the t-channel cross section, the top quark polarization in single top quark events, and limits on gluon-quark flavor-changing neutral currents and W{prime} boson production.

  6. Calcium quarks.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Ernst; Egger, Marcel

    2002-05-01

    Elementary subcellular Ca2+ signals arising from the opening of single ion channels may offer the possibility to examine the stochastic behavior and the microscopic chemical reaction rates of these channel proteins in their natural environment. Such an analysis can yield detailed information about the molecular function that cannot be derived from recordings obtained from an ensemble of channels. In this review, we summarize experimental evidence suggesting that Ca2+ sparks, elementary Ca2+ signaling events of cardiac and skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling, may be comprised of a number of smaller Ca2+ signaling events, the Ca2+ quarks.

  7. Quark-jet model for transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentz, W.; Kotzinian, A.; Matevosyan, H. H.; Ninomiya, Y.; Thomas, A. W.; Yazaki, K.

    2016-08-01

    In order to describe the hadronization of polarized quarks, we discuss an extension of the quark-jet model to transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions. The description is based on a product ansatz, where each factor in the product represents one of the transverse momentum dependent splitting functions, which can be calculated by using effective quark theories. The resulting integral equations and sum rules are discussed in detail for the case of inclusive pion production. In particular, we demonstrate that the three-dimensional momentum sum rules are satisfied naturally in this transverse momentum dependent quark-jet model. Our results are well suited for numerical calculations in effective quark theories and can be implemented in Monte Carlo simulations of polarized quark hadronization processes.

  8. Characterizing the compositional variation of dissolved organic matter over hydrophobicity and polarity using fluorescence spectra combined with principal component analysis and two-dimensional correlation technique.

    PubMed

    Su, Ben-Sheng; Qu, Zhen; He, Xiao-Song; Song, Ying-Hao; Jia, Li-Min

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) obtained from three leachates with different landfill ages was fractionated, and its compositional variation based on hydrophobicity and polarity was characterized by synchronous fluorescence spectra combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and two-dimensional correlation technique. The results showed that the bulk DOM and its fractions were comprised of tryosine-, tryptophan-, fulvic-, and humic-like substances. Tyrosine-like matter was dominant in the young leachate DOM and its fractions, while tryptophan-, fulvic-, and humic-like substances were the main components in the intermediate and old leachate DOMs and their fractions. Tryosine-, tryptophan-, fulvic-, and humic-like substances varied concurrently with the hydrophobicity and polarity. However, the change ratio of these substances was different for the three leachates. Tyrosine-like matter, humic-like materials, and fulvic-like substances were the most sensitive to the hydrophobicity and polarity in the young, intermediate, and old leachates, respectively. Such an integrated approach jointly enhances the characterization of the hydrophobicity- and polarity-dependent DOM fractions and provides a promising way to elucidate the environmental behaviors of different DOM species.

  9. Four Preon Composite Quarks and Leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpoot, S.; Samuel, Mark A.

    A model is presented in which quarks and leptons are composites of three spin-(1)/(2) preons and a scalar preon. The model is an extension of the rishon model and consists of two spin-(1)/(2) preons T, V and a scalar preon S as the fundamental building blocks of matter. Assuming distinguishability of states due to the order assigned to the preons in forming the quark and lepton states, the concepts of flavour, colour and generation number acquire meaning only at the level of compositeness. The model predicts four generations of conventional quarks and leptons.

  10. Search for dark matter produced in association with a Higgs boson decaying to two bottom quarks in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. 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Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with a Higgs boson decaying to a pair of bottom quarks, using data from 20.3 fb-1 of p p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The decay of the Higgs boson is reconstructed as a high-momentum b b ¯ system with either a pair of small-radius jets, or a single large-radius jet with substructure. The observed data are found to be consistent with the expected Standard Model backgrounds. Model-independent upper limits are placed on the visible cross sections for events with a Higgs boson decaying into b b ¯ and large missing transverse momentum with thresholds ranging from 150 to 400 GeV. Results are interpreted using a simplified model with a Z' gauge boson decaying into different Higgs bosons predicted in a two-Higgs-doublet model, of which the heavy pseudoscalar Higgs decays into a pair of dark matter particles. Exclusion limits are also presented for the mass scales of various effective field theory operators that describe the interaction between dark matter particles and the Higgs boson.

  11. Cooking Up Hot Quark Soup

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Walsh, Karen McNulty

    2011-03-28

    Near-light-speed collisions of gold ions provide a recipe for in-depth explorations of matter and fundamental forces. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has produced the most massive antimatter nucleus ever discovered—and the first containing an anti-strange quark. The presence of strange antimatter makes this antinucleus the first to be entered below the plane of the classic Periodic Table of Elements, marking a new frontier in physics.

  12. Fluctuation Probes of Quark Deconfinement

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, Masayuki; Heinz, Ulrich; Mueller, Berndt

    2000-09-04

    The size of the average fluctuations of net baryon number and electric charge in a finite volume of hadronic matter differs widely between the confined and deconfined phases. These differences may be exploited as indicators of the formation of a quark-gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, because fluctuations created in the initial state survive until freeze-out due to the rapid expansion of the hot fireball. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  13. HDAC inhibition prevents white matter injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization through the GSK3β/PTEN/Akt axis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohua; Shi, Yejie; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Leak, Rehana K; Hu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yun; Pu, Hongjian; Li, Wei-Wei; Tang, Bo; Wang, Yun; Gao, Yanqin; Zheng, Ping; Bennett, Michael V L; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) elicits destruction of both gray and white matter, which is exacerbated by secondary proinflammatory responses. Although white matter injury (WMI) is strongly correlated with poor neurological status, the maintenance of white matter integrity is poorly understood, and no current therapies protect both gray and white matter. One candidate approach that may fulfill this role is inhibition of class I/II histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here we demonstrate that the HDAC inhibitor Scriptaid protects white matter up to 35 d after TBI, as shown by reductions in abnormally dephosphorylated neurofilament protein, increases in myelin basic protein, anatomic preservation of myelinated axons, and improved nerve conduction. Furthermore, Scriptaid shifted microglia/macrophage polarization toward the protective M2 phenotype and mitigated inflammation. In primary cocultures of microglia and oligodendrocytes, Scriptaid increased expression of microglial glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), which phosphorylated and inactivated phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), thereby enhancing phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling and polarizing microglia toward M2. The increase in GSK3β in microglia and their phenotypic switch to M2 was associated with increased preservation of neighboring oligodendrocytes. These findings are consistent with recent findings that microglial phenotypic switching modulates white matter repair and axonal remyelination and highlight a previously unexplored role for HDAC activity in this process. Furthermore, the functions of GSK3β may be more subtle than previously thought, in that GSK3β can modulate microglial functions via the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and preserve white matter homeostasis. Thus, inhibition of HDACs in microglia is a potential future therapy in TBI and other neurological conditions with white matter destruction. PMID:25691750

  14. Production and decay of heavy top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.P.

    1989-08-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the top quark exists and has a mass between 50 and 200 GeV/c{sup 2}. The decays of a top quark with a mass in this range are studied with emphasis placed on the mass region near the threshold for production of real W bosons. Topics discussed are: (1) possible enhancement of strange quark production when M{sub W} + m{sub s} < m{sub t} < M{sub W} + m{sub b}; (2) exclusive decays of T mesons to B and B{asterisk} mesons using the non-relativistic quark model; (3) polarization of intermediate W's in top quark decay as a source of information on the top quark mass. The production of heavy top quarks in an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider with a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV is studied. The effective-boson approximation for photons, Z{sup 0}'s and W's is reviewed and an analogous approximation for interfaces between photons and Z{sup 0}'s is developed. The cross sections for top quark pair production from photon-photon, photon-Z{sup 0}, Z{sup 0}Z{sup 0}, and W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} fusion are calculated using the effective-boson approximation. Production of top quarks along with anti-bottom quarks via {gamma}W{sup +} and Z{sup 0}W{sup +} fusion is studied. An exact calculation of {gamma}e{sup +} {yields} {bar {nu}}t{bar b} is made and compared with the effective-W approximation. 31 refs., 46 figs.

  15. The parton distributions in nuclei and in polarized nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    The emerging information was reviewed on the way quark and anti-quark, and gluon distributions are modified in nuclei relative to free nucleons. Some implications of the recent data on polarized leptoproduction are discussed. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  16. UV-screening Organic Matter (CDOM and MAA) as indicators for monitoring changes of the polar marine ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PARK, M. O.; Kang, S. H.; Ha, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    At Kongsfjorden bay, DOC, CDOM, FDOM, composition of phytoplankton and MAAs were measured from seawater. The relationship between CDOM, DOC vs Chl a was also investigated. DOC of seawater in 2010 and 2011 was increased 68% and 34% respectively in average compared to DOC in 2009. CDOM was in the range of acdom(375): 0.1855 m-1 ~ 0.0965 m-1, and it showed clear decreasing gradient form inside bay to offshore. CDOM vs DOC and Chl a was inversely related in the study area. Biomass of phytoplankton during 2009~2011 was 0.43~ 0.76 mg/m3 and little change was observed, but the composition and dominant classes have changed. Phaeocystis sp. was rare and diatom and cryptophyte were dominant in the center of bay and coastal area, respectively. 5 different MAAs, shinorine, palythine, mycosporine-glycine, porphyra-334, asterine-330 are identified and separated from Arctic phytoplanktons by HPLC and an unknown MAA was identified from Phaeocystis pouchetti. The spatial distribution pattern of MAAs in the study area was similar with the distribution of Phaeocystis sp. in 2009. The concentration of MAA in 2011 was decreased upto 50% with maximum concentration and seems to related with very low abundance of Phaeocystis sp. in the bay. The results from UV B exposure experiment with Phaeocystis pouchetti. and Porosira glacialis revealed clear discrepancy in the response to carbon uptake rate and photo-inhibition, and also the organic matter from these phytoplankton showed a different photo reactivity. Porosira glacialis, larger than Phaeocystis pouchetti. was more resistant to harmful UV B effect and result of carbon uptake rate using 13C support this tendency. In case Phaeocystis pouchetti becomes the dominant species, it is likely CDOM will be easily degraded and the UV screening effect of seawater will be reduced. acdom(375) 0.14m-1in spring in the arctic was higher than 0.11m-1 in the antarctic at monitoring station. These 3 year monitoring in the arctic Kongsfjorden showed a

  17. Cold-nuclear-matter effects on heavy-quark production at forward and backward rapidity in d + Au collisions at √sNN = 200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Ta'ani, H; Alexander, J; Andrews, K R; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Appelt, E; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Ben-Benjamin, J; Bennett, R; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Broxmeyer, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Castera, P; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harper, C; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E-J; Kim, Y-J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Sodre, T; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S

    2014-06-27

    The PHENIX experiment has measured open heavy-flavor production via semileptonic decay over the transverse momentum range 1 < p(T) < 6  GeV/c at forward and backward rapidity (1.4 < |y| < 2.0) in d+Au and p + p collisions at √sNN = 200  GeV. In central d+Au collisions, relative to the yield in p + p collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, a suppression is observed at forward rapidity (in the d-going direction) and an enhancement at backward rapidity (in the Au-going direction). Predictions using nuclear-modified-parton-distribution functions, even with additional nuclear-p(T) broadening, cannot simultaneously reproduce the data at both rapidity ranges, which implies that these models are incomplete and suggests the possible importance of final-state interactions in the asymmetric d + Au collision system. These results can be used to probe cold-nuclear-matter effects, which may significantly affect heavy-quark production, in addition to helping constrain the magnitude of charmonia-breakup effects in nuclear matter.

  18. Cold-nuclear-matter effects on heavy-quark production at forward and backward rapidity in d + Au collisions at √sNN = 200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Ta'ani, H; Alexander, J; Andrews, K R; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Appelt, E; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Ben-Benjamin, J; Bennett, R; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Broxmeyer, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Castera, P; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harper, C; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E-J; Kim, Y-J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Sodre, T; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S

    2014-06-27

    The PHENIX experiment has measured open heavy-flavor production via semileptonic decay over the transverse momentum range 1 < p(T) < 6  GeV/c at forward and backward rapidity (1.4 < |y| < 2.0) in d+Au and p + p collisions at √sNN = 200  GeV. In central d+Au collisions, relative to the yield in p + p collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, a suppression is observed at forward rapidity (in the d-going direction) and an enhancement at backward rapidity (in the Au-going direction). Predictions using nuclear-modified-parton-distribution functions, even with additional nuclear-p(T) broadening, cannot simultaneously reproduce the data at both rapidity ranges, which implies that these models are incomplete and suggests the possible importance of final-state interactions in the asymmetric d + Au collision system. These results can be used to probe cold-nuclear-matter effects, which may significantly affect heavy-quark production, in addition to helping constrain the magnitude of charmonia-breakup effects in nuclear matter. PMID:25014805

  19. Recent Results on Top-Quark Physics at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Kenneth

    2015-10-23

    We present the most recent measurements on top-quark physics obtained with Tevatron $p\\bar{p}$ collisions recorded by the D0 experiment at $\\sqrt{s}= 1.96$ TeV. The full Run II data set of 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ is analyzed. Both lepton+jets and dilepton channels of top-quark pair production are used to measure the differential and inclusive cross sections, the forward-backward asymmetries, the top-quark mass, the spin correlations, and the top-quark polarization.

  20. The Unquenched Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Santopinto, E.; Bijker, R.

    2008-10-13

    We present a new generation of unquenched quark models for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs are taken into account in an explicit form via a microscopic, QCD-inspired, pair creation mechanism. As an application, we study the effect of quark-antiquark pairs on the spin of the proton.

  1. Observability of quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Even if stable hadrons with fractional charge do not exist, most of the criteria of observability used for ordinary elementary particles apply in principle to quarks as well. This is especially true in a simplified world containing only hadrons made of top quarks and gluons. In the real world containing light quarks, essential complications do occur, but most of the conclusions survive.

  2. Magnetic moments of JP=3/2+ decuplet baryons using effective quark masses in a chiral constituent quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdhar, Aarti; Dahiya, Harleen; Randhawa, Monika

    2015-08-01

    The magnetic moments of JP=3/2+ decuplet baryons have been calculated in the chiral constituent quark model (χ CQM ) with explicit results for the contribution coming from the valence quark polarizations, sea quark polarizations, and their orbital angular momentum. Since the JP=3/2+ decuplet baryons have short lifetimes, the experimental information about them is limited. The χ CQM has important implications for chiral symmetry breaking as well as SU(3) symmetry breaking since it works in the region between the QCD confinement scale and the chiral symmetry breaking scale. The predictions in the model not only give a satisfactory fit when compared with the experimental data but also show improvement over the other models. The effect of the confinement on quark masses has also been discussed in detail and the results of χ CQM are found to improve further with the inclusion of effective quark masses.

  3. Top Quark Mass Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, A.P.; /UC, Riverside

    2006-08-01

    First observed in 1995, the top quark is one of a pair of third-generation quarks in the Standard Model of particle physics. It has charge +2/3e and a mass of 171.4 GeV, about 40 times heavier than its partner, the bottom quark. The CDF and D0 collaborations have identified several hundred events containing the decays of top-antitop pairs in the large dataset collected at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider over the last four years. They have used these events to measure the top quark's mass to nearly 1% precision and to study other top quark properties. The mass of the top quark is a fundamental parameter of the Standard Model, and knowledge of its value with small uncertainty allows us to predict properties of the as-yet-unobserved Higgs boson. This paper presents the status of the measurements of the top quark mass.

  4. Single top quarks at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, A.P.; Belyaev, A.S.; Boos, E.E.

    1997-09-01

    We present a calculation of the single top quark cross section for proton-antiproton interactions with {radical}(s)=1.8TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We examine the effects of the top quark mass, parton distribution functions, QCD scale, and collision energy, on each of the component production mechanisms, and study the kinematic distributions for standard model electroweak production. At the upgraded Tevatron with {radical}(s)=2.0TeV and high luminosity, it will be possible to test the nature of the Wtb coupling using single top quark production. We estimate the sensitivity to measure the single top quark cross section, and thus to directly measure V{sub tb} and the top quark partial width. We show what happens to the V{sub tb} measurement when an anomalous (V+A) component is added to the Wtb coupling, and how the top quark polarization affects the kinematic distributions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Microcosmic bang: Mashing atomic nuclei to create a quark soup

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, I.

    1996-09-21

    According to modern physics, the first micromoments of the Big Bang were a time of unimaginable extremes. No more than a cosmic spark, the universe was then so extraordinarily hot that the strong nuclear force was too weak to keep quarks bound tightly together in protons and other particles of ordinary matter. Free quarks roamed a thick broth of gluons, particles that carry the strong force. Physictists describe this extreme state of matter as a quark-gluon plasma. Now, they think that they have glimpsed such a state in the laboratory in high-energy collisions between heavy nuclei. This article describes the theory, the results and the future for this discovery.

  6. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadov, A.; Azuelos, G.; Bauer, U.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E. L.; Sullivan, Z.; Tait, T. M. P.

    2000-03-24

    The top quark, when it was finally discovered at Fermilab in 1995 completed the three-generation structure of the Standard Model (SM) and opened up the new field of top quark physics. Viewed as just another SM quark, the top quark appears to be a rather uninteresting species. Produced predominantly, in hadron-hadron collisions, through strong interactions, it decays rapidly without forming hadrons, and almost exclusively through the single mode t {r_arrow} Wb. The relevant CKM coupling V{sub tb} is already determined by the (three-generation) unitarity of the CKM matrix. Rare decays and CP violation are unmeasurable small in the SM. Yet the top quark is distinguished by its large mass, about 35 times larger than the mass of the next heavy quark, and intriguingly close to the scale of electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking. This unique property raises a number of interesting questions. Is the top quark mass generated by the Higgs mechanism as the SM predicts and is its mass related to the top-Higgs-Yukawa coupling? Or does it play an even more fundamental role in the EW symmetry breaking mechanism? If there are new particles lighter than the top quark, does the top quark decay into them? Could non-SM physics first manifest itself in non-standard couplings of the top quark which show up as anomalies in top quark production and decays? Top quark physics tries to answer these questions. Several properties of the top quark have already been examined at the Tevatron. These include studies of the kinematical properties of top production, the measurements of the top mass, of the top production cross-section, the reconstruction of t{bar t}pairs in the fully hadronic final states, the study of {tau} decays of the top quark, the reconstruction of hadronic decays of the W boson from top decays, the search for flavor changing neutral current decays, the measurement of the W helicity in top decays, and bounds on t{bar t} spin correlations. Most of these measurements are limited by

  7. Heavy quark masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  8. Using the Moon As A Low-Noise Seismic Detector For Strange Quark Nuggets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Chui, Talso; Griggs, Cornelius E.; Herrin, Eugene T.; Nakamura, Yosio; Paik, Ho Jung; Penanen, Konstantin; Rosenbaum, Doris; Teplitz, Vigdor L.; Young, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Strange quark matter made of up, down and strange quarks has been postulated by Witten [1]. Strange quark matter would be nearly charge neutral and would have density of nuclear matter (10(exp 14) gm/cu cm). Witten also suggested that nuggets of strange quark matter, or strange quark nuggets (SQNs), could have formed shortly after the Big Bang, and that they would be viable candidates for cold dark matter. As suggested by de Rujula and Glashow [2], an SQN may pass through a celestial body releasing detectable seismic energy along a straight line. The Moon, being much quieter seismically than the Earth, would be a favorable place to search for such events. We review previous searches for SQNs to illustrate the parameter space explored by using the Moon as a low-noise detector of SQNs. We also discuss possible detection schemes using a single seismometer, and using an International Lunar Seismic Network.

  9. Effects of strong interaction on the structure of color-flavor-locked quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, J. C. T.; Rodrigues, H.; Duarte, S. B.

    2008-12-15

    The static spherically symmetric quark star structure is calculated by using an equation of state which takes into account the superconducting color-flavor locked phase of the strange quark matter. Some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, namely, the density-dependent quark mass model. The effects from the strong interaction described by these models can affect the equation of state of the quark matter substantially. In this work we discuss the influence of these effects on the conventional mass-radius relationship of quark stars. Massive quark stars are found due to the stiffness of the equation of state at low densities, when reasonable values of the superconducting gap, taken as a free parameter, are used.

  10. The Quark - A Decade Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakin, James T.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews theoretical principles underlying the quark model. Indicates that the agreement with experimental results and the understanding of the quark-quark force are two hurdles for the model to survive in the future. (CC)

  11. HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.

    SciTech Connect

    LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.

    2005-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear matter at extremely high

  12. Top Quark Mass Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, A. P.

    2006-11-17

    First observed in 1995, the top quark is one of a pair of third-generation quarks in the Standard Model of particle physics. It has charge +2/3e and a mass of 171.4 GeV, about 40 times heavier than its partner, the bottom quark. The CDF and DO collaborations have identified several hundred events containing the decays of top-antitop pairs in the large dataset collected at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider over the last four years. They have used these events to measure the top quark's mass to nearly 1% precision and to study other top quark properties. The mass of the top quark is a fundamental parameter of the Standard Model, and knowledge of its value with small uncertainty allows us to predict properties of the as-yet-unobserved Higgs boson. This paper presents the status of the measurements of the top quark mass. It is based on a talk I gave at the Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics in Puerto Rico, May 2006, which also included discussion of measurements of other top quark properties.

  13. Quark structure of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenbecler, R.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics involved in the relativistic quark structure of nuclei such as the infinite momentum variables, scaling variables, counting rules, forward-backward variables, thermodynamic-like limit, QCD effects, higher quark bags, confinement, and many unanswered questions.

  14. Studies of single top quark production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Breese; /Mississippi U.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present several measurements of single top quark production from the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron. The various analyses utilize integrated luminosity ranging from 2.1 to 4.8 fb{sup -1}. The results include the observation of single top production with a combined cross section of 2.76{sub -0.47}{sup +0.58} pb for a top quark mass of 170 GeV/c{sup 2}, as well as measurements of top quark polarization and first evidence for t-channel production.

  15. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanna, G.; Boisvert, V.; Cerrito, L.; Khan, A.; Moretti, S.; Owen, M.; Schwanenberger, C.

    2013-07-01

    The 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP 2012) took place in Winchester, UK, from the 16-21 September. It gathered students as well as people active in the top quark sector and provided a framework to highlight the newest results and matters related to top quark physics. Discovered in 1995, the top quark is the sixth and heaviest of all quarks, and it is the only one with a lifetime short enough to be observed 'naked'. This makes it an important testing ground in the search for new physics. In fact, the fact of its mass being so much larger than the other quarks, hints at its special role in the Higgs mechanism. For the same reason, in many models of New Physics, new heavy resonances are expected to couple mostly with top quarks. Even if no new particles are observed, the direct correlation between its angular momentum and that of its detectable decay products allows us to probe indirectly New Physics in action when top quarks are created. In this edition of the TOP conference series, for the first time, the agenda was equally balanced between 'traditional' measurements and the now vast number of searches for physics BSM in the top quark sector, thanks mostly to the amount of data collected at the LHC in its Run I. New results were presented by both the Tevatron and the LHC collaborations: improved ttbar and single top cross-section measurements, refined techniques to measure the top quark mass and a large number of results on properties such as spin correlation and W boson polarization in top quark decays were shown. More technical discussions on the experimental issues, both from the detector and the simulation side also took place, drawing together experimentalists and theorists. Reviews of the latest results on ttbar asymmetry both from CDF and D0 and from ATLAS and CMS were shown, and theorists active in the field made some interesting points on this hot topic. Additionally, results on the search for fourth generation fermions and new

  16. Estimating pesticide sampling rates by the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in the presence of natural organic matter and varying hydrodynamic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charlestra, Lucner; Amirbahman, Aria; Courtemanch, David L.; Alvarez, David A.; Patterson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) was calibrated to monitor pesticides in water under controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the sampling rates (Rs) was evaluated in microcosms containing -1 of total organic carbon (TOC). The effect of hydrodynamics was studied by comparing Rs values measured in stirred (SBE) and quiescent (QBE) batch experiments and a flow-through system (FTS). The level of NOM in the water used in these experiments had no effect on the magnitude of the pesticide sampling rates (p > 0.05). However, flow velocity and turbulence significantly increased the sampling rates of the pesticides in the FTS and SBE compared to the QBE (p < 0.001). The calibration data generated can be used to derive pesticide concentrations in water from POCIS deployed in stagnant and turbulent environmental systems without correction for NOM.

  17. Choosing the polarity of the phase-encoding direction in diffusion MRI: Does it matter for group analysis?

    PubMed

    Kennis, M; van Rooij, S J H; Kahn, R S; Geuze, E; Leemans, A

    2016-01-01

    Notorious for degrading diffusion MRI data quality are so-called susceptibility-induced off-resonance fields, which cause non-linear geometric image deformations. While acquiring additional data to correct for these distortions alleviates the adverse effects of this artifact drastically - e.g., by reversing the polarity of the phase-encoding (PE) direction - this strategy is often not an option due to scan time constraints. Especially in a clinical context, where patient comfort and safety are of paramount importance, acquisition specifications are preferred that minimize scan time, typically resulting in data obtained with only one PE direction. In this work, we investigated whether choosing a different polarity of the PE direction would affect the outcome of a specific clinical research study. To address this methodological question, fractional anisotropy (FA) estimates of FreeSurfer brain regions were obtained in civilian and combat controls, remitted posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, and persistent PTSD patients before and after trauma-focused therapy and were compared between diffusion MRI data sets acquired with different polarities of the PE direction (posterior-to-anterior, PA and anterior-to-posterior, AP). Our results demonstrate that regional FA estimates differ on average in the order of 5% between AP and PA PE data. In addition, when comparing FA estimates between different subject groups for specific cingulum subdivisions, the conclusions for AP and PA PE data were not in agreement. These findings increase our understanding of how one of the most pronounced data artifacts in diffusion MRI can impact group analyses and should encourage users to be more cautious when interpreting and reporting study outcomes derived from data acquired along a single PE direction. PMID:27158586

  18. Choosing the polarity of the phase-encoding direction in diffusion MRI: Does it matter for group analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Kennis, M.; van Rooij, S.J.H.; Kahn, R.S.; Geuze, E.; Leemans, A.

    2016-01-01

    Notorious for degrading diffusion MRI data quality are so-called susceptibility-induced off-resonance fields, which cause non-linear geometric image deformations. While acquiring additional data to correct for these distortions alleviates the adverse effects of this artifact drastically – e.g., by reversing the polarity of the phase-encoding (PE) direction – this strategy is often not an option due to scan time constraints. Especially in a clinical context, where patient comfort and safety are of paramount importance, acquisition specifications are preferred that minimize scan time, typically resulting in data obtained with only one PE direction. In this work, we investigated whether choosing a different polarity of the PE direction would affect the outcome of a specific clinical research study. To address this methodological question, fractional anisotropy (FA) estimates of FreeSurfer brain regions were obtained in civilian and combat controls, remitted posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, and persistent PTSD patients before and after trauma-focused therapy and were compared between diffusion MRI data sets acquired with different polarities of the PE direction (posterior-to-anterior, PA and anterior-to-posterior, AP). Our results demonstrate that regional FA estimates differ on average in the order of 5% between AP and PA PE data. In addition, when comparing FA estimates between different subject groups for specific cingulum subdivisions, the conclusions for AP and PA PE data were not in agreement. These findings increase our understanding of how one of the most pronounced data artifacts in diffusion MRI can impact group analyses and should encourage users to be more cautious when interpreting and reporting study outcomes derived from data acquired along a single PE direction. PMID:27158586

  19. Boundary between hadron and quark-gluon structure of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pirner, H. J.; Vary, J. P.

    2011-07-15

    We show that the boundary between quark-dominated and hadron-dominated regions of nuclear structure may be blurred by multinucleon quark clusters arising from color percolation. Recent experiments supporting partial percolation in cold nuclei and full percolation in hot/dense nuclear matter include deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering, relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and the binding energy in {sup 5}He{sub {Lambda}.}

  20. Top Quark Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Yvonne

    2011-12-01

    Since its discovery in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, the top quark has undergone intensive studies. Besides the Tevatron experiments, with the start of the LHC in 2010 a top quark factory started its operation. It is now possible to measure top quark properties simultaneously at four different experiments, namely ATLAS and CMS at LHC and CDF and D0 at Tevatron. Having collected thousands of top quarks each, several top quark properties have been measured precisely, while others are being measured for the first time. In this article, recent measurements of top quark properties from ATLAS, CDF, CMS and D0 are presented, using up to 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity at the Tevatron and 1.1 fb{sup -1} at the LHC. In particular, measurements of the top quark mass, mass difference, foward backward charge asymmetry, t{bar t} spin correlations, the ratio of branching fractions, W helicity, anomalous couplings, color flow and the search for flavor changing neutral currents are discussed.

  1. Evolution of proto-neutron stars with quarks.

    PubMed

    Pons, J A; Steiner, A W; Prakash, M; Lattimer, J M

    2001-06-01

    Neutrino fluxes from proto-neutron stars with and without quarks are studied. Observable differences become apparent after 10-20 s of evolution. Sufficiently massive stars containing negatively charged, strongly interacting, particles collapse to black holes during the first minute of evolution. Since the neutrino flux vanishes when a black hole forms, this is the most obvious signal that quarks (or other types of strange matter) have appeared. The metastability time scales for stars with quarks are intermediate between those containing hyperons and kaon condensates.

  2. Color sextet vector bosons and same-sign top quark pairs at the LHC.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Berger, E. L.; Cao, Q.-H.; Chen, C.-R.; Shaughnessy, G.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Tokyo; Northwestern Univ.; Peking Univ.

    2010-12-08

    We investigate the production of beyond-the-standard-model color sextet vector bosons at the Large Hadron Collider and their decay into a pair of same-sign top quarks. We demonstrate that the energy of the charged lepton from the top quark semi-leptonic decay serves as a good measure of the top quark polarization, which, in turn determines the quantum numbers of the boson and distinguishes vector bosons from scalars.

  3. QCD tests with polarized beams

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Takashi; SLD Collaboration

    1996-09-01

    The authors present three QCD studies performed by the SLD experiment at SLAC, utilizing the highly polarized SLC electron beam. They examined particle production differences in light quark and antiquark hemispheres, and observed more high momentum baryons and K{sup {minus}}`s than antibaryons and K{sup +}`s in quark hemispheres, consistent with the leading particle hypothesis. They performed a search for jet handedness in light q- and {anti q}-jets. Assuming Standard Model values of quark polarization in Z{sup 0} decays, they have set an improved upper limit on the analyzing power of the handedness method. They studied the correlation between the Z{sup 0} spin and the event-plane orientation in polarized Z{sup 0} decays into three jets.

  4. Neutron stars and strange matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstein, J.

    1986-01-01

    The likelihood is investigated that quark matter with strangeness of order unity resides in neutron stars. In the strong coupling regime near rho/sub 0/ this is found to be unlikely. Considering higher densities where perturbative expansions are used, we find a lower bound to be at 7rho/sub 0/ for the transition density. This is higher than the inferred density of observed neutron stars, and thus the transition to quark matter is precluded. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Heavy quark physics from SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, R.

    1997-01-01

    This report covers preliminary measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 1993-1995 runs. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag is presented. The high electron beam polarization of the SLC is employed in the direct measurement of the parity-violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} by use of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry. The lifetimes of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons have been measured by two analyses. The first identifies semileptonic decays of B mesons with high (p,p{sub t}) leptons; the second analysis isolates a sample of B meson decays with a two-dimensional impact parameter tag and reconstructs the decay length and charge using a topological vertex reconstruction method.

  6. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

  7. Top quark properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Ziqing

    2014-10-31

    The top quark physics has entered the precision era. The CDF and D0 collaborations are finalizing their legacy results of the properties of the top quark after the shutdown of the Fermilab Tevatron three years ago. The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have been publishing results from the LHC Run I with 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, with many more forthcoming. We present a selection of recent results produced by the Tevatron and LHC experiments.

  8. HADRON-QUARK CROSSOVER AND MASSIVE HYBRID STARS WITH STRANGENESS

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2013-02-10

    Using the idea of smooth crossover from hadronic matter with hyperons to quark matter with strangeness, we show that the maximum mass (M {sub max}) of neutron stars with quark matter cores can be larger than those without quark matter cores. This is in contrast to the conventional softening of the equation of state due to exotic components at high density. The essential conditions for reaching our conclusion are that (1) the crossover takes place at relatively low densities, around three times the normal nuclear density and (2) the quark matter is strongly interacting in the crossover region. From these, the pressure of the system can be greater than that of purely hadronic matter at a given baryon density in the crossover density region and leads to M {sub max} greater than 2 solar mass. This conclusion is insensitive to the different choice of the hadronic equation of state with hyperons. We remark upon several implications of this result to the nuclear incompressibility, the hyperon mixing, and the neutrino cooling.

  9. To reveal the quark structure of matter

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1996-11-01

    The author presents a overview of some central issues facing strong interaction physics today, with an emphasis on questions that will be addressed in concert by CEBAF at Jefferson Lab and by the new DAPHNE machine at Frascati Lab.

  10. COLOR SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN COLD, DENSE, QUARK MATTER.

    SciTech Connect

    RISCHKE,D.H.; PISARSKI,R.D.

    2000-01-03

    We review what is different and what is similar in a color superconductor as compared to an ordinary BCS superconductor. The parametric dependence of the zero-temperature gap, {phi}{sub 0}, on the coupling constant differs in QCD from that in BCS theory. On the other hand, the transition temperature to the superconducting phase, T{sub c}, is related to the zero-temperature gap in the same way in QCD as in BCS theory, T{sub c}/{phi}{sub 0} {approx_equal} 0.567.

  11. Interaction of polar and nonpolar organic pollutants with soil organic matter: sorption experiments and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Elroby, Shaaban A; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Leinweber, Peter; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    The fate of organic pollutants in the environment is influenced by several factors including the type and strength of their interactions with soil components especially SOM. However, a molecular level answer to the question "How organic pollutants interact with SOM?" is still lacking. In order to explore mechanisms of this interaction, we have developed a new SOM model and carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in parallel with sorption experiments. The new SOM model comprises free SOM functional groups (carboxylic acid and naphthalene) as well as SOM cavities (with two different sizes), simulating the soil voids, containing the same SOM functional groups. To examine the effect of the hydrophobicity on the interaction, the organic pollutants hexachlorobenzene (HCB, non-polar) and sulfanilamide (SAA, polar) were considered. The experimental and theoretical investigations explored four major points regarding sorption of SAA and HCB on soil, yielding the following results. 1--The interaction depends on the SOM chemical composition more than the SOM content. 2--The interaction causes a site-specific adsorption on the soil surfaces. 3--Sorption hysteresis occurs, which can be explained by inclusion of these pollutants inside soil voids. 4--The hydrophobic HCB is adsorbed on soil stronger than the hydrophilic SAA. Moreover, the theoretical results showed that HCB forms stable complexes with all SOM models in the aqueous solution, while most of SAA-SOM complexes are accompanied by dissociation into SAA and the free SOM models. The SOM-cavity modeling had a significant effect on binding of organic pollutants to SOM. Both HCB and SAA bind to the SOM models in the order of models with a small cavity>a large cavity>no cavity. Although HCB binds to all SOM models stronger than SAA, the latter is more affected by the presence of the cavity. Finally, HCB and SAA bind to the hydrophobic functional group (naphthalene) stronger than to the hydrophilic one (carboxylic acid

  12. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wiss, J.

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  13. High energy cosmic ray signature of quark nuggets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audouze, J.; Schaeffer, R.; Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that dark matter in the Universe might consist of nuggets of quarks which populate the nuclear desert between nucleons and neutron star matter. It is further suggested that the Centauro events which could be the signature of particles with atomic mass A approx. 100 and energy E approx. 10 to 15th power eV might also be related to debris produced in the encounter of two neutron stars. A further consequence of the former proposal is examined, and it is shown that the production of relativistic quark nuggets is accompanied by a substantial flux of potentially observable high energy neutrinos.

  14. Interactions of quarks and gluons with nuclei at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A.H.

    1994-04-01

    Some processes involving the interaction of medium energy quarks and gluons with nuclear matter are described. Possible mechanisms for the A-dependence of the energy loss of leading protons produced in proton-nucleus collisions are given, and an experiment which may help to distinguish these mechanisms is described. A possible color transparency experiment at CEBAF is described. Experiments to measure energy loss of quarks in nuclear matter and the formation time of hadrons are discussed along with the possibilities of measuring {sigma}{sub J}/{psi} and {sigma}{sub {psi}{prime}} at CEBAF.

  15. A Future Polarized Drell-Yan Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinjan, David William

    2015-06-04

    The topic is treated in a series of slides under the following headings: Motivation (Nucleon Spin Puzzle, Quark Orbital Momentum and the Sivers Function, Accessing Sivers via Polarized Drell-Yan (p+p↑ → μ+μ-)); Transition of Seaquest (E906 → E1039) (Building a Polarized proton Target, Status of Polarized Target); and Outlook. The nucleon spin puzzle: when the quark and gluon contributions to the proton spin are evaluated, nearly 50% of the measured spin is missing; lattice QCD calculations indicate as much as 50% may come from quark orbital angular momentum. Sea quarks should carry orbital angular momentum (O.A.M.). The E1039 Polarized Target Drell-Yan Experiment provides opportunity to study possible Sea Quark O.A.M. Data taking is expected to begin in the spring of 2017.

  16. White matter injury and microglia/macrophage polarization are strongly linked with age-related long-term deficits in neurological function after stroke.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Jun; Hu, Xiaoming; Pu, Hongjian; Shi, Yejie; Hassan, Sulaiman Habib; Xu, Mingyue; Leak, Rehana K; Stetler, R Anne; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    , aged mice exhibited significantly reduced M2 polarization compared to young adults. Remarkably, we discovered a strong positive correlation between favorable neurological outcomes after dMCAO and MBP levels or the number of M2 microglia/macrophages. In conclusion, our studies suggest that the distal MCAO stroke model consistently results in ischemic brain injury with long-term behavioral deficits, and is therefore suitable for the evaluation of long-term stroke outcomes. Furthermore, aged mice exhibit deterioration of functional outcomes after stroke and this deterioration is linked to white matter damage and reductions in M2 microglia/macrophage polarization.

  17. White matter injury and microglia/macrophage polarization are strongly linked with age-related long-term deficits in neurological function after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Jun; Hu, Xiaoming; Pu, Hongjian; Shi, Yejie; Hassan, Sulaiman Habib; Xu, Mingyue; Leak, Rehana K.; Stetler, R. Anne; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    , aged mice exhibited significantly reduced M2 polarization compared to young adults. Remarkably, we discovered a strong positive correlation between favorable neurological outcomes after dMCAO and MBP levels or the number of M2 microglia/macrophages. In conclusion, our studies suggest that the distal MCAO stroke model consistently results in ischemic brain injury with long-term behavioral deficits, and is therefore suitable for the evaluation of long-term stroke outcomes. Furthermore, aged mice exhibit deterioration of functional outcomes after stroke and this deterioration is linked to white matter damage and reductions in M2 microglia/macrophage polarization. PMID:25836044

  18. Quark mean field model with pion and gluon corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xueyong; Hu, Jinniu; Shen, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei are studied within the quark mean field (QMF) model by taking the effects of pions and gluons into account at the quark level. The nucleon is described as the combination of three constituent quarks confined by a harmonic oscillator potential. To satisfy the spirit of QCD theory, the contributions of pions and gluons on the nucleon structure are treated in second-order perturbation theory. In a nuclear many-body system, nucleons interact with each other by exchanging mesons between quarks. With different constituent quark mass, mq, we determine three parameter sets for the coupling constants between mesons and quarks, named QMF-NK1, QMF-NK2, and QMF-NK3, by fitting the ground-state properties of several closed-shell nuclei. It is found that all of the three parameter sets can give a satisfactory description of properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei, moreover they also predict a larger neutron star mass around 2.3 M⊙ without hyperon degrees of freedom.

  19. Introduction to quantum chromo transport theory for quark-gluon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.; Elze, H.Th.; Iwazaki, A.; Vasak, D.

    1986-08-01

    Upcoming heavy ion experiments at the AGS and SPS are aimed at producing and diagnosing a primordial form of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. In these lectures some recent developments on formulating a quantum transport theory for quark-gluon plasmas are introduced. 46 refs.

  20. Scalar Top Quark as the Next-to-Lightest Supersymmetric Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, Michael E

    1999-09-28

    We study phenomenologically the scenario in which the scalar top quark is lighter than any other standard supersymmetric partner and also lighter than the top quark, so that it decays to the gravitino via {tilde t} {yields} W{sup +}b{tilde G}. In this case, scalar top quark events would seem to be very difficult to separate from top quark pair production. However, we show that, even at a hadron collider, it is possible to distinguish these two reactions. We show also that the longitudinal polarization of the final W{sup +} gives insight into the scalar top and wino/Higgsino mixing parameters.

  1. Top quark production asymmetries A(FB)t and A(FB)ℓ.

    PubMed

    Berger, Edmond L; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-02-17

    A large forward-backward asymmetry is seen in both the top quark rapidity distribution A(FB)(t) and in the rapidity distribution of charged leptons A(FB)(ℓ) from top quarks produced at the Tevatron. We study the kinematic and dynamic aspects of the relationship of the two observables arising from the spin correlation between the charged lepton and the top quark with different polarization states. We emphasize the value of both measurements, and we conclude that a new physics model which produces more right-handed than left-handed top quarks is favored by the present data.

  2. The discovery of quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    In the period following World War II, there was a rapid development of particle physics. With the construction of synchrotrons and the development of detector technology, many new particles were discovered and the systematics of their interactions investigated. The invention of the bubble chamber played an especially important role in uncovering the rich array of hadrons that were discovered in this period.In 1961 Murray Gell-Mann [1] and Yuval Ne'eman [2] independently introduced a classification scheme, based on SU(3) symmetry, which placed hadrons into families on the basis of spin and parity. Like the periodic table for the elements, this scheme was predictive as well as descriptive, and various hadrons, such as the - , were predicted within this framework and were later discovered.In 1964 Gell-Mann [3] and George Zweig [4] independently proposed quarks as the building blocks of hadrons as a way of generating the SU(3) classification scheme. When the quark model was first proposed, it postulated three types of quarks: up (u), down (d), and strange (s), with charges 2/3, - 1/3, and - 1/3 respectively. Each of these was hypothesized to be a spin1/2 particle. In this model the nucleon (and all other baryons) is made up of three quarks, and each meson consists of a quark and an antiquark. For example, as the proton and neutron both have ero strangeness, they are (u,u,d) and (d,d,u) systems respectively.

  3. Dual Ginzburg--Landau Theory and Quark Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, H.; Suganuma, H.; Fukushima, M.; Amemiya, K.; Tanaka, A.; Umisedo, S.; Sakai, T.

    1998-09-01

    The fundamental building blocks of matter are quarks. Hence, it is fundamental to describe hadrons and nuclei in terms of quarks and gluons, the subject of which is called Quark Nuclear Physics. The quark--gluon dynamics is described by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Our interest is the non-perturbative aspect of QCD as confinement, chiral symmetry breaking, hadronization ITALIC etc. We introduce the dual Ginzburg--Landau theory (DGL), where the color monopole fields and their condensation in the QCD vacuum, play essential roles in describing these non-perturbative phenomena. We apply the DGL theory to various observables. We discuss then the connection of the monopole fields with instantons, which are the classical solutions of the non-abelian gauge theory.

  4. Last orbits of binary strange quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Limousin, Francois; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Gondek-Rosinska, Dorota

    2005-03-15

    We present the first relativistic calculations of the final phase of inspiral of a binary system consisting of two stars built predominantly of strange quark matter (strange quark stars). We study the precoalescing stage within the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews approximation of general relativity using a multidomain spectral method. A hydrodynamical treatment is performed under the assumption that the flow is either rigidly rotating or irrotational, taking into account the finite density at the stellar surface--a distinctive feature with respect to the neutron star case. The gravitational-radiation driven evolution of the binary system is approximated by a sequence of quasiequilibrium configurations at fixed baryon number and decreasing separation. We find that the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) is given by an orbital instability both for synchronized and irrotational systems. This contrasts with neutron stars for which the ISCO is given by the mass-shedding limit in the irrotational case. The gravitational wave frequency at the ISCO, which marks the end of the inspiral phase, is found to be {approx}1400 Hz for two irrotational 1.35 M{sub {center_dot}} strange stars and for the MIT bag model of strange matter with massless quarks and a bag constant B=60 MeV fm{sup -3}. Detailed comparisons with binary neutrons star models, as well as with third order post-Newtonian point-mass binaries are given.

  5. The Quark's Model and Confinement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novozhilov, Yuri V.

    1977-01-01

    Quarks are elementary particles considered to be components of the proton, the neutron, and others. This article presents the quark model as a mathematical concept. Also discussed are gluons and bag models. A bibliography is included. (MA)

  6. Quark search at the CBA

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.C.; Leipuner, L.B.; Morse, W.M.; Adair, R.K.; Kasha, H.; Schmidt, M.P.

    1983-03-13

    An experiment to search for quarks at the CBA is described. The cross sections for the production of massive quark-antiquark pairs in nucleon-nucleon interactions is estimated, and the experimental design and procedures are described. (WHK)

  7. Heavy quark physics in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, G.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The most recent results which concern the heavy quark hadrons done in the CMS experiment are reported. The searching area spans over the heavy quark spectroscopy, production cross sections, beauty meson decay properties, rare decays, and CP violation.

  8. Heavy quarks and lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    2003-11-05

    This paper is a review of heavy quarks in lattice gauge theory, focusing on methodology. It includes a status report on some of the calculations that are relevant to heavy-quark spectroscopy and to flavor physics.

  9. Detecting heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Benenson, G.; Chau, L.L.; Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.E.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this exercise we examine the performance of a detector specifically configured to tag heavy quark (HQ) jets through direct observations of D-meson decays with a high resolution vertex detector. To optimize the performance of such a detector, we assume the small diamond beam crossing configuration as described in the 1978 ISABELLE proposal, giving a luminosity of 10/sup 32/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Because of the very large backgrounds from light quark (LQ) jets, most triggering schemes at this luminosity require high P/sub perpendicular to/ leptons and inevitably give missing neutrinos. If alternative triggering schemes could be found, then one can hope to find and calculate the mass of objects decaying to heavy quarks. A scheme using the high resolution detector will also be discussed in detail. The study was carried out with events generated by the ISAJET Monte Carlo and a computer simulation of the described detector system. (WHK)

  10. Physics with Polarized Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Lenisa, Paolo

    2008-04-30

    Polarized antiprotons will provide access to a wealth of double- (and single-) spin observables, thereby opening a window to physics uniquely accessible with the HESR at FAIR. This include a first direct measurement of the transversity distribution of the valence quarks in the proton and a first measurement of the moduli and phase of the time-like electric and magnetic form factors G{sub E,M} of the proton. Additional applications of a polarized antiproton beam can be forseen in hadron spectroscopy, and nucleon-antinucleon scattering.

  11. Diquark condensation effects on hot quark star configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztas, A.; Blaschke, D.; Fredriksson, S.; Grigorian, H.

    The equation of state for quark matter is derived for a nonlocal, chiral quark model within the mean field approximation. We investigate the effects of a variation of the form-factors of the interaction on the phase diagram of quark matter. Special emphasis is on the occurrence of a diquark condensate which signals a phase transition to color superconductivity and its effects on the equation of state under the condition of β- equilibrium and charge neutrality. We calculate the quark star configurations by solving the Tolman- Oppenheimer- Volkoff equations and obtain for the transition from a hot, normal quark matter core of a protoneutron star to a cool diquark condensed one a release of binding energy of the order of ΔMc2 ~ 1053 erg. We find that this energy could not serve as an engine for explosive phenomena since the phase transition is not first order. Contrary to naive expectations the mass defect increases when for a given temperature we neglect the possibility of diquark condensation.

  12. Diquark condensation effects on hot quark star configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, D.; Fredriksson, S.; Grigorian, H.; Öztasş, A. M.

    2004-05-01

    The equation of state for quark matter is derived for a nonlocal, chiral quark model within the mean field approximation. We investigate the effects of a variation of the formfactors of the interaction on the phase diagram of quark matter. Special emphasis is on the occurrence of a diquark condensate which signals a phase transition to color superconductivity and its effects on the equation of state under the condition of β-equilibrium and charge neutrality. We calculate the quark star configurations by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations and obtain for the transition from a hot, normal quark matter core of a protoneutron star to a cool diquark condensed one a release of binding energy of the order of ΔMc2~1053 erg. We find that this energy could not serve as an engine for explosive phenomena since the phase transition is not first order. Contrary to naive expectations the mass defect increases when for a given temperature we neglect the possibility of diquark condensation.

  13. Improving the Top Quark Forward-Backward Asymmetry Measurement at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Han, Zhenyu; /Harvard U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-15

    At the LHC, top quark pairs are dominantly produced from gluons, making it difficult to measure the top quark forward-backward asymmetry. To improve the asymmetry measurement, we study variables that can distinguish between top quarks produced from quarks and those from gluons: the invariant mass of the top pair, the rapidity of the top-antitop system in the lab frame, the rapidity of the top quark in the top-antitop rest frame, the top quark polarization and the top-antitop spin correlation. We combine all the variables in a likelihood discriminant method to separate quark-initiated events from gluon-initiated events. We apply our method on models including G-prime's and W-prime's motivated by the recent observation of a large top quark forward-backward asymmetry at the Tevatron. We have found that the significance of the asymmetry measurement can be improved by 10% to 30%. At the same time, the central values of the asymmetry increase by 40% to 100%. We have also analytically derived the best spin quantization axes for studying top quark polarization as well as spin-correlation for the new physics models.

  14. Clustering in a quark gas

    SciTech Connect

    Welke, G.M.; Heiss, W.D.

    1986-04-01

    In an infinite one-dimensional quark gas it is shown that a static color force, which increases at large distance, leads to a density fluctuation in the ground state. A self-consistent mean field can only be found for an effectively attractive quark-quark interaction that increases less than linearly at large distances. For a fixed coupling constant, the clustering disappears at high quark density.

  15. Heavy quarks and nuclei, or the charm & beauty of nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, D.

    1997-09-22

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following: why heavy quarks? Heavy quarkonium in QCD vacuum and in matter; Phenomenology of quarkonium production; Induced decay of QCD vacuum in heavy ion collisions? Implications for quarkonium production; and Outlook.

  16. Top quark physics: Future measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.; Vejcik, S.; Berger, E.L.

    1997-04-04

    The authors discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top`s large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. They emphasize measurements of the top quark`s mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  17. Top quark and electroweak results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra Leone

    2003-11-04

    In 2001 the Tevatron run II began, after a five year period of significant upgrade of the accelerator itself and of the experiments CDF and D0. After a detector commissioning run, the CDF experiment is now taking high quality data with all subsystems functional. We report in this talk the first preliminary CDF results on top quark and W/Z boson properties, based on run II data. The top quark, discovered in 1995 at the Tevatron, has proven to be a very interesting particle. Its properties allow to perform stringent tests of the Standard Model (SM) and to search for new physics through a deviation from SM predictions. We give here some expectations of what Tevatron run II will ultimately provide to our understanding of matter.

  18. Gluon polarization in the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Steven D.; Casey, Andrew; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2011-03-15

    We combine heavy-quark renormalization group arguments with our understanding of the nucleon's wave function to deduce a bound on the gluon polarization {Delta}g in the proton. The bound is consistent with the values extracted from spin experiments at COMPASS and RHIC.

  19. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  20. The quark-hadron transition in cosmology and astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Olive, K A

    1991-03-01

    A transition from normal hadronic matter (such as protons and neutrons) to quark-gluon matter is expected at both high temperatures and densities. In physical situations, this transition may occur in heavy ion collisions, the early universe, and in the cores of neutron stars. Astrophysics and cosmology can be greatly affected by such a phase transition. With regard to the early universe, big bang nucleosynthesis, the theory describing the primordial origin of the light elements, can be affected by inhomogeneities produced during the transition. A transition to quark matter in the interior by neutron stars further enhances our uncertainties regarding the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and neutron star properties such as the maximum mass and rotation frequencies.

  1. The quark-hadron transition in cosmology and astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Olive, K A

    1991-03-01

    A transition from normal hadronic matter (such as protons and neutrons) to quark-gluon matter is expected at both high temperatures and densities. In physical situations, this transition may occur in heavy ion collisions, the early universe, and in the cores of neutron stars. Astrophysics and cosmology can be greatly affected by such a phase transition. With regard to the early universe, big bang nucleosynthesis, the theory describing the primordial origin of the light elements, can be affected by inhomogeneities produced during the transition. A transition to quark matter in the interior by neutron stars further enhances our uncertainties regarding the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and neutron star properties such as the maximum mass and rotation frequencies. PMID:17799279

  2. Top Quark Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Martijn

    2016-10-01

    Ever since the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron collider in 1995 the measurement of its mass has been a high priority. As one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics, the precise value of the top quark mass together with other inputs provides a test for the self-consistency of the theory, and has consequences for the stability of the Higgs field that permeates the Universe. In this review I will briefly summarize the experimental techniques used at the Tevatron and the LHC experiments throughout the years to measure the top quark mass with ever improving accuracy, and highlight the recent progress in combining all measurements in a single world average combination. As experimental measurements became more precise, the question of their theoretical interpretation has become important. The difficulty of relating the measured quantity to the fundamental top mass parameter has inspired alternative measurement methods that extract the top mass in complementary ways. I will discuss the status of those techniques and their results, and present a brief outlook of further improvements in the experimental determination of the top quark mass to be expected at the LHC and beyond.

  3. Longitudinal polarization of hyperons in the forward region in polarized pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Wei; Zhou Shanshan; Xu Qinghua

    2010-03-01

    We study the longitudinal polarization of hyperons and antihyperons at forward pseudorapidity, 2.5<{eta}<4, in singly polarized pp collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies by using different parametrizations of the polarized parton densities and different models for the polarized fragmentation functions. The results show that the {Sigma}{sup +} polarization is able to distinguish different pictures on spin transfer in high energy fragmentation processes; and the polarization of {Lambda} and {Lambda} hyperons can provide sensitivity to the helicity distribution of strange sea quarks. The influence from beam remnant to hyperon polarization in the forward region is also discussed.

  4. Hot nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S.

    1992-11-01

    The goal in this thesis is thus twofold: The first is to investigate the feasibility of using heavy ion collisions to create conditions in the laboratory which are ripe for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. The second is to develop a technique for studying some of the many non-perturbative features of this novel phase of matter.

  5. Quark nuggets search using gravitational waves aluminum bar detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronga, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Up to now there is no evidence of supersymmetric WIMPS dark matter. This may suggests to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets. Nuclearites are an example of compact objects that could be constituent of the dark matter. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors NAUTILUS and EXPLORER is reported.

  6. Quark Neutron Layer Stars and the Cauchy Problem for Gott Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carinhas, Philip A.

    1994-01-01

    This work is the cumulation of two separate projects, the first being the development of quark-neutron layer stars and the quark parameter space that may characterize them. The second is a study of the Cauchy problem for a Gott two string spacetime. Typical nuclear equations of state and a quark bag model, surprisingly, allow compact stars with alternate layers of neutrons and quarks. One can determine on the basis of the Gibbs free energy which phase, nuclear or quark, is energetically favorable. Using the nuclear equation of state of Wiringa, and a quark equation of state given by Freedman and McLerran, the allowed quark parameter space for such layer stars is searched. Surprisingly configurations are found in which quark matter is located exterior and interior to shells of nuclear matter. Given the uncertainty in the quark parameter space, an estimate of the probability for finding pure neutron stars, pure quark stars (strange stars), stars with a quark core and a nucleon exterior, or layer stars is given. Several layer models are presented. The physical characteristics, stability, and results of a search of the quark parameter space are presented. Gott recently has constructed a spacetime modeled by two infinitely long, parallel cosmic strings which pass and gravitationally interact with each other. For large enough velocity, the spacetime will contain closed timelike curves. An explicit construction of the solution for a scalar field is presented in detail and a proof for the existence of such a solution is given for initial data satisfying conditions on an asymptotically null partial Cauchy surface. Projection maps and translation operators for the covering space are developed for the spacetime, and explicit expressions for the projection operator and the isometry group of the covering space are given. It is shown that the Gott spacetime defined is a quotient space of Minkowski space by the discrete isometry subgroup of self-equivalences of the projection map.

  7. Chromohydrodynamic approach to the unstable quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, Cristina; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2006-11-15

    We derive hydrodynamic-like equations that are applicable to short-time-scale color phenomena in the quark-gluon plasma. The equations are solved in the linear response approximation, and the gluon polarization tensor is derived. As an application, we study the collective modes in a two-stream system and find plasma instabilities when the fluid velocity is larger than the speed of sound in the plasma. The chromohydrodynamic approach, discussed here in detail, should be considered as simpler over other approaches and well-designed for numerical studies of the dynamics of an unstable quark-gluon plasma.

  8. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-07

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  9. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  10. Seismic search for strange quark nuggets

    SciTech Connect

    Herrin, Eugene T.; Rosenbaum, Doris C.; Teplitz, Vigdor L.

    2006-02-15

    Bounds on masses and abundances of Strange Quark Nuggets (SQNs) are inferred from a seismic search on Earth. Potential SQN bounds from a possible seismic search on the Moon are reviewed and compared with Earth capabilities. Bounds are derived from the data taken by seismometers implanted on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts. We show that the Apollo data implies that the abundance of SQNs in the region of 10 kg to 1 ton must be at least an order of magnitude less than would saturate the dark matter in the solar neighborhood.

  11. Identification of water-soluble polar organics in air and vehicular emitted particulate matter using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and Capillary electrophoresis - mass spectrometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Yassine, M.; Gebefugi, I.; Hertkorn, N.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, E.

    2009-04-01

    The effects of aerosols on human health, atmospheric chemistry, and climate are among the central topics in current environmental health research. Detailed and accurate measurements of the chemical composition of air particulate matter (PM) represent a challenging analytical task. Minute sample amounts are usually composed of several main constituents and hundreds of minor and trace constituents. Moreover, the composition of individual particles can be fairly uniform or very different (internally or externally mixed aerosols), depending on their origin and atmospheric aging processes (coagulation, condensation / evaporation, chemical reaction). The aim of the presentation was the characterization of the organic matter (OM) fraction of environmental aerosols which is not accessible by GC-methods, either because of their high molecular weight, their polarity or due to thermal instability. We also describe the main chemical characteristics of complexe oligomeric organic fraction extracted from different aerosols collected in urban and rural area in Germany and Canada. Mass spectrometry (MS) became an essential tool used by many prominent leaders of the biological research community and the importance of MS to the future of biological research is now clearly evident as in the fields of Proteomics and Metabolomics. Especially Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (ICR-FT/MS) is an ultrahigh resolution MS that allows new approach in the analysis of complex mixtures. The mass resolution (< 200 ppb) allowed assigning the elemental composition (C, H, O, N, S…) to each of the obtained mass peaks and thus already a description of the mixture in terms of molecular composition. This possibility is used by the authors together with a high resolution separation method of charged compounds: capillary electrophoresis. A CE-ESI-MS method using an ammonium acetate based background electrolyte (pH 4.7) was developed for the determination of isomeric benzoic acids in

  12. SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF QUARKS IN THE QUARK-GLUON PLASMA.

    SciTech Connect

    KARSCH,F.; KITAZAWA, M.

    2007-07-30

    We analyze the spectral properties of the quark propagator above the critical temperature for the deconfinement phase transition in quenched lattice QCD using clover improved Wilson fermions. The bare quark mass dependence of the quark spectral function is analyzed by varying the hopping parameter {kappa} in Landau gauge. We assume a two-pole structure for the quark spectral function, which is numerically found to work quite well for any value of {kappa}. It is shown that in the chiral limit the quark spectral function has two collective modes that correspond to the normal and plasmino excitations, while it is dominated by a single-pole structure when the bare quark mass becomes large.

  13. Gluino polarization at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Kraemer, M.; Popenda, E.; Spira, M.; Zerwas, P. M.

    2009-09-01

    Gluinos are produced pairwise at the LHC in quark-antiquark and gluon-gluon collisions: qq, gg{yields}g-tildeg-tilde. While the individual polarization of gluinos vanishes in the limit in which the small mass difference between L and R squarks of the first two generations is neglected, nonzero spin-spin correlations are predicted within gluino pairs. If the squark/quark charges in Majorana gluino decays are tagged, the spin correlations have an impact on the energy and angular distributions in reconstructed final states. On the other hand, the gluino polarization in single gluino production in the supersymmetric Compton process gq{yields}g-tildeq-tilde{sub R,L} is predicted to be nonzero, and the polarization affects the final-state distributions in super-Compton events.

  14. My Life with Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glashow, Sheldon Lee

    2015-03-01

    This is a personal, anecdotal and autobiographical account of my early endeavors in particle physics, emphasizing how they interwove with the conception and eventual acceptance of the quark hypothesis. I focus on the years from 1958, when my doctoral work at Harvard was completed, to 1970, when John Iliopoulos, Luciano Maiani and I introduced the GIM mechanism, thereby extending the electroweak model to include all known particles, and some that were not then known. I have not described the profound advances in quantum field theory and the many difficult and ingenious experimental efforts that undergird my story which is not intended to be an inclusive record of this exciting decade of my discipline. My tale begins almost two years before I met Murray and over five years before the invention of quarks...

  15. Exotic decays of heavy B quarks

    DOE PAGES

    Fox, Patrick J.; Tucker-Smith, David

    2016-01-08

    Heavy vector-like quarks of charge –1/3, B, have been searched for at the LHC through the decays B → bZ, bh, tW. In models where the B quark also carries charge under a new gauge group, new decay channels may dominate. We focus on the case where the B is charged under a U(1)' and describe simple models where the dominant decay mode is B → bZ' → b(bb¯¯). With the inclusion of dark matter such models can explain the excess of gamma rays from the Galactic center. We develop a search strategy for this decay chain and estimate thatmore » with integrated luminosity of 300 fb–1 the LHC will have the potential to discover both the B and the Z' for B quarks with mass below ~ 1.6 TeV, for a broad range of Z' masses. Furthermore, a high-luminosity run can extend this reach to 2 TeV.« less

  16. All Aboard! The Polar Express Is Traveling to Science--Understanding the States of Matter While Differentiating Instruction for Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vowell, Julie; Phillips, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This standards-based science lesson introduces young learners to scientific inquiry and critical thinking by using activities to demonstrate three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). By learning about the states of matter through a 5E instructional approach, students are encouraged to observe changes in the states of matter and to discuss…

  17. Transversity quark distributions in a covariant quark-diquark model

    SciTech Connect

    I.C. Cloet; W. Bentz; A.W. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Transversity quark light-cone momentum distributions are calculated for the nucleon. We utilize a modified Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model in which confinement is simulated by eliminating unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks. The nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the relativistic Faddeev equation in the quark-diquark approximation, where both scalar and axial-vector diquark channels are included. Particular attention is paid to comparing our results with the recent experimental extraction of the transversity distributions by Anselmino et al. We also compare our transversity results with earlier spin-independent and helicity quark distributions calculated in the same approach.

  18. Heavy Quark Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.

    2010-07-09

    Heavy hadrons containing heavy quarks (for example, {Upsilon} mesons) feature a scale separation between the heavy-quark mass and the QCD scale that controls the effective masses of lighter constituents. As in ordinary molecules, the deexcitation of the lighter, faster degrees of freedom leaves the velocity distribution of the heavy quarks unchanged, populating the available decay channels in qualitatively predictable ways. Automatically an application of the Franck-Condon principle of molecular physics explains several puzzling results of {Upsilon}(5S) decays as measured by the Belle Collaboration, such as the high rate of B{sub s}*B{sub s}* versus B{sub s}*B{sub s} production, the strength of three-body B{sup *}B{pi} decays, or the dip in B momentum shown in these decays. We argue that the data show the first Sturm-Liouville zero of the {Upsilon}(5S) quantum-mechanical squared wave function and provide evidence for a largely bb composition of this meson.

  19. The Cosmology of Composite Inelastic Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Spier Moreira Alves, Daniele; Behbahani, Siavosh R.; Schuster, Philip; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Composite dark matter is a natural setting for implementing inelastic dark matter - the O(100 keV) mass splitting arises from spin-spin interactions of constituent fermions. In models where the constituents are charged under an axial U(1) gauge symmetry that also couples to the Standard Model quarks, dark matter scatters inelastically off Standard Model nuclei and can explain the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal. This article describes the early Universe cosmology of a minimal implementation of a composite inelastic dark matter model where the dark matter is a meson composed of a light and a heavy quark. The synthesis of the constituent quarks into dark hadrons results in several qualitatively different configurations of the resulting dark matter composition depending on the relative mass scales in the system.

  20. The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1987-01-01

    After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.

  1. Using the Moon as a Strange Quark Nugget Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrin, Eugene T.; Rosenbaum, Doris C.; Teplitz, Vigdor L.

    2007-11-01

    We review the romance and mystery of strange quark matter (SQM), including: its basics, our recent work on bounds on the abundance of ton-range strange quark nuggets (SQNs) from Earth seismology, potential SQN bounds from a possible seismic search on the Moon, and our recent bounds on SQNs in the 10 kilogram to ton range from the data of Apollo-implanted seismometers. Finally, we speculate a bit on using the sun or the solar system to detect passage of SQNs of much greater mass than the aforementioned.

  2. Phenomenology of heavy quark systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.

    1987-03-01

    The spectroscopy of heavy quark systems is examined with regards to spin independent and spin dependent potentials. It is shown that a qualitative picture exists of the spin-independent forces, and that a semi-quantitative understanding exists for the spin-dependent effects. A brief review is then given of the subject of the decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks, including weak decays at the quark level, and describing corrections to the spectator model. (LEW)

  3. Excitation rates of heavy quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, C. A.; Santangelo, E. M.; Ducati, M. B.

    1985-06-01

    We obtain the production rates for c, b, and t quarks in deep-inelastic neutrino- (antineutrino-) nucleon interactions, in the standard six-quark model with left-handed couplings. The results are obtained with the most recent mixing parameters and we include a comparison between quark parametrizations. The excitations are calculated separately for each flavor, allowing the understanding of the role of threshold effects when considered through different rescaling variables.

  4. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinori, Federico; Bass, Steffen A.; Bellwied, Rene; Ullrich, Thomas; Velkovska, Julia; Wiedemann, Urs

    2005-04-01

    Why another conference devoted to ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics? As we looked around the landscape of the existing international conferences and workshops, we realized that there was not a single one tailored to the people who are most directly involved with the actual research work: students, post-docs, and junior faculty/research scientists. Of course there are schools, but that was not what we had in mind. We wanted a meeting where young researchers could come together to discuss in depth the physics that they are working on without any hindrance. The major conferences have very limited time for discussions which is often shared amongst the most established. This leaves little room for young people to ask their questions and to get the detailed feedback which they deserve and which satisfies their curiosity. A discussion-driven workshop, centering on those without whom there will be no future—that seemed like what was needed. And thus the Hot Quarks workshop was born. The aim of Hot Quarks was to enhance the direct exchange of scientific information among the younger members of the community, from both experiment and theory. Participation was by invitation only in order to emphasize the contributions from junior researchers. This approach makes the workshop unique among the many forums in the field. For young scientists it represented an opportunity for exposure that they would not have had in one of the major conferences. The hope is that this meeting has helped to stimulate the next generation of scientists in our field and, at the same time, strengthened their sense of community. It all came together from 18 24 July 2004, when the 77 participants met at The Inn at Snakedance in the Taos Ski Valley, New Mexico, USA, for the first Hot Quarks workshop. Photograph Participants gather in the sunshine at the foot of the Taos Ski Valley chairlift. By all accounts, Hot Quarks 2004 was a great success. Every participant had the opportunity to present her or

  5. Top quark physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Potamianos, Karolos

    2011-12-01

    We present the recent results of top-quark physics using up to 6 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions analyzed by the CDF collaboration. The large number of top quark events analyzed, of the order of several thousands, allows stringent checks of the standard model predictions. Also, the top quark is widely believed to be a window to new physics. We present the latest measurements of top quark intrinsic properties as well as direct searches for new physics in the top sector.

  6. Dense neutron star matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J. R.

    2014-05-02

    The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been a subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has lead to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. However, there remains great uncertainty in these models, which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high-density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfill basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics.

  7. Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.

  8. A matter of symmetry: terahertz polarization detection properties of a multi-contact photoconductive antenna evaluated by a response matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Gudrun; Funkner, Stefan; Bulgarevich, Dmitry S; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Furuya, Takashi; Yamamoto, Koji; Shiwa, Mitsuharu; Tani, Masahiko

    2015-06-15

    While terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a well-established technique, polarization sensitive measurements are challenging due to the need of broadband polarization devices. Here, we characterize our recently introduced multi-contact photoconductive detector antenna with a response matrix analysis. We show that the lead lines attached to electrodes reduce the antenna symmetry and thereby influence the properties of the response matrices. With a wire grid polarizer, we simulate a sample influencing the polarization angle and the intensity of the incident THz pulse. Evaluating the measurements with the response matrix analysis, our results show a well agreement of the adjusted and measured polarization angles and intensities over a frequency range from 0.25 to 0.8 THz.

  9. The Discovery of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1995-12-01

    The top quark and the Higgs boson are the heaviest elementary particles predicted by the standard model. The four lightest quark flavours, the up, down, strange and charm quarks, were well-established by the mid-1970's. The discovery in 1977 of the {Tau} resonances, a new family of massive hadrons, required the introduction of the fifth quark flavour. Experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that this quark also has a heavier partner, the top quark.

  10. Differences between heavy and light quarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Maris, P.; Roberts, C. D.

    1997-11-10

    The quark Dyson-Schwinger equation shows that there are distinct differences between light and heavy quarks. The dynamical mass function of the light quarks is characterized by a sharp increase below 1 GeV, whereas the mass function of the heavy quarks is approximately constant in this infrared region. As a consequence, the heavy meson masses increase linearly with the current quark masses, whereas the light pseudoscalar meson masses are proportional to the square root of the current quark masses.

  11. Adler function and hadronic contribution to the muon g-2 in a nonlocal chiral quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Dorokhov, Alexander E.

    2004-11-01

    The behavior of the vector Adler function at spacelike momenta is studied in the framework of a covariant chiral quark model with instantonlike quark-quark interaction. This function describes the transition between the high-energy asymptotically free region of almost massless current quarks to the low-energy hadronized regime with massive constituent quarks. The model reproduces the Adler function and V-A correlator extracted from the ALEPH and OPAL data on hadronic {tau} lepton decays, transformed into the Euclidean domain via dispersion relations. The leading order contribution from the hadronic part of the photon vacuum polarization to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, a{sub {mu}}{sup hvp(1)}, is estimated.

  12. Scalar top quark as the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Chih-Lung; Peskin, Michael E.

    2000-03-01

    We study phenomenologically the scenario in which the scalar top quark is lighter than any other standard supersymmetric partner and also lighter than the top quark, so that it decays to the gravitino via t(tilde sign){yields}W{sup +}bG(tilde sign). In this case, scalar top quark events would seem to be very difficult to separate from top quark pair production. However, we show that, even at a hadron collider, it is possible to distinguish these two reactions. We show also that the longitudinal polarization of the final W{sup +} gives insight into the scalar top quark and W-ino-Higgsino mixing parameters. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  13. Cold dark matter and the cosmic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Bikash

    2016-01-01

    It is entirely plausible that during the primordial quark- hadron phase transition in the universe, microseconds after the Big Bang, supercooling takes place, accompanied by miniinflation. With µ/T ∼ 1 (µ is chemical potential), leading to a first order phase transition from quarks to hadrons; there will be relics in the form of quark nuggets, and, that they consist of Strange Quark Matter. The possibility that these SQM nuggets may well be the candidates of cold dark matter is critically examined. A cursory comparison with the neutron star is presented at the end.

  14. Spin Measurement in Top Quark Events at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Linacre, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of polarisation and spin correlations are presented in events with top quarks produced in pp collisions at the LHC. The data correspond to integrated luminosities of $5 fb^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and 20 $fb^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV collected with the ATLAS and CMS detectors. The top quark polarization is measured in both single top quark production in the t-channel and $t\\bar{t}$ pair-production, from the angular distributions of charged leptons in the rest frame of their parent top quark. The spin correlations are measured in $t\\bar{t}$ events using various angular distributions of the decay products. The measurements are made using both template fitting methods and by unfolding the distributions to the parton-level, where differential measurements with respect to the invariant mass, rapidity, and transverse momentum of the $t\\bar{t}$ system are also made. The spin correlation measurements are used to search for new physics in the form of a light top squark or an anomalous top quark chromo-magnetic dipole moment. All measurements are found to be in agreement with predictions of the standard model.

  15. Magnetic moments of octet baryons and sea antiquark polarizations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    Using generalized Sehgal equations for magnetic moments of baryon octet and taking into account {sigma}{sup 0}-{lambda} mixing and two particle corrections to independent quark contributions we obtain very good fit using experimental values for errors of such moments. We present sum rules for quark magnetic moments ratios and for integrated spin densities ratios. Because of the SU(3) structure of our equations the results for magnetic moments of quarks and their densities depend on two additional parameters. Using information from deep inelastic scattering and baryon {beta}-decays we discuss the dependence of antiquark polarizations on introduced parameters. For some plausible values of these parameters we show that these polarizations are small if we neglect angular momenta of quarks. Our very good fit to magnetic moments of baryon octet can still be improved by using specific model for angular momentum of quarks.

  16. Bottom quark mass from {Upsilon} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The bottom quark pole mass M{sub b} is determined using a sum rule which relates the masses and the electronic decay widths of the {Upsilon} mesons to large {ital n} moments of the vacuum polarization function calculated from nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics. The complete set of next-to-next-to-leading order [i.e., O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2},{alpha}{sub s}v,v{sup 2}) where v is the bottom quark c.m. velocity] corrections is calculated and leads to a considerable reduction of theoretical uncertainties compared to a pure next-to-leading order analysis. However, the theoretical uncertainties remain much larger than the experimental ones. For a two parameter fit for M{sub b}, and the strong M{bar S} coupling {alpha}{sub s}, and using the scanning method to estimate theoretical uncertainties, the next-to-next-to-leading order analysis yields 4.74 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.87 GeV and 0.096{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.124 if experimental uncertainties are included at the 95{percent} confidence level and if two-loop running for {alpha}{sub s} is employed. M{sub b} and {alpha}{sub s} have a sizable positive correlation. For the running M{bar S} bottom quark mass this leads to 4.09 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.32 GeV. If {alpha}{sub s} is taken as an input, the result for the bottom quark pole mass reads 4.78 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.98 GeVthinsp[4.08 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.28 GeV] for 0.114{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.122. The discrepancies between the results of three previous analyses on the same subject by Voloshin, Jamin, and Pich and K{umlt u}hn {ital et al.} are clarified. A comprehensive review on the calculation of the heavy-quark{endash}antiquark pair production cross section through a vector current at next-to-next-to leading order in the nonrelativistic expansion is presented. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Taste changing in staggered quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Quentin Mason et al.

    2004-01-05

    The authors present results from a systematic perturbative investigation of taste-changing in improved staggered quarks. They show one-loop taste-changing interactions can be removed perturbatively by an effective four-quark term and calculate the necessary coefficients.

  18. Top quark physics: Future Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Raymond; Gerdes, David; Jaros, John; Vejcik, Steve; Berger, Edmond L.; Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Cuypers, Frank; Drell, Persis S.; Fero, Michael; Hadley, Nicholas; Han, Tao; Heinson, Ann P.; Knuteson, Bruce; Larios, Francisco; Miettinen, Hannu; Orr, Lynne H.; Peskin, Michael E.; Rizzo, Thomas; Sarid, Uri; Schmidt, Carl; Stelzer, Tim; Sullivan, Zack

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top's large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. We emphasize measurements of the top quark's mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  19. Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) "CRover", which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0, it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M_{odot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M_{odot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated.

  20. Nucleon structure functions and longitudinal spin asymmetries in the chiral quark constituent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, Harleen; Randhawa, Monika

    2016-06-01

    We have analyzed the phenomenological dependence of the spin independent (F1p ,n and F2p ,n) and the spin dependent (g1p ,n) structure functions of the nucleon on the Bjorken scaling variable x using the unpolarized distribution functions of the quarks q (x ) and the polarized distribution functions of the quarks Δ q (x ) respectively. The chiral constituent quark model, which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin crisis and related issues in the nonperturbative regime, has been used to compute explicitly the valence and sea quark flavor distribution functions of p and n . In light of the improved precision of the world data, the p and n longitudinal spin asymmetries [A1p(x ) and A1n(x )] have been calculated. The implication of the presence of the sea quarks has been discussed for the ratio of polarized to unpolarized quark distribution functions for up and down quarks in the p and n Δ/up(x ) up(x ) , Δ/dp(x ) dp(x ) , Δ/un(x ) un(x ) , and Δ/dn(x ) dn(x ) . The ratio of the n and p structure functions Rn p(x )=F/2n(x ) F2p(x ) has also been presented. The results have been compared with the recent available experimental observations. The results on the spin sum rule have also been included and compared with data and other recent approaches.

  1. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. Cerrito

    2004-07-16

    Preliminary results on the measurement of the top quark mass at the Tevatron Collider are presented. In the dilepton decay channel, the CDF Collaboration measures m{sub t} = 175.0{sub -16.9}{sup +17.4}(stat.){+-}8.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 126 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV (Run II). In the lepton plus jets channel, the CDF Collaboration measures 177.5{sub -9.4}{sup +12.7}(stat.) {+-} 7.1(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 102 pb{sup -1} at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The D0 Collaboration has newly applied a likelihood technique to improve the analysis of {approx} 125 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV (Run I), with the result: m{sub t} = 180.1 {+-} 3.6(stat.) {+-}3.9(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}. The latter is combined with all the measurements based on the data collected in Run I to yield the most recent and comprehensive experimental determination of the top quark mass: m{sub t} = 178.0 {+-} 2.7(stat.) {+-} 3.3(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  2. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Polarized spin transport in mesoscopic quantum rings with electron-phonon and Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping; Xiong, Shi-Jie

    2009-12-01

    The influence of electron-phonon (EP) scattering on spin polarization of current output from a mesoscopic ring with Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interaction is numerically investigated. There are three leads connecting to the ring at different positions; unpolarized current is injected to one of them, and the other two are output channels with different bias voltages. The spin polarization of current in the outgoing leads shows oscillations as a function of EP coupling strength owing to the quantum interference of EP states in the ring region. As temperature increases, the oscillations are evidently suppressed, implying decoherence of the EP states. The simulation shows that the magnitude of polarized current is sensitive to the location of the lead. The polarized current depends on the connecting position of the lead in a complicated way due to the spin-sensitive quantum interference effects caused by different phases accumulated by transmitting electrons with opposite spin states along different paths.

  3. RX J1856.5-3754: A Strange Star with Solid Quark Surface?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Renxin; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2003-01-01

    The featureless spectra of isolated 'neutron stars' may indicate that they are actually bare strange stars but a definitive conclusion on the nature of the compact objects cannot be reached until accurate and theoretically calculated spectra of the bare quark surface are known. However due to the complex nonlinearity of quantum chromodynamics it is almost impossible to present a definitive and accurate calculation of the density-dominated quark-gluon plasma from the first principles. Nevertheless it was suggested that cold quark matter with extremely high baryon density could be in a solid state. Within the realms of this possibility we have fitted the 500ks Chandra LETG/HRC data for the brightest isolated neutron star RX 51856.5-3754 with a phenomenological spectral model and found that electric conductivity of quark matter on the stellar surface is about 1.5 x 10(exp 16)/s.

  4. Explore the possibility of accelerating polarized He-3 beam in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bai M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.

    2012-05-20

    As the world's first high energy polarized proton collider, RHIC has made significant progresses in measuring the proton spin structure in the past decade. In order to have better understanding of the contribution of up quarks and down quarks to the proton spin structure, collisions of high energy polarized neutron beams are required. Polarized He-3 beams offer an effectiveway to provide polarized neutron beams. In this paper, we present studies of accelerating polarized He-3 in RHIC with the current dual snake configuration. Possibilities of adding two more pairs of snakes for accelerating polarized He-3 were explored. Results of six snake configuration in RHIC are also reported in the paper.

  5. Shock wave produced by hadron-quark phase transition in neutron star

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavo de Almeida, Luis; Duarte, Sérgio José Barbosa; Rodrigues, Hilário

    2015-12-17

    In this work we present a schematic description of the detonation wave in hadronic matter inside a neutron star core. We have used a simplified two shells model where the inner shell medium is initially composed of a small lump of strange quark matter surrounded by a large outer shell composed of hadronic matter. We have utilized an equation of state (EOS) based on Relativistic Mean Field Theory with the parameter set NL3 to describe the nuclear and subnuclear phases. We use the MIT bag model to describe the strange quark matter. The hadron-quark phase transition actually induces highly non equilibrium modes, which may become a detonation process (faster) or a burning process (slower). The main purpose of the work is to study the formation of a remnant quark star and the possibility of mass ejection caused by the hadron-quark phase transition. We have found that the total amount of ejected mass is dependant of the bag constant utilized in the strange matter description.

  6. Polarized Parton Distributions and the Polarized Gluon Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Gordon P.

    The flavor-dependent valence, sea quark and antiquark spin distributions can be determined separately from theoretical assumptions and experimental data. We have determined the valence distributions using the Bjorken sum rule and have extracted polarized sea distributions, assuming that the quarks and anti-quarks for each flavor are symmetric. Other experiments have been proposed which will allow us to completely break the SU(3) symmetry of the sea flavors. To create a physical model for the polarized gluons, we investigate the gluon spin asymmetry in a proton, AG(x, Q2) = (Δ G(x, Q2))/(G(x, Q2)). By assuming that htis is is approximately Q2 invariant, we can completely determine the x-dependence of this asymmetry, which satisfies constituent counting rules and reproduces the basic results of the Bremsstrahlung model originated by Close and Sivers. This asymmetry can be combined with the measured unpolarized gluon density, G(x,Q2) to provide a prediction for Δ G(x,Q2). Existing and proposed experiments can test both the prediction of scale-invariance for AG(x,Q2) and the nature of Δ G itself. These models will be discussed along with suggestions for specific experiments which can be performed at energies typical of HERA, RHIC and LHC to determine the nature of these polarized distributions.

  7. Heavy quark diffusion with relativistic Langevin dynamics in the quark-gluon fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Akamatsu, Yukinao; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2009-05-15

    The relativistic diffusion process of heavy quarks is formulated on the basis of the relativistic Langevin equation in Ito discretization scheme. The drag force inside the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is parametrized according to the formula for the strongly coupled plasma obtained by the anti-de-Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. The diffusion dynamics of charm and bottom quarks in QGP is described by combining the Langevin simulation under the background matter described by the relativistic hydrodynamics. Theoretical calculations of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} and the elliptic flow v{sub 2} for the single electrons from the charm and bottom decays are compared with the experimental data from the relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The R{sub AA} for electrons with large transverse momentum (p{sub T}>3 GeV) indicates that the drag force from the QGP is as strong as the AdS/CFT prediction.

  8. Physics results from polarized DIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, G. P.

    1998-03-23

    We have extracted polarized nucleon distributions from recent data at CERN, SLAC and DESY. The flavor-dependent valence and sea quark spin distributions are determined for each experiment. We take into account possible differences in the up and down sea distributions, and assume that the strange sea contribution is suppressed by mass effects. Physics results determined from different experiments are compared, including higher order corrections.

  9. Quark Magnetar in Confined Isospin- and Density-dependent Mass Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.; Chen, L. W.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    Within confined isospin- and density-dependent mass model, we study the equation of state(EOS) for the strange quark matter (SQM) and quark stars (QSs) under density-dependent magneticfields. The EOS of SQM is obtained self-consistently under a strong magnetic field, and thetransverse pressure which is perpendicular to the magnetic field is proved to be larger than thelongitudinal pressure that is parallel to the magnetic field. Our results indicate that the maximummass of quark magnetars can significantly increase (decrease) when the transverse (radial) magneticfield orientation is considered.

  10. Polarization of partons in the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayakawa, K.; Morii, T. ); Tanaka, S. ); Yamanishi, T. )

    1992-10-01

    The spin-dependent distribution functions of quarks and gluons in a proton are studied so as to explain the European Muon Collaboration {ital g}{sub 1}{sup {ital p}}({ital x}) data by introducing a new model, in which characteristics of both the static quark and the quark-parton model are taken into account. The {ital x} dependence of {ital g}{sub 1}{sup {ital p}}({ital x}) is reproduced well. It is shown that polarized gluons through the anomaly play a significant role and the resultant sum of quark spin is 0.375. Furthermore, {ital g}{sub 1}{sup {ital n}}({ital x}) as well as {ital g}{sub 1}{sup {ital p}}({ital x}) is predicted for future experiments.

  11. Tests of QCD with polarized electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel, T.J.; SLD Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present three measurements that exploit the highly-polarized incident electrons of the SLC facility to probe QCD and the hadronization process. We observe preliminary evidence for leading particle production in hadronic decays of the Zo to light-quark pairs. In a high-purity sample of quark jets, the momentum spectra of p, A0, and K(-) are harder than those of p(bar), A(bar)0, and K(+), supporting the hypothesis that faster particles in jets are more likely to carry the primary quark or antiquark of the jet. Second, we present an improved limit on jet handedness, which seeks to measure the transport of quark spin through the hadronization process. Finally, we search for a correlation of the three jet event orientation with the Zo spin direction, which would indicate new physics beyond the Standard model.

  12. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sinervo, P.K.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag {ital b} quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and D{null} collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  13. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  14. Top quark production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Moed, Shulamit; /Harvard U.

    2010-01-01

    The large data samples of top quark candidate events collected at the Tevatron CDF II experiment allow for a variety of measurements to analyze the production of the top quark. This article discusses recent results of top quark production at CDF presented at the SUSY09 conference, including updates to the top pair production cross section, forward-backward asymmetry in t{bar t} production, single top search, search for top resonances and a search for heavy top. The discussed measurements utilize up to 3.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at CDF.

  15. Ideal quarks and mesons in the relativistic quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, K. )

    1994-05-01

    We propose a microscopic theory for interacting mesons and ideal quarks in the relativistic quark model using the time-dependent mean-field theory technique. For simplicity we examined the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. The dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking leads to a zero-frequency mode (pion) due to the restoration of chiral symmetry. The ideal quarks are represented as dressed particles independent of mean fields, and do not have the conventional properties of fermions. This is due to the constraints of eliminating the double counting of degrees of freedom between the mean fields and quarks. The small fluctuation around the static solution is then investigated. The pseudoscalar and scalar mesons are represented as the collective modes of the mean fields.

  16. Heavy quarks and CP: Moriond 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-03-01

    The presentations at the Fifth Moriond Workshop on Heavy Quarks, Flavor Mixing, and CP Violation (La Plagne, France, January 13-19, 1985) are summarized. The following topics are reviewed. What's New (beyond the top, top quarks, bottom quarks, charm quarks, strange quarks, and others); why is all this being done (strong interactions and hadron structure, and electroweak properties); and what next (facilities and can one see CP violation in the B-anti B system). 64 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Opportunities for Polarized He-3 in RHIC and EIC

    SciTech Connect

    Aschenauer E.; Deshpande, A.; Fischer, W.; Derbenev, S.; Milner, R.; Roser, T.; Zelenski, A.

    2011-10-01

    The workshop on opportunities for polarized He-3 in RHIC and EIC was targeted at finding practical ways of implementing and using polarized He-3 beams. Polarized He-3 beams will provide the unique opportunity for first measurements, i.e, to a full quark flavor separation measuring single spin asymmetries for p{sup +}, p{sup -} and p{sup 0} in hadron-hadron collisions. In electron ion collisions the combination of data recorded with polarized electron proton/He-3 beams allows to determine the quark flavor separated helicity and transverse momentum distributions. The workshop had sessions on polarized He-3 sources, the physics of colliding polarized He-3 beams, polarimetry, and beam acceleration in the AGS Booster, AGS, RHIC, and ELIC. The material presented at the workshop will allow making plans for the implementation of polarized He-3 beams in RHIC.

  18. Tests of quark mass textures

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-21

    The classic hints on the structure of the quark mass matrices are shortly reviewed and the possibility of obtaining further information through precise texture analysis is discussed with the aid of a specific example.

  19. Quark stars in strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Lie-Wen; Wang, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Within the confined isospin- and density-dependent mass model, we study the properties of strange quark matter (SQM) and quark stars (QSs) in strong magnetic fields. The equation of state of SQM under a constant magnetic field is obtained self-consistently and the pressure perpendicular to the magnetic field is shown to be larger than that parallel to the magnetic field, implying that the properties of magnetized QSs generally depend on both the strength and the orientation of the magnetic fields distributed inside the stars. Using a density-dependent magnetic field profile which is introduced to mimic the magnetic field strength distribution in a star, we study the properties of static spherical QSs by assuming two extreme cases for the magnetic field orientation in the stars, i.e., the radial orientation in which the local magnetic fields are along the radial direction, and the transverse orientation in which the local magnetic fields are randomly oriented but perpendicular to the radial direction. Our results indicate that including the magnetic fields with radial (transverse) orientation can significantly decrease (increase) the maximum mass of QSs, demonstrating the importance of the magnetic field orientation inside the magnetized compact stars.

  20. Dark Matter, the MCSSM and lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Giedt, Anthony Thomas, Ross Young

    2009-11-01

    Recent lattice measurements have given accurate estimates of the quark condensates in the proton. We use these results to significantly improve the dark matter predictions in benchmark models within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. The predicted spin-independent cross sections are at least an order of magnitude smaller than previously suggested and our results have significant consequences for dark matter searches.

  1. Strongly interacting parton matter equilibration

    SciTech Connect

    Ozvenchuk, V.; Linnyk, O.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Gorenstein, M.; Cassing, W.

    2012-07-15

    We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different energy densities. Particle abundances, kinetic energy distributions, and the detailed balance of the off-shell quarks and gluons in the strongly-interacting quarkgluon plasma are addressed and discussed.

  2. Deconfinement and virtual quark loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelik, T.; Engels, J.; Satz, H.

    1983-12-01

    We calculate paer Monte Carlo evaluation on an 83 × 3 lattice the energy density ɛG of the gluon sector of QCD, including virtual quark loops up to the fourth power in the hopping parameter expansion. For light quarks of one flavour, we observe at T/ΛL 95 +/- 10 a rapid variation of ɛG in T, accompanied by strong fluctuations from iteration to iteration. as clear signal of the deconfinement transition.

  3. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation.

  4. Development on dynamic nuclear polarized targets.

    SciTech Connect

    Penttila, S. I.

    2002-01-01

    Our interest in understanding the spin content of the nucleon has left its marks on the recent development, of the dynamic nuclear polarized (DNP) targets. This can be seen from the targets developed at CERN and SLAC for the measurement of the polarized spin structure functions in deep inelastic scattering. The results of the experiments indicated that less than 30% of the nucleon spin is carried by the quarks. This unpredicted small value initiated planning of new polarized target experiments to determine the gluon polarization on the nucleon using polarized real photons and polarized 'LiD targets. In several facilities very intense polarized photon beams are available at a wide energy range. During the next few years these photon beanis with DNP targets will be used to test the fundamental GDH sum rule. Other DNP target developments are also discussed.

  5. Cross-Polarized Magic-Angle Spinning (sup13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Characterization of Soil Organic Matter Relative to Culturable Bacterial Species Composition and Sustained Biological Control of Pythium Root Rot.

    PubMed

    Boehm, M J; Wu, T; Stone, A G; Kraakman, B; Iannotti, D A; Wilson, G E; Madden, L V; Hoitink, H

    1997-01-01

    We report the use of a model system that examines the dynamics of biological energy availability in organic matter in a sphagnum peat potting mix critical to sustenance of microorganism-mediated biological control of pythium root rot, a soilborne plant disease caused by Pythium ultimum. The concentration of readily degradable carbohydrate in the peat, mostly present as cellulose, was characterized by cross-polarized magic-angle spinning (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A decrease in the carbohydrate concentration in the mix was observed during the initial 10 weeks after potting as the rate of hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate declined below a critical threshold level required for biological control of pythium root rot. Throughout this period, total microbial biomass and activity, based on rates of [(sup14)C]acetate incorporation into phospholipids, did not change but shifts in culturable bacterial species composition occurred. Species capable of inducing biocontrol were succeeded by pleomorphic gram-positive genera and putative oligotrophs not or less effective in control. We conclude that sustained efficacy of naturally occurring biocontrol agents was limited by energy availability to this microflora within the organic matter contained in the potting mix. We propose that this critical role of organic matter may be a key factor explaining the variability in efficacy typically encountered in the control of pythium root rot with biocontrol agents. PMID:16535481

  6. Cross-Polarized Magic-Angle Spinning (sup13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Characterization of Soil Organic Matter Relative to Culturable Bacterial Species Composition and Sustained Biological Control of Pythium Root Rot

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, M. J.; Wu, T.; Stone, A. G.; Kraakman, B.; Iannotti, D. A.; Wilson, G. E.; Madden, L. V.; Hoitink, H.

    1997-01-01

    We report the use of a model system that examines the dynamics of biological energy availability in organic matter in a sphagnum peat potting mix critical to sustenance of microorganism-mediated biological control of pythium root rot, a soilborne plant disease caused by Pythium ultimum. The concentration of readily degradable carbohydrate in the peat, mostly present as cellulose, was characterized by cross-polarized magic-angle spinning (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A decrease in the carbohydrate concentration in the mix was observed during the initial 10 weeks after potting as the rate of hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate declined below a critical threshold level required for biological control of pythium root rot. Throughout this period, total microbial biomass and activity, based on rates of [(sup14)C]acetate incorporation into phospholipids, did not change but shifts in culturable bacterial species composition occurred. Species capable of inducing biocontrol were succeeded by pleomorphic gram-positive genera and putative oligotrophs not or less effective in control. We conclude that sustained efficacy of naturally occurring biocontrol agents was limited by energy availability to this microflora within the organic matter contained in the potting mix. We propose that this critical role of organic matter may be a key factor explaining the variability in efficacy typically encountered in the control of pythium root rot with biocontrol agents. PMID:16535481

  7. Probing the hadron-quark mixed phase at high isospin and baryon density. Sensitive observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Toro, Massimo; Colonna, Maria; Greco, Vincenzo; Shao, Guo-Yun

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the isospin effect on the possible phase transition from hadronic to quark matter at high baryon density and finite temperatures. The two-Equation of State (Two-EoS) model is adopted to describe the hadron-quark phase transition in dense matter formed in heavy-ion collisions. For the hadron sector we use Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) effective models, already tested on heavy-ion collision (HIC). For the quark phase we consider various effective models, the MIT-Bag static picture, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) approach with chiral dynamics and finally the NJL coupled to the Polyakov-loop field (PNJL), which includes both chiral and (de)confinement dynamics. The idea is to extract mixed phase properties which appear robust with respect to the model differences. In particular we focus on the phase transitions of isospin asymmetric matter, with two main results: i) an earlier transition to a mixed hadron-quark phase, at lower baryon density/chemical potential with respect to symmetric matter; ii) an "Isospin Distillation" to the quark component of the mixed phase, with predicted effects on the final hadron production. Possible observation signals are suggested to probe in heavy-ion collision experiments at intermediate energies, in the range of the NICA program.

  8. Symmetry energy effects on the mixed hadron-quark phase at high baryon density

    SciTech Connect

    Di Toro, M.; Greco, V.; Plumari, S.; Liu, B.; Baran, V.; Colonna, M.

    2011-01-15

    The phase transition of hadronic to quark matter at high baryon and isospin density is analyzed. Relativistic mean-field models are used to describe hadronic matter, and the MIT bag model is adopted for quark matter. The boundaries of the mixed phase and the related critical points for symmetric and asymmetric matter are obtained. Due to the different symmetry term in the two phases, isospin effects appear to be rather significant. With increasing isospin asymmetry the binodal transition line of the (T,{rho}{sub B}) diagram is lowered to a region accessible through heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the new planned facilities (e.g., the FAIR/NICA projects). Some observable effects are suggested, in particular an isospin distillation mechanism with a more isospin asymmetric quark phase, to be seen in charged meson yield ratios, and an onset of quark number scaling of the meson-baryon elliptic flows. The presented isospin effects on the mixed phase appear to be robust with respect to even large variations of the poorly known symmetry term at high baryon density in the hadron phase. The dependence of the results on a suitable treatment of isospin contributions in effective QCD Lagrangian approaches, at the level of explicit isovector parts and/or quark condensates, is discussed.

  9. A polarized Drell-Yan experiment to probe the dynamics of the nucleon sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinjan, David W.

    2015-01-01

    In QCD, nucleon spin comes from the sum of the quark spin, gluon spin, and the quark and gluon orbital angular momentum, but how these different components contribute and the interplay among them is not yet understood. For instance, sea quark orbital contribution remains largely unexplored. Measurements of the Sivers function for the sea quarks will provide a probe of the sea quark orbital contribution. The upcoming E1039 experiment at Fermilab will measure the Sivers asymmetry of the sea quarks via the Drell-Yan process using a 120 GeV unpolarized proton beam directed a transversely polarized ammonia target. Lastly, we report on the status and plans of the E1039 polarized Drell-Yan experiment.

  10. A polarized Drell-Yan experiment to probe the dynamics of the nucleon sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinjan, David

    2015-04-10

    In QCD, nucleon spin comes from the sum of the quark spin, gluon spin, and the quark and gluon orbital angular momentum, but how these different components contribute and the interplay among them is not yet understood. For instance, sea quark orbital contribution remains largely unexplored. Measurements of the Sivers function for the sea quarks will provide a probe of the sea quark orbital contribution. The upcoming E1039 experiment at Fermilab will measure the Sivers asymmetry of the sea quarks via the Drell-Yan process using a 120 GeV unpolarized proton beam directed a transversely polarized ammonia target. We report on the status and plans of the E1039 polarized Drell-Yan experiment.

  11. A polarized Drell-Yan experiment to probe the dynamics of the nucleon sea

    DOE PAGES

    Kleinjan, David W.

    2015-01-01

    In QCD, nucleon spin comes from the sum of the quark spin, gluon spin, and the quark and gluon orbital angular momentum, but how these different components contribute and the interplay among them is not yet understood. For instance, sea quark orbital contribution remains largely unexplored. Measurements of the Sivers function for the sea quarks will provide a probe of the sea quark orbital contribution. The upcoming E1039 experiment at Fermilab will measure the Sivers asymmetry of the sea quarks via the Drell-Yan process using a 120 GeV unpolarized proton beam directed a transversely polarized ammonia target. Lastly, we reportmore » on the status and plans of the E1039 polarized Drell-Yan experiment.« less

  12. The phases of isospin asymmetric matter in the two flavor NJL model

    SciTech Connect

    S. Lawley; W. Bentz; A. W. Thomas

    2005-04-01

    We investigate the phase diagram of isospin asymmetric matter at T=0 in the two flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Our approach describes the single nucleon as a quark-diquark bound state, the saturation properties of nuclear matter at normal densities, and the phase transition to normal or color superconducting quark matter at higher densities. The resulting equation of state of charge neutral matter is discussed.

  13. Single top quark production at the LHC: Understanding spin

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, S.

    1999-12-22

    The authors show that the single top quarks produced in the Wg-fusion channel at a proton-proton collider at a center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 14 TeV posses a high degree of polarization in terms of a spin basis which decomposes the top quark spin in its rest frame along the direction of the spectator jet. A second useful spin basis is the {eta}-beamline basis, which decomposes the top quark spin along one of the two beam directions, depending on which hemisphere contains the spectator jet. The authors elucidate the interplay between the two- and three-body final states contributing to this production cross section in the context of determining the spin decomposition of the top quarks, and argue that the zero momentum frame helicity is undefined. The authors show that the usefulness of the spectator and {eta}-beamline spin bases is not adversely affected by the cuts required to separate the Wg-fusion signal from the background.

  14. Why the proton spin is not due to quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Karliner, M.

    1988-07-01

    Recent EMC data on the spin-dependent proton structure function suggest that very little of the proton spin is due to the helicity of the quarks inside it. We argue that, at leading order in the 1/N/sub c/ expansion, none of the proton spin would be carried by quarks in the chiral limit where m/sub q/ = 0. This model-independent result is based on a physical picture of the nucleon as a soliton solution of the effective chiral Lagrangian of large-N/sub c/ QCD. The Skyrme model is then used to estimate quark contribution to the proton spin when chiral symmetry and flavor SU(3) are broken: this contribution turns out to be small, as suggested by the EMC. Next, we discuss the other possible contributions to the proton helicity in the infinite-momentum frame---polarized gluons (..delta..G), and orbital angular momentum (L/sub z/). We argue on general grounds and by explicit example the ..delta..G = 0 and that if the parameters of the chiral Lagrangian are adjusted so that gluons carry /approximately/50% of the proton momentum, most of the orbital angular momentum L/sub z/ is carried by quarks. We mention several experiments to test the EMC results and their interpretation. 43 refs., 3 figs.

  15. The study of the phase structure of hadronic matter by searching for the deconfined quark-gluon phase transition using 2 TeV {bar p}p collisions; and by searching for critical phenomena in an exclusive study of multifragmentation using 1 GeV/nucleon heavy ion collisions. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Scharenberg, R.P.; Hirsch, A.S.; Tincknell, M.L.

    1992-09-15

    An experiment to search for the production of quark{endash}gluon plasma in proton{endash}antiproton interactions is described with emphasis on 1992 results. Next, a search for critical phenomena using the EOS Time Projection Chamber is similarly described, including the results of 1992 test runs, nucleus{endash}nucleus collision simulations, and the extraction of critical indices from small percolation lattices. Analysis of results from experiments to detect the possible production of anomalous photons in the central rapidity region with transverse momentum between 5 and 50 MeV/c are discussed. Initial work on an experiment to study the high-density, high-temperature state of matter formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies, planned to begin in fall 1997, is related. Finally, work on a research and development project to investigate silicon avalanche diodes as time-of-flight detectors for nuclear and particle physics applications is reviewed. The principle is to detect the ionization of charged particles directly in the Si; feasibility has been demonstrated.

  16. The study of the phase structure of hadronic matter by searching for the deconfined quark-gluon phase transition using 2 TeV [bar p]p collisions; and by searching for critical phenomena in an exclusive study of multifragmentation using 1 GeV/nucleon heavy ion collisions. [Detect ionization of charged particles directly in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Scharenberg, R.P.; Hirsch, A.S.; Tincknell, M.L.

    1992-09-15

    An experiment to search for the production of quark[endash]gluon plasma in proton[endash]antiproton interactions is described with emphasis on 1992 results. Next, a search for critical phenomena using the EOS Time Projection Chamber is similarly described, including the results of 1992 test runs, nucleus[endash]nucleus collision simulations, and the extraction of critical indices from small percolation lattices. Analysis of results from experiments to detect the possible production of anomalous photons in the central rapidity region with transverse momentum between 5 and 50 MeV/c are discussed. Initial work on an experiment to study the high-density, high-temperature state of matter formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies, planned to begin in fall 1997, is related. Finally, work on a research and development project to investigate silicon avalanche diodes as time-of-flight detectors for nuclear and particle physics applications is reviewed. The principle is to detect the ionization of charged particles directly in the Si; feasibility has been demonstrated.

  17. Hadron production in light and heavy, quark and antiquark jets

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, K.G.; SLD Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The authors review four hadronization studies performed by the SLD experiment at SLAC, involving separation of light (Z{sup 0} {r_arrow} u{anti u}, d{anti d}, s{anti s}), c, and b flavors using precision vertexing, and separation of q- and {anti q}-jets using the highly polarized SLC electron beam. They measured the differences between the average charged multiplicities in Z{sup 0} {r_arrow} light, {r_arrow} c{anti c}, and {r_arrow}b{anti b} events, and found that the results were consistent with predictions of perturbative QCD. Next, they measured {pi}/{Kappa}/p/{Kappa}{sup 0}/{Lambda}{sup 0} production in light events for the first time, and compared with production in c- and b-flavor events. They then examined particle production differences in light quark and antiquark hemispheres, and observed more high momentum baryons and K{sup {minus}}`s than antibaryons and K{sup +}`s in quark hemispheres, consistent with the leading particle hypothesis. Lastly, they performed a search for jet handedness in light q- and {anti q}-jets. Assuming Standard Model values of quark polarization in Z{sup 0} decays, they have set an improved upper limit on the analyzing power of the handedness method.

  18. Supernova explosion and black hole formation with hadron-quark phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazato, Ken'ichiro

    2014-05-02

    Hadronic matter undergoes a deconfinement transition to quark matter at high temperature and/or high density. It would be realized in collapsing cores of massive stars. The fates of core collapses are investigated for various cases. Equations of state including the hadron-quark phase transition with different values of bag constant are used. As a result, for the case with a small bag constant (i.e. the transition occurs at low density), the second bounce revives the shock wave leading to explosion for the model with 15 solar mass. The systematics on the bag constant is also studied for the black hole formation of a 40 solar mass progenitor.

  19. Bulk Properties and Collective Flow of Quark Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapusta, Joseph

    2007-10-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics predicts a transition from a hadronic phase at temperatures less than 150-200 MeV to a quark gluon plasma phase at higher temperatures. Lattice calculations show a big increase in the entropy density in this vicinity. Whether the transition is first or second order or a smooth rapid crossover depends upon the values of the up, down and strange quark masses. The goal of the heavy ion experimental program at RHIC is to observe this transition and to study the nature of the quark gluon plasma quantitatively. Two big surprises arose from these experiments: Substantial collective flow has been observed, as evidenced by single-particle transverse momentum distributions and by azimuthal correlations among the produced particles, and the degree to which high energy jets are attenuated in the produced matter. A variety of theoretical models of these collisions require initial energy densities more than a factor of 10 greater than in neutron star cores and more than a factor of 100 greater than within atomic nuclei. Taken together this body of work implies a strongly interacting phase of quarks and gluons beyond the capabilities of perturbation theory. This has motivated approaches based on gauge theories with gravity duals where physical observables may be calculated in a strong coupling limit. This in turn has stimulated interest from members of the string theory community who are currently bringing their expertise to bear on the problem.

  20. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms asmore » triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  1. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.

  2. Top Quark Production Asymmetries AFBt and AFBl

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Edmond L.; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-02-14

    A large forward-backward asymmetry is seen in both the top quark rapidity distribution AFBt and in the rapidity distribution of charged leptons AFBl from top quarks produced at the Tevatron. We study the kinematic and dynamic aspects of the relationship of the two observables arising from the spin correlation between the charged lepton and the top quark with different polarization states. We emphasize the value of both measurements, and we conclude that a new physics model which produces more right-handed than left-handed top quarks is favored by the present data.

  3. Phase space and quark mass effects in neutrino emissions in a color superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qun; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Jian

    2006-07-01

    We study the phase space for neutrino emissions with massive quarks in direct Urca processes in normal and color-superconducting quark matter. We derive in QCD and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model the Fermi momentum reduction resulting from Fermi liquid properties which opens up the phase space for neutrino emissions. The relation between the Fermi momentum and chemical potential is found to be pF≈μ(1-κ) with κ depending on coupling constants. We find in the weak coupling regime that κ is a monotonically increasing function of the chemical potential. This implies quenched phase space for neutrino emissions at low baryon densities. We calculate neutrino emissivities with massive quarks in a spin-one color superconductor. The quark mass corrections are found to be of the same order as the contributions in the massless case, which will bring sizable effects on the cooling behavior of compact stars.

  4. Confinement and the quark Fermi surface in SU(2N) QCD-like theories

    SciTech Connect

    Langfeld, Kurt; Wellegehausen, Bjoern H.; Wipf, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Yang-Mills theories with a gauge group SU(N{sub c{ne}}3) and quark matter in the fundamental representation share many properties with the theory of strong interactions, QCD with N{sub c}=3. We show that, for N{sub c} even and in the confinement phase, the gluonic average of the quark determinant is independent of the boundary conditions, periodic or antiperiodic ones. We then argue that a Fermi sphere of quarks can only exist under extreme conditions when the center symmetry is spontaneously broken and color is liberated. Our findings are supported by lattice gauge simulations for N{sub c}=2-5 and are illustrated by means of a simple quark model.

  5. Hyperon stars in a modified quark meson coupling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, R. N.; Sahoo, H. S.; Panda, P. K.; Barik, N.; Frederico, T.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter with the inclusion of hyperons in a self-consistent manner by using a modified quark meson coupling model where the confining interaction for quarks inside a baryon is represented by a phenomenological average potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The hadron-hadron interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ ,ω , and ρ mesons through mean-field approximations. The effect of a nonlinear ω -ρ term on the EOS is studied. The hyperon couplings are fixed from the optical potential values and the mass-radius curve is determined satisfying the maximum mass constraint of 2 M⊙ for neutron stars, as determined in recent measurements of the pulsar PSR J0348+0432. We also observe that there is no significant advantage of introducing the nonlinear ω -ρ term in the context of obtaining the star mass constraint in the present set of parametrizations.

  6. Polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1994-03-01

    The author discusses a number of interrelated hadronic spin effects which test fundamental features of perturbative and non-perturbative QCD. For example, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and the axial coupling g{sub A} on the nucleon are shown to be related to each other for fixed proton radius, independent of the form of the underlying three-quark relativistic quark wavefunction. The renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities for the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for the polarized structure functions can be eliminated by using commensurate scale relations with other observables. Other examples include (a) new constraints on the shape and normalization of the polarized quark and gluon structure functions of the proton at large and small x{sub bj}; (b) consequences of the principle of hadron helicity retention in high x{sub F} inclusive reactions; (c) applications of hadron helicity conservation to high momentum transfer exclusive reactions; and (d) the dependence of nuclear structure functions and shadowing on virtual photon polarization. He also discusses the implications of a number of measurements which are in striking conflict with leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions, such as the extraordinarily large spin correlation A{sub NN} observed in large angle proton-proton scattering, the anomalously large {rho}{pi} branching ratio of the J/{psi}, and the rapidly changing polarization dependence of both J/{psi} and continuum lepton pair hadroproduction observed at large x{sub F}. The azimuthal angular dependence of the Drell-Yan process is shown to be highly sensitive to the projectile distribution amplitude, the fundamental valence light-cone wavefunction of the hadron.

  7. Heavy quark results at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, D.K.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-01-01

    Recent results in heavy quark physics from the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are reported. Topics included are top quark production and mass determination, bottom production and correlations, and charmonium production. 20 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs.

  9. Unified origin for baryonic visible matter and antibaryonic dark matter.

    PubMed

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Morrissey, David E; Sigurdson, Kris; Tulin, Sean

    2010-11-19

    We present a novel mechanism for generating both the baryon and dark matter densities of the Universe. A new Dirac fermion X carrying a conserved baryon number charge couples to the standard model quarks as well as a GeV-scale hidden sector. CP-violating decays of X, produced nonthermally in low-temperature reheating, sequester antibaryon number in the hidden sector, thereby leaving a baryon excess in the visible sector. The antibaryonic hidden states are stable dark matter. A spectacular signature of this mechanism is the baryon-destroying inelastic scattering of dark matter that can annihilate baryons at appreciable rates relevant for nucleon decay searches.

  10. Using the Moon and Mars as Giant Detectors for Strange Quark Nuggets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin; Strayer, Don; Banerdt, Bruce; Tepliz, Vigdor; Herrin, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    On the Earth, the detectability of small seismic signals is limited by pervasive seismic background noise, caused primarily by interactions of the atmosphere and oceans with the solid surface. Mars, with a very thin atmosphere and no ocean is expected to have a noise level at least an order of magnitude lower than the Earth, and the airless Moon is even quieter still. These pristine low-vibration environments are ideal for searching for nuggets of "strange quark matter." Strange quark matter was postulated by Edward Witten [Phys. Rev. D30, 272, 1984] as the lowest possible energy state of matter. It would be made of up, down, and strange quarks, instead of protons and neutrons made only of up and down quarks. It would have nuclear densities, and hence be difficult to detect. Micron-sized nuggets would weigh in the ton range. As suggested by de Rujula and Glashow [Nature 312 (5996): 734, 1984], a massive strange quark nugget can generate a trail of seismic waves, as it traverses a celestial body. We discuss the mission concept for deploying a network of sensitive seismometers on Mars and on the Moon for such a search.

  11. The Top Quark as a Window to Beyond the Standard Model Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chiu-Tien

    2013-01-01

    The top quark was the last of the Standard Model quarks to be discovered, and is of considerable interest. The closeness of the top quark mass to the electroweak scale is suggestive that the top quark could be closely related to the mechanisms for electroweak symmetry breaking. Any new physics in electroweak symmetry breaking models could then preferentially couple to the top quark, making the top quark a promising probe for new physics. In this thesis, we will explore two aspects of the top quark as a harbinger to new physics: the top forward-backward asymmetry as seen at the Tevatron and the search for stops. In this thesis, we will discuss the Asymmetric Left-Right Model (ALRM), a model that is based on the gauge group $U'(1)\\times SU(2)\\times SU'(2)$ with couplings $g_1^\\prime, g_2^\\prime,$ and $g'$ associated with the fields $B',W,W'$, respectively, and show how this model can explain the top forward-backward asymmetry. We will then explore the scalar sector of the ALRM, and provide a specific Higgs mechanism that provides the masses for the $W'$ and $Z'$ bosons. The top forward-backward asymmetry is a test of invariance of charge-conjugation. Thus, we look at the $X$-gluon model, a model that was motivated by the top forward-backward asymmetry, and show that one can look at the longitudinal polarization of the top-quark to test parity conservation. Finally, we investigate searches for stop squarks, the supersymmetric partner of the top quark, at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using shape-based analyses.

  12. Global QCD Analysis of Polarized Parton Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Stratmann, Marco

    2009-08-04

    We focus on some highlights of a recent, first global Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) analysis of the helicity parton distributions of the nucleon, mainly the evidence for a rather small gluon polarization over a limited region of momentum fraction and for interesting flavor patterns in the polarized sea. It is examined how the various sets of data obtained in inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and polarized proton-proton collisions help to constrain different aspects of the quark, antiquark, and gluon helicity distributions. Uncertainty estimates are performed using both the robust Lagrange multiplier technique and the standard Hessian approach.

  13. Nonstandard Yukawa couplings and Higgs portal dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Bishara, Fady; Brod, Joachim; Uttayarat, Patipan; Zupan, Jure

    2016-01-04

    We study the implications of non-standard Higgs Yukawa couplings to light quarks on Higgs-portal dark matter phenomenology. Saturating the present experimental bounds on up-quark, down-quark, or strange-quark Yukawa couplings, the predicted direct dark matter detection scattering rate can increase by up to four orders of magnitude. The effect on the dark matter annihilation cross-section, on the other hand, is subleading unless the dark matter is very light — a scenario that is already excluded by measurements of the Higgs invisible decay width. We investigate the expected size of corrections in multi-Higgs-doublet models with natural flavor conservation, the type-II two-Higgs-doublet model,more » the Giudice-Lebedev model of light quark masses, minimal flavor violation new physics models, Randall-Sundrum, and composite Higgs models. We find that an enhancement in the dark matter scattering rate of an order of magnitude is possible. In conclusion, we point out that a discovery of Higgs-portal dark matter could lead to interesting bounds on the light-quark Yukawa couplings.« less

  14. Top quark production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Varnes, Erich W.; /Arizona U.

    2010-09-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron has, until recently, been the only accelerator with sufficient energy to produce top quarks. The CDF and D0 experiments have collected large samples of top quarks. We report on recent top quark production measurements of the single top and t{bar t} production cross sections, as well as studies of the t{bar t} invariant mass distribution and a search for highly boosted top quarks.

  15. Searches for monopoles and quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Matis, H.S.

    1986-07-01

    Within the last year, several sensitive searches for monopoles and quarks have been done. Recent experiments at the Tevatron and at the CERN p anti p collider have detected no evidence for free fractional charge. An experiment in a iron refinery, which searched for GUT monopoles trapped in iron ore with two SQUID detectors, found no monopole candidate. However, an experiment looking for monopoles in cosmic rays has measured an interesting event which could be interpreted as a monopole. Several detectors are being built to achieve significant improvements in sensitivity for detection of quarks and monopoles. 21 refs.

  16. Why quarks cannot be fundamental particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, C. S.

    2005-05-01

    Many reasons why quarks should be considered composite particles are found in the book Preons by D'Souza and Kalman. One reason not found in the book is that all the quarks except for the u quark decay. The electron and the electron neutrino do not decay. A model of fundamental particles based upon the weak charge is presented.

  17. The Unquenching of the Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Santopinto, Elena; Bijker, Roelof

    2011-05-24

    We present an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pair creation (uu-bar, dd and ss-bar) are taken into account in an explicit form via a microscopic, QCD-inspired, quark-antiquark creation mechanism. As an application we discuss the flavor content of octet baryons.

  18. Identifying dark matter interactions in monojet searches

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Rentala, Vikram

    2014-05-22

    We study the discrimination of quark-initiated jets from gluon-initiated jets in monojet searches for dark matter using the technique of averaged jet energy profiles. We demonstrate our results in the context of effective field theories of dark matter interactions with quarks and gluons, but our methods apply more generally to a wide class of models. Different effective theories of dark matter and the standard model backgrounds each have a characteristic quark/gluon fraction for the leading jet. When used in conjunction with the traditional cut-and-count monojet search, the jet energy profile can be used to set stronger bounds on contact interactions of dark matter. In the event of a discovery of a monojet excess at the 14 TeV LHC, contact interactions between dark matter with quarks or with gluons can be differentiated at the 95% confidence level. For a given rate at the LHC, signal predictions at direct detection experiments for different dark matter interactions can span five orders of magnitude. Lastly, the ability to identify these interactions allows us to make a tighter connection between LHC searches and direct detection experiments.

  19. Identifying dark matter interactions in monojet searches

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Rentala, Vikram

    2014-05-22

    We study the discrimination of quark-initiated jets from gluon-initiated jets in monojet searches for dark matter using the technique of averaged jet energy profiles. We demonstrate our results in the context of effective field theories of dark matter interactions with quarks and gluons, but our methods apply more generally to a wide class of models. Different effective theories of dark matter and the standard model backgrounds each have a characteristic quark/gluon fraction for the leading jet. When used in conjunction with the traditional cut-and-count monojet search, the jet energy profile can be used to set stronger bounds on contact interactionsmore » of dark matter. In the event of a discovery of a monojet excess at the 14 TeV LHC, contact interactions between dark matter with quarks or with gluons can be differentiated at the 95% confidence level. For a given rate at the LHC, signal predictions at direct detection experiments for different dark matter interactions can span five orders of magnitude. Lastly, the ability to identify these interactions allows us to make a tighter connection between LHC searches and direct detection experiments.« less

  20. Top quark and Higgs boson masses from wormhole physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, B.A.; Joshi, G.C. )

    1994-11-01

    We bring together quantum field theory on [ital S][sub 4] with the Coleman wormhole hypothesis, which imposes constraints on terms in the gravitational Lagrangian. In particular, we investigate the effect of matter fields on the trace anomaly, which is related to the (curvature)[sup 2] terms, by the use of the renormalization group equations. We consider a toy model of a nonconformally coupled Higgs boson to a single top'' quark. By numerically solving the renormalization group equations for the couplings of the model, we can find preferred values of the particle masses for various values of the bare nonconformal coupling. By making the [ital ad] [ital hoc] assumption that the tree-level, Higgs boson treace anomaly vanishes on shell, a unique prediction can be made within this model for the masses of both the Higgs boson and the top quark.

  1. Shock-like hadronization of a quark gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Suhonen, E.; Stalnacke, J.

    1995-07-20

    The effect of a sharp front separating the quark-gluon plasma phase from the hadronic phase is studied. Energy-momentum conservation and baryon number conservation constrain the possible temperature jump across the front. Assuming the temperature in the hadronic phase to be fixed from experiments one can determine the corresponding temperature in the plasma. In addition to the standard space-like discontinuities sudden transitions across a time-like front are also considered. The calculations reveal that the quark phase had to be expanded to a substantially supercooled state for a shock transition to happen. The supercooling is weaker if the hadronization occurs simultaneously across a time-like front than in the case of a space-like shock hadronization. If the initial phase is not pure but contains an admixture of hadronic matter slightly less supercooling is needed. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  2. Color symmetrical superconductivity in a schematic nuclear quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, H.; Providência, C.; da Providência, J.

    2010-02-01

    In this letter, a novel BCS-type formalism is constructed in the framework of a schematic QCD inspired quark model, having in mind the description of color symmetrical superconducting states. In the usual approach to color superconductivity, the pairing correlations affect only the quasi-particle states of two colors, the single-particle states of the third color remaining unaffected by the pairing correlations. In the theory of color symmetrical superconductivity here proposed, the pairing correlations affect symmetrically the quasi-particle states of the three colors and vanishing net color charge is automatically insured. We stress that the present note is concerned with the description of quark matter in terms of effective models, such as the NJL model, which are solely expressed in terms of fermion operators, so that in them the gluonic gauge fields are not present.

  3. Spontaneous magnetization of solid quark-cluster stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Ren-Xin

    2016-09-01

    Pulsar-like compact stars usually have strong magnetic fields, with strengths from ∼ 108 to ∼ 1012 G on the surface. How such strong magnetic fields can be generated and maintained is still an unsolved problem, which is, in principle, related to the interior structure of compact stars, i.e., the equation of state of cold matter at supra-nuclear density. In this paper we are trying to solve the problem in the regime of solid quark-cluster stars. Inside quark-cluster stars, the extremely low ratio of number density of electrons to that of baryons ne/nb and the screening effect from quark-clusters could reduce the long-range Coulomb interaction between electrons to short-range interaction. In this case, Stoner’s model could apply, and we find that the condition for ferromagnetism is consistent with that for the validity of Stoner’s model. Under the screened Coulomb repulsion, the electrons inside the stars could be spontaneously magnetized and become ferromagnetic, and hence would contribute non-zero net magnetic momentum to the whole star. We conclude that, for most cases in solid quark-cluster stars, the amount of net magnetic momentum, which is proportional to the amount of unbalanced spins ξ = (n+ ‑ n‑)/ne and depends on the number density of electrons ne = n+ + n‑, could be significant with non-zero ξ. The net magnetic moments of electron system in solid quark-cluster stars could be large enough to induce the observed magnetic fields for pulsars with B ∼ 1011 to ∼ 1013 G. Supported by 973 Program (2012CB821801), West Light Foundation (XBBS-2014-23), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11203018, 11225314, 11365022), Science Project of Universities in Xinjiang (XJEDU2012S02) and Doctoral Science Foundation of Xinjiang University (BS120107)

  4. Spontaneous magnetization of solid quark-cluster stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Ren-Xin

    2016-09-01

    Pulsar-like compact stars usually have strong magnetic fields, with strengths from ˜ 108 to ˜ 1012 G on the surface. How such strong magnetic fields can be generated and maintained is still an unsolved problem, which is, in principle, related to the interior structure of compact stars, i.e., the equation of state of cold matter at supra-nuclear density. In this paper we are trying to solve the problem in the regime of solid quark-cluster stars. Inside quark-cluster stars, the extremely low ratio of number density of electrons to that of baryons ne/nb and the screening effect from quark-clusters could reduce the long-range Coulomb interaction between electrons to short-range interaction. In this case, Stoner’s model could apply, and we find that the condition for ferromagnetism is consistent with that for the validity of Stoner’s model. Under the screened Coulomb repulsion, the electrons inside the stars could be spontaneously magnetized and become ferromagnetic, and hence would contribute non-zero net magnetic momentum to the whole star. We conclude that, for most cases in solid quark-cluster stars, the amount of net magnetic momentum, which is proportional to the amount of unbalanced spins ξ = (n+ - n-)/ne and depends on the number density of electrons ne = n+ + n-, could be significant with non-zero ξ. The net magnetic moments of electron system in solid quark-cluster stars could be large enough to induce the observed magnetic fields for pulsars with B ˜ 1011 to ˜ 1013 G. Supported by 973 Program (2012CB821801), West Light Foundation (XBBS-2014-23), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11203018, 11225314, 11365022), Science Project of Universities in Xinjiang (XJEDU2012S02) and Doctoral Science Foundation of Xinjiang University (BS120107)

  5. The Quark-Deconfinement Nova model for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Bombaci, I.

    2005-10-21

    We report on a new model which is able to explain how a gamma-ray burst (GRB) can take place days or years after a supernova explosion. We show that above a threshold value of the gravitational mass a pure hadronic star ('neutron star') is metastable to the conversion into a quark star (hybrid star or strange star), i.e. a star made at least in part of deconfined quark matter. The stellar conversion process can be delayed if finite size effects at the interface between hadronic and deconfined quark matter phases are taken into account. A huge amount of energy, on the order of 1052 - 1053 ergs, is released during the conversion process and can produce a powerful gamma-ray burst. The delay between the supernova explosion generating the metastable neutron star and the new collapse can explain the delay inferred in GRB 990705 and in GRB 011211.

  6. Spin physics experiments at NICA-SPD with polarized proton and deuteron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, I.; Efremov, A.; Pshekhonov, D.; Kovalenko, A.; Teryaev, O.; Shevchenko, O.; Nagajcev, A.; Guskov, A.; Kukhtin, V.; Toplilin, N.

    2016-08-01

    This is a brief description of suggested measurements of asymmetries of the Drell-Yan (DY) pair production in collisions of non-polarized, longitudinally and transversally polarized protons and deuterons which provide an access to all leading-twist collinear and TMD PDFs of quarks and anti-quarks in nucleons. Other spin effects in hadronic and heavy-ion collisions may be also studied constituing the spin physics program at NICA.

  7. GUTzilla dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Lin, Tongyan; Lou, Hou Keong

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by gauge coupling unification and dark matter, we present an extension to the Standard Model where both are achieved by adding an extra new matter multiplet. Such considerations lead to a Grand Unified Theory with very heavy WIMPzilla dark matter, which has mass greater than ˜ 107 GeV and must be produced before reheating ends. Naturally, we refer to this scenario as GUTzilla dark matter. Here we present a minimal GUTzilla model, adding a vector-like quark multiplet to the Standard Model. Proton decay constraints require the new multiplet to be both color and electroweak charged, which prompts us to include a new confining SU(3) gauge group that binds the multiplet into a neutral composite dark matter candidate. Current direct detection constraints are evaded due to the large dark matter mass; meanwhile, next-generation direct detection and proton decay experiments will probe much of the parameter space. The relic abundance is strongly dependent on the dynamics of the hidden confining sector, and we show that dark matter production during the epoch of reheating can give the right abundance.

  8. Quarks and the cosmos.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    Cosmology is in the midst of a period of revolutionary discovery, propelled by bold ideas from particle physics and by technological advances from gigapixel charge-coupled device cameras to peta-scale computing. The basic features of the universe have now been determined: It is 13.7 billion years old, spatially flat, and expanding at an accelerating rate; it is composed of atoms (4%), exotic dark matter (20%), and dark energy (76%); and there is evidence that galaxies and other structures were seeded by quantum fluctuations. Although we know much about the universe, we understand far less. Poised to dramatically advance our understanding of both the universe and the laws that govern it, cosmology is on the verge of a golden age.

  9. Quarks and the cosmos.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    Cosmology is in the midst of a period of revolutionary discovery, propelled by bold ideas from particle physics and by technological advances from gigapixel charge-coupled device cameras to peta-scale computing. The basic features of the universe have now been determined: It is 13.7 billion years old, spatially flat, and expanding at an accelerating rate; it is composed of atoms (4%), exotic dark matter (20%), and dark energy (76%); and there is evidence that galaxies and other structures were seeded by quantum fluctuations. Although we know much about the universe, we understand far less. Poised to dramatically advance our understanding of both the universe and the laws that govern it, cosmology is on the verge of a golden age. PMID:17204637

  10. Top quark mass and kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Barberis, Emanuela; /Northeastern U.

    2006-05-01

    A summary of the results on the measurement of the Top Quark mass and the study of the kinematics of the t{bar t} system at the Tevatron collider is presented here. Results from both the CDF and D0 collaborations are reported.

  11. Physics of the Quark Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the charge independence, wavefunctions, magnetic moments, and high-energy scattering of hadrons on the basis of group theory and nonrelativistic quark model with mass spectrum calculated by first-order perturbation theory. The presentation is explainable to advanced undergraduate students. (CC)

  12. Observation of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kim, S. B.

    1995-08-01

    Top quark production is observed in{bar p}p collisions at{radical}s= 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D{O} observe signals consistent with t{bar t} to WWb{bar b}, but inconsistent with the background prediction by 4.8{sigma} (CDF), 4.6a (D{O}). Additional evidence for the top quark Is provided by a peak in the reconstructed mass distribution. The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with the top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 176{plus_minus}8(stat.){plus_minus}10(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (CDF), 199{sub -21}{sup+19}(stat.){plus_minus}22(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (D{O}), and the t{bar t} production cross section to be 6.8{sub -2.4}{sup+3.6}pb (CDF), 6.4{plus_minus}2.2 pb (D{O}).

  13. Heavy Quark Photoproduction at LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves, V. P.; Meneses, A. R.; Machado, M. V.

    2010-11-12

    In this work we calculate the inclusive and difractive photoproduction of heavy quarks in proton-proton collisions at LHC energies within the color dipole picture employing three phenomenological saturation models based on the color glass condensate formalism. Our results demonstrate that the experimental analyzes of these reactions is feasible and that the cross sections are sensitive to the underlying parton dynamics.

  14. Triminimal parametrization of quark mixing matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Li, Shi-Wen; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2008-12-01

    Starting from a new zeroth order basis for quark mixing (CKM) matrix based on the quark-lepton complementarity and the tribimaximal pattern of lepton mixing, we derive a triminimal parametrization of a CKM matrix with three small angles and a CP-violating phase as its parameters. This new triminimal parametrization has the merits of fast convergence and simplicity in application. With the quark-lepton complementary relations, we derive relations between the two unified triminimal parametrizations for quark mixing obtained in this work and for lepton mixing obtained by Pakvasa-Rodejohann-Weiler. Parametrization deviating from quark-lepton complementarity is also discussed.

  15. Top Quark Studies at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-11-26

    Years after its discovery in 1995 by CDF and D0, the top quark still undergoes intense investigations at the Tevatron. Using up to the full Run II data sample, new measurements of top quark production and properties by the D0 Collaboration are presented. In particular, the first observation of single top quark s-channel production, the measurement of differential tbar t distributions, forward-backward tbar t asymmetry, a new measurement of the top quark mass, and a measurement of the top quark charge are discussed.

  16. Confining quark condensate model of the nucleon.

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Michael; Tandy, Peter

    1992-07-01

    We obtain a mean-field solution for the nucleon as a quark-meson soliton obtained from the action of the global color-symmetry model of QCD. All dynamics is generated from an effective interact