Science.gov

Sample records for policy politique scientifique

  1. L'evaluation des politiques institutionnelles d'evaluation des apprentissages. Rapport synthese (The Evaluation of Institutional Policies of Evaluation of Learning. Synthesis Report). 2410-0520.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindfelt, Bengt, Ed.

    In accordance with provincial educational regulations, Quebec's community colleges have adopted "politiques institutionnelles d'evaluation des apprentissages" (PIEA), or institutional policies of the evaluation of learning. This report provides a synthesis of evaluations of the PIEA conducted by the province's Commission on the Evaluation of…

  2. Backtracking to Policy Design (Un retour au point de conception de la politique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Hanne B.

    The diverse literature on policy design and policy instruments is reviewed in this paper, which also addresses such issues as the definition of a policy design perspective, the categorization and variables of policy instruments, and improvement of the design process. The first part presents a general discussion of the perspective of policy…

  3. La politique scientifique comme mise en espace-temps de la recherche= Science Policy as Placed in the Space-Time Relationship of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turmel, Andre

    1986-01-01

    The language used by scientists to discuss their work and the social logic underlying scientific research is examined, and viewed from the perspective and as an extension of the space-time continuum that scientists study. (Author/MSE)

  4. Café Scientifique.

    PubMed

    Grand, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Every month, in 700 or so bars, cafés, pubs, teahouses, shopping centres, community halls, art galleries, libraries, theatres, museums, bookshops ... and a blood donation centre, 40 or so people meet to have a conversation. A conversation that happens to be about science and technology, rather than soap operas or football; this is Café Scientifique.

  5. Langues: Pour une politique forte et coherente (Languages: Aiming for a Strong, Coherent Policy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivieri, Claude

    1993-01-01

    France's Minister of Education and Culture favors a governmental language policy to provide the French with genuine communicative competence in other languages. His plan relies on four "D's": diversification, development, decentralization, and dynamic policy. A chart summarizes the 20 essential measures to be undertaken. (CNP)

  6. Towards a Canadian Educational Research Policy. (Vers une Politique Canadienne de la Recherche Pedagogique.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council for Research in Education, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Based on workshop discussions, this report attempts to lay down broad guidelines for Canadian educational research and development. The guidelines postulate that a comprehensive policy should include a pattern of priorities that (1) encourage the development of high quality scholarly institutions, (2) provide for risk capital for exploratory basic…

  7. Education: Politique Sectorielle. Troisieme Edition. (Education: Sector Policy Paper. Third Edition.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Wadi D.; And Others

    The present paper updates the World Bank's interpetation of education development and outlines a policy framework for lending for education. After chapters on the relationship between education and development and on the state of education development, the paper devotes a chapter to each of five issues: the expansion and equalization of…

  8. Politiques et Pratiques d'Interdisciplinarite. (Policies and Practices of Interdisciplinarity.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assimopoulos, Nadia; Belanger, Charles H.

    1980-01-01

    The University of Montreal's interdisciplinary curriculum policy was studied to (1) determine the range of opportunities given to students to take courses outside their disciplines; (2) assess the students' responsiveness; and (3) measure the ability of departments to attract nonmajor students. Results indicate that over-specialization still…

  9. Policy for Heritage Language Instruction = Politique sur l'enseignement des langues ancestrales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    Policy established by the Manitoba (Canada) provincial government to inform the development and implementation of heritage language programs is outlined. Introductory sections provide background on the history of heritage language instruction, foreign language instruction, and language of instruction in Manitoba public schools. A brief discussion…

  10. Funding Policy for Language Programs = Politique de financement des programmes de langue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This policy statement, presented in both English and French, describes the funding support available for heritage language and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs for K-12 students in the province of Manitoba, Canada. The two parts of the statement, headed "Heritage Language Instruction" and "ESL for Students with Limited Proficiency in…

  11. Amenagement et politique linguistques: La politique des langues au Benin (Language Management and Language Policy: The Politics of Language in Benin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halaoui, Nazam

    2001-01-01

    Distinguishing between language management and language policy, examines the politics of language in Benin from independence to the present. Describes the politics of language in Dahomey, the early policies of Benin, and the Republican politics of language, arising from the national constitutional convention and striving to address the needs of…

  12. Towards Evidence-Based Policy for Canadian Education = Vers des politiques candiennes d'education fondees sur la recherche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Broucker, Patrice, Ed.; Sweetman, Arthur, Ed.

    This book is a collection of 19 essays that broadly treat the use of evidence in informing educational policy and practice in Canada: (1) "Knowledge and Action in Educational Policy and Politics" (Benjamin Levin); (2) "Data, Data Everywhere (and We Don't Know What to Do): Using Data for Wise Decisions in Schools" (Lorna M. Earl); (3) "Do Education…

  13. Multicultural Education. A Policy for the 1990s = L'education multiculturelle. Une politique pour les annees 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This publication presents the official multicultural education policy statement for Manitoba (Canada) institutions of education and training. The policy is guided by the following three principles: (1) education for full participation in society; (2) education for cultural and linguistic development; and (3) education for intercultural…

  14. Le défi climatique : les limites des politiques publiquesThe Climate Challenge: the limits of public policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, Dominique

    2003-06-01

    Can democratic societies organise the energy diet imposed by the prevention of climate change? What would be the difficulties to overcome? This challenge could not be met without changing the nature of public policies and without learning how to determine collectively new individual lifestyles, not separable from duties. To cite this article: D. Bourg, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  15. Elements d'une Politique en Education des Adultes 1970, II (Elements of an Adult Education Policy, 1970, II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Adult Education, Montreal (Quebec).

    Based on a work paper on adult and continuing education policy formation for Quebec, this document modifies and supplements recommendations on the unemployed and other high priority clientele groups, adult education content and methodology, the training of adult educators, responsibilities of sponsoring bodies (including the mass media), Federal…

  16. A Cafe Scientifique for Teens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M.

    2008-12-01

    It is well-known to those pursuing the quest to connect scientists to the public that an exceedingly hard-to- reach demographic is people of high school age. Typically, kids may tag along with their parents to museums until they reach adolescence, and then don't again appear in museums until they themselves have children. We have addressed this demographic challenge for free-choice-learning by developing a Cafe Scientifique program specifically for high school students. The Cafe Scientifique model for adults was developed in England and France, and has now spread like wildfire across the U.S. Typically, people come to a informal setting like a cafe, socialize and have food and drink, and then hear a short presentation by a scientist on a hot science topic in the news. This is followed by a period of lively discussion. We have followed this model for high school age students in four towns in northern New Mexico--Los Alamos, Santa Fe, Espanola, and Albuquerque--which represent a highly diverse demographic. We started this novel project with some trepidation, i.e. what if we build it and they don't come. But the program has proven popular beyond our expectations in all four towns. A part of the secret of success is the social setting, and-especially for this age group-the food provided. But we have also found that the kids are genuinely interested in the science topics, directing their own program, and interacting with scientists. We have often heard statements like, "I think it is important to be well-informed citizens". One of the most important aspects of the Cafes for the kids is to be able to discuss and argue about issues related to the science topic with the presenter and each other. It is an important part of the popularity that the Cafes do not involve school or parents, but also that we have strived to give the kids ownership of the program. Each town has a Youth Leadership Team-open to any teen-that discusses and prioritizes potential topics, conducts

  17. Developpement et apprentissage dans la nouvelle politique educative en France (Development and Training in the New Policy for Education in France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Bredel, Josiana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses France's 1989 New Policy for Education (NPE), which identifies three ways of preventing academic failure: school policies stressing family involvement and instructional continuity; reorganization of primary education into three training cycles; and assessment of student competencies. Considers NPE's position on knowledge development.…

  18. Family Policy in Europe (La Politique Familiale en Europe). Proceedings of the International Symposium of the Centro Internazionale Studi Famiglia (CISF) (Milano, Italy, June 26-29, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Internazionale Studi Famiglia, Milano (Italy).

    Proceedings of the International Symposium on Family Policy in Europe are contained in this document. (Most proceedings are in English, but some are in French, one is in German, and one is in Italian.) Presentations focused basically on family policy within European countries, with attention given to such issues as socialist, noncentralized, and…

  19. Politique familiale et strategie quebecoise en matiere de services educatifs et de garde a l'enfance = Quebec's Family Policy and Strategy on Early Childhood Development and Childcare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tougas, Jocelyne

    2000-01-01

    Introduced in 1997, Quebec's family policy includes an integrated family allowance program, comprehensive early childhood development and child care services, and a parental insurance plan. Government funding and regulation ensure that affordable/free child care is available to all children aged 0-12, child caregivers receive training and adequate…

  20. Le matérialisme scientifique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Jean-François

    2004-03-01

    De nos jours, il arrive quotidiennement aux grands hommes d'avoir à fréquenter d'ignorants mortels épris d'une conviction maladive que la science est la grande responsable de tous les maux du monde. Évidemment sans physique atomique, il n'y aurait pas eu d'Hiroshima et sans révolution industrielle, pas de pollution et etc. Cependant, ces accusations envers le progrès technique sont tout à fait injustes, irréfléchies et, j'irai même jusqu'à dire, irresponsables, puisque le calcul, i.e. la planification, même la plus élémentaire, est ce qui caractérise le mieux, pragmatiquement, la société humaine. À mon avis, les problèmes sociaux tireraient plutôt leur origine de sciences sociales irréalistes, qui, concrètment, inspireraient ou serviraient d'alibis à ceux qui détiennent véritablement le pouvoir. Dans cet article, je tenterai donc de démontrer la meilleure véracité et efficacité du matérialisme scientifique. Cette doctrine, dont Mario Bunge est le plus illustre représentant, s'appuy sur les résultats théoriques et expérimentaux des sciences factuelles ainsi que sur l'exactitude logique des mathématiques, utilisées ici comme langage universel de l'expression des idées. Cette conception philosophique qui s'inspire principalement du modèle des théories physiques, stipule que les réalités sociales sont, comme tout autre réalité, matérielles, mathématisables et représentables comme des systèmes en interaction. En fait, le modèle des physiciens ayant historiquement fait ses preuves en matière de testabilité et de cohérence interne est proposé d'être appliquer aux sciences sociales, aujourd'hui scindées des sciences dites pures sous l'inspiration des pseudo penseurs néo-kantiens, phénoménologiques et post-moderne. Cette nouvelle approche permettrait ainsi d'évoluer plus exactement vers une compréhension des bases sociales et biologiques du comportement humain afin de développer une éthique sans cesse plus r

  1. Adult Education and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Francis A.

    1972-01-01

    Author discussed American public's shifts in values and priorities" and suggests that adult educators become involved in 'real politique'" in order to help form public policy in the future. (Author/SP)

  2. Policy Guidelines for Medium-Term Priorities 1997 to 2000 = Politische Leitlinien fur die mittelfristigen Prioritaten von 1997 bis 2000 = Orientations de politique concernant les priorites a moyen terme de 1997 a l'an 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This booklet details the policy guidelines to which the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) will adhere when working to achieve its medium-term priorities in 1997-2000. The following items are stated in the booklet's six sections: legal requirements, agreements, and publications on which CEDEFOP's policy guidelines…

  3. L'enseignement des langues d'origne a l'ecole publique en Ontario et au Quebec: Politiques et enjeu (Heritage Language Instruction in Public Schools in Quebec and Ontario: Official Policy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Marie

    1991-01-01

    Represents a comparative analysis of the instructional policies for heritage language programs in Ontario and Quebec. It is concluded that the differences in the programs reflect a distinct difference between the two provinces with relation to interethnic relations. (VWL)

  4. Katimavik Policy & Procedures Manual = Katimavik Manuel de politique et procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OPCAN, Montreal (Quebec).

    The bilingual manual for permanent employees and field staff details the regulations and guidelines that govern the activities of Katimavik, a volunteer service program in which Canadian youth, ages 17-21, spend nine months in groups of 12, participating in community work projects and special learning activities in the areas of work skills, second…

  5. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  6. The game of science: A grounded theory of the Cafe Scientifique experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Lisa A.

    Science Cafes are independent groups organized throughout the world for discussion of scientific topics. Little is known about the nature of this informal learning environment. A grounded-theory study was conducted to determine what attendees perceived as the essential qualities of the Cafe Scientifique experience in one science Cafe in the Western United States. Interviews with 12 attendees were transcribed and analyzed using ATLAS-ti. Concept maps and a grounded theory describing the essential characteristics were created. Member checking was used during theory generation. Findings are described in the context of a game metaphor, whereby scientific discussion at the Cafe is viewed as an intellectual game. The grounded theory describes the game of science being played at Cafe Scientifique involving attendees as players, social norms as rules for the game, an expert as the steward of truth, topics as the content for game play, interaction as playing of the game, and intellectual stimulation as the prize for playing. During the game, ideas were identified through a short presentation followed by a question-and-answer session. During this exchange, attendees heard about, analyzed, synthesized, and applied new information. As a result of the game play, players won a prize---intellectual stimulation. The Cafe Scientifique phenomenon provides insight into informal adult education. This study suggests the need for additional study of intellectual play in adult education, the role of curiosity and desire to explore new ways of thinking, and the developmental drive in adults to seek intellectual stimulation. The essential characteristics of Cafe Scientifique may be transferable to other informal adult-education settings.

  7. Examen des politiques institutionnelles d'evaluation des apprentissages et de leur mise en oeuvre: L'etat et les besoin de l'enseignement collegial en evaluation (An Investigation of the Institutional Policies of Evaluation of Learning and Their Implementation: The Status and the Needs of Evaluation in Collegial Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conseil des Colleges, Quebec (Quebec).

    This two-part report by the Commission on Evaluation of Quebec's Council of Colleges focuses on the progress of the province's colleges in developing and implementing legislatively mandated policies concerning the evaluation of learning. Chapter 1 identifies the 107 of 112 colleges with written policies meeting the criteria established by the…

  8. L'Examen des politiques institutionnelles d'evaluation des apprentissages et de leur mise en oeuvre: rapport sur l'etat et les besoins de l'enseignement collegial en evaluation (An Investigation of the Institutional Policies of Evaluation of Apprenticeships and Their Implementation: Report on the Status and the Needs of Evaluation in Collegial Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conseil des Colleges, Quebec (Quebec).

    This two-part report by the Commission on Evaluation of the Council of Colleges in Quebec focuses on the progress of the province's colleges in developing and implementing legislatively mandated policies concerning the evaluation of apprenticeships. Chapter 1 identifies the 95 colleges with policies meeting the criteria established by the…

  9. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  10. Does research through Structured Operational Research and Training (SORT IT) courses impact policy and practice?

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M V; Shewade, H D; Tripathy, J P; Guillerm, N; Tayler-Smith, K; Berger, S Dar; Bissell, K; Reid, A J; Zachariah, R; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : Les cours de l'Initiative de Recherche et de Formation Structurées Opérationnelles (SORT IT) sont bien connus pour leurs bons résultats : près de 90% des participants terminent le cours et publient dans des revues scientifiques.Objectif : Evaluer l'impact sur la politique/les pratiques de ces articles de recherche qui ont été le résultat de six cours SORT IT initiés entre juillet 2012 et mars 2013.Schéma : Une étude transversale impliquant des questionnaires auto-administrés envoyés par courriel et des réponses par téléphone/skype/en personne des auteurs principaux et/ou des co-auteurs des articles liés au cours. Une analyse descriptive du contenu des réponses a été réalisée et catégorisée par thèmes.Résultats : Sur 72 participants, 63 (88%) ont terminé le cours. Les résultats du cours ont inclus 81 articles soumis, dont 76 (94%) ont été publiés. Sur les 81 articles publiés évalués, 45 (55%) ont contribué à une modification de la politique et/ou des pratiques : 29 articles ont contribué à une modification de la politique/des pratiques par le gouvernement (20 au niveau national, 4 au niveau sous-national et 5 au niveau hospitalier), 11 à des modifications de politique d'organisations non gouvernementales et cinq à un renforcement de la politique existante. Ces changements allaient de modifications des outils de suivi et d'évaluation à une nouvelle rédaction des directives nationales et à une accélération des politiques existantes.Conclusion : Plus de la moitié des articles du cours SORT IT ont contribué à une modification de la politique et/ou des pratiques. Les évaluations futures devraient inclure des vérifications plus solides et indépendantes des modifications rapportées avec toutes les parties concernées afin d'améliorer leur rigueur et leur richesse.

  11. Policy Conversation on Workplace/Workforce Literacy (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, January 22-24, 1995): A Report = Dialogue de Politique sur l'Alphabetisation en Milieu de Travail/de la Main-d'Oeuvre (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 22-24 Janvier, 1995): Un Document de Synthese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Secretariat, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document is a compilation of a variety of documents that were prepared to summarize and document the Policy Conversation on Workplace and Work Force Literacy that was held in Canada to give concerned individuals an opportunity to share their hopes, concerns, dreams, and visions about key issues in workplace literacy. The following documents…

  12. Engaging High School Students and Scientists in a Café Scientifique Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, M. A.; Hall, M. K.; Foutz, S.

    2010-12-01

    We have created an informal science program that engages high school age youth in exploring science relevant to their lives with researchers working at the cutting edge of science. The program provides scientists a challenging new audience to share their research and enthusiasm for science and science careers. It gives the youth an opportunity to discover how the often-mundane science they are learning in school is used to push the frontiers in science, with exciting applications in the real world. Our program, a youth-led Café Scientifique (cafenm.org), now in its fourth year, has been successful in attracting and retaining youth as well as attracting scientist-presenters. Modeled after the international Café Scientifique program for adults, we combine a social atmosphere with discussion of controversial or current topics to challenge youth to think about how science affects their lives. We feature short presentations with a high degree of interactivity and discussion during which the scientist expert communicates a single important idea or scientific principle. A good speaker will leave the audience with a dilemma or controversy to discuss, and with further opportunities to learn. Encouraging the presenters to interact frequently with the audience allows them to gauge the audience's engagement and knowledge. Alternatively we also host Cafés that offer more hands-on learning experiences, including extracting DNA from plants, building model fuel cell cars, using Google Earth to spy, and deciphering age, gender, ethnicity, and cause of death from human skeletons. Controversial topics are often presented within a scientific, economic, and social or political framework, because science is only part of the solution. A key element of success is in preparing the presenters for the youth audience. Presenters submit their presentation to the program directors for initial review and receive feedback on length, mechanisms for involving the audience, and clarifying or

  13. Systemes politiques et economiques: guide d'encadrement (Political and Economic Systems: Training Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Ralph

    This teacher's training guide is the companion volume to "Sytemes politiques et economiques," to help high school students learn about political and economic systems. Divided into seven sections, section 1 offers directions and suggestions on how to use the student volume including how to utilize the cartoon drawings that accompany the student…

  14. Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Alberta: An Economic Analysis to Inform Policy Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Anil; Stafinski, Tania; Nardelli, Alexa; Motan, Tarek; Menon, Devidas

    2015-12-01

    Objectif : La réglementation et le financement public des techniques de procréation assistée (TPA) varient d’une province canadienne à l’autre. En Alberta, les TPA ne sont ni réglementées ni financées par les deniers publics. Nous avons mené cette étude dans le but d’évaluer la rentabilité de l’offre de TPA en Alberta et les effets d’une telle mesure sur le budget albertain en fonction de trois scénarios de politique différents (une politique « restrictive », une politique fondée sur le modèle québécois et une politique « permissive »), par comparaison avec le statu quo. Méthodes : Pour prédire la rentabilité de ces trois options de politique (prévoyant l’offre de TPA financées par les deniers publics en Alberta) et leurs effets sur le budget provincial, nous avons élaboré un modèle économique en combinant un modèle Markov (transitions d’état) et un arbre décisionnel. Le coût par nouveau-né en santé issu d’une grossesse monofœtale constituait le critère d’évaluation principal. Des analyses simples de la variance en matière de sensibilité et des analyses probabilistes ont été menées. Résultats : La politique « restrictive » a constitué l’option la plus rentable dans deux sous-groupes d’âge (< 35 ans et 35-39 ans), tandis que la politique fondée sur l’approche québécoise a constitué l’option la plus rentable dans le sous-groupe des ≥ 40 ans. L’analyse des effets sur le budget (jusqu’à ce que les enfants générés par le modèle ait atteint l’âge de 18 ans) a indiqué l’obtention d’économies de 8,33 millions de dollars pour ce qui est de la politique « restrictive » dans le sous-groupe des < 35 ans. Dans le sous-groupe des ≥ 40 ans, l’option de la politique fondée sur l’approche québécoise a mené à l’obtention d’économies totales de 3,75 millions de dollars. Les analyses de la sensibilité ont indiqué que les résultats modélisés

  15. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  16. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  17. Elements d'une Politique en Education des Adultes, 1970 (Elements of an Adult Education Policy, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Adult Education, Montreal (Quebec).

    Requirements of a comprehensive approach to adult and continuing education in Quebec are set forth, with particular attention to individual and social needs in a changing world as well as to short-and long-range educational objectives. Proposals are offered for serving the unemployed and other groups, reshaping content and methodology, allocating…

  18. Policy Interaction and Policy Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Mike

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates the Byzantine complexities of implementing policy by analyzing a merger affecting three British primary schools in a local government reorganization scheme. Summarizes the policy context, highlights effects of other policies, tabulates factors relating to other externally initiated policies, discusses implications, and suggests…

  19. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  20. Le management des projets scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, Françoise

    2000-12-01

    We describe in this paper a new approach for the management of scientific projects. This approach is the result of a long reflexion carried out within the MQDP (Methodology and Quality in the Project Development) group of INSU-CNRS, and continued with Guy Serra. Our reflexion was initiated with the study of the so-called `North-American Paradigm' which was, initially considered as the only relevant management model. Through our active participation in several astrophysical projects we realized that this model could not be applied to our laboratories without major modifications. Therefore, step-by-step, we have constructed our own methodology, using to the fullest human potential resources existing in our research field, their habits and skills. We have also participated in various working groups in industrial and scientific organisms for the benefits of CNRS. The management model presented here is based on a systemic and complex approach. This approach lets us describe the multiple aspects of a scientific project specially taking into account the human dimension. The project system model includes three major interconnected systems, immersed within an influencing and influenced environment: the `System to be Realized' which defines scientific and technical tasks leading to the scientific goals, the `Realizing System' which describes procedures, processes and organization, and the `Actors' System' which implements and boosts all the processes. Each one exists only through a series of successive models, elaborated at predefined dates of the project called `key-points'. These systems evolve with time and under often-unpredictable circumstances and the models have to take it into account. At these key-points, each model is compared to reality and the difference between the predicted and realized tasks is evaluated in order to define the data for the next model. This model can be applied to any kind of projects.

  1. Adult Literacy: Policies, Programs and Practices. Lessons Learned. Final Report = Alphabetisation des adultes: politiques, programmes et pratiques. Etude bilan. Rapport final.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    Studies and reports examining the problems associated with adult literacy and efforts to address those problems were reviewed to identify lessons for adult literacy programs in Canada and elsewhere. Low literacy levels were linked to above-average rates of personal and/or learning difficulties, low self-esteem, associated social problems, and…

  2. Education bilingue et education biculturelle: Tour d'horizon sur les politiques contemporaines (Bilingual and Bicultural Education: A General Survey of Current Policy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, William Francis

    This paper notes the progress made in many countries towards the use of two or three languages in children's education. It is recommended that bilingual education focus on more than linguistic activities and include the study of the history and culture of all languages involved. This combination of bilingual and bicultural education aids in…

  3. Admission Requirements to Canadian Faculties of Medicine and Their Selection Policies = Conditions d'Admission aux Facultes de Medecine Canadiennes et Leurs Politiques de Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Information is presented to help applicants to Canadian medical colleges realistically assess their chances for gaining admission. The guide is also intended for career counselors in high schools and higher education. One section provides statistics on the following characteristics that are associated with being selected: sex, age, Medical College…

  4. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  5. Internet Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  6. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  7. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and differentiated activities which involve both…

  8. On the performance of updating Stochastic Dynamic Programming policy using Ensemble Streamflow Prediction in a snow-covered region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A.; Pascal, C.; Leconte, R.

    2014-12-01

    Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) is known to be an effective technique to find the optimal operating policy of hydropower systems. In order to improve the performance of SDP, this project evaluates the impact of re-updating the policy at every time step by using Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP). We present a case study of the Kemano's hydropower system on the Nechako River in British Columbia, Canada. Managed by Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA), this system is subject to large streamflow volumes in spring due to important amount of snow depth during the winter season. Therefore, the operating policy should not only maximize production but also minimize the risk of flooding. The hydrological behavior of the system is simulated with CEQUEAU, a distributed and deterministic hydrological model developed by the Institut national de la recherche scientifique - Eau, Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE) in Quebec, Canada. On each decision time step, CEQUEAU is used to generate ESP scenarios based on historical meteorological sequences and the current state of the hydrological model. These scenarios are used into the SDP to optimize the new release policy for the next time steps. This routine is then repeated over the entire simulation period. Results are compared with those obtained by using SDP on historical inflow scenarios.

  9. Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

  10. Pegram Lecture: Science Policy & Current Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Marburger, III

    2008-11-18

    Drawing on his experience as a research scientist, academic administrator, national laboratory director and presidential science advisor, Marburger focuses on the intellectual machinery of science policy and current policy issues.

  11. Space Policy and Humanities Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2005-05-01

    In his 14 January 2004 speech on the future of space exploration, U.S. President George W. Bush proposed a return to the Moon followed by ``human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond.'' Bush's proposal called for robotic missions and new manned space vehicles to replace an aging set of space shuttles, and sought a new justification for space exploration. In the words of former NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, in The Vision for Space Exploration, this plan is not ``merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that might be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophic questions.'' Bush's proposal stimulated renewed reflection on the goals of our nation's space policy and on the means (financial and otherwise) for achieving these goals. A return to such first-order questioning of our goals for space has been long overdue. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board, which was convened by NASA in 2003 following the shuttle disaster, described ``a lack, over the past three decades, of any national mandate providing NASA a compelling mission requiring human presence in space'' [Keiper, 2003].

  12. Operations Policy Manual, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council's (TEAC's) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Contents include: (1) Policies Related to TEAC Members; (2) Policies Related…

  13. Note des Éditeurs scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, P.

    Cette série d'articles est une revue de résultats expérimentaux sur différents "fluides" moléculaires, dans lesquels la cohésion est due à des forces de Van der Waals et à des liaisons hydrogène, l'eau étant un de ces fluides. Ces résultats sont présentés de façon à justifier expérimentalement un modèle original, non extensif, des propriétés de ces fluides, et l'ensemble se présente sous la forme de trois articles décrivant le modèle, suivis chacun par un article le comparant aux résultats expérimentaux publiés par de nombreux auteurs. Le caractère non extensif des propriétés physiques des fluides est choquant, contraire à beaucoup d'idées établies, il semble n'avoir en sa faveur qu'un argument, la comparaison avec un nombre de résultats expérimentaux assez grand pour que l'effet du hasard soit difficilement soupçonnable. En particulier, les écarts entre des résultats de mesures faits par des auteurs différents dans des conditions différentes sont expliqués, le sérieux et la compétence des différents expérimentateurs ne sont plus mis en doute : mais l'interprétation de ces résultats avec un modèle extensif non adapté est seule mise en cause. Les modèles extensifs étant utilisés systématiquement, au delà des expériences de physiciens, dans les calculs d'ingénieurs, et dans la modélisation d'appareils qui fonctionnent et de phénomènes naturels observés par tout le monde, il fallait expliquer pourquoi on pouvait renoncer à l'extensivité. Les raisons du succès pratique des modèles extensifs sont données, d'abord dans le cas des nématiques, puis dans celui des liquides ordinaires, et c'est ce qui rend l'ensemble cohérent, tant avec les mesures physiques fines qu'avec les observations quotidiennes. Il n'en reste pas moins que si l'interprétation donnée dans cette série d'articles est généralisable, une justification théorique du modèle utilisé devient nécessaire. Pour ce qui est des propriétés d'équilibre, une séparation de l'énergie libre en énergie libre de volume et en énergie libre de surface devrait donner les mêmes résultats ; par contre les choses deviennent troublantes dès que l'on passe aux coefficients de transport, c'est-à-dire à l'aspect macroscopique de la dynamique moléculaire. Il y a là un écart notable avec les conceptions courantes, ce qui rend très surprenante la lecture de ces articles. On peut mentionner la liste des problèmes théoriques posés par la description phénoménologique qui est celle de cette série d'articles : la généralisation de lois d'échelle en dehors de zones critiques n'est pas absolument nouvelle, par contre la simplicité des lois reliant l'exposant v à la température pose problème ; le sens des temps de relaxation utilisés est sans doute également à préciser. Enfin les modes considérés semblent n'intervenir dans les propriétés thermodynamiques que par un facteur par mode, comme si seulement l'énergie potentielle devait intervenir, les termes cinétiques ne participant pas vraiment aux transitions de phase. Tout cela pose donc problème, et l'on peut se demander si un pareil modèle peut être compatible avec tout ce qui est connu par ailleurs en physique statistique. Mais s'il rend bien compte de beaucoup de résultats expérimentaux, ce sont ces derniers qui seraient en difficulté avec la mécanique statistique. Il a donc semblé préférable de publier le modèle, sa justification expérimentale et de poser quelques problèmes, tant aux théoriciens, qui pourraient expliquer pourquoi un tel modèle rend compte de résultats observés, qu'aux expérimentateurs, qui pourraient reprendre certaines mesures, et délimiter le caractère plus ou moins général du modèle.

  14. What Are "National Information Policies?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Forest Woody, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Examines basic concepts; policy instruments, language, and processes; information, basic-information, and sector-specific information policies; form, format, and content; information policies related to information resources; policy conflicts; national and government information policies; national information infrastructures; classification of…

  15. Developing policies and procedures.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Susan A

    2006-11-01

    The development of policies and procedures is an integral part of the occupational health nurse's role. Policies and procedures serve as the foundation for the occupational health service and are based on its vision, mission, culture, and values. The design and layout selected for the policies and procedures should be simple, consistent, and easy to use. The same format should be used for all existing and new policies and procedures. Policies and procedures should be reviewed periodically based on a specified time frame (i.e., annually). However, some policies may require a more frequent review if they involve rapidly changing external standards, ethical issues, or emerging exposures. PMID:17124968

  16. [Healthy pharmaceutical policy].

    PubMed

    González Pier, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Today, the pharmaceutical industry is experiencing a profound transition. Globalization and technological advancement represent the principal pressures for change in the market, where it is increasingly more difficult for this type of industry to efficiently recoup the growing cost of innovation. Mexico needs to analyze the policy implications of these change factors and promote, in the pharmaceutical market, policies that maximize health gains on invested resources. Pharmaceutical policy offers a rare example for a complementary approach between a sound health policy and an efficient economic policy; that is, a "healthy pharmaceutical policy."

  17. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    PubMed

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy. PMID:20025789

  18. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    PubMed

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  19. Do Policies Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Beth; Sanlo, Ronni L.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of nondiscrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity and addresses how such policies might be used to improve campus climates for LGBT students, faculty, and staff.

  20. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  1. Advocacy & Lobbying: Influencing Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This issue contains nine papers dealing with influencing public policy through advocacy and lobbying. "Influencing Public Policy" (Rajesh Tandon) looks at opportunities nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have for influencing public policy and constraints to advocacy. "Recent Changes in the Global Aid Environment" (Sunimal Fernando) considers…

  2. Essays in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jed Thomas

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effects of education policy on academic achievement. I focus on state and federal policies that seek to influence how teachers and school administrators educate their students, and I evaluate those policies' effects on academic achievement. Chapter 1 examines the effects of a compositional shift in a school's…

  3. Language Policy and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Antony J.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  4. Materials Selection Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulsa City-County Library System, OK.

    The emphasis of the revised Tulsa (Oklahoma) City-County Library System selection policy is on meeting needs of the community rather than balancing the collection in any one library. The policy includes the "Library Bill of Rights" and covers objectives, responsibilities, maintenance of the collection, controversial materials, gifts, policy in…

  5. International Air Transport Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1972-01-01

    The actions of the Civil Aviation Board in providing assistance and advice to the State Department regarding international air transport policy are discussed. The policies and guidelines of the Civil Aviation Board are defined. The relationship with the policies of the Executive Branch of the Government and the interpretations of the Department of Transportation are reported.

  6. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  7. Toward transparent clinical policies.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Richard N; Marcuse, Edgar K; Moyer, Virginia A; Neuspiel, Daniel R; Hodgson, Elizabeth Susan; Glade, Gordon; Harbaugh, Norman; Miller, Marlene R; Sevilla, Xavier; Simpson, Lisa; Takata, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    Clinical policies of professional societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics are valued highly, not only by clinicians who provide direct health care to children but also by many others who rely on the professional expertise of these organizations, including parents, employers, insurers, and legislators. The utility of a policy depends, in large part, on the degree to which its purpose and basis are clear to policy users, an attribute known as the policy's transparency. This statement describes the critical importance and special value of transparency in clinical policies, guidelines, and recommendations; helps identify obstacles to achieving transparency; and suggests several approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  8. Federal water policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Federal Water Policy is a statement of the federal government's philosophy and goals for the nation's freshwater resources, and of the proposed ways of achieving them in cooperation with provincial governments. This document provides an overview of the policy, then presents details on the policy itself, the strategies for achievement of that policy, methods of applying it, and specific policy statements. These statements cover such topics as the management of toxic chemicals, water quality, ground water contamination, municipal water and sewer infrastructure, safe drinking water, wetlands preservation, hydroelectric development, navigation, native water rights, and Canada-US boundary management, among others.

  9. Future American energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    People from businesses, public life, public advocacy groups, and experts on international energy met in February 1980 to explore the complex issues of energy policy at a conference entitled Energy Future: Policies and Consequences. The book begins with Crist's overview of current options. David Stockman then examines damaging energy myths and their effects in producing misguided energy policies. Other authors explore the social implications of energy policy, the failure of oil-company management and government to keep energy prices in line with costs, the economic implications of domestic energy policy, international attitudes toward US policy, and the implications of alternative energy sources and conservation. Laffer describes how American presidential economic policies differ from public perceptions. The book concludes with the hope of achieving a future balance of environmental concerns and increased production.

  10. General Enforcement Policy Compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-16

    The attached documents contained in the report, are an update of the General Enforcement Policy Compendium. The update consists of policies which have been added, revised or deleted since the issuance of the June 11, 1987, update. Some of the policies are: Issuance of Enforcement Considerations for Drafting and Reviewing Regulations and Guidelines for Developing New or Revised Compliance and Enforcement Strategies, Procedures and Responsibilities for Updating and Maintaining the Enforcement Docket, Final Guidance on Use of Alternative Dispute Resolution Techniques in Enforcement Action, Processing of Consent Decrees, Procedures for Assessing Stipulated Penalties, Case Management Plans, and Guidance on Certification of Compliance with Enforcement Agreements. There are also modifications to existing policies.

  11. Federalism and health policy.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  12. How Policy Improves Health.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols; Feit, Marvin D

    2015-01-01

    A discussion of health equity should be intricately examined in policy and practice discourse about the healthcare industry. This article addresses health equity with strategies to institutionalize it through policy implementation. This discourse is relevant to social work because social workers are charged with elucidating conditions that are maniacal and disadvantageous to racial groups, undocumented workers, immigrants and women. Social workers engaged in policy practice should consider how these stakeholders are excluded from health equity, because of the lack of transformative policy implementation that addresses industry practices that encourage disparity and maintain equity. This article hopes to provide a helpful view of health equity.

  13. NASA scientific integrity policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 16 December, NASA became the latest U.S. federal agency to issue a scientific integrity policy. It was issued less than 10 days after the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued its policy on the same topic (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011). The agency policies respond to earlier White House memos on the topic issued in 2009 and 2010. NASA is the fifth federal department or agency that has finalized a scientific integrity policy; the Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation also have finalized their policies. As Eos went to press, 13 other policies were in near-final draft form, including those from the departments of Agriculture and Energy; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Labor had indicated that they expected to submit their policies to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) soon, OSTP director John Holdren wrote in a 21 December note on the office's Web site.

  14. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  15. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a better job of…

  16. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  17. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  18. Neutrality in Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The unavoidability of language makes it critical that language policies appeal to some notion of language neutrality as part of their rationale, in order to assuage concerns that the policies might otherwise be unduly discriminatory. However, the idea of language neutrality is deeply ideological in nature, since it is not only an attempt to treat…

  19. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  20. Social Policy Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Lonnie, Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    This document is comprised of the four 2002 issues of a publication providing a forum for scholarly reviews and discussion of developmental research and implications for social policies affecting children. The topics featured in each of the issues are: (1) "The Effects of Welfare Reform Policies on Children" (Pamela A. Morris); (2) "At What Age…

  1. Social Policy Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nancy G., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Each of the four issues of this newsletter published in 1993 consists of one article dealing with a particular policy debate. Number 1, "Canadian Special Education Policies: Children with Learning Disabilities in a Bilingual and Multicultural Society" (Linda S. Siegel and Judith Wiener), discusses social and cultural factors affecting the…

  2. Intercultural Policies and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  3. Analysing the Policy Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humes, Walter M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the recent development of educational policy analysis as a research field within Scottish education. Discusses "inside" and "outside" approaches to policy analysis; the value of theoretical models for making sense of source material; the potential of discourse analysis, illustrated by reference to Foucault and Lyotard; and the need for…

  4. Income and Employment Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, William; And Others

    This paper isolates critical rural economic development issues and identifies needed federal policy interventions. Despite a long history of federal efforts to improve rural economic conditions, recent policies and programs aimed at stimulating rural development have had little impact. Reasons include: (1) narrowly focused economic development…

  5. Basic Policy Studies Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, William D., Ed.; O'Leary, Michael K., Ed.

    This publication will help high school and college students develop policy analysis skills and techniques and apply these to important public issues. A public policy issue is defined as a disagreement between two or more elements of a society over the way that the society's government deals with a given situation. There are six chapters. Chapter…

  6. Distance Education Policy Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State System of Higher Education, Eugene.

    This description of the policy framework for Oregon's distance education program gives an overview of the progress to date, outlines five areas in which policy must be developed, and identifies a number of priorities among those areas. Progress is reported in the following areas: several initiatives that incorporate new telecommunications and…

  7. Government Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearstyne, Bruce W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss government information policy in context of technology and electronic records; policies on information resources management from OMB (Office of Management and Budget); state information resources, including Council of State Governments (CSG); state record laws and preservation of archival records; and management of electronic…

  8. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  9. Policy as Assemblage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of her search for appropriate tools to conceptualise policy work. She had set out to explore the relationship between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Australia's education policy, but early interview data…

  10. Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Mary

    In this document the collection goals of the William Paterson New Jersey State College library are enumerated and the policies and procedures of the library regarding the selection and acquisition of different types of materials are summarized. Following a short introduction to the function of collection development policies is a general statement…

  11. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  12. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  13. A Web Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Sound technology policies can spell the difference between an effective website and an online nightmare. An effective web development policy addresses six key areas: roles and responsibilities, content/educational value, privacy and safety, adherence to copyright laws, technical standards, and use of commercial sites and services. (MLH)

  14. Procedures and Policies Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    This document was developed by the Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker Library Collection Management Department to provide policies and procedural guidelines for the cataloging and processing of bibliographic materials. This document includes policies for cataloging monographs, serials, government documents, machine-readable data…

  15. Operations Policy Manual, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council, Inc. An index is also included.

  16. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  17. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  18. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  19. Public Policy and You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  20. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  1. Geoscience and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Many current public policy issues have a geoscience component: climate change, natural hazards, energy, and mineral resources to name just a few. In addition, Congress makes decisions that directly affect scientists, such as funding allocations and visa and travel policy. Yet few geoscientists are engaged in the policy-making process. Members of Congress have called on scientists to become more active, including Ph.D. physicist and former-Representative Vernon Ehlers (R-MI). In an address at the 2010 AAAS Forum on Science and Technology Policy, he told scientists, "The gulf between the scientifically minded and those who are not scientifically minded is still tremendous. I think we are keeping far too quiet about what we know and how we would go about solving problems. We have so much to offer this country à solutions to various difficulties." This talk will provide information on avenues for geoscientists to more effectively engage in the public policy arena.

  2. Analyse des politiques d'evaluation de l'enseignement des universites canadiennes (Analysis of the Politics of Instructional Evaluation in Canadian Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Huguette; Trahan, Michel

    1988-01-01

    A survey of Canadian university policies concerning faculty evaluation found that institutions using evaluation for administrative purposes, with the student questionnaire the primary instrument. Peer review, written reports, and faculty interviews are also used. Differences between francophone and anglophone institutions and between eastern and…

  3. Research in geosciences policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    The general task was to look beyond the adverse physical impacts and to defining the policy problem. In order for policy actions to be effective, they must address the right policy problems, which will be different from and broader than the physical problems. We will work on defining the policy problems with a view to indicating how practical solutions might be implemented. In particular, public officials need advice on what should be said, and done, and for what purposes. That advice needs to be based on systematic analysis of: (1) the scholarly literature in the social sciences, and related disciplines; (2) the charging content of the policy debate at the center of attention; and (3) how citizens perceive and understand issues related to global change. We will conduct this analysis. Chapter 1 and 2 each reports work on defining the policy problem and analyzing the scholarly literature. Chapters 3 and 4, respectively, address the policy debate and citizen viewpoints in issues related to global change.

  4. Science policy fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To encourage scientists to contribute to public policy issues that involve the natural sciences, the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., has established a Science Policy Fellowship program, slated to begin with the 1981-1982 academic year. The program will bring senior scientists to Washington for 1 year to work with the Brookings staff on science policy issues.Fellowships will be awarded annually to three scientists from among candidates nominated by an advisory committee, by departments of natural science at universities and private research institutions, and by the public sector. The new program is supported by a 3-year grant from the Sloan Foundation.

  5. Success in the Works. A Policy Paper. A Labour Force Development Strategy for Canada = Le Nouveau Mode d'Emploi. Enonce de Politique. Une Strategie de Mise en Valeur de la Main-d'Oeuvre Canadienne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Employment and Immigration Commission, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document provides the same report in English and French. Part 1 of the document outlines the challenges and opportunities of the Canadian labor force and of government programs, such as Unemployment Insurance (UI). Part 2 describes the labor force development strategy, the Canadian government's plan to respond to the challenges of market…

  6. For Education and Training Policies Which Foster Competitiveness and Employment: UNICE's Seven Priorities = Pour les Politiques d'Education et de Formation au Service de la Competitivite et de l'Emploi: Les Sept Priorites de l'UNICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe, Brussels (Belgium).

    Qualifications and skills are of fundamental economic and social importance. In a context marked by increased globalization of economies and technological development, European companies are faced with far-reaching changes. Because companies need a highly skilled, competent, and adaptable workforce, there is a need to develop strategies for…

  7. Bilingualism: research and policy.

    PubMed

    McCardle, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Bilingualism, commonplace throughout the world, is not well accepted or supported in many parts of the United States. Education policies and practices regarding bilingualism are often based on myths and attitudes rather than facts, despite scientific evidence on both the disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. Based on a brief overview of this evidence, I assert that we should embrace more informed policies and practice. Researchers should also work toward new and more complex research approaches to delve more deeply into how the brain organizes and reorganizes with language learning. Despite the continuing need for more research, we know enough to put in place (and study) informed policies and practices that can benefit all children. Now is the time for evidence-based practice, evidence-based policies, and integrative research on bilingualism and education.

  8. International environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the global international movement for protection of the human environment. It describes the expanding dimensions of international environmental policy, clarifies that policy's present status, and provides a record of events of continuing historical significance. The author calls attention to the need for international agreements and proposals for such vital global environmental issues as climate change, disintegration of the stratospheric ozone layer, and long-range trans-boundary air pollution.

  9. National fire management policy

    SciTech Connect

    Wakimoto, R.H. )

    1990-10-01

    A Fire Management Policy Review Team was established in 1988, with representatives from the US Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Indian Affairs and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, with the purpose of reviewing current policies governing national park and wilderness fire management. The author outlines the goals of the review team and discusses the seven final issues that summarized the team's findings.

  10. The Normative Effects of Higher Education Policy in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Elise

    2012-01-01

    This student survey was a response to the French youth unrest in 2005 and 2006. It considers the degree to which French higher and secondary education institutions create social cohesion. Focusing on three distinct higher-education institutions: "L'institut d'etudes politiques de Paris" (Sciences Po), "Ecole Normale Superieure," Paris 8, and a…

  11. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  12. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  13. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  14. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  15. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  16. Policies of Inclusion

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    The racial politics of immigration have punctuated national discussions about immigration at different periods in US history, particularly when concerns about losing an American way of life or American population have coincided with concerns about infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the main theme running through American immigration policy is one of inclusion. The United States has historically been a nation reliant on immigrant labor and, accordingly, the most consequential public policies regarding immigration have responded to disease and its economic burdens by seeking to control the behavior of immigrants within our borders rather than excluding immigrants at our borders. PMID:15053996

  17. Assessment and Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Virginia B.

    1975-01-01

    Because of increased access of postsecondary education in the 1950's and 1960's, higher education cost analysis gained importance. Attempts have been made to develop a standard unit cost, but it is hard to see unit cost accounting by itself as a valuable tool for public accountability or policy making. For these purposes a cost-effectiveness ratio…

  18. Triage as Urban Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcuse, Peter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Triage policy is the exclusion of severely declining urban areas from services and programs on the grounds that the intensity of their needs cannot be met and the provision of services is therefore inefficient. Community groups must insist that severity of need, human benefits, and community protection be the priorities for allocation of funds.…

  19. New pipeline policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefgen, J.R. Jr.; Colucci, D.M.

    1996-04-01

    This article outlines regulations addressing the sale, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas in Mexico. The regulations were issued in November 1995 by the Comision Reguladora de Energia. The major policy decisions of the regulations are summarized. The current role of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), the state owned oil and gas entity, which formerly monopolized the Mexican industry, is discussed.

  20. Policy. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles about educational and school policies, primarily related to equality of educational opportunity. "Texas Legislature Considers Much for Education, Accomplishes Little" (Albert Cortez, Anna Alicia Romero) summarizes educational legislation considered by the Texas legislature in the session ending in June 1997.…

  1. Education Policy. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational policy in the Texas legislature in relation to student retention, Internet access, and sexual harassment. "1999 Texas Legislative Session--End of an Era?" (Albert Cortez, Maria Robledo Montecel) examines educational equity issues facing legislators: school funding, including the…

  2. Florida: State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This brief is one in a series highlighting state policies, regulations, practices, laws, or other tools intended to create the necessary conditions for school and/or district turnaround. Each brief includes an overview of the relevant turnaround tool, its development process, its impact, and lessons learned that could assist other education…

  3. Mississippi: State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This brief is one in a series highlighting state policies, regulations, practices, laws, or other tools intended to create the necessary conditions for school and/or district turnaround. Each brief includes an overview of the relevant turnaround tool, its development process, its impact, and lessons learned that could assist other education…

  4. Panarchy and environmental policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sustainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems is critical. Sustainability likely must occur via the institutions...

  5. Bilingualism: Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCardle, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Bilingualism, commonplace throughout the world, is not well accepted or supported in many parts of the United States. Education policies and practices regarding bilingualism are often based on myths and attitudes rather than facts, despite scientific evidence on both the disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. Based on a brief overview of…

  6. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  7. Issues in Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurow, Jane H.; And Others

    In response to the growing importance of information issues in regional, national, and international forums, these papers on information policy were prepared by National Telecommunications and Information Administration consultants and staff members during 1979 and 1980 to provide a foundation for review, public analysis, and debate. Two types of…

  8. Technology Policy and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bruce

    1983-01-01

    Current social and economic problems in the United Kingdom are placed in the context of long-term trends in labor economics and the impact of new technology. The relationship of technological change and economic recovery is analyzed. Policy implications and the university's role are discussed. (MSE)

  9. Policy oscillation is overshooting.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Paul

    2014-04-01

    A majority of approximate dynamic programming approaches to the reinforcement learning problem can be categorized into greedy value function methods and value-based policy gradient methods. The former approach, although fast, is well known to be susceptible to the policy oscillation phenomenon. We take a fresh view to this phenomenon by casting, within the context of non-optimistic policy iteration, a considerable subset of the former approach as a limiting special case of the latter. We explain the phenomenon in terms of this view and illustrate the underlying mechanism with artificial examples. We also use it to derive the constrained natural actor-critic algorithm that can interpolate between the aforementioned approaches. In addition, it has been suggested in the literature that the oscillation phenomenon might be subtly connected to the grossly suboptimal performance in the Tetris benchmark problem of all attempted approximate dynamic programming methods. Based on empirical findings, we offer a hypothesis that might explain the inferior performance levels and the associated policy degradation phenomenon, and which would partially support the suggested connection. Finally, we report scores in the Tetris problem that improve on existing dynamic programming based results by an order of magnitude. PMID:24491826

  10. China's Youth Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, K. P.

    As a central feature of China's current domestic policy, rural resettlement is considered a vital strategy for combating revisionism, consolidating the proletariat dictatorship, restricting bourgeois rights, narrowing differences, strengthening the countryside, and promoting agricultural development. Since rural China has suffered from excessive…

  11. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  12. Policy Update. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the drastic revision of the Texas education code undertaken during the 1995 state legislative session. "Education Policy Reform: Key Points for Districts" (Albert Cortez, Mikki Symonds) outlines critical issues in the legislation that have an impact on educational quality: charter schools exempt from state regulations;…

  13. Astronomy and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomy is an unusual science in that almost all of what we study can only be passively observed. We enjoy tremendous public support for our research and education, both domestically and abroad. Our discoveries in cosmology and exoplanets have captured world-wide attention, as have stunning images from the Great Observatories of NASA, and ground based telescopes. Despite the passive nature of our science, it touches humanity profoundly. There are groups of amateur astronomers in every conceivable country who meet to look at the sky. Almost one billion people from 150 countries participated in The International Year of Astronomy 2009. No other science reaches humanity as ours does. In a recent poll, it was found that the among all the things the US does abroad, US science is seen by the world as our most positive face. We as astronomers can use this good will to affect positive changes in the world through public policy. I would like to explore how astronomy has impacted public policy, especially foreign policy, and what more we can do in the future. I also hope to encourage astronomers that a career path into public policy is an excellent use of a Ph.D. in astronomy.

  14. Open-Door Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses an open-door policy and innovative program of Thorncliffe Park Public School, located in the heart of the diverse immigrant community in Toronto, that greatly expands community use of public schools. Community use of schools is hardly a new concept in Canada or in the United States, where schools have traditionally been the…

  15. Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, John S.

    This document outlines the collection development policies for the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education (ENC). It details the clientele the collection is intended to serve, the scope and boundary of the collection, the methods employed to identify and acquire resources for the collection, the selection and…

  16. Academic Bankruptcy. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Amy Berk; Lewis, Anne C.

    In an effort to improve student achievement in low-performing districts, 22 states have developed academic bankruptcy laws, allowing them to intervene in districts that consistently fail to satisfy state education performance standards. This policy brief presents an overview of these statutes. The text offers a comparative summary of state…

  17. Collection Development Policy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Philip, Jr., Ed.

    This collection development policy paper incorporates guidelines contributed by all university academic departments, as well as by members of the Library Learning Center professional staff. An alphabetical index provides access to major subject areas and subdivisions, which are assigned one of four level designators indicating the depth of…

  18. Costing for Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Cost behavior analysis, a costing process that can assist managers in estimating how certain institutional costs change in response to volume, policy, and environmental factors, is described. The five steps of this approach are examined, and the application of cost behavior analysis at four college-level settings is documented. The institutions…

  19. User Centric Policy Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Gorrell P.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use, in general, and online social networking sites, in particular, are experiencing tremendous growth with hundreds of millions of active users. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of privacy information and content online. Protecting this information is a challenge. Access control policy composition is complex, laborious and…

  20. Language (Policy) Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, E. B.; Mulligan, E.; Hernandez-Saca, D.

    2011-01-01

    Public education has a vital role in ensuring that this and subsequent generations are successful in a global, multilingual economy. In this What Matters brief, we examine how teachers, students, parents, and communities in our nation's schools can create rich opportunities for students to learn. Language (Policy) Matters! includes information and…

  1. Critical Endowment Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie

    2007-01-01

    Governing boards and administrations wrestle with complex endowment policy decisions that will determine current institutional quality and future institutional viability. This chapter presents data from the 2006 NACUBO Endowment Study (published in 2007), divided into the following issues of endowment management: historical returns; endowment…

  2. Towards Responsive Building Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, John

    A synthesis of ideas and proposals that have emerged in the course of recent Programme on Educational Building activities places emphasis on issues relating to the economic management of existing building resources. In recent years the development and administration of educational building policies have been affected by changes in the organization…

  3. School Construction. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Sara

    This paper discusses the policy and political issues surrounding school construction, and it illustrates how infrastructure banks would work to address this challenge. The paper explores the problems of overcrowding and crumbling schools, details the struggle many communities and states have in expanding their efforts to solve these problems, and…

  4. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences,"…

  5. Embodying Policy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces some of the key concepts that we have used in our research to help illuminate the multiple and different ways in which apparently ubiquitous health policies relating to obesity, exercise, diet and health are mediated and shaped both globally and nationally, as well as within regional, school and other contexts. The analyses…

  6. Evidence and Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom; Jochems, Wim; Moos, Lejf; van Zanten, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    The EERJ roundtable took as its point of departure the experience of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) in carrying out policy research. CERI has conducted four reviews of national educational research and development (in New Zealand, England, Mexico and…

  7. Science and Public Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, Thomas

    2012-11-28

    The United States faces many issues that involve science. Issues ranging from climate change to nano-technology, from human genomics to modified food crops. What is the role that science plays in determining what the public policy for these issues should be? How as scientists should we respond to requests for advice?

  8. Public Policy Agenda, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) public policy agenda, rooted in an uncompromising commitment to opportunity for the nation's students, is expressed through the following core principles: (1) Higher education is a common good that provides significant benefits to individuals and society as a whole; (2) America's…

  9. Social Policy Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nancy G., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the four 1999 issues of a publication providing a forum for scholarly reviews and discussion of developmental research and its implications for the social policies affecting children. The topics of the issues are: (1) "Beyond 'Giving Science Away': How University-Community Partnerships Inform Youth Programs, Research,…

  10. Population policies and development.

    PubMed

    Stamper, B M

    1984-01-01

    This article critically examines 4 conceptual frameworks for Third World population policies: the family planning approach, beyond family planning measures, the development hypothesis and transition theory, and the distributive hypothesis and fertility. Although family planning is a basic human right and can lead to lower levels of population and improved maternal-child health, this approach alone does not always have a meaningful demographic impact. If high fertility is economically rational from the family viewpoint, the demand for family planning services will remain marginal. Other policies seek to go beyond the family planning approach and to directly influence the demand for reproductive control through provision of old age support, monetary incentives for reduced fertility or stringent and coercive measures. However, such policies can have adverse distributional effects and directly penalize the children of large families. The demographic transition theory lacks a measurable and specifiable causation mechanism, giving it little predictive value. It may be that economic growth increases fertility in the short run and reduces fertility only over the long run through indirect effects. The key issue is how the rate of growth is distributed across the population. The development and demographic transition hypothesis focuses mainly on aggregate economic and social measures rather than on their underlying distributions. The distributive hypothesis implies policies that promote a greater level of investment in human capital, with a wide distributional emphasis. Diffused investment in human capital is believed to indirectly influence the desire to control fertility. It is concluded that all 4 conceptual frameworks for analyzing fertility-related policies for the Third World are inadequate or seriously flawed. They are not pragmatic, do not identify or assign weights to the crucial causal variables, fail to specify thresholds or critical minimum levels, discount

  11. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda. What is Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    This article is related to the impacts on teachers of the increasing marginalization of their voices in educational policy making and policy debates. Policy influences the nature of teaching and learning and if teachers are to re-centre teachers' voices and combat the neo-liberal agenda underpinning public education, they must construct their own…

  12. Economic Development Policy: Explaining Policy Preferences among Competing Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spindler, Charles J.; Forrester, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on political and bureaucratic factors that retard the reform of U.S. economic development policy. Several models for economic development are examined, as are the policy preferences among them. A typology is presented of different development policies integrating the various political, bureaucratic, and environmental factors. (GLR)

  13. Following Policy: Networks, Network Ethnography and Education Policy Mobilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the "case" of educational reform in India, this paper explores the emergence of both new trans-national spaces of policy and new intra-national spaces of policy and how they are related together, and how policies move across and between these spaces and the relationships that enable and facilitate such movement. The paper is an…

  14. Guiding Policy Principles for Higher Education. Policy Note. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The principal priorities for the Group of Eight (Go8) with regard to higher education policy are coherence and sustainability. Good public policy is based on principle and backed by evidence. This paper offers an interlinked set of principles for the development of higher education policy in Australia.

  15. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  16. Student Papers on Macroeconomic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Rendigs

    1984-01-01

    A project for a seminar course in macroeconomic policy which involved students in writing, presenting, and discussing a position paper on a specific policy issue is described. Students rated the exercise very highly. (RM)

  17. Early Years Policy

    PubMed Central

    Waldfogel, Jane; Washbrook, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the role that early years policy might play in narrowing educational attainment gaps. We begin by examining gaps in school readiness between low-, middle-, and high-income children, drawing on data from new large and nationally representative birth cohort studies in the US and UK. We find that sizable income-related gaps in school readiness are present in both countries before children enter school and then decompose these gaps to identify the factors that account for the poorer scores of low-income children. We then consider what role early years policy could play in tackling these gaps, drawing on the best available evidence to identify promising programs. PMID:21731827

  18. Globalisation and social policy.

    PubMed

    Langmore, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses six major themes: that economic and social issues are closely interdependent and that the appropriate stance is to work on both together, simultaneously; that though the threats from globalisation have been exaggerated, there can be substantial costs as well as considerable benefits; that constraints on national policy are significant but are less severe than is commonly considered; that the vitality-the vigour-of national and international political processes must be increased to cope effectively with the changes which are underway; that the private sector, unions and civil society have crucial roles in the provision of services and in advocating socially responsible values, standards and policies; and that one of the most effective means of addressing the erosion of national autonomy from globalisation is for countries to cooperate in setting and implementing shared objectives and international standards and establishing more global public goods.

  19. [Men's health policy].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Eduardo; Gomes, Romeu; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Moura, Erly Catarina de; Carvalho, Sarah de Araújo; Silva, Simione Fátima Cesar da

    2012-12-01

    The paper discusses the articulation among epidemiological information systems, scientific production and men's health policies. Three secondary sources were used: data from the Ministry of Health (Mortality and Hospital Information Systems, Surveillance of Protection and Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases through Telephone Survey), papers published in SciELO, and documents of the Ministry of Health regarding men's health. The results indicate that, in terms of morbidity and mortality, men are more exposed to risks than women. In the scientific production, studies focus predominantly on injuries and diseases that affect exclusively the male population, to the detriment of other health-related aspects. Legal documents highlight the epidemiological panorama of male morbidity and mortality and the policy-making methodology. Researchers need to expand the use of data from the epidemiological information systems of the Ministry of Health and to incorporate the gender relational perspective critically.

  20. AAPL and sociopolitical policy.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Roy J

    2004-01-01

    It has been part of the role of medical organizations in Western nations to develop position statements on various sociopolitical issues. Both the American Psychiatric Association and the American Medical Association have established position statements related to social policy, including capital punishment. In 2001, AAPL endorsed a moratorium on capital punishment. Recent calls for AAPL to endorse a recommendation to abolish the death penalty have produced further discussion and a diversity of opinion. The absence of a clear process to develop policy within AAPL complicates both the nature and the resolution of the discussions. Three questions are posed that will help AAPL shape this debate: (1) Do we have anything to contribute? (2) Is there a position consistent with our values? (3) Would a position promote or harm the goals and mandate of the organization?

  1. Developing a policy manual.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Tracey A

    2013-01-01

    Do you really need to have a policy and procedure in the office? Frequently they are seen sitting on the shelf, collecting dust. The answer is yes for a number of very important reasons. A policy and procedure manual is a tool to set guidelines and expectations on the basis of the mission and vision of the office. A well-written manual is a powerful training tool for new staff so they can get a feel for the office culture. Furthermore, it is a provincial or state legislative requirement that can reduce management's concern about potential legal issues or problems. If an office does not have a manual to set guidelines, the employees may be forced to make their own decisions to solve problems, which can often result in confusion, inconsistencies, and mistakes. PMID:23446507

  2. Navigating the Seas of Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Stephanie; Kennedy, Steve; McAlonan, Susan; Hotchkiss, Heather

    As the sun, moon, and stars helped sea captains to navigate, policy (defined as a formalized idea to encourage change) indicates general direction and speed but does not establish a specific approach to achieve implementation. Formal and informal policies have advantages and disadvantages. These are steps in navigating policy formation: identify…

  3. Model Child Care Health Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan; Smith, Herberta

    Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, the model health policies presented in this report are intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the report presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following…

  4. Refocusing Government-Communications Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Ithiel de Sola; And Others

    In 1976, the Aspen Institute's Program on Communications and Society sponsored a series of Washington staff seminars on communications policy: "Policy Choices for the Information Age,""Government Telecommunications Research and Policy Development,""Problems of Regulating Specialized Telecommunications Common Carriers," and "Public Service Uses of…

  5. Systemic Educational Policy. Education Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.

    Issues in systemic educational policy are discussed in this paper, with a focus on improving student achievement. First, the limitations of the current educational policy as a means to improve student achievement are described, and a conceptual framework for systemic educational policy is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized…

  6. Government Policy, Saving and Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Several arguments that government policy--income redistribution and support of the poor, higher marginal income taxes, and social security--has depressed saving are found wanting. Also hard to sustain is the argument that investment demand has been depressed by tax policy. Current government policy will not improve saving and investment. (RM)

  7. Digital Citizenship Policy Development Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education leaders are re-examining acceptable use policies in light of the increasing use of highly mobile information technologies. While acceptable use policies were developed to manage and control behaviour, a digital citizenship policy takes a more comprehensive approach by recognizing the important role of education in preparing digital…

  8. Global Review of Agricultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report describes how governments throughout the world manage their economies and interact with their people, with special emphasis on how the agricultural sector is affected by changing government goals, policies, and programs. Policies and programs are described using information as of July 1987. The large country policy statements include…

  9. Educational Accountability and Policy Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, accountability policies have become more prominent in public K-12 education and have changed how teaching and learning are organized. It is less clear the extent to which these policies have altered the politics of education. This article begins to address that question through the lens of policy feedback. It identifies…

  10. Handbook of Education Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Gary, Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.; Plank, David N., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Educational policy continues to be of major concern. Policy debates about economic growth and national competitiveness, for example, commonly focus on the importance of human capital and a highly educated workforce. Defining the theoretical boundaries and methodological approaches of education policy research are the two primary themes of this…

  11. SCIENCE POLICY BULLETIN NUMBER 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAINARD, ROBERT W.

    THIS BULLETIN, PUBLISHED BIMONTHLY, REPORTS THE CURRENT LITERATURE IN THE AREA OF SCIENCE AND PUBLIC POLICY. THE COVERAGE ENCOMPASSES BOTH "POLICY FOR SCIENCE" AND "SCIENCE FOR POLICY" MATTERS. SCIENCE IS USED TO DENOTE ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY, AND SCIENCE. THE BULLETIN IS INTENDED FOR PERSONS ENGAGED IN STUDYING, FORMULATING, AND IMPLEMENTING…

  12. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  13. [Urbanization control policies in Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Syafrizal

    1987-06-01

    Urbanization policy in Indonesia is outlined. Elements of this policy include the issuing of residency permits for major urban areas, the migration program to assist jobless urban residents in moving to underpopulated areas, and rural development and the encouragement of growth in smaller urban centers. The effectiveness of existing policies in controlling urbanization is assessed. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  14. Psychologist as Policy-Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Michael J.

    Perhaps the most effective way to increase the utilization of behavioral science knowledge by policy-makers is for the behavioral scientist to become one. The psychologist who serves as a policy-maker becomes aware of the policy issues in addition to relevant empirical evidence. The author, a psychologist, relates his experience as a member of a…

  15. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  16. Science, Society and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  17. Swedish Family Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrstrom, Staffan

    1986-01-01

    Family policy remains one of the leading issues of Swedish domestic politics. All parties are agreed that families with children must be given a better deal in the wake of the economic crisis. But how is this to be done and how quickly can it be achieved? Is the expansion of day nursery facilities to be speeded up, or are parents to be given a…

  18. Nation hails population policy.

    PubMed

    1976-09-01

    The opinions of several individuals, representing the ''poorer and lesser educated'' strata of Indian society, concerning the National Population Policy announced by Doctor Karan Singh, Union Minister of Health and Family Planning are reviewed. Various steps like the proposals to raise the age of marriage and making early marriages a cognizable offense are well known and generally supported among the people - at least as reflected by the opinions of these several individuals interviewed.

  19. Manufacturers' support policies.

    PubMed

    1992-09-01

    Choosing an effective plan for supporting a medical device is critical to its safe use, cost-effectiveness, and longevity. Hospitals can choose from a variety of support providers, including manufacturers, third-party service vendors, or hospital clinical engineering (CE) departments. However, if the hospital plans to use a third-party service vendor or its own CE department to provide support, the manufacturer's cooperation or assistance will still be needed to implement the support plan effectively. Over the years, ECRI has received many comments from hospitals about the way in which manufacturers respond to their equipment support needs. We have learned that some manufacturers are not willing to assist third-party service vendors or in-house service programs or do not always deliver the support they promise. Also, hospitals do not always consider their support needs before purchase, when they have the most leverage to negotiate flexible support arrangements. To help foster better equipment support and customer satisfaction, we polled manufacturers that have participated in recent Health Devices Evaluations to obtain detailed information about their policies toward manufacturers' contract, third-party, and in-house support. Ready access to this information will help hospitals evaluate whether manufacturers' support policies will meet their needs, and it will allow them to minimize problems by working with the manufacturer to negotiate optimal support arrangements during the purchase process. In this article, we briefly discuss the factors to consider when evaluating support alternatives and manufacturers' support policies. We also present the questions posed to each manufacturer on our Manufacturers' Support Policies Questionnaire, along with a summary of the responses that we received for each question.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1428903

  20. Peru: population and policy.

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations. PMID:12341769

  1. Pediatrician workforce policy statement.

    PubMed

    Basco, William T; Rimsza, Mary E

    2013-08-01

    This policy statement reviews important trends and other factors that affect the pediatrician workforce and the provision of pediatric health care, including changes in the pediatric patient population, pediatrician workforce, and nature of pediatric practice. The effect of these changes on pediatricians and the demand for pediatric care are discussed. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) concludes that there is currently a shortage of pediatric medical subspecialists in many fields, as well as a shortage of pediatric surgical specialists. In addition, the AAP believes that the current distribution of primary care pediatricians is inadequate to meet the needs of children living in rural and other underserved areas, and more primary care pediatricians will be needed in the future because of the increasing number of children who have significant chronic health problems, changes in physician work hours, and implementation of current health reform efforts that seek to improve access to comprehensive patient- and family-centered care for all children in a medical home. The AAP is committed to being an active participant in physician workforce policy development with both professional organizations and governmental bodies to ensure a pediatric perspective on health care workforce issues. The overall purpose of this statement is to summarize policy recommendations and serve as a resource for the AAP and other stakeholders as they address pediatrician workforce issues that ultimately influence the quality of pediatric health care provided to children in the United States.

  2. Peru: population and policy.

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations.

  3. Health and Wellness Policy Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Cavico, Frank J.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of “wellness” policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a “healthy” lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect “non-healthy” employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

  4. Top 10 Higher Education State Policy Issues for 2010. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    What higher education state policy issues will be at the forefront of discussion and legislative activity throughout the United States in 2010? Provided herein is the consensus of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) state relations and policy analysis staff, informed by continual scanning of state policy activities,…

  5. Conclusions and Policy Directions,

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Romero-Lankao, Paty; Gnatz, P

    2011-01-01

    This chapter briefly revisits the constraints and opportunities of mitigation and adaptation, and highlights and the multiple linkages, synergies and trade-offs between mitigation, adaptation and urban development. The chapter then presents future policy directions, focusing on local, national and international principles and policies for supporting and enhancing urban responses to climate change. In summary, policy directions for linking climate change responses with urban development offer abundant opportunities; but they call for new philosophies about how to think about the future and how to connect different roles of different levels of government and different parts of the urban community. In many cases, this implies changes in how urban areas operate - fostering closer coordination between local governments and local economic institutions, and building new connections between central power structures and parts of the population who have often been kept outside of the circle of consultation and discourse. The difficulties involved in changing deeply set patterns of interaction and decision-making in urban areas should not be underestimated. Because it is so difficult, successful experiences need to be identified, described and widely publicized as models for others. However, where this challenge is met, it is likely not only to increase opportunities and reduce threats to urban development in profoundly important ways, but to make the urban area a more effective socio-political entity, in general - a better city in how it works day to day and how it solves a myriad of problems as they emerge - far beyond climate change connections alone. It is in this sense that climate change responses can be catalysts for socially inclusive, economically productive and environmentally friendly urban development, helping to pioneer new patterns of stakeholder communication and participation.

  6. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  7. Children's media policy.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents

  8. Government policies promote deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The well-documented loss of forest cover throughout the world has created a multitude of equally well-documented environmental problems, including soil erosion, water pollution, species extinctions, and the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that is contributing to global warming. Recent discussions on the causes of deforestation have focused on inevitable consequences of poverty and population growth, such as clearing for agricultural, shifting cultivation, and fuel-wood gathering. But according to a recent report from the World Resources Institute (WRI) in Washington, DC, another important often unrecognized, cause of deforestation is bad economic policies in the countries that own forest resources.

  9. Children's media policy.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents

  10. Australian Policy Activism in Language and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph, Ed.; Wickert, Rosie, Ed.

    This book presents the dynamics of language and literacy policy activism in Australia. The introduction is "Activists and Policy" (LoBianco, Wickert). Part 1, "From Policy to Anti-Policy" (LoBianco), sets a frame and overarching context of the pattern of Australian language and literacy policy. Part 2 contains accounts of how policy activists…

  11. Energy policy: energy prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, G.H.

    1983-08-18

    The Reagan administration, after reversing the trend of the 1970s toward government participation in energy programs, will continue its non-intervention philosophy in the National Energy Policy Plan (NEP III) update now under development. The plan eliminates oil and gas price controls, reduces or eliminates commercialization and tax-incentive programs for solar energy and synthetic fuels, and reduces research and development programs for near-term technologies. Large-scale, high-risk energy research will receive federal support if there is a potential commercial future. A level of regulation will remain, at least until alternative power systems sufficiently alter the non-competitive nature of utilities. Issues being raised are whether or not industry can provide needed service under deregulation, whether states will be able to set their own standards, whether the federal government should support new or necessary industries, whether private industry can compete against foreign government-backed firms, and the long-term consequences for energy development of widely fluctuating federal policies. (DCK)

  12. Trade policy and health: from conflicting interests to policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Chantal

    2007-03-01

    Policy incoherence at the interface between trade policy and health can take many forms, such as international trade commitments that strengthen protection of pharmaceutical patents, or promotion of health tourism that exacerbates the shortage of physicians in rural areas. Focusing on the national policy-making process, we make recommendations regarding five conditions that are necessary, but not sufficient, to ensure that international trade policies are coherent with national health objectives. These conditions are: space for dialogue and joint fact-finding; leadership by ministries of health; institutional mechanisms for coordination; meaningful engagement with stakeholders; and a strong evidence base.

  13. Federal technology policy in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, K.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses federal energy and environmental policies and their impact on the U.S. economy. A brief history of the federal government`s role in developing scientific and technological infrastructure is given. Current trends in technology are summarized, with an emphasis on global aspects, and their impact on the economy is discussed. The need for a national technology policy, including continued research and development funding, is discussed and key elements of such a policy are outlined.

  14. Conformance Verification of Privacy Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiang

    Web applications are both the consumers and providers of information. To increase customer confidence, many websites choose to publish their privacy protection policies. However, policy conformance is often neglected. We propose a logic based framework for formally specifying and reasoning about the implementation of privacy protection by a web application. A first order extension of computation tree logic is used to specify a policy. A verification paradigm, built upon a static control/data flow analysis, is presented to verify if a policy is satisfied.

  15. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  16. Consuming Research, Producing Policy?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.; Stoddart, Greg L.

    2003-01-01

    The authors’ 1990 article “Producing Health, Consuming Health Care” presented a conceptual framework for synthesizing a rapidly growing body of findings on the nonmedical determinants of health. The article received a very positive response, and here the authors reflect on what lessons might be learned from that response about the style or content of effective interdisciplinary communication. Much substantive knowledge has been accumulated since 1990, and a number of different frameworks have been developed before and since. The authors situate theirs within this literature and consider how they might have modified it if they “knew then what they know now.” They ask what impact this article, and the much broader stream of research on the determinants of health, has had on public policy? PMID:12604475

  17. Arctic technology and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, I.; Chryssostomidis, C.

    1984-01-01

    Topics covered include: legal regime of the arctic, including national and international legal frameworks that govern arctic resource development; environmental policy and socio-economic issues, focusing on the political and economic considerations of LNG transport in icebound waterways; risk and safety assessment for arctic offshore projects, drilling systems for the arctic; arctic offshore technology, including island, steel, and concrete structures; icebreaking technology, focusing on the current state of the art and indicating future research areas; arctic oceanography, summarizing characteristics of ice from field experiments pertaining to the design of structures, ships, and pipelines; arctic seismic exploration, detailing signal processes for underwater communication in the context of arctic geology and geophysics; ice morphology, providing information about ice shapes, particularly critical to the determination of overall strength of ice masses; remote sensing; modeling of arctic ice fields, including information about the design and construction of offshore facilities in polar areas; and engineering properties of ice, providing theoretical and experimental studies.

  18. Cultural Policy in Poland. Studies and Documents on Cultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balicki, Stanislaw Witold; And Others

    A survey of cultural policy in Poland, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series showing how cultural policies are planned and implemented in member states. The dual traditions of the ready assimilation of European elements into Polish culture and Poland's determination to maintain a national identity throughout 123 years of partition are presented…

  19. A District Wellness Policy: The Gap between Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the gap between a federally-mandated wellness policy and its practice in U.S. schools. To address the problem of childhood obesity, the United States government requires school districts to develop a District Wellness Policy (DWP) that promotes a healthy school environment, healthy food choices, nutrition education, and…

  20. Tracing the French Policy PISA Debate: A Policy Configuration Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of the French policy PISA debate from 2001 to 2014 by analysing the results of two original qualitative researches. Theoretically, this debate is the outcome of specific policy configurations, which predetermine its scope, content and effectiveness. These configurations are themselves described through their…

  1. Policy Discourses and U.S. Language in Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Ester J.

    2013-01-01

    Language in education policy for English language learners in the United States has varied significantly over time and has been shaped by policy discourses that could broadly be described as assimilationist (monolingual) and pluralist (multilingual) views of the role of linguistic and cultural diversity in schools. This article outlines the main…

  2. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  3. Policy and Public Administration, Educational Policy and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrientos-Monzon, Ivan Luis

    This paper attempts to clean up some of the muddled thinking that obscures the distinction between theory and practice in educational administration. The author also applies his argument to the issue of possible gaps between policy formulation and policy implementation. The author begins by noting that there is a common misapprehension that in…

  4. Astronomy and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2009-10-01

    The problems of teaching of astronomy in the schools of the former communist countries has been disccused in the connection with the genealogical (family names) of the Presidents of the Countries and scientists astronomers and other Country leaders. Particularly the recent decision of the Russian authorities to reduce the hours for the course of astronomy in the Russian secondary schools is supposed to critics. Some improvements of the situation has been reported. The hours for the astronomy teaching in Russia varry, according with the will of Ministers of Education of the Countries, Prime ministers and Presidents. Similar news came from the Romania. In conclusion, there is no a stable curriculum for astronomy (physics) in some countries. This reffer especially to the number of hours. The influence of presidents of the Countries is so great, that the fate of the astronomy teaching (probably of science teaching in general), that it is difficult to have a scientific education in a country without an elementary scientific education of the Leaders of the Countries, particularly of the persons above. An incomplete list of political leaders and scientists (astronomers and physicists) with the same family names is given. Since the number of persons with decision power in the area is about 3 per country in 4 years, the modern astronomy is taught during about 200 years, the total number of family names responsible for the area of astronomy teaching throughout the world during the last 200 years is about 10000. A similar calculation could be made for physics teaching. Another aspect of the problem is the relation of the number of publications with the GDP/capita of the country. The relation between science and policy is mediated by the number of papers /population which "grosso modo" is proportional to the GDP/capita for the country given. Subsequently the GDP/capita corellates strongly with the policy. The SPIRES database ilustrates this with evidence, but with taking in

  5. The Structural Underpinnings of Policy Learning: A Classroom Policy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Stephen

    This paper investigates the relationship between the centrality of individual actors in a social network structure and their policy learning performance. In a dynamic comparable to real-world policy networks, results from a classroom simulation demonstrate a strong relationship between centrality in social learning networks and grade performance. Previous research indicates that social network centrality should have a positive effect on learning in other contexts and this link is tested in a policy learning context. Second, the distinction between collaborative learning versus information diffusion processes in policy learning is examined. Third, frequency of interaction is analyzed to determine whether consistent, frequent tics have a greater impact on the learning process. Finally, the data arc analyzed to determine if the benefits of centrality have limitations or thresholds when benefits no longer accrue. These results demonstrate the importance of network structure, and support a collaborative conceptualization of the policy learning process.

  6. Language Policies in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, Rosalina Morales

    1985-01-01

    Filipinos speak more than a hundred different languages, 10 to 15 of which are major. In addition, the Philippines was occupied by two foreign powers, each speaking a different language, i.e., Spanish and English. This situation has resulted in a number of different language policies throughout the country's history. These policies are discussed.…

  7. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the 19 articles published in the Electronic Journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996: (1) "The Achievement Crisis Is Real: A Review of 'The Manufactured Crisis'" (Lawrence C. Stedman); (2) "Staff Development Policy: Fuzzy Choices in an Imperfect Market" (Robert T. Stout); (3) "Making Molehills out of…

  8. MONITORING, ASSESSMENT, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This overview chapter examines the roles that environmental monitoring and assessment can play in the development of environmental policy. It takes a case study approach, focusing on the key roles played by monitoring data in policy formulation in acid deposition, stratospheric...

  9. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

  10. Shaping the Education Policy Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Crowson, Robert L.; Shipps, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    One important hallmark of William Lowe Boyd's scholarship was his uncanny ability to identify and articulate changes in the key ideas that shape and reshape scholarly, professional, and public discussions of educational policy and politics. Whether one thinks about debates over centralization and decentralization of policy control, changes in…

  11. Policy Discourses in School Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Meg; Hoskins, Kate; Ball, Stephen; Braun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on some of the ways in which schools are both productive of and constituted by sets of "discursive practices, events and texts" that contribute to the process of policy enactment. As Colebatch (2002: 2) says, "policy involves the creation of order--that is, shared understandings about how the various participants will act…

  12. Authorship policies of scientific journals

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B; Tyle, Ana M; Black, Jennifer R; Kissling, Grace

    2016-01-01

    We analysed the authorship policies of a random sample of 600 journals from the Journal Citation Reports database. 62.5% of the journals we sampled had an authorship policy. Having an authorship policy was positively associated with impact factor. Journals from the biomedical sciences and social sciences/humanities were more likely to have an authorship policy than journals from the physical sciences, engineering or mathematical sciences. Among journals with a policy, the most frequent type of policy was guidance on criteria for authorship (99.7%); followed by guidance on acknowledgments (97.3%); requiring that authors make substantial contributions to the research (94.7%); requiring that authors be accountable for the research as a whole (84.8%); guidance on changes in authorship (77.9%); requiring that authors give final approval to the manuscript (77.6%); requiring that authors draft or critically revise the manuscript (71.7%); providing guidance on corporate authorship (58.9%); prohibiting gift, guest or ghost authorship (31.7%); requiring authors to describe their contributions (5.3%); limiting the number of authors for some types of articles (4.0%) and requiring authors to be accountable for their part in the research (1.1%). None of the policies addressed equal contribution statements. Journals that do not have authorship policies should consider adopting or developing ones. PMID:26714812

  13. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  14. Health Policies and Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, David P., Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on the impact of health policy on black Americans by examining the relation between public policy and the distribution of health needs and effects. The book includes an introduction by David P. Willis and is divided into seven sections. Section I, "Who Are Black Americans?" includes the following chapters: (1)…

  15. Human rights and migration policies.

    PubMed

    Marmora, L

    1990-01-01

    This paper concerns the history of migration, migration policies, and the rights of migrants in Latin America from 1500 to the present. In the first part of the article, the author identifies and discusses the basic rights of migrants. In the second part, migration policies, migration flows, and the treatment of migrants are examined over time.

  16. Academic Tenure Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Biswanath

    The purpose of this study was to determine the policies for the acquisition and termination of academic tenure and the procedures used to implement these policies in the member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges (NASULGC). The study was also designed to present and analyze data related to the…

  17. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  18. Teacher Leadership: Federal Policy Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, Jackie; Young, Margaret; Broin, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief was developed specifically for federal policymakers, and builds upon the policy recommendations included in "Leading from Every Seat: Empowering Principals to Cultivate Teacher Leadership for School Improvement." The recommendations in this report include the following: (1) Uncover New Leadership Ideas and Seed…

  19. Authorship policies of scientific journals.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Tyler, Ana M; Black, Jennifer R; Kissling, Grace

    2016-03-01

    We analysed the authorship policies of a random sample of 600 journals from the Journal Citation Reports database. 62.5% of the journals we sampled had an authorship policy. Having an authorship policy was positively associated with impact factor. Journals from the biomedical sciences and social sciences/humanities were more likely to have an authorship policy than journals from the physical sciences, engineering or mathematical sciences. Among journals with a policy, the most frequent type of policy was guidance on criteria for authorship (99.7%); followed by guidance on acknowledgments (97.3%); requiring that authors make substantial contributions to the research (94.7%); requiring that authors be accountable for the research as a whole (84.8%); guidance on changes in authorship (77.9%); requiring that authors give final approval to the manuscript (77.6%); requiring that authors draft or critically revise the manuscript (71.7%); providing guidance on corporate authorship (58.9%); prohibiting gift, guest or ghost authorship (31.7%); requiring authors to describe their contributions (5.3%); limiting the number of authors for some types of articles (4.0%) and requiring authors to be accountable for their part in the research (1.1%). None of the policies addressed equal contribution statements. Journals that do not have authorship policies should consider adopting or developing ones. PMID:26714812

  20. 78 FR 13876 - Content Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... UNITED STATES Content Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its content policy. A list of the questions and issues that the Bank is addressing can be accessed here:...

  1. Land use policy and forests

    SciTech Connect

    Sunder, S.S.

    1992-12-31

    This paper sketches the background to the current forest policy in India, making comparisons with other countries. In the tropics, the relationship between land, climate and forests is such that if the soil is allowed to deteriorate or is lost, degradation of both land and vegetation becomes complete. Unfortunately in some of the developing countries in the tropics, biotic pressures are also intense. The situation is worsening in spite of the lofty aims propagated by the National Forest Policies. In India, the first policy is nearly a century old, but the country is today worse off regarding its forests than when it was originally proposed. The three successive policies, and also the policies of a few other developing countries in S.E. Asia, are briefly analyzed. The failure of the policies in India is perhaps due to (a) their addressing themselves to Government forests rather than to the land and soil in general, (b) a lack of a scientific land use policy, and (c) their having neither legal backing nor support from other sectors. For these reasons, the definition forest has come to imply land area constituted as reserve forests, and not general tree cover. In developed countries, the situation is different. In addition to Government forests, there are forests in the private sector; a result of legal prescriptions and sets of incentives and disincentives. A suggestion is made that in the tropics, forest policy should rest mainly on the sustainable use of land.

  2. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the 2000 edition of the "Education Policy Analysis Archives." The papers include: (1) "Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence" (Linda Darling-Hammond); (2) "America Y2K: The Obsolescence of Educational Reforms" (Sherman Dorn); (3) "Forces for Change in Mathematics Education: The Case of…

  3. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This electronic journal covers a variety of issues related to educational policy. The 22 articles (issues) of Volume 5 analyze aspects of policy in the United States and other countries for elementary, secondary, and higher education. Articles include: (1) "Markets and Myths: Autonomy in Public and Private schools" (Glass); (2) "Where Have All the…

  4. Guidelines for School Personnel Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, George, Ed.; And Others

    Primary considerations for a positive school personnel policy are outlined in eight sections, as follows: (1) Faculty and staff recruitment and selection; (2) job analysis and classification; (3) personnel assignment and evaluation; (4) policy development; (5) welfare benefits, including leaves, fringe benefits, continuing contracts, working…

  5. Special Education Administrative Policies Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Scottie

    Intended for use by state and local education agencies in the development of written policy consistent with recent federal legislation on the education of handicapped children, the manual offers recommended policy statements in the areas of right to education, population, identification, evaluations, placement, service delivery, facilities and…

  6. OER: A European Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquézar Sabadie, Jesús Maria; Castaño Muñoz, Jonatan; Puni, Yves; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of OER have led many European governments to implement policies supporting their creation and use. This chapter aims to put these OER policies in context, discussing their focus and scope and highlighting challenges and bottlenecks. On the basis of the analysis of the current state of the art, it is argued that one of main…

  7. Energy Policy: Ask the Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuclear Industry, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Twelve U.S. experts on energy policies individually offer perspectives about which priorities should be enlisted with respect to the current energy policy of the United States. In their analyses, these experts unanimously agree that the biggest U.S. problem is an increasing dependence upon imported oil. (JJK)

  8. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  9. Teacher Agency and Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Ann Nutter

    2015-01-01

    New teachers are often left to their own devices to navigate the policy world without necessarily having the strategies and tools to advocate for themselves or more experienced teachers to help guide them. More senior teachers may report a feeling of helplessness as curriculum and policy changes occur around them without necessarily considering…

  10. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  11. Education Policy, Practice, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimans, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article, drawing especially but not exclusively on Bourdieu's work on practice and its relationships with habitus, capital, and field, argues for a perspective on policy, as informed by and as practice, and applies it across all elements of the policy cycle. It is argued that a practice perspective captures well the economies of power in…

  12. Sound Assessment through Proper Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappuis, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Aligning a school board policy manual with the faculty handbook would be an excellent application of systems thinking in support of school district mission and goals. This article talks about changing sound assessment practice in accordance with the school's proper policy. One obstacle to changing assessment practice is the prevailing belief that…

  13. Comparing HE Policies in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiklie, Ivar; Michelsen, Svein

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for a comparative analysis of Higher Education policies that enables us to investigate the explanatory power of structural characteristics of politico-administrative systems. The policies that are studied aim at improving the efficiency and quality of institutional performance. The…

  14. Vingt-cinq ans dans l'evolution d'une politique de diffusion du francais (Twenty-Five Years in the Evolution of the Politics of the Diffusion of French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulanger, Lionel; Daniel, Pierre

    1984-01-01

    The theme of a conference in honor of the centennial of a famous French teaching institution was the 25-year French policy of spreading the French language internationally. Discussions focused on the cultural politics involved and their institutionalization, and the evolution of methods to carry out this policy through the medium of linguistic…

  15. Efficient Web Services Policy Combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatan, Farrokh; Harman, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale Web security systems usually involve cooperation between domains with non-identical policies. The network management and Web communication software used by the different organizations presents a stumbling block. Many of the tools used by the various divisions do not have the ability to communicate network management data with each other. At best, this means that manual human intervention into the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints is required. Developing practical, sound, and automated ways to compose policies to bridge these differences is a long-standing problem. One of the key subtleties is the need to deal with inconsistencies and defaults where one organization proposes a rule on a particular feature, and another has a different rule or expresses no rule. A general approach is to assign priorities to rules and observe the rules with the highest priorities when there are conflicts. The present methods have inherent inefficiency, which heavily restrict their practical applications. A new, efficient algorithm combines policies utilized for Web services. The method is based on an algorithm that allows an automatic and scalable composition of security policies between multiple organizations. It is based on defeasible policy composition, a promising approach for finding conflicts and resolving priorities between rules. In the general case, policy negotiation is an intractable problem. A promising method, suggested in the literature, is when policies are represented in defeasible logic, and composition is based on rules for non-monotonic inference. In this system, policy writers construct metapolicies describing both the policy that they wish to enforce and annotations describing their composition preferences. These annotations can indicate whether certain policy assertions are required by the policy writer or, if not, under what circumstances the policy writer is willing to compromise and allow other assertions to take

  16. Excursions in technology policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archibald, Robert B.

    1995-01-01

    This technical report presents a summary of three distinct projects: (1) Measuring economic benefits; (2) Evaluating the SBIR program; and (3) A model for evaluating changes in support for science and technology. the first project deals with the Technology Applications Group (TAG) at NASA Langley Research Center. The mission of TAG is to assist firms interested in commercializing technologies. TAG is a relatively new group as is the emphasis on technology commercialization for NASA. One problem faced by TAG and similar groups at other centers is measuring their effectiveness. The first project this summer, a paper entitled, 'Measuring the Economic Benefits of Technology Transfer from a National Laboratory: A Primer,' focused on this measurement problem. We found that the existing studies of the impact of technology transfer on the economy were conceptually flawed. The 'primer' outlines the appropriate theoretical framework for measuring the economic benefits of technology transfer. The second project discusses, one of the programs of TAG, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. This program has led to over 400 contracts with Small Business since its inception in 1985. The program has never been evaluated. Crucial questions such as those about the extent of commercial successes from the contracts need to be answered. This summer we designed and implemented a performance evaluation survey instrument. The analysis of the data will take place in the fall. The discussion of the third project focuses on a model for evaluating changes in support for science and technology. At present several powerful forces are combining to change the environment for science and technology policy. The end of the cold war eliminated the rationale for federal support for many projects. The new- found Congressional conviction to balance the budget without tax increases combined with demographic changes which automatically increase spending for some politically popular programs

  17. 32 CFR 148.4 - Policy documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... their agency issues setting out facilities security policies and procedures incorporate the policy set... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy documentation. 148.4 Section 148.4... NATIONAL POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECIPROCITY OF FACILITIES National Policy on Reciprocity of Use...

  18. 32 CFR 148.4 - Policy documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... their agency issues setting out facilities security policies and procedures incorporate the policy set... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy documentation. 148.4 Section 148.4... NATIONAL POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECIPROCITY OF FACILITIES National Policy on Reciprocity of Use...

  19. 10 CFR 706.10 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 706.10 Section 706.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.10 Policy. It is policy of DOE that NLRB cases...

  20. 10 CFR 706.10 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 706.10 Section 706.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.10 Policy. It is policy of DOE that NLRB cases...

  1. 47 CFR 201.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 201.3 Section 201.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.3 Policy. (a... and recovery. (g) The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy will serve as...

  2. 32 CFR 148.4 - Policy documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... their agency issues setting out facilities security policies and procedures incorporate the policy set... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy documentation. 148.4 Section 148.4... NATIONAL POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECIPROCITY OF FACILITIES National Policy on Reciprocity of Use...

  3. 10 CFR 706.10 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 706.10 Section 706.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.10 Policy. It is policy of DOE that NLRB cases...

  4. 32 CFR 148.4 - Policy documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... their agency issues setting out facilities security policies and procedures incorporate the policy set... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy documentation. 148.4 Section 148.4... NATIONAL POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECIPROCITY OF FACILITIES National Policy on Reciprocity of Use...

  5. 10 CFR 706.10 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 706.10 Section 706.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.10 Policy. It is policy of DOE that NLRB cases...

  6. 32 CFR 148.4 - Policy documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... their agency issues setting out facilities security policies and procedures incorporate the policy set... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy documentation. 148.4 Section 148.4... NATIONAL POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECIPROCITY OF FACILITIES National Policy on Reciprocity of Use...

  7. 10 CFR 706.10 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 706.10 Section 706.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.10 Policy. It is policy of DOE that NLRB cases...

  8. Conducting Policy-Relevant Developmental Psychopathology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.

    2006-01-01

    Policy, defined broadly to include public policy as well as institutional or organizational policy, is useful for sustaining change in human development and its contexts and systems. The role for developmental psychopathology research in policy analysis and policy making is discussed. To assure that developmental psychopathology research is useful…

  9. 14 CFR 415.23 - Policy review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy review. 415.23 Section 415.23... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Policy Review and Approval § 415.23 Policy review. (a) The FAA reviews a... raised during a policy review that would impede issuance of a policy approval. The applicant may...

  10. 32 CFR 310.5 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 310.5 Section 310.5 National Defense... PROGRAM DoD Policy § 310.5 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) The privacy of an individual is a personal..., regulation, and policy, shall be protected when collecting, maintaining, using, or disseminating...

  11. Taxonomy and environmental policy.

    PubMed Central

    Samper, Cristián

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, with the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro and the subsequent Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the world changed for the science of taxonomy. Many taxonomists appear not to have noticed this change, but it has significantly altered the political climate in which taxonomic research is undertaken. By the late 1990s it was clear that effective implementation of the CBD needed the participation of and funding for the taxonomic community. In this paper, I chart the rise of the Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI), review some of its goals and explore how it interacts with the CBD. The interactions of the GTI with the Global Environment Facility, a potential funding body, are explored, as are the possible synergies between the GTI and the many other global initiatives linking to taxonomy. Finally, I explore some of the challenges ahead as taxonomy begins to take a front seat in the implementation of environmental policy on the world stage. PMID:15253357

  12. Public health and policy.

    PubMed

    Nunnery, Jennifer; Angulo, Frederick J; Tollefson, Linda

    2006-02-24

    Antimicrobial agent usage data are essential for focusing efforts to reduce misuse and overuse of antimicrobial agents in food producing animals because these practices may select for resistance in bacteria of animals. Transfer of resistant bacteria from animals to humans can lead to human infection caused by resistant pathogens. Resistant infections can lead to treatment failures, resulting in prolonged or more severe illness. Multiple World Health Organization (WHO) reports have concluded that both antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial usage should be monitored on the national level. The system for collecting antimicrobial usage data should be clear and transparent to facilitate trend analysis and comparison within and among countries. Therapeutic, prophylactic and growth promotion use should be recorded, along with route of administration and animal species and/or production class treated. The usage data should be compared to resistance data, and the comparison should be made available in a timely manner. In the United States, surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne bacteria is performed by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) for enteric bacteria, however, the United States still lacks a mechanism for collecting antimicrobial usage data. Combined with antimicrobial resistance information from NARMS, antimicrobial usage data will help to direct education efforts and policy decisions, minimizing the risk that people will develop antimicrobial resistant infections as a result of eating food of animal origin. Ultimately mitigation strategies guided by usage data will be more effective in maintaining antimicrobial drugs for appropriate veterinary use and in protecting human health. PMID:16269192

  13. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  14. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them. PMID:12402751

  15. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  16. Top 10 Higher Education State Policy Issues for 2011. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presented here are the top 10 issues most likely to affect public higher education across the 50 states in 2011, in the view of the state policy staff at the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). This listing is informed by an environmental scan of the economic, political and policy landscape surrounding public higher…

  17. The Effect of Definitions of "Policy" on the Nature and Outcomes of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guba, Egon G.

    1984-01-01

    Presents eight definitions of "policy" that are implied in the literature and, by applying these definitions in three policy arenas, notes their differential effects in terms of policy questions, data collected, data sources, methodology, and policy products. (MLF)

  18. Etude RICH Nursing. Plus de connaissances et de preuves scientifiques

    PubMed Central

    SCHUBERT, MARIA

    2009-01-01

    L’importance et la validité des résultats de l’étude RICH-Nursing* ont été récemment mises en cause par certains milieux, ce qui a provoqué certaines incertitudes chez les infirmières. Les auteurs reviennent sur l’impact actuel de cette étude et évoquent les perspectives d’avenir. PMID:25221376

  19. A l'écoute de nos instituts scientifiques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrard, J.; Arnould, M.; Demaret, J.; Noels, A.; Vercheval, J.; Crommelynck, D.; Melchior, P.

    The authors give some important events which occurred during the last academic year 1981-1982 in six scientific institutes in Belgium (Groupe de mécanique céleste, Département de Mathématique, Facultés Universitaires de Namur; Institut d'Astronomie, d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles; Institut d'Astrophysique, Université de Liège; l'Institut d'Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique; Institut Royal Météorologique de Belgique; Observatoire Royal de Belgique).

  20. Policy implications for familial searching

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens. PMID:22040348

  1. Policy implications for familial searching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-11-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  2. Health reform requires policy capacity

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D.; Helms, David

    2015-01-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  3. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-04-17

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility.

  4. Explaining drug policy: Towards an historical sociology of policy change.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Toby

    2011-11-01

    The goal of seeking to understand the development over time of drug policies is a specific version of the more general intellectual project of finding ways of explaining social change. The latter has been a preoccupation of some of the greatest thinkers within the social sciences of the last 200 years, from Foucault all the way back to the three nineteenth-century pioneers, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. I describe this body of work as 'historical sociology'. In this paper, I outline how a particular approach to historical sociology can be fruitfully drawn upon to understand the development of drug policy, using by way of illustration the example of the analysis of a recent transformation in British drug policy: the rise of the criminal justice agenda. I conclude by arguing that by looking at developments in drug policy in this way, some new insights are opened up. PMID:21733667

  5. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems.

    PubMed

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2012-07-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime, thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime. PMID:25383258

  6. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems

    PubMed Central

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2014-01-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime, thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime. PMID:25383258

  7. Explaining drug policy: Towards an historical sociology of policy change.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Toby

    2011-11-01

    The goal of seeking to understand the development over time of drug policies is a specific version of the more general intellectual project of finding ways of explaining social change. The latter has been a preoccupation of some of the greatest thinkers within the social sciences of the last 200 years, from Foucault all the way back to the three nineteenth-century pioneers, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. I describe this body of work as 'historical sociology'. In this paper, I outline how a particular approach to historical sociology can be fruitfully drawn upon to understand the development of drug policy, using by way of illustration the example of the analysis of a recent transformation in British drug policy: the rise of the criminal justice agenda. I conclude by arguing that by looking at developments in drug policy in this way, some new insights are opened up.

  8. 48 CFR 23.1104 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE Encouraging Contractor Policies to Ban Text Messaging While Driving 23.1104 Policy. Agencies shall encourage contractors and subcontractors to adopt and enforce policies that ban text messaging while...

  9. What Can Policy Analysis Add to Evaluation Research?: Predictive Modeling and Policy Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Policy analysis, or policy study, is defined as the study of the nature, causes, and effects of alternative public policies; sometimes policy analysis refers to specific methods used. Two new developments associated with policy analysis are discussed. One is the concern for deducing the effects of alternative policies before they are adopted, as…

  10. An optimal repartitioning decision policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, D. M.; Reynolds, P. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A central problem to parallel processing is the determination of an effective partitioning of workload to processors. The effectiveness of any given partition is dependent on the stochastic nature of the workload. The problem of determining when and if the stochastic behavior of the workload has changed enough to warrant the calculation of a new partition is treated. The problem is modeled as a Markov decision process, and an optimal decision policy is derived. Quantification of this policy is usually intractable. A heuristic policy which performs nearly optimally is investigated empirically. The results suggest that the detection of change is the predominant issue in this problem.

  11. Technology and international climate policy

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  12. Blurred edges to population policies.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1992-05-01

    Fertility is now below replacement level in most European countries, especially the industrialized ones. In the last 20 years, several countries have developed or improved pronatalist programs containing incentives that are designed to motivate couples to have a 2nd and especially a 3rd child, to maintain a stable population. The WHO Sexuality and Family Planning Unit called a short consultation on this subject last October. What actually constitutes a pronatalist population program and the connections between public policies and private reproductive behavior were not very clear. Nor is it easy to assess the longer--term demographic effects of pronatalist policies or what influences their effectiveness. The outcome usually reflects the country's history, cultural and religious traditions, changes in lifestyle, and the value given to the family and children. Incentives are defined as monetary or nonmonetary inducements to voluntary reproductive behavior that conforms to specified population policies. They may be small or large, in cash or kind, parity-specific or income-linked, immediate or developed, one-time or incremental, or any combination of these. Disincentives are negative sanctions that are either incurred or thought likely as a result of violating the policy. But both incentives and disincentives are difficult to define. Pronatalist policies designed to encourage early marriage and larger families, thereby raising the future total fertility rate should not be confused with traditional social welfare policies designed simply to ease the burden of childbearing. Some policies have both demographic and social welfare aims. Strong pronatalist policies may be linked with restrictions on contraceptive availability and legal abortion. Moreover, other public policies affecting social security, education, employment, housing, regional planning and the emancipation of women may unintentionally influence demographic behavior. Population policies are the product of

  13. Policy stability and democratic change

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular illustrates a situation in which a critical policy issue permits direct comparison of decision making across regime change, that being from the Franco dictatorship to the present liberal democracy. Energy policy in Spain is revealing not only because the Spanish state plays a central role in this fundamental economic area but also because the first PEN was caught up in the politics of the transition; it was written in 1977 but not approved by the Cortes until 1979, and its revision was published in early 1982.

  14. Value basis for conservation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Leiss, W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a case study in attempting to apply a particular value (caring) to the domain of social policy, specifically resource conservation policy. The argument is that our consumer society erodes the social basis for the development by individuals of a sense of well-being and personal identity, and that a conservation ethic based on the concept of caring could provide a foundation in practical morality and public policy for a viable sense of well-being. Conservation, then, goes beyond eliminating wasteful consumption to encompass a public commitment that can further economic and social goals. 11 references.

  15. Environmental policies: An international review

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The need for effective management of the natural environment is becoming increasingly crucial in order to secure the future survival of humanity. Various policies have been implemented in different countries to manage the natural environment in its many aspects - water, landforms, vegetation, and wildlife. These policies are designed both to foster the growth of certain environments and to deter pollution and destruction. This book surveys the growth, nature, and effectiveness of environmental management policies worldwide and argues the case for a more coherent international approach to the problems.

  16. Australia's national mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, H A

    1993-10-01

    In April 1992 the health ministers of all Australian states, territories, and the federal government endorsed Australia's first National Mental Health Policy. The major principles outlined in the policy include protecting consumers' rights, setting national service standards, mainstreaming mental health services with general health services, better integrating inpatient and community mental health services to ensure continuity of care, and linking mental health services and other social and disability services. A five-year National Mental Health Plan, accompanied by additional federal funding, has also been released, with time frames for implementing the policy in all states and territories and at the federal level. PMID:8225277

  17. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    PubMed

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities. PMID:21542203

  18. 7 CFR 14.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Policy. Federal tax, conservation, natural resource, and environmental policies should complement rather..., forestry improvement, or wildlife benefits to the general public beyond the benefits that accrue to...

  19. 7 CFR 14.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Policy. Federal tax, conservation, natural resource, and environmental policies should complement rather..., forestry improvement, or wildlife benefits to the general public beyond the benefits that accrue to...

  20. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Eligar

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers an evolutionary perspective of space policy. It is argued that (1) space policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the past fifty years of the space-age; and that (2) space policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. To this end, the paper analyzes space policy at several levels of analysis. This includes: (1) historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes; (2) the symbiotic relationships between policy and space technology; and (3) future space policy trends and developments likely to occur in the 21st century. A "Space Politics and Policy Framework" is developed in this paper to represent the evolution of space policy. Space policy involves both the process of policy formation and policy change over time (e.g., emergence of commercialization) and the courses of action taken to achieve political (and technological) determined outcomes. The evolution of space policy over time takes place through policy change. On this basis, public policy processes over the course of the space-age have involved the mobilization of governmental resources, actors, and institutions. Concomitantly, nongovernmental actors, such as private corporations and commercial enterprises, increasingly play a role in space. As a result, market factors in addition to political forces influence space policy.

  1. Inaugural AGU Science Policy Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-01-01

    AGU will present its inaugural Science Policy Conference, 30 April to 3 May 2012, at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, located in downtown Washington, D. C. This conference will bring together leading scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, press, and other stakeholders to discuss natural hazards, natural resources, oceans, and Arctic science and the role these sciences play in serving communities. To bridge the science and policy fields, AGU plans to host this conference every 2 years and focus on the applications of Earth and space sciences to serve local and national communities. "Our nation faces a myriad of challenges such as the sustainability of our natural resources, current and future energy needs, and the ability to mitigate and adapt to natural and manmade hazards," said Michael McPhaden, president of AGU. "It is essential that policies to address these challenges be built on a solid foundation of credible scientific knowledge."

  2. Evaluating Economic Performance and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurow, Lester C.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that a social welfare approach to evaluating economic performance is inappropriate at the high school level. Provides several historical case studies which could be used to augment instruction aimed at the evaluation of economic performance and policies. (JDH)

  3. Orbital Debris: A Policy Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing orbital debris from a policy perspective is shown. The contents include: 1) Voyage through near-Earth Space-animation; 2) What is Orbital Debris?; 3) Orbital Debris Detectors and Damage Potential; 4) Hubble Space Telescope; 5) Mir Space Station Solar Array; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Satellite Explosions; 9) Satellite Collisions; 10) NASA Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines; 11) International Space Station Jettison Policy; 12) Controlled/Uncontrolled Satellite Reentries; 13) Return of Space Objects; 14) Orbital Debris and U.S. National Space Policy; 15) U.S Government Policy Strategy; 16) Bankruptcy of the Iridium Satellite System; 17) Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC); 18) Orbital Debris at the United Nations; 19) Chinese Anti-satellite System; 20) Future Evolution of Satellite Population; and 21) Challenge of Orbital Debris

  4. Welfare Policies and Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trader, Harriet Peat

    1979-01-01

    The family is an important resource for minority persons, and many minority families depend on public welfare for their survival. This article offers a compact analysis of how welfare policies often work to the disadvantage of poor Black families. (Author)

  5. Health policy and mental health.

    PubMed

    Dekker, E

    1987-01-01

    Health policy can be described as policy directed at the determinants of health, i.e. biological and environmental factors, lifestyle and the health care system. This type of policy now has become a policy objective in an increasing number of countries. In this article mental health is placed in the broad context of this policy. The central question is: can the mental health field grasp the opportunity of a growing interest in prevention and health promotion in general, as major objectives of health policy? Or will it stay more or less isolated from the mainstream of current developments? Answering this question means looking at the conditions of health policy. For health policy it is required that a definition be given of health problems and "causing" conditions. There should further be available intervention possibilities of a preventive and intersectoral character and also preventive strategies. It is stated that there is enough standardized information on mental health problems and experience with community-based research to let mental health participate in drawing up a community diagnosis. It also appears possible to construct an ecological health status model for mental health. Research on the factors in this model shows a shift in focus from risk populations to risk situations, e.g. unemployment, industrial disability, divorce and isolation. Further it is recognized that the search for causal factors is substituted by that for precipitating factors. Social-demographic factors, taken alone, are not precipitating factors. What matters is the combination of an underdeveloped coping mechanism, little social support, and prolonged stressful conditions or sudden stressful events.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10287174

  6. Policy issues in interconnecting networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, Barry M.

    1989-01-01

    To support the activities of the Federal Research Coordinating Committee (FRICC) in creating an interconnected set of networks to serve the research community, two workshops were held to address the technical support of policy issues that arise when interconnecting such networks. The workshops addressed the required and feasible technologies and architectures that could be used to satisfy the desired policies for interconnection. The results of the workshop are documented.

  7. Economic aspects of addiction policy.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-05-01

    One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10318048

  8. Economic aspects of addiction policy.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-05-01

    One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Bridging Science and Policy: The AGU Science Policy Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In June 2013, AGU held its second annual Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of the conference is to provide a new forum for diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of science policy, with a focus on applications of Earth and space science that serve local, national, and international communities. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss the topics concerning the Arctic, climate change, oceans, energy, technology and infrastructure, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as 'The Water-Energy Nexus,' 'Potential for Megadisasters,' 'The Changing Ocean and Impacts on Human Health,' and 'Drowning and Drought: Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change' are examples of some of the intriguing and timely science policy issues addressed at the conference. The findings from the conference were used to develop a summary report. The report highlights key facts and figures to be used as a resource in discussions with policy makers and other stakeholders regarding the conference topics. This presentation will discuss the goals and outcomes of the conference and how the event represents one of the many ways AGU is approaching its 'Science and Society' priority objective as part of the Union's strategic plan; namely by increasing the effectiveness and recognition of AGU among policy makers as an authoritative

  10. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient

    PubMed Central

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  11. Conception et validation d'un modele d'analyse et de suivi pour une politique energetique durable et acceptable de l'energie eolienne: Une etude comparative France-Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurtey, Evariste

    In this research, we built a conceptual model of a sustainable and acceptable wind power policy that we tried to validate through the case study of France and Quebec in the wind energy sector. Our qualitative and comparative approach helps us to illustrate the interaction of institutional variables studied, including the national context of emergence, the balance of power between pressure groups, the supranational and exogenous influences, level of political commitment, policy and regulatory instruments, social acceptance and energy policy mechanisms. The research confirms that the neo-corporatism is present in France as in Quebec. With the unfavorable energy context (low cost of electricity tariff, lack of electricity demand, and an already low zero carbon electric mix), it is an important factor explaining : 1) the 20 years delay accumulated by France and Quebec in the development of wind projects or industrial sector; 2) the 10% limited penetration scale given to wind energy. We also demonstrate that the political commitment to develop wind energy fluctuates with the government majority, the energy context or the influence of pressure groups. This manifests itself in a lack of continuity of policies and tariff instruments used. In both national case studies, the results also show that balanced policies and regulations ensure sustainable development of wind energy only if they allow a sufficient market size. The search results also illustrates that the conceptual division made between acceptance of wind sector, acceptance of ownership, local acceptance is very instructive. Social controversies, though multifactorial, are connected to both a critique of the development model too industrial and private, territorial dilemmas (closed environment), energy context (electric surplus in Quebec), or related to strategic planning system and centralized decision. An important issue for a more acceptable wind policy in the future will come to a greater plurality of ownership

  12. Beyond nutrition and agriculture policy: collaborating for a food policy.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Derek; Kennedy, Anne; Pavel, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Global interest in food policy is emerging in parallel with mounting challenges to the food supply and the rising prevalence of diet-related chronic health conditions. Some of the foundational elements of food policies are agricultural practices, finite resources, as well as economic burdens associated with a growing and ageing population. At the intersection of these interests is the need for policy synchronisation and a better understanding of the dynamics within local, regional and national government decision-making that ultimately affect the wellness of the populous and the safety, quality, affordability and quantity of the food supply. Policies, synchronised or not, need to be implemented and, for the food industry, this has seen a myriad of approaches with respect to condensing complex nutritional information and health claims. These include front and/or back of pack labelling, traffic light systems, etc. but in general there is little uniformity at the more regional and global scales. This translation of the nutritional and health-beneficial messages accompanying specific products to the consumer will undoubtedly be an area of intense activity, and hopefully interaction with policy makers, as the food industry continues to become a more global industry. PMID:25267247

  13. Beyond nutrition and agriculture policy: collaborating for a food policy.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Derek; Kennedy, Anne; Pavel, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Global interest in food policy is emerging in parallel with mounting challenges to the food supply and the rising prevalence of diet-related chronic health conditions. Some of the foundational elements of food policies are agricultural practices, finite resources, as well as economic burdens associated with a growing and ageing population. At the intersection of these interests is the need for policy synchronisation and a better understanding of the dynamics within local, regional and national government decision-making that ultimately affect the wellness of the populous and the safety, quality, affordability and quantity of the food supply. Policies, synchronised or not, need to be implemented and, for the food industry, this has seen a myriad of approaches with respect to condensing complex nutritional information and health claims. These include front and/or back of pack labelling, traffic light systems, etc. but in general there is little uniformity at the more regional and global scales. This translation of the nutritional and health-beneficial messages accompanying specific products to the consumer will undoubtedly be an area of intense activity, and hopefully interaction with policy makers, as the food industry continues to become a more global industry.

  14. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    PubMed

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded. PMID:25516347

  15. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    PubMed

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded.

  16. 48 CFR 1804.470-2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 1804.470-2 Policy. NASA IT security policies and procedures for unclassified information and IT are prescribed in NASA Policy Directive (NPD... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 1804.470-2...

  17. 48 CFR 1804.470-2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 1804.470-2 Policy. NASA IT security policies and procedures for unclassified information and IT are prescribed in NASA Policy Directive (NPD... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 1804.470-2...

  18. 32 CFR 2400.5 - Basic policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM... basis for classifying information. The policy of the Office of Science and Technology Policy is to...

  19. 48 CFR 1804.470-2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 1804.470-2 Policy. NASA IT security policies and procedures for unclassified information and IT are prescribed in NASA Policy Directive (NPD... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 1804.470-2...

  20. 48 CFR 1804.470-2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 1804.470-2 Policy. NASA IT security policies and procedures for unclassified information and IT are prescribed in NASA Policy Directive (NPD... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 1804.470-2...

  1. 48 CFR 1804.470-2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 1804.470-2 Policy. NASA IT security policies and procedures for unclassified information and IT are prescribed in NASA Policy Directive (NPD... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 1804.470-2...

  2. Policy for the Net and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braman, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the literature on Internet information policy: an awareness of new policy issues, attempts to apply existing legal regulations to new processes, and the need for new policies for the Net. Explores policy issues that affect the structure of government, the economy, society, designers of the Net, and international issues. Contains 658…

  3. Bicultural Education Policy in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourie, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Bicultural educational policy is part of a much broader ensemble of bicultural policies that were first developed by the Fourth Labour Government elected in 1984. These policies were an acknowledgement of, and response to, the historical injustices suffered by Maori people as a consequence of colonisation. Bicultural education policy is thought to…

  4. 32 CFR 156.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are such that the person can reasonably to expected to comply with Government policy and procedures... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 156.3 Section 156.3 National Defense... PROGRAM (DoDPSP) § 156.3 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) No person shall be appointed as a...

  5. 32 CFR 156.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are such that the person can reasonably to expected to comply with Government policy and procedures... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 156.3 Section 156.3 National Defense... PROGRAM (DoDPSP) § 156.3 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) No person shall be appointed as a...

  6. 32 CFR 156.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are such that the person can reasonably to expected to comply with Government policy and procedures... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 156.3 Section 156.3 National Defense... PROGRAM (DoDPSP) § 156.3 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) No person shall be appointed as a...

  7. 32 CFR 156.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are such that the person can reasonably to expected to comply with Government policy and procedures... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 156.3 Section 156.3 National Defense... PROGRAM (DoDPSP) § 156.3 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) No person shall be appointed as a...

  8. 48 CFR 19.201 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General policy. 19.201... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 19.201 General policy. (a) It is the policy of the Government to... concerns (see 19.1202), and monetary subcontracting incentive clauses for SDB concerns (see 19.1203)....

  9. 32 CFR 247.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 247.4 Section 247.4 National Defense... DEFENSE NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES AND CIVILIAN ENTERPRISE PUBLICATIONS § 247.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that..., user, or patron.” If a violation or rejection of this equal opportunity policy by an advertiser...

  10. 46 CFR 390.3 - Policy considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy considerations. 390.3 Section 390.3 Shipping... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.3 Policy considerations. (a) In general. It is the policy of the United States, as set... the policies of the Act. (2) Specific unacceptable programs. The Maritime Administrator will not...

  11. 32 CFR 268.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies (NAC). ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 268.3 Section 268.3 National Defense... REPORTING OF FOREIGN INDEBTEDNESS WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE § 268.3 Policy. It is the policy of...

  12. Alcohol Policies. European Series No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Marcus, Ed.

    This book examines alcohol control policies in Europe in an effort to present an integrated approach to the question of policy formation; analyze the past; assess research priorities; suggest the logical sequence of stages in national policy development; examine the role of economics; and demonstrate that alcohol policies are practical, necessary,…

  13. Challenging Political Spectacle through Grassroots Policy Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Evans, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Can simply talking about policy strengthen democracy? Drawing on data collected for case studies of one Canadian and two U.S. grassroots organizations, we demonstrate that taking part in policy dialogues hosted by grassroots organizations enables participants to gain greater clarity regarding policy issues, policy processes, and citizens'…

  14. 40 CFR 1500.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 1500.2 Section 1500.2 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.2 Policy..., regulations, and public laws of the United States in accordance with the policies set forth in the Act and...

  15. 40 CFR 1500.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 1500.2 Section 1500.2 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.2 Policy..., regulations, and public laws of the United States in accordance with the policies set forth in the Act and...

  16. 48 CFR 203.903 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 203.903 Section 203.903 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... for Contractor Employees 203.903 Policy. The following policy applies to DoD instead of the policy...

  17. Recent Contributions to the Urban Policy Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.; And Others

    This report contains the text of five briefings on research in Rand's Urban Policy Analysis program. "Brief History of Rand's Urban Policy Analysis Program," by Barbara R. Williams, discusses the changing Federal role in urban policy, problems encountered in Rand's attempt during the early 1970s to examine the central policy problems of cities at…

  18. From Predictive Models to Instructional Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Joseph; Brunskill, Emma

    2015-01-01

    At their core, Intelligent Tutoring Systems consist of a student model and a policy. The student model captures the state of the student and the policy uses the student model to individualize instruction. Policies require different properties from the student model. For example, a mastery threshold policy requires the student model to have a way…

  19. 48 CFR 47.502 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 47.502 Section 47... TRANSPORTATION Ocean Transportation by U.S.-Flag Vessels 47.502 Policy. (a) The policy of the United States... is the policy of the United States to foster the development and encourage the maintenance of...

  20. State Policy Regimes and Charter School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelz, Mikael L.

    2015-01-01

    The policy diffusion framework is critical to understanding the spread of policy innovations such as charter schools in the United States. This framework, however, is less instructive in explaining the state-by-state configuration of these policies. What explains the wide variation in charter school policy among states? This study addresses this…

  1. 38 CFR 6.13 - Policy loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Loans § 6.13 Policy loans. At any time after the first policy year and upon the... the sole security of his/her United States Government Life Insurance policy any amount which shall not... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy loans....

  2. 38 CFR 8.13 - Policy loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... insured on the security of his or her National Service Life Insurance policy, any amount which will not... INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.13 Policy loans. (a) At any time after the premiums for the first... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy loans....

  3. 47 CFR 201.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.3 Policy. (a..., postattack resources will be assigned to activities concerned with the maintenance and saving of lives... and recovery. (g) The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy will serve as...

  4. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of... environment for present and future generations. (b) Each USDA agency is responsible for compliance with...

  5. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of... environment for present and future generations. (b) Each USDA agency is responsible for compliance with...

  6. 32 CFR 151.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 151.3 Section 151.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE STATUS OF FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of Defense to...

  7. 49 CFR 806.1 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION POLICY AND GUIDELINES, IMPLEMENTING REGULATIONS § 806.1 General policy. (a) The... the Freedom of Information Act and in the current public information policies of the executive branch... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policy. 806.1 Section 806.1...

  8. 42 CFR 50.503 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... this policy, the Secretary has established, in 45 CFR part 19, a procedure for determining the Maximum... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 50.503 Section 50.503 Public Health PUBLIC... Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.503 Policy. It is the policy of the Secretary that program funds which...

  9. 45 CFR 9.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 9.2 Section 9.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT... SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND STUDENTS § 9.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of Health and Human Services in accordance with the policy of the President announced on February 21, 1969, to make...

  10. 42 CFR 50.503 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this policy, the Secretary has established, in 45 CFR part 19, a procedure for determining the Maximum... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 50.503 Section 50.503 Public Health PUBLIC... Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.503 Policy. It is the policy of the Secretary that program funds which...

  11. 42 CFR 50.503 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... this policy, the Secretary has established, in 45 CFR part 19, a procedure for determining the Maximum... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 50.503 Section 50.503 Public Health PUBLIC... Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.503 Policy. It is the policy of the Secretary that program funds which...

  12. 22 CFR 706.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF INFORMATION ACT General § 706.2 Policy. It is OPIC's policy to make its records available to the public to the greatest extent possible, in keeping with the spirit of the FOIA. This policy includes... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy. 706.2 Section 706.2 Foreign...

  13. 44 CFR 331.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 331.2 Section 331.2... SURPLUS AREAS § 331.2 Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Federal Government to award appropriate... locating procurement where the needed labor force and facilities are fully available. (b) This policy...

  14. 45 CFR 5.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 5.2 Section 5.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Basic Policy § 5.2 Policy. As a general policy, HHS follows a balanced approach in administering FOIA. We not...

  15. 32 CFR 143.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BARGAINING § 143.4 Policy. It is the policy of the United States under Public Law 95-610 that: (a) Members of... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 143.4 Section 143.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DOD POLICY...

  16. 42 CFR 50.503 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... this policy, the Secretary has established, in 45 CFR part 19, a procedure for determining the Maximum... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 50.503 Section 50.503 Public Health PUBLIC... Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.503 Policy. It is the policy of the Secretary that program funds which...

  17. 45 CFR 9.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 9.2 Section 9.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT... SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND STUDENTS § 9.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of Health and Human Services in accordance with the policy of the President announced on February 21, 1969, to make...

  18. 45 CFR 5.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 5.2 Section 5.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Basic Policy § 5.2 Policy. As a general policy, HHS follows a balanced approach in administering FOIA. We not...

  19. 44 CFR 331.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 331.2 Section 331.2... SURPLUS AREAS § 331.2 Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Federal Government to award appropriate... locating procurement where the needed labor force and facilities are fully available. (b) This policy...

  20. 32 CFR 44.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 44.4 Section 44.4 National Defense... RESERVE § 44.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) Members of the Ready Reserve shall be screened (see the... entire period of their statutory obligation or voluntary contract. Exceptions to that policy are made...

  1. 32 CFR 44.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 44.4 Section 44.4 National Defense... RESERVE § 44.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) Members of the Ready Reserve shall be screened (see the... entire period of their statutory obligation or voluntary contract. Exceptions to that policy are made...

  2. 32 CFR 44.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 44.4 Section 44.4 National Defense... RESERVE § 44.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) Members of the Ready Reserve shall be screened (see the... entire period of their statutory obligation or voluntary contract. Exceptions to that policy are made...

  3. 32 CFR 44.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 44.4 Section 44.4 National Defense... RESERVE § 44.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) Members of the Ready Reserve shall be screened (see the... entire period of their statutory obligation or voluntary contract. Exceptions to that policy are made...

  4. 32 CFR 44.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 44.4 Section 44.4 National Defense... RESERVE § 44.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) Members of the Ready Reserve shall be screened (see the... entire period of their statutory obligation or voluntary contract. Exceptions to that policy are made...

  5. From Research to Policy and Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.

    2008-01-01

    Although science policy and social policy have distinct cultures, there are overlapping influences on both. Science policy decisions across the spectrum of basic and applied research are influenced by perceived social utility and the potential for solving current social problems. With the advent of evidence-based policy requirements, social…

  6. Analyzing Educational Policies: A Learning Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Paul; Jackson, Kara

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe and illustrate an analytical perspective in which educational policies are viewed as designs for supporting learning. From the learning design perspective, a policy comprises 3 components that we term the what, how, and "why of policy": the goals for the learning of members of the group targeted by the policy, the…

  7. 45 CFR 5.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 5.2 Section 5.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Basic Policy § 5.2 Policy. As a general policy, HHS follows a balanced approach in administering FOIA. We not...

  8. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. PMID:27140431

  9. Policy offers protection from harassment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia

    We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

  10. Health policy and case management.

    PubMed

    Mark, D D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the performance of and support for case management using a policy framework in order to increase case managers' awareness of policy making and facilitate successful planning for future policy initiatives. Feldstein's (1996) theory of opposing legislative outcomes indicates that legislation can be viewed on a continuum, ranging from legislation that meets the needs of the public to legislation considered to be in the self-interest of the participants and legislators. The current health care system requires that case managers working for publicly funded health care organizations balance the need for stewardship of U.S. tax dollars and the health care needs of consumers. It is apparent from the literature that case managers are successfully achieving this balance. However, certain conditions should exist that allow for case manager decision-making that promotes effective and efficient utilization of health care resources. Case managers must work within the context of the health care policy environment. Realizing that it is more likely that the conflicts between stewardship and the provision of health care services will continue, case managers' knowledge and influence regarding policy making becomes imperative in order to ensure that these conflicting goals do not become mutually exclusive.

  11. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    PubMed

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  12. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting.

  13. Policy issues in space analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, Robin N.; Facktor, Debra D.

    Space mission planning is increasingly focusing on destinations beyond Earth orbit. Advancements in technology will inevitably be required to enable long-duration human spaceflight missions, and breakthroughs in the policy arena will also be needed to achieve success in such missions. By exploring how policy issues have been addressed in analogous extreme environments, policymakers can develop a framework for addressing these issues as they apply to long-term human spaceflight. Policy issues that need to be addressed include: crew selection, training, organization, and activities, medical testing, illness, injury, and death; communication; legal accountability and liability; mission safety and risk management; and environmental contamination. This paper outlines the approach of a study underway by The George Washington University and ANSER to examine how these policy issues have been addressed in several analogues and how the experiences of these analogues can help formulate policies for long-duration human spaceflight missions. Analogues being studied include Antarctic bases, submarine voyages, undersea stations, Biosphere 2, and the U.S. Skylab and Russian Mir space stations.

  14. A Model for Higher Education Policy Review: The Case Study of an Assessment Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Marina; Kosman, Bronwyn

    2014-01-01

    The development of a standards-based assessment policy represented a significant cultural shift in assessment practice at one university. Concurrently, the implementation of a policy framework represented a significant procedural shift in policy development and review. The assessment policy was the first policy scheduled to be reviewed through the…

  15. Policy-Making and Policy Learning in 14-19 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffe, David, Ed.; Spours, Ken, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years 14-19 education has been the subject of numerous reviews, innovations and policy changes. What can be learnt from this experience and do current policies incorporate this learning? In this book, leading experts on 14-19 education and training explore the concept of policy-learning and examine recent policies and policy-making in…

  16. School Policy and Environment: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Meg L.; Jones, Sherry Everett; Barrios, Lisa C.; Crossett, Linda S.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Albuquerque, Melissa S.; Sleet, David A.; Greene, Brenda Z.; Schmidt, Ellen R.

    2001-01-01

    Uses data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 to describe state- and district-level policy support and coordination and state- and district-level policies regarding school environment, injury prevention, and substance use and violence prevention, noting school-level policies and practices in those areas, policies to inform…

  17. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  18. Obama Administration Announces Ocean Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-08-01

    With the U.S. Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force final report in hand, U.S. president Barack Obama issued an executive order on 19 July largely adopting its recommendations. These include establishing a National Policy for the Stewardship of the Ocean, Coasts, and Great Lakes; creating a National Ocean Council, which will hold its first meeting later this summer; strengthening the ocean governance structure; and providing for the development of coastal and marine spatial plans. The task force report indicates that U.S. ocean policy includes protecting, maintaining, and restoring ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes ecosystems and resources; increasing scientific understanding and using the best available science and knowledge to inform decisions about them; and improving the understanding and awareness of changing environmental conditions.

  19. Seminar on Egypt population policy.

    PubMed

    Kantner, J F

    1984-01-01

    The information and viewpoints presented at the Seminar on Egypt Population Policy held in Cairo on October 16-18 were summariezed and critically assessed. The seminar was organized by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population's Committee on the Utilization ofDemographic Knowlege in Policy Formulation and Planning for the purpose of assessing the policy making the utility of social science and demographc knowledge with specific reference to Egypt's family planning program. The seminar was attended by demographers, social scientists, and experienced policy makers, and the discussion was highly focused. Seminar papers and discussions sought to clarify Egypt's current demographic situation, attempted to use sample survey data to identifyfertility determinants, analyzed Egypt's policyresponses to the population problem, assessed the national family planning program, identified the type of knowledge available for policy making, and noted areas where policy relevant information is lacking. Evidence presented at the seminar indicated that Egyptian fertility is still high and that corrected the total fertility rate for 1980 was close to 6. Since, 1960, fertility declined in all regions of the country, but between 1976-80 the decline decelerated. This deceleration appears to be a temporary phenonemon. There is evidence that the age at marriage is increasing, that the population is motivated to use contraception when desired family size is reached, that contraceptive use is cost sensitive, and that the overall decline in fertility since the 1960s occurred in all parts of the country. Papers which presented analyses of fertility determinants, based on sample survey data, provided little useful insight for policy formulation. The studies indicate that the impact of family planning services on different segments of the population varies, and that these impacts may be increased if social and economic development persists. The preception of the population

  20. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like. PMID:15912315

  1. Certifying Domain-Specific Policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Proof-checking code for compliance to safety policies potentially enables a product-oriented approach to certain aspects of software certification. To date, previous research has focused on generic, low-level programming-language properties such as memory type safety. In this paper we consider proof-checking higher-level domain -specific properties for compliance to safety policies. The paper first describes a framework related to abstract interpretation in which compliance to a class of certification policies can be efficiently calculated Membership equational logic is shown to provide a rich logic for carrying out such calculations, including partiality, for certification. The architecture for a domain-specific certifier is described, followed by an implemented case study. The case study considers consistency of abstract variable attributes in code that performs geometric calculations in Aerospace systems.

  2. [Policies to reduce health inequalities].

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews policies to reduce social inequalities in health and presents some examples. Previously it presents the model on social determinants of health inequalities. The model described on the determinants of health inequalities is used by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health of the World Health Organisation that contains three main elements: the socio-economic and political context, socioeconomic status and intermediary factors. It describes 10 principles to keep in mind to launch interventions aimed at reducing inequalities in health and describes various policies depending on different "entry points" considered in the conceptual model. Finally we present two examples: The Public Health Policy of Sweden and the programme "Barrio Adentro" in Venezuela.

  3. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  4. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  5. Space Politics and Policy. An Evolutionary Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, E.

    2003-01-01

    This book is the first comprehensive source for the Space Politics and Policies of the United States Civil, Military, Intelligence, and Commercial Space Programs. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective provides a comprehensive survey of Space Policy. This book is organized around two themes. Space Policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the space age. Space Policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. The book analyzes Space Policy at several levels including historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes and policy outcomes. It examines the symbiotic relationships between policy, technology, and science; provides a review and synthesis of the existing body of knowledge in Space Policy; and identifies Space Policy trends and developments from the beginnings of the space age through the current era of the twenty-first century. The book is intended for those interested in Space Policy, especially Space Policy decision-makers, program and project managers, as well as students and lecturers of Space Policy. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0879-1 and http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0902-X

  6. Early Intervention Service Coordination Policies: National Policy Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbin, Gloria L.; Bruder, Mary Beth; Adams, Candace; Mazzarella, Cynthia; Whitbread, Kathy; Gabbard, Glenn; Staff, Ilene

    2004-01-01

    Effective implementation of service coordination in early intervention, as mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, remains a challenge for most states. The present study provides a better understanding of the various aspects of the policy infrastructure that undergird service coordination across the United States. Data from a…

  7. Deconstructing "Aspiration": UK Policy Debates and European Policy Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohrer, Konstanze

    2011-01-01

    Strategies of "employability" and "activation" are increasingly favoured in the European Union policy context. These strategies are aimed at fostering inclusion by stressing the responsibility of the individual to participate in education and employment. Similar tendencies can be observed in the United Kingdom (UK) over the last decade, among them…

  8. Policy Borrowing, Policy Learning: Testing Times in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a contextualised and critical policy analysis of the Rudd government's national schooling agenda in Australia. The specific focus is on the introduction of national literacy and numeracy testing and the recent creation by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority of the website "My School", which lists the…

  9. Intellectually Gifted Students: Issues and Policy Implications. Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    The paper examines policy issues in the area of gifted education. The first section reviews the problem area including definitions of giftedness and aims of gifted education. The next section briefly outlines major research influences which focus on learning rate, socialization, school achievement, and life achievement. The third section reviews…

  10. Vertical File Selection Policy and Procedure Policy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Doyne M.

    A definition of a pamphlet and a brief discussion of user accessibility to the Bracken Library Reference Service pamphlet collection at Ball state University (Indiana), are followed by the Selection Policy's guidelines, which are designed to ensure a consistent pattern of pamphlet selection. These guidelines cover types of materials to be…

  11. National Qualification Frameworks: From Policy Borrowing to Policy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakroun, Borhene

    2010-01-01

    This article takes up the issue of the internationalisation of Vocational Education and Training (VET) reforms, expressed in the way policy instruments such as National Qualifications Frameworks (NQF) are introduced in the European Training Foundation's (ETF) partner countries. There is an international debate and different perspectives regarding…

  12. Policy enabled information sharing system

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Craig R.; Nelson, Brian D.; Ratheal, Steve W.

    2014-09-02

    A technique for dynamically sharing information includes executing a sharing policy indicating when to share a data object responsive to the occurrence of an event. The data object is created by formatting a data file to be shared with a receiving entity. The data object includes a file data portion and a sharing metadata portion. The data object is encrypted and then automatically transmitted to the receiving entity upon occurrence of the event. The sharing metadata portion includes metadata characterizing the data file and referenced in connection with the sharing policy to determine when to automatically transmit the data object to the receiving entity.

  13. Preemptive public policy for genomics.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Rick J

    2008-02-01

    To many, genomics is merely exploitable technology for the leviathan of biotechnology. This is both shallow and short sighted. Genomics is applied knowledge based on profound and evolving science about how living things develop, how healthy or sick we are, and what our future will be like. In health care, genomics technologies are disruptive yet potentially cost-effective because they enable primary prevention, the antidote to runaway costs and declining productivity. The challenges to integration are great, however, and many bioethical and social-policy implications are alarming. Because it is poorly understood today, we must debate genomics vigorously if we are to act wisely. Public policy must lead.

  14. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  15. Water Science, Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    A new AGU book, Water:Science, Management and Policy, edited by Richard Lawford, Denise Fort, Holly Hartmann, and Susanna Eden, explores the scientific and political issues behind water use and sustainability worldwide. The book investigates critical issues facing water managers, policy makers, and scientists in the 21st century, examining specific examples of water planning and decision-making. Among the topics discussed by the authors are the current state of water engineering, sharing resources across state and international borders, and the best methods for managing the resource with the future impact of climate change and additional pollution.

  16. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Christopher E.; Halligan, Michelle H.; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the ‘policy diffusion’ process, enabling governments to learn from another’s enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada. PMID:25379125

  17. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory.

    PubMed

    Politis, Christopher E; Halligan, Michelle H; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the 'policy diffusion' process, enabling governments to learn from another's enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada.

  18. Curriculum Debate and Policy Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgstrom, Ole; Hellstenius, Mats

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the underlying themes and principles that inform curriculum debate and how they are articulated in current school policy discussions. This topic is approached with the help of a case study covering the debate on which subjects should be mandatory for students at the upper secondary school curriculum in Sweden. The focus…

  19. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the 21 articles published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996. The articles are: (1) "The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems" (Sherman Dorn); (2) "Review of Stephen Arons's 'Short Route to Chaos'" (Charles L. Glenn); (3) "Planting Land Mines in Common Ground: A…

  20. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see themselves as…

  1. Analysis of Academic Staffing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Stefan D.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale Markov chain models and Monte Carlo simulation, two types of models useful for academic managers to analyze academic staffing policies, are described. Their relative advantages and disadvantages regarding technical requirements and performance, as well as managerial usefulness at different levels of the university, are discussed.…

  2. California Tsunami Policy Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, C. R.; Johnson, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    California has established a Tsunami Policy Working Group of specialists from government and industry, from diverse fields including tsunami, seismic, and flood hazards, local and regional planning, structural engineering, natural hazard policy, and coastal engineering that have come together to facilitate the development of policy recommendations for tsunami hazard mitigation. The group is acting on findings from two major efforts: the USGS SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Project - Tsunami Scenario, a comprehensive impact analysis of a large credible tsunami originating from a M 9.0 earthquake on the Aleutian Islands striking California's Coastline, and the State's Tsunami Hazard Mitigation and Education Program carried out by the California Emergency Management Agency and the California Geological Survey. The latter program is currently involved with several projects to help coastal communities reduce their tsunami risk, including two pilot projects (Crescent City in Del Norte County and the City of Huntington Beach in Orange County) where tsunami risk is among the highest in California, and a third pilot study focusing on the maritime community. The pilot projects are developing and testing probabilistic tsunami hazard products that will assist land-use and construction decisions for coastal development. The role of the policy group is to identify gaps and issues in current tsunami hazard mitigation, make recommendations that will help eliminate these impediments and to provide advice that will assist in the development and implementation of effective tsunami hazard products that will help coastal communities improve tsunami resiliency.

  3. Residents' strikes on policy issues.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; Aggarwal, Sourabh

    2009-01-01

    Strikes by residents or medical students have become fairly common and the new trend is to resort to strikes to protest matters concerning health policies. This article discusses the justification for and the ethical issues involved in these strike actions. Mechanisms to prevent such strikes are also discussed. PMID:19241959

  4. When Ethics and Policy Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Bynum Blake; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2012-01-01

    This case study explores an ethical dilemma faced by a new junior high school principal. It is appropriate for use in all preparation course work, including the internship. Studies show that novice principal decision making differs from that of experienced principals in moral dilemmas, including following policy versus best interests of the…

  5. Illinois Shifting Gears Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzel, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Illinois Shifting Gears is a multilevel initiative that has simultaneously created bridge programs in the field and altered state policy to facilitate the creation of more programs in the future. These efforts have informed each other, giving policymakers the opportunity to interact with practitioners, troubleshoot bridge programs, and make…

  6. Intelligence Testing and Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laosa, Luis M.

    There is a resurgence of scientific and public interest and controversy centering on four interrelated themes: (1) intelligence testing; (2) racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic differences in measured IQ; (3) genetic and environmental influences on abilities; and (4) the role of scientific research in social policy. Given the polarization of views,…

  7. Educational Policy: Egalitarian or Elitist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Herschel I.; Kim, Minseong

    This paper offers an explanation for observed differences across countries in educational policies and in resulting interpersonal distributions of human capital, analyzing a general-equilibrium model in which, as a result of differences in natural ability and nurturing, some people are initially well-endowed with human capital and some are…

  8. Network Policy and Economic Doctrines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, debates over telecommunications network policy were marked by a relative lack of partisan and ideological conflict. In the last decade, this has changed markedly. Today, debates over a whole set of issues, including broadband competition, net neutrality, copyright, privacy, and others, have become more contentious. These…

  9. Learning, Exploration and Chaotic Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapov, Alexei B.; Ali, M. K.

    We consider different versions of exploration in reinforcement learning. For the test problem, we use navigation in a shortcut maze. It is shown that chaotic ɛ-greedy policy may be as efficient as a random one. The best results were obtained with a model chaotic neuron. Therefore, exploration strategy can be implemented in a deterministic learning system such as a neural network.

  10. The Reagan Administration's EEO Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, William Bradford

    The Reagan administration is committed to the principle of equal employment opportunity (EEO). No policy shift has occurred in the treatment of "class action" litigation, or in the "pattern or practice" suits in the Justice Department's Title VII enforcement activities. Significant money settlements have been obtained in "pattern and practice"…

  11. Monetary Policy after August 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes conceptually how to think about the dramatic changes in monetary policy since the sub-prime crisis of August 2007. He also discusses how to incorporate these changes and related economic concepts in the teaching of an undergraduate class in macroeconomics. A distinction is made between conventional and…

  12. A Primer on Macroprudential Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poutineau, Jean-Christophe; Vermandel, Gauthier

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces macroprudential policy using a static New Keynesian Macroeconomics model with financial frictions. The authors analyze two related questions: First, they show how the procyclicality of financial factors, captured by the financial accelerator, amplifies the transmission of supply and demand shocks and impacts the intuition…

  13. Student Travel: Policies - Regulations - Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Lorenzo A.; And Others

    The Jefferson County (Colorado) Public Schools' regulations and policies concerning student travel covers these forms of travel: student activity travel, extended student travel, district sponsored student travel, district authorized student travel, student exchange, and bonus learning trips. Issues and items addressed include: (1) authorization…

  14. New Mexico: State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This brief is one in a series highlighting state policies, regulations, practices, laws, or other tools intended to create the necessary conditions for school and/or district turnaround. Each brief includes an overview of the relevant turnaround tool, its development process, its impact, and lessons learned that could assist other education…

  15. Collection Development Policy: Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazek, Dan

    Intended as a general guideline for selecting government documents at the University of Miami (Florida) Otto G. Richter Library, this collection development policy includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Mission Statement; (3) Selection Responsibility; (4) Subject Areas, Collection Intensity Levels and Collection Arrangement,…

  16. Career Development and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Savickas, Mark L.

    Career development specialists need to find ways to adapt their knowledge and skills to become agents of social action. Public policy is one area where career development specialists can involve themselves to help bring about social change. This paper attempts to raise the consciousness of Society of Vocational Psychology (SVP) members and to…

  17. Wetland Research Can Influence Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    An objective of ecological research is to have a positive influence on the way natural resources are managed. The ability to influence policy with science depends on collaboration with the appropriate audience, identification of a relevant question, and awareness of the framewor...

  18. International Statements on Disability Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation International, New York, NY.

    The document brings together key policy documents related to disability proposed by the bodies of the United Nations system and of major nongovernmental organizations. Statements from nine United Nations agencies are presented: General Assembly; Economic and Social Council; Development Programme; World Conference of Decade for Women; Economic and…

  19. Toward a Child Policy Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B.

    1989-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the child policy decade of the 1890s and how it dominated the national social reform agenda, the article describes the current pressures for a children's agenda in the 1990s, what such an agenda might consist of, and the likelihood of success for a social reform agenda now. (BB)

  20. Educational Vouchers -- Some Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauch, J. E.

    The problems now confronting public education in the cities represent some of the major reasons for advocating the voucher system. This report identifies many of these problems, examines the concept of educational vouchers, and raises some policy and research issues that should be considered before such a system is tried. The author outlines a…

  1. Charter School Appeals. Policy Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Authorizers must decide whether a proposed school should be allowed to open and whether it should be required to close. To enable authorizers to serve as quality gatekeepers for the sector, state policy must give authorizers clear power to deny low-quality charter school applications and to close charter schools that fail to meet expectations. At…

  2. Policy Implications of Education Informatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Jo Ann; O'Brien, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: This concluding article identifies the policy implications of education informatics and explores impacts of current copyright laws, legislative structures, publishing practices, and education organizations. Synthesizing the discussions in the preceding articles, this article highlights the importance of designing information…

  3. Language Policy and Its Rationales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Uldis

    2004-01-01

    David Ingram's career has traversed several decades of shifting rationale for language policy in Australia. Government and institutional initiatives have at various times favoured traditional foreign language teaching, multicultural imperatives and language diversity, concern for Asian economically strategic languages, or a focus on literacy in…

  4. Productivity, People, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, prepared by the United States Chamber of Commerce, is intended to help create a better public understanding of how productivity affects this country and to suggest how people can change public policy in favor of a revitalized America. The booklet is organized in five sections. The first section defines productivity and introduces the…

  5. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  6. The Challenge of Urban Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaeser, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization almost invariably accompanies development, and the cities of India and China are experiencing spectacular increases in population. The concentration of millions of people in a small mass creates challenges for public policy, especially in the areas of basic infrastructure, public health, traffic congestion, and often law enforcement…

  7. 2007 Youth Policy Summit Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ellen; Fussell, Annemarie; Templin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The NCSSSMST (National Consortium for Specialized Secondary Schools of Mathematics, Science and Technology) and Keystone Science School co-sponsored two Youth Policy Summits during the summer of 2007. Forty students represented 10 high schools from across the country at each Summit, meeting for a week in June and August at Keystone Science School…

  8. Policy Implementation: Implications for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGroff, Amy; Cargo, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Policy implementation reflects a complex change process where government decisions are transformed into programs, procedures, regulations, or practices aimed at social betterment. Three factors affecting contemporary implementation processes are explored: networked governance, sociopolitical context and the democratic turn, and new public…

  9. Zero Tolerance Policies. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Much of this brief comes from the ERIC Digest on Zero Tolerance Policies (ERIC #: ED451579). State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. Despite the controversies that it has…

  10. Education Policy, Growth and Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benos, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    The present paper studies the general equilibrium implications of two types of education policy in an overlapping generations model. We examine education transfers, which augment inherited private education spending, and public investment on economy-wide human capital, which provides externalities to individual human capital accumulation. The…

  11. Making Media Policy in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goban-Klas, Tomasz

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the creation of the new media policy in Poland formed at the 1989 "round table" negotiations between the Polish leadership and Solidarity, a Polish trade union. Discusses the issues of censorship, access to newsprint and to the airwaves (primarily to television), and the legalization of underground publications. (KEH)

  12. Policy Fight Brews over Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    A new report finding that black and Hispanic students are far more likely to be kicked out of school when they break the rules adds to a growing chorus of concern over the discipline policies being used in K-12 schools. Over the past two years, an increasing number of reports and initiatives have pointed out problems with 'zero tolerance" policies…

  13. Health Policy for the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Steven P.; Estes, Carroll L.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes demographic and health trends during the Reagan years. Describes the current nature of health care, federal role, effects of the fiscal crisis on health policy, and repercussions of deregulation of the health-care industry. Presents issues that need to be addressed to prevent severe fragmentation of health care. (MW)

  14. The Sociomateriality of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    By drawing on sociomaterial approaches to education, this paper presents a case study on the creation, development and consolidation of the education zone, a new policy space in South Italy. The topological reading of the case study reveals the complex reassemblage of humans and non-humans in the enactment of the education zones, and its multiple…

  15. Policy Dilemmas for Serrano Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Now that the courts have affirmed "Serrano" and specified a rigid fiscal neutrality remedy, state policymakers are confronted with numerous dilemmas and potential unintended consequences. Discusses some of the those policy dilemmas and how school finance systems need to be overhauled. (Author/RK)

  16. Old Age Policy in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillemard, Anne-Marie

    Old-age policy in France has evolved historically in three critical dimensions that also correspond generally to post-World War II developments in France: the right to retirement (pensions); improved living conditions (e.g., autonomy, housing); and continued participation in the labor force. The last focus is currently a controversial one, given…

  17. Nepotism: A Policy of Convenience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Nepotism is one of those words that makes people cringe. The hint of such behavior within an organization immediately raises suspicions of unethical behavior despite well-written, comprehensive policies and procedures. School districts are not immune to the damage that can be done to even the most highly regarded and well-respected organizations.…

  18. Policy and Procedures Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges, Jackson.

    The Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior College Policy and Procedures Manual has been established by the State Board to govern its actions and activities and those of the staff. It describes polices and procedures regarding board operations, staff employment, staff workplace, employee performance/grievance procedure, staff positions,…

  19. Technology Assessment and Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majone, Giandomenico

    1977-01-01

    Argues that the application of policy analysis to technology assessment requires the abandonment of stereotyped approaches and a reformulation of analytical paradigms to include consideration of institutional constraints. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies available.…

  20. Equity, Technology, and Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Marguerite Ross

    1984-01-01

    Argues that three key themes seem to define the Reagan administration's educational policy: (1) contraction of the public sphere and of the definition of what constitutes the legitimate public interest; (2) social triage; and (3) individualism and privatization of public life. (CMG)

  1. Policy Information System Computer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Roger E.; And Others

    The concepts and methodologies outlined in "A Policy Information System for Vocational Education" are presented in a simple computer format in this booklet. It also contains a sample output representing 5-year projections of various planning needs for vocational education. Computerized figures in the eight areas corresponding to those in the…

  2. Charter School Replication. Policy Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhim, Lauren Morando

    2009-01-01

    "Replication" is the practice of a single charter school board or management organization opening several more schools that are each based on the same school model. The most rapid strategy to increase the number of new high-quality charter schools available to children is to encourage the replication of existing quality schools. This policy guide…

  3. Grantmakers Seeking to Influence Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    The author talks about a recent report from the nonprofit group "Grantmakers for Education" which finds that philanthropies nationwide are increasingly getting engaged with education policy matters at the local, state, and federal levels through a range of activities, in recognition of the powerful reach of government in setting priorities for…

  4. Policy Brief: The Four Horsemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickrod, G. Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this policy brief, the author contends that there are four other principal causes of the collective poor showing on reaching state equity goals in the United States. These are the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse in the school finance world. The first horseman rides an economic horse, the second a sociological horse, the third a political horse,…

  5. Federal Policy and Adolescent AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Brian L.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that federal policy on adolescent Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome health care and research is nonexistent or piecemeal. Despite the work of the Centers for Disease Control, efforts at preventive education are uncoordinated, resulting from the decentralized nature of the public health and education systems, and are hampered by social…

  6. School Dropouts: Patterns and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natriello, Gary, Ed.

    This book collects articles that examine the patterns of dropping out evident among American youth, and the policies developed and implemented to reduce the incidence of dropping out. The following chapters (and their authors) are included: (1) Introduction (G. Natriello); (2) Can We Help Dropouts? Thinking about the Undoable (D. Mann); (3) Large…

  7. Summer Bridge Programs. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Across the nation, school policymakers are grappling with what to do about the increasing numbers of students who do not advance beyond ninth grade. National estimates put the student attrition rate before tenth grade at between 11 and 33 percent, and only about 70 percent of ninth graders make it to graduation. This policy brief focuses on one…

  8. Lifelong Learning, Policy and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…

  9. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  10. La reconnaissance des acquis experientiels: etude de cas de la politique d'admission des adultes a l'Universite de Laval (Recognition of Experiential Learning: Case Study of the Politics of Adult Admissions to the University of Laval.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heon, Lucie; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 400 University of Laval adult applicants under its new admission policy suggest that while student age and experience appear to be important factors in gaining admission, they are enhanced by the closeness of the experience to academic or cognitive learning combined with a high school diploma and grades above 65%. (MSE)

  11. Networking to Improve Nutrition Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Blanck, Heidi M.; Cradock, Angie; Gortmaker, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Effective nutrition and obesity policies that improve the food environments in which Americans live, work, and play can have positive effects on the quality of human diets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) conducts transdisciplinary practice-based policy research and evaluation to foster understanding of the effectiveness of nutrition policies. The articles in this special collection bring to light a set of policies that are being used across the United States. They add to the larger picture of policies that can work together over time to improve diet and health. PMID:26355829

  12. Networking to Improve Nutrition Policy Research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sonia A; Blanck, Heidi M; Cradock, Angie; Gortmaker, Steven

    2015-09-10

    Effective nutrition and obesity policies that improve the food environments in which Americans live, work, and play can have positive effects on the quality of human diets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) conducts transdisciplinary practice-based policy research and evaluation to foster understanding of the effectiveness of nutrition policies. The articles in this special collection bring to light a set of policies that are being used across the United States. They add to the larger picture of policies that can work together over time to improve diet and health.

  13. Population policy in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Carino, L V

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews population policies in the Philippines during five time periods. Policy changes occurred after family planning in 1969 shifted to government programming from private initiatives, during 1974-86 when family planning and total development were integrated, during 1986-92 when family planning was integrated within maternal and child health services, and during 1992 to the present when population concerns were balanced with resource and development issues. In 1971 the government mission was to further national development and to meet the grave challenge of a high rate of population growth. After martial law was imposed in 1972, policy emphasized benefits only for the first four children and noncoercive birth control. Multiagency participation and partnerships between the public and private sectors were administrative strategies and not policy changes. During the late 1970s and early 1980s population issues became part of formal development planning, and outreach programs were implemented in 1976 at the local level. By 1983 little progress was made in prevalence and in the growth rate. A special committee in 1978 discovered that the Population Program was only a fertility reduction program instead of being within the family welfare context. The new emphasis and increased government support began in 1982. The ouster of the Marcos dictatorship in 1986 and the democratizing regime of Aquino occurred simultaneously with the chaos in family planning statistics. The 1987-92 plan emphasized the goal of maternal and child development and thereafter the environment and sustainable development. The changing context over these 5 periods was due to international influences and domestic political requirements. Changes were evident in the organization and the personalities in the program. Religious bodies, culture, and history all placed a role in continuity of policy. Program obstacles were a lack of organizational continuity and a strong reliance on foreign

  14. Policy Driven, Policy Relevant: Why the American Meteorological Society Established the Summer Policy Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, W. H.

    2002-05-01

    The AMS Summer Policy Colloquium is an annual event. Established last year, with some initial help from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the Colloquium brings a maximum of 50 participants to Washington, DC for a ten-day immersion in policy studies in early June. Most participants are mid-level federal and corporate research managers or junior faculty and are sponsored by their host institutions on the basis of their scientific ability and leadership potential. In addition, the AMS runs a competitive nationwide search to identify and fund (perhaps 10-15) graduate students of exceptional promise. Participants receive extensive study materials prior to their arrival. They visit Capitol Hill and executive branch offices, and work though case studies and group exercises. They encounter and engage in dialog a number of speakers, including federal policy officials, Congressional staffers, media experts, and policy researchers. Subsequently, Colloquium alumni are provided with opportunities for continued, multi-year, collaboration as a group. This talk reviews the motivations and purposes for this investment.

  15. School Leadership Policy Trends and Developments: Policy Expediency or Policy Excellence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Virginia; Smith, L. Wes; Boutin, James

    2011-01-01

    Background: Institutional theorists suggest environmental stakeholders in the "organizational field" have a symbiotic relationship with governing agencies, leading to institutional isomorphism. Hence state policy makers copy the work of their colleagues across states to create a sense of legitimacy, certainty, and professionalization rather than…

  16. Population policies in developed countries: how do Australia's policies compare?

    PubMed

    Young, C

    1989-05-01

    Between 1980-1985, Australia experienced the highest population growth of any developed nation basically due to high levels of immigration. West Germany was the only nation to have negative growth rate. Yet Australia, like most developed nations, had a below replacement fertility rate. Nevertheless Australia's population is expected to increase by 3 million people by 2026, even if there is no immigration. Australia does not have a fertility directed population policy, yet the government does provide a family allowance (although it is lower than that of other developed nations), guarantees maternity and patenity leave (albeit mostly unpaid), and some child care facilities. Unlike other developed nations, however, Australia's government assistance to families has declined recently. In the early 1980s, the level of child poverty in Australia ranked higher than of Canada, West Germany, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, but in ranked lower than that of the United States (US). The population policy in Australia is an immigraiton based policy. Even though almost all the developed nations have reached or will soon reach below replacement fertility and are faced with an aging population, only Austrlia, Canada, and the US do not have a clear policy to influence fertility and continue to not restrict immigration. Further, Australia's level of immigration is 3 times the rate/head of population than the US or Canada. A possible nondemographic solution to the aging population in developed nations is to increase pension coverage to full time and part time workers and to secure greater continuity of pension coverage to those workers who change jobs and to women who took time out from working to bear and/or care for children. PMID:12342441

  17. Explaining trends in addictive behaviour policy--the role of policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Adam, Christian; Raschzok, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This article analyses addictive behaviour policy regimes - focusing on illegal drugs and gambling - in 19 countries over a period of 50 years. It compares how these countries have combined rules on the consumption and possession of cannabis and on the participation in sports betting with sanctions for violations of these rules. While theories of policy convergence can explain dominant trends in the way the combination of these policy instruments have changed, they cannot account for all of the empirical variation observed. Turning to Portugal, a case which deviates in both illegal drug and gambling policy from the expected trend, we show that explanations of policy change improve substantially when taking the concept of policy coherence into account. Specifically, we argue that changes of the policy status quo are facilitated when policy entrepreneurs succeed in shaping a perception of policy incoherence. In turn, when relevant actors are able to maintain a perception of policy coherence, the policy status quo is stabilized.

  18. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  19. Explaining trends in addictive behaviour policy--the role of policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Adam, Christian; Raschzok, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This article analyses addictive behaviour policy regimes - focusing on illegal drugs and gambling - in 19 countries over a period of 50 years. It compares how these countries have combined rules on the consumption and possession of cannabis and on the participation in sports betting with sanctions for violations of these rules. While theories of policy convergence can explain dominant trends in the way the combination of these policy instruments have changed, they cannot account for all of the empirical variation observed. Turning to Portugal, a case which deviates in both illegal drug and gambling policy from the expected trend, we show that explanations of policy change improve substantially when taking the concept of policy coherence into account. Specifically, we argue that changes of the policy status quo are facilitated when policy entrepreneurs succeed in shaping a perception of policy incoherence. In turn, when relevant actors are able to maintain a perception of policy coherence, the policy status quo is stabilized. PMID:24726776

  20. [Population policy: speeches and actions].

    PubMed

    Soto Lopez, A

    1991-06-01

    Mexico's population policy was created almost 20 years ago in response to the need to regulate the country's population growth. Currently the policy stresses more balanced distribution of the population in accordance with realistic development possibilities. By 1986 it was recognized that population policy in Mexico had gone beyond mere control of fertility to encompass direct government intervention in more complex global problems. It was concluded that the possibility of achieving rational population distribution depended on balanced regional development. A strong family planning policy, efforts to integrate demographic programs into general development plans, employment policies, and measures to encourage harmonious spatial distribution were viewed as necessary, but it was also felt that greater speed was required and that the population policy should play a larger role in the development strategy. The National Population Program for 1989-94 has the objectives of promoting the integration of demographic objectives into economic and social planning and promoting a decline in the rate of population growth from 1.8% in 1995 to 1.5% in 2000 through fertility decline. It seeks a more rational population distribution in which the weight of large metropolitan zones would be reduced and growth of intermediate and small cities promoted. It seeks to encourage greater participation by women in the nation's life, and to contribute to integrated development and elevation in the living standards of indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. Greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous populations

  1. Women, Psychology, and Public Policy: Selected Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Nancy Felipe; Denmark, Florence L.

    1984-01-01

    Highlights psychologists' roles and contributions to policy development in the areas of employment, deinstitutionalization, family violence, science and technology, and education. Focuses on psychologists' participation in creating policies that respond to the realities of women's changing social roles. (KH)

  2. 14 CFR 1213.102 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.102 Policy. (a) NASA, a scientific and technical Agency, is committed to a culture of... culture of openness, NASA employees may, consistent with this policy, speak to the press and the...

  3. 33 CFR 239.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.4 Policy...), Environmental Quality (EQ), Regional Development (RD) and Social Well Being (SWB) accounts, and the...

  4. 32 CFR 212.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....4 Policy. It is DoD policy, consistent with 32 CFR part 213, that procedures be established for the... welfare. Non-Federal entities are not entitled to sovereign immunity and privileges accorded to...

  5. Reproductive Toxicology: From Science to Public Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male reproductive toxicology research substantially influences policies that protect men's health. US policy directs regulatory agencies to ensure environmental protection for vulnerable groups, including boys and men where factors like age- and sex-specific sensitivities are app...

  6. Legal Underpinnings for Creating Campus Computer Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Marjorie W.; Worona, Steven L.

    1996-01-01

    Provides guidelines for the development of campus computer policies, focusing on legal issues related to adult material, harassment, privacy, commerce, and copyright. Notes that computer use policies and practices need to evolve in concert with the changing computer culture. (MDM)

  7. 15 CFR 15.24 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Support Allotments of NOAA Corps Officers § 15.24 Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department of Commerce to require Commissioned Officers of the NOAA Corps on active duty to make involuntary...

  8. 15 CFR 15.24 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Support Allotments of NOAA Corps Officers § 15.24 Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department of Commerce to require Commissioned Officers of the NOAA Corps on active duty to make involuntary...

  9. 15 CFR 15.24 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Support Allotments of NOAA Corps Officers § 15.24 Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department of Commerce to require Commissioned Officers of the NOAA Corps on active duty to make involuntary...

  10. 15 CFR 15.24 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Support Allotments of NOAA Corps Officers § 15.24 Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department of Commerce to require Commissioned Officers of the NOAA Corps on active duty to make involuntary...

  11. 15 CFR 15.24 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Support Allotments of NOAA Corps Officers § 15.24 Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department of Commerce to require Commissioned Officers of the NOAA Corps on active duty to make involuntary...

  12. 48 CFR 917.7201 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 917.7201 Section 917.7201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT... Policy....

  13. Federal Policies in Barrier Island Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, H. Crane

    1980-01-01

    Current federal policy towards barrier islands is ambivalent, both favoring and regulating development. Alternate policies are presently being examined by Congress and the Department of Interior. Several of these options are discussed in this article. (WB)

  14. Cost-Effectiveness and Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques of cost-effectiveness analysis and their applications to educational policy are discussed. Recommendations are made to increase the capacity of evaluators, policy analysts, and decision makers to use these tools appropriately for resource allocation. (SLD)

  15. 44 CFR 206.341 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Coastal Barrier Resources Act § 206.341 Policy. It shall be the policy of FEMA to achieve the goals of CBRA in carrying out disaster relief on units of...

  16. 14 CFR 431.23 - Policy review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Policy Review and Approval for Launch and Reentry of a Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431.23 Policy review. (a) The FAA reviews an...

  17. 14 CFR 431.23 - Policy review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Policy Review and Approval for Launch and Reentry of a Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431.23 Policy review. (a) The FAA reviews an...

  18. 14 CFR 431.23 - Policy review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Policy Review and Approval for Launch and Reentry of a Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431.23 Policy review. (a) The FAA reviews an...

  19. 48 CFR 2804.470-1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 2804.470-1 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of... another, depending upon the type, context, duration and location of the work to be performed....

  20. 32 CFR 142.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND VIDEO RECORDINGS § 142.3 Policy. (a) It is DoD policy: (1) To recognize the rights to copyright... copyrighted sound or video recordings, using government appropriated or nonappropriated-fund-owned or...

  1. 34 CFR 6.0 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.0 General policy. Inventions... the public. It is the policy of the Department: (a) To safeguard the public interest in inventions... inventions....

  2. 34 CFR 6.0 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.0 General policy. Inventions... the public. It is the policy of the Department: (a) To safeguard the public interest in inventions... inventions....

  3. Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

  4. 25 CFR 63.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment of child abuse, child neglect and family violence. ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Purpose, Policy, and Definitions § 63.2 Policy. In enacting the Indian Child Protection and...

  5. 32 CFR 223.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... increasing significantly the likelihood of the illegal production of nuclear weapons or the theft, diversion... DEFENSE UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION (DOD UCNI) § 223.4 Policy. It is DoD policy: (a)...

  6. 32 CFR 223.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... increasing significantly the likelihood of the illegal production of nuclear weapons or the theft, diversion... DEFENSE UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION (DOD UCNI) § 223.4 Policy. It is DoD policy: (a)...

  7. 32 CFR 223.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... increasing significantly the likelihood of the illegal production of nuclear weapons or the theft, diversion... DEFENSE UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION (DOD UCNI) § 223.4 Policy. It is DoD policy: (a)...

  8. 14 CFR Section 2 - General Accounting Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Accounting Policies Section 2 Section 2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Section 2 General Accounting Policies...

  9. 25 CFR 63.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... child abuse, child neglect and family violence. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Purpose, Policy, and Definitions § 63.2 Policy. In enacting the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  10. 25 CFR 63.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment of child abuse, child neglect and family violence. ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Purpose, Policy, and Definitions § 63.2 Policy. In enacting the Indian Child Protection and...

  11. 25 CFR 63.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treatment of child abuse, child neglect and family violence. ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Purpose, Policy, and Definitions § 63.2 Policy. In enacting the Indian Child Protection and...

  12. 25 CFR 63.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment of child abuse, child neglect and family violence. ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Purpose, Policy, and Definitions § 63.2 Policy. In enacting the Indian Child Protection and...

  13. Plant gene flow and environmental policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental policy development and interpretation often require the consideration and application of scientific information. "Boundary work" can happen at the science-policy interface. I will discuss two different areas of boundary work in which emerging studies of pl...

  14. Using Policy to Drive Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsby, Eunice Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This chapter addresses recent changes in public policy and organizational practices that affect LGBTQ individuals and the role that organizational policy can play in establishing and maintaining respectful and inclusive workplaces.

  15. 48 CFR 223.7301 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Minimizing the Use of Materials Containing Hexavalent Chromium 223.7301 Policy. It is DoD policy to minimize hexavalent chromium (an anti-corrosive) in items acquired...

  16. 14 CFR § 1213.102 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.102 Policy. (a) NASA, a scientific and technical Agency, is committed to a culture of... culture of openness, NASA employees may, consistent with this policy, speak to the press and the...

  17. 14 CFR 1213.102 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.102 Policy. (a) NASA, a scientific and technical Agency, is committed to a culture of... culture of openness, NASA employees may, consistent with this policy, speak to the press and the...

  18. 48 CFR 1237.7000 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Department of Transportation Procedures for Acquiring Training Services 1237.7000 Policy. When training services are provided under contract, DOT policy requires that all prospective contractors: (a) Certify that the data provided concerning company qualifications,...

  19. [Feeding the people: food policy and population policy in China].

    PubMed

    Wu, I

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interaction between alimentary and demographic policies in China during the past 10 years, and on the long-term consequences of the new policy of economic readjustment. The repartition of food supply in China depends on 2 principles, egalitarianism and autonomy of production. In rural areas this policy has always resulted in children being used for work around the house and in the fields by the age of 10, with little time for education; children are necessary for the sustainance of the family since the amount of food obtained from the government is in proportion to family size and labour force; this obviously leads to demographic increase. Urban population is in a different situation; expenses for food cover 68.6% of the monthly budget of a family; pressure for the education of children is very strong, with additional expenses, and the whole urban system of life is conducive to antinatalist attitudes. In rural areas the search for autonomy of production has accentuated regional disparities of economics; in 1978 agricultural production represented only 1/4 of the gross national product but involved 84% of the active population; only half of the cultivated land was irrigated and a family needed every member, including children, to work. Moreover, children, especially males, were needed to provide for their parents in old age. This system often forced peasants to report to the local authorities inferior sizes of cultivated land to limit their obligatory delivery of food supply. In 1980 nutrition in China was still based mainly on grains and beans, and a large majority of school-age children are anemic. In 1957 president Mao first took a pro-fertility control position, but nothing was done seriously till after the Cultural Revolution, i.e. until around the 1970s. In 1978 and 1979 there were 2 national congresses on population theory; in 1978 the government decided to extend the promotion of family planning to the whole nation through

  20. NASA policy on pricing shuttle launch services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper explains the rationale behind key elements of the pricing policy for STS, the major features of the non-government user policy, and some of the stimulating features of the policy which will open space to a wide range of new users. Attention is given to such major policy features as payment schedule, cost and standard services, the two phase pricing structure, optional services, shared flights, cancellation and postponement, and earnest money.

  1. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carol Louise; Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This approach lends itself to formal policy specification and verification, which would allow for more clarity and less ambiguity in the specification process

  2. Social media policy in other orqanizations.

    PubMed

    Sebelius, Carl L

    2012-01-01

    Most professional organizations have developed policy for use of social media by their members and several have developed Web sites to help members with ethical media use. It is commmon among businesses, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies to have policies governing use of media by employees when communicating with the public and provide employee training. This article samples some of the best practices in social media policy. Development of such policy represents an attractive opportunity for dentistry.

  3. Foreign workers recruiting policies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T

    1996-01-01

    "This article presents the basic characteristics of the foreign workers recruiting policy in Japan, which consists [of] barring entry to unskilled workers, and confronts it with the actual tolerance for a large number of illegal unskilled workers. After a historical overview of the reasons for the current policy, the article examines elements which reveal that a seclusionist policy is based on mistaken assumptions and reviews policy options to deal with the issue of illegal migration."

  4. Science policy studied in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The House Science and Technology Committee will initiate a comprehensive study of science policy in the United States. Although the study will not formally begin until January, when the 99th Congress convenes for its 2-year term, a newly appointed task force has begun to develop the agenda for the committee's work and has begun to prepare background information for the study.Don Fuqua (D-Fla.), chairman of the Science and Technology Committee, said that the health and vitality of American science unquestionably has been a major factor in the strong performance of the American economy over the last 35 years. However, the committee is concerned that present policies and practices may not be fully adequate to the new environment facing U.S. science in the coming decades.

  5. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  6. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  7. Greenhouse policy study from NAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The National Academy of Sciences will produce a study for the Environmental Protection Agency on policy responses to global warming. The report is due out before the end of 1990.Dan J. Evans, former U.S. Senator and former Governor of Washington, will chair a panel of the Commission on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, a body of the councils of the NAS, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. Evans is a registered civil engineer and previously chaired the Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council.The 13-person panel includes AGU members Stephen Schneider of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and Robert Frosch, Vice President of Research Laboratores at General Motors Corp., Jessica Mathews, Vice President of the World Resources Institute, and Sir Crispin Tickell, the United Kingdom's Ambassador to the United Nations.

  8. Trade policy and public goods.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1994 as the first multilateral trade organization with enforcement authority over national governments. A country's domestic standards cannot be more restrictive than international standards for trade. WTO seeks to "harmonize" individual domestic policies into uniform global standards and encompasses trade-related aspects of health, public safety, and environmental protection. These issues are transnational and pose enormous challenges to traditional governance structures. Most governments are not equipped to manage problems that transcend their borders. Moreover, international governance in social issues--with the possible exception of public health--is still in its infancy. Many groups are concerned that local public interests will be subjugated to global corporate interests. The article looks at the social ramifications of world trade policy and concludes that world trade must be balanced with sustainable environments and human health. PMID:17208712

  9. Pronatalism and women's equality policies.

    PubMed

    Heitlinger, A

    1991-01-01

    Pronatalism, as an ideology, can mean many different things. In its worst version it is associated with imperialism, racism, eugenism, reinforcement of traditional family structures where the man is the income generator and the women is economically dependent. This version gives women severe limitation of reproductive choices and a selective combination of strong pronatalism for some and strong anti-natalism for others. In its best version, it is associated with policies supporting women's emancipation by making the role of mother more compatible with the role as income generator, and state assistance for families with children. According to McIntosh there are 4 barriers to creating and installing pronatalist policies: 1) lack of public demand, 2) distinct limits to government's ability to finance all of the public services and cash benefits, 3) doubts about the efficacy of financial incentives as a means of encouraging women to have more children, 4) a weak nationalist rationale.

  10. Energy policy: an economist's confessions

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Schlesinger, former Secretary of Energy, feels that energy policy will determine how the industrial economies perform and whether the western political institutions survive. He says that energy policy does not, however, respond to traditional economic analysis in that there is no economic theory to adequately cover depleting resources. Economists gain strength by approaching energy problems in the context of supply and the price mechanism, with attention to arithmetic rather than emotion. Dr. Schlesinger believes, however, that there are weaknesses in the economists' view in the curative powers granted to the marketplace, which are better at making small adjustments over a long period of time than large adjustments in a short time. He notes that tendency to use inappropriate syllogisms obscures the problem of a rapidly diminishing lead time to solving the energy problem. He observes that total reliance on the marketplace will have to give way to government subsidies to research, develop, and commercialize fuels. (DCK)

  11. Public policy and healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Nuwer, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Public policy in healthcare affects physician and patient choices. In many ways it may limit choices. These choices present conflicts that are discussed here. Some issues depend on the laws enacted to enable either a single-payer system or that mixed with a private-payer system. In each case, the systems attain some cost controls through means such as gatekeepers, long wait lists, authorization processes, national fee schedules, complex coding schemes, or placing physicians on salary. National health systems are compared here. No one system has proven completely satisfactory, and each has its advantages. There are many factors that contribute to the escalating costs of care that lead to many healthcare public policies to constrain costs. Initiatives to incentivize preventive actions are a more positive step, but ones that are difficult to define in detail.

  12. 33 CFR 263.15 - Program policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program policies. 263.15 Section... DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS General § 263.15 Program policies. (a) Designation of authority... otherwise specified in a legislative authority (§ 263.13), cost sharing policies applicable...

  13. Policy Inroads Undermining Women in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; Young, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, policy trends have differentially and negatively affected women educators, defied, denied or repressed feminist values and missed opportunities for using feminist insights to reframe policy issues. This article provides a critical feminist analysis of educational and social policies with negative implications for women in…

  14. 32 CFR 148.11 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ensure that security policies and procedures for which they are responsible are reasonable, effective... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 148.11 Section 148.11 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN NATIONAL POLICY...

  15. 10 CFR 706.20 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 706.20 Section 706.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Loyalty of Participants § 706.20 Policy. Loyalty to the United States is a paramount factor applicable to all participants in DOE...

  16. 10 CFR 706.20 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 706.20 Section 706.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Loyalty of Participants § 706.20 Policy. Loyalty to the United States is a paramount factor applicable to all participants in DOE...

  17. 32 CFR 148.11 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ensure that security policies and procedures for which they are responsible are reasonable, effective... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 148.11 Section 148.11 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN NATIONAL POLICY...

  18. 50 CFR 540.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 540.1 Section 540.1 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION INFORMATION SECURITY § 540.1 Policy. It is the policy of the Marine Mammal Commission to act in accordance with Executive Order 12356 in matters relating to...

  19. 50 CFR 540.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 540.1 Section 540.1 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION INFORMATION SECURITY § 540.1 Policy. It is the policy of the Marine Mammal Commission to act in accordance with Executive Order 12356 in matters relating to...

  20. 50 CFR 540.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 540.1 Section 540.1 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION INFORMATION SECURITY § 540.1 Policy. It is the policy of the Marine Mammal Commission to act in accordance with Executive Order 12356 in matters relating to...