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Sample records for polimeri utilizzati nei

  1. NEI for Kids: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  2. NEIS (NASA Environmental Information System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beth

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) is a tool to support the functions of the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET). The NEIS is designed to provide a central environmental technology resource drawing on all NASA centers' capabilities, and to support program managers who must ultimately deliver hardware compliant with performance specifications and environmental requirements. The NEIS also tracks environmental regulations, usages of materials and processes, and new technology developments. It has proven to be a useful instrument for channeling information throughout the aerospace community, NASA, other federal agencies, educational institutions, and contractors. The associated paper will discuss the dynamic databases within the NEIS, and the usefulness it provides for environmental compliance efforts.

  3. 2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NEI is prepared at least every three years by the U.S. EPA based primarily upon emissions estimates and emissions model inputs provided by State, Local and Tribal (SLT) air agencies, and supplemented by data developed by the EPA.

  4. Introductory remarks on NEIS from Lou Pakiser

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1977-01-01

    Lou Pakiser is Chief of the Branch of Seismicity and Earth Structure of the U.S Geological Survey at Denver, Colo. He is responsible for managing the National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS), the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory, other U.S Seismic observatories, and a reserach program related to global seismology.

  5. 2017 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2017 NEI Plan is prepared at least every three years by the U.S. EPA based primarily upon emissions estimates and emissions model inputs provided by State, Local and Tribal (SLT) air agencies, and supplemented by data developed by the EPA.

  6. [Huang Yizhou's study on Nei jing (Inner Canon)].

    PubMed

    Hu, Benxiang; Huang, Youmei; Yu, Chengfen

    2002-01-01

    Being a great classical scholar of the late Qing dynasty, Huang Yizhou collated Nei jing (Inner Canon) by textual criticism. But most of his works were missing. By reviewing historical documents and literature, it has been found that his collated books include Huang di nei jing su wen jiao ben (Collated Edition of Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Huang di nei jing su wen chong jiao zheng (Recollated Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Nei jing zhen ci (Acupuncture in Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing jiu juan ji zhu (Variorum of Nine Volumes of Huangdi's Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing ming tang (Acupuncture Chart of Huangdi's Inner Canon), and Jiu chao tai su jiao ben (Old Extremely Plain Question Recension). Many of his disciples became famous scholars in the Republican period.

  7. Escherichia coli endonuclease VIII: cloning, sequencing, and overexpression of the nei structural gene and characterization of nei and nei nth mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, D; Hatahet, Z; Blaisdell, J O; Melamede, R J; Wallace, S S

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli possesses two DNA glycosylase/apurinic lyase activities with overlapping substrate specificities, endonuclease III and endonuclease VIII, that recognize and remove oxidized pyrimidines from DNA. Endonuclease III is encoded by the nth gene. Endonuclease VIII has now been purified to apparent homogeneity, and the gene, nei, has been cloned by using reverse genetics. The gene nei is located at 16 min on the E. coli chromosome and encodes a 263-amino-acid protein which shows significant homology in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions to five bacterial Fpg proteins. A nei partial deletion replacement mutant was constructed, and deletion of nei was confirmed by genomic PCR, activity analysis, and Western blot analysis. nth nei double mutants were hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and hydrogen peroxide but not as sensitive as mutants devoid of base excision repair (xth nfo). Single nth mutants exhibited wild-type sensitivity to X rays, while nei mutants were consistently slightly more sensitive than the wild type. Double mutants lacking both endonucleases III and VIII exhibited a strong spontaneous mutator phenotype (about 20-fold) as determined by a rifampin forward mutation assay. In contrast to nth mutants, which showed a weak mutator phenotype, nei single mutants behaved as the wild type. PMID:9171429

  8. Introduction to the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; MacDermaid, C.; Hackathorn, E.; Lynge, J.; Smith, J.; Pierce, R.; Davis, D.

    2012-12-01

    Across the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and other government agencies, there exists a wide variety of environmental data and information systems meeting various agency missions. To meet NOAA's mission -- to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts, to share that knowledge and information with others, and to conserve and manage coastal and marine ecosystems and resources -- NOAA's data and systems need to be easily accessible and interoperable. Achieving this would lead to a more efficient organization. A concept conceived at Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) called the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) can provide this functionality. While the concept is visionary, the core requirements of this new system are: 1. Provide access to all information and data for all time scales 2. Provide the information when the user needs it 3. Provide the information in a form the user can interpret 4. Make information available on all platforms NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) is a framework of layered services designed to help NOAA's mission areas by facilitating the discovery, access, integration, and understanding of all NOAA data (past, present, and future). Designed for a world where everything is in motion, NEIS allows fluid data integration and interaction across 4D time and space. This presentation will provide an overview the NEIS concept and prototype, as well as information regarding ongoing and future activities related to this project.

  9. Production of recombinant human monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor (rM/NEI).

    PubMed

    Cooley, J; Mathieu, B; Remold-O'Donnell, E; Mandle, R J

    1998-10-01

    Recombinant human monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor (rM/NEI) was expressed with a baculovirus expression system. The purified recombinant protein was shown to inhibit human neutrophil elastase by the formation of a stable equimolar complex, as had been shown for M/NEI isolated from monocyte-derived cell lines. rM/NEI was remarkably stable in aqueous buffers from pH 6 to pH 8, but not in buffers below pH 6. rM/NEI activity was stable when subjected to freeze-thaw cycles and low temperature storage in Tris or phosphate buffers. rM/NEI could also be lyophilized without significant loss of activity. A 1.6-g batch of greater than 95% purity in rM/NEI was obtained by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with yields of 7 to 8 mg per liter of cultured insect cells. Methods and protocols were chosen for compatibility with large-scale cGMP production and were suitable for biochemical characterization and preclinical evaluation of rM/NEI as a therapeutic agent for cystic fibrosis. The availability of large amounts of purified rM/NEI will facilitate clinical evaluation of rM/NEI for prevention of the elastase-mediated destruction of lung tissue associated with the morbidity and mortality of cystic fibrosis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. National Emissions Inventory (NEI) 2005 Point Facility Data for the US (US EPA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This map service displays 2005 USEPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) point facility information for the United States. The map service was created for inclusion in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application (https://www.epa.gov/c-ferst) and displays several NEI pollutants (Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Arsenic, Benzene, 1,3-Butadiene, Chromium, Formaldehyde, Lead, Naphthalene, and PAH). The NEI is a comprehensive inventory of air emissions of both criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from all air emission sources for the United States. The NEI is prepared every three years by the USEPA based primarily on emission estimates and emission model inputs provided by state, local, and tribal air agencies for sources in their jurisdictions and supplemented by data developed by the USEPA. For more information about the 2005 NEI data, go to: https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/national-emissions-inventory .

  11. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism affect NEI concentration in discrete brain areas of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Carolina; Valdez, Susana Ruth; Morero, María Luján Navarra; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Sanchez, Mónica Silvina; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester

    2011-06-01

    To date, there has been only one in vitro study of the relationship between neuropeptide EI (NEI) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. To investigate the possible relationship between NEI and the HPT axis, we developed a rat model of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism that allows us to determine whether NEI content is altered in selected brain areas after treatment, as well as whether such alterations are related to the time of day. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, induced in male rats, with 6-propyl-1-thiouracil and l-thyroxine, respectively, were confirmed by determination of triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, and thyrotropin levels. All groups were studied at the morning and the afternoon. In rats with hypothyroidism, NEI concentration, evaluated on postinduction days 7 and 24, was unchanged or slightly elevated on day 7 but was decreased on day 24. In rats with hyperthyroidism, NEI content, which was evaluated after 4 days of l-thyroxine administration, was slightly elevated, principally in the preoptic area in the morning and in the median eminence-arcuate nucleus and pineal gland in the afternoon, the morning and afternoon NEI contents being similar in the controls. These results provide the bases to pursue the study of the interaction between NEI and the HPT axis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. National Emissions Inventory (NEI), County-Level, US, 2008, 2011, 2014, EPA OAR, OAPQS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This US EPA Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Air Quality Assessment Division, Air Quality Analysis Group (OAR, OAQPS, AQAD, AQAG) web service contains the following layers created from the 2008, 2011 and 2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI): Carbon Monoxide (CO), Lead, Ammonia (NH3), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Particulate Matter 10 (PM10), Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM2.5), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Each of these layers conatin county level emissions for 2008, 2011, and 2014. Layers are drawn at all scales. The National Emission Inventory (NEI) is a comprehensive and detailed estimate of air emissions of criteria pollutants, criteria precursors, and hazardous air pollutants from air emissions sources. The NEI is released every three years based primarily upon data provided by State, Local, and Tribal air agencies for sources in their jurisdictions and supplemented by data developed by the US EPA. The NEI is built using the Emissions Inventory System (EIS) first to collect the data from State, Local, and Tribal air agencies and then to blend that data with other data sources.NEI point sources include emissions estimates for larger sources that are located at a fixed, stationary location. Point sources in the NEI include large industrial facilities and electric power plants, airports, and smaller industrial, non-industrial and commercial facilities. A small number of portable sources such as s

  13. National Emissions Inventory (NEI), County-Level, US, 2008, 2011, 2014, EPA OAR, OAPQS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This US EPA Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Air Quality Assessment Division, Air Quality Analysis Group (OAR, OAQPS, AQAD, AQAG) web service contains the following layers created from the 2008, 2011 and 2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI): Carbon Monoxide (CO), Lead, Ammonia (NH3), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Particulate Matter 10 (PM10), Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM2.5), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Each of these layers conatin county level emissions for 2008, 2011, and 2014. Layers are drawn at all scales. The National Emission Inventory (NEI) is a comprehensive and detailed estimate of air emissions of criteria pollutants, criteria precursors, and hazardous air pollutants from air emissions sources. The NEI is released every three years based primarily upon data provided by State, Local, and Tribal air agencies for sources in their jurisdictions and supplemented by data developed by the US EPA. The NEI is built using the Emissions Inventory System (EIS) first to collect the data from State, Local, and Tribal air agencies and then to blend that data with other data sources.NEI point sources include emissions estimates for larger sources that are located at a fixed, stationary location. Point sources in the NEI include large industrial facilities and electric power plants, airports, and smaller industrial, non-industrial and commercial facilities. A small number of portable sources such as s

  14. National Emissions Inventory (NEI) 2011 Point Facility Data for the US (US EPA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This map service displays 2011 USEPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) point facility information for the United States. The map service was created for inclusion in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application (https://www.epa.gov/c-ferst) and displays several NEI pollutants (Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Arsenic, Benzene, 1,3-Butadiene, Chromium, Diesel PM, Formaldehyde, Lead, Naphthalene, and PAH). The NEI is a comprehensive inventory of air emissions of both criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from all air emission sources for the United States. The NEI is prepared every three years by the USEPA based primarily on emission estimates and emission model inputs provided by state, local, and tribal air agencies for sources in their jurisdictions and supplemented by data developed by the USEPA. For more information about the 2011 NEI data, go to: https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/national-emissions-inventory and https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2011-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data.

  15. Breaking it down, using modular services to improve the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Smith, J. S.; Joyce, J.; Hackathorn, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) developed by NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is a framework providing real-time high performance data discovery, access, and visualization. Along with a ESRL's unique visualization client, TerraViz, this framework provides seamless visualization and integration of data across time and space regardless of data size, physical location, or data format. An enabling technology is the services behind the scenes. The NEIS team has continued research into improving the asynchronous, event driven architecture which supports and drives the performance of the framework. Services are continually evaluated and broken down into smaller, more modular, self contained components. The benefits have been numerous. Through this effort the NEIS team has improved many aspects of the overall framework including performance, fault tolerance, testing coverage, scalability, reliability, and agility. This modular service approach provides the capability to monitor and pinpoint bottlenecks within the framework. Depending on the impact, the service can either be improved or scaled up to meet the requirements. Additionally, the modular nature reduces coupling between various components of the framework allowing individual services to be upgraded without taking down the entire system, decreasing the overall time to respond and fix to problems. This talk will focus on our approach to developing these services to support the NEIS framework and TerraViz, along with discussion on findings, challenges, and future research.

  16. Psychometric properties of the 25-item NEI-VFQ in a Hispanic population: Proyecto VER.

    PubMed

    Broman, A T; Munoz, B; West, S K; Rodriguez, J; Sanchez, R; Snyder, R; Klein, R

    2001-03-01

    To assess the psychometric properties of the NEI-VFQ-25 in a population-based study of older Hispanic persons living in the United States, explore other demographic factors that affect participant response, and observe the comparability of the Spanish and English versions of the instrument. A sample of randomly selected block groups in Tucson and Nogales, Arizona, were selected for study. Participants were interviewed at home; a majority of the interviews were conducted in Spanish. The home interview included questions from the NEI-VFQ-25 and HHANES: Presenting acuity was done using ETDRS methodology, followed by a standardized eye examination by an ophthalmologist. The authors analyzed the internal consistency of the NEI-VFQ-25 responses using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and the construct validity by assessing the relationship between presenting acuity and scale scores, adjusting for age and gender. A second model was also explored to determine whether other demographic variables affected scale scores; differences in reporting between the Spanish and English versions was observed in this model, used in a subset of the population that minimized interviewer effect. Of the 4774 participants in the study, 99.7% had completed questionnaires, not completed by proxy. The highest nonresponse rate occurred in the Driving scale, with 25% of participants not driving for reasons other than problems with vision. Internal consistency was high, with Cronbach alpha ranging between 0.65 and 0.86 for scales with multiple items. Adjusting for age and gender, those with presenting acuity worse than 20/40 scored significantly lower than those with presenting acuity 20/40 or better, for all scales. The demographic variables with the most consistent association across the NEI-VFQ-25 scales were presenting acuity, income, and gender. No significant differences in reporting were found between the Spanish and English versions of the questionnaire in the subset of the population. In this

  17. [Analysis of compiling date of Huang di nei jing (Huangdi's Internal Classic)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W B; Gao, Y T; Li, H Y

    2017-05-28

    There are Seven Medical Classics recorded in the Han shu Yi wen zhi(Bibliography in Annals of the Han Dynasty), among which the 18-volume Huang di nei jing (Huangdi's Internal Classic) is not the current edition of Ling shu (Miraculous Pivot) and Su wen(Plain Questions). The present edition of Huang di nei jing containing these two works might be merged in the Eastern Han Dynasty, benefited from the invention of Cai Lun's papermaking technique and the development of Nine needles, especially filiform needle manufacturing. Huang di nei jing was compiled on the basis of two major integrations: The first was joined by some medical experts such as Bian Que and tai yi ling (minister of imperial physicians) of the Qin State by using the language in the Warring States, contributing mainly to the theoretical system and forming its basic academic framework; The second was the second Royal book-collating activity in the Eastern Han Dynasty (100-110), which had revised the seven volumes of Chinese Medical Classics and incorporated them into two parts, Ling Shu and Su Wen, together with Bian Que's medical works and the new contents from the introductory Chapter on Nine Needles and Twelve Yuan(origin) Acupoints.

  18. High Performance Real-Time Visualization of Voluminous Scientific Data Through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Hackathorn, E. J.; Joyce, J.; Smith, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Within our community data volume is rapidly expanding. These data have limited value if one cannot interact or visualize the data in a timely manner. The scientific community needs the ability to dynamically visualize, analyze, and interact with these data along with other environmental data in real-time regardless of the physical location or data format. Within the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's), the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is actively developing the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). Previously, the NEIS team investigated methods of data discovery and interoperability. The recent focus shifted to high performance real-time visualization allowing NEIS to bring massive amounts of 4-D data, including output from weather forecast models as well as data from different observations (surface obs, upper air, etc...) in one place. Our server side architecture provides a real-time stream processing system which utilizes server based NVIDIA Graphical Processing Units (GPU's) for data processing, wavelet based compression, and other preparation techniques for visualization, allows NEIS to minimize the bandwidth and latency for data delivery to end-users. Client side, users interact with NEIS services through the visualization application developed at ESRL called TerraViz. Terraviz is developed using the Unity game engine and takes advantage of the GPU's allowing a user to interact with large data sets in real time that might not have been possible before. Through these technologies, the NEIS team has improved accessibility to 'Big Data' along with providing tools allowing novel visualization and seamless integration of data across time and space regardless of data size, physical location, or data format. These capabilities provide the ability to see the global interactions and their importance for weather prediction. Additionally, they allow greater access than currently exists helping to foster scientific collaboration and new

  19. Structure and sequence of human M/NEI (monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor), an Ov-serpin family gene.

    PubMed

    Zeng, W; Silverman, G A; Remold-O'Donnell, E

    1998-06-15

    Human monocyte/neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor (M/NEI) is a proteinase inhibitor that regulates the activity of the neutrophil proteases: elastase, cathepsin G and proteinase-3. Evidence indicates that M/NEI belongs to the Ov-serpin family (ovalbumin-related serpins), functionally diverse proteins with shared structural features. Recombinant lambda phage clones were isolated that encompass the full-length M/NEI gene plus upstream and downstream regions. The gene, 9.5kb long, consists of 7 exons and 6 introns. The 5' transcription start site identified by primer extension corresponds to a 60bp exon 1; the translation start site is in exon 2. Southern blots established a gene copy number of one. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) contains three AATAAA/AATTAA sites; these were shown to function as alternative polyadenylation signals. A 14-nucleotide upstream motif including the atypical TATA box TATAAGAG otherwise occurs only twice in GenBank, in the genes encoding neutrophil elastase and proteinase-3, target proteases inhibited by M/NEI. Comparison of M/NEI and previously characterized related genes strongly suggests that all Ov-serpins, despite a difference in chromosomal localization and exon number, nonetheless, share a common basic gene structure. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of scoring approaches for the NEI VFQ-25 in low vision.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Bradley E; Bullimore, Mark A

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different approaches to scoring the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) in patients with low vision including scoring by the standard method, by Rasch analysis, and by use of an algorithm created by Massof to approximate Rasch person measure. Subscale validity and use of a 7-item short form instrument proposed by Ryan et al. were also investigated. NEI VFQ-25 data from 50 patients with low vision were analyzed using the standard method of summing Likert-type scores and calculating an overall average, Rasch analysis using Winsteps software, and the Massof algorithm in Excel. Correlations between scores were calculated. Rasch person separation reliability and other indicators were calculated to determine the validity of the subscales and of the 7-item instrument. Scores calculated using all three methods were highly correlated, but evidence of floor and ceiling effects was found with the standard scoring method. None of the subscales investigated proved valid. The 7-item instrument showed acceptable person separation reliability and good targeting and item performance. Although standard scores and Rasch scores are highly correlated, Rasch analysis has the advantages of eliminating floor and ceiling effects and producing interval-scaled data. The Massof algorithm for approximation of the Rasch person measure performed well in this group of low-vision patients. The validity of the subscales VFQ-25 should be reconsidered.

  1. Comparison of Scoring Approaches for the NEI VFQ-25 in Low Vision

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Bradley E.; Bullimore, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate different approaches to scoring the NEI VFQ-25 in patients with low vision including: scoring by the standard method, by Rasch analysis, and by use of an algorithm created by Massof to approximate Rasch person measure. Subscale validity and use of a seven-item short form instrument proposed by Ryan et al were also investigated. Methods NEI VFQ-25 data from 50 patients with low vision were analyzed using the standard method of summing Likert-type scores and calculating an overall average, Rasch analysis using Winsteps software, and the Massof algorithm in Excel. Correlations between scores were calculated. Rasch person separation reliability and other indicators were calculated to determine the validity of the subscales and of the seven-item instrument. Results Scores calculated using all three methods were highly correlated, but evidence of floor and ceiling effects was found with the standard scoring method. None of the subscales investigated proved valid. The seven-item instrument showed acceptable person separation reliability and good targeting and item performance. Conclusions Though standard scores and Rasch scores are highly correlated, Rasch analysis has the advantages of eliminating floor and ceiling effects and producing interval-scaled data. The Massof algorithm for approximation of the Rasch person measure performed well in this group of low vision patients. The validity of the subscales VFQ-25 should be reconsidered. PMID:20526224

  2. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) in Serbian patients.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Bojan; Vukosavljevic, Miroslav; Djokic Kovac, Jelena; Resan, Mirko; Trajkovic, Goran; Jankovic, Janko; Smiljanic, Milena; Grgurevic, Anita

    2015-09-15

    To test the validity and reliability of the Serbian version of the interviewer-administered format of the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). The Serbian version of NEI VFQ-25 was translated in accordance with standard methods that have been adopted internationally. In order to assess the reliability and validity of the translated NEI VFQ-25, we used a sample of 105 patients with four different chronic ocular diseases. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to assess internal consistency for each subscale. To assess test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients were used. The test-retest data were obtained from clinically stable patients with age-related cataracts, in surveys performed 2 weeks apart. Rasch analysis was also applied as a modern methods of psychometric assessment of the questionnaire. Four groups of patients were studied and the most prevalent were patients with cataract 40 (38.1%), followed by diabetic retinopathy 31 (29.5%), age related macular degeneration 22 (21.0%) and glaucoma 12 (11.4%). The overall index score on the NEI VFQ-25 ranged from 65.3 to 67.8 with a mean of 67.4 ± 15.0. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (index of internal consistency reliability) ranged from 0.643 to 0.889 for the subscales. Evaluation of the validity of the Serbian version of NEI VFQ-25 is presented in the multi-trait-multi-method matrix and all items passed the convergent and discriminant validity tests. Rasch analysis showed a good measurement precision, but also demonstrated misfitting items and multidimensionality of the questionnaire. Although traditional validation method indicates that the Serbian version of NEI VFQ-25 is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of vision specific QoL in Serbian populations aged 40 years or older, Rasch analysis revealed a substantial weakness of the questionnaire that should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results.

  3. Single priming dose of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine (NeisVac-C®) in infants.

    PubMed

    Poellabauer, Eva-Maria; Pavlova, Borislava G; Fritsch, Sandor; Singer, Julia; Neubauer, Christian; Doralt, Jennifer; Valenta-Singer, Barbara; Ehrlich, Hartmut J

    2013-08-02

    Since the introduction of the meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine in the pediatric population in 1999, numerous clinical studies have confirmed the immunogenicity and safety of the NeisVac-C(®) vaccine, and several have observed a strong immune response after a single priming dose, which could be successfully boosted. Maximizing protection of infants with as few vaccine doses as possible would increase the general acceptability of the immunization strategies and support broader coverage without increasing vaccination costs. This was a randomized feasibility study of a single priming NeisVac-C(®) vaccine dose administered at 4 or 6 months of age, compared to the currently licensed two dose priming at 2 and 4 months of age, followed by a booster vaccination at 12-13 months of age. High seroprotection rates and serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) titers were observed in all study groups, whether a single or two dose priming vaccination was administered, at all time points investigated: one month after the priming vaccination(s) (>99% of subjects rSBA≥8), prior to booster vaccination (>65% of subjects with rSBA≥8, with the lowest titers and GMTs seen in the two dose priming group), as well as after booster vaccination administration (99% with rSBA≥128 in all three study groups, with the highest GMT of 2472 seen in the 4 month single dose group). This study confirmed trends seen in previous reports that a single-dose priming vaccination at 4 or 6 months of age can be considered a valuable alternative to the currently licensed two-dose priming vaccination schedule.

  4. Mapping the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) to EQ-5D utility scores.

    PubMed

    Kay, Stephen; Ferreira, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    To develop a mapping algorithm for the estimation of EQ-5D-based utility scores from observed 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) scores, a disease-specific, patient-reported outcome measure used in several retinal disorders to evaluate vision-specific functioning. The dataset comprised 951 paired EQ-5D/NEI VFQ-25 observations from 344 patients in RESTORE, a 12-month, randomized, double-blind trial in individuals with visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema. EQ-5D index scores (utilities) were calculated based on the UK tariff. We evaluated 11 models using predictor sets based on the NEI VFQ-25 subscales to estimate utility as a function of NEI VFQ-25 score, based on four modeling techniques. Model performance was assessed by 10-fold cross-validation comparing root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and correlation with EQ-5D score (Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients). Mapping results were similar across all techniques and predictor sets. The reverse two-part generalized estimating equation model used fewest predictors and had the best predictive performance (RMSE 0.200, MAE 0.140). Predicted and original EQ-5D values were not strongly correlated (squared Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.34). Although mapping disease-specific instruments to EQ-5D utilities is a preferred method by some reimbursement bodies, finding an appropriate mapping equation is not straightforward. In this study, mapping NEI VFQ-25 scores to EQ-5D utilities provided low predictive power, independent of the modeling methodology applied, suggesting an inability of the EQ-5D to discriminate vision-related activities, and highlighting that mapping exercises may lead to inaccurate utility values that do not represent patients' preferences.

  5. Zinc finger oxidation of Fpg/Nei DNA glycosylases by 2-thioxanthine: biochemical and X-ray structural characterization

    PubMed Central

    Biela, Artur; Coste, Franck; Culard, Françoise; Guerin, Martine; Goffinont, Stéphane; Gasteiger, Karola; Cieśla, Jarosław; Winczura, Alicja; Kazimierczuk, Zygmunt; Gasparutto, Didier; Carell, Thomas; Tudek, Barbara; Castaing, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    DNA glycosylases from the Fpg/Nei structural superfamily are base excision repair enzymes involved in the removal of a wide variety of mutagen and potentially lethal oxidized purines and pyrimidines. Although involved in genome stability, the recent discovery of synthetic lethal relationships between DNA glycosylases and other pathways highlights the potential of DNA glycosylase inhibitors for future medicinal chemistry development in cancer therapy. By combining biochemical and structural approaches, the physical target of 2-thioxanthine (2TX), an uncompetitive inhibitor of Fpg, was identified. 2TX interacts with the zinc finger (ZnF) DNA binding domain of the enzyme. This explains why the zincless hNEIL1 enzyme is resistant to 2TX. Crystal structures of the enzyme bound to DNA in the presence of 2TX demonstrate that the inhibitor chemically reacts with cysteine thiolates of ZnF and induces the loss of zinc. The molecular mechanism by which 2TX inhibits Fpg may be generalized to all prokaryote and eukaryote ZnF-containing Fpg/Nei-DNA glycosylases. Cell experiments show that 2TX can operate in cellulo on the human Fpg/Nei DNA glycosylases. The atomic elucidation of the determinants for the interaction of 2TX to Fpg provides the foundation for the future design and synthesis of new inhibitors with high efficiency and selectivity. PMID:25143530

  6. Vision-related quality-of-life assessment using NEI VFQ-25 in patients after Boston keratoprosthesis implantation.

    PubMed

    Cortina, Maria S; Hallak, Joelle A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) implantation on patient-reported visual function using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI VFQ-25). This is a prospective study of patients undergoing implantation of Boston KPro. The NEI VFQ-25 was used to assess vision-related quality of life preoperatively and postoperatively at 3 and 6 months and yearly thereafter. Baseline scores were compared with postoperative scores using paired t test. Stratified analysis was performed to compare results by visual acuity of the contralateral eye. Twenty-four patients were included. Mean baseline NEI VFQ-25 overall score was 44.6. At the first follow-up time point, mean overall score was 70.0, representing a statistically significant change from baseline (P < 0.001). Breakdown of subcategories within VFQ-25 showed significant improvement in general vision, near and distance activities, social functioning, mental health, role difficulties, dependency, color vision, and peripheral vision (P < 0.05). This improvement was also observed when comparing baseline scores with postoperative scores at average follow-up of 16 months. Although a greater change in scores was observed in patients who had poor vision in the contralateral eye, patients with vision better than 20/200 in the nonsurgical eye showed statistically significant improvement in overall scores and subscale scores compared with baseline. The quality of life of patients who underwent KPro significantly improved postoperatively compared with their preoperative status. These results did not change when stratifying by visual acuity of the contralateral eye.

  7. Oil and Gas 101: An Overview of Oil and Gas Upstream Activities and Using EPA's Nonpoint Oil and Gas Emission Estimation Tool for the 2014 NEI (2015 EIC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    provide a general overview of the upstream oil and gas exploration and production processes and emissions covered by the tool; a discussion of EPA’s plans for the 2014 NEI pertaining to oil and gas; use of the tool to compile emissions estimates

  8. Vaccine Potential and Diversity of the Putative Cell Binding Factor (CBF, NMB0345/NEIS1825) Protein of Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Akoto, Charlene; Hill, Alison; Tan, Wei-Ming; Heckels, John Edward; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-01-01

    The cbf gene from Neisseria meningitidis strain MC58 encoding the putative Cell Binding Factor (CBF, NMB0345/NEIS1825) protein was cloned into the pRSETA system and a ~36-kDa recombinant (r)CBF protein expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by metal affinity chromatography. High titres of rCBF antibodies were induced in mice following immunization with rCBF-saline, rCBF-Al(OH)3, rCBF-Liposomes or rCBF-Zwittergent (Zw) 3–14 micelles, both with and without incorporated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant. Anti-rCBF sera reacted in western blots of meningococcal lysates with a single protein band of molecular mass ~29.5 kDa, indicative of mature CBF protein, but did not react with a lysate of a Δnmb0345 mutant (CBF-), demonstrating specificity of the murine immune responses. CBF protein was produced by all strains of meningococci studied thus far and the protein was present on the surface of MC58 (CBF+) bacteria, but absent on Δnmb0345 mutant (CBF-) bacteria, as judged by FACS reactivity of anti-rCBF sera. Analysis of the NEIS1825 amino acid sequences from 6644 N. meningitidis isolates with defined Alleles in the pubmlst.org/Neisseria database showed that there were 141 ST types represented and there were 136 different allelic loci encoding 49 non-redundant protein sequences. Only 6/6644 (<0.1%) of N. meningitidis isolates lacked the nmb0345 gene. Amongst serogroup B isolates worldwide, ~68% and ~20% expressed CBF encoded by Allele 1 and 18 respectively, with the proteins sharing >99% amino acid identity. Murine antisera to rCBF in Zw 3–14 micelles + MPLA induced significant serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against homologous Allele 1 and heterologous Allele 18 strains, using both baby rabbit serum complement and human serum complement (h)SBA assays, but did not kill strains expressing heterologous protein encoded by Alelle 2 or 3. Furthermore, variable bactericidal activity was induced by murine antisera against different meningococcal strains in the h

  9. New Cricetid Rodents from Strata near the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Erden Obo Section (Nei Mongol, China)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing

    2016-01-01

    New cricetids (Eucricetodon wangae sp. nov., Eucricetodon sp. and Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis sp. nov.) are reported from the lower and middle parts of the “Upper Red” beds of the Erden Obo section in Nei Mongol, China. Eucricetodon wangae is more primitive than other known species of the genus from lower Oligocene of Asia and Europe in having a single anterocone on M1, a single connection between the protocone and the paracone, the anterior metalophule connection in M1-2 and weaker anteroconid and ectomesolophid in lower molars. Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis is more advanced than other species of the genus in permanently missing P4 and having posterior protolophule connection. These fossils suggest that the age of the “Upper Red” of the Erden Obo section is younger than the age of the Upper Eocene Houldjin and Caijiachong formations, but older than those containing the Shandgolian faunas; the “Upper Red” is most closely correlative to the Ergilian beds in age, and probably close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Given the age estimate, Eucricetodon wangae provides the new evidence to support that cricetid dispersal from Asia to Europe occurred prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. PMID:27227833

  10. [Do patients undergo changes of their personality due to visual field defects? An investigation with FPI-R and NEI-VQ].

    PubMed

    Jobke, S; Kasten, E; Sabel, B A

    2008-06-01

    Visual restrictions can lead to anxiety and possibly to social retirement. Therefore it makes sense to assess the patients' degree of handicap. The goal of the present study was to investigate if patients show changes in their personality or a reduced quality of life as a result of their visual field defect. 15 patients with visual field defects were asked to fill out the revised version of the Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar (FPI-R) and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ). The FPI-R encompasses the standardised recording of many personality traits whereas the NEI-VFQ addresses the visual quality of life. In the total sample all FPI-R scales were appropriate for the study in the inconspicuous standard range. Slight shifts resulted toward increased willingness to make contacts (scale 4, ST 4.2), reduced physical strain (scale 7, ST 4.3) and lower physical discomfort (scale 8, ST 3.7). The size of the visual field defect does not correlate with the satisfaction with life, with the physical discomfort and with the state of health but with the dependency on others (p = 0.047) and with the exertion of their social roles (p = 0.043). The scale "satisfaction with life" of the FPI-R correlated with the scale "psychic condition" of the NEI-VFQ (p = 0.028) and the physical discomfort showed a significant correlation with the scale "eye strain" (p = 0.006) in the NEI-VFQ. Contrary to our presumptions, patients with visual field defects did not show any changes in their personality. It is supposed that they have learned to compensate for their reduced visual functions.

  11. Measurement of the DC Stark shift for visible NeI lines and electric field distribution in the cathode sheath of an abnormal glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanović, N. V.; Šišović, N. M.; Spasojević, Dj; Konjević, N.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of the DC Stark shift for seven visible NeI lines in the plane cathode sheath region of an abnormal glow discharge operated in neon with a small admixture of hydrogen. The electric field (up to 13.4 kV cm‑1) in the cathode sheath region is measured from the π-polarized profile of the H alpha line of hydrogen using the Stark polarization spectroscopy technique. Within the realized range of the electric field, the NeI lines exhibit a quadratic Stark effect. The values of coefficients, correlating Stark shift and electric field strength, were determined, enabling their future use for unknown electric field strength measurements. Among the studied lines, so far only the Stark effect analysis of the NeI 511.367 nm line has been reported, in which case our results are in good agreement with the best fit formula proposed by Jäger and Windholz (1984 Phys. Scr. 29 344) for one out of three Stark components detected under our experimental conditions.

  12. Exploring interoperability: The advancements and challenges of improving data discovery, access, and visualization of scientific data through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Lynge, J.; Hackathorn, E.; MacDermaid, C.; Pierce, R.; Smith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Interoperability is a complex subject and often leads to different definitions in different environments. An interoperable framework of web services can improve the user experience by providing an interface for interaction with data regardless of it's format or physical location. This in itself improves accessibility to data, fosters data exploration and use, and provides a framework for new tools and applications. With an interoperable system you have: -- Data ready for action. Services model facilitates agile response to events. Services can be combined or reused quickly, upgraded or modified independently. -- Any data available through an interoperable framework can be operated on or combined with other data. Integrating standardized formats and access. -- New and existing systems have access to wide variety of data. Any new data added is easily incorporated with minimal changes required. The possibilities are limitless. The NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) at the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is continuing research into an interoperable framework of layered services designed to facilitate the discovery, access, integration, visualization, and understanding of all NOAA (past, present, and future) data. An underlying philosophy of NEIS is to take advantage of existing off-the-shelf technologies and standards to minimize development of custom code allowing everyone to take advantage of the framework to meet these goals above. This framework, while built by NOAA are not limited to NOAA data or applications. Any other data available through similar services or applications that understand these standards can work interchangeably. Two major challenges are under active research at ESRL are data discoverability and fast access to big data. This presentation will provide an update on development of NEIS, including these challenges, the findings, and recommendations on what is needed for an interoperable system, as well as ongoing research activities

  13. [Textual research on the engraved editions of Nei wai yan fang mi chuan (Secret Teaching of Proved Prescriptions for Internal and External Diseases)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Zhao Lian's book Nei wai yan fang mi chuan (Secret Teaching of Proved Prescriptions for Internal and External Diseases) was firstly engraved in the 21st year of Guangxu reign of the Qing dynasty. There are altogether four different engraved editions separately collected in the Library of Academy of Medical Sciences, Library of Zhenjiang City, Library of Changchun University of TCM, and Library of Shanghai University of TCM, printed in different times with different sizes of its contents. It is better to call all these editions the engraved versions of Guangxu reign. All of them are engraved and printed after the mother edition with some blocks hollowed-out and supplemented. Hence, the title "engraved edition of Yiyou or the 11th year of Guangxu reign (1885) of the Qing dynasty" carried in The General Catalogue of Ancient Books of TCM is wrong.

  14. The NEI/NCBI dbGAP database: genotypes and haplotypes that may specifically predispose to risk of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Morrison, Margaux A; Dewan, Andy; Adams, Scott; Andreoli, Michael; Huynh, Nancy; Regan, Maureen; Brown, Alison; Miller, Joan W; Kim, Ivana K; Hoh, Josephine; Deangelis, Margaret M

    2008-06-09

    To examine if the significantly associated SNPs derived from the genome wide allelic association study on the AREDS cohort at the NEI (dbGAP) specifically confer risk for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We ascertained 134 unrelated patients with AMD who had one sibling with an AREDS classification 1 or less and was past the age at which the affected sibling was diagnosed (268 subjects). Genotyping was performed by both direct sequencing and Sequenom iPLEX system technology. Single SNP analyses were conducted with McNemar's Test (both 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 tests) and likelihood ratio tests (LRT). Conditional logistic regression was used to determine significant gene-gene interactions. LRT was used to determine the best fit for each genotypic model tested (additive, dominant or recessive). Before release of individual data, p-value information was obtained directly from the AREDS dbGAP website. Of the 35 variants with P < 10-6 examined, 23 significantly modified risk of neovascular AMD. Many variants located in tandem on 1q32-q22 including those in CFH, CFHR4, CFHR2, CFHR5, F13B, ASPM and ZBTB were significantly associated with AMD risk. Of these variants, single SNP analysis revealed that CFH rs572515 was the most significantly associated with AMD risk (P < 10-6). Haplotype analysis supported our findings of single SNP association, demonstrating that the most significant haplotype, GATAGTTCTC, spanning CFH, CFHR4, and CFHR2 was associated with the greatest risk of developing neovascular AMD (P < 10-6). Other than variants on 1q32-q22, only two SNPs, rs9288410 (MAP2) on 2q34-q35 and rs2014307 (PLEKHA1/HTRA1) on 10q26 were significantly associated with AMD status (P = .03 and P < 10-6 respectively). After controlling for smoking history, gender and age, the most significant gene-gene interaction appears to be between rs10801575 (CFH) and rs2014307 (PLEKHA1/HTRA1) (P < 10-11). The best genotypic fit for rs10801575 and rs2014307 was an additive model based

  15. [Research on infrared radiation characteristics of skin covering two acupuncture points in the hand and forearm, NeiGuan and LaoGong points].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Yu, Wenlong; Cui, Han; Shi, Huafeng; Jin, Lei

    2013-06-01

    In order to research the infrared radiation characteristics of the skin covering Traditional Chinese acupuncture points, which are NeiGuan in the forearm and LaoGong in the center of the palm, we detected continuously the infrared radiation spectra of the human body surface by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that firstly, the differences of the infrared radiation spectra of the human body surface were obvious between individuals. Secondly, the infrared radiation intensity of the human body surface changed with time changing. The infrared radiation intensity in two special wavelength ranges (wavelengths from 6. 79 microm to 6. 85 microm and from 13. 6 microm to 14. 0 microm) changed much more than that in other ranges obviously. Thirdly, the proportions of the infrared radiation spectra changed, which were calculated from the spectra of two different aupuncture points, were same in these two special wavelength ranges, but their magnitude changes were different. These results suggested that the infrared radiation of acupuncture points have the same biological basis, and the mechanism of the infrared radiation in these two special wavelength ranges is different from other tissue heat radiation.

  16. Evaluation of the impact of intracorneal ring segments implantation on the quality of life of patients with keratoconus using the NEI-RQL (National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of life) instrument.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Santos Paranhos, J; Avila, M P; Paranhos, A; Schor, P

    2010-01-01

    A prospective study evaluating the impact of intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation on the quality of life of patients with keratoconus using the NEI-RQL (National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of Life) instrument. Sixty-nine eyes of 42 keratoconus patients were implanted with the Keraring. All patients self-administered the NEI-RQL before and 4(1/2) to 8 months after surgery. The results were evaluated and analysed, along with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refraction, contrast sensitivity, corneal topography and aberrometry preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. There was a significant improvement in all NEI-RQL scales and the overall scale. "Clarity of vision," "far vision," "near vision," "activity limitations," "appearance" and "satisfaction with correction" had the greatest improvement, ranging from 25 to 50 preoperatively to 80 to 90 after surgery. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity and binocular BCVA improved significantly, and there was a significant decrease in keratometric values, from 50.22 dioptres preoperatively to 46.27 dioptres postoperatively. Contrast sensitivity function improved postoperatively, especially at the frequency of 6 cpd. Low-order root mean square (RMS) improved after surgery, but high-order RMS did not. ICRS implantation not only improves the quantitative metrics such as visual acuity and refraction, but also has a positive impact on patients' quality of life.

  17. Paleomagnetic Evidence That South Central Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia) Has Had No Measurable Tectonic Displacement Since the Early Miocene (18 Ma to Present)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Where exposed in badlands, the desert grasslands on the Tunggur Tableland of south central Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia) have been an important region in north China for the discovery of vertebrate fossils since the early 20th century (Teilhard de Chardin, 1926; many others). As part of the continuing exploration and study of those fossils, the Gaotege Beds at Gaotege Ula have received recent attention by geoscientists and paleontologists (Li, 2006; Li et al., 2003; O’Connor et al., 2008; Xu et al., 2007). Using the paleomagnetic polarity time scale of Ogg and Smith (2004) for dating of the Gaotege Beds, O’Connor et al. (2008) and Xu et al. (2007) assign an age of 3.6 - 4.6 Ma. The mean paleomagnetic directions for the Gaotege Beds are inclination -73.4 degrees, declination 234.1 degrees, alpha-95 = 4.8 degrees (O’Connor et al., 2008). Concurrent paleomagnetic investigations at Aoerban, Aletexire, Tairum Nor, all on the Tunggur Tableland , and at Gaotege Ula by Wang et al. (2003) and by me do not record that mean inclination and declination. Instead, for 26 sites of one to three samples each that were demagnetized to 550C or higher temperatures and of normal and reverse polarity inverted through the origin, the mean paleomagnetic directions are inclination 47.5 degrees, declination 359.8 degrees, alpha-95 = 10.1 degrees. Those directions indicate that since the early Miocene (beginning about 18 million years ago, which is the age of the Tunggur Formation at Aoerban [Wang et al., 2008]), there has not been measurable latitude displacement nor clockwise rotation about a vertical axis of the Tunggur Tableland of the magnitude reported by O’Connor et al. (2008).

  18. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... part of the federal government’s National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to ...

  19. [The soul outlook in the bamboo slips Fan yin (Anti-excessiveness) of Western Han Dynasty collected at Peking University and in Huang di nei jing (Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor)].

    PubMed

    DU, Feng

    2013-09-01

    The bamboo slips Fan yin (Anti-excessiveness) of the Western Han Dynasty, written in the form of conversation in 7-syllable prose-verse between hun (ethereal soul) and po (corporeal soul), with po as the host, and hun as the guest, reflecting the dualism of hun and po. In Huang di nei jing (Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor), appeared nearly at the same time, in which the hypothesis of all the five viscera embodies the spirit and its soul defined at the level of spirit-emotion, claiming that the physique and ethereal soul are born at the same time, and the spirit of Yang qi within the corporeal soul is the ethereal soul, which is different from the description in the Fan yin.

  20. Thin strut chrome-cobalt stent implantation for treatment of de-novo lesions in small coronary vessels: results of the RISICO Italian Registry (Registro Italiano Mini VISION nei piccolo Vasi) utilizing the Mini VISION coronary stent platform.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Nedy; Morici, Nuccia; Bedogni, Francesco; De Benedictis, Mauro; Scrocca, Innocente; Naldi, Monica; Fiscella, Antonio; Prosperi, Franco; Dominici, Mauro; Rebuzzi, Antonio; Colombo, Antonio; Sangiorgi, Giuseppe M

    2009-11-01

    The Registro Italiano Mini VISION nei piccoli Vasi registry is a prospective, multicenter, observational study, aimed at assessing immediate and long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes of a small-vessel cobalt-chrome super alloy-dedicated stent (Multi-Link RX VISION) in de-novo and long lesions. Small artery size is an important determinant of poor outcomes in percutaneous coronary interventions. Patients with ischemic heart disease were included. The primary end point was procedural success. Secondary end points included clinical restenosis (need for target lesion revascularization ), incidence of major adverse cardiac events at 6 months, and cost-effectiveness analysis. Between September 2004 and October 2005, 143 patients (mean age 67 +/- 11 years; 22% diabetes) were enrolled; 6-month follow-up was completed in May 2006. Average lesion length, mean stent length and diameter were 16.8 +/- 7.1, 17.01 +/- 3.9 and 2.41 +/- 0.14 mm, respectively. Procedural success was 96%. At 6-month follow-up, the hierarchical major adverse cardiac event rate was 11.6%, 2.9% deaths, 2.9% myocardial infarction and 5.8% target lesion revascularization. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be reported in a further publication. Small-vessel disease treatment with Mini VISION stents permits an elevated procedural success rate with low incidence of clinical restenosis and major adverse cardiac events at mid-term follow-up. Such results require confirmation by means of a randomized controlled study against drug-eluting stents.

  1. Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial of Coadministration of RotaTeq, a Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine, and NeisVac-C, a Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vesikari, Timo; Karvonen, Aino; Borrow, Ray; Kitchin, Nick; Baudin, Martine; Thomas, Stéphane; Fiquet, Anne

    2011-01-01

    RotaTeq (Merck & Co. Inc./Sanofi Pasteur MSD) is a three-dose, oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for the immunization of infants from 6 weeks of age for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. The primary objective of the present trial was to demonstrate that RotaTeq can be coadministered with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MenCC; NeisVac-C; Baxter Healthcare) to healthy infants without impairing the protective immune responses to MenCC. This was an open-label, randomized, comparative study conducted in Finland. The study was designed to assess concomitant versus sequential administration of RotaTeq and MenCC on the immune response to both vaccines. Healthy infants (n = 247), aged 6 to 7 weeks, were recruited. Coadministration of MenCC with RotaTeq was noninferior to sequential administration for the seroprotection rate against meningococcal serogroup C (the proportion of infants with a serum bactericidal antibody titer using baby rabbit complement of ≥8 was 100% in both groups). The other responses to MenCC (titer of ≥1:128, ≥4-fold increase in titer, and geometric mean titers [GMTs]) and the responses to RotaTeq (IgA and SNA response to G1 to G4 and P1A[8], GMTs, and ≥3-fold increase in titer) were comparable between groups, including a ≥3-fold IgA increase in >96% of the infants in both groups. Concomitant administration of the first doses of MenCC, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine, and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib), and RotaTeq was associated with a higher rate of vomiting and diarrhea than concomitant administration of MenCC and DTaP-IPV-Hib, but that was not observed after the second concomitant administration. The convenience of concomitant administration of RotaTeq and MenCC may, however, outweigh the additive effect of mostly mild adverse events reported after the individual administration of each vaccine. These results support the

  2. Plasma viscosity: a potential predictor of both medical treatment response and clinical stage of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Tolga, Yakar; Mansur, Cosar Arif; Savas, Gokturk Hu Seyin; Gulhan, Unler Kanat Ayse; Alper, Parlakgumus; Ilknur, Kozanoglu; Ender, Serin

    2016-01-01

    La colite ulcerosa (UC) è una delle maggiori forme di colonpatia infiammatoria cronica recidivante. La capacità di identificare tipo, gravità e sensibilità alla terapia su parametri di laboratorio è da tempo oggetto di ricerca degli studi clinici. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di accertare la relazione tra la viscosità del plasma (PV), l’attività della malattia e la risposta al trattamento medico. Lo studio si è svolto su 105 pazienti con UC e 42 volontari sani. I prelievi di sangue sono stati utilizzati per valutare la viscosità del plasma (PV), la velocità di eritrosedimentazione (ESR), la proteina C-reattiva ultrasensibile (hs-CRP), il D-dimero e il fibrinogeno. I pazienti con UC sono stati raggruppati in relazione al grado di attività flogistica (cioè 59 attivi e 46 in remissione). La PV è risultata più elevata in quelli con UC attiva rispetto a quella dei soggetti in remissione o nei soggetti sani. È risultata significativamente più elevata sia nei casi di UC refrattaria al trattamento steroideo rispetto a quelli sensibili (p< 0.001), e nelle UC rafrattarie alla ciclosrporina rispetto a quelli sensibili (p= 0.003). Con l’aumento della PV nei pazienti affetti da UC sono risultati significativamente associati il punteggio del SCCAI (Increased Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index), dell’EGS (Endoscopic Grading Scale) e del HAD (Histological Disease Activity (HAD). Si conclude che la PV è un marker utile per la previsione di sensibilità al trattamento sterorideo e con ciclosporina nei pazienti con UC attiva. Potrebbe essere rimpiazzata dalla ESR e dalla hs-CRP come misura della risposta in fase acuta in quanto sufficientemente sensibile. Questi risultati possono essere utili per l’identificazione dei pazienti con UC attiva da destinare alla colectomia.

  3. The first dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation of Nei Mongol, China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Rui; Tan, Qingwei; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The first dromaeosaurid theropod from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation is identified based on an incompletely preserved partially-articulated left leg, increasing the known diversity of its understudied ecosystem. The leg belongs to specimen IVPP V22530 and includes a typical deinonychosaurian pedal phalanx II-2 with a distinct constriction between the enlarged proximal end and the distal condyle as well as a typical deinonychosaurian enlarged pedal phalanx II-3. It possesses a symmetric metatarsus and a slender and long MT V that together suggest it is a dromaeosaurid. Two anatomical traits suggest the leg is microraptorine-like, but a more precise taxonomic referral was not possible: metatarsals II, III and IV are closely appressed distally and the ventral margin of the medial ligament pit of phalanx II-2 is close to the centre of the rounded distal condyle. This taxonomic status invites future efforts to discover additional specimens at the study locality because—whether it is a microraptorine or a close relative—this animal is expected to make important contributions to our understanding of dromaeosaurid evolution and biology. IVPP V22530 also comprises of an isolated dromaeosaurid manual ungual, a proximal portion of a right theropod anterior dorsal rib and an indeterminate bone mass that includes a collection of ribs. Neither the rib fragment nor the bone mass can be confidently referred to Dromaeosauridae, although they may very well belong to the same individual to whom the left leg belongs. PMID:26664809

  4. The first dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation of Nei Mongol, China.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Michael; Pei, Rui; Tan, Qingwei; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The first dromaeosaurid theropod from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation is identified based on an incompletely preserved partially-articulated left leg, increasing the known diversity of its understudied ecosystem. The leg belongs to specimen IVPP V22530 and includes a typical deinonychosaurian pedal phalanx II-2 with a distinct constriction between the enlarged proximal end and the distal condyle as well as a typical deinonychosaurian enlarged pedal phalanx II-3. It possesses a symmetric metatarsus and a slender and long MT V that together suggest it is a dromaeosaurid. Two anatomical traits suggest the leg is microraptorine-like, but a more precise taxonomic referral was not possible: metatarsals II, III and IV are closely appressed distally and the ventral margin of the medial ligament pit of phalanx II-2 is close to the centre of the rounded distal condyle. This taxonomic status invites future efforts to discover additional specimens at the study locality because-whether it is a microraptorine or a close relative-this animal is expected to make important contributions to our understanding of dromaeosaurid evolution and biology. IVPP V22530 also comprises of an isolated dromaeosaurid manual ungual, a proximal portion of a right theropod anterior dorsal rib and an indeterminate bone mass that includes a collection of ribs. Neither the rib fragment nor the bone mass can be confidently referred to Dromaeosauridae, although they may very well belong to the same individual to whom the left leg belongs.

  5. [Study of MA Shi and ZHANG Jiebin's Annotations of Nei Jing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan

    2012-05-01

    MA Shi and ZHANG Jie-bin are famous annotators of Huangdi Neijing and their annotations are well- regarded. However, influenced by the style of practice of the Ming dynasty, some of their annotations are less than satisfactory. For instance, the words "ni" and "cong" in the phrase "Ni cong yin yang" are synonyms, which mean obedience, and the meaning of the word "an" in the phrase "an er shou zhi" is not "message" or "examination" but "inhibition". Also, the word "zou" in the phrase "gu hao zou" is "to run"; "qu" in the phrase "qu pijie" means "to leave". This thesis raises several incorrect annotations for the readers' reference.

  6. A CR-hydro-NEI model of the structure and broadband emission from Tycho's supernova remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Slane, P.; Patnaude, D. J.; Lee, S.-H.; Nagataki, S.; Ellison, D. C.; Hughes, J. P.; Eriksen, K. A.; Castro, D. E-mail: dpatnaude@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: shigehiro.nagataki@riken.jp E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.edu E-mail: castro@mit.edu

    2014-03-01

    Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) is well-established as a source of particle acceleration to very high energies. Constraints from numerous studies indicate that the observed γ-ray emission results primarily from hadronic processes, providing direct evidence of highly relativistic ions that have been accelerated by the SNR. Here we present an investigation of the dynamical and spectral evolution of Tycho's SNR by carrying out hydrodynamical simulations that include diffusive shock acceleration of particles in the amplified magnetic field at the forward shock of the SNR. Our simulations provide a consistent view of the shock positions, the nonthermal emission, the thermal X-ray emission from the forward shock, and the brightness profiles of the radio and X-ray emission. We compare these with the observed properties of Tycho to determine the density of the ambient material, the particle acceleration efficiency and maximum energy, the accelerated electron-to-proton ratio, and the properties of the shocked gas downstream of the expanding SNR shell. We find that evolution of a typical Type Ia supernova in a low ambient density (n {sub 0} ∼ 0.3 cm{sup –3}), with an upstream magnetic field of ∼5 μG, and with ∼16% of the SNR kinetic energy being converted into relativistic electrons and ions through diffusive shock acceleration, reproduces the observed properties of Tycho. Under such a scenario, the bulk of observed γ-ray emission at high energies is produced by π{sup 0}-decay resulting from the collisions of energetic hadrons, while inverse-Compton emission is significant at lower energies, comprising roughly half of the flux between 1 and 10 GeV.

  7. [Validazione della versione italiana del Brief Pain Inventory nei pazienti con dolore cronico].

    PubMed

    Bonezzi, C; Nava, A; Barbieri, M; Bettaglio, R; Demartini, L; Miotti, D; Paulin, L

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been the validation of an Italian version of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Breve Questionario per la valutazione del Dolore (BQVD), in patients with chronic pain not-caused by neoplastic illness. The analysis has been proposed to 113 patients affected by different kinds of chronic pain of non-neoplastic origin while hospitalized, both as outpatients or as in-patients. The descriptive analysis of the specimen and of each item of the BPI has been carried out. Moreover, the psychometric characteristics of the analysis, intended as an instrument to describe intensity of pain and its interference in the various aspects of life have been investigated, evaluating with factorial analysis its validity both as a construct, and its internal coherence calculating the Cronbach's alpha of the whole instrument and of each identifier with factorial analysis. From the factorial analysis emerged a frame with three factors that have been identified as Pain intensity, Pain interference in emotional sphere and Interference in working activities. The Brief Pain Inventory can be considered a suitable useful instrument in the global evaluation of patients affected by chronic pain since its allows a contemporaneous analysis of three factors that characterize the phenomenon and contribute equally in defining the various facet of the pain universe. The Italian version of the BPI may be included in the essential evaluation instruments in the diagnosis and therapy of chronic pain.

  8. Consapevolezza linguistica nei bambini di eta prescolare (Linguistic Awareness in Preschool-age Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devescovi, Antonella; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of a study designed to determine the metalinguistic awareness of 45 preschool children (15 elementary school children were included to determine the effect of school attendance). The children wre given 3 "metalinguistic" tasks: judging the acceptability of sentences, dividing words, and judging the coherence of…

  9. Consapevolezza linguistica nei bambini di eta prescolare (Linguistic Awareness in Preschool-age Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devescovi, Antonella; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of a study designed to determine the metalinguistic awareness of 45 preschool children (15 elementary school children were included to determine the effect of school attendance). The children wre given 3 "metalinguistic" tasks: judging the acceptability of sentences, dividing words, and judging the coherence of…

  10. Exploration on the characteristics of classification in Huangdi nei jing tai su.

    PubMed

    Xu, C

    1999-04-01

    Taishu, a book compiled by Yang Shangshan by imperial order, and completed in the reign of Gaozong of the Tang dynasty is the earliest complete commentary of Neijing now extant as well as early monograph interpreting Neijing by classification. By analysing the text of Taishi, Lingshu, Suwen and Jiayijing, this paper summarizes the characteristics of Yang Shangshan's classified compilation of the classical text. First, the whole text was classifiedly compiled from whole chapters or large paragraphs, with the text from Jiujuan (9 volume) arranged before those from Suwen. Second, deletion of duplicated text. For the duplicated text, those from Juijuan were mostly adopted, with those from Suwen discarded. Third, there are overlapping texts of eight strange channels, indicating the compilors' preference of the theory of channels. Fourth, systematization of Neijing theoretical system by dividing the chapters on the basis of different classes.

  11. [Gestire il difficile equilibrio tra esigenze occupazionali e salute pubblica nei grandi siti industriali].

    PubMed

    Conversano, M

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pressures affecting Taranto area led institutional commitment to the local Health (LHA) and Environment Agency, which have helped to provide data in support of epidemiological and health impacts evidence.This is relevant in view of the issues related to the public health which led the Apulia Region to enact measures for environmental monitoring of dioxins (Regional Law 44/2008) and protection of food safety (Regional Council Deliberation 1442/2009). The LHA investigated three lines of development: monitoring of food matrices, studies of human biomonitoring and the establishment of local Cancer Registry. Same time to the actions of the Taranto Judiciary, Apulia Region has enacted the RL 24/12, integrating the legislative gap present into the Environmental Authorization procedures, which will allow the Health Damage Assessment, through the correlation between environmental monitoring data, biomonitoring and Cancer Registry. The next step will see the LHA involved in managing effective and feasible prevention initiatives. The Special Health and Environment Plan objective is to monitor the Taranto population health status, to screen the health determinants, to estimate the toxicologically relevant indicators of possible contamination and, if possible, to modify the correlations between risk factors, body burden, and specific diseases.

  12. [First discrimination of the meanings of the seven words relevant with acupuncture in Huangdi Nei- jing (Yellow Emnerors Internal Classic)].

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Fu, Haiyan; Ju, Baozhao

    2015-10-01

    Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic) is the earliest medical classic work existing at present in Chinese medical treasures and is the foundation of TCM. It not only contains rich medical words, but also supplements the new meanings of seven words, i. e. Wang, Xiu, Yuan, Fang, Xu, Jiu and Bian for removing needle, retaining needling, reinforcing technique, reducing technique, slow needling, moxibustion and stone-needle puncturing, respectively.

  13. Evolution Is an Experiment: Assessing Parallelism in Crop Domestication and Experimental Evolution: (Nei Lecture, SMBE 2014, Puerto Rico).

    PubMed

    Gaut, Brandon S

    2015-07-01

    In this commentary, I make inferences about the level of repeatability and constraint in the evolutionary process, based on two sets of replicated experiments. The first experiment is crop domestication, which has been replicated across many different species. I focus on results of whole-genome scans for genes selected during domestication and ask whether genes are, in fact, selected in parallel across different domestication events. If genes are selected in parallel, it implies that the number of genetic solutions to the challenge of domestication is constrained. However, I find no evidence for parallel selection events either between species (maize vs. rice) or within species (two domestication events within beans). These results suggest that there are few constraints on genetic adaptation, but conclusions must be tempered by several complicating factors, particularly the lack of explicit design standards for selection screens. The second experiment involves the evolution of Escherichia coli to thermal stress. Unlike domestication, this highly replicated experiment detected a limited set of genes that appear prone to modification during adaptation to thermal stress. However, the number of potentially beneficial mutations within these genes is large, such that adaptation is constrained at the genic level but much less so at the nucleotide level. Based on these two experiments, I make the general conclusion that evolution is remarkably flexible, despite the presence of epistatic interactions that constrain evolutionary trajectories. I also posit that evolution is so rapid that we should establish a Speciation Prize, to be awarded to the first researcher who demonstrates speciation with a sexual organism in the laboratory.

  14. Environmental Education Curriculum Guide - K-Grade 5. [Ah-Nei, The Special Classroom Environmental Education Study Area].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Land Management (Dept. of Interior), Billings, MT.

    This is a curriculum guide for environmental education designed for use in grades K-5. While the guide is designed to be used in a Montana environmental education study area, most activities can be used directly in other locations; others can be adapted. Included are: (1) a discussion of ecological terms, (2) a list of vocabulary words, (3)…

  15. Histoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search Search the NEI Website NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L About NEI NEI Research Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ...

  16. What the Age-Related Eye Disease Studies Mean for You (AREDS2)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search Search the NEI Website NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L About NEI NEI Research Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ...

  17. Facts about Myopia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search Search the NEI Website NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L About NEI NEI Research Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ...

  18. Facts about Uveal Coloboma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search Search the NEI Website NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L About NEI NEI Research Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ...

  19. Sonographic examination of epiaortic vessels in patients with peripheral vertigo.

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, G; Gargano, R; Campisi, A; Cantisani, V; Ricci, P; Gallina, S; Midiri, M; Caruso, G

    2010-09-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: Valutare l’utilità dell’eco-color Doppler (CDU) dei vasi epiaortici nei pazienti con vertigine periferica da causa sconosciuta. MATERAILI E METODI: Centocinquantasei pazienti (gruppo studio; 42 uomini e 114 donne; età media 61,86 ± 14,14) e 161 pazienti (gruppo controllo; 80 uomini e 81 donne; età media 62,31 ± 13,69) sono stati sottoposti a CDU dei vasi epiaortici. Sono stati valutati i seguenti parametri: presenza di placche ateromasiche a livello dell’arteria carotide (CA) comune e/o interna; spessore medio intimale (IMT) della CA comune; picco di velocità sistolica (PSV) e indice di resistenza (RI) a livello delle arterie vertebrali (VA).Sono stati utilizzati test parametrici (T-test) e non parametrici (Mann–Whitney U-test e Kolmogorov–Smirnov test). È stata eseguita un’analisi di regressione logistica per fornire un odds ratio indice di grandezza del rischio di vertigine. Sono state considerate variabili indipendenti (età, sesso), fattori di rischio vascolare (ipercolesterolemia, diabete, ipertensione) e variabili CDU (IMT, placche, PSV e RI). RISULTATI: Placche ed IMT > 1 mm sono stati trovati in 31 (19,8%) e 98 (62,8%) pazienti del gruppo di studio e in 43 (26,7%) e 125 (77,6%) pazienti del gruppo controllo. I test statistici, applicati a PSV e RI, non hanno dimostrato differenze significative (p-valore > 0,05). Alla regressione logistica le vertigini sono risultate associate ad età, sesso, ipercolesterolemia, diabete, ipertensione e IMT (p < 0,01), mentre placche, PSV ed RI non erano fattori significativi (p > 0,05). DISCUSSIONE: IMT è la sola variabile CDU significativamente associata alla vertigine, specialmente nelle classi di età inferiore (35-45 e 45-55) del gruppo studio.

  20. A CR-HYDRO-NEI MODEL OF MULTI-WAVELENGTH EMISSION FROM THE VELA JR. SUPERNOVA REMNANT (SNR RX J0852.0-4622)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Slane, Patrick O.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Ellison, Donald C. E-mail: nagataki@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp E-mail: dpatnaude@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-04-10

    Based largely on energy budget considerations and the observed cosmic-ray (CR) ionic composition, supernova remnant (SNR) blast waves are the most likely sources of CR ions with energies at least up to the 'knee' near 10{sup 15} eV. Shocks in young shell-type TeV-bright SNRs are surely producing TeV particles, but the emission could be dominated by ions producing {pi}{sup 0}-decay emission or electrons producing inverse Compton gamma rays. Unambiguously identifying the GeV-TeV emission process in a particular SNR will not only help pin down the origin of CRs, it will also add significantly to our understanding of the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism and improve our understanding of supernovae and the impact SNRs have on the circumstellar medium. In this study, we investigate the Vela Jr. SNR, an example of TeV-bright non-thermal SNRs. We perform hydrodynamic simulations coupled with nonlinear DSA and non-equilibrium ionization near the forward shock to confront currently available multi-wavelength data. We find, with an analysis similar to that used earlier for SNR RX J1713.7-3946, that self-consistently modeling the thermal X-ray line emission with the non-thermal continuum in our one-dimensional model strongly constrains the fitting parameters, and this leads convincingly to a leptonic origin for the GeV-TeV emission for Vela Jr. This conclusion is further supported by applying additional constraints from observation, including the radial brightness profiles of the SNR shell in TeV gamma rays, and the spatial variation of the X-ray synchrotron spectral index. We will discuss implications of our models on future observations by the next-generation telescopes.

  1. Production of recoil Nei+ ions accompanied by electron loss and capture of 1.05-MeV/amu Neq+ (q=2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Kumagai, H.; Matsuo, T.

    1990-01-01

    The charge distributions and production cross sections of recoil ions accompanied by projectile electron loss and capture have been compared in 1.05-MeV/amu Neq+ (q=2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) +Ne collisions. While singly charged recoil ions are dominant in pure ionization processes, the production of highly charged recoil ions is strongly enhanced in collisions involving simultaneous charge change (by both electron loss and capture) of projectiles, and the charge distributions of recoil ions are found to be similar for both projectile loss and capture processes. These results have been analyzed with an independent-electron model and indicate that the dominant contribution to the production of higher-charge recoil ions comes from L-shell ionization, with some contribution from K-shell ionization of targets, accompanied by violent multiple ionization of projectiles.

  2. Development of the GAINS-KOREA Base Year Emission Inventory for Criteria Air Pollutants: Issues in Linking the Korea NEI to the GAINS Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. M.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Ahn, Y. H.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the era of air pollution and climate change, we should have reliable outlooks of national air pollutant and GHGs emission, which are also important components of international environmental policy negotiation. The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model has been developed as a tool to identify reasonable emission forecast and mitigation strategies that achieve air quality and greenhouse gas related targets simultaneously at least cost. Recently, Konkuk University and IIASA has been jointly developing the GAINS-Korea Model by reflecting domestic emission activities and environmental conditions. One of the most important challenges for developing GAINS-Korea model is to reproduce CAPSS - the national emissions inventory of Korea- in the GAINS framework. Matching two different databases are not easy because of different sector classification schemes, estimation methods, and etc. In this study, we developed a base year emissions of the GAINS-Korea for the criteria air pollutants using CAPSS. A new set of methodologies to link national inventory to international framework (GAINS) were introduced so that the GAINS-Korea can produce realistic emission outlooks and test control alternatives. We will discuss several underlying issues, such as improvement of accuracy for mapping, conversion, for our base year emission inventory development in site.

  3. Facts about Blepharospasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  4. Healthy Vision Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  5. Facts about Astigmatism

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  6. Myopia

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  7. Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  8. Bietti's Crystalline Dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  9. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  10. Autosomal Recessive Inheritance

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  11. Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  12. Do You Have Low Vision?

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  13. Sports and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  14. Gene Profiling Technique to Accelerate Stem Cell Therapies for Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  15. Retinoblastoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  16. Prevalence of Adult Vision Impairment and Age-Related Eye Diseases in America

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  17. Talking to Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  18. Diagram of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  19. Facts about Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  20. Facts about Amblyopia

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  1. What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  2. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  3. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  4. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  5. Hyperopia

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  6. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  7. Facts About Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  8. Low Vision FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  9. Finding an Eye Care Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  10. Extended Daily Eye Patching Effective at Treating Stubborn Amblyopia in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  11. First Aid Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  12. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  13. Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  14. What You Should Know (Low Vision)

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  15. The Aging Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  16. Macular Hole

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  17. Facts about Floaters

    MedlinePlus

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  18. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

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  19. Facts about Presbyopia

    MedlinePlus

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  20. Facts about Refractive Errors

    MedlinePlus

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  1. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

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  2. Helping a Loved One (Who Has Vision Loss)

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  3. Blepharitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  4. For Parents, Teachers and Coaches: About Sports Eye Injury and Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  5. Facts about Hyperopia

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  6. Emerging Technologies Look Deeper into the Eyes to Catch Signs of Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  7. Aortopexy for the treatment of tracheomalacia in children: review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    preoperatori, anche se le ALTE e la broncoscopia venivano considerate rispettivamente un’indicazione assoluta all’aortopessi e il “gold standard” diagnostico per la tracheomalacia. Venivano riportate differenze negli approcci chirurgici e nei dettagli tecnici, e lo stesso termine di aortopessi veniva usato per indicare diverse procedure chirurgiche. In ogni caso, indipendentemente dall’approccio o tecnica utilizzati, l’efficacia dell’aortopessi veniva riportata come elevata nella maggioranza dei casi (più dell’80%). Un sottogruppo di pazienti particolarmente delicato è rappresentato da quelli con reflusso gastroesofageo associato, nei quali sarebbe indicata una fundoplicatio. Altri trattamenti della tracheomalacia, quali stent tracheale, sembrano gravati da una maggiore percentuale di insuccessi, morbidità severa e mortalità. PMID:23110796

  8. Recombinant human Monocyte/Neutrophil elastase inhibitor protects rat lungs against injury from cystic fibrosis airway secretions.

    PubMed

    Rees, D D; Rogers, R A; Cooley, J; Mandle, R J; Kenney, D M; Remold-O'Donnell, E

    1999-01-01

    Human monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor (M/NEI) is a fast-acting stoichiometric inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE), cathepsin-G, and proteinase-3. Recombinant M/NEI (rM/NEI) was evaluated with a rat model of NE-induced lung damage. rM/NEI was found to protect against pulmonary injury caused by instilled human NE or by a preparation from airway secretions (sputum) of cystic fibrosis patients (CF sol). Human NE instilled into rat lungs produced dose-dependent hemorrhage and increased epithelial permeability, whereas NE incubated in vitro with rM/NEI did neither. Similarly, hemorrhage was induced by CF sol, but not by CF sol incubated in vitro with rM/NEI. To examine its distribution and survival time in airways, rM/NEI was labeled with the fluorochrome Texas Red (rM/NEI-TR) and instilled into rat lungs. Confocal microscopy showed that rM/NEI-TR could be detected on large airways (300 microm) at 5 min, 1 h, 4 h, and 24 h after instillation. Pretreating rats with rM/NEI was found to provide extended protection upon subsequent NE challenge, reducing hemorrhage by 98, 96, and 73%, respectively, at 1, 4, and 24 h after rM/NEI pretreatment. Pretreating rats with rM/NEI similarly conferred protection against subsequent exposure to CF sol, reducing hemorrhage by 95, 86, and 87%, respectively, at 1, 4, and 24 h after pretreatment. The findings that rM/NEI (1) mitigates protease-induced lung injury and (2) remains present and active in the lungs for 24 h after instillation strongly support its potential for treating patients with neutrophil protease-induced inflammatory lung damage, such as occurs in CF and other diseases.

  9. Cross-cultural validation of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Mollazadegan, Kaziwe; Huang, Jinhai; Khadka, Jyoti; Wang, Qinmei; Yang, Feng; Gao, Rongrong; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    To assess the native and the previously Rasch-modified National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ) scales in a Chinese population. Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Questionnaire development. Patients on the waiting list for cataract surgery completed the 39-item NEI VFQ (NEI VFQ-39). Rasch analysis was performed in 3 steps as follows: (1) Assess the psychometric properties of the original NEI VFQ. (2) Reassess the previously proposed Rasch-modified NEI VFQ scales by Pesudovs et al. (2010) in Chinese populations. (3) Compare the scores of previously recommended scales of the NEI VFQ with new Rasch-modified scales of the same questionnaire using Bland-Altman plots. Four hundred thirty-five patients (median age 70 years; range 35 to 90 years) completed the NEI VFQ-39. Response categories for 4 question types were dysfunctional and therefore repaired. The original NEI VFQ-39 and NEI VFQ-25 showed good measurement precision. However, both versions showed multidimensionality, misfitting items, suboptimum targeting, and nonfunctioning subscales. Using the previously proposed Rasch-modified scales of the NEI VFQ yielded valid measurement of each construct in the 39-item and 25-item questionnaire. Comparison between the earlier proposed NEI VFQ scales and the new versions developed in this population showed good agreement. The original NEI VFQ was once again found to be flawed. The previously proposed Rasch-analyzed versions of the NEI VFQ and the new Chinese versions showed good agreement. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modello di Sviluppo dei Fattori Cognitivo-Linguistici della Tautologia, Sinonimia et Antonimia nei Bambini dei 3 a 6 Anni di Eta (Developmental Models of Tautology, Synonymy, and Antonymy as Cognitive-Linguistic Factors in Children from 3 to 6 Years of Age).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprile, Luigi

    1992-01-01

    Tests and confirms hypothesis that a four-stage process exists in the understanding and use of synonyms, antonyms, and tautologies in children ages three to six. The results of this study challenge widely held theories on cognitive development. (45 references) (LET)

  11. L'Immaginario Bambino: The Educational Experiences of Pistoia City Council in the Drawings and Graphics by Andrea Rauch, 1979-1999 = L'immaginario bambino: Le esperienze educative del Comune di Pistoia nei disegni e nella grafica di Andrea Rauch, 1979-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galardini, Annalia, Ed.; Giovannini, Donatella, Ed.; Iozzelli, Sonia, Ed.

    Pistoia City, Italy, has an articulated and complex system of services and educational opportunities for young children. The major tenet underlying the system is the development of a "child-friendly" city project, an educational project rooted in community and giving children a sense of belonging, and promoting the identity of the…

  12. L'Immaginario Bambino: The Educational Experiences of Pistoia City Council in the Drawings and Graphics by Andrea Rauch, 1979-1999 = L'immaginario bambino: Le esperienze educative del Comune di Pistoia nei disegni e nella grafica di Andrea Rauch, 1979-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galardini, Annalia, Ed.; Giovannini, Donatella, Ed.; Iozzelli, Sonia, Ed.

    Pistoia City, Italy, has an articulated and complex system of services and educational opportunities for young children. The major tenet underlying the system is the development of a "child-friendly" city project, an educational project rooted in community and giving children a sense of belonging, and promoting the identity of the…

  13. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/.

  14. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. PMID:24098076

  15. The National Eye Institute Annual Report: FY 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Eye Inst. (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Presented is an annual report of research and supported by the National Eye Institute (NEI) during the 1974 fiscal year. It is explained that the purpose of NEI research programs is to develop scientific knowledge which can be applied to the improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of visual disorders. The section on extramural and…

  16. Nutrition Education Initiative: A School-Based Program to Promote Healthy Eating Practices of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Bonnie; Ralston, Penny A.; Young-Clark, Iris; Cornille, Tom; Brown, Linda Lockett; Davis, Kimberly E.; Salley, Tihesha J.; Goehrig, Marianne Henderson; Mullins, Amy Piper; Gaskins, Dykibra J.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of the Nutrition Education Initiative (NEI), a project to promote the adoption of healthy eating practices by middle school students in North Florida, included the development of the "NEI Resource Guide" and pilot study outcomes. Eight schools in North Florida participated in the pilot project. Food recall data from…

  17. 76 FR 46822 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . This notice is being published less than 15 days prior to the meeting due to..., 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated:...

  18. 77 FR 14816 - National Eye Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Vision Research Grant Applications. Date: April 2..., National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov..., MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos....

  19. 75 FR 46951 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  20. 76 FR 71350 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Pediatric Vision Science Grant Applications..., MSC 9300, (301) 451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . This notice is being published less than 15 days prior to..., National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, (301) 451-2020,...

  1. 75 FR 48976 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...-2020, rawlings@nei.nih.gov . This notice is being published less than 15 days prior to the meeting due... Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . This... the review and funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867,...

  2. 75 FR 26968 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... 1300, MSC 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451- 2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . This notice is being... Fishers Lane, Suite 1300 MSC 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892-9300, 301-451-2020, rawlings@nei.nih.gov . This... the review and funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867,...

  3. 76 FR 3917 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . Name of Committee... Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health,...

  4. 75 FR 13769 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ..., 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892-9300, 301-451-2020, rawlings@nei.nih.gov..., MD 20892-9300 301-451-2020, rawlings@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 15, 2010....

  5. 77 FR 12318 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020..., MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . .Name of Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis..., 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of...

  6. 78 FR 9403 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Clinical..., National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301- 451-2020, hoshawb@mail.nih.gov... Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, jeanetteh@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue...

  7. 75 FR 74068 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ..., National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300. 301-451-2020. rawlings@nei.nih.gov... Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300. 301-451-2020. aes@nei.nih.gov . ] (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of...

  8. 78 FR 8050 - Spent Fuel Cask Certificate of Compliance Format and Content

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI or the petitioner). The petition was docketed by the NRC on... organization for the nuclear energy and technologies industry. The NEI's petition states that its ``members... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  9. NASA Explorer Institutes: Exploring the Possibilities for Collaboration with the Informal Education Community. Report of the NASA Explorer Institutes--Focus Groups and Pilot Workshops, September 2004-March 2005; Planning and Evaluation Meeting, March 14-17, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Debbie; Freeman, Jason; Walker, Gretchen; Davis, Hilarie

    2005-01-01

    This report contains summary information and conclusions from the pilot workshops, focus groups, and the NEI (NASA Explorer Institutes) Planning and Evaluation Conference which united representatives of the workshops, focus groups, and NASA education. The culmination of these NEI pilot initiatives resulted in the identification of strategies that…

  10. 76 FR 74834 - Interim Staff Guidance on Aging Management Program for Steam Generators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Aging Management Program for Steam Generators AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Program for Steam Generators.'' This LR-ISG provides the NRC staff's evaluation of the suitability of using Revision 3 of the Nuclear Energy Institute's (NEI) document, NEI 97-06, ``Steam Generator Program...

  11. Nutrition Education Initiative: A School-Based Program to Promote Healthy Eating Practices of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Bonnie; Ralston, Penny A.; Young-Clark, Iris; Cornille, Tom; Brown, Linda Lockett; Davis, Kimberly E.; Salley, Tihesha J.; Goehrig, Marianne Henderson; Mullins, Amy Piper; Gaskins, Dykibra J.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of the Nutrition Education Initiative (NEI), a project to promote the adoption of healthy eating practices by middle school students in North Florida, included the development of the "NEI Resource Guide" and pilot study outcomes. Eight schools in North Florida participated in the pilot project. Food recall data from…

  12. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L M; Markussen, B; Nielsen, N I; Nadeau, E; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2016-11-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values (CINE; min/MJ of NE). Furthermore, we studied the forage-to-concentrate substitution rate in this new NEI model. To calibrate the model on a diverse set of situations, we built a database of mean intake from 14 production experiments with a total of 986 primi- and multiparous lactating dairy cows of different breeds fed 136 different diets ad libitum. The NEI were estimated by the Nordic feed evaluation system. The CINE value of diets was estimated from the intake of concentrate, intake of forage neutral detergent fiber (NDFf), particle length of forage, indigestible NDFf/NDFf, body weight, NDFf/body weight, and the content of NE in DM. We show that the slope values in this regression are proportional to the squared intercepts, giving the nonlinear equation NEI=NEI0-k×NEI0(a)×CINE, where the parameter k represents the decline in NEI with the increasing CINE of the diet and a was estimated to have a value of 2, implying a constant maximum daily chewing time. The intercept NEI0 in the regression of NEI on CINE may be interpreted as metabolic net energy intake capacity of the cows fed without physical constraints on intake. Based on experimental data, the maximum chewing time was estimated as 1/(4 × k). The NEI0 values were parameterized as a linear function of metabolic body size, energy-corrected milk yield (kg/d), days in milk, and days in milk squared. Prediction accuracy was evaluated by mean square prediction error (MSPE) and its decomposition into central tendency, regression, and disturbance, across and within experiments on independent data from 19 experiments including 812 primi- and multiparous lactating dairy cows of different breeds fed 80 different diets ad

  13. Structural Investigation of a Viral Ortholog of Human NEIL2/3 DNA Glycosylases

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Eckenroth, Brian E.; Averill, April M.; Imamura, Kayo; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Assault to DNA that leads to oxidative base damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway with specialized enzymes called DNA glycosylases catalyzing the first step of this pathway. These glycosylases can be categorized into two families: the HhH superfamily, which includes endonuclease III (or Nth), and the Fpg/Nei family, which comprises formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (or Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (or Nei). In humans there are three Nei-like (NEIL) glycosylases: NEIL1, 2, and 3. Here we present the first crystal structure of a viral ortholog of the human NEIL2/NEIL3 proteins, Mimivirus Nei2 (MvNei2), determined at 2.04 Å resolution. The C-terminal region of the MvNei2 enzyme comprises two conserved DNA binding motifs: the helix-two-turns-helix (H2TH) motif and a C-H-C-C type zinc-finger similar to that of human NEIL2. The N-terminal region of MvNei2 is most closely related to NEIL3. Like NEIL3, MvNei2 bears a valine at position 2 instead of the usual proline and it lacks two of the three conserved void-filling residues present in other members of the Fpg/Nei family. Mutational analysis of the only conserved void-filling residue methionine 72 to alanine yields an MvNei2 variant with impaired glycosylase activity. Mutation of the adjacent His73 causes the enzyme to be more productive thereby suggesting a plausible role for this residue in the DNA lesion search process. PMID:24120312

  14. Impacts of updated emission inventories on source apportionment of fine particle and ozone over the southeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Wei; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Wang, Kai; Minoura, Hiroaki; Wang, Zifa

    2014-05-01

    As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency updates the National Emission Inventory (NEI), the source contributions (SC) of major source sectors to major pollutants based on source apportionment techniques should be periodically reassessed to reflect changes in SCs due to changes in emissions. This work assesses emission updates from the 1999 NEI version 2 (NEI99v2) and the 2005 NEI (NEI05) and the resulting differences in SCs using the two inventories. Large differences exist in the emissions of nitrogen oxide, formaldehyde, ammonia, terpene, and primary PM2.5 between NEI99v2 and NEI05. Differences in emissions lead to differences in model performance and source appointment. SCs of ten major source categories to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system with the Brute Force Method (CMAQ/BFM) andNEI05and compared with those obtained previously using CMAQ/BFM with NEI99v2. In January, compared to CMAQ/BFM (NEI99v2), CMAQ/BFM (NEI05) shows that miscellaneous areas, biomass burning, and coal combustion remain the top three contributors to PM2.5 but with different ranking and higher SCs (17.7%, 16.0%, and 14.1% for NEI05 vs. 11.8%, 13.7%, and 10.8% for NEI99v2, respectively). In July, coal combustion, miscellaneous areas, and industrial processes remain the top three with higher SCs (41.9%, 14.1%, and 8.8% for NEI05 vs.30.8%, 8.9%, and 6.9% for NEI99v2, respectively). Those changes in SCs are attributed to increased primary PM2.5 (PPM) emissions in NEI05 and increases in relative contributions of miscellaneous areas and coal combustion to the emissions of PPM, NH3, and SO2.SCs from diesel and gasoline vehicles decrease in both months, due to decreased contributions of gasoline vehicles to SO2 and NH3 emissions and those of diesel vehicles to NOx and PPM emissions. Compared with CMAQ/BFM (NEI99v2), SCs from other combustion and biomass burning are higher in Florida, due to substantial increases in

  15. Reliability and validity of abbreviated surveys derived from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gergana, Kodjebacheva; Coleman, Anne L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Yu, Fei; Stone, Katie L.; Pedula, Kathryn L.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Mangione, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the reliability and validity of questionnaires shortened from the National Eye Institute 25-item Vision Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-9 and NEI VFQ-8). Design A cross-sectional multi-center cohort study. Methods Reliability was assessed by Cronbach alpha coefficients. Validity was evaluated by studying the association of vision-targeted quality-of-life composite scores with objective visual function measurements. Study population: A total of 5,482 women between the ages of 65 and 100 years participated in the Year-10 clinic visit in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). A total of 3,631 women with complete data were included in the visual acuity (VA) and visual field (VF) analysis of the NEI VFQ-9, which is defined for those who care to drive. and 5,311 in the analysis of the NEI VFQ-8. To assess differences in prevalent eye diseases, which were ascertained for a random sample of SOF participants, 853 and 1,237 women were included in the NEI VFQ-9 and the NEI VFQ-8 analyses, respectively. Results Cronbach alpha coefficient for the NEI VFQ-9 scale was 0.83 and that of the NEI VFQ-8 was 0.84. Using both questionnaires, women with VA worse than 20/40 had lower composite scores compared to those with VA 20/40 or better (p<0.001). Participants with mild, moderate, and severe binocular VF loss had lower composite scores compared to those with no binocular VF loss (p<0.001).Compared to women without chronic eye diseases in both eyes, women with at least one chronic eye disease in at least one eye had lower composite scores. Conclusions Both questionnaires showed high reliability across items and validity with respect to clinical markers of eye disease Future research should compare the properties of these shortened surveys to those of the NEI VFQ-25. PMID:20103058

  16. The oxidative DNA glycosylases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibit different substrate preferences from their Escherichia coli counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yin; Bandaru, Viswanath; Jaruga, Pawel; Zhao, Xiaobei; Burrows, Cynthia J.; Iwai, Shigenori; Dizdaroglu, Miral; Bond, Jeffrey P.; Wallace, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    The DNA glycosylases that remove oxidized DNA bases fall into two general families: the Fpg/Nei family and the Nth superfamily. Based on protein sequence alignments, we identified four putative Fpg/Nei family members, as well as a putative Nth protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All four Fpg/Nei proteins were successfully overexpressed using a bicistronic vector created in our laboratory. The MtuNth protein was also overexpressed in soluble form. The substrate specificities of the purified enzymes were characterized in vitro with oligodeoxynucleotide substrates containing single lesions. Some were further characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of products released from γ-irradiated DNA. MtuFpg1 has a substrate specificity similar to that of EcoFpg. Both EcoFpg and MtuFpg1 are more efficient at removing spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) than 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). However, MtuFpg1 shows a substantially increased opposite base discrimination compared to EcoFpg. MtuFpg2 contains only the C-terminal domain of an Fpg protein and has no detectable DNA binding activity or DNA glycosylase/lyase activity and thus appears to be a pseudogene. MtuNei1 recognizes oxidized pyrimidines on both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA and exhibits uracil DNA glycosylase activity. MtuNth recognizes a variety of oxidized bases, including urea, 5,6-dihydrouracil (DHU), 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU), 5-hydroxycytosine (5-OHC) and methylhydantoin (MeHyd). Both MtuNei1 and MtuNth excise thymine glycol (Tg); however, MtuNei1 strongly prefers the (5R) isomers, whereas MtuNth recognizes only the (5S) isomers. MtuNei2 did not demonstrate activity in vitro as a recombinant protein, but like MtuNei1 when expressed in Escherichia coli, it decreased the spontaneous mutation frequency of both the fpg mutY nei triple and nei nth double mutants, suggesting that MtuNei2 is functionally active in vivo recognizing both guanine and cytosine oxidation products

  17. Simulation of atmospheric oxidation capacity in Houston, Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality model simulations are performed and evaluated for Houston using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The simulations use two different emissions estimates: the EPA 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality ...

  18. NIH Institutes and Centers Served by TTC | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    TTC services the NCI Intramural Research laboratories as well as nine other NIH institutes a range of services--NIDA, NIA, NIMHD, NICHD, NLM, CIT, NCCIH, Clinical Center, NEI. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  19. New Treatment Greatly Improves Prognosis for Patients with AMD (Age-Related Macular Degeneration)

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Age-related Macular Degeneration New Treatment Greatly Improves Prognosis for Patients with AMD ... Eye Institute Photo Courtesy of: NEI In a new study of nearly 650 people with age-related ...

  20. Advances in Support of the CMAQ Bidirectional Science Option for the Estimation of Ammonia Flux from Agricultural cropland

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Session: Emissions Inventories, Models and processes: Last year a new CMAQ bidirectional option for the estimation of ammonia flux (emission and deposition) was released. This option essentially replaces NEI crop ammonia emissions with emissions calculated dynamically...

  1. Latest Research: Genetic Links

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Latest Research: Genetic Links Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents ... laboratories is one way the NEI is expanding genetic testing of eye diseases. Photo courtesy of National ...

  2. Advances in Support of the CMAQ Bidirectional Science Option for the Estimation of Ammonia Flux from Agricultural cropland

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Session: Emissions Inventories, Models and processes: Last year a new CMAQ bidirectional option for the estimation of ammonia flux (emission and deposition) was released. This option essentially replaces NEI crop ammonia emissions with emissions calculated dynamically...

  3. 2005 v4.3 Technical Support Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions Modeling for the Final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Technical Support Document describes how updated 2005 NEI, version 2 emissions were processed for air quality modeling in support of the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS).

  4. Development of a landscape unit delineation framework for ecoy-hydrologic models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A spatially distributed representation of basin hydrology and transport processes in eco-hydrological models facilitates the identification of critical source areas and the placement of management and conservation measures. Especially floodplains are critical landscape features that differ from nei...

  5. Macular Pucker

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  6. 76 FR 24498 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  7. 75 FR 54642 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Council, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, amp@nei.nih.gov . Any person..., Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: September 1, 2010. Jennifer Spaeth,...

  8. 77 FR 55852 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, lam@nei.nih.gov . Any person interested may file... posted when available. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision...

  9. 75 FR 10489 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ..., National Eye Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, Msc 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892-9300, (301) 451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision...

  10. 76 FR 13197 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ..., National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of...

  11. 75 FR 64311 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300. 301-451-2020. kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of...

  12. 75 FR 52762 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ..., 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . This notice is being published less than 15 days prior to the meeting... Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 23,...

  13. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > NEI for Kids > Protective Eyewear All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  14. Myopia Increasing in the U.S. Population

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  15. 77 FR 71428 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ..., MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . This notice is being published less than 15 days prior to... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health,...

  16. 77 FR 73037 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, lam@nei.nih.gov . Any person interested may file... posted when available. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision...

  17. 77 FR 24727 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov This notice is being... funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  18. 78 FR 25458 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Health, 301-451-2020, lam@nei.nih.gov . Any person interested may file written comments with the... Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 25,...

  19. 75 FR 11551 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-2020, apm@nei.nih.gov . Any interested person may file....867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 4, 2010. Jennifer...

  20. 76 FR 53687 - National Eye Institute Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ..., National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, amp@nei.nih.gov . Any person interested may file written... available. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  1. 75 FR 55806 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, rawlings@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  2. 77 FR 31032 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, lam@nei.nih.gov . Any person..., Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 18, 2012. Jennifer S. Spaeth,...

  3. 75 FR 20853 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... 1300, MSC 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892-9300, 301-451-2020, rawlings@nei.nih.gov . This notice is being... funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93867, Vision Research,...

  4. 78 FR 62640 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ..., National Eye Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892-9300, (301) 451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision...

  5. 75 FR 58410 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . ] (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  6. 75 FR 16818 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451- 2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  7. 76 FR 24499 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, amp@nei.nih.gov . Any person interested may file... be posted when available. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867,...

  8. 78 FR 15021 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301- 451-2020,...

  9. 75 FR 33628 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of...

  10. 76 FR 10041 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020. aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  11. 77 FR 63355 - Proposed Revision to Emergency Action Level Development Guidance Document

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... revision to the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 99-01, proposed Revision 6, ``Development of Emergency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Emergency Action Level Development Guidance Document AGENCY:...

  12. 76 FR 74831 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... request from the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), the NRC is extending the public comment period until... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; extension of comment period....

  13. 78 FR 68101 - Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors and Specific Environmental Guidance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... period was originally scheduled to close on October 15, 2013. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Pressurized Water Reactors Reviews AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff...

  14. 76 FR 58311 - Draft License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-05; Ongoing Review of Operating Experience

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... request from the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), the NRC is extending the public comment period until... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Experience AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; extension of...

  15. 78 FR 11687 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Research Institute, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) in accordance with agency guidance to process... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...) Review; Comment Request AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of the OMB review...

  16. 78 FR 69139 - Physical Security-Design Certification and Operating Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) submitted a letter on October 9, 2013 (Agencywide Documents Access and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Physical Security--Design Certification and Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear...

  17. 2005 v4.2 Technical Support Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Support Document for the Final Transport Rule describes how updated 2005 NEI, version 2 emissions and were processed for air quality modeling in support of the Cross-state Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR).

  18. Status of Civil Judicial Consent Decrees Addressing Combined Sewer Systems (CSOs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tracking table of civil consent decrees for combined sewer systems (CSOs). This supports the National Enforcement Initiative (NEI) for Keeping Raw Sewage and Contaminated Stormwater Out of Our Nation's Waters.

  19. Simulation of atmospheric oxidation capacity in Houston, Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality model simulations are performed and evaluated for Houston using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The simulations use two different emissions estimates: the EPA 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality ...

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  1. The Visual System

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  2. A review of the Northern Ecosystem Initiative in Arctic Canada: facilitating arctic ecosystem research through traditional and novel approaches.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Mark L; Ogilvie, Carey; Gilchrist, H Grant

    2006-02-01

    The Canadian Arctic is undergoing considerable social and environmental change. Anthropogenic stressors on this sensitive environment include climate change, contaminants, resource extraction, tourism and increasing human populations. The Northern Ecosystem Initiative (NEI) is a program aimed at supporting the sustainability of northern communities, and at improving our understanding of how northern ecosystems respond to these environmental stressors. A key element of the NEI is to establish partnerships between all levels of government, non-governmental environmental agencies, and northern residents. The NEI is an important source of financial support critical for social and environmental scientists as well as northern residents and their community and regional organizations. Initiated in 1998, the NEI has supported numerous northern scientific and capacity-building projects, and has evaluated the information gained from this work to refine and focus its future support to address key information gaps and northern needs.

  3. REFINING FIRE EMISSIONS FOR AIR QUALITY MODELING WITH REMOTELY-SENSED FIRE COUNTS: A WILDFIRE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed active fire data (pixel counts) to refine the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) fire emission estimates for major wildfire events. This study was motivated by the extremely limited info...

  4. REFINING FIRE EMISSIONS FOR AIR QUALITY MODELING WITH REMOTELY-SENSED FIRE COUNTS: A WILDFIRE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed active fire data (pixel counts) to refine the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) fire emission estimates for major wildfire events. This study was motivated by the extremely limited info...

  5. Helping the Retina Regenerate

    MedlinePlus

    ... for RGC reprogramming is understanding the cues that direct their maturation and integration with other cells. The ... the retina. The report appears in Translational Vision Science and Technology. Learn more about the NEI AGI ...

  6. 76 FR 66732 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Integrative Data Analysis for Vision Research. Date: November 4, 2011. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To... Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . This notice is being published less..., MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . This notice is being published less than 15 days prior...

  7. The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire in the Macular Telangiectasia (MacTel) Project.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Traci E; Gillies, Mark C; Chew, Emily Y; Bird, Alan C; Peto, Tunde; Figueroa, Maria; Harrington, Molly W

    2008-10-01

    To describe vision-targeted health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), measured with the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) in a cohort of patients with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 and to evaluate the relationship between visual acuity and NEI-VFQ-25 scores. This was an analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a longitudinal natural history study. Patients with MacTel type 2 were enrolled in the Natural History Study of The Macular Telangiectasia Project (The MacTel Project). NEI-VFQ-25 were completed at enrollment. Linear correlation and regression analyses were used to relate baseline NEI-VFQ-25 overall and subscale scores to visual acuity. Participants reported lower vision-related functioning measured by the NEI-VFQ-25 in most of the domains measured by the NEI VFQ compared with that of a normal reference group (P < 0.001 for all domains except color vision). Visual acuity was found to be associated with the NEI-VFQ-25 in many of the domains measuring degree of difficulty with common visual activities. This is the first cross-sectional cohort study to assess vision targeted HR-QOL in patients with MacTel type 2. Patients with MacTel type 2 reported markedly reduced visual functioning compared to reports of a normal reference group. These findings provide support to the use of the NEI-VFQ-25 in patients with MacTel type 2 to measure the effect of disease and potential therapies on vision-targeted HR-QOL.

  8. Three key imperatives

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, Joe F.

    2004-06-01

    This article is an excerpt from a speech given by Joe F. Colvin, president and CEO, Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) at NEI's Nuclear Energy Assembly on May 13, 2004 in New Orleans. Three areas were highlighted in the excerpt as critical to the industry: finalizing a regulatory framework that is safety-focused; ensuring a stable and reliable reactor fuel supply; and, finishing the job of securing an operating used fuel repository at Yucca Mountain.

  9. A comparative study of US EPA 1996 and 1999 emission inventories in the west Gulf of Mexico coast region, USA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Jen; Ho, Thomas C; Chu, Hsing-wei; Yang, Heng; Mojica, Martha J; Krishnarajanagar, Nagesh; Chiou, Paul; Hopper, Jack R

    2005-06-01

    Emission inventory is one of the required inputs to air quality models. To assist in the urban and regional modeling efforts, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has compiled a National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criterion pollutants, and the precursors of ozone and particulate matter (PM). In December 2002, EPA released the 1999 NEI estimates (NEI99), which represent the most recent national emission data. However, the data sets are not in model-ready format for air quality simulations. This present work converts the NEI99 Final Version 2 data sets into Inventory Data Analyzer (IDA) format and processes the data using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) modeling system to generate a gridded emission inventory in a domain covering the west Gulf Coast Region, USA. The spatial and diurnal emission characteristics of the gridded emission inventories are then assessed and compared with those of the National Emission Trend 1996 (NET96). The NEI99 database contains more complete emission records in both area and point sources. It is also found that NEI99 data exhibit greater emissions with respect to point and mobile sources but smaller emissions with respect to area sources when compared to the corresponding gridded NET96 data in the same study domain. The most distinct differences between the NEI99 and NET96 databases are CO emission of mobile sources, SO2 emissions of point sources, and VOC/PM/NH3/NOx emissions of area and non-road sources. The gridded NEI99 data show low VOC/NOx ratios (<2-5) in the urban areas of the study domain.

  10. National Emissions Inventory, U.S., 2011, EPA/OAR/OAQPS/AQAD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web service contains layers that depict annual emissions for 2011 at the facility and county level for the following criterial pollutants: CO, Lead, NH3, NOx, PM10, PM25, SO2, and VOC. The National Emissions Inventory (NEI) is a comprehensive and detailed estimate of air emissions of criteria pollutants, criteria precursors, and hazardous air pollutants from air emissions sources. The NEI is released every three years based primarily upon data provided by State, Local, and Tribal air agencies for sources in their jurisdictions and supplemented by data developed by the US EPA. The NEI is built using the Emissions Inventory System (EIS) first to collect the data from State, Local, and Tribal air agencies and then to blend that data with other data sources.NEI point sources include emissions estimates for larger sources that are located at a fixed, stationary location. Point sources in the NEI include large industrial facilities and electric power plants, airports, and smaller industrial, non-industrial and commercial facilities. A small number of portable sources such as some asphalt or rock crushing operations are also included. Some states voluntarily also provide facilities such as dry cleaners, gas stations, and livestock facilities, which are otherwise included in the NEI as nonpoint sources. The emissions potential of each facility determines whether that facility should be reported as a point source, according to emissions thresholds set in the Air

  11. National Emissions Inventory, U.S., 2014, EPA/OAR/OAQPS/AQAD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web service contains layers that depict annual emissions for 2014 at the facility and county level for the following criterial pollutants: CO, Lead, NH3, NOx, PM10, PM25, SO2, and VOC. The National Emissions Inventory (NEI) is a comprehensive and detailed estimate of air emissions of criteria pollutants, criteria precursors, and hazardous air pollutants from air emissions sources. The NEI is released every three years based primarily upon data provided by State, Local, and Tribal air agencies for sources in their jurisdictions and supplemented by data developed by the US EPA. The NEI is built using the Emissions Inventory System (EIS) first to collect the data from State, Local, and Tribal air agencies and then to blend that data with other data sources.NEI point sources include emissions estimates for larger sources that are located at a fixed, stationary location. Point sources in the NEI include large industrial facilities and electric power plants, airports, and smaller industrial, non-industrial and commercial facilities. A small number of portable sources such as some asphalt or rock crushing operations are also included. Some states voluntarily also provide facilities such as dry cleaners, gas stations, and livestock facilities, which are otherwise included in the NEI as nonpoint sources. The emissions potential of each facility determines whether that facility should be reported as a point source, according to emissions thresholds set in the Air

  12. Effects of graded LBNP on MSNA and interstitial norepinephrine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Mazhar H.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.; MacLean, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) leads to an increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and an increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). In this study, we examined the relationship between MSNA and interstitial norepinephrine (NE(i)) concentrations during LBNP. Twelve healthy volunteers were studied (26 +/- 6 yr). Simultaneous MSNA and microdialysis data were collected in six of these subjects. Measurements of MSNA (microneurography) and NE(i) (microdialysis, vastus lateralis) were performed at rest and then during an incremental LBNP paradigm (-10, -30, and -50 mmHg). MSNA rose as a function of LBNP (P < 0.001, n = 12). The plasma norepinephrine (NE(p)) concentration was 0.9 +/- 0.1 nmol/l at rest (n = 12). NE(i) measured in six subjects rose from 5.2 +/- 0.8 nmol/l at rest to 17.0 +/- 1.7 nmol/l at -50 mmHg (P < 0.001). Of note, the rise in NE(p) with LBNP was considerably less compared with the changes in NE(i) (Delta21 +/- 6% vs. Delta197 +/- 52%, n = 6, P < 0.015). MSNA and NE(i) showed a significant linear relationship (r = 0.721, P < 0.004). Activation of the SNS increased MSNA and NE(i) levels. The magnitude of the NE(i) increase was far greater than that seen for NE(p) suggesting that NE movement into the circulation decreases with baroreceptor unloading.

  13. Responsiveness of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire to Progression to Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Vision Loss, and Lens Opacity

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the ability of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) to detect meaningful change over time (responsiveness) to the primary Age-Related Eye Disease Study outcomes. Methods The 25-item NEI-VFQ plus appendix was administered at 2 visits at 1- to 4-year intervals to 4119 participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Events evaluated were progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD), visual acuity (VA) loss of at least 15 letters, and lens opacity progression. Responsiveness was measured by the t statistic, effect size (ES), responsiveness statistic, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Variance components were used to estimate the contributions of events to variability of the NEI-VFQ score. Results Overall NEI-VFQ score was responsive to AMD progression (t = 14.0; P<.001; ES=0.81) and VA (t = 16.2; P<.001; ES=0.74). Mean changes ranged from 11 to 25 points for the subscales of general vision, near and distance activities, social functioning, mental health, role difficulties, dependency, and driving. The NEI-VFQ was unresponsive to lens opacity progression, although when the event occurred in the eye with the best vision at the first administration, the lens opacity ES was moderate for the color vision (ES = 0.62) and driving subscales (ES=0.66). Progression to advanced AMD and VA loss contributed significantly to the variation in the mean difference in overall VFQ score. Conclusions Changes in the NEI-VFQ overall and subscale scores of 10 points or more are associated with clinically significant changes in vision and AMD. This finding may assist the design of interventional studies of AMD and VA loss that include the NEI-VFQ as an outcome measure. PMID:16157800

  14. Effects of graded LBNP on MSNA and interstitial norepinephrine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Mazhar H.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.; MacLean, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) leads to an increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and an increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). In this study, we examined the relationship between MSNA and interstitial norepinephrine (NE(i)) concentrations during LBNP. Twelve healthy volunteers were studied (26 +/- 6 yr). Simultaneous MSNA and microdialysis data were collected in six of these subjects. Measurements of MSNA (microneurography) and NE(i) (microdialysis, vastus lateralis) were performed at rest and then during an incremental LBNP paradigm (-10, -30, and -50 mmHg). MSNA rose as a function of LBNP (P < 0.001, n = 12). The plasma norepinephrine (NE(p)) concentration was 0.9 +/- 0.1 nmol/l at rest (n = 12). NE(i) measured in six subjects rose from 5.2 +/- 0.8 nmol/l at rest to 17.0 +/- 1.7 nmol/l at -50 mmHg (P < 0.001). Of note, the rise in NE(p) with LBNP was considerably less compared with the changes in NE(i) (Delta21 +/- 6% vs. Delta197 +/- 52%, n = 6, P < 0.015). MSNA and NE(i) showed a significant linear relationship (r = 0.721, P < 0.004). Activation of the SNS increased MSNA and NE(i) levels. The magnitude of the NE(i) increase was far greater than that seen for NE(p) suggesting that NE movement into the circulation decreases with baroreceptor unloading.

  15. Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor Following Liver Resection: A Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Shintaro; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Moriguchi, Masamichi; Hayashi, Yuki; Mitsuka, Yusuke; Yoshida, Nao; Higaki, Tokio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sivelestat is a neutrophil elastase inhibitor (NEI) with positive impact on the respiratory complications in thoracic surgery. Based on the findings of a recent study, NEI may have a good response for avoiding ischemia reperfusion injury in liver resection. Objectives: The current study aimed to examine the impact of NEI on the postoperative outcomes after liver resection. Patients and Methods: The data were collected from 374 consecutive patients scheduled to undergo liver resection. Seven perioperative variables were matched on the basis of the patients’ background. Then, the NEI (n = 61) and control (n = 61) groups were compared. NEI was administered at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/h for three days from the postoperative day 0 (POD0). The liver function, coagulation activity, inflammatory response, respiratory complications, and overall complications were compared. Results: The levels of serum interleukin-6 (NEI group: 113 pg/mL [26.9 - 522.0] vs. control group: 174 [28.6 - 1040.6], P < 0.01) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (2.9 IU/L [range: 0.1 - 8.6] vs. 4.11 [0.3 - 13.8], P = 0.01) on the first postoperative day (POD1) and the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (32.3 Torr [-28.6 - 132.3] vs. 46.6 [-11.2 - 251.6], P = 0.04) on the third postoperative day (POD3) were significantly lower in the NEI group than the control group. The rate of pleural effusion was significantly lower in the NEI group compared to that of the control group [13 patients (21.3%) vs. 23 (37.7%), P = 0.04]. However, the coagulation activities (P = 0.68), liver function (P = 0.69), non-respiratory complications (P = 0.84), and overall complications (P = 0.71) did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions: Intravenous NEI administration had positive impact on the postoperative inflammatory response and oxygenation while it did not affect either coagulation or the liver function, as well as severe grade complications following resection. PMID:26834789

  16. The Italian version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire: translation, validity, and reliability.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gemma Caterina Maria; Milano, Giovanni; Tinelli, Carmine

    2003-06-01

    To test the Italian adaptation of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ 25) and to investigate its validity and reliability. This prospective observational study enrolled nonhospitalized patients with 1 of 5 chronic eye diseases, and a reference sample of subjects without eye diseases. Eligible participants had to be cognitively able to respond to a health status interview and be affected by 1 of the following eye conditions: senile cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and cytomegalovirus retinitis or low vision. A control group was composed of subjects with no evidence of underlying eye diseases. The Italian self-administered versions of Medical Outcomes Study Short Form and of the NEI-VFQ 25 were administered to all participants. Reliability and validity of the Italian translation of the NEI-VFQ 25 were tested using statistical methods. Statistical analysis points out that the Italian version of the NEI-VFQ 25 has good validity, discriminatory power, internal consistency, and reliability. This Italian version of the NEI-VFQ 25 shows psychometric properties comparable to those of the American version, and thus can be used in clinical research as a specific measure of quality of life in patients with chronic eye diseases.

  17. Mercury Emission Ratios from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Southeastern United States during NOMADSS.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Jesse L; Gratz, Lynne E; Jaffe, Daniel A; Campos, Teresa; Flocke, Frank M; Knapp, David J; Stechman, Daniel M; Stell, Meghan; Weinheimer, Andrew J; Cantrell, Christopher A; Mauldin, Roy L

    2015-09-01

    We use measurements made onboard the National Science Foundation's C-130 research aircraft during the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) experiment to examine total Hg (THg) emission ratios (EmRs) for six coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in the southeastern U.S. We compare observed enhancement ratios (ERs) with EmRs calculated using Hg emissions data from two inventories: the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). For four CFPPs, our measured ERs are strongly correlated with EmRs based on the 2011 NEI (r(2) = 0.97), although the inventory data exhibit a -39% low bias. Our measurements agree best (to within ±32%) with the NEI Hg data when the latter were derived from on-site emissions measurements. Conversely, the NEI underestimates by approximately 1 order of magnitude the ERs we measured for one previously untested CFPP. Measured ERs are uncorrelated with values based on the 2013 TRI, which also tends to be biased low. Our results suggest that the Hg inventories can be improved by targeting CFPPs for which the NEI- and TRI-based EmRs have significant disagreements. We recommend that future versions of the Hg inventories should provide greater traceability and uncertainty estimates.

  18. Likert and Guttman scaling of visual function rating scale questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Massof, Robert W

    2004-12-01

    To test the assumptions underlying Likert scoring of visual function questionnaires. Questionnaires were administered to 284 low-vision subjects by telephone. Each subject was administered two of four questionnaires: ADVS, NEI VFQ-25 plus supplement, expanded VAQ, and VF-14. Z-scores for cumulative frequency of using each rating category across subjects are not linear with rating category rank and items are not the same difficulty for any of the questionnaires. Guttmann coefficients of reproducibility ranged from 57% for the ADVS to 51% for the NEI VFQ-25. Cronbach alphas ranged from 0.92 for the VF-14 to 0.96 for the NEI VFQ; however, inter-item consistency coefficients ranged from 0.24 for the VAQ to 0.45 for the NEI VFQ. Likert scores were significantly correlated between instruments, ranging from 0.66 for NEI VFQ vs ADVS to 0.90 for the VF-14 vs. ADVS. The rating scales of all four questionnaires fail to satisfy Likert's assumptions. Also, ratings are probabilistic, rather than deterministic, which means that the Likert model is not valid for these questionnaires. However, Likert scores for all four instruments are intercorrelated, suggesting that they are monotonic with the latent subject trait distributed in the low vision sample.

  19. Suzaku discovery of Fe K-shell line from the O-rich SNR G292.0+1.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitsukasa, Fumiyoshi; Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ueda, Shutaro; Mori, Koji; Katsuda, Satoru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    We report the Suzaku/XIS results of the Galactic oxygen-rich supernova remnant G292.0+1.8, a remnant of a core-collapse supernova. The X-ray spectrum of G292.0+1.8 consists of two types of plasma, one is in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) and the other is in non-equilibrium ionization (NEI). The CIE plasma has nearly solar abundances, and hence would be originated from the circumstellar and interstellar mediums. The NEI plasma has super-solar abundances, and the abundance pattern indicates that the plasma originates from the supernova ejecta with a main sequence of 30-35 M⊙. The iron K-shell line at an energy of 6.6 keV is detected for the first time in the NEI plasma.

  20. Report on the National Eye Institute Audacious Goals Initiative: Regenerating the Optic Nerve.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Guido, William

    2016-03-01

    The National Eye Institute (NEI) hosted a workshop on November 19, 2014, as part of the Audacious Goals Initiative (AGI), an NEI-led effort to rapidly expand therapies for eye diseases through coordinated research funding. The central audacious goal aims to demonstrate by 2025 the restoration of usable vision in humans through the regeneration of neurons and neural connections in the eye and visual system. This workshop focused on identifying promising strategies for optic nerve regeneration. Its principal objective was to solicit input on future AGI-related funding announcements, and specifically to ask, where are we now in our scientific progress, and what progress should we reach for in the coming years? A full report was generated as a white paper posted on the NEI Web site; this report summarizes the discussion and outcomes from the meeting and serves as guidance for future funding of research that focuses on optic nerve regeneration.

  1. Chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase and Escherichia coli endonucleases IV and V have incision activity on 2,2,4-triamino-5(2H)-oxazolone.

    PubMed

    Kino, Katsuhito; Suzuki, Masayo; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Takanobu; Iwai, Shigenori; Miyazawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    2,2,4-Triamino-5(2H)-oxazolone (Oz) in a DNA strand is an oxidation product of guanine and 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine, and such a lesion can cause G-to-C transversions. Previously, Fpg/Nei and Nth were shown to have incision activity on Oz. We investigated the activities of chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (cvPDG) and Escherichia coli endonucleases IV (Nfo) and V (Nfi) on Oz. Although the three enzymes have different repair mechanisms from Fpg/Nei and Nth, they still had incision activity on Oz. Given the incision activities of cvPDG, Nfo and Nfi on Oz in addition to Fpg/Nei and Nth, Oz is DNA damage that can be repaired by diverse enzymes.

  2. Human endonuclease VIII-like (NEIL) proteins in the giant DNA Mimivirus

    PubMed Central

    Bandaru, Viswanath; Zhao, Xiaobei; Newton, Michael R.; Burrows, Cynthia J.; Wallace, Susan S.

    2007-01-01

    Endonuclease VIII (Nei), which recognizes and repairs oxidized pyrimidines in the Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway, is sparsely distributed among both the prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Recently, we and others identified three homologs of E. coli endonuclease VIII-like (NEIL) proteins in humans. Here, we report identification of human NEIL homologs in Mimivirus, a giant DNA virus that infects Acanthamoeba. Characterization of the two mimiviral homologs, MvNei1 and MvNei2, showed that they share not only sequence homology but also substrate specificity to the human NEIL proteins, that is, they recognize oxidized pyrimidines in duplex DNA and in bubble substrates and as well show 5′2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRP lyase) activity. However, unlike MvNei1 and the human NEIL proteins, MvNei2 preferentially cleaves oxidized pyrimidines in single stranded DNA forming products with a different end chemistry. Interestingly, opposite base specificity of MvNei1 resembles human NEIL proteins for pyrimidine base damages whereas it resembles E. coli formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) for guanidinohydantoin (Gh), an oxidation product of 8-oxoguanine. Finally, a conserved arginine residue in the “zincless finger” motif, previously identified in human NEIL1, is required for the DNA glycosylase activity of MvNeil. Thus, Mimivirus represents the first example of a virus to carry oxidative DNA glycosylases with substrate specificities that resemble human NEIL proteins. Based on the sequence homology to the human NEIL homologs and novel bacterial NEIL homologs identified here, we predict that Mimivirus may have acquired the DNA glycosylases through the host-mediated lateral transfer from either a bacterium or from vertebrates. PMID:17627905

  3. Role of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific polyfunctional CD8+ T-cells and antibodies neutralizing virus epithelial infection in the control of CMV infection in an allogeneic stem-cell transplantation setting.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Estela; Blanco-Lobo, Pilar; Muñoz-Cobo, Beatriz; Solano, Carlos; Amat, Paula; Pérez-Romero, Pilar; Navarro, David

    2015-09-01

    The role of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific polyfunctional CD8+ T-cells and that of antibodies neutralizing virus epithelial infection (AbNEI) in the control of CMV DNAemia were investigated in 39 CMV-seropositive allogeneic stem-cell transplant (Allo-SCT) recipients with (n = 24) or without (n = 15) CMV DNAemia. AbNEI levels were monitored prospectively by means of a neutralization assay employing retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and the recombinant CMV strain BADrUL131-Y4. Quantification of CMV-specific polyfunctional CD8+ T-cells (expressing two or three of the following markers: IFN-γγ, TNF-α and CD107a) in whole blood was performed by flow cytometry for intracellular cytokine staining. We found no differences in the dynamic pattern of AbNEI in patients with or without subsequent CMV DNAemia. Baseline and peak AbNEI titres were not predictive of the dynamics of CMV replication within episodes. No correlation was found between CMV DNA loads and AbNEI levels during episodes of CMV DNAemia (ρ = 0.09; 95 % confidence interval - 0.52 to 0.64; P = 0.78). The detection of pp65/IE-1 CMV-specific polyfunctional CD8+ T-cells was associated with low-level virus replication within subsequent episodes of CMV DNAemia. Interestingly, the presence of AbNEI titres (inverse) >4.7 log2 was predictive of the occurrence of CMV DNAemia (sensitivity, 83 %; specificity, 80 %). Our findings provide an insight to the role of humoral and cellular immunity in the control of CMV infection in an Allo-SCT setting.

  4. Development of the crop residue and rangeland burning in the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One component of the biomass burning inventory, crop residue burning, has been poorly characterized in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). In the 2011 NEI, wildland fires, prescribed fires, and crop residue burning collectively were the largest source of PM2.5. This paper summarizes our 2014 NEI method to estimate crop residue burning emissions and grass/pasture burning emissions using remote sensing data and field information and literature-based, crop-specific emission factors. We focus on both the postharvest and pre-harvest burning that takes place with bluegrass, corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, sugarcane and wheat. Estimates for 2014 indicate that over the continental United States (CONUS), crop residue burning excluding all areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay occurred over approximately 1.5 million acres of land and produced 19,600 short tons of PM2.5. For areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay, biomass burning emissions occurred over approximately 1.6 million acres of land and produced 30,000 short tons of PM2.5. This estimate compares with the 2011 NEI and 2008 NEI as follows: 2008: 49,650 short tons and 2011: 141,180 short tons. Note that in the previous two NEIs rangeland burning was not well defined and so the comparison is not e

  5. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Ocular Graft-versus-host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Abud, Tulio B; Schaumberg, Debra A; Dana, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the vision-related quality of life in a cohort of patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Design Prospective study. Participants Eighty-four patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD Methods We assessed the vision-related quality of life with the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). The symptoms of ocular GVHD were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaires. Main outcome measures We assessed vision-related quality of life with NEI-VFQ-25 and compared the scores obtained from patients with ocular GVHD to those from a healthy population. In the ocular GVHD population, we also evaluated the associations between the NEI-VFQ-25 and dry eye symptoms measured by OSDI and SANDE questionnaires, age, duration of disease, best-corrected visual acuity, corneal fluorescein staining, tear break-up time, and Schirmer test. Results The mean composite NEI-VFQ-25 score in patients with ocular GVHD was 76.5 ± 17. Compared to healthy subjects, ocular GVHD patients reported reduced scores on all NEI-VFQ-25 subscales (each P < 0.001) with exception of color vision (P = 0.11). The NEI-VFQ-25 composite scores significantly correlated with OSDI (R = −0.81, P < 0.001), SANDE (R = −0.56, P < 0.001), corneal fluorescein staining (R = −0.36, P = 0.001) and best-corrected visual acuity (R = −0.30, P = 0.004). Conclusion Patients with ocular GVHD experience measurable impairment of vision-related quality of life. This study highlights the impact of ocular GVHD on the vision-related quality of life, and hence the importance of comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:26001816

  6. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Abud, Tulio B; Schaumberg, Debra A; Dana, Reza

    2015-08-01

    To assess the vision-related quality of life (QOL) in a cohort of patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Prospective study. Eighty-four patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD. We assessed the vision-related QOL with the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). The symptoms of ocular GVHD were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaires. We assessed vision-related QOL with the NEI-VFQ-25 and compared the scores obtained from patients with ocular GVHD with those from a healthy population. In the ocular GVHD population, we also evaluated the associations between the NEI-VFQ-25 and the dry eye symptoms measured by the OSDI and SANDE questionnaires, age, duration of disease, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear break-up time, and Schirmer test. The mean composite NEI-VFQ-25 score in patients with ocular GVHD was 76.5±17. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with ocular GVHD reported reduced scores on all NEI-VFQ-25 subscales (each P < 0.001) with the exception of color vision (P = 0.11). The NEI-VFQ-25 composite scores significantly correlated with OSDI (R = -0.81, P < 0.001), SANDE (R = -0.56, P < 0.001), CFS (R = -0.36, P = 0.001), and BCVA (R = -0.30, P = 0.004). Patients with ocular GVHD experience measurable impairment of vision-related QOL. This study highlights the impact of ocular GVHD on the vision-related QOL, and thus the importance of comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of the crop residue and rangeland burning in the 2014 National Emissions Inventory using information from multiple sources.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, George; Rao, Venkatesh; McCarty, Jessica L; Soja, Amber

    2017-05-01

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One component of the biomass burning inventory, crop residue burning, has been poorly characterized in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). In the 2011 NEI, wildland fires, prescribed fires, and crop residue burning collectively were the largest source of PM2.5. This paper summarizes our 2014 NEI method to estimate crop residue burning emissions and grass/pasture burning emissions using remote sensing data and field information and literature-based, crop-specific emission factors. We focus on both the postharvest and pre-harvest burning that takes place with bluegrass, corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, sugarcane and wheat. Estimates for 2014 indicate that over the continental United States (CONUS), crop residue burning excluding all areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay occurred over approximately 1.5 million acres of land and produced 19,600 short tons of PM2.5. For areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay, biomass burning emissions occurred over approximately 1.6 million acres of land and produced 30,000 short tons of PM2.5. This estimate compares with the 2011 NEI and 2008 NEI as follows: 2008: 49,650 short tons and 2011: 141,180 short tons. Note that in the previous two NEIs rangeland burning was not well defined and so the comparison is not exact. The remote sensing data also provided verification of our existing diurnal profile for crop residue burning emissions used in chemical transport modeling. In addition, the entire database used to estimate this sector of emissions is available on EPA's Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors (CHIEF, http://www3.epa.gov/ttn/chief/index.html ).

  8. Using Net Energy Intake models to predict and evaluate the benefits of stream restoration to improve juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwes, N.; Wall, C. E.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S.; Jordan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Stream restoration is often targeted to improve fish habitat. However, predictions or evaluations of habitat or fish population responses to these actions are rarely assessed or more often assumed. Model predictions that describe both physical and biological effects from different types of restorations can help test hypotheses to improve our understanding of fish habitat requirements, especially if restoration is treated as an experiment. In addition, models can help synthesize data to determine project effectiveness to link fish responses to physical habitat responses, promoting a mechanistic understanding that is transferrable to other systems. We are applying a mechanistic model to estimate net energy intake (NEI) potential for juvenile steelhead throughout a stream reach. NEI modeling approaches attempt to describe the quantity of food a fish can ingest at a particular site (as a function of food availability, temperature, and fish size) and the energetic costs of living there (as a function of flow patterns, temperature, and fish size). The collection of NEI estimates can be used to help understand the site's overall energetic profitability for fish and to generate an estimate of carrying capacity. We collected topographic information to create digital elevation models (DEMs) of a stream channel along with drifting invertebrates, temperature, discharge, and substrate type, before and after the addition of large wood in the Asotin watershed. This information was used to create hydraulic models to estimate water velocities and flow direction which were then used to predict delivery rates of drift, swimming costs to fish, and ultimately NEI potential throughout the reach. The model was used to predict restoration benefits based on expected geomorphic responses to large wood. In addition, the model was used to translate modest observed changes in topography from the restoration to increases in NEI and carrying capacity of the stream reach. We believe the NEI

  9. Inter-relationships among alternative definitions of feed efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hurley, A M; López-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2016-01-01

    International interest in feed efficiency, and in particular energy intake and residual energy intake (REI), is intensifying due to a greater global demand for animal-derived protein and energy sources. Feed efficiency is a trait of economic importance, and yet is overlooked in national dairy cow breeding goals. This is due primarily to a lack of accurate data on commercial animals, but also a lack of clarity on the most appropriate definition of the feed intake and utilization complex. The objective of the present study was to derive alternative definitions of energetic efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows and to quantify the inter-relationships among these alternative definitions. Net energy intake (NEI) from pasture and concentrate intake was estimated up to 8 times per lactation for 2,693 lactations from 1,412 Holstein-Friesian cows. Energy values of feed were based on the French Net Energy system where 1 UFL is the net energy requirements for lactation equivalent of 1kg of air-dry barley. A total of 8,183 individual feed intake measurements were available. Energy balance was defined as the difference between NEI and energy expenditure. Efficiency traits were either ratio-based or residual-based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake was defined as NEI minus predicted energy to fulfill the requirements for the various energy sinks. The energy sinks (e.g., NEL, metabolic live weight) and additional contributors to energy kinetics (e.g., live weight loss) combined, explained 59% of the variation in NEI, implying that REI represented 41% of the variance in total NEI. The most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI (n=709), on average were associated with a 7.59 UFL/d less NEI (average NEI of the entire population was 16.23 UFL/d) than the least efficient 10% of test-day records based on REI (n=709). Additionally, the most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI, were associated with

  10. Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to the Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN), which was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory of NASA-Marshall. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. The data base is NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) to be hazardous to the environment. The data base also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these materials.

  11. Christoph Scheiner's life between 1633 and 1650. (German Title: Christoph Scheiners Lebensjahre zwischen 1633 und 1650)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daxecker, Franz

    In 1636, Christoph Scheiner left Rome where the trial of Galilei had taken place, and went to Vienna. The financing of his main work ``Rosa Ursina'' had to be clarified. Until 1636, Scheiner was not in office From 1636 onward, he was alternatively living in Neiße -- today Nysa (Silesia, Poland) -- and Vienna, from 1637 onward, he took his permanent residence in Neiße. Here, Scheiner worked as an advisor of the rector and as father confessor, in addition he gave religious lectures and looked after the garden.

  12. Search for the Non-Equilibrium Ionization State in Merging Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shota; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Shutaro; Nagino, Ryo; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Katsuji

    2015-08-01

    Galaxy clusters are considered that they have evolved by their merging. Many observations of the merging cluster with their shock wave are reported recently (e.g. Akamatsu et al. 2012, PASJ, 64, 67, Bourdin et al. 2013, ApJ, 764, 82). If the shock heats the plasma, the non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) state occurs. Even so, an intracluster medium (ICM) is assumed that it is in collisional ionization equilibrium state, because the timescale of the evolution of galaxy clusters is longer than the timescale that the NEI plasma reaches the equilibrium state. Actually, no observation of the NEI plasma in the ICM is reported. However, for the merging cluster, if its merging timescale is 108 yr, the condition of the NEI state of the ionization parameter (net <1013 s/cm3) is filled in the ICM with the electron density of ~10-3 /cm3. In fact, numerical simulation of the merging cluster shows that the NEI state in the ICM occurs due to the shock heating (e.g. Akahori & Yoshikawa 2010, PASJ, 62, 335). Our purpose is to detect the NEI plasma in the merging cluster, to estimate its timescale from the shock heating quantitatively by ionization parameter to reveal the cluster evolution.From this point, we have analyzed the ionization state of the merging cluster, Abell 754. We used the Suzaku observation data and measured the ratio of the intensities of He-like Fe and H-like Fe lines. As a result, we find that the temperature in the cluster increases from southeast to northwest along the direction of merging. Furthermore, at the specific region with highest temperature (kT = 13.3+1.41-1.14 keV), we find the plasma with ionization parameter, net = 6.98+14.57-3.92 x1011 s/cm3. Its timescale estimated by the ionization parameter is 7.7~54.4 Myr in 90% confidence level. We conclude that the plasma in this region is NEI state due to the recent shock heating. The Ionization state in the ICM can provide a physically meaningful way to estimate the phase and/or timescale of the merging

  13. Isolated Galaxies and Isolated Satellite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ann, H. B.; Park, C.; Choi, Y. Y.

    2010-10-01

    We search for isolated galaxies using a volume-limited sample of galaxies with 0.02 < z < 0.04742 from SDSS DR7 supplemented by bright galaxies. We devise a diagnostic tool to select isolated galaxies in different environments using the projected separation (rp) normalized by the virial radius of the nearest neighbor (rvir,nei) and the local background density. We find that the isolation condition of rp > rvir,nei and ρ < ρbar well segregates the CIG galaxies. We confirm the morphology conformity between the host and their satellites, which suggests the importance to galaxy evolution of hydrodynamic interactions among galaxies within their virial radii.

  14. Responsiveness of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire to Changes in Visual Acuity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) measures vision-targeted quality of life, but it is unclear whether it is sensitive to changes within individuals over time. Objective To determine the responsiveness of the NEI-VFQ to “within-individual” changes in visual acuity in patients who had subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in at least one eye secondary to age-related macular degeneration, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, or idiopathic causes, and who participated in randomized trials of submacular surgery. Methods Trained telephone interviewers administered the NEI-VFQ as part of annual follow-up data collection for pilot trials and larger clinical trials of sub-macular surgery. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured by local vision examiners at 12 months after enrollment and, typically, by central “traveling” vision examiners at 24 months after enrollment. Changes in visual acuity and NEI-VFQ scores from 12 to 24 months were analyzed using linear regression methods. Results Two-hundred eighteen patients had both interviews and visual acuity measurements at 12 and 24 months after enrollment. Changes in the overall NEI-VFQ score and in 9 of the subscales (near activities, dependency, driving, role difficulties, distance activities, mental health, general vision, peripheral vision, and social functioning) were related to changes in visual acuity of the better-seeing eye based on linear regression analysis (P<.05). In our analysis, a 3-line decrease in the visual acuity of the better-seeing eye was associated with 3.6-to 16.2-point decreases in the overall NEI-VFQ score and 9 subscale scores. Conclusions Most of the NEI-VFQ subscales were responsive to changes in the visual acuity of the better-seeing eye over a 12-month interval in this patient population. Thus, the NEI-VFQ can be used to measure change in vision-targeted quality of life over time to augment clinical measurements of visual acuity. PMID:12695250

  15. The impact of visual impairment on self-reported visual functioning in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Globe, Denise R; Wu, Joanne; Azen, Stanley P; Varma, Rohit

    2004-06-01

    To assess the association between presenting binocular visual acuity (VA) and self-reported visual function as measured by the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). A population-based, prevalence study of eye disease in Latinos 40 years and older residing in La Puente, California (Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES]). Six thousand three hundred fifty-seven Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in La Puente. All participants completed a standardized interview, including the NEI-VFQ-25 to measure visual functioning, and a detailed eye examination. Two definitions of visual impairment were used: (1) presenting binocular distance VA of 20/40 or worse and (2) presenting binocular distance VA worse than 20/40. Analysis of variance was used to determine any systematic differences in mean NEI-VFQ-25 scores by visual impairment. Regression analyses were completed (1) to determine the association of age, gender, number of systemic comorbidities, depression, and VA with self-reported visual function and (2) to estimate a visual impairment-related difference for each subscale based on differences in VA. The NEI-VFQ-25 scores in persons with visual impairment. Of the 5287 LALES participants with complete NEI-VFQ-25 data, 6.3% (including 20/40) and 4.2% (excluding 20/40) were visually impaired. In the visually impaired participants, the NEI-VFQ-25 subscale scores ranged from 46.2 (General Health) to 93.8 (Color Vision). In the regression model, only VA, depression, and number of comorbidities were significantly associated with all subscale scores (R(2) ranged from 0.09 for Ocular Pain to 0.33 for the composite score). For 9 of 11 subscales, a 5-point change was equivalent to a 1- or 2-line difference in VA. Relationships were similar regardless of the definition of visual impairment. In this population-based study of Latinos, the NEI-VFQ-25 was sensitive to differences in VA. A 5-point difference on the NEI-VFQ-25 seems to be a

  16. Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to the Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN), which was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory of NASA-Marshall. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. The data base is NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) to be hazardous to the environment. The data base also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these materials.

  17. Benefits of using enhanced air quality information in human health studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of four (4) enhancements of gridded PM2.5 concentrations derived from observations and air quality models to detect the relative risk of long-term exposure to PM2.5 are evaluated with a simulation study. The four enhancements include nearest-nei...

  18. 75 FR 70032 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Institute (NEI) 08-09, Revision 6, ``Cyber Security Plan for Nuclear Power Reactors.'' Basis for proposed no... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... 1954, as amended (the Act), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (the Commission or NRC)...

  19. 77 FR 10785 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... proprietary, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(4)] 10:45 a.m.-12:15 p.m.: Source Terms for Small Modular Reactors... Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) regarding the development of source terms for small modular reactors. 1:15... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the purposes of...

  20. The Pit and the Pendulum: Civil-military Relations in an Age of Austerity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    flying hours, which would hurt readiness. The Navy made perhaps the biggest statement by asking and receiving approval to delay the deployment of the... swear fealty to the Constitution; their loyalty is to nei- ther a person nor a political party. Senior military officers must provide their best military

  1. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... not constitute an unreasonable risk to public health and safety or the common defense and security... Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities,'' and each holder of a combined license under the... Part 26. However, NEI 03-01, as well as an attachment to Revision 1 of RG 5.66, contain security...

  2. 75 FR 8971 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI K99 Grant Applications. Date: March 1, 2010... Review Officer, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300,...

  3. 2007 Version 5.0 Technical Support Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Preparation of Emissions Inventories for the Version 5.0, 2007 Emissions Modeling Platform describes how emissions based on the 2008 NEI, version 2 and were processed to represent the year 2007 in support of air quality modeling of the PM NAAQS.

  4. 77 FR 64525 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Applications-- Visual Processing and Low Vision. Date: November 8, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. Agenda..., 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . ] (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  5. 78 FR 37556 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih..., Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301- 451-2020, hoshawb@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 17, 2013. Melanie...

  6. Changes in Quality of Life in Visually Impaired Patients after Low-Vision Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renieri, Giulia; Pitz, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Beutel, Manfred E.; Zwerenz, Rudiger

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of low-vision aids on quality of life. Interviews included a modified version of the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (Modified German NEI VFQ-25), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination Blind, and Indicators of the Rehabilitation…

  7. 76 FR 44865 - Domestic Licensing of Source Material-Amendments/Integrated Safety Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), in a letter dated June 21, 2011, requested the NRC to hold a public...-44866] [FR Doc No: 2011-18955] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 40 RIN 3150-AI50 [NRC-2009-0079...: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Extension of public comment period and public meeting. SUMMARY:...

  8. 75 FR 47856 - Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and endorsed by the NRC related to the development of EALs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment AGENCY:...

  9. 75 FR 63725 - Nuclear Energy Institute; Consideration of Petition in the Rulemaking Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 Nuclear Energy Institute; Consideration of Petition in the Rulemaking Process... raised in a petition submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and is denying the remaining...

  10. 75 FR 65249 - Anthony R. Pietrangelo on Behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute; Receipt of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Anthony R. Pietrangelo on Behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute; Receipt of Petition for Rulemaking AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Petition for... the NRC by Anthony R. Pietrangelo on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The petition...

  11. 78 FR 23684 - Personnel Access Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI or the petitioner) on January 25, 2013. The petition was...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 Personnel Access Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Petition for rulemaking; notice of receipt...

  12. 75 FR 10444 - Nuclear Energy Institute; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 Nuclear Energy Institute; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC) is denying a petition for rulemaking (PRM) submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) (the... rulemaking. The petitioner states that the nuclear energy industry has fully implemented numerous...

  13. West Europe Report No. 2179

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-25

    here are the Triassic dolomites in the Taormina Formation, where oil has been found in the Gela, Ragusa, Ponte Dirillo, Gaurone, and Piano Lupo...risultati ed assi- stenza tecnica 14) 30 30(3) 60 Sub-totale 50 50 100. 15 d) Risparmio nei trasporti 15 ) Sviluppo di prototipi di autovetture

  14. 76 FR 39406 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Research Program Grant Applications II. Date...). Contact Person: Anne E. Schaffner, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Research... the timing limitations imposed by the review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Eye...

  15. Attrition in Respiratory Care: Stress versus Intrinsic/Extrinsic Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Timothy D.

    A recent study (Mathews, Lira, and Neis, 1984) indicated that the reason that respiratory therapists leave or intend to leave their profession is the desire for jobs which offer more job satisfaction, better salary, opportunity for advancement, more status or recognition, better work schedules, and better benefits. Although the lack of these…

  16. Northeast and Islands Region: A Report Identifying and Addressing the Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses the deliberations of the Northeast and Islands (NEI) Regional Advisory Committee (RAC), one of 10 RACs established by the U.S. Department of Education to solicit information about the educational needs of state and local educators, school officials, business leaders, state education agencies, parents, local communities, and…

  17. Developing a Coherent Research Agenda: Lessons from the REL Northeast & Islands Research Agenda Workshops. REL 2014-014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanek, Julie Reed; Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Carey, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the approach that REL Northeast and Islands (REL-NEI) used to guide its eight research alliances toward collaboratively identifying a shared research agenda. A key feature of their approach was a two-workshop series, during which alliance members created a set of research questions on a shared topic of education policy and/or…

  18. 2005 v4.1 Technical Support Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Preparation of Emission Inventories for the Version 4.1, 2005-based Platform describes how emissions from the 2005 NEI, version 2 and were processed for air quality modeling in support of the Boiler MACT and the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards.

  19. What Is Age-Related Macular Degeneration? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Eye Institute (NEI) Unit on Ocular & Stem Cell Translational Research. Bharti leads efforts to grow and transplant a ... to develop a treatment for AMD. He leads research using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, where cells are genetically reprogrammed to an ...

  20. Use of isozyme patterns in the identification of Biomphalaria tenagophila (D'Orbigny, 1835) and B. occidentalis (Paraense, 1981) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae).

    PubMed

    Mascara, D; Morgante, J S

    1995-01-01

    Two sibling species of Biomphalaria, B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis were identified using isozyme patterns obtained by horizontal gel electrophoresis. Six diagnostic enzymatic loci were identified in digestive gland homogenates. The results enable us to distinguish the species, calculate the Nei's coefficient of genetic similarity, and provide a basis for making inferences about the pattern of these two planorbid species colonization and distribution.

  1. Emissions Inventory of PM2.5 Trace Elements across the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the first National Emissions Inventory (NEI) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes the full suite of PM2.5 trace elements (atomic number >10) measured at ambient monitoring sites across the U.S. PM 2.5 emissions in ...

  2. Changes in Quality of Life in Visually Impaired Patients after Low-Vision Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renieri, Giulia; Pitz, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Beutel, Manfred E.; Zwerenz, Rudiger

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of low-vision aids on quality of life. Interviews included a modified version of the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (Modified German NEI VFQ-25), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination Blind, and Indicators of the Rehabilitation…

  3. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... control of work hours and management of worker fatigue does not impede the ability to use available staff... Regulations (10 CFR) Part 26, Subpart I requires licensees to establish a policy for the management of fatigue..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)...

  4. Benefits of using enhanced air quality information in human health studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of four (4) enhancements of gridded PM2.5 concentrations derived from observations and air quality models to detect the relative risk of long-term exposure to PM2.5 are evaluated with a simulation study. The four enhancements include nearest-nei...

  5. Development of a Biomass Burning Emissions Inventory by Combining Satellite and Ground-based Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2005 biomass burning (wildfire, prescribed, and agricultural) emission inventory has been developed for the contiguous United States using a newly developed simplified method of combining information from multiple sources for use in the US EPA’s national Emission Inventory (NEI...

  6. Emissions Inventory of PM2.5 Trace Elements across the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the first National Emissions Inventory (NEI) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes the full suite of PM2.5 trace elements (atomic number >10) measured at ambient monitoring sites across the U.S. PM 2.5 emissions in ...

  7. Gradually Then Suddenly? Decline in Vision-Related Quality of Life as Glaucoma Worsens

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between self-reported vision-related quality of life (VRQL) and visual field (VF) loss in people from glaucoma clinics. Methods. A postal survey using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was administered to people with a range of VF loss identified from a UK hospital-based glaucoma service database. Trends were assessed in a composite score from NEI VFQ-25 against better-eye mean deviation (BEMD) using linear regression and a spline-fitting method that can highlight where a monotonic relationship may have different stages. Results. A total of 636 patients (median [interquartile range] BEMD −2.1 [−5.2, −0.4] dB, median age 70 [60, 77] years) were analysed. Analysis of trends in the data revealed an average patient loses approximately 2 units (out of 100) on NEI VFQ-25 for every loss of 1 dB (BEMD) as VF defects first become bilateral, up to BEMD −5 dB. NEI VFQ-25 deterioration then appears to slow before a more rapid phase of change (4–5 units per 1 dB loss) after BEMD worsens beyond −15 dB. Conclusions. Relationship between decline in VRQL and VF worsening in glaucoma is unlikely to be linear; it more likely has different phases, and these should be further explored in longitudinal studies. PMID:28469940

  8. Gradually Then Suddenly? Decline in Vision-Related Quality of Life as Glaucoma Worsens.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lee; Bryan, Susan R; Crabb, David P

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between self-reported vision-related quality of life (VRQL) and visual field (VF) loss in people from glaucoma clinics. Methods. A postal survey using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was administered to people with a range of VF loss identified from a UK hospital-based glaucoma service database. Trends were assessed in a composite score from NEI VFQ-25 against better-eye mean deviation (BEMD) using linear regression and a spline-fitting method that can highlight where a monotonic relationship may have different stages. Results. A total of 636 patients (median [interquartile range] BEMD -2.1 [-5.2, -0.4] dB, median age 70 [60, 77] years) were analysed. Analysis of trends in the data revealed an average patient loses approximately 2 units (out of 100) on NEI VFQ-25 for every loss of 1 dB (BEMD) as VF defects first become bilateral, up to BEMD -5 dB. NEI VFQ-25 deterioration then appears to slow before a more rapid phase of change (4-5 units per 1 dB loss) after BEMD worsens beyond -15 dB. Conclusions. Relationship between decline in VRQL and VF worsening in glaucoma is unlikely to be linear; it more likely has different phases, and these should be further explored in longitudinal studies.

  9. Development of a Biomass Burning Emissions Inventory by Combining Satellite and Ground-based Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2005 biomass burning (wildfire, prescribed, and agricultural) emission inventory has been developed for the contiguous United States using a newly developed simplified method of combining information from multiple sources for use in the US EPA’s national Emission Inventory (NEI...

  10. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  11. Supplementary Schooling and the Law of Unanticipated Consequences: A Review Essay of Stuart Schoenfeld's "Folk Judaism, Elite Judaism and the Role of Bar Mitzvah in the Development of the Synagogue and Jewish School in America"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Isa

    2010-01-01

    Stuart Schoenfeld's (1987) essay "Folk Judaism, Elite Judaism and the Role of Bar Mitzvah in the Development of the Synagogue and Jewish School in America" recounts how, in the 1930s and 40s, rabbis and Jewish educators banded together to impose attendance requirements on families that wanted to celebrate their sons' b'nei mitzvah in synagogues.…

  12. VISION: A School Program for Grades 4-8. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Eye Inst. (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This document is a curriculum supplement that is part of a nationwide public education program on the eye and marks the 25th anniversary of the National Eye Institute (NEI). The anatomy of the eye and imperfect eye problems are explained. This booklet provides three lesson plans: (1)The Eyes and the Great Brain Connection; (2) The Imperfect Eye;…

  13. The 2014 National Emission Inventory for Rangeland Fires ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One component of the biomass burning inventory, crop residue burning, has been poorly characterized in the National Emissions Inventory. In the 2011 NEI, Wildland fires, prescribed fires, and crop residue burning collectively were the largest source of PM2.5 This paper summarizes our 2014 NEI method to estimate crop residue burning emissions and grass/pasture burning emissions using remote sensing data and field information and literature-based, crop-specific emission factors. We will focus on both the post-harvest and pre-harvest burning that takes place with bluegrass, corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, sugarcane and wheat. Estimates for 2014 indicate that over the continental United States (CONUS), crop residue burning including all areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay produced 64,994 short tons of PM2.5. This estimate compares with the 2011 NEI and 2008 NEI as follows: 2008: 49,653 short tons and 2011: 141,184 short tons. Note that in the previous two NEI’s rangeland burning was not well-defined and so the comparison is not exact. In addition, the entire database used to estimate this sector of emissions is available on EPA’s Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors (CHIEF http://www3.epa.gov/ttn/chief/index.html The National Emissions Inventory is developed on

  14. Supplementary Schooling and the Law of Unanticipated Consequences: A Review Essay of Stuart Schoenfeld's "Folk Judaism, Elite Judaism and the Role of Bar Mitzvah in the Development of the Synagogue and Jewish School in America"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Isa

    2010-01-01

    Stuart Schoenfeld's (1987) essay "Folk Judaism, Elite Judaism and the Role of Bar Mitzvah in the Development of the Synagogue and Jewish School in America" recounts how, in the 1930s and 40s, rabbis and Jewish educators banded together to impose attendance requirements on families that wanted to celebrate their sons' b'nei mitzvah in synagogues.…

  15. 76 FR 20377 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving Proposed No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Exelon Cyber Security Plan, provides an Implementation Schedule, and adds a sentence to the existing... and maintain in effect all provisions of the approved Cyber Security Plan. This proposed amendment is intended to conform to the model application contained in NEI 08-09, Revision 6, ``Cyber Security Plan for...

  16. 76 FR 48908 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... amendment: The amendments approved the cyber security plan and associated implementation schedule, and... provisions of the NRC-approved Cyber Security Plan. The proposed change is consistent with Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 08-09, Revision 6, ``Cyber Security Plan for Nuclear Power Reactors.'' Date of issuance...

  17. Recruitment of College-Bound Youth through use of the ACT Assessment File

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    Zimmerman, Farr, and Jacobs (1981). Applications of cluster analysis to marketing research are discussed in Aaker (1971), Green and Carmone (1970), and Green...for effective recruitment. N 85 I NEI I Ii REFERENCES " Aaker , D. A. (1971). Multivariate analysls in marketing! Theory and application. Belmont, Calif

  18. Longitudinal Vision-Related Quality of Life for Patients with Noninfectious Uveitis Treated with Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant or Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sugar, Elizabeth A; Venugopal, Vidya; Thorne, Jennifer E; Frick, Kevin D; Holland, Gary N; Wang, Robert C; Almanzor, Robert; Jabs, Douglas A; Holbrook, Janet T

    2017-06-14

    To evaluate longitudinal vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) in patients with noninfectious uveitis. Cohort study using randomized controlled trial data. Patients with active or recently active intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, or panuveitis enrolled in the Multicenter Steroid Treatment Trial and Follow-up Study. Data from the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) for the first 3 years after randomization were evaluated semiannually. Analyses were stratified by assigned treatment (129 implants therapy vs. 126 systemic therapies) because of substantial differences in the trajectories of VRQoL. The impact of baseline measurements of visual function (visual acuity and visual field), demographics, and disease characteristics was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Primary outcome was the NEI-VFQ-25 composite score over 3 years after randomization. Individuals in both treatment groups showed similar improvement in NEI-VFQ-25 scores after 3 years of follow-up (implant: 11.9 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.6-15.2; P < 0.001; systemic: 9.0 points; 95% CI, 5.6-12.3; P < 0.001; P = 0.21 for interaction). Individuals in the implant group showed a substantial improvement during the first 6 months followed by stable scores, whereas individuals in the systemic group showed a steady improvement over the course of follow-up. Worse initial visual acuity and visual fields were associated with lower initial NEI-VFQ-25 scores for both treatment groups. In the systemic group, these differences were maintained throughout follow-up. In the implant group, individuals with initial visual acuity worse than 20/40 showed additional improvement in NEI-VFQ-25 score to come within -7 points (95% CI, -15.0 to 0.9) of those with visual acuity 20/40 or better initially, a clinically meaningful but not statistically significant difference (P = 0.081). Results based on sensitivity analyses showed similar patterns. Both

  19. The National Emissions Inventory Significantly Overestimates NOx Emissions: Analysis of CMAQ and in situ observations from DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Loughner, C.

    2013-12-01

    NOx and CO not only adversely impact human health, but they, along with associated VOCs, are also important precursors for O3 formation. While ambient NOx and CO concentrations have decreased dramatically over the past 10-20 years, O3 has remained a more recalcitrant problem, particularly in the Baltimore/Washington region. Reduction of O3 production requires that emissions inventories, such as the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), accurately capture total emissions of CO and NOx while also correctly apportioning them among different sectors. Previous evaluations of the NEI paint different pictures of its accuracy, with assertions that it overestimates either one or both of CO and NOx from anywhere between 25 percent to a factor of 2. These conflicting claims warrant further investigation. In this study, measurements of NOx and CO taken aboard the NOAA P3B airplane during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign were used to determine the NOx/CO emissions ratio at 6 locations in the Washington/Baltimore region. An average molar emissions ratio of 12.8 × 1.2 CO/NOx was found by calculating the change in CO over the change in NOx from vertical concentration profiles in the planetary boundary layer. Ratios showed little variation with location. Observed values were approximately a factor of 1.35 - 1.75 times greater than that predicted by the annual, countywide emissions ratio from the 2008 NEI. When compared to a temporalized, gridded version of the inventory processed by SMOKE, ratio observations were greater than that predicted by inventories by up to a factor of 2. Comparison of the in situ measurements and remotely sensed observations from MOPITT of CO to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model agree within 10-35 percent, with the model higher on average. Measurements of NOy by two separate analytical techniques, on the other hand, show that CMAQ consistently and significantly overestimates NOy concentrations. Combined with the CO observations, this

  20. Biological and clinical outcomes in the elderly with left ventricular dysfunction: Are there differences between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting?

    PubMed

    Concistrè, Giovanni; Dell'Aquila, Angelo Maria; Piccardo, Alessandro; Pansini, Stefano; Gargiulo, Raffaele; Gallo, Alina; Merlanti, Bruno; Passerone, Giancarlo; Regesta, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Il nostro studio ha lo scopo di confrontare gli eventi clinici ed i dati laboratoristici postoperatori di pazienti anziani coronaropatici con disfunzione ventricolare sinistra, sottoposti a rivascolarizzazione miocardica chirurgica eseguita con o senza ausilio della circolazione extracorporea. Studi recenti hanno evidenziato i vantaggi dell’intervento a cuore battente nei pazienti anziani, riportando una riduzione della morbidità postoperatoria e della disfunzione di organo. Tuttavia questi studi non analizzano l’impatto della disfunzione ventricolare sinistra sugli eventi postoperatori precoci e tardivi nei pazienti ad alto rischio. Abbiamo esaminato retrospettivamente 90 pazienti di età superiore ai 75 anni, con frazione di eiezione preoperatoria < 50%, sottoposti a bypass aortocoronarico, senza altre procedure cardiochirurgiche associate, tra Gennaio 2000 e Luglio 2009 presso il nostro Centro. I pazienti sono stati divisi in 2 gruppi: pazienti operati senza ausilio della circolazione extracorporea (a cuore battente) e pazienti operati con l’ausilio della circolazione extracorporea (a cuore fermo). Abbiamo confrontato I livelli sierici postoperatori degli enzimi CK, CK-MB e troponina T, indici di danno miocardico, e gli eventi cerebrovascolari. La mortalità intraospedaliera totale era del 2% (2 pazienti su 90) e simile in entrambi i gruppi (p=0.8336). I livelli medi di troponina T a 6, 24, 48 ore dopo l’intervento erano significativamente più bassi nei pazienti operati a cuore battente (p=0.0001; p=0.0021; p=0.0070). Non c’era una differenza statisticamente significativa nei 2 gruppi in termini di sopravvivenza (p=0.0764) e di eventi cerebrovascolari (p=0.3016) nell’immediato postoperatorio ed a 10 anni. I nostri risultati dunque mostrano che il non utilizzo della circolazione extracorporea nei pazienti ad alto rischio determinerebbe una più bassa incidenza di danno miocardico; tuttavia ciò sembra non influenzare a lungo termine la sopravvivenza

  1. Genetic markers in the study of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860): larval identification and genetic relationships with other species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, S; Paggi, L; Nascetti, G; Portes Santos, C; Costa, G; Di Beneditto, A P; Ramos, R; Argyrou, M; Cianchi, R; Bullini, L

    2002-03-01

    Genetic variation at 21 gene-enzyme systems was studied in a sample of an adult population of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860) recovered in the dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis from the Atlantic coast of Brazil. The characteristic alleles, detected in this population, made it possible to identify as A. typica, Anisakis larvae with a Type I morphology (sensu Berland, 1961) from various fishes: Thunnus thynnus and Auxis thazard from Brazil waters, Trachurus picturatus and Scomber japonicus from Madeiran waters, Scomberomorus commerson, Euthynnus affinis, Sarda orientalis and Coryphaena hippurus from the Somali coast of the Indian Ocean, and Merluccius merluccius from the Eastern Mediterranean. Characteristic allozymes are given for the identification, at any life-stage and in both sexes, of A. typica and the other Anisakis species so far studied genetically. The distribution of A. typica in warmer temperate and tropical waters is confirmed; the definitive hosts so far identified for this species belong to delphinids, phocoenids and pontoporids. The present findings represent the first established records of intermediate/paratenic hosts of A. typica and extend its range to Somali waters of the Indian Ocean and to the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. A remarkable genetic homogeneity was observed in larval and adult samples of A. typica despite their different geographical origin; interpopulation genetic distances were low, ranging from D(Nei)=0.004 (Eastern Mediterranean versus Somali) to D(Nei)=0.010 (Brazilian versus Somali). Accordingly, indirect estimates of gene flow gave a rather high average value of Nm = 6.00. Genetic divergence of A. typica was, on average, D(Nei)=1.12 from the members of the A. simplex complex (A. simplex s.s, A. pegreffii, A. simplex C) and D(Nei)=1.41 from A. ziphidarum, which all share Type I larvae; higher values were found from both A. physeteris (D(Nei)=2.77)

  2. Vision-related quality of life in patients with ocular chemical burns.

    PubMed

    Le, Qihua; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xin; Li, Yimin; Hong, Jiaxu; Xu, Jianjiang

    2011-11-21

    To assess vision-related quality of life in patients with ocular chemical burns by the application of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). Eighty-seven patients with ocular chemical burns were enrolled in the study from January 1 through May 31, 2010. Apart from the collection of sociodemographic and clinical data, NEI VFQ-25 with an additional appendix question, being translated to Chinese, was administered to all subjects. Main outcome measures were comparison of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores among subgroups and multivariate analysis of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale scores. Fifty-five subjects were bilaterally burned and the rest were unilaterally injured. The mean age of enrolled subjects was 39.4 ± 11.6 years, with the majority being male (98.9%) and worker (77.0%); the mean composite score of all subjects was 40.4 ± 23.8. The composite score and majority subscale scores of binocularly injured patients were significantly lower than those of monocularly injured patients. Further comparisons among groups divided by either clinical severity classification or best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) produced similar results. The BCVA of both the better-seeing eye and the worse-seeing eye strongly correlated with the NEI VFQ-25 composite score (ρ = 0.664 and 0.498, both P = 0.000). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the VFQ-25 composite score correlated significantly with the following independent variables: BCVA of the better-seeing eye and the worse-seeing eye, the injury classification of the less severely injured eye, and correct and immediate irrigation after injury as well. Ocular chemical burns have a significant and extensive impact on patients' visual function outcomes and vision-related quality of life.

  3. Evaluating Corneal Fluorescein Staining Using a Novel Automated Method.

    PubMed

    Amparo, Francisco; Wang, Haobing; Yin, Jia; Marmalidou, Anna; Dana, Reza

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate interobserver concordance in measured corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) using the National Eye Institute/Industry (NEI) grading scale and the Corneal Fluorescein Staining Index (CFSi), a computer-assisted, objective, centesimal scoring system. We conducted a study to evaluate CFS in clinical photographs of patients with corneal epitheliopathy. One group of clinicians graded CFS in the images using the NEI while a second group applied the CFSi. We evaluated the level of interobserver agreement and differences among CFS scores with each method, level of correlation between the two methods, and distribution of cases based on the CFS severity assigned by each method. The level of interobserver agreement was 0.65 (P < 0.001) with the NEI, and 0.99 (P < 0.001) with the CFSi. There were statistically significant differences among clinicians' measurements obtained with the NEI (P < 0.001), but not with the CFSi (P = 0.78). There was a statistically significant correlation between the CFS scores obtained with the two methods (R = 0.72; P < 0.001). The NEI scale allocated the majority of cases (65%) within the higher quartile in the scale's severity (12-15/15). In contrast, the CFSi allocated the majority of cases (61%) within the lower quartile in the scale's severity (0-25/100). The CFSi is easy to implement, provides higher interobserver consistency, and due to its continuous score can discriminate smaller differences in CFS. Reproducibility of the computer-based system is higher and, interestingly, the system allocates cases of epitheliopathy in different severity categories than clinicians do. The CFSi can be an alternative for objective CFS evaluation in the clinic and in clinical trials.

  4. Meningococco B: controllo di due focolai epidemici mediante vaccinazione

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Riassunto La problematica di un efficace approccio vaccinale nei confronti del Meningococco B (MenB) è stata superata identificando con la metodica della "reverse vaccinology" alcuni antigeni capaci di indurre una risposta verso la maggior parte dei ceppi di MenB circolanti nel mondo. Il nuovo vaccino MenB a 4 componenti (4CMenB) è stato autorizzato in Europa, Australia e Canada, ed è entrato nei calendari di immunizzazione pediatrica internazionali: Australia, Canada, UK. In Italia, le prime regioni che hanno raccomandato la vaccinazione contro il MenB sono state Basilicata e Puglia. La gestione di epidemie/focolai epidemici richiede la messa in atto di una risposta rapida da parte delle autorità sanitarie nei confronti di una emergenza sanitaria ad elevato impatto, anche emotivo, sulla popolazione, come recentemente dimostrato in due università americane. Alla dichiarazione di focolaio epidemico in atto, in entrambi i contesti si è attivata una procedura per l'uso del vaccino 4CMenB non ancora autorizzato negli USA. È stato così possibile organizzare gli interventi di profilassi attiva nei due campus universitari, adottando il primo impiego su larga scala del nuovo vaccino 4CMenB e conseguendo, in tempi relativamente brevi, elevati tassi di copertura vaccinale. A fronte di circa 14000 studenti immunizzati con almeno una dose, non è stata segnalata alcuna problematica di eventi avversi conseguenti all'immunizzazione; ad oggi non si sono verificati casi nei soggetti che hanno ricevuto il vaccino. Come conseguenza dei due focolai descritti, è oggi in corso la valutazione da parte dell'FDA per l'estensione dell'uso del vaccino 4CMenB negli Stati Uniti negli adolescenti e giovani adulti. PMID:25916017

  5. Impact of Age-related Macular Degeneration on Vision-Specific Quality of Life: Follow-Up from the 10-Year and 15-Year Visits of The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Anne L.; Yu, Fei; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.; Cauley, Jane A; Pedula, Kathryn L.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Mangione, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess vision-specific quality of life (QOL), based on abbreviated surveys derived from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ), in a cohort of US women who participated in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Design Prospective, observational cohort study Methods Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) status, based on a three level classification (no AMD, early AMD, late AMD), and vision-specific QOL, based on abbreviated NEI-VFQ surveys were calculated for 1,674 women enrolled in the SOF at 4 centers within the US, who had gradable fundus photographs at both the 10-year and 15-year follow-up visits. The associations among 5-year changes in NEI-VFQ composite scores, change in AMD status, and distance visual acuity were examined. Results Compared to study participants without AMD at both visits, study participants with late AMD at both visits and those that progressed from early AMD to late AMD demonstrated the greatest declines in adjusted NEI-VFQ composite scores, up to a mean decrease of 16.2 out of a scale of 100. Visual acuity declines were also most prominent for patients with late AMD at both visits and for those that progressed from early AMD to late AMD. Change in visual acuity was found to correlate significantly with change in vision-specific QOL. Conclusions The abbreviated NEI-VFQ surveys provide reliable assessments of vision-specific QOL in AMD patients. The decline in vision-specific QOL associated with the progression of AMD is clinically meaningful. PMID:20691423

  6. [Levels of trace elements in the fruits and vegetables from the so-called Land of fires in Campania Region (Southern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Cavallo, Stefania; Rosato, Guido; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Miedico, Oto; Pellicanò, Roberta; Soprano, Vittorio; Baldi, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUZIONE: una vasta area compresa tra le province di Napoli e Caserta nella regione Campania ha negli ultimi anni attirato l'attenzione dei mass media a causa degli interramenti illeciti di rifiuti di varia origine nei campi o del loro abbandono lungo le strade. A tali pratiche illecite si aggiunge il fenomeno dei roghi incontrollati di questo materiale, motivo per il quale la zona è stata soprannominata "Terra dei fuochi". OBIETTIVI: ricerca di elementi in tracce presenti nei prodotti alimentari di origine vegetale prodotti nella Terra dei fuochi. DISEGNO E SETTING: piano di monitoraggio per il rilevamento dei livelli di alcuni metalli tossici ed essenziali nei vegetali coltivati in Campania nella Terra dei fuochi. La determinazione dei microelementi è stata effettuata dopo mineralizzazione della sostanza organica mediante microonde, utilizzando la spettrometria di massa a plasma induttivamente accoppiato (ICP-MS). RISULTATI: durante l'attività di monitoraggio sono stati raccolti 65 campioni di ortaggi e 49 campioni di frutta in 43 comuni rientranti nella Terra dei fuochi. Il contenuto medio di metalli tossici, cadmio e piombo nei prodotti ortofrutticoli è risultato ben lontano dai limiti massimi fissati dalla normativa europea. I valori delle concentrazioni sono significativamente inferiori rispetto a quanto riscontrato in zone ad alto impatto ambientale a causa della presenza di impianti industriali. CONCLUSIONI: la presenza di elementi tossici o potenzialmente tali nei campioni vegetali prodotti nella Terra dei fuochi è attribuibile a una varietà di fattori ambientali rilevanti (caratteristiche geologiche dell'area, inquinamento del suolo, dell'atmosfera e delle acque di irrigazione, pratiche illecite di smaltimento dei rifiuti industriali); non sembra, tuttavia, sussistere un rischio per la salute dei consumatori. Resta comunque l'allerta per la loro presenza nell'ambiente e la necessità che le attività di monitoraggio continuino.

  7. [Attenzione per i dettagli in genitori di nazionalità italiana di donne affette da anoressia nervosa: uno studio comparativo].

    PubMed

    Chinello, Alessandro; Zappa, Luigi; Pastori, Miriam; Crocamo, Cristina; Ricciardelli, Paola; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. È noto come l'anoressia nervosa (AN) e il disturbo dello spetto autistico (ASD) condividano alcuni tratti, come la rigidità mentale e l'attenzione per i dettagli, che potrebbero essere diffusi a livello familiare. Questo studio ha lo scopo di confrontare la distribuzione di tratti autistici in genitori con figlie affette da disturbo alimentare ED (anoressia - AN o bulimia nervosa - BN) con genitori appartenenti a un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Sono stati coinvolti 40 genitori con figlie affette da disturbo alimentare (60% con anoressia, 40% con bulimia nervosa) e 33 genitori di controllo. Tutti i genitori hanno compilato questionari specifici riguardanti il quoziente di spettro autistico (AQ) e le stime cognitive (CET). Inoltre, sono stati somministrati EAT-26 e SCL-90-R al fine di escludere la presenza di disturbi psichiatrici o alimentari nel gruppo sperimentale. Risultati. Le analisi su AQ mostrano una differenza tra i due gruppi per un tratto autistico specifico, evidenziando una riduzione significativa dell'attenzione per i dettagli nel gruppo sperimentale (ED), in particolare nei genitori di figlie affette da AN. Discussione. Questi dati suggeriscono una preferenza per un'elaborazione globale delle informazioni nei genitori AN in contrasto a quanto trovato in pazienti con AN. La presenza di aspetti depressivi, ansiosi e di disturbi alimentari è stata esclusa nei genitori nel gruppo sperimentale tramite SCL-90-R e EAT-26. Infine, la capacità di prendere decisioni, misurata dal CET, è stata esclusa dalle nostre analisi. Conclusione. Nei genitori con figlie affette da AN emerge una peculiare preferenza per un'elaborazione cognitiva globale, suggerendo il ruolo dell'attenzione per i dettagli come nuovo fattore da considerare nelle valutazione cliniche di pazienti con AN e nei loro familiari. Considerando i limiti dello studio, ulteriori approfondimenti in merito sono necessari.

  8. Measured and modeled CO and NOy in DISCOVER-AQ: An evaluation of emissions and chemistry over the eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Daniel C.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Diskin, Glenn; Weinheimer, Andrew; Canty, Timothy P.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Worden, Helen M.; Fried, Alan; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-10-01

    Data collected during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in the Baltimore Washington region were used to evaluate CO and NOx emissions in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The average emissions ratio for the region was seen to be 11.2 ± 1.2 mol CO/mol NOx, 21% higher than that predicted by the NEI. Comparisons between in situ and remote observations and CMAQ model output show agreement in CO emissions of 15 ± 11% while NOx emissions are overestimated by 51-70% in Maryland. Satellite observations of CO by MOPITT show agreement with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model within 3% over most of the eastern United States. CMAQ NOy mixing ratios were a factor of two higher than observations and result from a combination of errors in emissions and PAN and alkyl nitrate chemistry, as shown by comparison of three CMAQ model runs. Point source NOx emissions are monitored and agree with modeled emissions within 1% on a monthly basis. Because of this accuracy and the NEI assertion that approximately 3/4 of emissions in the Baltimore Washington region are from mobile sources, the MOVES model's treatment of emissions from aging vehicles should be investigated; the NEI overestimate of NOx emissions could indicate that engines produce less NOx and catalytic converters degrade more slowly than assumed by MOVES2010. The recently released 2011 NEI has an even lower CO/NOx emissions ratio than the projection used in this study; it overestimates NOx emissions by an even larger margin. The implications of these findings for US air quality policy are that NOx concentrations near areas of heavy traffic are overestimated and ozone production rates in these locations are slower than models indicate. Results also indicate that ambient ozone concentrations will respond more efficiently to NOx emissions controls but additional sources may need to be targeted for reductions.

  9. Hemostatic markers and platelet aggregation factors as predictive markers for type of stroke and neurological disability following cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Tombul, Temel; Atbas, Cigdem; Anlar, Omer

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the plasma levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, beta-thromboglobulin (BTG) and platelet factor-4 (PF-4), indices of the occurrence of platelet activation in vivo, to find out their role in pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and whether or not such a role has any effect on the disability and the prognosis of stroke patients. A total of 76 patients with AIS aged from 26 to 85 (32 men, 44 women) and 30 cases as controls with similar age (18 men, 12 women) were included in the study. The plasma levels of D-dimer, BTG and PF-4 were measured by ELISA method using a special commercial kit. The cases were allocated into two groups as non-embolic (NEI) and cardioembolic stroke (CEI). The D-dimer levels in 76% of 42 patients in NEI group (p<0.05) and 85.2% of 34 patients in CEI group (p<0.05) were outside the confidence interval (CI) defined for the control group. The levels of BTG were elevated in 81% of 42 cases with NEI (p<0.05) and in 76% of 34 cases with CEI, with reference to CI of control group. The levels of PF-4 were significantly increased in 86% of cases with NEI (p<0.05) and in 88% of cases with CEI than controls (p<0.05). It was observed that the cases with high Rankin scores had higher levels of D-dimer (p<0.005), BTG (p<0.01) and PF-4 (p<0.01) than those with lower scores. There was a correlation between hemostatic markers, platelet activation and functional disability. D-dimer levels were an important marker that determined to degree of the activation of hemostatic system, especially in CEI subtype. The platelet aggregation had an important role in pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and this condition is significant in NEI subgroup and subjects with large infarcts and high disability scores.

  10. Evaluation of surgery risk factor associated to antithrombotic therapy in patients who underwent colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Paolo; Sozzi, Francesco; Bertocchi, Elisa; Dell'Abate, Paolo; Perrone, Gennaro; Arcuri, Maria Francesca; Sianesi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    I trattamenti antipiastrinici sono comuni nel mondo occidentale ed il rischio di sanguinamento correlato a procedure chirurgiche o comunque invasive è di conseguenza elevato e pertanto abbiamo volute analizzare la correlazione tra la chirurgia del colon.retto ,la terapia antipiastrinica e le complicanze chirurgiche postoperatorie. Sono stati studiati 176 pazienti operati per tumori del colon-retto considerando i seguenti dati:tipo di intervento xchirurgico,l’indice di massa corporea (BMI), il valore dell’emoglobina (Hb); PT preoperatorio e le trasfusioni di sangue pre epost-operatorie e durante lo stesso intervento chirurgico. L’analisi si è concentrata su due gruppi :pazienti sottoposti a trattamento antipiastrinico (ATterapia antiaggregante) e pazienti non trattati ( NAT: non terapia antiaggregante piastrinica). Nei gruppi di pazienti sottoposti a emicolectomia destra, i valori di emoglobina erano più bassi neri pazienti che hanno ricevuto la terapia antitrombotica rispetto ai pazienti che non hanno ricevuto questa terapia, con una significatività statistica (p <0,05); dati analoghi sono stati osservati nei pazienti sottoposti a emicolectomia sinistra. I pazienti dipeso normale trattati con terapia antiaggregante avevano valori più bassi di emoglobina senza significatività statistica (valore di p non significativo). I pazienti in sovrappeso sottoposti a trattamento antiaggregante hanno presentato valori di Hb inferiori a quelli non trattati (p < 0,05). La percentuale di emotrasfusioneè risultata maggiore nei pazienti sottoposti a trattamento antiaggregante (AT) a prescindere dal tipo di interveno chirurgico rispetto al secondo gruppo con significatività statistica. Tra i pazienti normopeso si è registrata una diversa incidenza di trasfusione di sangue nei pazienti trattati con AT (50%) e quelli non trattati (29%) con un significato statistico (p <0,05), mentre i pazienti in sovrappeso non hanno presenato questa significativa differenza. È stata

  11. First International Conference between West and East-Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Flavio

    2008-03-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D'Oriente(Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi 'Tao and Science' will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com.

  12. Electrophoretic enzyme analysis of North American and eastern Asian populations of Agastache sect. Agastache (Labiatae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.

  13. [Deliberation on the pronunciation and meaning of Miu Ci].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Hong; Zhang, Chao

    2011-07-01

    As one of the acupuncture approaches mentioned in the Nei Jing, Miu Ci has been widely used in clinical practice, but diverse opinions on Miu's pronunciation and meaning limit its application. Ancient and modern literature has shown that the meanings of 'Miu' include 'difference', 'wrong' and 'cross', and it has mainly two different pronunciations, i.e. 'miü' and 'jiü'. However, 'Miu' always means 'difference' in the Nei Jing, e.g. 'Miu Chu', 'Miu Ci', 'Qi Miu', and in this case, its pronunciation should be 'miü'. Scholars such as YANG Shang-shan, WANG Bing, MA Shi, ZHANG Jie-bin and DANBO YuanJian all held this point of view. We can see that there was no disagreement over Miu's pronunciation and meaning in ancient times. It is a controversy generated in modern times. Therefore, the original written form and pronunciation of 'Miu' should be highly valued.

  14. Molecular phylogenetic trees - On the validity of the Goodman-Moore augmentation algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1979-01-01

    A response is made to the reply of Nei and Tateno (1979) to the letter of Holmquist (1978) supporting the validity of the augmentation algorithm of Moore (1977) in reconstructions of nucleotide substitutions by means of the maximum parsimony principle. It is argued that the overestimation of the augmented numbers of nucleotide substitutions (augmented distances) found by Tateno and Nei (1978) is due to an unrepresentative data sample and that it is only necessary that evolution be stochastically uniform in different regions of the phylogenetic network for the augmentation method to be useful. The importance of the average value of the true distance over all links is explained, and the relative variances of the true and augmented distances are calculated to be almost identical. The effects of topological changes in the phylogenetic tree on the augmented distance and the question of the correctness of ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony are also clarified.

  15. Biochemical-genetic comparison of Cobitis simplicispina from Turkey, and C. taenia, C. albicoloris and C. elongata from Bulgarian freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Petya; Erk'akan, Füsun; Ozeren, S Cevher; Dobrovolov, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Taxonomic investigations of 4 species of the genus Cobitis: C. simplicispina Hanko 1925, C. taenia Linnaeus 1758, C. albicoloris Chichkoff, 1932 (= C. peshevi Sivkov & Dobrovolov, 1984) and C. elongata (Heckel & Kner 1858) from Turkey and Bulgarian freshwaters were carried out using biochemical-genetic methods. The analyses of one general muscle protein (PROT) and six enzyme systems including esterase (EST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), malic enzyme (MEP), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) revealed electrophoretic differences between the species examined. Fractions controlled by the LDH-B locus of C. simplicispina gave completely different electrophoretic mobility from those of the other Cobitis species. Nei's genetic distance (D(Nei)) between C. simplicispina and C. albicoloris, C. taenia and C. elongata was estimated as 1.39, 1.16 and 1.27, respectively. C. simplicispina might have diverged from the other three species 5.8 - 6.95 million years ago.

  16. First International Conference between West and East—Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D’Oriente (Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi ‘Tao and Science’ will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com PMID:18317548

  17. Molecular phylogenetic trees - On the validity of the Goodman-Moore augmentation algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1979-01-01

    A response is made to the reply of Nei and Tateno (1979) to the letter of Holmquist (1978) supporting the validity of the augmentation algorithm of Moore (1977) in reconstructions of nucleotide substitutions by means of the maximum parsimony principle. It is argued that the overestimation of the augmented numbers of nucleotide substitutions (augmented distances) found by Tateno and Nei (1978) is due to an unrepresentative data sample and that it is only necessary that evolution be stochastically uniform in different regions of the phylogenetic network for the augmentation method to be useful. The importance of the average value of the true distance over all links is explained, and the relative variances of the true and augmented distances are calculated to be almost identical. The effects of topological changes in the phylogenetic tree on the augmented distance and the question of the correctness of ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony are also clarified.

  18. Genetic diversity in populations of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua).

    PubMed

    Dranitsina, A S; Telegeev, G D; Maliuta, S S; Bezrukov, V F

    2006-01-01

    RAPD analysis was used to examine the extent of genetic polymorphism in two populations of Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) from Antarctic Islands (Petermann and Livingston). The chosen two of three 10 mer oligonucleotide primers accordingly to preliminary results showed different levels of polymorphism in Gentoo penguins at Petermann Island (from 23.53 to 42.86%) and Livingston Island (from 52.94 to 57.14%). Nei's similarity coefficients were in range from 0.5606 (when Gentoo genome profiles were compared with RAPD profiles of two related penguin species: Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie) and Pygoscelis antarctica (Chinstrep)) to 0.9281 among observed Gentoo penguin populations. Nei's distances values ranged from 0.0746 to 0.5787 among the populations and species. The obtained results will be used for further estimation of genetic diversity of Gentoo penguins and determination of their taxonomic status.

  19. Nursing diagnoses and theoretical frameworks in neonatal units: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Di Sarra, Luca; D'Agostino, Fabio; Cocchieri, Antonello; Vellone, Ercole; Zega, Maurizio; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Obiettivo: Identificare le diagnosi infermieristiche ed i quadri teorici utilizzati nelle unità neonatali attraverso una revisione della letteratura. Metodo: Per effettuare questo studio sono stati usati database come Cinahl, Medline e Lilacs. I descrittori usati sono: "Diagnosi infermieristica" AND "Modelli, Infermieristici" OR "Teoria infermieristica" AND "Infante" OR "Neonato". La ricerca era limitata agli arti- coli pubblicati dal 2000 al novembre 2013. Venivano selezionati soltanto gli studi scritti in inglese, spagnolo, portoghese e italiano. Risultati: Nella revisione della letteratura sono state identificate due tassonomie e sei impor- tanti quadri teorici. Le diagnosi infermieristiche più frequentemente individuate sono: intol- leranza alle attività, ridotta ventilazione spontanea, modello di respirazione inefficace, rischio di aspirazione, ritardo nella crescita e nello sviluppo, allattamento al seno inefficace, modello di alimentazione infantile inefficace, ipertermia/ipotermia, rischio di infezione, alterazione dell’integrità cutanea, interruzione dei processi familiari, rischio di compromissione della genitorialità, rischio di riduzione dell’attaccamento. Sono state identificate diagnosi appli- cabili alla sfera psico-sociale genitoriale che consentivano una valutazione integrale del neonato, compresa la famiglia. Conclusioni: Le diagnosi infermieristiche consentono agli infermieri che lavorano nelle unità neonatali l’opportunità di gestire efficacemente il processo assistenziale, nonché la disponibilità dei dati necessari per il continuo miglioramento della qualità nella cura infer- mieristica. L'utilizzo di un unico modello o di più modelli di riferimento costituisce un modo per aiutare l'agire professionale.

  20. Intermittent pneumatic compression in laparoscopic surgery for prevention of deep vein thrombosis and cellular damage from iatrogenic compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sederino, Maria Grazia; Casamassima, Giulia; Laforgia, Rita; Balducci, Giovanni; Carbotta, Giuseppe; Tromba, Antonella

    In chirurgia laparoscopica l’induzione del pneumoperitoneo (PNP) realizza una sindrome compartimentale iatrogena con ripercussioni sul circolo venoso profondo degli arti inferiori. In questo studio abbiamo voluto valutare l’incidenza di Trombosi Venosa Profonda (TVP) postoperatoria e del danno cellulare da sindrome compartimentale iatrogena analizzando due gruppi di pazienti, ad uno dei quali è stato applicato un dispositivo Sequential Compression Device (SCD). I pazienti selezionati sono stati suddivisi in due gruppi e sono stati sottoposti a chirurgia laparoscopica con durata non inferiore a 90’. È stato rilevato con metodo ECOCOLOR-DOPPLER il flusso venoso degli arti inferiori e soltanto ad uno dei due gruppi è stato applicato un dispositivo SCD. Da novembre 2006 a ottobre 2007 sono stati valutati 35 pz, 21 pz con dispositivo SCD e 14 pz utilizzati come gruppo controllo, con follow-up a 7 gg, 14 gg, 30 gg, a 3 e 5 anni. L’utilizzo di un dispositivo SCD applicato agli arti inferiori consente un aumento del ritorno venoso dagli arti inferiori diminuendone il rischio di TVP.

  1. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari.

  2. Appendix stump closure with endoloop in laparoscopic appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Caglià, Pietro; Tracia, Angelo; Spataro, Daniele; Borzì, Laura; Lucifora, Bibiana; Tracia, Luciano; Amodeo, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    L’appendicite acuta rappresenta la più comune patologia infiammatoria della cavità adddominale. Mc Burney ne ha per primo descritto il trattamento chirurgico utilizzando la classica incisione nel quadrante addominale inferiore destro. Tale approccio è stato considerato il trattamento standard della patologia appendicolare per più di un secolo, fino all’inizio dell’era video laparoscopica. I rapidi cambiamenti tecnici e gli innegabili vantaggi della procedura videolaparoscopica ha portato ad una ampia diffusione della metodica in ambito clinico. La chiusura del moncone appendicolare, durante l’appendicectomia video laparoscopica, rappresenta uno degli aspetti tecnici fondamentali della procedura per le gravi potenziali complicanze che possono derivare da un suo non appropriato trattamento. Gravi complicanze sono infatti rappresentate da deiscenza, fistole stercoracee e peritonite. La chiusura con endostapler, hem-o-look e legatura intracorporea rappresentano le metodiche più comunemente utilizzate. Tutte le alternative descritte presentano vantaggi e svantaggi e vanno rapportate ai diversi stadi clinici della patologia appendicolare. Va inoltre notato che le differenti metodiche di trattamento del moncone appendicolare non sono state testate in studi randomizzati. In base alla nostra esperienza si può affermare che il trattamento del moncone appendicolare con endoloop può essere utilizzato con sicurezza e dovrebbe essere considerata la metodica di scelta anche in relazione al rapporto costo-beneficio. Metodi alternativi di chiusura del moncone appendicolare andrebbero utilizzati in caso di appendicite flemmonosa o gangrenosa, ascesso peritiflitico e/o contemporaneo trattamento di diverticolo di Meckel.

  3. Functional visual improvement after cataract surgery in eyes with age-related macular degeneration; Results of the Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data (OSOD) Project.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michael V; Vollman, David E; Baze, Elizabeth F; Chomsky, Amy S; Daly, Mary K; Lawrence, Mary

    2015-03-03

    Purpose: To determine if cataract surgery on eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) confers as much functional visual improvement as on eyes without retinal pathology. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 4,924 cataract surgeries from the VA Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project. We included cases of eyes with AMD which had both preoperative and postoperative NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaires submitted and compared their outcomes to controls without retinal pathology. We excluded patients with other retinal pathologies. The analyses compared changes in visual acuity and overall functional visual improvement and its subscales. Results: Preoperative and postoperative questionnaires were submitted by 58.3% of AMD and 63.8% of controls. Analysis of overall score showed that cataract surgery on eyes with AMD led to increased visual function (13.8± 2.4 NEI-VFQ units, P<0.0001); however, increases were significantly less when compared to controls (-6.4± 2.9 NEI-VFQ units, P<0.0001). Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (preBCVA) in AMD was predictive of postoperative visual function (r=-0.38, P<0.0001). In controls, postoperative visual function was only weakly associated with preBCVA (r=-0.075, P=0.0002). AMD patients with vision of 20/40 or better had overall outcomes similar to controls (-2.2± 4.7 NEI-VFQ units, P=0.37). Conclusions: Cataract surgery on eyes with AMD offers an increase in functional visual improvement; however, the amount of benefit is associated with the eye's preBCVA. For eyes with preBCVA ≥20/40, the improvement is similar to that of patients without retinal pathology. However, if preBCVA is <20/40, the amount of improvement was shown to be significantly less and decreased with decreasing preBCVA. Copyright © 2015 by Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.

  4. Religious Support to Corps Nondivisional Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    battalions, group headquarters, dental , and combat stress control elements) remain largely unfulfilled with- out a MT assigned at group level. Hospital...a. The battlefield medical support system provides medical, dental , and veterinary services. The modular design support system under Medical Force...assigned (04, E-6, 03, E- 4); an area support battalion and an evacuation battalion, nei- ther of which has an assigned MT; and a dental company whose parent

  5. Neuroimmunology and inflammation: implications for therapy of allergic and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Frieri, Marianne

    2003-06-01

    To review concepts of neuroendocrinoimmunology and provide an overview of the role of immune dysregulation, stress, and the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of allergic and autoimmune diseases. Articles include original research papers, review articles, and references identified from the bibliographies of pertinent articles. Neuroendocrine hormones triggered during stress may lead to immune dysregulation or altered or amplified cytokine production, resulting in atopic, autoimmune diseases or decreased host defense. Various types of transmitter substances of the neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) network include epinephrine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glucagon, insulin, cytokines, growth factors, and numerous other mediators. The stress response and induction of a dysregulation of cytokine balance can trigger the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system. Disorders in which abnormalities in immune function are mediated by the NEI network include allergic diseases: allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and gastro-intestinal allergies and asthma through overproduction of neuropeptides and cytokines. The multiple roles of Th2 cells in maintaining allergic inflammation and altering the balance between Th1 and Th2 responses are important mechanisms for allergic inflammation and tissue damage. In addition, several autoimmune diseases mediated by NEI network such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and diabetes mellitus can be attributable to immune dysregulation. Understanding the NEI network will contribute to novel treatments for immediate and late allergic reactions. Chronic stress or depression could lead to decreased host defenses, decreased response to vaccines, viral susceptibility, or malignancy. Treatment of allergic, autoimmune diseases and asthma should include stress management and behavioral intervention to prevent stress-related immune imbalances.

  6. Users Get Routed: Traffic Correlation on Tor by Realistic Adversaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    reached, the relay will hibernate until the end of the 30 days. Hibernating relays will nei- ther participate in building new circuits nor transfer...descriptors, which TorPS uses to determine relay status over time, including flags, exit policies, hibernation state, and other parameters. Relays...client software for creating exit circuits, taking into account features significant to path selection, such as: bandwidth weighting; relay hibernation

  7. Simulation of Blast Loading on an Ultrastructurally-based Computational Model of the Ocular Lens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    mature and ever-improving surgical technology and procedures. Figure 1. Eye cross-section. www.nei.nih.gov. The hypothesis of the research is that an...traumatic cataract is formed in the combat soldier, and in turn improve our understanding of traumatic cataract in civilians whose eyes are subjected to...developing finite element models that can be used to simulate experimental test conditions, as well as physiologically -accurate loading conditions during

  8. History of the Biak Operation, 15-27 June 1944

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-01-01

    from the HOLLANDIA Area, some 150 repatriated Javanese soldiers had been interrogated concerning Japanese occupation of BIAK and surrounding Islandso...This type of interrogation was continued at BIAK of approximately 40 Javanese soldiers. e. Interrogations: For the purpose of expediting interrogation of...natives and Javanese , three teams were formed with a NEI (CIC) agent and one UoS. Army CIC agent on each team. G-2 liaison enabled interrogators to

  9. Historical Analysis of Population Reactions to Stimuli - Case Studies of Papua and Papua New Guinea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Irian and the associated tensions with Indonesia over the issue of refugees and border incursions. From 1990 to 1993 there was a breakdown in law and...independent Indonesia , at the 1949 United Nations (UN) Round table agreements all NEI territory in the region except for WNG was handed to the new... Indonesia . WNG was to remain a Dutch colony. In the same year the Constitution of the Government of Netherlands New Guinea was established. In the

  10. Improving textual medication extraction using combined conditional random fields and rule-based systems.

    PubMed

    Tikk, Domonkos; Solt, Illés

    2010-01-01

    In the i2b2 Medication Extraction Challenge, medication names together with details of their administration were to be extracted from medical discharge summaries. The task of the challenge was decomposed into three pipelined components: named entity identification, context-aware filtering and relation extraction. For named entity identification, first a rule-based (RB) method that was used in our overall fifth place-ranked solution at the challenge was investigated. Second, a conditional random fields (CRF) approach is presented for named entity identification (NEI) developed after the completion of the challenge. The CRF models are trained on the 17 ground truth documents, the output of the rule-based NEI component on all documents, a larger but potentially inaccurate training dataset. For both NEI approaches their effect on relation extraction performance was investigated. The filtering and relation extraction components are both rule-based. In addition to the official entry level evaluation of the challenge, entity level analysis is also provided. On the test data an entry level F(1)-score of 80% was achieved for exact matching and 81% for inexact matching with the RB-NEI component. The CRF produces a significantly weaker result, but CRF outperforms the rule-based model with 81% exact and 82% inexact F(1)-score (p<0.02). This study shows that a simple rule-based method is on a par with more complicated machine learners; CRF models can benefit from the addition of the potentially inaccurate training data, when only very few training documents are available. Such training data could be generated using the outputs of rule-based methods.

  11. Psychometric Characteristics of a Patient Reported Outcome Measure on Ego-Integrity and Despair among Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Kleijn, Gitta; Post, Lenneke; Witte, Birgit I; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Westerhof, Gerben J; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire (the Northwestern Ego-integrity Scale (NEIS)) on ego-integrity (the experience of wholeness and meaning in life, even in spite of negative experiences) and despair (the experience of regret about the life one has led, and feelings of sadness, failure and hopelessness) among cancer patients. Cancer patients (n = 164) completed patient reported outcome measures on ego-integrity and despair (NEIS), psychological distress, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), and quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 (cancer survivors, n = 57) or EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (advanced cancer patients, n = 107)). Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to assess construct validity. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Convergent validity was tested based on a priori defined hypotheses: a higher level of ego-integrity was expected to be related to a higher level of quality of life, and lower levels of distress, depression and anxiety; a higher level of despair was expected to be related to a lower level of quality of life, and higher levels of distress, depression and anxiety. The majority of all items (94.5%) of the NEIS were completed by patients and single item missing rate was below 2%. The two subscales, labeled as Ego-integrity (5 items) and Despair (4 items) had acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha .72 and .61, respectively). The Ego-integrity subscale was not significantly associated with quality of life, distress, anxiety, or depression. The Despair subscale correlated significantly (p <.001) with quality of life (r = -.29), distress (r = .44), anxiety (r = .47) and depression (r = .32). The NEIS has good psychometric characteristics to assess ego-integrity and despair among cancer patients.

  12. Observations of T-Phase Arrivals at Pt Sur and Wake Island.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-15

    Earthquake Information Service (NEIS). We used only events with location accuracies labelled A(good) or B (fair). In order to quantify signal strength...PO BOX 999, MS K6-40 PO BOX 808, MS L-205 RICHLAND, WA 99352 LIVERMORE, CA 94551 DAVID B . HARRIS TERRI HAUK LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY...LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY PO BOX 808, MS L-205 PO BOX 808, MS L-205 LIVERMORE, CA 94551 LIVERMORE, CA 94551 PRESTON B . HERRINGTON LARRY

  13. Visual impairment, visual functioning, and quality of life assessments in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determine the relation between visual impairment, visual functioning, and the global quality of life in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: Visual impairment, defined with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment; visual functioning, measured with the VF-14 and the Field Test Version of the National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); and the global quality of life, assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), were determined in 147 consecutive patients with glaucoma. RESULTS: None of the SF-36 domains demonstrated more than a weak correlation with visual impairment. The VF-14 scores were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual field impairment; vision specific social functioning, near activities, vision specific role difficulties, general vision, vision specific mental health, color vision, and driving were modestly correlated; visual pain was weakly correlated; and two were not significantly correlated. Correcting for visual actuity weakened the strength of the correlation coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36 is unlikely to be useful in determining visual impairment in patients with glaucoma. Based on the moderate correlation between visual field impairment and the VF-14 score, this questionnaire may be generalizable to patients with glaucoma. Several of the NEI-VFQ scales correlate with visual field impairment scores in patients with a wide range of glaucomatous damage. PMID:8981717

  14. Our Theme for 2016: Sustaining Momentum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    the enforcement of caps by the acquisition chain and the requirements chain are having a beneficial impact. The use of long-term capital planning...that leaves some margin; they are nei- ther cost positions nor program baselines, nor budgets. They are tools to ensure meaningful long-term capital ...Carter in this endeavor. Our Director of the Human Capital Initiative for acquisition personnel, Rene Thomas-Rizzo, has worked hard with the Under

  15. Non-Invasive Cell-Based Therapy for Traumatic Optic Neuropathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Functional Changes in an Animal Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa . Vis Neurosci, 2013: 1-13. Bin Lu, Catherine W. Morgans, Sergey Girman, Jing Luo, Jiagang...human retinal progenitor cells for treatment of retinitis pigmentosa 2013, ARVO, A0106. Benjamin Bakondi; YuChun Tsai; Bin Lu; Sergey...degeneration. Pending NEI (R24) Wang (PI) Preclinical program for Treating Retinitis Pigmentosa by Neural Progenitor Cells   18

  16. ARC-1969-AC85-0978-2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-12-23

    QSRA (NASA 715) 400TH FLIGHT PARTICIPANTS. L-R: front row: Jim Ahlman, Bob Innis, Del Watson, Jim Lesko, Lee Mountz, Mike Herschel, Tom Kaisersatt, Jack Stephenson, Back row: Dennis Riddle, Neis Watz, Jack Franklin, Gordon Hardy, Bob Hinds, Charlie Hynes, Richard Young, Jim Martin, Joe Eppel, John White, Bob America, Hien Tran, Bill Bjorkman. Note: Used in publication in Flight Research at Ames; 57 Years of Development and Validation of Aeronautical Technology NASA SP-1998-3300 fig. 112

  17. Evaluation of vision-specific quality-of-life in albinism.

    PubMed

    Kutzbach, Beth R; Merrill, Kimberly S; Hogue, Kathy M; Downes, Sara J; Holleschau, Ann M; MacDonald, John T; Summers, C Gail

    2009-04-01

    Human albinism is a genetic condition associated with visual impairment that affects many aspects of daily life. Office measurements of visual acuity do not necessarily reflect daily visual function and health status. This study used the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) to determine the effect of albinism-associated ophthalmopathy on quality of life (QOL). We administered the NEI-VFQ, which consists of 25 questions about QOL (VFQ-25) and 14 questions about well-being (VFQ-39), to 44 consenting participants with albinism older than the age of 18 years. Nineteen male and 25 female subjects completed the study. Median age was 30.5 years (range, 18-79 years). Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 20/83 (range, 20/20 to 20/320). Forty-eight percent reported that they were currently able to drive with their condition. Participants perceived midscale problems with their general vision (median subscale score 60.0). Visual acuity correlated moderately with overall NEI-VFQ composite scores (r(s) = 0.40, p = 0.01 for VFQ-25 and r(s) = 0.36, p = 0.02 for VFQ-39). Most notable impairment was recorded for distance acuity, vision-specific mental health, and vision-specific role difficulties (VFQ-39 median subscale scores 66.7, 70.0, and 75.0, respectively). Differences by sex were insignificant. Greater ceiling effects were noted for the VFQ-25 than for the VFQ-39. The NEI-VFQ-39 is a method to evaluate self-reported effects of vision-related QOL in albinism and may be used as a baseline for evaluating outcomes in interventional studies in these patients.

  18. Airborne measurements of the atmospheric emissions from a fuel ethanol refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; McKeen, S. A.; Aikin, K. C.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Hanisco, T.; Holloway, J. S.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Lerner, B. M.; Liao, J.; Markovic, M. Z.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Min, K.-E.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Welti, A.; Wolfe, G. M.

    2015-05-01

    Ethanol made from corn now constitutes approximately 10% of the fuel used in gasoline vehicles in the U.S. The ethanol is produced in over 200 fuel ethanol refineries across the nation. We report airborne measurements downwind from Decatur, Illinois, where the third largest fuel ethanol refinery in the U.S. is located. Estimated emissions are compared with the total point source emissions in Decatur according to the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI-2011), in which the fuel ethanol refinery represents 68.0% of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 50.5% of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), 67.2% of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 95.9% of ethanol emissions. Emissions of SO2 and NOx from Decatur agreed with NEI-2011, but emissions of several VOCs were underestimated by factors of 5 (total VOCs) to 30 (ethanol). By combining the NEI-2011 with fuel ethanol production numbers from the Renewable Fuels Association, we calculate emission intensities, defined as the emissions per ethanol mass produced. Emission intensities of SO2 and NOx are higher for plants that use coal as an energy source, including the refinery in Decatur. By comparing with fuel-based emission factors, we find that fuel ethanol refineries have lower NOx, similar VOC, and higher SO2 emissions than from the use of this fuel in vehicles. The VOC emissions from refining could be higher than from vehicles, if the underestimated emissions in NEI-2011 downwind from Decatur extend to other fuel ethanol refineries. Finally, chemical transformations of the emissions from Decatur were observed, including formation of new particles, nitric acid, peroxyacyl nitrates, aldehydes, ozone, and sulfate aerosol.

  19. In Situ Heating of the 2007 May 19 CME Ejecta Detected by STEREO/PLASTIC and ACE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    possible relatively close to the solar surface where the signal is strong. Ion charge states, on the other hand, are routinely collected and CMEs, and their...equilibrium ionization (NEI) balance as the CME plasma expands outward into the ambient solar wind. In this paper we explore the consequences of a different...source of thermal heating, that due to anomalous resistivity within a spheromak solution for the CME geometry as it expands into the solar wind. We

  20. Class A Sodalites: Silver, Sodium, Halosodalites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-15

    reflectance to be one.) In order to determine bandedges, spectra were first converted from reflectance to absorption units using the Kubelka - Munk equation...The theory concerning diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been developed by Kubelka and Munk " and is outlined by Frei and MacNei 10°. For an infinitely...thick opaque layer the Kubelka - Munk equation is given as: F (ROD (1 -R.) k Mao. s For constant s , a linear relationship is obtained between the

  1. The influence of the refractive correction on the vision-related quality of life in keratoconus patients.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Toquero, Sara; Perez, Sofia; Rodriguez, Guadalupe; de Juan, Victoria; Mayo-Iscar, Agustin; Martin, Raul

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of refractive correction [spectacles vs rigid gas-permeable contact lenses (RGP CLs)] on the vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) obtained with the standardized questionnaire, NEI-VFQ-25, in keratoconus patients compared with healthy myopic subjects. The Spanish version of NEI-VFQ-25 was administered two consecutive times to 25 keratoconus patients (RGP CL wearers) and 25 healthy myopic subjects (RGP and soft CL wearers). The first time was to assess the VR-QoL for spectacle wearing, such as those for refractive correction, and the second time was for CL wearing. Keratoconus patients showed a lower VR-QoL impairment (P < 0.01) than healthy subjects in the total and all subscale score of NEI-VFQ-25 related to wearing spectacles. With CL correction, keratoconus patients showed a VR-QoL improvement with statistically significant differences (P < 0.04) in only four subscales, including distance activities, mental health, color vision and peripheral vision, compared with healthy subjects. In the keratoconus group, compared to spectacle use, CL wear improved the VR-QoL score (P = 0.01) and all subscales except for ocular pain (P < 0.01) and mental health (P = 0.25). The use of the NEI-VFQ-25 to explore the difference in the VR-QoL between healthy subjects and patients with keratoconus provides further evidence of improved VR-QoL with RGP CL wear compared with spectacles in keratoconus patients. RGP CL management in keratoconus patients could minimize the impact of the disease on the patient's well-being.

  2. Psychometric Characteristics of a Patient Reported Outcome Measure on Ego-Integrity and Despair among Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kleijn, Gitta; Post, Lenneke; Witte, Birgit I.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire (the Northwestern Ego-integrity Scale (NEIS)) on ego-integrity (the experience of wholeness and meaning in life, even in spite of negative experiences) and despair (the experience of regret about the life one has led, and feelings of sadness, failure and hopelessness) among cancer patients. Methods Cancer patients (n = 164) completed patient reported outcome measures on ego-integrity and despair (NEIS), psychological distress, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), and quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 (cancer survivors, n = 57) or EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (advanced cancer patients, n = 107)). Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to assess construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Convergent validity was tested based on a priori defined hypotheses: a higher level of ego-integrity was expected to be related to a higher level of quality of life, and lower levels of distress, depression and anxiety; a higher level of despair was expected to be related to a lower level of quality of life, and higher levels of distress, depression and anxiety. Results The majority of all items (94.5%) of the NEIS were completed by patients and single item missing rate was below 2%. The two subscales, labeled as Ego-integrity (5 items) and Despair (4 items) had acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha .72 and .61, respectively). The Ego-integrity subscale was not significantly associated with quality of life, distress, anxiety, or depression. The Despair subscale correlated significantly (p <.001) with quality of life (r = -.29), distress (r = .44), anxiety (r = .47) and depression (r = .32). Conclusion The NEIS has good psychometric characteristics to assess ego-integrity and despair among cancer patients. PMID:27195750

  3. Suzaku Observations of Thermal and Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission from the Middle-Aged Supernova Remnant G156.2+5.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hwang, Una; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We present results from X-ray analysis of a Galactic middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) G156.2+5.7 which is bright and largely extended in X-ray wavelengths, showing a clear circular shape (radius approx.50'). Using the Suzaku satellite, we observed this SNR in three pointings; partially covering the northwestern (NW) rim, the eastern (E) rim, and the central portion of this SNR. In the NW rim and the central portion, we confirm that the X-ray spectra consist of soft and hard-tail emission, while in the E rim we find no significant hard-tail emission. The soft emission is well fitted by either a one-component or two-component non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) model. In the NW and E rims, a one-component (the swept-up interstellar medium) NEI model well represents the soft emission. On the other hand, in the central portion, a two-component (the interstellar medium and the metal-rich ejecta) NEI model fits the soft emission better than the one-component NEI model from a statistical point of view. The relative abundances in the ejecta component suggest that G156.2+5.7 is a remnant from a core-collapse SN explosion whose progenitor mass is less than 15 Solar Mass. The origin of the hard-tail emission detected in the NW rim and the central portion of the SNR is highly likely non-thermal synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons. In the NW rim, the relativistic electrons seems to be accelerated by a forward shock with a slow velocity of APPROX.500 km/sec.

  4. Patient-Reported Vision-Related Quality-of-Life Differences between Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chao-Yu; Chen, Yu-Jing; Chen, Mei-Ju; Ko, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Nicole; Liu, Catherine Jui-ling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the different impacts on patient-reported vision-related quality of life (pVRQOL) outcomes in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACG) and primary open-angle glaucoma(POAG). Methods Prospective cross-sectional study. PACG and POAG patients who had a best-corrected visual acuity(BCVA) in the better eye equal to or better than 20/60, intraocular pressure controlled at or below 25 mmHg and reliable visual field test were invited to participate. The control group included patients with BCVA in the better eye equal to or better than 20/60 and who did not have major eye disease. A validated Taiwanese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25(T)) was performed to assess pVRQOL. The association between each domain of NEI VFQ-25(T) among 3 groups was determined using multivariable linear regression analysis. Results A total of 106 PACG, 186 POAG, and 95 controls were enrolled. In multivariable regression analysis of all three groups(PACG/POAG/controls), compared to POAG, PACG showed a weakly positive association with social functioning (R2 = 0.13, β = 0.22, P = 0.04). PACG showed no significantly negative impact on pVRQOL compared to controls. Taking only glaucoma patients into consideration, PACG patients had a higher score on social functioning compared to POAG (R2 = 0.16, β = 0.27, P = 0.01). The results of other domains of NEI VFQ-25(T) between the two groups did not differ significantly(p>0.05). Conclusions In patients with controlled disease, the impact of PACG and POAG on most domains of NEI VFQ-25(T) were similar, except for better social functioning in PACG compared to POAG. PMID:27690232

  5. Course of acute pancreatitis in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Koziel, Dorota; Gluszek, Stanislaw; Osuch, Martyna Gluszek

    2016-01-01

    Negli anni recenti in molti paesi europei si è dimostrata una crescente incidenza della pancreatite acuta (AP), ed alcuni studi indicano un aumento di rischio di AP nei pazienti diabetici. Questo studio è pertanto finalizzato a valutare il decorso clinico della AP nei pazienti diabetici. Sono stati studiati tutti i pazienti curati in reparto chirurgico per una diagnosi di AP identificando come pazienti diabetici quelli che all’anamnesi hanno confermato essere affetti da diabete di tipo 1 o di tipo 2 prima di essere ricoverati per AP. I pazienti ricoverati per AP, ed arruolati nello studio sono stati 963, e tra essi vi erano 87 (9%) diabetici. Tra questi ultimi erano più numerosi quelli portatori di calcolosi biliare quale causa della pancreatite (46% vs 32%). Nella maggioranza dei casi il decorso della AP è stato di gravità moderata, ma comunque nel 10,3% dei pazienti con diabete il decorso della malattia è stato moderatamente grave, e nel 12,7% decisamente grave. Non sono state osservate differenze nella mortalità da AP in entrambi i gruppi. Insufficienza sistemica è stata osservata più frequentemente nel gruppo dei diabetici di tipo 2 (5,4%) e 23,1% in quelli di tipo 2, a fronte del 5,1% dei pazienti non diabetici, con differenze statisticamente non significative. In conclusione l’incidenza della AP nei pazienti diabetici aumenta con l’età, ed è più spesso correlata con la calcolosi biliare. In questo gruppo di pazienti in decorso clinico è èiù frequentemente grave, con insufficienza sistemica nei diabetici di tipo 1.

  6. Estimating Minimally Important Differences for Two Vision-Specific Quality of Life Measures

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Brenda W.; Musch, David C.; Niziol, Leslie M.; Janz, Nancy K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate minimally important differences (MIDs) for the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ) and the National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ). Methods. A total of 607 subjects with newly-diagnosed open-angle glaucoma (OAG) was enrolled in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS) and randomized to initial treatment with medications or surgery. Subjects underwent an ophthalmic examination and telephone-administered quality of life (QOL) interview before randomization and every six months thereafter. The VAQ and NEI-VFQ were used to assess participants' perceptions of their visual function. Clinical measures included the mean deviation (MD) from Humphrey 24-2 full threshold visual field (VF) testing, and best-corrected visual acuity (VA) measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) protocol. Anchor-based (using MD and VA) and distribution-based methods were used to estimate MIDs. Results. Anchor-based cross-sectional analyses at 66 months follow-up found a 10-letter increment in better eye VA corresponded to MIDs of 5.2 units for VAQ and 3.8 units for NEI-VFQ total scores. A 3-dB increment in the better eye MD yielded MIDs of 2.6 and 2.3 units for the same two questionnaires. In longitudinal analyses, MIDs for the VAQ were 3.2 units for a 10-letter change of VA and 3.4 units for a 3-dB change in the MD. Distribution-based MIDs were larger. Conclusions. A range of MIDs for the VAQ (2.6–6.5 units) and NEI-VFQ (2.3–3.8 units) was found. Although similar in magnitude, MIDs were sensitive to the MID estimation method, the anchor chosen, and differences between questionnaires. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000149.) PMID:24906863

  7. Estimating minimally important differences for two vision-specific quality of life measures.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Brenda W; Musch, David C; Niziol, Leslie M; Janz, Nancy K

    2014-06-06

    To estimate minimally important differences (MIDs) for the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ) and the National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ). A total of 607 subjects with newly-diagnosed open-angle glaucoma (OAG) was enrolled in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS) and randomized to initial treatment with medications or surgery. Subjects underwent an ophthalmic examination and telephone-administered quality of life (QOL) interview before randomization and every six months thereafter. The VAQ and NEI-VFQ were used to assess participants' perceptions of their visual function. Clinical measures included the mean deviation (MD) from Humphrey 24-2 full threshold visual field (VF) testing, and best-corrected visual acuity (VA) measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) protocol. Anchor-based (using MD and VA) and distribution-based methods were used to estimate MIDs. Anchor-based cross-sectional analyses at 66 months follow-up found a 10-letter increment in better eye VA corresponded to MIDs of 5.2 units for VAQ and 3.8 units for NEI-VFQ total scores. A 3-dB increment in the better eye MD yielded MIDs of 2.6 and 2.3 units for the same two questionnaires. In longitudinal analyses, MIDs for the VAQ were 3.2 units for a 10-letter change of VA and 3.4 units for a 3-dB change in the MD. Distribution-based MIDs were larger. A range of MIDs for the VAQ (2.6-6.5 units) and NEI-VFQ (2.3-3.8 units) was found. Although similar in magnitude, MIDs were sensitive to the MID estimation method, the anchor chosen, and differences between questionnaires. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000149.). Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. The Evolution of Air Force Targeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    campaign against Japan. This group eventually evolved into the first Joint Target Group . The deputy assistant chief of the Air Staff for targeting...Far East Command (GHQ FEC) as- sumed responsibility for targeting. The chief of staff established the GHQ Target Group on 14 July 1950 and made it...responsible for target nominations. However, the GHQ Target Group was not capable of performing this task. The work of this group was nei- ther

  9. Genetic variation among agamid lizards of the trapelus agiliscomplex in the caspian-aral basin

    SciTech Connect

    Macey, J. Robert; Ananjeva, Natalia B.

    2004-05-19

    Allozyme variation is examined in eight populations of Trapelus from the Caspian-Aral Basin of the former USSR. Thirty-one loci (15 variable) exhibit remarkably low levels of genetic variation with only a Nei's genetic distance of 0.117 across 2500 km. An isolated population on the European side of the Caspian Sea is found to phenetically cluster inside the Asian populations examined, suggesting that it should not be considered taxonomically distinct.

  10. A decade of reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher, Thomas A.

    2004-06-01

    This article is an excerpt from an interview of Thomas A. Christopher, President and Chief Executive Officer, Framatome, ANP, Inc. conducted at NEI's Nuclear Energy Assembly in New Orleans, Louisiana on 13 May 2004. Areas highlighted include the views on how European plant standards compare to those in the US, key differences between European and US NRC requirements, design differences, fuel cost and plant life extension and upgrade impacts on the economy, company training and outsourcing issues, and ending with success stories.

  11. RENO IV Outline Plan for Operations of the Southwest Pacific Area to Include the Reoccupation of the Southern Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-03-06

    VOGELKOP-and- in HALMAHERA required for flank protection and support of subsequent. operations ta occupy MINDANAO^ / t̂UAl̂ ^^^ ̂ ^^ Phase IV Occupy... HALMAHERA areas. d. ESTIMATE OF PRINCIPAL COMBAT ELEMENTS REQUIRED. (See Annex 3.) (1) Land Forces. Assault # HUMBOIDT BAY - 2 Divs. GEELVINK BAY - 1...SEA area for strategic bombing operations in the N.E.I, and for general support of subsequent operations into the VOGELKOP and HALMAHERA . b

  12. Suzaku spectra of a Type-II supernova remnant, Kes 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tamotsu; Koyama, Katsuji; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on results of a Suzaku observation of the supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 79 (G33.6+0.1). The X-ray spectrum is best fitted by a two-temperature model: a non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) plasma and a collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) plasma. The NEI plasma is spatially confined within the inner radio shell with kT ˜ 0.8 keV, while the CIE plasma is found in more spatially extended regions associated with the outer radio shell with kT ˜0.2 keV and solar abundance. Therefore, the NEI plasma is attributable to the SN ejecta, and the CIE plasma is the forward shocked interstellar medium. In the NEI plasma, we discovered K-shell lines of Al, Ar, and Ca for the first time. The abundance pattern and estimated mass of the ejecta are consistent with a core-collapse supernova explosion of a ˜30-40M⊙ progenitor star. An Fe line with a center energy of ˜6.4 keV is also found in the southeast (SE) portion of the SNR, a close peripheral region around dense molecular clouds. One possibility is that the line is associated with the ejecta. However, the centroid energy of ˜6.4 keV and the spatial distribution of enhancement near the SE peripheral do not favor this scenario. Since the ˜6.4 keV emitting region coincides with the molecular clouds, we propose another possibility, that the Fe line is due to K-shell ionization of neutral Fe by the interaction of locally accelerated protons (LECRp) with the surrounding molecular cloud. Both of these possibilities, heated ejecta or LECRp origin, are discussed based on the observational facts.

  13. Is a Nutrition Education Intervention Associated with a Higher Intake of Fruit and Vegetables and Improved Nutritional Knowledge among Housewives in Mauritius?

    PubMed Central

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the determinants of nutrition behaviors and body mass index and determine the impact of a nutrition education intervention (NEI) among Mauritian housewives. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutrition Knowledge (NK), Nutrition Attitudes, Fruit and Vegetable Intake (FVI), body mass index (BMI). Two hundred Mauritian housewives were recruited. The NEI was in the form of a lecture and lasted for twenty minutes. Statistical tests performed revealed that the mean NK score at baseline was 65.8 ± 6.92 and a significant increase of +17.1 at post-test and +16.1 at follow-up was observed. Determinants of NK were age, presence of elderly people, and BMI. Mean nutrition attitude score at baseline was 2.37 ± 0.22 with significant increase of +0.2 (post-test) and +0.17 at follow-up. Age, level of education, presence of elders, and NK were linked to a positive attitude. FVI was predicted by age, income, presence of elders, NK, and nutrition attitudes. Baseline FVI was 4.77 ± 1.11 which increased significantly (p < 0.001) to 4.98 ± 1.13 at post-test and 5.03 ± 1.20 at follow up. NEI had a positive impact suggesting the benefits of such intervention in the promotion of healthy nutrition behaviors. PMID:27916818

  14. Vision-related quality of life in patients undergoing silicone tube intubation for lacrimal passage obstructions.

    PubMed

    Kabata, Yoshiaki; Goto, Satoshi; Takahashi, Genichiro; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the changes in vision-related quality of life in patients with lacrimal passage obstructions undergoing silicone tube intubations. Prospective, consecutive, comparative, interventional case series. Forty-five patients with the chief complaint of epiphora diagnosed with complete and unilateral lacrimal passage obstructions were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included history of congenital nasolacrimal stenosis; lacrimal passage obstructions resulting from trauma, tumor, or chemotherapy; previous lacrimal passage surgery; and partial and functional nasolacrimal duct obstructions. Silicone tube intubation using a Nunchaku-style tube was performed under direct visualization with dacryoendoscope in all patients. Operations were considered as successful when the irrigating fluid could pass through the lacrimal passage and the disappearance of dye was observed in dye disappearance test and the patients' epiphora symptoms improved 3 months postoperatively. The 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was self-administered in all patients preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Patients' preoperative and 3-months-postoperative NEI VFQ-25 scores were compared. Operations were successful in 40 patients (89%). Fully completed questionnaires were received from 32 patients (80%). Silicone tube intubation using a Nunchaku-style tube was associated with a significant improvement of the NEI VFQ-25 composite score (P = .0001), ocular pain score (P < .0001), and mental health score (P = .0003). Relief of epiphora by silicone tube intubation using a Nunchaku-style tube treatment significantly improved the vision-related quality of life in patients with lacrimal passage obstructions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Population structure of the banana weevil, an introduced pest in the Canary Islands, studied by RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Magaña, C; Beroiz, B; Hernández-Crespo, P; Montes de Oca, M; Carnero, A; Ortego, F; Castañera, P

    2007-12-01

    The banana weevil (BW), Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most important insect pests of bananas and plantains. The mobility and the origin of BW infestations at the Canary Islands (Tenerife, La Gomera and La Palma) have been analysed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) as molecular markers. Populations from Costa Rica, Colombia, Uganda and Madeira were also included for comparison. One hundred and fifteen reproducible bands from eight primers were obtained. The level of polymorphism in the populations from the Canary Islands (40-62%) was in the range of those found in other populations. Nei's genetic distances, pair-wise fixation index (FST) values indicate that the closest populations are Tenerife populations among themselves (Nei's genetic distance=0.054-0.100; FST=0.091-0.157) and Costa Rica and Colombia populations (Nei's genetic distance=0.049; FST=0.113). Our results indicate the existence of BW local biotypes with limited gene flow and affected by genetic drift. These results are compatible with a unique event of colonization at Tenerife; whereas, the outbreaks in La Gomera and La Palma may come from independent introductions. The Madeira population is phylogenetically and geographically closer to the Canary Islands populations, suggesting that it is the most likely source of the insects introduced in the Canary Islands.

  16. Vision related quality of life in spinocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kedar, Sachin; Ghate, Deepta; Murray, Earnest L; Corbett, James J; Subramony, S H

    2015-11-15

    Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) leads to abnormal ocular motility and alignment. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess vision, ocular motility and alignment and its impact on vision related quality of life (VRQOL) in SCA. Nineteen genetically diagnosed SCA subjects (11 SCA type 3, 3 SCA type 1 and 5 SCA type 6) participated at two university centers. All subjects completed the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ), 10-Item Neuro-Ophthalmic Supplement (NOS), scale for assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA) and ophthalmic examination. Twelve subjects seen at one of the 2 sites underwent quantitative ocular motility and alignment assessment. Composite scores for NEI-VFQ (mean 76.3±13) and NOS (mean 65.2±16.8) were significantly decreased in SCA subjects. NEI-VFQ subscale scores were decreased for general, near, distance and peripheral vision and driving. SCA patients had decreased low contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity and multiple ocular motility defects which included gaze limitation (9/12), nystagmus (5/12), distance esophoria (11/12), near exophoria (12/12) and receded near point of convergence. A significant negative correlation was noted between composite scores and distance convergence fusional amplitude. VRQOL is significantly decreased in SCA compared to normal population. All SCA patients should be screened for visual disability and referred for neuro-ophthalmic assessment promptly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  18. National Emissions Inventory Vehicle Miles Traveled, U.S., 2014, EPA/OAR/OAQPS/AQAD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web service contains layers that depict gridded Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) for 2014 from the National Emission Inventory (NEI).The default 2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) vehicle miles traveled (VMT) data are developed primarily from information provided by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the FHWA??s published Highway Statistics 2014, data from the Bureau of Census, and information provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This 2014 full VMT database was developed to provide default VMT at the county, road type, and vehicle type level of detail, to be used in the 2014 NEI in areas for which no state or local agency provided VMT data. The road types included were the 12 Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) functional roadway types while the vehicle types used were the six MOVES HPMS vehicle types , for a total of 72 records per county. To be compatible with MOVES inputs and for easy import into the MOVES HPMSVtypeYear table, the data were also provided at the level of county and HPMSVtypeID. In both cases, the VMT data provided are annual data in units of millions of vehicle miles.The 2014 VMT database was developed using data supplied directly by FHWA and as well as publicly available data from the 2014 version of FHWA??s Highway Statistics data series (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2014/). The FHWA data sets that were provided include a subset of fields from the 2014 HPMS

  19. An examination of the relationship between five oriental musical tones and corresponding internal organs and meridians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chin; Jeong, Dong-myong; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2004-01-01

    The Yellow Emperor's Internal Medicine (Nei-Jing) describes the relationship between five internal organs corresponding to five different meridians and five oriental musical tones such as Gung (spleen), Sang (liver), Gak (liver), Chi (heart), Wu (kidney). However, there has been little research to test this relationship. The purpose of this study was to determine this relationship through applying sound stimulation for 60 seconds, comprising various frequencies produced on an electric organ(Gung: 261.6 Hz; Sang: 293.7 Hz; Gak: 329.6 Hz Chi: 392.0 Hz and Wu: 440.0 Hz), to 20 healthy adults by stimulating their ears (via headphones), skin (via speakers) and both. A significant relationship was found between the tones and the meridians as they are described in Nei-Jing. The greatest response rates were found in the following corresponding organic and musical tones: spleen/Gung, lung/Sang, liver/Gak, heart/Chi, and kidney/Wu. The traditional descriptions of Yellow Emperor's Nei-Jing are therefore consistent with the findings of this study. Further basic research may lead to the application of clinically appropriate tones in an acoustically suitable room following oriental medical diagnosis.

  20. The inter-annual variability of the Yellow Sea Warm Current surface axis and its influencing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dehai; Bao, Xianwen; Wang, Xiaohua; Xu, Lingling; Lin, Xiaopei; Wu, Dexing

    2009-09-01

    Based on the Pathfinder sea surface temperature (PFSST), the surface axis and its pattern of the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) are discussed. A structure of double-warm-tongue is found in February and it varies in different years. Two indexes are calculated to represent the westward shift (WSI) and northward extension (NEI) of the warm water in the Yellow Sea (YS). Wavelet analysis illustrates that the WSI and NEI have prominent periods of 3-6 years and 3-4 years, respectively. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) decomposition is applied to the winter wind stress curl and the Kuroshio Current (KC) transport, which are believed to play important roles in forcing the variability of the YSWC surface axis. Statistics shows that the WSI is significantly related with the second EOF mode of the wind stress curl in February, which may force the YSWC surface axis moving westward and maintaining the double warm tongues because of its opposite curl in the YSWC domain. The first EOF mode of wind stress curl in January is propitious for inducing the warm tongue in the YS to advance more northward. Hence, the wind stress curls both in January and in February could force variations of the YSWC surface axis; however, the effect of the January wind stress curl is relatively weaker than that of the February. The relationship between the NEI and the KC transport is remarkable, and it seems that the stronger KC supplies more power to push the YSWC northward against the southward wind.

  1. Medication adherence and quality of life among the elderly with diabetic retinopathy 1

    PubMed Central

    Jannuzzi, Fernanda Freire; Cintra, Fernanda Aparecida; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the factors related to medication adherence and its relation to Health- Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in elderly people with diabetic retinopathy. METHOD: one hundred (n=100) elderly outpatients with diabetic retinopathy taking antihypertensives and/or oral antidiabetics/insulin were interviewed. Adherence was evaluated by the adherence proportion and its association with the care taken in administrating medications and by the Morisky Scale. The National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was used to evaluate HRQoL. RESULTS: most (58%) reported the use of 80% or more of the prescribed dose and care in utilizing the medication. The item "stopping the drug when experiencing an adverse event", from the Morisky Scale, explained 12.8% and 13.5% of the variability of adherence proportion to antihypertensives and oral antidiabetics/insulin, respectively. CONCLUSION: there was better HRQoL in the Color Vision, Driving and Social Functioning domains of the NEI VFQ-25. Individuals with lower scores on the NEI VFQ-25 and higher scores on the Morisky Scale presented greater chance to be nonadherent to the pharmacological treatment of diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25591084

  2. License renewal demonstration program: NRC observations and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, R.J.; Kuo, P.T.; Newberry, S.F.

    1996-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff`s observations and lessons learned from the five License Renewal Demonstration Program (LRDP) site visits performed by the staff from March 25, 1996, through August 16, 1996. The LRDP was a Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) program intended to assess the effectiveness of the guidance provided by NEI 95-10, Revision 0, {open_quotes}Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10 CFR Part 54 - The License Renewal Rule,{close_quotes} to implement the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 54 (10 CFR Part 54), {open_quotes}Requirements for Renewal of Operating Licenses for Nuclear Power Plants.{close_quotes} In general, NEI 95-10 appeared to contain the basic guidance needed for scoping, screening, identifying aging effects, developing aging management programs, and performing time-limited aging analyses. However, inconsistent implementation of this guidance in some areas was an indication that clarification of existing guidance and/or the inclusion-of some new guidance may be needed for applicants to develop a license renewal program that is consistent with the intent of the rule.

  3. Diagnosis of CCSVI in Meniere syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Aldo; Quarto, Gennaro; Califano, Luigi; Mastrangelo, Diego; De Vizia, Marcella; Salafia, Francesca; Bernardo, Benedetto

    In questo lavoro gli autori hanno valutato la possibilità di diagnosticare l’insufficienza venosa cronica cerebro-spinale (CCSVI) nei pazienti affetti da sindrome di Meniére resistente alle terapie mediche. Da aprile 2013 al luglio 2014 sono stati valutati 140 pazienti, 85 femmine, 55 maschi di età compresa tra 32 a 68 anni, con un’età media di 46 aa, affetti da sindrome di Meniere clinicamente definita secondo i criteri AAO 1995. I pazienti sono stati sottoposti ad un esame eco-colordoppler delle vene del collo e dei vasi venosi intracranici secondo il metodo di Zamboni. L’esame è stato eseguito anche in 100 pazienti sani, non affetti da malattia neurologica o audiovestibolare, di età simile a quella dei pazienti arruolati nello studio. L’incidenza della CCSVI, diagnosticata secondo il protocollo sviluppato dal Prof. Zamboni, nei pazienti con sindrome di Meniere è stata del 90%, con una presenza di lesioni più gravi sul lato interessato in casi unilaterali. Nella popolazione di controllo sono state rilevate anomalie compatibili con la CCSVI in soli tre pazienti (3%) comunque asintomatici. Vi è un’alta incidenza di CCSVI nei pazienti con malattia di Meniere clinicamente definita, in una percentuale tale da mettere in dubbio un evento casuale, soprattutto data la bassa prevalenza nel gruppo di controllo.

  4. Temporalization of peak electric generation particulate matter emissions during high energy demand days.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Baker, Kirk R; Rodgers, Mark; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2015-04-07

    Underprediction of peak ambient pollution by air quality models hinders development of effective strategies to protect health and welfare. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model routinely underpredicts peak ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. Temporal misallocation of electricity sector emissions contributes to this modeling deficiency. Hourly emissions are created for CMAQ by use of temporal profiles applied to annual emission totals unless a source is matched to a continuous emissions monitor (CEM) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). More than 53% of CEMs in the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and 45% nationally are unmatched in the 2008 NEI. For July 2006, a United States heat wave with high electricity demand, peak electric sector emissions, and elevated ambient PM2.5 mass, we match hourly emissions for 267 CEM/NEI pairs in PJM (approximately 49% and 12% of unmatched CEMs in PJM and nationwide) using state permits, electricity dispatch modeling and CEMs. Hourly emissions for individual facilities can differ up to 154% during the simulation when measurement data is used rather than default temporalization values. Maximum CMAQ PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and elemental carbon predictions increase up to 83%, 103%, and 310%, at the surface and 51%, 75%, and 38% aloft (800 mb), respectively.

  5. Modeling Ozone in the Eastern United States Using a Fuel-Based Mobile Source Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S. W.; Frost, G. J.; Trainer, M.

    2015-12-01

    A fuel-based mobile source emissions inventory of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) is developed for the continental US. Emissions are mapped for the year 2013, including emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles, and off-road engines. We find that mobile source emissions of NOx in the National Emissions Inventory 2011 (NEI11) are 50-60% higher than results from this study; mobile sources contribute around half of total US anthropogenic NOx emissions. We model chemistry and transport of emissions from the NEI11 and our fuel-based inventory during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) Study period in the summer of 2013, using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. In the Eastern US, there is a consistent over-prediction of tropospheric ozone (O3) levels when simulating emissions from the NEI11, with the largest biases located in the Southeastern US. Using our fuel-based inventory, we test O3 sensitivity to lower NOx emissions. We highlight results in the Southeast, a region with significant interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of ozone precursors. Model results of NOy, CO, and O3 are compared with aircraft measurements made during SENEX.

  6. Observational evidence for the relationship between spring soil moisture and June rainfall over the Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KanthaRao, B.; Rakesh, V.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the relationship between gradually varying soil moisture (SM) conditions and monsoon rainfall anomalies is crucial for seasonal prediction. Though it is an important issue, very few studies in the past attempted to diagnose the linkages between the antecedent SM and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. This study examined the relationship between spring (April-May) SM and June rainfall using observed data during the period 1979-2010. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses showed that the spring SM plays a significant role in June rainfall over the Central India (CI), South India (SI), and North East India (NEI) regions. The composite anomaly of the spring SM and June rainfall showed that excess (deficit) June rainfall over the CI was preceded by wet (dry) spring SM. The anomalies in surface-specific humidity, air temperature, and surface radiation fluxes also supported the existence of a positive SM-precipitation feedback over the CI. On the contrary, excess (deficit) June rainfall over the SI and NEI region were preceded by dry (wet) spring SM. The abnormal wet (dry) SM over the SI and NEI decreased (increased) the 2-m air temperature and increased (decreased) the surface pressure compared to the surrounding oceans which resulted in less (more) moisture transport from oceans to land (negative SM-precipitation feedback over the Indian monsoon region).

  7. Self-reported comorbidities and visual function in a population-based study: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Globe, Denise R; Varma, Rohit; Torres, Mina; Wu, Joanne; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley P

    2005-06-01

    To assess the association of self-reported systemic and ocular comorbid disease and visual function in Latino subjects. National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) and eye examination data were obtained from 5380 participants in the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study, a population-based prevalence study of eye disease in Latino subjects 40 years and older. We developed and contrasted 5 comorbidity measures. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the association between comorbidity and visual impairment and self-reported visual function. Regression analyses determined the association of sociodemographic variables, clinical variables, and the best measure of comorbidity with the NEI-VFQ-25 composite score. The main outcome measure was self-reported visual function as assessed by the NEI-VFQ-25 composite score. On average, visual function subscale scores were lowest for those participants with the most systemic comorbid conditions (P<.05). This was more evident in participants with moderate or severe visual impairment compared with those with mild or no visual impairment (P<.05). Self-reported systemic comorbidities were associated with self-reported visual function. This association was greater at more severe levels of visual impairment. Of the 5 comorbidity measures assessed, the measure that summed the number of self-reported systemic comorbidities correlated most with self-reported visual function.

  8. Emissions inventory of PM2.5 trace elements across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Reff; Prakash V. Bhave; Heather Simon; Thompson G. Pace; George A. Pouliot; J. David Mobley; Marc Houyoux

    2009-08-15

    This paper presents the first National Emissions Inventory (NEI) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes the full suite of PM2.5 trace elements (atomic number >10) measured at ambient monitoring sites across the U.S. PM2.5 emissions in the NEI were organized and aggregated into a set of 84 source categories for which chemical speciation profiles are available (e.g., Unpaved Road Dust, Agricultural Soil, Wildfires). Emission estimates for ten metals classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) were refined using data from a recent HAP NEI. All emissions were spatially gridded, and U.S. emissions maps for dozens of trace elements (e.g., Fe, Ti) are presented for the first time. Nationally, the trace elements emitted in the highest quantities are silicon (3.8 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr), aluminium (1.4 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr), and calcium (1.3 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr). Our chemical characterization of the PM2.5 inventory shows that most of the previously unspeciated emissions are comprised of crustal elements, potassium, sodium, chlorine, and metal-bound oxygen. Coal combustion is the largest source of S, Se, Sr, Hg and primary sulfates. This work also reveals that the largest PM2.5 sources lacking specific speciation data are off-road diesel-powered mobile equipment, road construction dust, marine vessels, gasoline-powered boats, and railroad locomotives. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Enhancing the effectiveness of IST through risk-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    Current IST requirements were developed mainly through deterministic-based methods. While this approach has resulted in an adequate level of safety and reliability for pumps and valves, insights from probabilistic safety assessments suggest a better safety focus can be achieved at lower costs. That is, some high safety impact pumps and valves are currently not tested under the IST program and should be added, while low safety impact valves could be tested at significantly greater intervals than allowed by the current IST program. The nuclear utility industry, through the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), has developed a draft guideline for applying risk-based techniques to focus testing on those pumps and valves with a high safety impact while reducing test frequencies on low safety impact pumps and valves. The guideline is being validated through an industry pilot application program that is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NEI and the ASME maintain a dialogue on the two groups` activities related to risk-based IST. The presenter will provide an overview of the NEI guideline, discuss the methodological approach for applying risk-based technology to IST and provide the status of the industry pilot plant effort.

  10. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  11. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  12. Impact of First Eye versus Second Eye Cataract Surgery on Visual Function and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Nakul S; Stock, Michael V; Baze, Elizabeth F; Daly, Mary K; Vollman, David E; Lawrence, Mary G; Chomsky, Amy S

    2017-10-01

    To compare the impact of first eye versus second eye cataract surgery on visual function and quality of life. Cohort study. A total of 328 patients undergoing separate first eye and second eye phacoemulsification cataract surgeries at 5 veterans affairs centers in the United States. Patients with previous ocular surgery, postoperative endophthalmitis, postoperative retinal detachment, reoperation within 30 days, dementia, anxiety disorder, hearing difficulty, or history of drug abuse were excluded. Patients received complete preoperative and postoperative ophthalmic examinations for first eye and second eye cataract surgeries. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. The NEI-VFQ scores were calculated using a traditional subscale scoring algorithm and a Rasch-refined approach producing visual function and socioemotional subscale scores. Postoperative NEI-VFQ scores and improvement in NEI-VFQ scores comparing first eye versus second eye cataract surgery. Mean age was 70.4 years (±9.6 standard deviation [SD]). Compared with second eyes, first eyes had worse mean preoperative BCVA (0.55 vs. 0.36 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), P < 0.001), greater mean BCVA improvement after surgery (-0.50 vs. -0.32 logMAR, P < 0.001), and slightly worse postoperative BCVA (0.06 vs. 0.03 logMAR, P = 0.039). Compared with first eye surgery, second eye surgery resulted in higher postoperative NEI-VFQ scores for nearly all traditional subscales (P < 0.001), visual function subscale (-3.85 vs. -2.91 logits, P < 0.001), and socioemotional subscale (-2.63 vs. -2.10 logits, P < 0.001). First eye surgery improved visual function scores more than second eye surgery (-2.99 vs. -2.67 logits, P = 0.021), but both first and second eye surgeries resulted in similar

  13. Genetics of alternative definitions of feed efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hurley, A M; López-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters across lactation for measures of energy balance (EB) and a range of feed efficiency variables as well as to quantify the genetic inter-relationships between them. Net energy intake (NEI) from pasture and concentrate intake was estimated up to 8 times per lactation for 2,481 lactations from 1,274 Holstein-Friesian cows. A total of 8,134 individual feed intake measurements were used. Efficiency traits were either ratio based or residual based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake (REI) was defined as NEI minus predicted energy requirements [e.g., net energy of lactation (NEL), maintenance, and body tissue anabolism] or supplied from body tissue mobilization; residual energy production was defined as the difference between actual NEL and predicted NEL based on NEI, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism/catabolism. Energy conversion efficiency was defined as NEL divided by NEI. Random regression animal models were used to estimate residual, additive genetic, and permanent environmental (co)variances across lactation. Heritability across lactation stages varied from 0.03 to 0.36 for all efficiency traits. Within-trait genetic correlations tended to weaken as the interval between lactation stages compared lengthened for EB, REI, residual energy production, and NEI. Analysis of eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions for EB and the efficiency traits indicate the ability to genetically alter the profile of these lactation curves to potentially improve dairy cow efficiency differently at different stages of lactation. Residual energy intake and EB were moderately to strongly genetically correlated with each other across lactation (genetic correlations ranged from 0.45 to 0.90), indicating that selection for lower REI alone (i.e., deemed efficient cows) would favor cows with a compromised energy status; nevertheless, selection for REI within a holistic

  14. The correlation between glaucomatous visual field loss and vision-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Orta, Asli Ö F; Öztürker, Zeynep K; Erkul, Sezin Ö; Bayraktar, Şükrü; Yilmaz, Omer F

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the vision-related quality of life (QoL) of glaucoma patients in terms of the correlation between visual field (VF) loss and National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-39 (NEI VFQ-39) survey. A total of 244 glaucoma patients were examined with monocular Humphrey 24-2 central full threshold and Esterman binocular VF tests. Patients were grouped according to their monocular VFs done by Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) classification and Esterman binocular VF efficiency scores. NEI VFQ-39 was applied for the evaluation of vision-related QoL. NEI VFQ-39 subscales and total scores were evaluated and the highest mean average values were in "color vision" (92.00±16.59) and "social functioning" (90.74±15.98). The lowest mean average values were in "general health" (54.76±18.86) and "general vision" (66.03±17.59). All the subscales except "general health" and "ocular pain" showed positive correlations with the monocular and Esterman binocular VF groupings. Pearson correlation analysis between NEI VFQ-39 subscales and the AGIS VF classification-based groups indicated that the subscales had statistically significant negative correlations except the "general health" (r=-0.151, P=0.018) and "ocular pain" (r=-0.048, P=0.455). The highest correlation with AGIS VF classification was in "driving" (r=-0.477, P=0.001) and "general vision" (r=-0.446, P=0.000) subscales. There was statistically significant correlation between NEI VFQ-39 subscales and Esterman binocular VF groups except "general health" (r=-0.064, P=0.318) and "ocular pain" (r=-0.062, P=0.337). The highest negative correlation was in "distant activities" (r=-0.522, P=0.000) and the lowest negative correlation was in "color vision" (r=-0.416, P=0.000) subscales. The highest correlation between binocular distant and binocular near-visual acuities was in "distant activities" and the lowest correlation was in "role difficulties" subscales. There is statistically significant

  15. Comparison of Anthropogenic CO2, NOx, and CO Emissions: Exploiting a Synergy Between Air Quality and Carbon Cycle Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Gregg, J. S.; Murtishaw, S.; Knox, S.; Andres, R. J.; Sieb, B.

    2005-05-01

    Studies of biospheric CO2 exchange at the regional to continental scale would be facilitated by spatiotemporally resolved estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and other human activities. However, current estimates of fossil CO2 emissions do not provide sufficient temporal or spatial resolution for regional-scale investigations. The US-EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criteria pollutants (e.g., NOx and CO) was developed for control of regional air quality and currently provides high resolution emissions estimates that are based, in part on, estimates of fuel consumption. Here we investigate the applicability of estimating CO2 emissions from either 1) NEI estimates of NOx or CO emissions, or 2) underlying information on fuel use contained within NEI. First, we calculate monthly sums of NOx and CO emissions separately for mobile, distributed area, and point sources for the 48 continental United States. We compare the aggregate NOx and CO emissions with monthly sums of each states CO2 emissions computed from sales of petroleum, natural gas, and coal as reported by the US Energy Information Agency (EIA). We then compute linear regressions to estimate CO:CO2 and NOx:CO2 emissions ratios and quantify the fraction of variance in CO2 captured by NOx and CO. Although the categories in the two data sets do not overlap perfectly, we find that in the cases where a close correspondence between fuel type and use is expected (e.g., petroleum and mobile sources), variations in NOx and CO explain approximately 80% of the variation in CO2 emissions. Second, we employ the Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool (CONCEPT) framework to extract estimates of fuel use or other proxy variables and estimate CO2 directly from the information contained in the NEI, and compare with the EIA estimates of CO2 emissions, and with NEI estimates of NOx and CO emissions as above. Finally, we discuss these results with consideration of previous atmospheric

  16. Comparison of Anthropogenic CO2, NOx, and CO Emissions: Exploiting a Synergy Between Air Quality and Carbon Cycle Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Gregg, J. S.; Murtishaw, S.; Knox, S.; Andres, R. J.; Sieb, B.

    2006-12-01

    Studies of biospheric CO2 exchange at the regional to continental scale would be facilitated by spatiotemporally resolved estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and other human activities. However, current estimates of fossil CO2 emissions do not provide sufficient temporal or spatial resolution for regional-scale investigations. The US-EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criteria pollutants (e.g., NOx and CO) was developed for control of regional air quality and currently provides high resolution emissions estimates that are based, in part on, estimates of fuel consumption. Here we investigate the applicability of estimating CO2 emissions from either 1) NEI estimates of NOx or CO emissions, or 2) underlying information on fuel use contained within NEI. First, we calculate monthly sums of NOx and CO emissions separately for mobile, distributed area, and point sources for the 48 continental United States. We compare the aggregate NOx and CO emissions with monthly sums of each states CO2 emissions computed from sales of petroleum, natural gas, and coal as reported by the US Energy Information Agency (EIA). We then compute linear regressions to estimate CO:CO2 and NOx:CO2 emissions ratios and quantify the fraction of variance in CO2 captured by NOx and CO. Although the categories in the two data sets do not overlap perfectly, we find that in the cases where a close correspondence between fuel type and use is expected (e.g., petroleum and mobile sources), variations in NOx and CO explain approximately 80% of the variation in CO2 emissions. Second, we employ the Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool (CONCEPT) framework to extract estimates of fuel use or other proxy variables and estimate CO2 directly from the information contained in the NEI, and compare with the EIA estimates of CO2 emissions, and with NEI estimates of NOx and CO emissions as above. Finally, we discuss these results with consideration of previous atmospheric

  17. Surgery for Hemorrhagic Choroidal Neovascular Lesions of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Quality-of-Life Findings

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To present and compare findings from health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) interviews conducted with patients enrolled in the SST Group B Trial evaluating surgical removal of subfoveal choroidal neovascular lesions associated with age-related macular degeneration versus observation. Design Randomized clinical trial. Participants Eligible patients had predominantly hemorrhagic subfoveal choroidal neovascular lesions (total lesion size of >3.5 disc areas, area of blood at least 50% of the lesion area, and at least 75% of blood posterior to the equator) and best-corrected visual acuity (VA) of 20/100 to <20/1600 but at least light perception in the study eye. Three hundred thirty-six patients enrolled after baseline quality-of-life interviews, 168 assigned to each of surgery or observation. Methods Clinical and HRQOL data were collected before randomization and at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months after enrollment. Baseline clinical evidence was used to stratify patients as having unilateral or bilateral neovascularization at the time of randomization. The HRQOL interviews included the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Main Outcomes Measure Two-year change in NEI-VFQ. Results At 24 months after enrollment, overall NEI-VFQ scores had a median decrease of 1 point from baseline in the observation arm (95% confidence interval [CI]: −4 to 3 points) and no change in the surgery arm (95% CI: −3 to 3 points) (P = 0.70). Changes from baseline on NEI-VFQ subscales also were similar between treatment arms. Differences in scores by unilateral or bilateral involvement seen at baseline in each treatment arm persisted throughout follow-up for most outcomes. Planned analyses stratified by VA showed trends (P = 0.17) in favor of surgery at 24 months in the patients with baseline VA greater than 20/200 for the NEI-VFQ scale (3.5-point median increase from baseline

  18. Vision-targeted health related quality of life in older adults: patient-reported visibility problems in low luminance activities are more likely to decline than daytime activities.

    PubMed

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-07-07

    Commonly used vision-targeted health-related quality of life questionnaires almost exclusively focus items on vision under daytime conditions. Older adults even when in good eye health frequently report experiencing vision problems at night and under low environmental light levels, and psychophysical studies also document these visibility problems. Here we compare the progression of self-reported low luminance visibility problems and self-reported visibility problems under daytime conditions in older adults. Trained interviewers administered two questionnaires to older adults in normal eye health: the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire - 25 (NEI VFQ-25) where items are almost entirely focused on difficulties in daytime activities, and the Low Luminance Questionnaire (LLQ) where items are focused on difficulties seeing at night and under low luminance conditions. The following visual functions were also measured: visual acuity, low luminance visual acuity, low luminance deficit, contrast sensitivity, light sensitivity in the macula, and rod-mediated dark adaptation. The protocol was repeated 3 years later. Scores on the NEI VFQ-25 composite and its subscales were unchanged between baseline and 3-year follow-up, whereas scores on the LLQ composite and 5 of 6 subscales significantly decreased (corresponding to less functionality) at the 3-year follow-up. Participants were more likely to display a ≥ 5 point decrease on the LLQ composite than on the NEI VFQ-25 over 3 years. Visual functional tests were largely unrelated to changes in NEI VFQ-25 and LLQ scores from baseline to follow-up. Older adults' vision-targeted quality of life as measured by questionnaire is more likely to exhibit a practically significant decrease over 3 years using a questionnaire that focused on low luminance activities (LLQ) than one focused on daytime activities (NEI VFQ-25). That the results of visual functional testing did not correspond to older adults' decline in

  19. [Compassionate nursing care: the experience of italian nurses].

    PubMed

    De Carlo, Paola; Guerra, Denise; Rega, Maria Luisa; Galletti, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Scopo. Nella letteratura infermieristica internazionale compassion e compassionate care hanno assunto una notevole importanza e si rivelano essere un fenomeno in divenire. Il concetto di compassionate nursing care risulta poco descritto ed oggettivato nella pratica infermieris-tica nel nostro Paese. Scopo di questo studio è stato di descrivere le esperienze di un campione di infermieri italiani circa il significato di cure infermieristiche compassionevoli. Metodo. È stato condotto uno studio qualitativo. Per la raccolta dei dati sono stati utilizzati i focus group, per analizzare i dati trascritti è stata utilizzata l’analisi di contenuto. Per lo studio è stato individuato un campione propositivo di 21 infermieri, di questi 15 hanno dato la disponibilità a partecipare. Risultati e discussione. Tutti i partecipanti hanno espresso liberamente le loro opinioni. Dall’analisi dei dati relativi alle quattro aree indagate con i focus group: definizione, la propria esperienza, tipologie di pazienti e formazione alle cure infermieristiche compassionevoli sono emersi aspetti contrastanti che variano da accezioni negative e negazione dei termini stessi a significati positivi di amore, carità, empatia, supporto, sostegno, relazione. Interessante ed innovativo è stato l’attribuire l’insegnamento delle cure compassionevoli ai parenti. Conclusioni. E’ risultato difficile per i partecipanti dare una definizione precisa sul significato di cure infermieristiche compassionevoli. E’ emersa la necessità e il desiderio di approfondire questo tema che risulta essere originale e un punto di forza per migliorare l’assistenza infermieristica. Infatti, puntare al recupero di questi valori educando gli infermieri ad erogare cure infermieristiche compassionevoli può sicuramente rappresentare un’implicazione futura per la professione.

  20. Association Between Undetected 10-2 Visual Field Damage and Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Dana M; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Prager, Alisa J; Yu, Qi; Al-Aswad, Lama; Cioffi, George A; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Hood, Donald C

    2017-07-01

    Recent evidence supports the presence of macular damage (within 8° of the central field) to retinal ganglion cells and associated central visual field (VF) defects in glaucoma, even in early stages. Despite this, to our knowledge, the association of 10-2 VF damage with vision-related quality of life (QOL) has not been well studied. To determine the association between QOL and visual function as measured by 24-2 and 10-2 VFs in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and to test the hypothesis that patients with vision-related QOL disproportionate to their 24-2 VF status may exhibit 10-2 damage overlooked by the 24-2 test. In this cross-sectional analysis of observational cohort study data taken from a tertiary care specialty practice, 113 patients with glaucoma with the entire range of 24-2 VF damage completed the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). Data were collected from May 2014 to January 2015 and were analyzed from March 2016 to May 2016. Standardized binocular 24-2 and 10-2 VF sensitivities were calculated for each patient. Association of binocular 24-2 and 10-2 VF sensitivity with Rasch-calibrated NEI VFQ-25 scores. Detection of outliers was based on Cook distance of the regression of binocular 24-2 and NEI VFQ-25 score. Outlier association with QOL was then assessed using a linear regression model, with binocular 10-2 VF sensitivity as the independent variable. Of the 113 patients, the mean (SD) age was 70.1 (10.9) years, and 51 (45.1%) were male and 71 (62.8%) were white. The composite NEI VFQ-25 score was associated with both binocular 24-2 (β = 1.95; 95% CI, 0.47-3.43; P = .01) and 10-2 (β = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.12-4.01; P = .001) sensitivities, but the 10-2 VF univariable model showed an almost 2-fold better fit to the data (R2 = 9.2% vs 4.9%). However, the binocular 10-2 sensitivities of 24-2 outliers had the strongest association with the composite NEI VFQ-25 scores (β = 2.78; 95% CI, 0

  1. Calibrazioni a terra e prestazioni in volo di spettrometri ad immagine nel visibile e nel vicino infrarosso per l'esplorazione planetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, Gianrico

    2006-10-01

    progettuale e realizzativa dei parametri e de lle prestazioni strumentali; in generale infatti non solo sarà necessario mantenere le dimensioni, il peso, i consumi elettrici ed il data-volume entro i requisiti disponibili del satellite ma anche ottimizzare i disegni ottici, meccanici ed elettronici al fine di ottenere le massime prestazioni possibili in funzione della natura del target osservato e dei parametri orbitali della missione. Questa tesi descrive i metodi utilizzati per caratterizzare il funzionamento di spettrometri ad immagine per l’esplorazione planetaria. L’attività svolta ha riguardato sia la misura in laboratorio dei parametri strumentali fondamentali sia l’analisi dei dati in volo su cui verificarne ed eventualmente correggerne la risposta. Il funzionamento degli strumenti e la metodologia di calibrazione vengono descritti nelle due parti principali e nelle appendici di questa tesi per gli esperimenti Cassini-VIMS-V e Rosetta-VIRTIS-M. La prima parte è dedicata all’esperimento VIMS-V sul satellite Cassini, il cui disegno ottico, originariamente proposto da Francis Reininger, verrà successivamente riutilizzato e perfezionato su VIRTIS-M (Reininger et al., 1994; Miller et al., 1996). Il capitolo 1 contiene una descrizione dei parametri ottici, strutturali, termici ed elettronici di VIMS-V mettendone in risalto gli aspetti più innovativi del progetto. Vengono inoltre descritti la collocazione dell’esperimento sul satellite Cassini, il coallineamento con gli altri strumenti di remote sensing, i possibili modi operativi ed il formato dei dati scientifici. Il capitolo 2 riguarda il processo di calibrazione ed analisi dei dati in volo di VIMS-V. La procedura eseguita per calibrare radiometricamente lo strumento utilizzando i dati della superficie della Luna e per stimare il flat-field mediante i dati dell’atmosfera di Venere viene dettagliatamente descritta assieme agli algoritmi utilizzati per la rimozione di diversi effetti strumentali (read

  2. The impact of eyeglasses on vision-related quality of life in American Indian/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    McClure, Tina M; Choi, Dongseok; Wooten, Kathleen; Nield, Chris; Becker, Thomas M; Mansberger, Steven L

    2011-01-01

    To determine the change in vision-related quality-of-life scores after providing eyeglasses to American Indian/Alaska Natives with undercorrected refractive error. Prospective, comparative (nonrandomized) interventional study. We compared a group with undercorrected refractive error to a control group who did not need a change in eyeglasses. Undercorrected refractive error was defined as distance visual acuity 20/40 or worse in the better-seeing eye that could be improved by at least 2 lines in Snellen visual acuity. Intervention was the provision of new glasses to the undercorrected refractive error group members, based on results of manifest refraction. The main outcome measures were the differences in the 25-Item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) scores from baseline (Time 1) to the time after providing eyeglasses (Time 2). The NEI VFQ-25 median Composite score at Time 1 was significantly lower in those with undercorrected refractive error when compared to the control group (75 vs 92, P = .001). The median Composite score for the undercorrected refractive error group improved to 96 (P < .001) at Time 2 when compared to Time 1, while the control group remained stable at 93 (P = .417). The undercorrected refractive error group showed significantly greater improvement than the control group in 8 of 12 subscale scores and in the overall Composite score (all P values ≤ .05). A multivariate linear regression analysis, which controlled for differences in age, percent self-identified American Indian/Alaskan Native, and best-corrected visual acuity between the undercorrected refractive error and control group, showed eyeglasses to be significantly associated with improvement in NEI VFQ-25 composite score. Visual impairment from undercorrected refractive error is common in American Indian/Alaskan Natives. Providing eyeglasses results in a large, significant increase in vision-related quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Probabilistic precipitation nowcasting based on an extrapolation of radar reflectivity and an ensemble approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Mejsnar, Jan; Pop, Lukáš; Bližňák, Vojtěch

    2017-09-01

    A new method for the probabilistic nowcasting of instantaneous rain rates (ENS) based on the ensemble technique and extrapolation along Lagrangian trajectories of current radar reflectivity is presented. Assuming inaccurate forecasts of the trajectories, an ensemble of precipitation forecasts is calculated and used to estimate the probability that rain rates will exceed a given threshold in a given grid point. Although the extrapolation neglects the growth and decay of precipitation, their impact on the probability forecast is taken into account by the calibration of forecasts using the reliability component of the Brier score (BS). ENS forecasts the probability that the rain rates will exceed thresholds of 0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mm/h in squares of 3 km by 3 km. The lead times were up to 60 min, and the forecast accuracy was measured by the BS. The ENS forecasts were compared with two other methods: combined method (COM) and neighbourhood method (NEI). NEI considered the extrapolated values in the square neighbourhood of 5 by 5 grid points of the point of interest as ensemble members, and the COM ensemble was comprised of united ensemble members of ENS and NEI. The results showed that the calibration technique significantly improves bias of the probability forecasts by including additional uncertainties that correspond to neglected processes during the extrapolation. In addition, the calibration can also be used for finding the limits of maximum lead times for which the forecasting method is useful. We found that ENS is useful for lead times up to 60 min for thresholds of 0.1 and 1 mm/h and approximately 30 to 40 min for a threshold of 3 mm/h. We also found that a reasonable size of the ensemble is 100 members, which provided better scores than ensembles with 10, 25 and 50 members. In terms of the BS, the best results were obtained by ENS and COM, which are comparable. However, ENS is better calibrated and thus preferable.

  4. Genetic divergence and reproductive isolation between Anisakis brevispiculata and Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda: Anisakidae)s.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, S; Paggi, L; Nascetti, G; Abollo, E; Webb, S C; Pascual, S; Cianchi, R; Bullini, L

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the taxonomic status of Anisakis brevispiculata Dollfus, 1966 population samples of this taxon from central and south-eastern Atlantic ocean were compared at 22 enzymatic loci with samples belonging to Anisakis physeteris Baylis, 1923 from the Mediterranean sea and central-eastern Atlantic ocean. Very low interpopulational genetic divergence was observed both within A. brevispiculata (average D(Nei) = 0.008) and within A. physeteris (D(Nei) = 0.009) despite the geographic distance among the samples, indicating high levels of gene flow in both taxa. On the other hand, the average genetic distance between A. brevispiculata and A. physeteris was found to be D(Nei) = 0.80, a value generally observed between well differentiated congeneric species. The reproductive isolation between A. brevispiculata and A. physeteris is indicated by the following observations: (1) no F(1) hybrids or recombinant genotypes were until now observed; and (2) the two Anisakis species do not seem to share their definitive hosts. The main definitive host of A. brevispiculata is the pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), while for A. physeteris it is the sperm whale (Physeter catodon). Only adult males differ slightly in spicule length, while females and larval stages are not differentiated morphologically. Both A. brevispiculata and A.physeteris show a type II larva. The correct recognition of A. brevispiculata from A. physeteris and from other Anisakis species studied, in either sexes and at any life stage, is made easy by allozyme markers (e.g. Icdh, Gapdh, Sod-1, Np, Aat-2, Adk-2, fEst-2, PepB, PepC-2, Mpi). Diagnostic keys, which can be used for routine identification in the field of these Anisakis worms, based on genetic markers, are given.

  5. Airborne measurements of western U.S. wildfire emissions: Comparison with prescribed burning and air quality implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Huey, L. Gregory; Yokelson, Robert J.; Selimovic, Vanessa; Simpson, Isobel J.; Müller, Markus; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, Donald R.; Butterfield, Zachary; Choi, Yonghoon; Crounse, John D.; Day, Douglas A.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fortner, Edward; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Hu, Weiwei; King, Laura E.; Kleinman, Lawrence; Meinardi, Simone; Mikoviny, Tomas; Onasch, Timothy B.; Palm, Brett B.; Peischl, Jeff; Pollack, Ilana B.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Sachse, Glen W.; Sedlacek, Arthur J.; Shilling, John E.; Springston, Stephen; St. Clair, Jason M.; Tanner, David J.; Teng, Alexander P.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Wisthaler, Armin; Wolfe, Glenn M.

    2017-06-01

    Wildfires emit significant amounts of pollutants that degrade air quality. Plumes from three wildfires in the western U.S. were measured from aircraft during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), both in summer 2013. This study reports an extensive set of emission factors (EFs) for over 80 gases and 5 components of submicron particulate matter (PM1) from these temperate wildfires. These include rarely, or never before, measured oxygenated volatile organic compounds and multifunctional organic nitrates. The observed EFs are compared with previous measurements of temperate wildfires, boreal forest fires, and temperate prescribed fires. The wildfires emitted high amounts of PM1 (with organic aerosol (OA) dominating the mass) with an average EF that is more than 2 times the EFs for prescribed fires. The measured EFs were used to estimate the annual wildfire emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total nonmethane organic compounds, and PM1 from 11 western U.S. states. The estimated gas emissions are generally comparable with the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). However, our PM1 emission estimate (1530 ± 570 Gg yr-1) is over 3 times that of the NEI PM2.5 estimate and is also higher than the PM2.5 emitted from all other sources in these states in the NEI. This study indicates that the source of OA from biomass burning in the western states is significantly underestimated. In addition, our results indicate that prescribed burning may be an effective method to reduce fine particle emissions.

  6. Determinants of patient satisfaction and function related to vision following cataract surgery in eyes with no visually consequential ocular co-morbidity.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Clare; Nolan, John M; Stack, Jim; Moore, Tara C B; Beatty, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    To investigate subjectively reported outcomes following cataract surgery and the relationships between such outcomes in the context of falling thresholds for cataract surgery. Large, private, non-refractive cataract practice, Institute of Eye Surgery, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland Pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative data of 2552 eyes undergoing phacoemulsification and implantation of the Tecnis(R) ZCB00 1-piece intraocular lens (IOL) by a single surgeon between July 2009 and October 2013 was analysed. Patients without visually consequential ocular co-morbidity completed two validated questionnaires, designed to assess subjectively perceived visual functioning and identify symptoms of dysphotopsia following cataract surgery. 54.8 % of questionnaire respondents were entirely satisfied (satisfaction 10/10) post-operatively, with 83.7 % reporting satisfaction of ≥7/10. Satisfaction was positively associated with patient age and negatively associated with spectacle dependence, dysphotopsia, and function related to vision (NEI VF-11) score. The mean (±standard deviation[SD]) dysphotopsia score was 1.36 (±1.9; scale 0-10), with 40 % of respondents reporting no dysphotopsia symptoms and 9.8 % reporting clinically meaningful dysphotopsia. The mean (±SD) National Eye Institute visual function-11 (NEI VF-11) score was 0.33 (±0.53; scale 0-4) and reduced function related to vision was associated with increasing severity of dysphotopsia symptoms. When linear regression was applied, 17.5 % of the variation in functionality was attributable to symptoms of dysphotopsia. Dysphotopsia is an important determinant of a patient having difficulty with vision-related tasks following cataract surgery, and patient satisfaction is positively associated with patient age and negatively associated with spectacle in dependence, dysphotopsia and function related to the vision (NEI VF-11) score.

  7. Assessment of vision-related quality of life in dry eye patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Meiyan; Gong, Lan; Chapin, William J; Zhu, Min

    2012-08-17

    To determine vision-related quality of life (QoL) measured with the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) in dry eye patients, and establish potential correlations with the Zung Self Rating Anxiety Scales (SAS), the Zung Self Rating Depression Scales (SDS), ocular surface parameters, and sociodemographic measures. The comparative study included 87 dry eye patients and 71 healthy volunteers who visited the department of ophthalmology, Eye and Ear Nose and Throat (EENT) Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China, between June 2009 and December 2009. Surveys were administered to participants to evaluate their sociodemographic characteristics and disease-related factors. Data collected from the NEI-VFQ and OSDI survey instruments were analyzed to identify potential differences between the dry eye group and the control group. Correlations with sociodemographic characteristics, clinical parameters, and psychological status were evaluated. Compared with the control group, our patient group had lower (worse) NEI-VFQ scores for the subscales of general health, general vision, ocular pain, short distance vision activities, long distance vision activities, vision related social function, vision related mental health, vision related role difficulties, vision related dependency, and driving (all P < 0.05), and higher (worse) OSDI composite and subscale scores of ocular symptoms, vision-related function, and environmental triggers (all P < 0.001). Significant correlations were found between QoL scores and patient anxiety and depression levels. Vision-related QoL in dry eye patients was impaired and was correlated with anxiety and depression, further implicating this condition as an important public health problem deserving increased attention and resources.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Characteristic Ratios of Elemental Carbon to Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides across the United States.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aishwarya; Arellano, Avelino F

    2017-06-20

    A ratio-based method is used to characterize anthropogenic elemental carbon (ECa) using in situ measurements and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). We use long-term records of ground-based measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments to assess the patterns in anthropogenic combustion ratios (ΔECa/ΔCO and ΔECa/ΔNOx) across the U.S. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) regions for the years 2000-2015. We investigate the change in these ratios between the periods 2000-2007 and 2008-2015. Overall, ΔECa/ΔCO ratios increase by 0.7-82% and ΔECa/ΔNOx by 6.8-104% across the East and West PADD regions. The urban West showed the largest increase relative to other regions. This is mainly attributed to a 13-23% increase in ΔECa during the winter and fall seasons and significant reductions in urban ΔNOx (except in winter). We also find that emission ratios derived from the EPA's National Emission Inventory (NEI) overestimate (underestimate) the increase in the observed enhancement ratios in the East (West). Analyses of changes in NEI emissions in the West reveal (a) smaller reductions in NEI emissions for NOx from the off-road sector and (b) an increase in PM2.5 (particulate matter 2.5 μm or less in diameter) emissions from commercial/residential combustion and smaller reductions in nonroad emissions.

  9. Immunogenicity of a reduced schedule of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine given concomitantly with the Prevenar and Pediacel vaccines in healthy infants in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Southern, Jo; Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Morris, Rhonwen; Waight, Pauline; Hudson, Michael; Balmer, Paul; Findlow, Helen; Findlow, Jamie; Miller, Elizabeth

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the use of two doses of three different meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccines when given for primary immunization with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and Pediacel, a combination product containing five acellular pertussis components, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate, and inactivated-poliovirus vaccine. The immune response after a single dose of MCC is also presented. Infants were randomized to receive two doses of one of the MCC vaccines and PCV7 at 2 and 3 months or at 2 and 4 months of age. Meningococcal group C serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) geometric mean titers, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) geometric mean concentrations (GMCs), and diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin GMCs, together with the proportions of infants achieving putative protective levels, were determined. A total of 393 infants were recruited. Following the first dose of NeisVac-C (MCC conjugated to tetanus toxoid), 97% of infants achieved protective levels (SBA titer of >or=8), compared with 80% and 53%, respectively, for Menjugate and Meningitec (both of which are conjugated to CRM(197)). SBA responses to MCC vaccines were not significantly different when administered at 2 and 3 or 2 and 4 months of age. Following two doses of each MCC, 98 to 100% of infants achieved protective levels. Both PRP IgG and tetanus responses were significantly enhanced when Pediacel was coadministered with NeisVac-C. This study demonstrates that NeisVac-C and Menjugate generate good immunogenicity after the first dose at 2 months of age when coadministered with PCV7 and Pediacel and merit further investigation in single-dose priming strategies.

  10. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Inactive HLA-B27–Associated-Spectrum Anterior Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Hoeksema, Lisette; Los, Leonoor I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) in patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis (AU). The study was conducted in 2012 at the ophthalmology department of the University Medical Center of Groningen. We included AU patients who were HLA-B27 positive and/or were diagnosed by a rheumatologist with an HLA-B27 associated systemic disease. Sixty-one of 123 (50%) adult patients participated. All patients filled-out the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), social support lists and an additional questionnaire for gathering general information. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics. Analyses were conducted on various patient and ocular characteristics. We compared our NEI VFQ-25 scores with those previously found in the literature. Our main outcome measures were VR-QOL scores and their associations with various general patient and ocular characteristics. We found that the NEI VFQ-25 mean overall composite score was 88.9±8.8, which is relatively high, but lower than that found in a normal working population. The mean general health score was 47.4±20.8, which is lower than in patients with other ocular diseases. Patients with a systemic disease scored significantly lower on general health and VR-QOL, compared to patients without a systemic disease. Patients with a depression (6/59 (10%)) frequently had ankylosing spondylitis (5/6 patients) and they scored significantly worse on VR-QOL. We concluded that patients with HLA-B27 associated AU have a relatively high VR-QOL. However, the presence of a systemic disease is associated with lower VR-QOL and general health scores. In addition, depression is associated with a lower VR-QOL. PMID:26808922

  11. Measuring noise equivalent irradiance of a digital short-wave infrared imaging system using a broadband source to simulate the night spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, John R.; Robinson, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    There is a growing interest in developing helmet-mounted digital imaging systems (HMDIS) for integration into military aircraft cockpits. This interest stems from the multiple advantages of digital vs. analog imaging such as image fusion from multiple sensors, data processing to enhance the image contrast, superposition of non-imaging data over the image, and sending images to remote location for analysis. There are several properties an HMDIS must have in order to aid the pilot during night operations. In addition to the resolution, image refresh rate, dynamic range, and sensor uniformity over the entire Focal Plane Array (FPA); the imaging system must have the sensitivity to detect the limited night light available filtered through cockpit transparencies. Digital sensor sensitivity is generally measured monochromatically using a laser with a wavelength near the peak detector quantum efficiency, and is generally reported as either the Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) or Noise Equivalent Irradiance (NEI). This paper proposes a test system that measures NEI of Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) digital imaging systems using a broadband source that simulates the night spectrum. This method has a few advantages over a monochromatic method. Namely, the test conditions provide spectrum closer to what is experienced by the end-user, and the resulting NEI may be compared directly to modeled night glow irradiance calculation. This comparison may be used to assess the Technology Readiness Level of the imaging system for the application. The test system is being developed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Air Force Research Laboratory.

  12. Estimation of atmospheric emissions of six semivolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in southern Canada and the United States by use of an emissions processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Elisabeth Galarneau; Paul A. Makar; Mourad Sassi; Miriam L. Diamond

    2007-06-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds that are ubiquitous in the atmospheric environment. The input for an emissions processing system that was originally configured for the study of criteria air pollutants was updated to calculate emissions of six semivolatile PAHs. The goal of the work was to produce emissions estimates with the spatial and temporal resolution needed to serve as input to a regional air quality model for southern Canada and the U.S. The total annual emission of the six PAHs ({Sigma}6PAH) for both countries was estimated at 18,273 Mg/year. A total of 90% of these emissions arise from U.S. sources. The top six source types account for 73% of emissions and are related to metal production, open burning, incineration, and forest fires. Other sources include coal-fired boilers, diesel and gasoline vehicles, oxygen furnaces, and iron sintering. The emission factors used in this study were derived from published compilations. Although this approach has the advantage of quality control during the compilation process, some compilations include factors from older studies that may overestimate emissions since they do not account for recent improvements in emission control technology. When compared to estimates published in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) for 2002, the U.S. emissions in this study are higher by a factor of 4. Much of the difference is likely due to use of data unavailable in the 2002 NEI but inferred here on the basis of the PAH emissions literature. Augmenting the 2002 NEI with this additional information would bring its reported annual emissions to 8213 Mg/year, which is within a factor of 2 of the estimates made by the authors. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Vision Related Quality of Life in Patients with Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Aydin Kurna, Sevda; Altun, Ahmet; Gencaga, Tugba; Akkaya, Sezen; Sengor, Tomris

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). Methods. Thirty patients presented with keratoconus (keratoconus group) and 30 healthy patients (control group) were included in this study. Twenty patients were using rigid gas permeable and 10 patients were not using contact lenses in keratoconus group. High and low contrast visual acuity and mean K values of the patients were recorded. Each subject completed the 25-item NEI-VFQ-25. Results. All subscales of NEI-VFQ-25 were lower in the keratoconus patients. The difference was more evident in the subscales of general vision, ocular pain, near vision, vision-specific mental health, vision-specific role difficulties, and peripheral vision (P < 0.05). Overall composite score was 75.2 ± 17.2 in the keratoconus group and 93.2 ± 5.6 in the control group (P = 0.00). Contact lens wearers had higher best corrected visual acuity in comparison with noncontact lens wearers (P = 0.028). Patients with low visual acuity (logMAR > 0.4) in the better eye had lower distance vision, social functioning, mental health, and role difficulties. Meanwhile, patients with low visual acuity (logMAR > 0.4) in the worse eye had lower general health scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Vision related quality of life was worse in keratoconus patients. Success in the contact lens usage and maintaining higher visual acuity may improve vision related quality of life. PMID:24868455

  14. Efficacy of Toric Contact Lenses in Fitting and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Contact Lens Wearers.

    PubMed

    Cox, Stephanie M; Berntsen, David A; Bickle, Katherine M; Mathew, Jessica H; Powell, Daniel R; Little, B Kim; Lorenz, Kathrine Osborn; Nichols, Jason J

    2017-09-21

    To assess whether patient-reported measures are improved with soft toric contact lenses (TCLs) compared with soft spherical contact lenses (SCLs) and whether clinical time needed to fit TCL is greater than SCL. Habitual contact lens wearers with vertexed spherical refraction +4.00 to +0.25 D or -0.50 to -9.00 D and cylinder -0.75 to -1.75 DC were randomly assigned to be binocularly fitted into a TCL or SCL, and masked to treatment assignment. Time to successful fit was recorded. After 5 days, the National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of Life Instrument (NEI-RQL-42) and modified Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) were completed. After washout, subjects were fit into the alternative lens design (TCL or SCL). Outcomes were evaluated using linear mixed models for the time to fit and CISS score, generalized linear model for the successful fit, and Wilcoxon tests for the NEI-RQL-42. Sixty subjects (71.7% women, mean age [±SD] = 27.5±5.0 years) completed the study. The mean time to fit the TCL was 10.2±4.3 and 9.0±6.5 min for the SCL (least square [LS] mean difference (TCL-SCL)=1.2, P=0.22). Toric contact lens scored better than SCL in global NEI-RQL-42 score (P=0.006) and the clarity of vision (P=0.006) and satisfaction with correction subscales (P=0.006). CISS showed a 15% reduction in symptoms (LS mean difference [TCL-SCL]=-2.20, P=0.02). TCLs are a good option when trying to improve the vision of patients with low-to-moderate astigmatism given the subjective improvements in outcomes.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars from Saudi Arabia by DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalifah, N S; Askari, E

    2003-11-01

    Genetic diversity among 13 different cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) of Saudi Arabia was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The screening of 140 RAPD primers allowed selection of 37 primers which revealed polymorphism, and the results were reproducible. All 13 genotypes were distinguishable by their unique banding patterns produced by 37 selected primers. Cluster analysis by the unweighted paired group method of arithmetic mean (UPGMA) showed two main clusters. Cluster A consisted of five cultivars (Shehel, Om-Kobar, Ajwa, Om-Hammam and Bareem) with 0.59-0.89 Nei and Li's coefficient in the similarity matrix. Cluster B consisted of seven cultivars (Rabeeha, Shishi, Nabtet Saif, Sugai, Sukkary Asfar, Sukkary Hamra and Nabtet Sultan) with a 0.66-0.85 Nei and Li's similarity range. Om-Hammam and Bareem were the two most closely related cultivars among the 13 cultivars with the highest value in the similarity matrix for Nei and Li's coefficient (0.89). Ajwa was closely related with Om-Hammam and Bareem with the second highest value in the similarity matrix (0.86). Sukkary Hamra and Nabtet Sultan were also closely related, with the third highest value in the similarity matrix (0.85). The cultivar Barny did not belong to any of the cluster groups. It was 34% genetically similar to the rest of the 12 cultivars. The average similarity among the 13 cultivars was more than 50%. As expected, most of the cultivars have a narrow genetic base. The results of the analysis can be used for the selection of possible parents to generate a mapping population. The variation detected among the closely related genotypes indicates the efficiency of RAPD markers over the morphological and isozyme markers for the identification and construction of genetic linkage maps.

  16. Severity of visual field loss and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Varma, Rohit; Wu, Joanne; Hays, Ron D; Azen, Stanley P

    2007-06-01

    To examine the association between severity of visual field loss (VFL) and self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a population-based sample. Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants in the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including visual field testing by the Humphrey Automated Field Analyzer II (Swedish Interactive Thresholding Algorithm [SITA] Standard 24-2) [Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA]. Mean deviation (MD) scores were used to determine severity of VFL both as a continuous variable and stratified by severity: no VFL (MD >or= -2 decibels [dB]), mild VFL (-6 dB < MD < -2 dB), and moderate to severe VFL (MD < -6 dB). HRQOL was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). Linear regression analyses and analysis of covariance were used to assess the relationship between HRQOL scores and VFL. Of the 5,213 participants included in this study, 18% had unilateral mild, 1.5% unilateral moderate to severe, 19% bilateral mild, and 6.5% bilateral moderate to severe VFL. Worse NEI-VFQ-25 and SF-12 HRQOL scores were associated with VFL in a linear manner. Four- to 5-dB differences in VFL were associated with a five-point difference in the NEI-VFQ-25 composite and most subscale scores. Persons with VFL had the greatest difficulty with driving activities, dependency, mental health, distance vision, and peripheral vision. HRQOL is diminished even in persons with relatively mild VFL on the basis of MD scores. Prevention and management of persons with VFL may be important in preventing or reducing poor HRQOL related to difficulties in driving, distance and peripheral vision activities, and a sense of dependency.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis A virus infection in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Moumita; Bose, Sujoy; Saikia, Anjan; Medhi, Subhash; Deka, Manab

    2015-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to screen the molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Northeast India (NEI) who are ethnically distinct, tribal dominated and of lower socio-economic status with almost no information available from NEI on these aspects. Briefly, 3 ml blood was collected from 324 random liver disease cases with jaundice, receiving care at Central Hospital, N.F. Railway, Guwahati, Assam with informed consent. The patients detected with HAV-IgM positive status were included and were stratified as acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and fulminant hepatitis (FHF) based on clinical profile. Viral RNA was isolated and HAV-RNA was detected by Real-time PCR using primers for the VP3-VP1 region. HAV genotyping was studied by PCR-direct sequencing-phylogenetic analysis approach using the VP1/2A region of HAV isolates. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS13.0 software. A total of 69 cases were HAV infected with two HBV co-infected cases (n = 69 + 2 = 71), 62 cases and two co-infected cases were AVH and others were FHF cases. HAV infection was predominant in especially in the young and adult age group. HAV-RNA was detected in 28 cases, out of which 19 cases could be genotyped (12 AVH, 7 FHF); which showed the prevalence of genotype IIIA or IA only. Although HAV genotype IIIA was the major genotype in both the AVH (10/12, 83.33%) and FHF (5/7, 71.43%) group, but the difference in distribution of genotypes in AVH and FHF cases was statistically non-significant (P = 0.550). HAV genotype IIIA is associated with the majority of HAV infected cases and severity in NEI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Severity of Visual Field Loss and Health Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Varma, Rohit; Wu, Joanne; Hays, Ron D.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between severity of visual field loss (VFL) and self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a population-based sample. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Methods Participants in the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including visual field testing using the Humphrey Automated Field Analyzer II (SITA Standard 24-2). Mean Deviation (MD) scores were used to determine severity of VFL both as a continuous variable and stratified by severity: no VFL (MD≥ − 2 decibels [dB]), mild VFL (6dBNEI-VFQ-25). Linear regression analyses and analysis of covariance were used to assess the relationship between HRQOL scores and VFL. Results Of the 5,213 participants included in this study, 18% had unilateral mild, 1.5% unilateral moderate/severe, 19% bilateral mild, and 6.5% bilateral moderate/severe VFL. Worse NEI-VFQ-25 and SF-12 HRQOL scores were associated with VFL in a linear manner. 4–5 dB differences in VFL were associated with a 5-point difference in the NEI-VFQ composite and most subscale scores. Persons with VFL had the greatest difficulty with driving activities, dependency, mental health, distance vision and peripheral vision. Conclusion HRQOL is diminished even in persons with relatively mild VFL based on MD scores. Prevention and management of persons with VFL may be important in preventing or reducing poor HRQOL related to difficulties in driving, distance and peripheral vision activities and a sense of dependency. PMID:17399676

  19. Using Shifts in Amino Acid Frequency and Substitution Rate to Identify Latent Structural Characters in Base-Excision Repair Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes-Reynolds, Ramiro; Wallace, Susan S.; Bond, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    Protein evolution includes the birth and death of structural motifs. For example, a zinc finger or a salt bridge may be present in some, but not all, members of a protein family. We propose that such transitions are manifest in sequence phylogenies as concerted shifts in substitution rates of amino acids that are neighbors in a representative structure. First, we identified rate shifts in a quartet from the Fpg/Nei family of base excision repair enzymes using a method developed by Xun Gu and coworkers. We found the shifts to be spatially correlated, more precisely, associated with a flexible loop involved in bacterial Fpg substrate specificity. Consistent with our result, sequences and structures provide convincing evidence that this loop plays a very different role in other family members. Second, then, we developed a method for identifying latent protein structural characters (LSC) given a set of homologous sequences based on Gu's method and proximity in a high-resolution structure. Third, we identified LSC and assigned states of LSC to clades within the Fpg/Nei family of base excision repair enzymes. We describe seven LSC; an accompanying Proteopedia page (http://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/Fpg_Nei_Protein_Family) describes these in greater detail and facilitates 3D viewing. The LSC we found provided a surprisingly complete picture of the interaction of the protein with the DNA capturing familiar examples, such as a Zn finger, as well as more subtle interactions. Their preponderance is consistent with an important role as phylogenetic characters. Phylogenetic inference based on LSC provided convincing evidence of independent losses of Zn fingers. Structural motifs may serve as important phylogenetic characters and modeling transitions involving structural motifs may provide a much deeper understanding of protein evolution. PMID:21998646

  20. One arm or two? Concurrent administration of meningococcal C conjugate and hepatitis B vaccines in pre-teens.

    PubMed

    Pielak, Karen L; McIntyre, Cheryl C; Remple, Valencia P; Buxton, Jane A; Skowronski, Danuta M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) compare rates of local reactions from meningococcal C conjugate (Neis Vac-C) and hepatitis B vaccines (Recombivax HB), and (b) compare local reactions when both injections were given in one arm versus one in each arm. Schools were randomized to have grade six students receive both vaccines in one arm (One Arm Group), or one vaccine in each arm (Two Arm Group; MCC always given in left arm). Structured telephone interviews of parents were conducted, and respondents were asked about local and systemic reactions, interference with school or other activities, need for medical attention, and lost parental work time. The Two Arm Group reported significantly more local redness >46 mm (6.5% vs. 0.5%, p < 0.001), moderate to severe tenderness (28% vs. 18%, p < 0.05), and drowsiness (14% vs. 7%, p < 0.05). When adjusted for sex, ethnicity, and town of residence, report of any tenderness was associated with town of residence only; moderate or severe tenderness was independently associated with the Two Arm Group (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.85). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for interference with school attendance or other activities, need for medical attention, or lost parental work time. Among participants of the Two Arm Group (188 students), there was more redness (6% vs. 2%, p < 0.05) and tenderness (54% vs. 32%, p < 0.001) experienced with Neis Vac-C than with Recombivax HB, respectively. Injecting two vaccines in one arm did not cause more local reaction than one injection in each arm and remains an option for those who prefer it for logistical reasons, If vaccinating in two arms, Neis Vac-C should preferentially be given in the nondominant arm.

  1. Airborne Measurements of the Atmospheric Emissions from a Fuel Ethanol Refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gouw, J. A.; McKeen, S. A.; Aikin, K. C.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Gilman, J.; Graus, M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Holloway, J. S.; Lerner, B. M.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Liao, J.; Markovic, M. Z.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Min, K. E.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Welti, A.; Wolfe, G. M., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol made from corn now constitutes approximately 10% of the fuel used in gasoline vehicles in the United States. The ethanol is produced in over 200 fuel ethanol refineries across the country. In this work, we report measurements of the atmospheric emissions from the third largest fuel ethanol refinery in the U.S. located in Decatur, Illinois. Measurements were made from the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft during the NOAA Southeast Nexus (SENEX) campaign in the summer of 2013, which was part of the larger Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS). Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) agreed with reported emissions in the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI-2011). In contrast, emissions of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including ethanol, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were underestimated by an order of magnitude in the NEI-2011. By combining data from the NEI-2011 and fuel ethanol production numbers from the Renewable Fuels Association, we calculate emission intensities for SO2, NOx and VOCs, defined as the emissions per volume of fuel produced. These emission intensities can be readily compared to fuel-based emission factors from gasoline vehicles and the relative contributions made by fuel refining and fuel use to overall emissions will be quantified. Emission intensities of SO2 and NOx are particularly high for those fuel ethanol refineries that use coal as an energy source, including the plant in Decatur studied in this work. Finally, by comparing the measurements at different distances downwind, chemical transformation of the emissions could be observed, including the formation of new particles, peroxyacyl nitrates, ozone and sulfate aerosol.

  2. Uncertainties and time of emergence of multi-model precipitation projection over homogeneous rainfall zones of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Javed; Das, Lalu; Meher, Jitendra Kumar; Deb, Argha

    2017-08-01

    Present study has assessed different sources of uncertainties in multi-model precipitation projection using Global Climate Models (GCMs) from coupled model inter-comparison project phase five (CMIP5) experiment over seven homogeneous rainfall zones of India namely North Mountainous India (NMI), Northwest India (NWI), North Central India (NCI), Northeast India (NEI), West Peninsular India (WPI), East Peninsular India (EPI), and South Peninsular India (SPI). A relatively new method has been employed to separate out internal variability and climate change signal from precipitation time series before quantifying the uncertainties. In our method, signal has been defined as dynamic trend instead of considering a fixed trend line. Three different types of weighting namely equal weighting, independence based weighting and performance based weighting have been employed to assess the uncertainties of GCM projection over different zones. It has been found that ensemble with performance based weighting has produced smaller inter-model uncertainty but the patterns of temporal evolution of uncertainties have been quite irregular compared to other two ensembles. On the other hand, it has been noticed that bias correction using quantile mapping can effectively reduce the range of uncertainty in a systematic way. It has been observed that inter-model uncertainties over NEI has been relatively lower compared to other zones indicating more robust projection over this zone. A dynamic threshold on signal-to-internal variability ratio (S/I) has been used for estimating time of emergence (TOE) at 95% confidence level over each zone. TOE would be earlier in case of NEI and late in NMI. However no zone may experience TOE in first half of the present century.

  3. Impact of cataract surgery on vision-related life performances: the usefulness of Real-Life Vision Test for cataract surgery outcomes evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ni, W; Li, X; Hou, Z; Zhang, H; Qiu, W; Wang, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Real-Life Vision Test (RLVT) is a newly developed performance-based measures of functional vision. This present study is designed to determine whether it could be a meaningful assessment for cataract surgery outcomes evaluation. Patients and methods Age-related cataract patients (56) who scheduled for bilateral cataract surgery and 44 age-matched controls were evaluated by four types of measurements: (1) demographic, medical, cognitive and depressive evaluation, and the reaction time testing; (2) clinical measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis, and color perception); (3) the 25-item National Eye Institute's Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); (4) the RLVT. Spearman's coefficients and multiple regression analysis were conducted to investigate the relationship among RLVT, clinical measures, and self-report assessment of visual function. Results The results of RLVT, clinical measures, and NEI-VFQ total scores were improved significantly after cataract surgery. There were no differences between control subjects and post-surgery patients with respect to NEI-VFQ-25 total scores, self-rating depression scale scores and three tasks of RLVT. Change of RLVT was significantly associated with the change of clinical measures in the cataract group. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that change of distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity, and binocular contrast sensitivity were significant predictors of improvements of RLVT. Conclusions Cataract surgery could improve real-world visual ability effectively for cataract patients. Our study highlights the potential usefulness of RLVT as an adjunct to the current outcomes evaluation system for cataract surgery. The use of RLVT combined with clinical and self-survey methods may be the comprehensive strategy to manifest the impact of cataract surgery on patients' overall vision-related quality of life. PMID:26272444

  4. Airborne Measurements of Western U.S. Wildfire Emissions: Comparison with Prescribed Burning and Air Quality Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Huey, L. Gregory; Yokelson, Robert J.; Selimovic, Vanessa; Simpson, Isobel J.; Mueller, Markus; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, Donald R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Wildfires emit significant amounts of pollutants that degrade air quality. Plumes from three wildfires in the western U.S. were measured from aircraft during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), both in summer 2013. This study reports an extensive set of emission factors (EFs) for over 80 gases and 5 components of submicron particulate matter (PM1) from these temperate wildfires. These include rarely, or never before, measured oxygenated volatile organic compounds and multifunctional organic nitrates. The observed EFs are compared with previous measurements of temperate wildfires, boreal forest fires, and temperate prescribed fires. The wildfires emitted high amounts of PM1 (with organic aerosol (OA) dominating the mass) with an average EF that is more than 2 times the EFs for prescribed fires. The measured EFs were used to estimate the annual wildfire emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total non methane organic compounds, and PM1 from 11 western U.S. states. The estimated gas emissions are generally comparable with the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). However, our PM1 emission estimate (1530 +/- 570 Gg/yr) is over 3 times that of the NEI PM2.5 estimate and is also higher than the PM2.5 emitted from all other sources in these states in the NEI. This study indicates that the source of OA from biomass burning in the western states is significantly underestimated. In addition, our results indicate that prescribed burning may be an effective method to reduce fine particle emissions.

  5. Comparison of vision-related quality of life in primary open-angle glaucoma and dry-type age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz Ugurlu, S; Kocakaya Altundal, A E; Altin Ekin, M

    2017-03-01

    PurposeTo compare quality of life (QoL) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and dry-type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with similar best-corrected visual acuity.MethodsAge-, sex-, and visual acuity-matched POAG and dry AMD patients were included in the study. Each patient performed 24-2 and 10-2 SITA standard visual field tests. Contrast sensitivity was evaluated with CSV-1000 HGT instrument. The 25 item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) was used to analyze QoL. Overall and subscale scores were converted to scores between 0 and 100, the higher scores indicating better vision-related QoL.ResultsOverall NEI-VFQ-25 scores were 86.44 and 84.66 in glaucoma and AMD groups, respectively (P=0.244). The highest scores were obtained in 'vision-related dependency' subgroup in glaucoma and 'color and peripheral vision' in AMD group, whereas the lowest scores were noted 'in peripheral vision' in both glaucoma and AMD patients. Glaucoma patients had significantly lower scores in ocular pain, color vision, and peripheral vision subgroups compared with the AMD group, whereas AMD patients had lower scores in near and distance vision activities, vision-related social activity, and dependency subgroups. Contrast sensitivity results and mean defect values showed correlation with NEI-VFQ-25 scores in both groups.ConclusionsGlaucoma and AMD patients with similar visual acuity experienced similar overall impairment in QoL. However, glaucoma patients described more difficulty with peripheral vision and ocular pain, whereas AMD patients complained more about near and distance vision and dependency items.

  6. Genetic relatedness of foraminiferan ( Marginopora vertebralis) populations from reefs in the Western Coral Sea and Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzie, John A. H.

    1991-07-01

    Allozyme variation at four loci and phenetic variation for esterase were examined in M. vertebralis populations from 10 reefs from the Western Coral Sea and two from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Genetic distances (Nei's D) among populations on different reefs ranged from 0 0.932 and was neither related to geographical separation of reefs nor to depth of water separating reefs. These findings suggest long-distance dispersal by some means is sufficient to prevent genetic differentiation of M. vertebralis populations, and that M. vertebralis populations need not be connected by habitats suitable for the continued existence of the foraminiferan for genetic differentiation to be prevented. The Western Coral Sea reef populations did not form a related group that were genetically distinct from those on the GBR but were differentiated latitudinally. Reefs to the extreme north and south formed outliers while those on the northern half of the Queensland Plateau showed some differentiation from those on the southern half of the Plateau. This pattern of genetic variation appeared to reflect the distribution of populations north and south of the southern limit of the Southern Equatorial Current. Further work will be required to establish the soundness of this relationship, and to exclude other possible explanations related to historical events or the effects of selection. Relatively high dispersal was inferred between the Southern Queensland Plateau reefs and those sampled on the GBR (average Neis D=0.011). Holmes and Marion reefs formed discrete genetic outliers (average Neis D=0.69 and 0.20 respectively). In the case of Holmes reef other factors (e.g. history of recruitment) will need to be investigated to account for its marked genetic differentiation from the other reefs in the Queensland Plateau.

  7. Revisiting global fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of ethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzompa-Sosa, Z. A.; Mahieu, E.; Franco, B.; Keller, C. A.; Turner, A. J.; Helmig, D.; Fried, A.; Richter, D.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Blake, D. R.; Hase, F.; Hannigan, J. W.; Conway, S.; Strong, K.; Schneider, M.; Fischer, E. V.

    2017-02-01

    Recent measurements over the Northern Hemisphere indicate that the long-term decline in the atmospheric burden of ethane (C2H6) has ended and the abundance increased dramatically between 2010 and 2014. The rise in C2H6 atmospheric abundances has been attributed to oil and natural gas extraction in North America. Existing global C2H6 emission inventories are based on outdated activity maps that do not account for current oil and natural gas exploitation regions. We present an updated global C2H6 emission inventory based on 2010 satellite-derived CH4 fluxes with adjusted C2H6 emissions over the U.S. from the National Emission Inventory (NEI 2011). We contrast our global 2010 C2H6 emission inventory with one developed for 2001. The C2H6 difference between global anthropogenic emissions is subtle (7.9 versus 7.2 Tg yr-1), but the spatial distribution of the emissions is distinct. In the 2010 C2H6 inventory, fossil fuel sources in the Northern Hemisphere represent half of global C2H6 emissions and 95% of global fossil fuel emissions. Over the U.S., unadjusted NEI 2011 C2H6 emissions produce mixing ratios that are 14-50% of those observed by aircraft observations (2008-2014). When the NEI 2011 C2H6 emission totals are scaled by a factor of 1.4, the Goddard Earth Observing System Chem model largely reproduces a regional suite of observations, with the exception of the central U.S., where it continues to underpredict observed mixing ratios in the lower troposphere. We estimate monthly mean contributions of fossil fuel C2H6 emissions to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate surface mixing ratios over North America of 1% and 8%, respectively.

  8. [Shared decision making: a scoping review].

    PubMed

    Guarinoni, Milena Giovanna; Dignani, Lucia; Motta, Paolo Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Scopo. L’obiettivo primario dello studio è implementare e utilizzare uno strumento validato per misurare il fenomeno delle dimissioni difficili, che possa supportare il personale infer- mieristico nella programmazione della dimissione del paziente ricoverato nei reparti di Geria- tria e Medicina. Gli obiettivi secondari sono: - Sperimentare l’utilizzo dell’indice di BRASS - Studiare le caratteristiche della popolazione a rischio di dimissione difficile Metodo. studio osservazionale prospettico per misurare il fenomeno delle dimissioni difficili attraverso l’implementazione dell’indice di BRASS nei reparti di Geriatria e Medicina dell’Ospedale di Rovigo Ulss 18, al fine di studiare le caratteristiche della popolazione a rischio di dimissione difficile. Risultati. In un campione di 165 pazienti il 42,4% (70) era rispettivamente a rischio alto e medio di dimissione difficile, mentre il 15,2% (25) era a basso rischio. La media dei punteggi BRASS era di 18,76. Il 37,6% dei pazienti ad alto rischio erano ricoverati in Geriatria, mentre in Medicina i pazienti si concentrano maggiormente nella classe medio rischio. Conclusioni. Lo studio ha permesso di misurare il fenomeno delle dimissioni difficili classi- ficando i pazienti nei gruppi di rischio. L’analisi delle dimissioni protette ha fatto emergere la congruenza tra punteggio BRASS e caratteristiche del campione. Lo strumento non richiede tempi di compilazione lunghi, è di supporto al processo decisionale dell’infermiere perché rileva la necessità di creare un percorso strutturato sulla dimissione del paziente, in modo sistematico e programmato, evitando la dispersione di informazioni importanti al fin di garantire la continuità assistenziale.

  9. Relationship between self-reported depression and self-reported visual function in Latinos.

    PubMed

    Paz, Sylvia H; Globe, Denise R; Wu, Joanne; Azen, Stanley P; Varma, Rohit

    2003-07-01

    To validate and assess the relationship between self-reported depression as measured by a single item on the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12 (SF-12) and self-reported visual function. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study is population-based and designed to assess the prevalence of visual impairment, ocular disease, and visual functioning in Latinos. Both the 25-item National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) (self-reported visual function) and the SF-12 (health-related quality of life) were administered. A single item from the SF-12 was used to measure self-reported depression and validated against the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression measure of depression. Covariate-adjusted NEI VFQ-25 subscale scores were contrasted across the 6 response choices of the SF-12, as well as across 3 combined response categories of the SF-12 using analysis of covariance. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses assessed the contribution of self-reported depression in explaining self-reported visual function. The sensitivity and specificity of the SF-12 single item with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression measure was 0.96 and 0.50, respectively. Using the 3 combined response categories of the SF-12 single item, it was found that (1) all covariate-adjusted subscales of the NEI VFQ-25 were statistically significantly different across the self-reported depression categories (P<.001) and (2) covariate-adjusted self-reported depression was a significant predictor of self-reported visual function (P<.001). A single SF-12 item may be used as a measure of self-reported depression. In addition, self-reported depression is an important covariate to consider when assessing self-reported visual function in Latinos.

  10. Genome-scale mRNA and small RNA transcriptomic insights into initiation of citrus apomixis.

    PubMed

    Long, Jian-Mei; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Fang, Yan-Ni; Jia, Hui-Hui; Xie, Zong-Zhou; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2016-10-01

    Nucellar embryony (NE) is an adventitious form of apomixis common in citrus, wherein asexual embryos initiate directly from nucellar cells surrounding the embryo sac. NE enables the fixation of desirable agronomic traits and the production of clonal offspring of virus-free rootstock, but impedes progress in hybrid breeding. In spite of the great importance of NE in citrus breeding and commercial production, little is understood about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, the stages of nucellar embryo initiation (NEI) were determined for two polyembryonic citrus cultivars via histological observation. To explore the genes and regulatory pathways involved in NEI, we performed mRNA-seq and sRNA-seq analyses of ovules immediately prior to and at stages during NEI in the two pairs of cultivars. A total of 305 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the poly- and monoembryonic ovules. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that several processes are significantly enriched based on DEGs. In particular, response to stress, and especially response to oxidative stress, was over-represented in polyembryonic ovules. Nearly 150 miRNAs, comprising ~90 conserved and ~60 novel miRNAs, were identified in the ovules of either cultivar pair. Only two differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified, of which the novel miRN23-5p was repressed whereas the targets accumulated in the polyembryonic ovules. This integrated study on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory profiles between poly- and monoembryonic citrus ovules provides new insights into the mechanism of NE, which should contribute to revealing the regulatory mechanisms of plant apomixis.

  11. Genome-scale mRNA and small RNA transcriptomic insights into initiation of citrus apomixis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jian-Mei; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Fang, Yan-Ni; Jia, Hui-Hui; Xie, Zong-Zhou; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Nucellar embryony (NE) is an adventitious form of apomixis common in citrus, wherein asexual embryos initiate directly from nucellar cells surrounding the embryo sac. NE enables the fixation of desirable agronomic traits and the production of clonal offspring of virus-free rootstock, but impedes progress in hybrid breeding. In spite of the great importance of NE in citrus breeding and commercial production, little is understood about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, the stages of nucellar embryo initiation (NEI) were determined for two polyembryonic citrus cultivars via histological observation. To explore the genes and regulatory pathways involved in NEI, we performed mRNA-seq and sRNA-seq analyses of ovules immediately prior to and at stages during NEI in the two pairs of cultivars. A total of 305 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the poly- and monoembryonic ovules. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that several processes are significantly enriched based on DEGs. In particular, response to stress, and especially response to oxidative stress, was over-represented in polyembryonic ovules. Nearly 150 miRNAs, comprising ~90 conserved and ~60 novel miRNAs, were identified in the ovules of either cultivar pair. Only two differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified, of which the novel miRN23-5p was repressed whereas the targets accumulated in the polyembryonic ovules. This integrated study on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory profiles between poly- and monoembryonic citrus ovules provides new insights into the mechanism of NE, which should contribute to revealing the regulatory mechanisms of plant apomixis. PMID:27619233

  12. Targeting farnesyl-transferase as a novel therapeutic strategy for mevalonate kinase deficiency: in vitro and in vivo approaches.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Luigina; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Decorti, Giuliana; Tommasini, Alberto; Crovella, Sergio; Pontillo, Alessandra

    2010-06-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a rare inborn auto-inflammatory disease due to the impairment of the pathway for the biosynthesis of cholesterol and non-sterol isoprenoids. The shortage of isoprenoids compounds and in particular of geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP) was recently associated to the MKD characteristic inflammatory attacks. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that the normalization of the mevalonate pathway intermediates levels and in particular of GGPP, through the specific inhibition of farnesyl-transferase (FT) with Manumycin A could ameliorate the inflammatory phenotype of MKD patients. The effect of Manumycin A was first evaluated in MKD mouse and cellular models, chemically obtained using the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALD), and then in monocytes isolated from 2 MKD patients. Our findings were compared to those obtained by using natural exogenous isoprenoids (NEIs). Manumycin A was able to significantly reduce the inflammatory marker serum amyloid A in ALD-treated Balb/c mice, as well as IL-1 beta secretion in ALD-monocytes and in MKD patients. These results clearly showed that, through the inhibition of FT, an increased number of mevalonate pathway intermediates could be redirected towards the synthesis of GGPP diminishing the inflammatory response. The importance in limiting the shortage of GGPP was emphasized by the anti-inflammatory effect of NEIs that, due to their biochemical structure, can enter the MKD pathway. In conclusion, manumycin A, as well as NEIs, showed anti-inflammatory effect in MKD models and especially in MKD-monocytes, suggesting novel approaches in the treatment of MKD, an orphan disease without any efficacious treatment currently available.

  13. Is glaucoma comprehension associated with psychological disturbance and vision-related quality of life for patients with glaucoma? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang Mei; Zhu, Wen Qing; Hong, Jia Xu; Sun, Xing Huai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether understanding of glaucoma is associated with psychological disturbance and vision-related quality of life (QoL) in patients with glaucoma. Design A prospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional study. Setting Shanghai, China. Participants Five hundred patients with glaucoma were included in the study. Participants were asked to complete the glaucoma comprehension questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire, and the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). Outcome measures Sociodemographic data and clinical data were collected. Multivariate adjusted linear regression analyses were performed to examine factors related to psychological disorder and QoL. The relationship between understanding of glaucoma and psychological status or QoL was analysed. Results The mean age of patients was 56.5±17.2 years, and the mean duration of glaucoma was 4.6±6.3 years. About half (54.2%) of the patients had primary open angle glaucoma, 37.2% had primary angle closure glaucoma, and 8.6% had secondary glaucoma. The total score and the subscores of knowledge of glaucoma, compliance and habits were all negatively correlated with the HADS-Depression and HADS scores. For NEI VFQ-25, the total comprehension score was positively related to general vision, near activity, distance activity, social function, colour vision and the composite score. Habits had a significant influence on both HADS-Depression and the composite score of NEI VFQ-25. Conclusions The level of understanding about glaucoma is an independent factor negatively associated with psychological disturbance and positively associated with QoL in patients with glaucoma. However, it is a subjective factor which can be regulated, so imparting knowledge about glaucoma and establishing appropriate habits might help patients alleviate psychological disturbance and enhance their QoL. PMID:24861547

  14. Force Level Automated Planning Systems (FLAPS) User’s Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    targets is *onsiszent vi:n mne airzraft resources . * ~ Zem fi-’ e (NE)is a list of the number of veapons oi. each :ype available at the staging base. 7he...34’- A’ UR61’r~ "&N OM -93 ..-....... UNCLASSI F IED,".’. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE -I. la CLASSIFICATION lb RE...government -. ncy and should be in accordance with ANSI STD 239.23-74. If the Monitoring Agency is the same as theBlock lb . Restricted Marking: Enter the

  15. Functional Visual Improvement After Cataract Surgery in Eyes With Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Results of the Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michael V; Vollman, David E; Baze, Elizabeth F; Chomsky, Amy S; Daly, Mary K; Lawrence, Mary G

    2015-04-01

    To determine if cataract surgery on eyes with AMD confers as much functional visual improvement as surgery on eyes without retinal pathology. This is a retrospective analysis of 4924 cataract surgeries from the Veterans Healthcare Administration Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project (OSOD). We included cases of eyes with AMD that had both preoperative and postoperative NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaires submitted and compared their outcomes with controls without retinal pathology. We excluded patients with other retinal pathologies (740 patients). The analyses compared changes in visual acuity and overall functional visual improvement and its subscales using t-tests, multivariate logistic regressions, and linear regression modeling. Preoperative and postoperative questionnaires were submitted by 58.3% of AMD and 63.8% of no retinal pathology cases (controls). Analysis of overall score showed that cataract surgery on eyes with AMD led to increased visual function (13.8 ± 2.4 NEI-VFQ units, P < 0.0001); however, increases were significantly less when compared with controls (-6.4 ± 2.9 NEI-VFQ units, P < 0.0001). Preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (preBCVA) in AMD was predictive of postoperative visual function (r = -0.38, P < 0.0001). In controls, postoperative visual function was only weakly associated with preBCVA (r = -0.075, P = 0.0002). Patients with AMD with vision of 20/40 or better had overall outcomes similar to controls (-2.2 ± 4.7 NEI-VFQ units, P = 0.37). Cataract surgery on eyes with AMD offers an increase in functional visual improvement; however, the amount of benefit is associated with the eye's preBCVA. For eyes with preBCVA of 20/40 or greater, the improvement is similar to that of patients without retinal pathology. However, if preBCVA is less than 20/40, the amount of improvement was shown to be significantly less and decreased with decreasing preBCVA.

  16. Sequence of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase II inCryptopygus nanjiensis and Phylogeny of Apterygota.

    PubMed

    Shao, H; Zhang, Y; Ke, X; Yue, Q; Yin, W

    2000-12-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (Co II) from four different apterygotensCryptopygus nanjiensis (Collembola),Neanura latior (Collembola),Gracilentulus maijiawensis (Protura) andLepidocampa weberi (Diplura) were sequenced. Their A+T content, number of nucleotide substitutions, TV/TV ratio, and Tamura-Nei's distance were calculated. A series of phylogenetic trees were constructed by parsimony and distance methods using a crustaceanArtemia franciscana as outgroup. Finally the evolutionary trend A+T content of CO II genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of apterygotan groups were discussed.

  17. [Gene pool differentiation between Altaic and trotting horse breeds inferred from ISSR-PCR marker data].

    PubMed

    Feofilov, A V; Bardukov, N V; Glazko, V I

    2011-09-01

    Using ISSR-PCR marker data, comparative analysis of the gene pools of Altaic and trotting horse breeds was carried out. Horse groups of different origin demonstrated differences in amplification spectra of DNA fragments flanked by inverted repeats of four microsatellites. Combinations of certain DNA fragments present in these profiles reproducibly distinguished genomes of the Altaic breed from the trotting breeds. Genetic differentiation between some trotting breeds, based on Nei genetic distance values, was found to be comparable to that between the groups of horses of Altaic breed from two different farms.

  18. Computerized Support of the Pretrial Confinement Decision-Making Process in the Marine Corps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    C W CAMPBELL MAR 88 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 5 / 5 NL/////I///I E/II/I//II///I E//I/////////E /III/////////I EII//////////E /////////I//I/h I lfllfllfllflfflf...public release; 2b. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE distribution is unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 5 . MONITORING...UNCLASSIFIEDUNLIMITED 0 SAME AS RPT. 0 DTIC USERS Unclassified 22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TE8EP 0NEI Prof. David R. Henderson (4 5oe t DD FORM 1473

  19. Impact of Visual Field Loss on Health-Related Quality of Life in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Wang, Ying; Wu, Joanne; Azen, Stanley P.; Varma, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and visual field (VF) loss in participants with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES). Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants Two hundred thirteen participants with OAG and 2821 participants without glaucoma or VF loss. Methods Participants in the LALES—a population-based prevalence study of eye disease in Latinos 40 years and older, residing in Los Angeles, California—underwent a detailed eye examination including an assessment of their VF using the Humphrey Automated Field Analyzer (Swedish interactive thresholding algorithm Standard 24-2). Open-angle glaucoma was determined by clinical examination. Mean deviation scores were used to assess severity of VF loss. Health-related QOL was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). Linear regression and analysis of covariance were used to assess the relationship between HRQOL scores and VF loss after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and visual acuity. Main Outcome Measures The 25-item NEI-VFQ and SF-12 scores. Results A trend of worse NEI-VFQ-25 scores for most subscales was observed with worse VF loss (using both monocular and calculated binocular data). Open-angle glaucoma participants with VF loss had lower scores than participants with no VF loss. This association was also present in participants who were previously undiagnosed and untreated for OAG (N = 160). Participants with any central VF loss had lower NEI-VFQ-25 scores than those with unilateral or bilateral peripheral VF loss. There was no significant impact of severity or location of VF loss on SF-12 scores. Conclusion Greater severity of VF loss in persons with OAG impacts vision-related QOL. This impact was present in persons who were previously unaware that they had glaucoma. Prevention of VF

  20. Further Development of a One-Dimensional Unsteady Euler Code for Wave Rotor Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    precision value of N NEW**(I) Stored values of ** for the next time level PARRAY Array of pressures for plotting Pi/Pj PR The ratio of the pressure...NtBERI C NO - DOUBLE PRECISION VALUE OF N C NEI4**(I)- STORED VALUES OF M* FOR THE NEXT TIME LEVEL C PARRAY - ARRAY OF PRESSURES FOR PLOTTING C PRI... PARRAY ,DARRAY .SARRAY ,QARRAY ,XARRAY COMMONt AR*DQIIVSPN C --- ENTER THE APPROPRIATE VALUES BE LOM --- Na 101 GRAPHSa1 C C --- FOR GRAPH a 1 OR 2

  1. (π−1) → (π−1), (π−1) emission spectra of chlorofluorobenzene cations in the gaseous phase and their lifetimes in the (0o) states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, John Paul; Marthaler, O.; Mohraz, Manijeh; Shiley, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The radiative decay of seventeen electronically excited chlorofluorobenzene cations in the gaseous phase has been detected. The reported emission spectra, which have been obtained using low energy electron beam excitation, are assigned to the B(??-1 ??? X(??-1 electronic transitions of these cations on the basis of their Ne(I) photoelectron spectra. In another sixteen chloroflourobenzene cations, the B ??? X radiative decay could not be detected, from which is inferred that the B states are now associated with Cl 3p(??-1 ionisation processes. The lifetimes of the studied cations in the lowest vibrational levels of the B(??-1 state have been measured. ?? 1980.

  2. Maintaining a highly-qualified nuclear industry workforce.

    PubMed

    McAndrew-Benavides, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001, the nuclear industry has conducted a series of staffing assessments to better understand workforce demographics and predict future workforce demands. The industry's 2007 workforce survey indicated that in the next 5 y, up to 35% of the current nuclear workforce could retire and would need to be replaced. Thousands of individuals will need to be hired to replace the retirees, especially in engineering, maintenance and operations. Because of the challenges at hand, NEI convened the Workforce Working Group to make recommendations to address recruitment, retention and education needs. Their recommendations are now being implemented. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  3. The augmentation algorithm and molecular phylogenetic trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1978-01-01

    Moore's (1977) augmentation procedure is discussed, and it is concluded that the procedure is valid for obtaining estimates of the total number of fixed nucleotide substitutions both theoretically and in practice, for both simulated and real data, and in agreement, for experimentally dense data sets, with stochastic estimates of the divergence, provided the restrictions on codon mutability resulting from natural selection are explicitly allowed for. Tateno and Nei's (1978) critique that the augmentation procedure has a systematic bias toward overestimation of the total number of nucleotide replacements is disputed, and a data analysis suggests that ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony contain a large number of incorrectly assigned nucleotides.

  4. The Evolution of Successful Satellite Science to Air Quality Application Projects: From Inception to Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Teams of scientist have been working for almost a decade with state, local, regional and federal Air Quality regulators and scientists on several projects that have been focused on improving biomass burning emissions within our nation's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Initially, the NEI was based strictly on ground-based information that often used data aggregated from previous years reported at the county-centroid and completely ignored the spatial domain of all fires. This methodology resulted in gross inaccuracies; however it was an ingrained system and the users and organizations were largely comfortable. Improvements were viewed as too costly. Our task was to convince regulators, managers and users of the value that could be added by using satellite data to enhance the NEI. Certainly, there were individuals that understood the value of using satellite data, but they needed support to convince the establishment of the intrinsic, cost-effective value of publically-available satellite data. It was essential to present arguments, as well as requested verification and validation statistics, in the format that most suited the objectives of application organizations. This process incorporated: knowledge of state-of-the-art satellite data, algorithms and science; a working knowledge of the users applications and requirements; interacting with individuals with a variety of skill sets and goals; and perhaps most importantly, listening to the goals and responsibilities of the user community and fully communicating. Today, the Environmental Protection Agency and several state and regional organizations are using satellite data to estimate biomass burnings emissions at daily and annual scales for a number of critical environmental management and policy activities including regulation setting and regional strategy development for attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We continue to work at the local, state and federal levels to improve the

  5. [The classification method of syndromes in the Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold)].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaowei; Zheng, Wenjie; Ma, Mingyue; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-03-01

    Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold) epitomizes the medical achievements of the Tang Dynasty with an extensive coverage. The classification method of syndromes in this book is derived from Nei jing (Inner Canon), Nan jing (Classic of Questioning), Shang han za bing lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases), Zhu bing yuan hou lun (General Treatise on Causes and Manifestations of All Diseases), and enlightens the later generation with many unique characteristics, reflecting the mature recognition of the diseases in the contemporary clinical medicine from one side. It is still of great significance for understanding the diseases and exploring its pathogenesis even today.

  6. Ellington AFB, Houston, Texas Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-14

    at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication... National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 1945 at 0800LST Beginning thru Jun 52 at OO30GHT Jan 46-May 57 at 123GMT Jul 52-MaY 57 at 1230CT Jun 57...A1~ it uLZBAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH USAFETAC AIR wEATER SERVICE /MAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY 1? 9 -LLINGTON AFB TX 69,72-80 AUG eAtlONl 1?ATION NEi

  7. Coronary artery bypass grafting in the octogenarian. Is complete revascularization always necessary?

    PubMed

    Concistrè, Giovanni; Dell'Aquila, Angelo Maria; Gallo, Alina; Pansini, Stefano; Piccardo, Alessandro; Rapetto, Filippo; Passerone, Giancarlo; Regesta, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    La rivascolarizzazione miocardica completa è importante nei pazienti giovani sottoposti ad intervento di bypass aortocoronarico (CABG), ma questo principio resta poco chiaro nei pazienti anziani. Lo scopo del nostro studio è valutare se la completezza della rivascolarizzazione influenzi gli outcomes negli ultraottantenni. Abbiamo analizzato retrospettivamente 130 pazienti ultraottantenni (età media: 82 ± 10 anni; range: 80-90 anni) sottoposti presso il nostro Istituto a CABG tra Gennaio 2003 e Settembre 2010. In accordo con la strategia operatoria utilizzata, i pazienti sono stati suddivisi in 2 gruppi: pazienti sottoposti a rivascolarizzazione completa (Gruppo RC) (96 pazienti) e pazienti sottoposti a rivascolarizzazione incompleta (Gruppo RI) (34 pazienti). Per rivascolarizzazione incompleta si è inteso l’assenza di bypass su un territorio miocardico vascolarizzato da una coronaria con una stenosi ≥ 50%. Il follow-up è stato completato al 98% (medio: 30 ± 25 mesi; range: 3 mesi – 7.5 anni). La mortalità intraospedaliera complessiva è stata del 13% ed è stata simile nei 2 gruppi (p=0.0553). L’analisi multivariata ha identificato la frazione di eiezione preoperatoria ≤ 40% (p=0.0060; OR=0.19) e la classe NYHA > II (p=0.0042; OR=0.17) fattori di rischio di mortalità intraospedaliera. L’analisi di Cox non ha identificato la rivascolarizzazione incompleta come fattore di rischio di mortalità precoce e tardiva (p=0.1381 e p=0.8865). Non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i 2 gruppi in termini di sopravvivenza a 5 anni e libertà da eventi cardiaci e cerebrovascolari maggiori (MACCE) (p=0.8865 e p=0.6283). Probabilmente i maggiori benefici di una rivascolarizzazione completa si hanno nei pazienti più giovani, che hanno un’aspettativa di vita maggiore. In conclusione il nostro studio mostra che, seppur con una limitata coorte di pazienti, negli ultraottantenni sottoposti a CABG la rivascolarizzazione incompleta non influenza la sopravvivenza

  8. Evaluation of the Morpho-physiology characteristics of maize inbred lines introduced from CIMMYT to identify the best candidates for planting in acidic soil in Jasinga, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, K.; Sutjahjo, S. H.; Syukur, M.; Trikoesoemaningtyas

    2016-08-01

    Technological developments and climate change have affected crop planting strategies. For example, maize production has expanded to sub-optimal lands, including acidic soil common in areas like Indonesia. Breeding programs have created inbred lines of maize introduced from CIMMYT; they were tested locally in acidic soils to determine their adaptability and tolerance mechanisms. Breeds CLA 46 and NEI 9008 were found to be excellent candidates for acidic soil due to their ASI, high number of grains per year, and suitable dry seed weight.

  9. Health Related Quality of Life after Surgical Removal of An Eye

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Takaaki; Tillman, Walter T.; Schwartz, Terry L.; Linberg, John V.; Odom, J. Vernon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study compared the general health related quality of life (HRQOL) and the vision specific HRQOL in patients following the surgical removal of one eye who had good vision in the remaining eye to a group of binocular patients with good vision in both eyes. Methods The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 (SF-12) and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ) health related quality of life (HRQOL) surveys were administered to 29 patients who had surgical removal of an eye who attended an ocular prosthetics clinic and to 25 binocular persons who accompanied a patient. All subjects in each group had best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Overall statistical significance was tested using Cramer's V followed by individual t-tests for independent groups for each of the scales on the two questionnaires to determine if the means between the two groups differed statistically. Results The patient group had a mean age of 50.98 years (range 19 to 76). The control group had a mean age of 49.46 years (range 18 to 76). The mean time after loss of vision was 28.03 years (range 1-71 years) and the mean time from surgical removal of the eye was 23.6 years (range 0.5 to 59.5). There was an overall significant difference between the two groups on the 15 derived subscales of the two forms (Cramer's V, p = 0.0025). Three general HRQOL subscales (SF-12- mental component summary (MCS), SF-12 physical component summary (PCS), NEI VFQ-General Health) showed no differences between the two groups (p = 0.48, p = 0.81, p = 0.78 respectively). Three of the twelve vision specific NEI VFQ subscales demonstrated statistically significant differences between the patient and control groups: peripheral vision (p = 0.0006), role difficulties (p = 0.015) and the composite score (p = 0.014). Additionally, two monocular patients had given up driving compared to no binocular subjects (p = 0.056). Conclusions This population of monocular patients had general

  10. Enhanced Low Temperature Performance Of Li-Ion Batteries Using Nanophase Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    methanol to form a slurry. The dried and mixed reactant mixture was heated at 800°C for 12 h in air. The sample was reground, pelletized and heated...a 1:1 (wt.) mixture of propylene carbonate (PC) and 1,2- dimethoxyethanen ( DME ) electrolyte. A Tenney Environmental Oven was used to provide...Particle size 2] Rate EXPERIMENTAL •Materials (2 different particle sizes) NEI-Li4Ti5O12 ARL-Li4Ti5O12 (solid state reaction ) •Characterization

  11. Multichannel interactions in the resonant photoionization of HCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. G.; Leroi, G. E.; Ho, M.-H.; Poliakoff, E. D.

    1987-12-01

    Vibrational state distributions of the A 2Σ+ excited state of HCl+ were measured by dispersed fluorescence following resonant photoionization. Autoionization of levels excited at the NeI resonance line strongly influence the vibrational branching ratios of the A 2Σ+ state although not in accord with the propensity rule expected for vibrational autoionization. Other measurements utilizing total fluorescence yields and synchrotron radiation confirm the presence of competing dissociation channels for autoionizing Rydberg states converging to the A 2Σ+ limit. These results are discussed in terms of the multichannel interactions responsible for determining the observed ion and fragment product distributions.

  12. Modelling of Molecular Structures and Properties in Physical Chemistry and Biophysics, Forty-Fourth International Meeting (Modelisation des Structures et Proprietes Moleculaires en Chimie Physique et en Biophysique, Quarante- Quatrieme Reunion Internationale)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Verlaao, NE-i York, 1970 7 .H.nhh- , ltrvi’otric. Calr:iluls, Cambridne vi.~srn~~ L - ,.... 23 CLASSIFICATION DE MOLECULES CHIMIQUES :PRESENTATION D’*UNE...described. 34 Base Sequence Effects and Transitions in DNA Richard Lavery Institut de Biologie Physico - Chimique 13, rue Pierre et Marie Curie Paris...Ddparternent de Biologie. CEN-Saciay. Gif-sur-Yvette 2Laboratoire d’Enzvmoiogie Physico - Chimique et Mol~culaire. Bat 430. Universitd Paris-Sud. 91-03

  13. Earthquakes in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stover, C.

    1977-01-01

    To supplement data in the report Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE), the National earthquake Information Service (NEIS) also publishes a quarterly circular, Earthquakes in the United States. This provides information on the felt area of U.S earthquakes and their intensity. The main purpose is to describe the larger effects of these earthquakes so that they can be used in seismic risk studies, site evaluations for nuclear power plants, and answering inquiries by the general public.

  14. Investigation of Springing Responses on the Great Lakes Ore Carrier M/V STEWART J. CORT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    NCOMM, NADC, AVG. RMS, MAX. MIN, COUNT) C C C C C C C WRITTEN BY JOHN DAVIES 15-MARCH- 1976 C C MOD 2 BY NEI) W. RHODES 11-MAY-76 C MOD 3 BY NED W...see Appendix I for sample derivation), that the following equations from Report International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 23, June 1976 .- No...June 1976 . G-8 APPENDIX I MODIFICATIONS TO INCLUDE VARIABLE HEADINGS -I9 0-9 SAMPLE DERIVATION For example, the termi in Equation 12 becomes -kd* f kd

  15. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  16. Vision-related quality of life: 12-month aflibercept treatment in patients with treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meidong; Wijeyakumar, Wijeyanthy; Syed, Adil R; Joachim, Nichole; Hong, Thomas; Broadhead, Geoffrey K; Li, Haitao; Luo, Kehui; Chang, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    To assess changes in vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) among patients with treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) following intravitreal aflibercept treatment over 48 weeks. We conducted a prospective study in which 49 patients with nAMD resistant to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy were switched to intravitreal aflibercept. Patients were treated with three loading doses every 4 weeks followed by injections every 8 weeks, for a total of 48 weeks. Ophthalmic examinations performed at each visit included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) measurement. The National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (NEI VFQ-25) was used to assess VR-QoL at baseline and weeks 24 and 48. Changes in NEI VFQ-25 composite and subscale scores were analyzed using paired t tests. The relationship between the change in VR-QoL and changes in BCVA and CMT, and the impact of the better-seeing eye (BSE, defined as the eye reading the greater number of letters at baseline) vs. the worse-seeing eye (WSE, the fellow eye to the BSE) were assessed. Mean NEI VFQ-25 composite scores improved significantly at weeks 24 and 48 compared to baseline (4.5 ± 9.2 and 4.4 ± 11.8, respectively, all p < 0.01). Among subscales, general vision and near and distance activities showed significant improvements at weeks 24 and 48 (all p < 0.05). Improvement in the NEI VFQ-25 composite score was significantly associated with increased BCVA at week 48 (β coefficient = 0.43, p = 0.029), but not with change in CMT (β coefficient = -0.007, p = 0.631). There was no association between VR-QoL changes and BSE or WSE. Despite previous anti-VEGF treatment in this cohort, overall VR-QoL improved following aflibercept therapy over 48 weeks. This improvement was related to improved vision in treatment eyes regardless of whether they were the BSE or WSE.

  17. [Acupoint Selection Laws for Massage Therapy of Infantile Anorexia: an Analysis Based on Data Mining].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Wang Jie; Wang, Yan-guo

    2016-06-01

    Massage prescriptions for treating infantile anorexia in Chinese Academic Journal Full-Text Database (CNKI, 1979-2012), Chinese Scientific and Technological Journal Full-Text Database (VIP, 1989-2012) and Wanfang Database (1990-2012) were collected. By using Chinese Medicine Inheritance Auxiliary Platform (Version 2.0) Software, 286 massage prescriptions for treatment of infantile anorexia were screened involved 76 acupoints, 20 commonly used acupoints, and 57 core acupoint combinations. Infantile Tuina specific points were used as main acupoints in massage therapy for infantile anorexia, and core acupoints covered Jizhu, Pi meridian, abdomen, Nei-Bagua, Zusanli (ST36), and Ban-men.

  18. Genetic diversity of Pinus nigra Arn. populations in Southern Spain and Northern Morocco revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat profiles.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Candel-Perez, David; Lucas-Borja, Manuel E; Tiscar, Pedro A; Viñegla, Benjamin; Linares, Juan C; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2012-01-01

    Eight Pinus nigra Arn. populations from Southern Spain and Northern Morocco were examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers to characterize the genetic variability amongst populations. Pair-wise population genetic distance ranged from 0.031 to 0.283, with a mean of 0.150 between populations. The highest inter-population average distance was between PaCU from Cuenca and YeCA from Cazorla, while the lowest distance was between TaMO from Morocco and MA Sierra Mágina populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and Nei's genetic diversity analyses revealed higher genetic variation within the same population than among different populations. Genetic differentiation (Gst) was 0.233. Cuenca showed the highest Nei's genetic diversity followed by the Moroccan region, Sierra Mágina, and Cazorla region. However, clustering of populations was not in accordance with their geographical locations. Principal component analysis showed the presence of two major groups-Group 1 contained all populations from Cuenca while Group 2 contained populations from Cazorla, Sierra Mágina and Morocco-while Bayesian analysis revealed the presence of three clusters. The low genetic diversity observed in PaCU and YeCA is probably a consequence of inappropriate management since no estimation of genetic variability was performed before the silvicultural treatments. Data indicates that the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) method is sufficiently informative and powerful to assess genetic variability among populations of P. nigra.

  19. Preoperative localization of distal colorectal tumours.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Savas; Kinaci, Erdem; Ozakay, Abdulkerim; Bektas, Ceyda Turan; Yardimci, Aytul Hande; Arslan, Esra; Sevinc, Mert Mahsuni; Bektas, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    L’identificazione della reale sede del tutmore è essenziale per la formulazione di un adatto algoritmo nei cancri localizzati distalmente nel colon-retto (CTC). In questo studio è stata indagata l’efficacia della localizzazione di tumori distali del colon-retto di quattro metodologia: la colonscopia, la TAC, l’imaging della RMN, e la PET con fluoro-18-desossi-glicosio tomografia computerizzata (CT), analizzando retrospettivamente le cartelle cliniche di 156 pazienti affetti, Fluorodeoxyglucose -positron emission tomography scan da tumore del colon-sigma, della giunzione retto sigmoidea e del retto sottoposti a trattamento chirurgico. Per quanto riguarda l’accuratezza delle quattro metodologie essa è risultata simile: 74% per la clolonscopia, 67% per la TAC, 75% per la RMN e 74% con la PET. La colonscopia è risultata meno sensibile nei tumori retto-sigmoidei (33%) mentre la TAC è risultata meno sensibile (26%) e la RMN meno specifica (33%) per i tumori del retto. In conclusione, confermando l’importanza di poter localizzare correttamente i tumori distali del colon retto al fine di determinare le strategia più accurate del trattamento, le indagini preoperatorie non forniscono dati di adeguata accuratezza per i tumori colon rettali distali, e solo l’uso combinato di esse può accrescere il risultato cercato.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the hybridizing fire-bellied toads, Bombina bombina and B. variegata.

    PubMed

    Szymura, J M; Uzzell, T; Spolsky, C

    2000-07-01

    Using five restriction enzymes, geographical variation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Bombina bombina and B. variegata was studied in samples from 20 locations. Each restriction enzyme produced a species-specific fragment pattern. B. bombina haplotypes A and B were closely related to each other. In contrast, haplotypes A and B of B. variegata formed two distinct lineages. A very distinctive haplotype (C) was found in the Carpathian Mountains, whereas two other haplotypes, D and E (differing by a single AvaI site), were present in western Europe and the Balkans, respectively. Populations polymorphic for haplotypes D and E occurred in the central Balkans where the haplotypes could replace each other clinally. mtDNA sequence divergence between B. bombina and B. variegata was estimated as 6.0-8.1% and 4.7-5.2% between type C and types D/E of B. variegata. The latter divergence is contrary to allozyme and morphological data that place the western and Carpathian B. v. variegata together (Nei's D = 0.07) and separate them from the Balkan subspecies B. v. scabra (Nei's D = 0.18). Broad interspecific correlation among morphology, allozymes and mtDNA types in European fire-bellied toads argues that, despite continuous hybridization (interrupted perhaps during Pleistocene glacial maxima), little or no mtDNA introgression between the species has occurred outside the narrow hybrid zones that separate these parapatric species.

  1. A novel role for Escherichia coli endonuclease VIII in prevention of spontaneous G-->T transversions.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, J O; Hatahet, Z; Wallace, S S

    1999-10-01

    In the bacterium Escherichia coli, oxidized pyrimidines are removed by two DNA glycosylases, endonuclease III and endonuclease VIII (endo VIII), encoded by the nth and nei genes, respectively. Double mutants lacking both of these activities exhibit a high spontaneous mutation frequency, and here we show that all of the mutations observed in the double mutants were G:C-->A:T transitions; no thymine mutations were found. These findings are in agreement with the preponderance of C-->T transitions in the oxidative and spontaneous mutational databases. The major oxidized purine lesion in DNA, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), is processed by two DNA glycosylases, formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which removes 8-oxoG opposite C, and MutY DNA glycosylase, which removes misincorporated A opposite 8-oxoG. The high spontaneous mutation frequency previously observed in fpg mutY double mutants was significantly enhanced by the addition of the nei mutation, suggesting an overlap in the substrate specificities between endo VIII and Fpg/MutY. When the mutational specificity was examined, all of the mutations observed were G:C-->T:A transversions, indicating that in the absence of Fpg and MutY, endo VIII serves as a backup activity to remove 8-oxoG. This was confirmed by showing that, indeed, endo VIII can recognize 8-oxoG in vitro.

  2. The effective size of mixed sexually and asexually reproducing populations.

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Katsuei; Ishii, Takuro; Nagamine, Tsukasa

    2004-01-01

    Using the transition matrix of inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, the inbreeding (N(eI)), variance (N(eV)), and asymptotic (N(e lambda)) effective sizes of mixed sexual and asexual populations are formulated in terms of asexuality rate (delta), variance of asexual (C) and sexual (K) reproductive contributions of individuals, correlation between asexual and sexual contributions (rho(ck)), selfing rate (beta), and census population size (N). The trajectory of N(eI) toward N(e lambda) changes crucially depending on delta, N, and beta, whereas that of N(eV) is rather consistent. With increasing asexuality, N(e lambda) either increases or decreases depending on C, K, and rho(ck). The parameter space in which a partially asexual population has a larger N(e lambda) than a fully sexual population is delineated. This structure is destroyed when N(1 - delta) < 1 or delta > 1 - 1/N. With such a high asexuality, tremendously many generations are required for the asymptotic size N(e lambda) to be established, and N(e lambda) is extremely large with any value of C, K, and rho(ck) because the population is dominated eventually by individuals of the same genotype and the allelic diversity within the individuals decays quite slowly. In reality, the asymptotic state would occur only occasionally, and instantaneous rather than asymptotic effective sizes should be practical when predicting evolutionary dynamics of highly asexual populations. PMID:15082566

  3. The neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis-like pathway mediated by circulating haemocytes in pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Jiang, Qiufen; Yi, Qilin; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2017-01-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of host. In this study, a neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis (NIA)-like pathway mediated by the nervous system and haemocytes was characterized in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Once invaded pathogen was recognized by the host, the nervous system would temporally release neurotransmitters to modulate the immune response. Instead of acting passively, oyster haemocytes were able to mediate neuronal immunomodulation promptly by controlling the expression of specific neurotransmitter receptors on cell surface and modulating their binding sensitivities, thus regulating intracellular concentration of Ca2+. This neural immunomodulation mediated by the nervous system and haemocytes could influence cellular immunity in oyster by affecting mRNA expression level of TNF genes, and humoral immunity by affecting the activities of key immune-related enzymes. In summary, though simple in structure, the ‘nervous-haemocyte’ NIA-like pathway regulates both cellular and humoral immunity in oyster, meaning a world to the effective immune regulation of the NEI network. PMID:28077596

  4. ISSR Marker Based Population Genetic Study of Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz: A Commercially Important Bamboo of Manipur, North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Nilkanta, Heikrujam; Amom, Thoungamba; Rahaman, Hamidur

    2017-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz is an economically important bamboo of North-East India experiencing population depletion in its natural habitats. Genetic variation studies were conducted in 7 populations sampled from 5 districts of Manipur using ISSR molecular markers. The investigation was carried out as a primary step towards developing effective conservation strategies for the protection of bamboo germplasm. ISSR marker analysis showed significant level of genetic variation within the populations as revealed by moderately high average values of Nei's genetic diversity (H 0.1639), Shannon's diversity index (I 0.2563), percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB 59.18), total genetic variation (Ht 0.1961), and genetic diversity within population (Hs 0.1639). The study also divulged a high genetic variation at species level with Shannon's diversity index (I), Nei's genetic diversity (H), and percentage of polymorphic band (PPB%) recorded at 0.3218, 0.1939, and 88.37, respectively. Genetic differentiation among the populations (Gst) was merely 19.42% leaving 80.58% of genetic variation exhibited within the populations. The low genetic diversity between populations was consistent with AMOVA. The low genetic differentiation among populations coupled with existence of significantly high genetic diversity at species level indicated the urgent necessity of preserving and protecting all the existing natural bamboo populations in the region. PMID:28168084

  5. ISSR Marker Based Population Genetic Study of Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz: A Commercially Important Bamboo of Manipur, North-East India.

    PubMed

    Nilkanta, Heikrujam; Amom, Thoungamba; Tikendra, Leimapokpam; Rahaman, Hamidur; Nongdam, Potshangbam

    2017-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz is an economically important bamboo of North-East India experiencing population depletion in its natural habitats. Genetic variation studies were conducted in 7 populations sampled from 5 districts of Manipur using ISSR molecular markers. The investigation was carried out as a primary step towards developing effective conservation strategies for the protection of bamboo germplasm. ISSR marker analysis showed significant level of genetic variation within the populations as revealed by moderately high average values of Nei's genetic diversity (H 0.1639), Shannon's diversity index (I 0.2563), percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB 59.18), total genetic variation (Ht 0.1961), and genetic diversity within population (Hs 0.1639). The study also divulged a high genetic variation at species level with Shannon's diversity index (I), Nei's genetic diversity (H), and percentage of polymorphic band (PPB%) recorded at 0.3218, 0.1939, and 88.37, respectively. Genetic differentiation among the populations (Gst) was merely 19.42% leaving 80.58% of genetic variation exhibited within the populations. The low genetic diversity between populations was consistent with AMOVA. The low genetic differentiation among populations coupled with existence of significantly high genetic diversity at species level indicated the urgent necessity of preserving and protecting all the existing natural bamboo populations in the region.

  6. Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Nolan, John M; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Beatty, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between macular pigment (MP) and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 121 subjects with early AMD enrolled as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787) were assessed using a range of psychophysical measures of visual function, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), letter contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic CS, mesopic and photopic glare disability (GD), photostress recovery time (PRT), reading performance and subjective visual function, using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). MP was measured using customised heterochromatic flicker photometry. Letter CS, mesopic and photopic CS, photopic GD and mean reading speed were each significantly (p<0.05) associated with MP across a range of retinal eccentricities, and these statistically significant relationships persisted after controlling for age, sex and cataract grade. BCVA, NEI VFQ-25 score, PRT and mesopic GD were unrelated to MP after controlling for age, sex and cataract grade (p>0.05, for all). MP relates positively to many measures of visual function in unsupplemented subjects with early AMD. The CREST trial will investigate whether enrichment of MP influences visual function among those afflicted with this condition. ISRCTN13894787. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) using inter simple sequence repeats markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Luo, You-Qing; Sun, Shuang-Yan; Pu, Min

    2013-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar), one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei's, H) was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling), revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (F ST = 0.2543, P < 0.001) was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei's and Shannon) and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern.

  8. Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

  9. Population structure and genetic diversity of a medicinal plant species Retama raetam in southern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Abdellaoui, Raoudha; Yahyaoui, Faouzia; Neffati, Mohamed

    2014-01-15

    Retama raetam is a stem-assimilating, C3, evergreen, medicinal plant species, desert legume common to arid ecosystems around the Mediterranean basin. This study addresses the genetic diversity and relationship among and within three populations collected from different habitats in southern Tunisia by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Estimates of the percentage of polymorphic bands, Shannon's diversity information index and Nei's gene diversity index were determined. Results showed that population from the Island Djerba has the lowest Nei's gene diversity; this also was for Shannon diversity index. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that the majority of variation existed within populations (68%) and that there was significant differentiation among populations (phiPT = 0.316, p < 0.001). Genetic distance (phiPT based values) between pairwise populations ranged from 0.098 to 0.505 and the differentiation between pair-wise populations was significant when individual pairs of populations were compared. Based on the coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst), gene flow (Nm) was estimated and was found to vary from 0.490 to 4.609 between pair-wise populations and 1.42 among populations. The results of UPGMA cluster analysis and PCoA analysis indicated that most variation occurred within populations and that genetic differentiation had happened between populations. These findings are important for a better understanding of the adaptive strategy of R. raetam in southern Tunisia and will be useful for conservation managers to work out an effective strategy to protect this important species.

  10. Genetic Dissection of New Genotypes of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker

    PubMed Central

    Rufai, Shamsuddeen; Hanafi, M. M.; Rafii, M. Y.; Ahmad, S.; Arolu, I. W.; Ferdous, Jannatul

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity of tree crop is very important for breeding and improvement program for the purpose of improving the yield and quality of its produce. Genetic diversity study and analysis of genetic relationship among 20 Moringa oleifera were carried out with the aid of twelve primers from, random amplified polymorphic DNA marker. The seeds of twenty M. oleifera genotypes from various origins were collected and germinated and raised in nursery before transplanting to the field at University Agricultural Park (TPU). Genetic diversity parameter, such as Shannon's information index and expected heterozygosity, revealed the presence of high genetic divergence with value of 1.80 and 0.13 for Malaysian population and 0.30 and 0.19 for the international population, respectively. Mean of Nei's gene diversity index for the two populations was estimated to be 0.20. In addition, a dendrogram constructed, using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance, grouped the twenty M. oleifera into five distinct clusters. The study revealed a great extent of variation which is essential for successful breeding and improvement program. From this study, M. oleifera genotypes of wide genetic origin, such as T-01, T-06, M-01, and M-02, are recommended to be used as parent in future breeding program. PMID:23862149

  11. Conservation genetics of an endangered lady's slipper orchid: Cypripedium japonicum in China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xin; Li, Quan-Jian; Liu, Fen; Gong, Mao-Jiang; Wang, Cai-Xia; Tian, Min

    2014-06-30

    Knowledge about the population genetic variation of the endangered orchid, Cypripedium japonicum, is conducive to the development of conservation strategies. Here, we examined the levels and partitioning of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) diversity (109 loci) in five populations of this orchid to gain insight into its genetic variation and population structure in Eastern and Central China. It harbored considerably lower levels of genetic diversity both at the population (percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) = 11.19%, Nei's gene diversity (H) = 0.0416 and Shannon's information index (I) = 0.0613) and species level (PPL = 38.53%, H = 0.1273 and I = 0.1928) and a significantly higher degree of differentiation among populations (the proportion of the total variance among populations (Φpt) = 0.698) than those typical of ISSR-based studies in other orchid species. Furthermore, the Nei's genetic distances between populations were independent of the corresponding geographical distances. Two main clusters are shown in an arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram, which is in agreement with the results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis and the STRUCTURE program. In addition, individuals within a population were more similar to each other than to those in other populations. Based on the genetic data and our field survey, the development of conservation management for this threatened orchid should include habitat protection, artificial gene flow and ex situ measures.

  12. The National Eye Health Education Program: increasing awareness of diabetic eye disease among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Silver, Karen; Williams, Meredith; Macario, Everly

    2006-01-01

    With the highest prevalence of diabetes in the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives are at greatest risk for diabetic eye disease (DED), a leading cause of blindness. The National Eye institute (NEI) conducted formative research to understand DED-related knowledge, identify approaches to managing this disease, and design a communication plan to increase awareness and reduce DED among these populations. The NEI conducted qualitative research at five locations in indian country with representatives from national organizations, tribal members, and healthcare providers. While diabetes ranked high on their list of primary community health issues in need of attention, study participants had only a basic level of diabetes-related knowledge, acknowledged the need for DED education, and underscored the importance of the use of interpersonal and culturally appropriate communication strategies. This is the first exploratory qualitative research study to examine the status of diabetic eye disease among American indians and Alaska Natives whose primary purpose was to inform the design of a national DED communication campaign.

  13. Severe structural and functional visual system damage leads to profound loss of vision-related quality of life in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Felix; Zimmermann, Hanna; Mikolajczak, Janine; Oertel, Frederike C; Pache, Florence; Weinhold, Maria; Schinzel, Johann; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Ruprecht, Klemens; Paul, Friedemann; Brandt, Alexander U

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are characterized by devastating optic neuritis attacks causing more structural damage and visual impairment than in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to compare vision-related quality of life in NMOSD and MS patients and correlate it to structural retinal damage and visual function. Thirty-one NMOSD and 31 matched MS patients were included. Vision-related quality of life was assessed with the 39-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ). All patients underwent retinal optical coherence tomography and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity measurements. Vision-related quality of life was reduced in NMOSD compared to MS patients. This difference was driven by a higher incidence of bilateral and more severe optic neuritis in the NMOSD group. Retinal thinning and visual impairment were significantly greater in the NMOSD cohort. Lower vision-related quality of life was associated with more retinal damage and reduced visual function as assessed by visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. NMOSD-related bilateral ON-attacks cause severe structural damage and visual impairment that lead to severe loss of vision-related quality of life. The NEI-VFQ is a helpful tool to monitor vision-related quality of life in NMOSD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced IR hollow cathode laser in a 3He Ne gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanova, M. S.; Pramatarov, P. M.; Karelin, A. V.

    2005-09-01

    An experimental and theoretical study on 3He-Ne and 4He-Ne helical hollow cathode lasers is presented. Enhanced laser operation on the near IR NeI lines is observed when the natural isotope 4He is substituted by the lighter isotope 3He. A four-fold increase in the laser output power and a three-fold increase in the laser gain for the strongest NeI 1.1523 µm line is measured in the 3He-Ne gas mixture compared to the 4He-Ne gas mixture. On the basis of the theoretical analysis done by means of a non-stationary kinetic model for the negative glow plasma of 3He-Ne and 4He-Ne hollow cathode lasers, a study on the changes in the particle kinetics is carried out and an explanation of the experimental results is proposed. In the 3He-Ne mixture the electron temperature is lower than in the 4He-Ne mixture, while the gas temperature is higher. As a result the helium triplet metastable density and the rate constant for excitation transfer to neon atoms are higher in the 3He-Ne mixture. The lower laser level de-excitation due to intra-multiplet mixing of 2p1-10levels by 3He atoms is more efficient.

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure in Harpadon nehereus based on sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z H; Li, H Y; Qin, Y; Wang, R X

    2014-08-07

    In this study, the genetic diversity among ten populations of the Bombay duck was studied on the basis of sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP). The ten populations were collected from the East China Sea and South China Sea areas. A total of 98 loci were obtained from 292 individuals using eight SRAP primers. The average proportion of polymorphic loci, genetic diversity (H), and Shannon's information index were 75.20%, 0.2478, and 0.3735, respectively. Nei's genetic distance and Shannon's information index between the ten populations ranged from 0.0410 to 0.3841 and from 0.2396 to 0.4506, and the averages Nei's gene diversity index (H = 0.2478) and Shannon's information index (I = 0.3735) at the population level were high. AMOVA showed that most of the variation was within populations (71.74%), and only 28.26% of the variation was between populations. The neighbor-joining tree based on genetic distance revealed that significant genealogical structure existed throughout the examined range of the Bombay duck. The results demonstrated that SRAP marker was an effective tool for the assessment of genetic diversity in the Bombay duck. The results could be used for further protection of the germplasm resource of the Bombay duck.

  16. Genetic variability and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys: implications for breeding and conservation programs.

    PubMed

    Erbano, Marianna; Schühli, Guilherme Schnell E; Santos, Élide Pereira Dos

    2015-04-08

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys Benth were assessed. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to investigate the restricted distribution of S. lachnostachys in Parana State, Brazil. Leaves of 73 individuals representing three populations were collected. DNA was extracted and submitted to PCR-ISSR amplification with nine tested primers. Genetic diversity parameters were evaluated. Our analysis indicated 95.6% polymorphic loci (stress value 0.02) with a 0.79 average Simpson's index. The Nei-Li distance dendrogram and principal component analysis largely recovered the geographical origin of each sample. Four major clusters were recognized representing each collected population. Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index were 0.25 and 0.40 respectively. As is typical for outcrossing herbs, the majority of genetic variation occurred at the population level (81.76%). A high gene flow (Nm = 2.48) was observed with a correspondingly low fixation index. These values were generally similar to previous studies on congeneric species. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCA) and of arithmetic average (UPGMA) were consistent and all three populations appear distinct as in STRUCTURE analysis. In addition, this analysis indicated a majority intrapopulation genetic variation. Despite the human pressure on natural populations our study found high levels of genetic diversity for S. lachnostachys. This was the first molecular assessment for this endemic species with medicinal proprieties and the results can guide for subsequent bioprospection, breeding programs or conservation actions.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Tear Film Break up Modes and Fluorescent Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Javed; Braun, Richard; Begley, Carolyn; Winkeler, Adam; King-Smith, Peter E.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop mathematical model for variables of interest in tear film break up (TBU) to compare with experimental images of TBU to better predict local values of tear film osmolarity and fluorescence during and following the TBU. Models are developed for local changes tear film thickness, insoluble surfactant concentration as well as osmolarity and fluorescein concentration inside the tear film. Fluorescence concentration was converted to fluorescent intensity using the expression involving film thickness and the full range of fluorescence as described by Nichols et al. (IOVS 2012). The fluorescent intensity response is a primary tool for visualizing the tear film thickness, and it is qualitatively different in the dilute vs concentrated regimes. Computed results over a wide range of fluorescein concentrations show that elevated surfactant concentration or evaporation rate led to thinner regions where TBU first occurs. The model predicts locally elevated concentration of osmolarity within areas of TBU and fluorescence intensity patterns very similar to computed thickness and the observed experimental results. The osmolarity may increase from 50 % to 1300 % of the isosmolar value, depending sensitively on the corneal permeability. Supported by Simons Foundation Grant 281839 (JIS), NSF Grant 1022706, NEI Grant 1RO1EY021794 (Begley), and NEI Grant RO1EY17951 (King-Smith).

  18. Directional genetic selection by pulp mill effluent on multiple natural populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Lind, Emma E; Grahn, Mats

    2011-05-01

    Contamination can cause a rapid environmental change which may require populations to respond with evolutionary changes. To evaluate the effects of pulp mill effluents on population genetics, we sampled three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) near four pulp mills and four adjacent reference sites and analyzed Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) to compare genetic variability. A fine scale genetic structure was detected and samples from polluted sites separated from reference sites in multidimensional scaling plots (P<0.005, 1000 permutations) and locus-by-locus Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) further confirmed that habitats are significantly separated (F(ST)=0.021, P<0.01, 1023 permutations). The amount of genetic variation between populations did not differ between habitats, and populations from both habitats had similar levels of heterozygosity (polluted sites Nei's Hs=0.11, reference sites Nei's Hs=0.11). Still, pairwise F(ST): s between three, out of four, pairs of polluted-reference sites were significant. A F(ST)-outlier analysis showed that 21 (8.4%) loci were statistically different from a neutral distribution at the P<0.05 level and therefore indicated to be under divergent selection. When removing 13 F(ST)-outlier loci, significant at the P<0.01 level, differentiation between habitats disappeared in a multidimensional scaling plot. In conclusion, pulp mill effluence has acted as a selective agent on natural populations of G. aculeatus, causing a convergence in genotype composition change at multiple sites in an open environment.

  19. Genetic dissection of new genotypes of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) using random amplified polymorphic DNA marker.

    PubMed

    Rufai, Shamsuddeen; Hanafi, M M; Rafii, M Y; Ahmad, S; Arolu, I W; Ferdous, Jannatul

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity of tree crop is very important for breeding and improvement program for the purpose of improving the yield and quality of its produce. Genetic diversity study and analysis of genetic relationship among 20 Moringa oleifera were carried out with the aid of twelve primers from, random amplified polymorphic DNA marker. The seeds of twenty M. oleifera genotypes from various origins were collected and germinated and raised in nursery before transplanting to the field at University Agricultural Park (TPU). Genetic diversity parameter, such as Shannon's information index and expected heterozygosity, revealed the presence of high genetic divergence with value of 1.80 and 0.13 for Malaysian population and 0.30 and 0.19 for the international population, respectively. Mean of Nei's gene diversity index for the two populations was estimated to be 0.20. In addition, a dendrogram constructed, using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance, grouped the twenty M. oleifera into five distinct clusters. The study revealed a great extent of variation which is essential for successful breeding and improvement program. From this study, M. oleifera genotypes of wide genetic origin, such as T-01, T-06, M-01, and M-02, are recommended to be used as parent in future breeding program.

  20. Assessing Anthropogenic Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds using Satellite Retrievals of Formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. W.; Gilman, J.; Tsai, J. Y.; Warneke, C.; McKeen, S. A.; McDonald, B.; Natraj, V.; Frost, G. J.; De Gouw, J. A.; Stutz, J.; Trainer, M.

    2016-12-01

    We evaluate several volatile organic compound (VOC) emission inventories in the Los Angeles Basin with the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 field campaign data and mesoscale model simulations. In addition, we investigated the role of VOC emissions in the production of O3 and formaldehyde (HCHO). HCHO is a chemical species that is measured from space. Finer HCHO temporal and spatial scales than present retrievals will be available with future geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. Our modeled O3 and HCHO using either US EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) 2005 VOC or top-down anthropogenic VOC emissions agree with the observations in Pasadena for both weekdays and weekends. All of our simulations are based on the Fuel-based Inventory for motor-Vehicle Emissions (FIVE) NOx and CO emissions in 2010. The model simulated O3 and HCHO utilizing the NEI 2011 VOC emissions (the most up-to-date EPA inventory) are lower than the observations. Causes for the discrepancies between the observations and model simulations using different VOC emission inventories will be investigated. Our optimized model HCHO simulations and results mimic the enhanced HCHO retrievals from future geostationary and allow us to examine the effectiveness of the future HCHO satellite data for understanding and predicting tropospheric O3 and its precursors.

  1. A Chinese Mind-Body Exercise Improves Self-Control of Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Siu, Nicolson Y.; Lau, Eliza M.; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2013-01-01

    Self-control problems commonly manifest as temper outbursts and repetitive/rigid/impulsive behaviors, in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which often contributes to learning difficulties and caregiver burden. The present study aims to compare the effect of a traditional Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercise, Nei Yang Gong, with that of the conventional Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) technique in enhancing the self-control of children with ASD. Forty-six age- and IQ-matched ASD children were randomly assigned to receive group training in Nei Yang Gong (experimental group) or PMR (control group) twice per week for four weeks. The participants’ self-control was measured by three neuropsychological tests and parental rating on standardized questionnaires, and the underlying neural mechanism was assessed by the participants’ brain EEG activity during an inhibitory-control task before and after intervention. The results show that the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in self-control than the control group, which concurs with the parental reports of reduced autistic symptoms and increased control of temper and behaviors. In addition, the experimental group showed enhanced EEG activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that mediates self-control, whereas the PMR group did not. The present findings support the potential application of Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercises as a form of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with self-control problems. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; Registration No.: ChiCTR-TRC-12002561; URL: www.chictr.org. PMID:23874533

  2. A chinese mind-body exercise improves self-control of children with autism: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Agnes S; Sze, Sophia L; Siu, Nicolson Y; Lau, Eliza M; Cheung, Mei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Self-control problems commonly manifest as temper outbursts and repetitive/rigid/impulsive behaviors, in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which often contributes to learning difficulties and caregiver burden. The present study aims to compare the effect of a traditional Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercise, Nei Yang Gong, with that of the conventional Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) technique in enhancing the self-control of children with ASD. Forty-six age- and IQ-matched ASD children were randomly assigned to receive group training in Nei Yang Gong (experimental group) or PMR (control group) twice per week for four weeks. The participants' self-control was measured by three neuropsychological tests and parental rating on standardized questionnaires, and the underlying neural mechanism was assessed by the participants' brain EEG activity during an inhibitory-control task before and after intervention. The results show that the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in self-control than the control group, which concurs with the parental reports of reduced autistic symptoms and increased control of temper and behaviors. In addition, the experimental group showed enhanced EEG activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that mediates self-control, whereas the PMR group did not. The present findings support the potential application of Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercises as a form of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with self-control problems. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; Registration No.: ChiCTR-TRC-12002561; URL: www.chictr.org.

  3. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  4. Whole Genome Sequencing demonstrates that Geographic Variation of Escherichia coli O157 Genotypes Dominates Host Association.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Norval J C; Rotariu, Ovidiu; Lopes, Bruno; MacRae, Marion; Fairley, Susan; Laing, Chad; Gannon, Victor; Allison, Lesley J; Hanson, Mary F; Dallman, Tim; Ashton, Philip; Franz, Eelco; van Hoek, Angela H A M; French, Nigel P; George, Tessy; Biggs, Patrick J; Forbes, Ken J

    2015-10-07

    Genetic variation in an infectious disease pathogen can be driven by ecological niche dissimilarities arising from different host species and different geographical locations. Whole genome sequencing was used to compare E. coli O157 isolates from host reservoirs (cattle and sheep) from Scotland and to compare genetic variation of isolates (human, animal, environmental/food) obtained from Scotland, New Zealand, Netherlands, Canada and the USA. Nei's genetic distance calculated from core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) demonstrated that the animal isolates were from the same population. Investigation of the Shiga toxin bacteriophage and their insertion sites (SBI typing) revealed that cattle and sheep isolates had statistically indistinguishable rarefaction profiles, diversity and genotypes. In contrast, isolates from different countries exhibited significant differences in Nei's genetic distance and SBI typing. Hence, after successful international transmission, which has occurred on multiple occasions, local genetic variation occurs, resulting in a global patchwork of continental and trans-continental phylogeographic clades. These findings are important for three reasons: first, understanding transmission and evolution of infectious diseases associated with multiple host reservoirs and multi-geographic locations; second, highlighting the relevance of the sheep reservoir when considering farm based interventions; and third, improving our understanding of why human disease incidence varies across the world.

  5. Genetic diversity in Tunisian populations of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on morphological traits and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Backouchi, I Z; Aouida, M; Khemiri, N; Jebara, M

    2015-07-13

    Genetic diversity within Vicia faba L. is key to the genetic improvement of this important species. In this study, morphological traits and RAPD molecular markers were used to assess the levels of polymorphism across 12 Tunisian populations, three major and nine minor from different locations. Analysis of morphological traits indicated that the three major populations showed significant differences and the nine minor populations exhibited considerable variation for most traits. The grain yield of the Alia population could be increased by inoculation. Of the seven primers tested, it was clear that the Cs12 primer would be recommend for genetic diversity analysis of V. faba.Within population genetic diversity exhibited 94% of total diversity. Intra-population genetic diversity (HS) was 0.16, which was clearly higher than between population genetic diversity (DST = 0.06) UPG-MA showed a high level of genetic variation between major and minor populations of V. faba L. Particularly the minor populations showed a high level of diversity and was divided into two subclusters. Ltaifia was separated from the other populations. In addition to a high grain yield, these populations showed the lowest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.08 and I = 0.13) justifying their homogeneity. For these reasons, these cultivars can be considered a selected population. However, the Takelsa population showed the highest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.13 and I = 0.21), indicating that this population was the most heterogeneous, which is interesting for breeding programs.

  6. Genetic differentiation in the Agave deserti (Agavaceae) complex of the Sonoran desert.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Quezada, A; González-Chauvet, R; Molina-Freaner, F; Eguiarte, L E

    2003-03-01

    The Agave deserti complex, comprising A. deserti, A. cerulata and A. subsimplex, represents a group of species and subspecies with a near allopatric distribution and clear differences in morphology. Genetic differentiation and taxonomic status with respect to spatial distribution of 14 populations of the complex were analyzed in an effort to understand the evolution and speciation process within the genus. Allelic frequencies, levels of genetic variation, expected heterozygosity (H(S)), proportion of polymorphic loci (P), and genetic differentiation (theta and Nei's genetic distance) were estimated using 41 putative RAPD loci. All three species show high levels of genetic variation (H(S)=0.12-0.29, P=63.4-95.1), and low genetic differentiation between populations and species (theta populations=0.14+/-0.02 (SE); G(st)=0.11+/-0.02). Accordingly, gene flow among populations was estimated as high by three different methods (N(m)=2.91-6.14). Nei's genetic distances between the three species were low compared to the values obtained from other Agavaceae, and there was no clear correlation with taxonomic divisions. In a UPGMA analysis, A. subsimplex and A. cerulata formed exclusive monospecific clusters, whereas the A. deserti populations appear in more than one cluster together with other species. The results were consistent with a pattern of genetic isolation by distance.

  7. Genetic Distances and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Trees from Microsatellite DNA

    PubMed Central

    Takezaki, N.; Nei, M.

    1996-01-01

    Recently many investigators have used microsatellite DNA loci for studying the evolutionary relationships of closely related populations or species, and some authors proposed new genetic distance measures for this purpose. However, the efficiencies of these distance measures in obtaining the correct tree topology remains unclear. We therefore investigated the probability of obtaining the correct topology (P(C)) for these new distances as well as traditional distance measures by using computer simulation. We used both the infinite-allele model (IAM) and the stepwise mutation model (SMM), which seem to be appropriate for classical markers and microsatellite loci, respectively. The results show that in both the IAM and SMM CAVALLI-SFORZA and EDWARDS' chord distance (D(C)) and NEI et al.'s D(A) distance generally show higher P(C) values than other distance measures, whether the bottleneck effect exists or not. For estimating evolutionary times, however, NEI's standard distance and GOLDSTEIN et al.'s (δ μ)(2) are more appropriate than other distances. Microsatellite DNA seems to be very useful for clarifying the evolutionary relationships of closely related populations. PMID:8878702

  8. Development of an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire as a tool to study eye diseases patients in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Nizar Saleh; Amgad, Mohamed; Salama, Ahmed A; Israel, Marina E; Elhawary, Ghada A; Radwan, Ahmed E; Elgayar, Mohamed M; EL Nakhal, Tamer M; Elkhateb, Islam T; Hashem, Heba A; Embaby, Doha K; Elabd, Amira A; Elwy, Reem K; Yacoub, Magdi S; Salem, Hamdy; Abdel-Baqy, Mohamed; Kassem, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    AIM To develop and test an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). METHODS NEI-VFQ-25 was translated into Arabic according to WHO translation guidelines. We enrolled adult consenting patients with bilateral chronic eye diseases who presented to 14 hospitals across Egypt from October to December 2012, and documented their clinical findings. Psychometric properties were then tested using STATA. RESULTS We recruited 379 patients, whose mean age was (54.5±15)y. Of 46.2% were males, 227 had cataract, 31 had glaucoma, 23 had retinal detachment, 37 had diabetic retinopathy, and 61 had miscellaneous visual defects. Non-response rate and the floor and ceiling numbers of the Arabic version (ARB-VFQ-25) were calculated. Internal consistency was high in all subscales (except general health), with Cronbach-α ranging from 0.702-0.911. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79). CONCLUSION ARB-VFQ-25 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing visual functions of Arabic speaking patients. However, some questions had high non-response rates and should be substituted by available alternatives. Our results support the importance of including self-reported visual functions as part of routine ophthalmologic examination. PMID:25349812

  9. Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, John M; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Beatty, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between macular pigment (MP) and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods 121 subjects with early AMD enrolled as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787) were assessed using a range of psychophysical measures of visual function, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), letter contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic CS, mesopic and photopic glare disability (GD), photostress recovery time (PRT), reading performance and subjective visual function, using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). MP was measured using customised heterochromatic flicker photometry. Results Letter CS, mesopic and photopic CS, photopic GD and mean reading speed were each significantly (p<0.05) associated with MP across a range of retinal eccentricities, and these statistically significant relationships persisted after controlling for age, sex and cataract grade. BCVA, NEI VFQ-25 score, PRT and mesopic GD were unrelated to MP after controlling for age, sex and cataract grade (p>0.05, for all). Conclusions MP relates positively to many measures of visual function in unsupplemented subjects with early AMD. The CREST trial will investigate whether enrichment of MP influences visual function among those afflicted with this condition. Trial registration number ISRCTN13894787. PMID:27091854

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life Following Blind Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kuyk, Thomas; Liu, Lei; Elliott, Jeffry L.; Grubbs, Hartley E.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L.; Fuhr, Patti S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of residential blind rehabilitation on patients’ vision targeted health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and general physical and mental function. Methods The National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ) plus appendix questions, the 12 item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), Hope Scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory were administered to 206 legally blind veterans prior to their entering a residential (in-patient) blind rehabilitation program and again to 185 and 176 of the original cohort at two and six months after completion of the rehabilitation program, respectively. Data on visual acuity, visual field extent, contrast sensitivity and scanning ability were also collected. The duration of the in-patient rehabilitation programs ranged from 11–109 days. Questionnaire scores were compared pre-rehabilitation and post-rehabilitation. Results Following rehabilitation there was a significant improvement in nine of eleven NEI VFQ subscales and in a composite score at both 2- and 6-month post-rehab intervals. Mental health (SF-12) and self esteem also improved significantly although physical health ratings declined over the course of the study (approximately 10 months). Conclusions Residential blind rehabilitation appears to improve patients’ self-reported vision-targeted HRQOL, self-esteem, and mental health aspects of generic HRQOL. PMID:18392688

  11. The novel DNA glycosylase, NEIL1, protects mammalian cells from radiation-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, Thomas A; Zaika, Elena; Fernandes, Andrea S; Zharkov, Dmitry O; Miller, Holly; Grollman, Arthur P

    2003-05-13

    DNA damage mediated by reactive oxygen species generates miscoding and blocking lesions that may lead to mutations or cell death. Base excision repair (BER) constitutes a universal mechanism for removing oxidatively damaged bases and restoring the integrity of genomic DNA. In Escherichia coli, the DNA glycosylases Nei, Fpg, and Nth initiate BER of oxidative lesions; OGG1 and NTH1 proteins fulfill a similar function in mammalian cells. Three human genes, designated NEIL1, NEIL2 and NEIL3, encode proteins that contain sequence homologies to Nei and Fpg. We have cloned the corresponding mouse genes and have overexpressed and purified mNeil1, a DNA glycosylase that efficiently removes a wide spectrum of mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions. These lesions include the two cis-thymineglycol(Tg) stereoisomers, guanine- and adenine-derived formamidopyrimidines, and 5,6-dihydrouracil. Two of these lesions, fapyA and 5S,6R thymine glycol, are not excised by mOgg1 or mNth1. We have also used RNA interference technology to establish embryonic stem cell lines deficient in Neil1 protein and showed them to be sensitive to low levels of gamma-irradiation. The results of these studies suggest that Neil1 is an essential component of base excision repair in mammalian cells; its presence may contribute to the redundant repair capacity observed in Ogg1 -/- and Nth1 -/- mice.

  12. Simulating 3D Stellar Winds and Diffuse X-ray Emissions from Gases in Non-equilibrium Ionization State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Min; Sun, Wei; Niu, Shu; Zhou, Xin; Ji, Li

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the physical properties of stellar winds launched in super stellar clusters (SSCs). Chandra observations have detected the presence of diffuse X-ray emission caused by hot gas from such winds in SSCs, and provide the best probe for understanding interactions between the stellar winds and the complex nursery regions. However, the details of the origin of cluster winds, the mass and energy ejection, the formation of diffuse X-ray emission, the fraction of winds contribution to the distribution of diffuse X-ray emission still remain unclear. We developed a multiphysics hydrodynamic model including self-gravity, head conduction and performed 3D simulations with an unprecedented grid resolution due to adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capability in a case study of NGC 3603, as a supplement to the analysis of the archived 500 ks Chandra observations. The synthetic emission will be computed by assuming the gas in a non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) state indicated by Chandra observation, not coronal ionization equilibrium (CIE) that most works assumed, by using a customized NEI calculation module based on AtomDB. The results will be compared to the Chandra observations.

  13. X-ray emission from supernova remnants MSH 14 - 63 and RCW 103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, J. J.; Pravdo, S. H.; Garmire, G. P.; Becker, R. H.; Tuohy, I. R.; Winkler, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    Electron-ion collisions, heavy element enrichment of emissions from reverse-shocked ejecta, abundances in the interstellar medium (ISM), the correspondence between the projected and measured age, ISM particle density, and distance, and classification factors for Type I or II supernovae are examined using a nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) model. The NEI model accounts for the absence of collisional ionization equilibrium and possibly thermal equilibrium between electrons and ions behind the shock fronts, and describes the emission spectra from ejecta and the shocked ISM. When applied to data from the SNR MSH 14 - 63 a non-Coulomb, ion-electron interaction is obtained that is consistent with a shocked ISM. For the SNR RCW 103, however, the processes behind the shock front are not discernable, although the elemental abundances will have solar values if the interactions are non-Coulomb. The age of RCW 103 must be approximated from physical data, as Chinese astronomers would not have been able to see the event from their position on earth two millenia ago.

  14. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the endangered and endemic species Sauvagesia rhodoleuca in China as detected by ISSR analysis.

    PubMed

    Chai, S F; Jiang, Y S; Zhuang, X Y; Shi, Y C; Wei, X; Luo, W H; Chen, Z Y

    2014-10-20

    Sauvagesia rhodoleuca (Ochnaceae) is an endangered plant that is endemic to southern China. The levels of genetic variation and patterns of population structure in S. rhodoleuca were investigated using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Eleven primers were used to amplify DNA samples from 117 individuals, and a total of 92 loci were detected. Our results indicated that genetic diversity was quite low both at the species level (percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) = 41.30%, Nei's gene diversity (h) = 0.1331, and Shannon information index (I) = 0.2028) and the population level (PPB = 16.30-28.26%, h = 0.0496-0.1012, and I = 0.0756-0.1508). A high level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on Nei's genetic diversity analysis (0.4344) and analysis of molecular variance (47.03%). The low genetic diversity within population and high population differentiation of S. rhodoleuca were assumed to result largely from limited gene flow, genetic drift, inbreeding, and clonal growth. Conservation strategies for this endangered species are proposed based on the genetic data.

  15. Microsatellite marker-based genetic analysis of relatedness between commercial and heritage turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Kamara, D; Gyenai, K B; Geng, T; Hammade, H; Smith, E J

    2007-01-01

    The turkey is second only to the chicken in importance as an agriculturally important poultry species. Unlike the chicken, however, genetic studies of the turkey continue to be limited. For example, to date, many genomic investigations have been conducted to characterize genetic relationships between commercial (CO) and non-CO chicken breeds, whereas the nature of the genetic relatedness between CO and heritage turkeys remains unknown. The objective of the current research was to use microsatellites to analyze the genetic relatedness between CO and heritage domestic turkeys including Narragansett, Bourbon Red, Blue Slate, Spanish Black, and Royal Palm. Primer pairs specific for 10 previously described turkey microsatellite markers were used. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Blue Slate, Bourbon Red, and Narragansett were genetically closely related to the CO strain, with a Nei distance of 0.30, and the Royal Palm and Spanish Black were the least related to the CO strain, with Nei distances of 0.41 and 0.40, respectively. The present work provides a foundation for the basis of using heritage turkeys to genetically improve CO populations by introgression.

  16. Early detection of cataract and response to pantethine therapy with non-invasive static and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; King, James F.; Seeberger, Teri; Clark, John I.

    2003-07-01

    Cataractogenesis is a risk factor for space travelers. Here on earth, half of all blindness is due to cataracts. At this time, the only known treatment is surgical removal of the lens. In this paper, we present static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements of early onset of cataract before it has any effect on vision and to test the effectiveness of pantethine as an anticataract agent in reversing cataracts. In this preliminary study, experiments were conducted on 12 rodents. Static measurements were performed by scanning the animal eye (cornea to retina) at a laser power of 80 microwatts to collect photons or scattered intensity in steps of 10 microns. The rodents studied were control, selenite injected, and selenite plus pantethine injected. Selenite was used to induce cataracts. Static and dynamic changes (increase in light scatter and crystalline size) in the lenses are quantitatively measured as early as 1 day post selenite injections. Scattering intensity and DLS measurements from lenses of animals administered pantethine resembled controls. These subtle molecular changes are not noticeable when the animals are examined with conventional ophthalmic instruments because their lenses remain transparent. Acknowledgements: Technical support from C.Ganders, University of Washington, Seattle, NEI research grant EY04542 (JIC) and support under a NASA-NEI/NIH interagency agreement (RRA) are greatly appreciated. JFK works for QSS Inc. at NASA GRC.

  17. Non-Equilibrium Ionization Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimple, Remington; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold; Shen, Chengcai

    2017-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections, or CMEs, are solar events that eject plasma and magnetic flux into interplanetary space. Contemporary sources have noted that the onset of CMEs are caused by some instability of the coronal magnetic field, and further allows heating of plasma upon expansion. Additionally, plasma that leaves the lower solar corona does not remain in ionization equilibrium due to the rapid expansion of plasma. We investigate the evolution of charge states of CME plasma using non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) modeling. These NEI models include radiative cooling and serve as baseline studies for special cases where no heat is being added to the plasma. Each of the simulated CMEs have initial conditions characteristic of active regions. Various function inputs, such as initial temperature, density and final velocity, allow us to examine the influence of certain parameters on the charge state evolution. The results of our project show that plasma originating from active regions display charge state evolutions substantially dependent on initial density and temperature. The CMEs starting with higher plasma density often show an abundance of lower charge states above the freeze-in height. Simulations starting from higher temperatures often show abundance peaks at charge states with closed electron shells.

  18. Minimal depression and vision function in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Tasman, William S

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of minimal depression on subjective and objective vision function measures in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Prospective cross-sectional study. Two hundred six outpatients with newly diagnosed neovascular AMD in one eye and preexisting AMD in the fellow eye. Structured clinical evaluations of visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, vision function, and depression. The 17-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ 17), Melbourne Low-Vision Index (MLVI), Chronic Disease Score, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Minimally depressed subjects had significantly worse vision function on both the NEI VFQ 17 and performance-based tasks of the MLVI than nondepressed subjects, independent of severity of VA, contrast sensitivity, and medical status. Minimally depressed patients with AMD, who would not be considered depressed according to current diagnostic standards, suffer decrements in vision function that cannot be accounted for by the severity of their eye disease or general medical problems. These data emphasize the need to assess depressive symptoms in research studies that use vision function outcome measures and in clinical practice to identify excess vision-related disability in patients with AMD.

  19. Uncovering pharmacological mechanisms of Wu-tou decoction acting on rheumatoid arthritis through systems approaches: drug-target prediction, network analysis and experimental validation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Bai, Ming; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Chunfang; Guo, Qiuyan; Sun, Yanqun; Wang, Danhua; Wang, Chao; Jiang, Yini; Lin, Na; Li, Shao

    2015-01-01

    Wu-tou decoction (WTD) has been extensively used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Due to lack of appropriate methods, pharmacological mechanisms of WTD acting on RA have not been fully elucidated. In this study, a list of putative targets for compositive compounds containing in WTD were predicted by drugCIPHER-CS. Then, the interaction network of the putative targets of WTD and known RA-related targets was constructed and hub nodes were identified. After constructing the interaction network of hubs, four topological features of each hub, including degree, node betweenness, closeness and k-coreness, were calculated and 79 major hubs were identified as candidate targets of WTD, which were implicated into the imbalance of the nervous, endocrine and immune (NEI) systems, leading to the main pathological changes during the RA progression. Further experimental validation also demonstrated the preventive effects of WTD on inflammation and joint destruction in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats and its regulatory effects on candidate targets both in vitro and in vivo systems. In conclusion, we performed an integrative analysis to offer the convincing evidence that WTD may attenuate RA partially by restoring the balance of NEI system and subsequently reversing the pathological events during RA progression. PMID:25820382

  20. Uncovering pharmacological mechanisms of Wu-tou decoction acting on rheumatoid arthritis through systems approaches: drug-target prediction, network analysis and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Bai, Ming; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Chunfang; Guo, Qiuyan; Sun, Yanqun; Wang, Danhua; Wang, Chao; Jiang, Yini; Lin, Na; Li, Shao

    2015-03-30

    Wu-tou decoction (WTD) has been extensively used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Due to lack of appropriate methods, pharmacological mechanisms of WTD acting on RA have not been fully elucidated. In this study, a list of putative targets for compositive compounds containing in WTD were predicted by drugCIPHER-CS. Then, the interaction network of the putative targets of WTD and known RA-related targets was constructed and hub nodes were identified. After constructing the interaction network of hubs, four topological features of each hub, including degree, node betweenness, closeness and k-coreness, were calculated and 79 major hubs were identified as candidate targets of WTD, which were implicated into the imbalance of the nervous, endocrine and immune (NEI) systems, leading to the main pathological changes during the RA progression. Further experimental validation also demonstrated the preventive effects of WTD on inflammation and joint destruction in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats and its regulatory effects on candidate targets both in vitro and in vivo systems. In conclusion, we performed an integrative analysis to offer the convincing evidence that WTD may attenuate RA partially by restoring the balance of NEI system and subsequently reversing the pathological events during RA progression.

  1. Impact of strabismus on the quality of life of Chinese Han teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Changsen; Ye, Liang; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yuwen; Li, Yingzi

    2016-01-01

    Background Although much research has been conducted on the impact of strabismus on the quality of life (QoL) of adults, the effect of this condition on teenagers has not been extensively studied. This study therefore aimed to assess the effect of strabismus on the vision-related QoL of Chinese teenagers. Methods The Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) was self-administered by 1,040 teenagers with strabismus and 1,002 individuals with normal vision. All the participants were from the Chinese Han population. The independent samples t-test was used to compare QoL between teenagers with and without strabismus. Results The majority of scores on the NEI-VFQ-25 domains were significantly different between the two groups. QoL was significantly lower in individuals with strabismus compared with teenagers with normal vision on all domains, with the exception of social functioning. Conclusion Statistically significantly lower vision-related QoL scores were found in Chinese Han teenagers with strabismus compared with those without strabismus. PMID:27354771

  2. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-06

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI.

  3. Suzaku study on the ejecta of the supernova remnant G272.2-3.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitsukasa, Fumiyoshi; Koyama, Katsuji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Mori, Koji; Katsuda, Satoru; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    We report reanalyses of the Suzaku observations of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G272.2-3.2, for which previous studies were limited below 3 keV. With careful data reduction and background subtraction, we discover the K-shell lines of Ar, Ca, and Fe above 3 keV. The X-ray spectrum of G272.2-3.2 consists of two components, a low-temperature collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) plasma (kTe ˜ 0.2 keV) and a high-temperature non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) plasma (kTe = 0.6-3 keV). The CIE plasma has solar abundances over the entire area, hence it originates from the interstellar medium. On the other hand, the abundances of the NEI plasma increase toward the inner region, suggesting ejecta origin. The line center energy of the Fe K-shell emission (˜6.4 keV) suggests that the ejecta are recently heated by reverse shock, a common feature in Type Ia SNRs.

  4. Contralateral botulinum injections in patients with residual facial asymmetry and contralateral hyperkinesis after primary facial palsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Davina; Battisti, Andrea; Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Della Monaca, Marco; Pagnoni, Mario; Valentini, Valentino; Priore, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Ogni trattamento, medico e chirurgico, della paralisi facciale è finalizzato al recupero della simmetria facciale statica e dinamica. La tossina botulinica di tipo A può essere utilizzata nei pazienti affetti da paralisi del nervo facciale, sottoposti in precedenza a chirurgia primaria, al fine di ridurre la residua asimmetria facciale e le progressive ipercinesie controlaterali al lato affetto, che caratterizzano tali soggetti. Sono stati inclusi nel nostro studio sei pazienti (1 maschio e 5 femmine) affetti da paralisi del nervo facciale monolaterale secondaria a diverse cause, classificata secondo la scala di House-Brackmann in grado III e IV. I pazienti inclusi nello studio sono stati sottoposti in precedenza a trattamento chirurgico riabilitativo specifico per la paralisi facciale stessa; successivamente ciascuno di essi è stato trattato con 50 unità di tossina botulinica di tipo A a livello del lato non affetto del volto, al fine di ridurre le ipercinesie muscolari ed aumentare l’asimmetria e l’abilità muscolare del volto. L’età media dei soggetti era di 44,5 anni. I pazienti sono stati esaminati a 7, 14, 30, 60, 90 e 120 giorni dopo il trattamento con tossina botulinica. Lo studio dimostra la riduzione delle ipercinesie controlaterali alla paralisi facciale ed il miglioramento della simmetria del volto nei pazienti sottoposti precedentemente a trattamento chirurgico primario per la riabilitazione del nervo facciale stesso. Tutti i pazienti si sono dimostrati soddisfatti del trattamento con tossina botulinica di tipo A.

  5. Biodiverse rotifer assemblage (Rotifera: Eurotatoria) of floodplain lakes of the Brahmaputra basin of lower Assam, northeast India: composition and ecosystem diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Bhushan Kumar; Khan, Shaikhul Islam; Sharma, Sumita

    2017-04-01

    The study aims to ascertain the hypothesis on the rich rotifer biodiversity of the floodplain lakes (beels) of the Brahmaputra river basin and to use these metazoans to assess trophic status or to characterize habitat variations of wetlands. The plankton samples collected from four beels of lower Assam revealed 160 Rotifera species belonging to 35 genera and 19 families. The richness is of biodiversity value as 38.0% and 57.0% of the rotifer species known till date from India and northeast India (NEI), respectively. One species each is new to the Oriental region and NEI, and three species are new to Assam; 23 species merit global biogeography interest and several exhibit distribution values in the Indian sub-region. The diverse Lecanidae > Brachionidae > Lepadellidae > Trichocercidae and speciose littoral-periphytic Lecane > Lepadella > Trichocerca, and richness of Brachionus spp. following removal of aquatic macrophytes are noteworthy. Overall rotifer composition showed homogeneity amongst beels while lower monthly richness and community similarities affirmed heterogeneity within individual beels. We propose L/B quotient based on Lecane: Brachionus species ratios to characterize habitat variations of the sampled wetlands. Sládeček's B/T quotient based on Brachionus: Trichocerca species ratios affirmed general' meso-trophic' status of diff erent beels. Our results provided little insight on the influence of individual abiotic factors but the canonical correspondence analyses asserted higher cumulative influence of ten abiotic parameters on Rotifera richness in each beel.

  6. Ambienti Circumstellari ed Interstellari di Supernovae di vario Tipo ed Applicazioni Astrofisiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffi, Francesca R.

    Nella presente tesi vengono studiati gli ambienti circumstellari ed interstellari di supernovae (anche SNe; singolare SN) di vario tipo. In particolare si descrivono alcune applicazioni astrofisiche, relative a questi ambienti, che permettono di desumere informazioni sui sistemi stellari progenitori delle supernovae o di determinare le distanze a tali oggetti. L' emissione radio da supernovae, prodotta nell' ambiente circumstellare ad opera dell'interazione idrodinamica del gas di SN con l' ambiente circostante, puo' essere impiegata come mezzo di indagine del sistema di pre-supernova. In particolare si e' introdotta l'idea che tale emissione possa essere impiegata nel caso delle SNe di tipo Ia come test dei sistemi progenitori di tipo simbiotico. Il test e' stato effettuato sulla SN 1986G, per la quale avevamo ottenuto limiti superiori a lunghezze d'onda radio. Nel caso che un sistema simbiotico sia responsabile di una SN Ia, l'interazione tra l' ejecta e una shell circumstellare origina, in un'epoca molto prossima al massimo di luce, un'emissione radio rivelabile con strumenti tipo Very Large Array. Inoltre l'emissione radio fornisce informazioni circa gli stadi di pre-supernova nel caso di altri tipi di supernova. In questo lavoro di tesi vengono presentati i risultati ottenuti nel caso delle SNe di tipo II 1984E e 1986E. Queste due SNe non mostrano emissione radio: la prima, in prossimita del massimo ottico, stava interagendo con una shell circumstellare prodotta da un episodio di perdita di massa di breve durata in fase di pre-supernova; la seconda, invece e' la prima SN ``vecchia'' ad essere rivelata nell' ottico ma non nel radio (l' oggetto non ha ancora iniziato la fase di supernova remnant ed emette radiazione ottica prodotta ancora per interazione circumstellare). In ambiente circum-interstellare, gli echi di luce, prodotti dallo scattering della luce della supernova ad opera della polvere presente, possono essere utilizzati per determinare le distanze

  7. Risk stratification systems for surgically treated localized primary Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST). Review of literature and comparison of the three prognostic criteria: MSKCC Nomogramm, NIH-Fletcher and AFIP-Miettinen.

    PubMed

    Belfiori, Giulio; Sartelli, Massimo; Cardinali, Luca; Tranà, Cristian; Bracci, Raffaella; Gesuita, Rosaria; Marmorale, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    L’avvento dell’Imatinib mesilato (glivec) ha rivoluzionato la terapia dei GIST, apportando un aumento della sopravvivenza libera da malattia dopo resezione chirurgica completa di un GIST a localizzazione primitiva (RFS: Recurrence Free Survival). La definizione di un sistema prognostico accurato è fondamentale per decidere quali pazienti sottoporre a tale trattamento. In letteratura, esistono attualmente vari sistemi prognostici di riferimento in grado di predire la probabilità di recidiva, tra cui: NIH-FLETCHER, AFIP-MIETTINEN standard e modificato. A questi che sono i più diffusamente utilizzati, di recente si sono aggiunti altri metodi che utilizzano modelli matematici o no, come il Nomogramma del MSKCC, Nomogramma di Rossi ed il Joensuu high hotline Degjun. Nonostante tutti questi tentativi la storia naturale dei GIST rimane ancora non completamente nota e controversa e non è ancora possibile predire le recidive con una accuratezza assoluta. Lo scopo del nostro studio è stato quello di trovare quale sistema è più accurato e pratico per essere utilizzato nella nostra pratica clinica. Particolare attenzione è stata posta al Nomogamma del MSKCC, che è stato pertanto confrontato con i NIH-Fletcher ed AFIPMiettinen. Sono stati analizzati retrospettivamente i dati riguardanti 37 GIST operati presso il nostro istituto dal 2002 al 2012 e da questi sono stati selezionati 27 GIST a localizzazione primitiva, completamente resecati c non trattati con l’imatinib ne prima ne dopo l’intervento, sui quali è stato eseguito il confronto. Le conclusioni sono state che il nomogramma MSKCC è un metodo prognostico pratico, sicuro e valido, probabilmente più del NIH e AFIP e può essere utilizzato nella pratica clinica per predire il rischio di recidiva, specialmente nella pianificazione della strategia terapeutica, anche se non è un metodo ottimale per calcolare il tempo di sopravvivenza libera da recidiva. Il limite del Nomogramma del MSKCC sta nel valutare il

  8. The Impact of Eyeglasses on Vision-Related Quality of Life in American Indian/Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Tina M.; Choi, Dongseok; Wooten, Kathleen; Nield, Chris; Becker, Thomas M.; Mansberger, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the change in vision-related quality of life scores after providing eyeglasses to American Indian/Alaska Natives with under-corrected refractive error. Study Design Prospective, comparative (non-randomized) interventional study Methods We compared a group with under-corrected refractive error to a Control group who did not need a change in eyeglasses. Under-corrected refractive error was defined as distance visual acuity 20/40 or worse in the better-seeing eye that could be improved by at least 2 lines in Snellen visual acuity. Intervention was the provision of new glasses to the under-corrected refractive error group members, based on results of manifest refraction. The main outcome measures were the differences in the 25-Item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) scores from baseline (T1) to the time after providing eyeglasses (T2). Results The NEI-VFQ-25 median composite score at T1 was significantly lower in those with under-corrected refractive error when compared to the Control group (75 vs. 92, p=.001). The median composite score for the Under-corrected refractive error group improved to 96 (P<0.001) at T2 when compared to T1, while the Control group remained stable at 93 (p=0.417). The Under-corrected refractive error group showed significantly greater improvement than the Control group in 8 of 12 subscale scores and in the overall composite score (all p values ≤ 0.05). A multivariate linear regression analysis, which controlled for differences in age, percent self-identified American Indian/Alaskan Native and best-corrected visual acuity between the Under-corrected refractive error and Control group showed eyeglasses to be significantly associated with improvement in NEI-VFQ-25 composite score. Conclusion Visual impairment from under-corrected refractive error is common in American Indian/Alaskan Natives. Providing eyeglasses results in a large, significant increase in vision-related quality of life

  9. Development and Evaluation of Semiautomated Quantification of Lissamine Green Staining of the Bulbar Conjunctiva From Digital Images.

    PubMed

    Bunya, Vatinee Y; Chen, Min; Zheng, Yuanjie; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Gee, James; Daniel, Ebenezer; O'Sullivan, Ryan; Smith, Eli; Stone, Richard A; Maguire, Maureen G

    2017-09-14

    Lissamine green (LG) staining of the conjunctiva is a key biomarker in evaluating ocular surface disease. The disease currently is assessed using relatively coarse subjective scales. Objective assessment would standardize comparisons over time and between clinicians. To develop a semiautomated, quantitative system to assess lissamine green staining of the bulbar conjunctiva on digital images. Using a standard photography protocol, 35 digital images of the conjunctiva of 11 patients with a diagnosis of dry eye disease based on characteristic signs and symptoms were obtained after topical administration of preservative-free LG, 1%, solution. Images were scored independently by 2 masked ophthalmologists in an academic medical center using the van Bijsterveld and National Eye Institute (NEI) scales. The region of interest was identified by manually marking 7 anatomic landmarks on the images. An objective measure was developed by segmenting the images, forming a vector of key attributes, and then performing a random forest regression. Subjective scores were correlated with the output from a computer algorithm using a cross-validation technique. The ranking of images from least to most staining was compared between the algorithm and the ophthalmologists. The study was conducted from April 26, 2012, through June 2, 2016. Correlation and level of agreement among computerized algorithm scores, van Bijsterveld scale clinical scores, and NEI scale clinical scores. The scores from the automated algorithm correlated well with the mean scores obtained from the gradings of 2 ophthalmologists for the 35 images using the van Bijsterveld scale (Spearman correlation coefficient, rs = 0.79), and moderately with the NEI scale (rs = 0.61) scores. For qualitative ranking of staining, the correlation between the automated algorithm and the 2 ophthalmologists was rs = 0.78 and rs = 0.83. The algorithm performed well when evaluating LG staining of the conjunctiva, as

  10. Vision-related quality of life and psychological status in Chinese women with Sjogren's syndrome dry eye: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Alice; Zhao, Naiqing; Gong, Lan

    2016-12-12

    Sjogren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE) mainly affects middle-aged women and can negatively affect women's psychological and social functioning. However, little is known about the correlation between vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) and psychological status for women with SSDE. We therefore examined VR-QoL and psychological status in two groups of Chinese women: an SSDE group and a non-SSDE group. We also explored the associations between VR-QoL scores, sociodemographic measures, ophthalmologic parameters, and psychological status in women with SSDE. The case-control study recruited 30 female outpatients with SSDE and 30 without SSDE from the Eye and Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Hospital of Fudan University. Demographic and ophthalmologic data were collected from all participants. Ophthalmologic examinations included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test. Data collected using the National Eye Institute's Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) survey instruments were analyzed to identify potential differences in VR-QoL between the SSDE group and the non-SSDE group. We also used the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Self-Rating Depression Scales (SAS and SDS) to determine psychological status in both groups. The SSDE group scored significantly lower than the non-SSDE group on the NEI-VFQ subscales of general health, general vision, and long-distance vision activities (all p < 0.05). The SSDE group achieved a significantly higher ocular symptoms score compared with the control group (p = 0.0256). The SAS and SDS scores of the SSDE group were significantly higher than the non-SSDE group (p = 0.0072 and 0.0162, respectively). The prevalence of anxiety and depression in the SSDE group was significantly higher than the non-SSDE group (p = 0.0240 and 0.0200, respectively). Nine of twelve NEI-VFQ subscales were negatively correlated with SAS

  11. Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL) in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1) years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229). The total DES symptom scores (TDSS) in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P < 0.001). The values of tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were significantly lower in participants with DES and those with dry eye signs only (F = 55.158 and 40.778, P < 0.001). The composite score of the NEI VFQ-25 was significantly lower in subjects with DES (F = 4.901, P = 0.003). Moreover, the subscale scores of ocular pain and mental health were significantly lower in those with either DES or dry eye symptoms only (F = 10.962 and 7.362 respectively, both P < 0.001). The multiple regression analysis showed that the TDSS had a significant negative correlation with the VFQ-25 composite score as well as with the subscale score for ocular pain and mental health, even after the

  12. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Herpetic Anterior Uveitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hoeksema, Lisette; Los, Leonoor I.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) and the prevalence and severity of depression in patients with herpetic anterior uveitis (AU). This study was conducted in 2012 at the ophthalmology department of the University Medical Center of Groningen (tertiary referral center). We selected patients from an existing uveitis database, all eligible patients were approached. Thirty-six of 66 (55%) patients with herpetic AU (herpes simplex virus or varicella zoster virus) participated, patients were 18 years or older. The diagnosis was made by clinical presentation or a positive anterior chamber tap. All patients received an information letter, informed consent form, National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Social Support List – Interactions (SSL-I), Social Support List – Discrepancies (SSL-D) and an additional questionnaire for gathering general information. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics. Analyses were conducted on various patient and ocular characteristics. We compared our NEI VFQ-25 scores with those previously found in the literature. Our main outcome measures were VR-QOL, prevalence and severity of depression, social support and various patient and ocular characteristics that could influence the VR-QOL. We found that the NEI VFQ-25 mean overall composite score (OCS) was 88.1±10.6. Compared with other ocular diseases our OCS is relatively high, but lower than that found in a normal working population. The mean general health score was 59.0±19.0; this score is lower than in patients with other ocular diseases, except for untreated Behçet’s patients. Depression was scarce, with only one patient (2.8%) having a moderate depression (BDI-II score of 21). We concluded that herpetic AU affects the VR-QOL in a moderate way. The prevalence of depression in our group of herpetic AU patients was low and therefore does not seem to indicate a need for specific

  13. Application of ISSR markers to analyze molecular relationships in Iranian jasmine (Jasminum spp.) accessions.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Ghehsareh, Masood; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza; Niazi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    There are many species of jasmines in different regions of Iran in natural or cultivated form, and there is no information about their genetic status. Therefore, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate genetic variations of the 53 accessions representing eight species of Jasminum collected from different regions of Iran. A total of 21 ISSR primers were used which generated 981 bands of different sizes. Mean percentage of polymorphic bands was 90.64 %. Maximum resolving power, polymorphic information content average, and marker index values were 21.55, 0.35, and 14.42 for primers of 3, 4, and 3 respectively. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram based on Jaccard's coefficients indicated that 53 accessions were divided into two major clusters. The first major cluster was divided into two subclusters; the subcluster A included Jasminum grandiflorum L., J. officinale L., and J. azoricum L. and the subcluster B consisted of three forms of J. sambac L. (single, semi-double, and double flowers). The second major cluster was divided into two subclusters; the first subcluster (C) included J. humile L., J. primulinum Hemsl., J. nudiflorum Lindl. and the second subcluster (D) consisted of J. fruticans L. At the species level, the highest percentage of polymorphism (34.05 %), numbers of effective alleles (1.16), Shannon index (0.151), and Nei's genetic diversity (0.098) were observed in J. officinale. The lowest values of percentage polymorphism (0.011), number of effective alleles (1.009), Shannon index (0.007), and Nei's genetic diversity (0.005) were obtained for J. nudiflorum. Based on pairwise population matrix of Nei's unbiased genetic identity, the highest identity (0.85) was found between J.officinale and J. azoricum and the lowest identity (0.69) was between J. grandiflorum and J. perimulinum. Based on analysis of molecular variance, the amount of genetic variations among the eight populations was 83 %. This study

  14. Constraints on the sources and impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over North America from tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lu

    This dissertation presents the first-ever in-situ tall tower measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. The data span August 2009 through July 2012, and provide new constraints on seasonal and long-term controls on VOC sources and their atmospheric effects. The 200 m sampling height provides a large-scale footprint, while the tall tower location, near the intersection of the main North American ecosystems and at times downwind of the Twin Cities, affords information on natural emissions from some of the most important US landscapes as well as on anthropogenic sources. I interpret the dataset using an atmospheric chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM), with a focus on several key atmospheric VOCs. This dissertation finds that current models underestimate methanol emission rates for younger versus older leaves. This biased seasonality means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated. A Bayesian inverse analysis of the tall tower observations reveals that the prior estimate of North American anthropogenic acetone sources (based on the US EPA's NEI05 inventory) is accurate to within 20%. However, biogenic acetone emissions from broadleaf trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants are presently underestimated (˜37%), while emissions from needleleaf trees plus secondary production from biogenic precursors are overestimated by a similar amount (˜40%). Model-measurement comparisons imply that isoprene emissions in the immediate vicinity of the tall tower are accurately captured by the MEGANv2.1 biogenic inventory, but that larger-scale regional emissions are underestimated, reflecting the heterogeneous land cover in this transitional landscape. Isoprene emissions play a key role in seasonal shifts between VOC-limited chemistry in the spring and fall and NOx-limited or transitional chemistry in the summer. A Bayesian inverse analysis based on the tall tower measurements suggests that: i) the RETRO

  15. Evaluation of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions over California in Spring 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Bowman, K. W.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chai, T.; Pierce, R.; Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) belongs to the regulated 'six common air pollutants' by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), due to its adverse impacts on the human respiratory system. It is also often used as the indicator for the highly reactive group of gases nitrogen oxides (NOx), the important ozone precursors. We model California air quality during the NOAA CalNex field campaign period in May 2010 using the STEM chemical transport model on a 12 km horizontal resolution grid. Three different anthropogenic emission inventories were used in the simulations: 1) 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI 2005); 2) daily-varying emissions recently developed by California Air Resources Board (CARB); and 3) NEI 2008. The model-simulated NO2 were compared with the measurements by aircraft and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board of the Aura satellite. We further conduct NO2 emission inversion using the four-dimensional variational approach [Chai et al., 2009] and the OMI NO2 column data. The inversion generated grid-based emission scaling factors on the NEI 2005, and the resulting NOx fields were 'cross-validated' by comparing with aircraft NO2 measurements. The adjustment on original emissions was then compared with 1) the CARB-documented NOx emission trends, 2) other 'top-down' estimates of California NOx emissions using aircraft measurements [Brioude et al., 2013], and 3) the space-observed NO2 column trends [Russell et al., 2012]. References Chai, T., Carmichael, G., Tang, Y., and Sandu, A., Regional NO2 emission inversion through four-dimensional variational approach using Sciamachy tropospheric column observations, Atmos. Environ., 43, 5046-5055, 2009. Brioude, J., Angevine, W. M., Ahmadov, R., Kim, S.-W., Evan, S., McKeen, S. A., Hsie, E.-Y., Frost, G. J., Neuman, J. A., Pollack, I. B., Peischl, J., Ryerson, T. B., Holloway, J., Brown, S. S., Nowak, J. B., Roberts, J. M., Wofsy, S. C., Santoni, G. W., Oda, T., and Trainer, M.: Top-down estimate of surface

  16. The protective effect of melatonin on remote organ liver ischemia and reperfusion injury following aortic clamping.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Mustafa; Gonul, Yucel; Ozkececi, Ziya Taner; Bali, Ahmet; Celep, Ruchan Bahadir; Koçak, Ahmet; Adali, Fahri; Tosun, Murat; Celik, Sefa

    2016-01-01

    Dopo il ripristino della circolazione sanguigna e dell’ossigenazione possono verificarsi gravi danni locali e sistemici ai tessuti temporaneamente ischemici, noti come danni da riperfusione. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di indagare sui possibili effetti protettivi della melatonina nei confronti dei danni sistemici da riperfuzione nel tessuto epatico a seguito dell’occlusione dell’aorta sottorenale. Per questo studio sono stati impiegati un totale di 21 ratti Wistar-albini di sesso maschile, suddivisi in tre gruppi: I gruppo – laparotomia e contemporanea dissezione dell’aorta infrarenale; II gruppo – somministrazione intraperitoneale di circa 1 ml di fisiologica al 0,9% di NaCl 30’ prima e dopo l’operazione di occlusione. Dopo la laparotomia e sua dissezione, l’aorta sottorenale è clampata per 30’ e quindi riabitata al circolo di riperfusione per 2 ore; III gruppo – 30’ prima del clampaggio dell’aorta sottorenale è stata somministrata la malatonina, seguita dal clampaggio aortico per 30’ e un periodo di riperfusione di 2 ore. Sono stati quindi dosati i tassi sierici di aspartate aminotransferasi, alanine aminotransferasi, and lattato dehydrogenase, risultati significativamente più elevate nei gruppi II e III rispetto al gruppo I di controllo. Gli esami di laboratorio sono tornati ai livelli normali nel III gruppo dopo il trattamento. Sebbene si sia avuto un decremento del tasso sierico di IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, e IFN- γ nel gruppo trattato con melatonina, questo decremento ha assunto valore statisticamente significativo per i livelli sierici di IL- 18, TNF-α, e IFN- γ in paragone con quanto osservato nel II gruppo. I tassi sierici dello stato totale di antiossidanti tissutali (TOC) e dell’indice di stress ossidativo dei tessuti (OSI) sono risultati diminuiti e quelli della capacità antiossidante (TAC) risultano accresciuti dalla melatonina. Il risultato di questo studio suggerisce effetti antiossidanti della

  17. Vision-related quality of life in first stroke patients with homonymous visual field defects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To evaluate vision-related and health-related quality of life (VRQoL, HRQoL) in first stroke patients with homonymous visual field defects (VFD) with respect to the extent of the lesion. Since VFD occur in approximately 10% of stroke patients the main purpose of the study was to investigate the additional impact of VFD in stroke patients hypothesizing that VFD causes diminished VRQoL. Methods In 177 first stroke patients with persisting VFD 2.5 years after posterior-parietal lesions VRQoL was assessed by the National-Eye-Institute-Visual-Functioning-Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) and HRQoL by the Medical-Outcome-Study Short-Form-36 Health-Survey (SF-36). Questionnaire results of VFD-patients were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls and with general non-selected stroke samples as published elsewhere. VFD-type and visual acuity were partially correlated with questionnaire results. Results Compared to healthy controls VFD-patients had lower NEI-VFQ scores except ocular pain (Z-range -11.34 to -3.35) and lower SF-36 scores except emotional role limitations (Z-range -7.21 to -3.34). VFD-patients were less impaired in SF-36 scores than general stroke patients one month post lesion (6/8 subscales) but had lower SF-36 scores compared to stroke patients six months post lesion (5/8 subscales). Visual acuity significantly correlated with NEI-VFQ scores (r-range 0.27 to 0.48) and VFD-type with SF-36 mental subscales (r-range -0.26 to -0.36). Conclusions VFD-patients showed substantial reductions of VRQoL and HRQoL compared to healthy normals, but better HRQoL compared to stroke patients one month post lesion. VFD-patients (although their lesion age was four times higher) had significantly lower HRQoL than a general stroke population at six months post-stroke. This indicates that the stroke-related subjective level of HRQoL impairment is significantly exacerbated by VFD. While VRQoL was primarily influenced by visual acuity, mental components of HRQoL were

  18. Assessing quality of life in the treatment of patients with age-related macular degeneration: clinical research findings and recommendations for clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Yuzawa, Mitsuko; Fujita, Kyoko; Tanaka, Erika; Wang, Edward C Y

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of incorporating quality-of-life (QoL) assessments into medical practice is growing as health care practice shifts from a “disease-based” to a “patient-centered” model. The prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is increasing in today’s aging population. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to discuss, by reviewing the current literature, the impact of AMD on patients’ QoL and the utility of QoL assessments in evaluating the impact of AMD and its treatment; and (2) to make a recommendation for incorporating QoL into clinical practice. Methods We conducted a PubMed and an open Internet search to identify publications on the measurement of QoL in AMD, as well as the impact of AMD and the effect of treatment on QoL. A total of 28 articles were selected. Results AMD has been found to cause a severity-dependent decrement in QoL that is comparable to systemic diseases such as cancer, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. QoL impairment manifests as greater social dependence, difficulty with daily living, higher rates of clinical depression, increased risk of falls, premature admission to nursing homes, and suicide. The National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) is the most widely used eye disease-specific QoL instrument in AMD. It has been shown to correlate significantly with visual acuity (VA). QoL reflects aspects of AMD including psychological well-being, functional capacity, and the ability to perform patients’ valued activities, which are not captured by a single, numerical VA score. Conclusion The literature shows that the adverse impact of AMD on QoL is comparable to serious systemic disease. Eye disease-specific instruments for measuring QoL, such as the NEI VFQ-25, have shown a significant correlation of QoL decrement with measures of disease severity, as well as significant QoL improvement with treatment. The NEI VFQ-25 and other validated instruments provide a wide-ranging assessment

  19. Development of alternate methods of determining integrated SMR source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Kenneth

    2014-06-10

    The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Licensing Task Force (TF) has been evaluating licensing issues unique and important to iPWRs, ranking these issues, and developing NEI position papers for submittal to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during the past three years. Papers have been developed and submitted to the NRC in a range of areas including: Price-Anderson Act, NRC annual fees, security, modularity, and staffing. In December, 2012, NEI completed a draft position paper on SMR source terms and participated in an NRC public meeting presenting a summary of this paper, which was subsequently submitted to the NRC. One important conclusion of the source term paper was the evaluation and selection of high importance areas where additional research would have a significant impact on source terms. The highest ranked research area was iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition. The NRC accepts the use of existing aerosol deposition correlations in Regulatory Guide 1.183, but these were developed for large light water reactor (LWR) containments. Application of these correlations to an iPWR design has resulted in greater than a ten-fold reduction of containment airborne aerosol inventory as compared to large LWRs. Development and experimental justification of containment aerosol natural deposition correlations specifically for the unique iPWR containments is expected to result in a large reduction of design basis and beyond-design-basis accident source terms with concomitantly smaller dose to workers and the public. Therefore, NRC acceptance of iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition correlations will directly support the industry’s goal of reducing the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for SMRs. Based on the results in this work, it is clear that thermophoresis is relatively unimportant for iPWRs. Gravitational settling is well understood, and may be the dominant process for a dry environment. Diffusiophoresis and enhanced

  20. Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life in a non-clinic-based general population.

    PubMed

    Le, Qihua; Zhou, Xiaodong; Ge, Ling; Wu, Liangcheng; Hong, Jiaxu; Xu, Jianjiang

    2012-07-16

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL) in a non-clinic-based general population. This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7±10.1) years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229). The total DES symptom scores (TDSS) in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F=60.331, P<0.001). The values of tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were significantly lower in participants with DES and those with dry eye signs only (F=55.158 and 40.778, P<0.001). The composite score of the NEI VFQ-25 was significantly lower in subjects with DES (F=4.901, P=0.003). Moreover, the subscale scores of ocular pain and mental health were significantly lower in those with either DES or dry eye symptoms only (F=10.962 and 7.362 respectively, both P<0.001). The multiple regression analysis showed that the TDSS had a significant negative correlation with the VFQ-25 composite score as well as with the subscale score for ocular pain and mental health, even after the adjustment of all other factors (all P<0.01). The symptoms of dry eye are associated

  1. Photochemistry and transport of tropospheric ozone and its precursors in urban and remote environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Daniel Craig

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) adversely affects human health, reduces crop yields, and contributes to climate forcing. To limit these effects, the processes controlling O3 abundance as well as that of its precursor molecules must be fully characterized. Here, I examine three facets of O 3 production, both in heavily polluted and remote environments. First, using in situ observations from the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in the Baltimore/Washington region, I evaluate the emissions of the O 3 precursors CO and NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). I find that CO/NOx emissions ratios derived from observations are 21% higher than those predicted by the NEI. Comparisons to output from the CMAQ model suggest that CO in the NEI is accurate within 15 +/- 11%, while NOx emissions are overestimated by 51-70%, likely due to errors in mobile sources. These results imply that ambient ozone concentrations will respond more efficiently to NOx controls than current models suggest. I then investigate the source of high O3 and low H2O structures in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). A combination of in situ observations, satellite data, and models show that the high O3 results from photochemical production in biomass burning plumes from fires in tropical Southeast Asia and Central Africa; the low relative humidity results from large-scale descent in the tropics. Because these structures have frequently been attributed to mid-latitude pollution, biomass burning in the tropics likely contributes more to the radiative forcing of climate than previously believed. Finally, I evaluate the processes controlling formaldehyde (HCHO) in the TWP. Convective transport of near surface HCHO leads to a 33% increase in upper tropospheric HCHO mixing ratios; convection also likely increases upper tropospheric CH 3OOH to ~230 pptv, enough to maintain background HCHO at ~75 pptv. The long-range transport of polluted air, with NO four times the convectively controlled background

  2. [Preliminary study of the quality of life of glaucoma patients in the district of Sousse (Tunisia): Sociodemographic and clinical associations].

    PubMed

    Knani, L; Gatfaoui, F; Mahjoub, A; Ghorbel, M; Mahjoub, H; Ben Hadj Hamida, F

    2017-03-01

    To assess the vision-specific quality-of-life (VS-QoL) of glaucoma patients followed at Farhat Hached university hospital, Sousse-Tunisia, and identify clinical and sociodemographic factors potentially affecting it. This was a cross-sectional study enrolling one-hundred twenty patients followed for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). All the patients successfully responded to the Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ 25). Quality of life was quantified in terms of scores (0-100) and correlated with sociodemographic and clinical factors. One hundred and twenty patients were studied. The mean age was 62.38±10.68years. The global mean score (GMS) score was 70.11±18.45% ranging from 23.71 to 98%. Urban residence was associated with a better total score (P=0.01). Educational background was correlated with the subscale scores of distant activities (P=0.01), social functioning (P=0.03), physical activity limitations (P=0.01) and peripheral vision (P=0.01). The total NEI-VFQ 25 had a statistically significantly negative correlation with the duration of the glaucoma (P=0.002), the cup to disc ratio of the better and the worse eye (P<10(-4)), the visual acuity of the better and the worse eye (P<10(-4)), but not with the intraocular pressure. A higher number of glaucoma medications had a negative impact on the total score (P=0.03) and the subscales of physical activity limitations (P=0.04) and driving (P=0.002). Vision-specific quality of life of glaucoma patients, as measured by the NEI-VFQ 25, is correlated to many sociodemographic and clinical elements. QoL evaluation is an essential factor to be considered in the management of glaucoma patients. In our context, research should be directed first to the validation of a questionnaire in the local dialect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability in Ammonia Emissions from Agricultural Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3), is an important component of the reactive nitrogen cycle and a precursor to formation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Predicting regional PM concentrations and deposition of nitrogen species to ecosystems requires representative emission inventories. Emission inventories have traditionally been developed using top down approaches and more recently from data assimilation based on satellite and ground based ambient concentrations and wet deposition data. The National Emission Inventory (NEI) indicates agricultural fertilization as the predominant contributor (56%) to NH3 emissions in Midwest USA, in 2002. However, due to limited understanding of the complex interactions between fertilizer usage, farm practices, soil and meteorological conditions and absence of detailed statistical data, such emission estimates are currently based on generic emission factors, time-averaged temporal factors and coarse spatial resolution. Given the significance of this source, our study focuses on developing an improved NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization at finer spatial and temporal scales for air quality modeling studies. Firstly, a high-spatial resolution 4 km x 4 km NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization has been developed for Illinois by modifying spatial allocation of emissions based on combining crop-specific fertilization rates with cropland distribution in the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions model. Net emission estimates of our method are within 2% of NEI, since both methods are constrained by fertilizer sales data. However, we identified localized crop-specific NH3 emission hotspots at sub-county resolutions absent in NEI. Secondly, we have adopted the use of the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) Biogeochemistry model to simulate the physical and chemical processes that control volatilization of nitrogen as NH3 to the atmosphere after fertilizer application and resolve the variability at the hourly scale

  4. Quality of Life in the Tube Versus Trabeculectomy Study.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Aachal; Feuer, William J; Barton, Keith; Gedde, Steven J

    2017-04-01

    To report the vision-specific quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes in the Tube Versus Trabeculectomy (TVT) Study. Multicenter randomized clinical trial. Setting: Seventeen clinical centers. Patients 18-85 years of age with medically uncontrolled glaucoma who had previous cataract and/or glaucoma surgery. Tube shunt (350-mm(2) Baerveldt glaucoma implant) or trabeculectomy with MMC. Vision-specific QoL using the NEI VFQ-25 and estimation of minimally important differences (MID) were the main outcome measures. Cross-sectional distribution- and anchor-based approaches were used to estimate MID. Clinical anchor measures included the mean deviation (MD) and logMAR visual acuity (VA) measurements. Clinically significant changes in anchor were defined as ≥2 dB MD and ≥0.2 logMAR. No significant differences in composite scores were observed between treatment groups, and no significant change in scores were seen over time. Mean (SD; range) values of clinical anchors at baseline were -16.6 (9.3; -32 to -0.5) dB for the surgical eye and 0.2 (0.3; -0.1 to 1.3) logMAR VA in the better-vision eye. For anchor-based cross-sectional analysis, composite score MID (95% CI) was 6.3 (4.6-7.9) for better-eye VA and 1.4 (0.9-1.9) for surgical eye MD. Distribution-based MID for the composite score was 6.0. Trabeculectomy and tube shunt surgery had similar impact on patient-reported vision-specific QoL measured using the NEI VFQ-25. In this cohort of patients with advanced glaucoma, MIDs varied depending on the clinical anchor used. Distribution-based MIDs corresponded well with anchor-based MIDs based on VA measures. The MID values reported here may be useful for others wishing to interpret NEI VFQ-25 scores in their advanced glaucoma patient cohort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequency and Correlates of Distant Visual Impairment in Patients with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W; Tang, L R; Correll, C U; Ungvari, G S; Chiu, H F K; Xiang, Y Q; Xiang, Y T

    2015-09-01

    Distant visual impairment in the severely mentally ill is under-researched. This study aimed to assess the frequency and correlates of distant visual impairment in a cohort of Chinese psychiatric patients, including its effect on their quality of life. Adult psychiatric inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder consecutively admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Beijing, China underwent assessments of psychopathology (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology [Self-Report]), quality of life (12-item Short-Form Medical Outcomes Study [SF-12], 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire [NEI-VFQ25]), adverse effects (Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale), and presenting (as opposed to uncorrected) distant visual acuity (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution [LogMAR] chart with patients wearing spectacles, if they owned them). Distant visual impairment was defined as binocular distant visual acuity of a LogMAR score of ≥ 0.5 (< 6/18 Snellen acuity). Among 356 patients who met the study criteria, the frequency of distant visual impairment was 12.6% (15.2% with schizophrenia, 11.9% with bipolar disorder, 8.8% with major depressive disorder). In multiple logistic regression analysis, distant visual impairment was significantly associated with ocular disease only (p = 0.002, odds ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.5-6.7). Controlling for the confounding effect of ocular disease, patients with distant visual impairment had a lower quality of life in the general vision domain of the NEI-VFQ25 (F[2, 353] = 9.5, p = 0.002) compared with those without. No differences in the physical and mental domains of the SF-12 and in other domains of the NEI-VFQ25 were noted in these 2 groups. One-eighth of middle-aged severely mentally ill patients had distant visual impairment. Considering the impact of distant visual impairment on daily functioning

  6. Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, J.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Pouliot, G.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wei, C.

    2013-08-01

    An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System. Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were calculated back from the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) for seven years (i.e., 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005), and constrained by the AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors) dataset. Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway vehicles and non-highway equipment were obtained from highway statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy-related sources were either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based on the NEI trends report. Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) data, but better constrained by trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2, NOx, CO and EC (speciation of PM2.5 by SMOKE, Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions) emissions agree well with the observed changes in ambient SO2, NO2

  7. Aortic valve replacement in a patient with ostegenesis imperfecta A case report.

    PubMed

    Concistrè, Giovanni; Casali, Giovanni; Della Monica, Paola Lilla; Montalto, Andrea; Ranocchi, Federeico; Fiorani, Brenno; Musumeci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    L’Osteogenesi Imperfecta (OI) è un’alterazione ereditaria del tessuto connettivo in cui l’estrema fragilità ossea causa fratture. La dilatazione aneurismatica della radice aortica, l’insufficienza valvolare aortica ed il prolasso mitralico sono rare manifestazioni cardiovascolari di OI. L’intervento cardiochirurgico in questi pazienti può presentare importanti complicanze legate alla incrementata fragilità tissutale e capillare. Noi riportiamo un caso di chirurgia a cuore aperto in una donna con insufficienza valvolare aortica isolata secondaria ad OI. Il decorso postoperatorio è stato privo di complicanze maggiori e la paziente è stata dimessa presso propria abitazione in ottava giornata postoperatoria. È stata seguita con controlli frequenti per un anno. Nonostante la fragilità tissutale non abbia avuto impatto sul decorso postoperatorio, bisogna sempre tenere in considerazione la possibilità di eventi avversi nei pazienti con tale disordine connettivale. È necessario pertanto una meticolosa tecnica chirurgica che possa anticipare possibili complicanze postoperatorie.

  8. Genetic diversity among Zygophyllum (Zygophyllaceae) populations based on RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammad, I; Qari, S H

    2010-12-14

    Zygophyllum species are succulent plants that are drought resistant and/or salt tolerant, growing under severe, dry climatic conditions. Despite their importance and abundance in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions, there is little information concerning molecular variations among species of this genus. Genetic diversity was assessed, using RAPD primers, of 12 populations of Z. coccineum, Z. album and Z. aegyptium collected from various locations in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Yong leaves were used for DNA extraction. Genetic distances were calculated using Nei's method. A dendrogram was constructed based on the similarity data matrix by unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages cluster analysis. Analysis with RAPD markers revealed genetic variation between and within populations of Zygophyllum. Zygophyllum coccineum showed higher levels of genetic variation and more unique alleles than the other species.

  9. SNP detection in Na/K ATP-ase gene α1 subunit of bisexual and parthenogenetic Artemia strains by RFLP screening.

    PubMed

    Manaffar, R; Zare, S; Agh, N; Abdolahzadeh, N; Soltanian, S; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P; Van Stappen, G

    2011-01-01

    In order to find a marker for differentiating between a bisexual and a parthenogenetic Artemia strain, Exon-7 of the Na/K ATPase α(1) subunit gene was screened by RFLP technique. The results revealed a constant synonymous SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) in digestion by the Tru1I enzyme that was consistent with these two types of Artemia. This SNP was identified as an accurate molecular marker for discrimination between bisexual and parthenogenetic Artemia. According to the Nei's genetic distance (1973), the lowest genetic distance was found between individuals from Artemia urmiana Günther 1890 and parthenogenetic populations, making the described marker the first marker to easily distinguish between these two cooccurring species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Standard technical specifications combustion engineering plants: Bases (Sections 2.0--3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes.

  11. The late Cretaceous Arman flora of Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, A. B.; Golovneva, L. B.; Shczepetov, S. V.; Grabovsky, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Arman flora from the volcanogenic-sedimentary beds of the Arman Formation is systematically studied using materials from the Arman River basin and the Nelkandya-Khasyn interfluve (Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia). Seventy-three species of fossil plants belonging to 49 genera are described. They consist of liverworts, horsetails, ferns, seed ferns, cycadaleans, bennettitaleans, ginkgoaleans, czekanowskialeans, conifers, gymnosperms of uncertain systematic affinity, and angiosperms. The Arman flora shows a unique combination, with relatively ancient Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms occurring alongside younger Late Cretaceous plants, primarily angiosperms. The similarity of the Arman flora to the Penzhina and Kaivayam floras of northwestern Kamchatka and the Tylpegyrgynai flora of the Pekul'nei Ridge allows the Arman flora to be dated as Turonian and Coniacian (Late Cretaceous), which is corroborated by isotopic (U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar) age determination for the plant-bearing layers.

  12. Analysis of the daily rainfall events over India using a new long period (1901-2010) high resolution (0.25° × 0.25°) gridded rainfall data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, D. S.; Sridhar, Latha; Badwaik, M. R.; Rajeevan, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, analysis of the long term climatology, variability and trends in the daily rainfall events of ≥5 mm [or daily rainfall (DR) events] during the southwest monsoon season (June-September) over four regions of India; south central India (SCI), north central India (NCI), northeast India (NEI) and west coast (WC) have been presented. For this purpose, a new high spatial resolution (0.25° × 0.25°) daily gridded rainfall data set covering 110 years (1901-2010) over the Indian main land has been used. The association of monsoon low pressure systems (LPSs) with the DR events of various intensities has also been examined. Major portion of the rainfall over these regions during the season was received in the form of medium rainfall (≥5-100 mm) or moderate rainfall (MR) events. The mean seasonal cycle of the daily frequency of heavy rainfall (HR) (≥100-150 mm) or HR events and very heavy rainfall (VHR) (≥150 mm) or VHR events over each of the four regions showed peak at different parts of the season. The peak in the mean daily HR and VHR events occurred during middle of July to middle of August over SCI, during late part of June to early part of July over NCI, during middle of June to early July over NEI, and during late June to middle July over WC. Significant long term trends in the frequency and intensity of the DR events were observed in all the four geographical regions. Whereas the intensity of the DR events over all the four regions showed significant positive trends during the second half and the total period, the signs and magnitude of the long term trends in the frequency of the various categories of DR events during the total period and its two halves differed from the region to the region. The trend analysis revealed increased disaster potential for instant flooding over SCI and NCI during the recent years due to significant increasing trends in the frequency (areal coverage) and intensity of the HR and VHR events during the recent half of

  13. Analysis of the daily rainfall events over India using a new long period (1901-2010) high resolution (0.25° × 0.25°) gridded rainfall data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, D. S.; Sridhar, Latha; Badwaik, M. R.; Rajeevan, M.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, analysis of the long term climatology, variability and trends in the daily rainfall events of ≥5 mm [or daily rainfall (DR) events] during the southwest monsoon season (June-September) over four regions of India; south central India (SCI), north central India (NCI), northeast India (NEI) and west coast (WC) have been presented. For this purpose, a new high spatial resolution (0.25° × 0.25°) daily gridded rainfall data set covering 110 years (1901-2010) over the Indian main land has been used. The association of monsoon low pressure systems (LPSs) with the DR events of various intensities has also been examined. Major portion of the rainfall over these regions during the season was received in the form of medium rainfall (≥5-100 mm) or moderate rainfall (MR) events. The mean seasonal cycle of the daily frequency of heavy rainfall (HR) (≥100-150 mm) or HR events and very heavy rainfall (VHR) (≥150 mm) or VHR events over each of the four regions showed peak at different parts of the season. The peak in the mean daily HR and VHR events occurred during middle of July to middle of August over SCI, during late part of June to early part of July over NCI, during middle of June to early July over NEI, and during late June to middle July over WC. Significant long term trends in the frequency and intensity of the DR events were observed in all the four geographical regions. Whereas the intensity of the DR events over all the four regions showed significant positive trends during the second half and the total period, the signs and magnitude of the long term trends in the frequency of the various categories of DR events during the total period and its two halves differed from the region to the region. The trend analysis revealed increased disaster potential for instant flooding over SCI and NCI during the recent years due to significant increasing trends in the frequency (areal coverage) and intensity of the HR and VHR events during the recent half of

  14. Emission spectra of the cations of 1,3- and 1,4-dibromotetrafluorobenzene and of 1,3,5-tribromotrifluorobenzene in the gaseous phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, John Paul; Marthaler, O.; Mohraz, Manijeh; Shiley, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A search was made for radiative decay of electronically excited cations of 24 bromobenzenes and of their fluoro-substituted derivatives in the gaseous phase. The only emission spectra detected were for the cations of 1,3- and 1,4-dibromotetrafluorobenzene and of 1,3,5-tribromotrifluorobenzene. The band systems, which are found between 670 and 830 nm, are assigned to the B(??-1) ??? A(??-1), X(??-1) electronic transitions of these cations. The assignments are based on the Ne(I) photoelectron spectra which are also presented for some of the studied species. The interpretation for the absence of detectable emission is that the nature of the B cationic states is ??-1, except in the case of 1,3- and 1,4-dibromobenzene cations for which B states are still formed by ??-1 processes. Possible reasons for these observations are discussed. The symmetries of the lowest three electronic states of the studied cations are given. ?? 1980.

  15. [Alternative Ways of Pinus sylvestris L. Migration from Southern Siberia to Europe and Asia Minor].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Egorov, E V

    2015-01-01

    Allozyme analysis of the parameters of the Nei genetic distances and gene flow between the populations of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. along two hypothetical alternative ways of their migrations in the Miocene-Pliocene from Southern Siberia to the Balkans, Central Europe, and Asia Minor was used; a lower probability of their settlement on the southern shores of the East Paratethys than on the northern ones was identified. It is suggested that the Middle Araks Strait of Paratethys in the Miocene and extreme aridity of the climate in the Pliocene headed the migration of the populations on the southern way, while on the northern way there were no essential water and mountain barriers for pine dispersal.

  16. Late cretaceous Arman' flora of Magadan oblast: Paleoclimatic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, A. B.; Spicer, R. A.

    2014-05-01

    The Arman' flora belongs to the formation of the same name in the Arman' River basin and Nel'khandzha-Khasyn interfluve. It includes about 80 fossil plant species. The similarity of this flora to the reliably dated fossil floras of northwestern Kamchatka and the Pekul'nei Range dates it to being Turonian and Coniacian in age, which is corroborated by isotopic (U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar) dating of the plant-bearing layers. The CLAMP method is used to estimate quantitative climatic variables, according to which the Arman' flora existed in a temperate humid climate with warm summers and mild winters. This climate is especially similar to the conditions reconstructed from fossil plants of the Turonian Penzhina flora and the Coniacian Kaivayam and Tylpegyrgynai floras of Northeast Asia.

  17. [Genetic variability of the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum (Burkholderiales: Burholderiaceae) in the banana-growing region of Uraba (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Carolina; Rodríguez, Paola; Cotes, José Miguel; Marín, Mauricio

    2010-03-01

    The banana moko disease, caused by the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, is one of the most important phytopathological problems of the banana agribusiness in tropical countries. In Uraba and Magdalena (Colombia), the main exporting regions of banana in Colombia, this disease causes a destruction estimated in 16.5 ha/year. The bacterium presents an extremely high level of genetic variation that affects control measures. This is the first study of its variation in Colombia and was done with AFLP molecular markers on a population of 100 isolates from banana plants, soils and "weeds". The high level of genetic diversity, with Nei and Shannon indexes of h=0.32 and I=0.48, respectively, and the AMOVA, showed that this population is subestructured (Fst=0.66): the host is the main factor of differentiation. Even so, previous tests show that all varieties have pathogenicity on Musa.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of the hominoid primates as indicated by two-dimensional protein electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D.; Giri, P.R.; O'Brien, J.O.

    1987-05-01

    A molecular phylogeny for the hominoid primates was constructed by using genetic distances from a survey of 383 radiolabeled fibroblast polypeptides resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). An internally consistent matrix of Nei genetic distances was generated on the basis of variants in electrophoretic position. The derived phylogenetic tree indicated a branching sequence, from oldest to most recent, of cercopithecoids (Macaca fascicularis), gibbon-siamang, orangutan, gorilla, and human-chimpanzee. A cladistic analysis of 240 electrophoretic characters that varied between ape species produced an identical tree. Genetic distance measures obtained by 2DE are largely consistent with those generated by other molecular procedures. In addition, the 2DE data set appears to resolve the human-chimpanzee-gorilla trichotomy in favor of a more recent association of chimpanzees and humans.

  19. Grazing intensity affects the environmental impact of dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Larson, R

    2017-08-01

    Dairy products are major components of the human diet but are also important contributors to global environmental impacts. This study evaluated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, net energy intensity (NEI), and land use of confined dairy systems with increasing levels of pasture in the diet. A Wisconsin farm was modeled to represent practices adopted by dairy operations in a humid continental climate typical in the Great Lakes region and other climates that have large differences in seasonal temperatures. Five grazing scenarios (all of which contained some portion of confinement) were modeled based on different concentrations of dry matter intake from pasture and feed supplementation from corn grain, corn silage, and soybean meal. Scenarios that incorporate grazing consisted of 5 mo of pasture feeding from May to September and 7 mo of confined feeding from October to April. Environmental impacts were compared within the 5 scenarios that incorporate grazing and across 2 entirely confined scenarios with and without on-farm electricity production through anaerobic digestion (AD). To conduct a fair comparison, all scenarios were evaluated based on the same total amount of milk produced per day where resource inputs were adjusted according to the characteristics of each scenario. A cradle-to-farm gate life cycle assessment evaluated the environmental burdens that were partitioned by allocation between milk and meat and by system expansion when biogas-based electricity was produced. Overall, results for all scenarios were comparable. Enteric methane was the greatest contributor to GHG emissions, and the production of crops was the most energy-intense process. For the confined scenario without AD, GHG emissions were 0.87 kg of CO2 equivalents, NEI was 1.59 MJ, and land use was 1.59 m(2)/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). Anaerobic digestion significantly reduced emissions to 0.28 kg of CO2 equivalents/kg of FPCM and reduced NEI to -1.26 MJ/kg of FPCM, indicating a

  20. Tautomerization-dependent recognition and excision of oxidation damage in base-excision DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chenxu; Lu, Lining; Zhang, Jun; Yue, Zongwei; Song, Jinghui; Zong, Shuai; Liu, Menghao; Stovicek, Olivia; Gao, Yi Qin; Yi, Chengqi

    2016-01-01

    NEIL1 (Nei-like 1) is a DNA repair glycosylase guarding the mammalian genome against oxidized DNA bases. As the first enzymes in the base-excision repair pathway, glycosylases must recognize the cognate substrates and catalyze their excision. Here we present crystal structures of human NEIL1 bound to a range of duplex DNA. Together with computational and biochemical analyses, our results suggest that NEIL1 promotes tautomerization of thymine glycol (Tg)—a preferred substrate—for optimal binding in its active site. Moreover, this tautomerization event also facilitates NEIL1-catalyzed Tg excision. To our knowledge, the present example represents the first documented case of enzyme-promoted tautomerization for efficient substrate recognition and catalysis in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. PMID:27354518

  1. [Molecular genetic diversity of Fujian domestic duck breeds].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-fang; Li, Bi-chun; Ma, Yue-hui; Tang, Qing-ping; Chen, Kuan-wei; Tu, Yun-jie

    2007-02-01

    By using 28 micro-satellite markers with better polymorphism, this paper studied the genetic diversity of four Fujian provincial domestic duck breeds Jinding, Putian black, Liancheng white, and Shanma. According to the alleles frequencies, the polymorphic information content, average heterozygosity, anaqular genetic distance (DA) and Nei' s standard genetic distance (DS) for each breed were calculated. Based on DA and DS, four dendrograms were obtained by neighbor-joining (NJ) and UPGMA methods. The results showed that the average heterozygosity of the four duck breeds was 0. 5353, indicating that the protection of the genetic diversity of these breeds should be strengthened. The orders of the two types of genetic distances among the breeds were accordant, and the dendrograms were the same, reflecting that much more micro-satellite loci should be adopted to obtain more universal conclusions when the genetic diversity was analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships among the four duck breeds were in accordance with their economic types and ecological localities.

  2. Evolution of the genus Leishmania as revealed by comparisons of nuclear DNA restriction fragment patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, S M; Ismach, R B; Pratt, D M

    1987-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease DNA fragment patterns have been used to examine the relationships among 28 isolates of Leishmania as well as Crithidia, Endotrypanum, and Trypanosoma cruzi. Fragments of nuclear DNA were generated with six restriction enzymes, and blots were hybridized with probes from three loci. Among the major lineages the fragment patterns are essentially completely different, while within the major lineages various degrees of divergence are found. Molecular evolutionary trees were constructed using the method of Nei and Li to estimate the percent nucleotide sequence divergence among strains from the fraction of fragments shared. Defined groups, such as species or subspecies within the major lineages, are also grouped by nuclear DNA comparisons. Within the donovani complex, we find Leishmania donovani chagasi and Leishmania donovani infantum to be as similar as strains within Leishmania donovani donovani, consistent with the proposal by other workers that New World visceral leishmaniasis originated quite recently. Images PMID:3025876

  3. LWRS II&C Industry and Regulatory Engagement Activities for FY 11

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas

    2011-09-01

    To ensure broad industry support and coordination for the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Controls (II&C) Systems Technologies research pathway, an engagement process will be continually pursued with nuclear asset owners, vendors, and suppliers, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the major industry support organizations of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), and Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). Nuclear asset owner engagement is a necessary and enabling activity to obtain data and accurate characterization of long-term operational challenges, assess the suitability of proposed research for addressing long-term needs, and gain access to data and representative infrastructure and expertise needed to ensure success of the proposed research and development (R&D) activities. Engagement with vendors and suppliers will ensure that vendor expectations and needs can be translated into requirements that can be met through technology commercialization.

  4. Genetic relationships of extant brown bears (Ursus arctos) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and brown bears (Ursus arctos) are closely related species for which extensive mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic comparisons have been made. We used previously published genotype data for 8 microsatellite DNA loci from 930 brown bears in 19 populations and 473 polar bears in 16 populations to compare the population genetic relationships of extant populations of the species. Genetic distances (Nei standard distance = 1.157), the proportion of private alleles (52% of alleles are not shared by the species), and Bayesian cluster analysis are consistent with morphological and life-history characteristics that distinguish polar bears and brown bears as different species with little or no gene flow among extant populations.

  5. Isozyme analysis and relationships among three species in Malaysian Trichoderma isolates.

    PubMed

    Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Tan, Soon Guan; Yusof, Umi Kalsom

    2010-09-01

    Isozyme and protein electrophoresis data from mycelial extracts of 27 isolates of Trichoderma harzianum, 10 isolates of T. aureoviride and 10 isolates of T. longibrachiatum from Southern Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. The eight enzyme and a single protein pattern systems were analyzed. Three isozyme and total protein patterns were shown to be useful for the detection of three Trichoderma species. The isozyme and protein data were analyzed using the Nei and Li Dice similarity coefficient for pairwise comparison between individual isolates, species isolate group, and for generating a distance matrix. The UPGMA cluster analysis showed a higher degree of relationship between T. harzianum and T. aureoviride than to T. longibrachiatum. These results suggested that the T. harzianum isolates had high levels of genetic variation compared to the other isolates of Trichoderma species.

  6. Use of RAPD fingerprinting for delineating populations of hilsa shad Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Brahmane, M P; Das, M K; Sinha, M R; Sugunan, V V; Mukherjee, A; Singh, S N; Prakash, S; Maurye, P; Hajra, A

    2006-10-31

    RAPD was used to delineate the hilsa populations sampled from the Ganga, Yamuna, Hooghly, and Narmada Rivers at six different locations. Six degenerate primers were used to generate the fragment patterns from the samples collected. All primers were highly polymorphic and generated high numbers of amplification products. Nei's genetic distances were calculated between locations. The overall average genetic distance among all the six locations was 0.295. The Fst value within the Ganga was 0.469 and within the Hooghly it was 0.546. The overall Fst value for the six populations analyzed was 0.590. The UPGMA dendrogram clustered the hilsa into two distinct clusters: Ganga and Yamuna populations and the Hooghly and Narmada populations.

  7. Profiling base excision repair glycosylases with synthesized transition state analogs.

    PubMed

    Chu, Aurea M; Fettinger, James C; David, Sheila S

    2011-09-01

    Two base excision repair glycosylase (BER) transition state (TS) mimics, (3R,4R)-1-benzyl (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidin-3-ol (1NBn) and (3R,4R)-(hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidin-3-ol (1N), were synthesized using an improved method. Several BER glycosylases that repair oxidized DNA bases, bacterial formamidopyrimdine glycosylase (Fpg), human OG glycosylase (hOGG1) and human Nei-like glycosylase 1 (hNEIL1) exhibit exceptionally high affinity (K(d)∼pM) with DNA duplexes containing the 1NBn and 1N nucleotide. Notably, comparison of the K(d) values of both TS mimics relative to an abasic analog (THF) in duplex contexts paired opposite C or A suggest that these DNA repair enzymes use distinctly different mechanisms for damaged base recognition and catalysis despite having overlapping substrate specificities.

  8. Isozyme analysis on the populations of Ruditapes philippinarum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yiping; Gao, Tianxiang; Yang, Tianyan

    2006-01-01

    Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the genetic structure of six populations of Ruditapes philippinarum in the coast of China. Seven enzymes revealed eleven putative loci, and seven of them were polymorphic, PGM *, MDH-1*, MDH-3 *, LAP-1 *, LAP-2 *, MPI-1 * and MPI-2 *. The proportions of polymorphic loci of R. philippinarum populations varied from 0.454 5 to 0.636 4. The values of observed and expected heterozygosities were from 0.039 4 to 0.154 5 and from 0.1111 to 0.2385, respectively. Nei's genetic distance varied from 0.003 3 to 0.025 3 with an average of 0.013 5. It is suggested that the genetic diversity of R. philippinarum was high.

  9. Analysis of molecular genetic diversity of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Khaldi, Soumaya; Sonnante, Gabriella; El Gazzah, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity, the relationships among six Tunisian wild cardoon populations (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris) and a Tunisian's population of cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC) in seven different geographical locations (Tiurif, Bahra, Zriba, Bouficha, Enfidha, Beja and Wad mliz) from semi-arid and wet regions of Tunisia. Twenty-three selected microsatellite markers are used for a sample of 98 cardoon genotypes. The total of 243 alleles is detected in the studied populations and the number of alleles per locus ranged from six to 23. The dendrogram based on Nei's (1972) UPGMA method divides the seven studied populations to five clusters. These preliminary results show that microsatellites are effective tools for plant species characterization and the analysed populations have a high genetic variability and will be suitable as genetic stocks for conservation and sustainable utilization programs of Cynara cardunculus L. in Tunisia.

  10. The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for studies of genetic variation in populations of Coccinella septempunctata in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Haubruge, Eric; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, Flavie; Collignon, Pierre; Francis, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    The movement and dispersion of Coccinella septempunctata and its efficacy as aphid control agent over large areas is not really understood because of the difficulty in identifying the origins of predators. To quantify the genetic diversity within the species and monitor the spatial foraging, populations were sampled from Belgium and analysed for RAPD DNA variation. Twenty decamer primers generated more than hundred polymorphic RAPD bands and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to Nei and Li, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine intra- and inter-population variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA). This study shows that while a number of factors can complicate the use and interpretation of RAPD fragments as genetic markers, RAPD analysis can be a valuable technique for studies of intra-specific genetic variation in C. septempunctata.

  11. Nonstability of the Earth rotation in 1833-2000 yy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsun', A.; Kurbasova, G.

    2006-10-01

    We used the following series of data for analysis: (D) - Excess of the duration of the day to 86400s (IERS Annual Report, 2000); (EQ) - The mean annual numbers of Earthquakes with a magnitude of more than 7 in 1900-2004 (http:/neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/); (SSC) - The mean annul numbers of the geomagnetic sudden commencements in 1868-2002 (http://www.wdcb.ru/); (GMT) - Global Temperature Anomalies (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/ClimateIndices/); (aa) - Geomagnetic Indices (http://www.wdcb.ru/); (W) - Relative Sunspot Numbers (http://www.wdcb.ru/). Calculations are based on a classical spectral methods and two-channel estimates of the autoregressions (AR) spectral power density.

  12. Algal genotype and photoacclimatory responses of the symbiotic alga Symbiodinium in natural populations of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis

    PubMed Central

    Bythell, J. C.; Douglas, A. E.; Sharp, V. A.; Searle, J. B.; Brown, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    As an approach to investigate the impact of solar radiation on an alga–invertebrate symbiosis, the genetic variation and photosynthetic responses of the dinoflagellate algal symbiosis in an intertidal and a subtidal population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis were explored. Allozyme analysis of the anemones indicated that the two populations were genetically very similar, with a Nei's index value of genetic identity (I) of 0.998. The algae in all animals examined were identified as Symbiodinium of clade a by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The symbiosis in the two populations did not differ significantly in algal population density, chlorophyll a content per algal cell or any photosynthetic parameter obtained from studies of the relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. We conclude that there is not necessarily genetic variation or photosynthetic plasticity of the symbiotic algae in Anemonia viridis inhabiting environments characterized by the different solar irradiances of the subtidal and intertidal habitats.

  13. [Genetic variation and differentiation of peat-bog and dry-meadow populations of the dwarf mountain pine Pinus mugo Turra in the highlands of the Ukrainian Carpathians].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Pirko, Ia V

    2002-09-01

    Based on electrophoretic analysis of 21 isozyme loci controlling 10 enzyme systems, the intra- and inter-population variation was studied in two peat-bog and three dry-meadow populations of the dwarf mountain pine Pinus mugo Turra from the highlands of the Ukrainian Carpathians. In the studied samples (a total of 164 trees), on average 62% of the studied genes were polymorphic; the mean heterozygosity was 21.3%. The dry-meadow populations differed from the peat-bog populations by allele and genotype diversity and by heterozygosity although the indices characterizing population heterogeneity (Fst and Gst) were small (0.027 and 0.032, respectively). Nei's genetic distances between the populations ranged of 0.011 to 0.032 with the mean of 0.018.

  14. Expression of oxidative stress-response genes is not activated in the prefrontal cortex of patients with depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Teyssier, Jean-Raymond; Ragot, Sylviane; Chauvet-Gélinier, Jean-Christophe; Trojak, Benoit; Bonin, Bernard

    2011-04-30

    To test the hypothesis that the oxidative stress consistently detected in the peripheral blood of patients with depressive disorder impacts on the functionally relevant brain region, the expression level of nine major genes of the stress response and repair systems has been quantified in the prefrontal cortex of 24 depressive and 12 control subjects. These genes were: superoxide dismutase (SOD1), SOD2, catalase (CAT), gluthatione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), nei-like 1 (NEIL1), methionine sulphoxide reductase A (MSRA), telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TERF2) and C-FOS. Telomere length (a maker of chronic exposure to oxidative stress) has been measured in the DNA of the occipital cortex. No significant difference has been found between the compared groups. It must be concluded that the pathogenic role of the oxidative stress in the cerebral mechanism of depression cannot be inferred from the alteration of peripheral parameters.

  15. Origin of Mexican Nahuas (Aztecs) according to HLA genes and their relationships with worldwide populations.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto; Moscoso, Juan; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Rodriguez-Perez, Jose Manuel; Flores-Dominguez, Carmina; Serrano-Vela, Juan Ignacio; Moreno, Almudena; Granados, Julio; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2007-02-01

    A Nahua Aztec isolated group from Morelos State (Mexico) was studied for their HLA profile. The relationship with other Amerindians and worldwide populations was studied by using 13,818 chromosomes and calculating Nei's chord genetic distances (DA), neighbor-joining dendrograms and correspondence multidimensional values. Three new HLA extended haplotypes were found in our group: A*30-B*49-DRB1*1001-DQB1*0501 (the most frequent one in this population), A*02-B*52-DRB1*1402-DQB1*0301 and A*68-B*61-DRB1*1602-DQB1*0303. Both genetic distances and correspondence analyses clearly show that our Nahua isolated group is genetically close to some of the most ancient groups living in Mexico (Mayans, Zapotecans, Mixtecans). This suggests that Nahua language (Nahuatl) may have been imposed to scattered groups throughout Mexico; otherwise Aztecs may have been living in Mexico long before their postulated immigration in the XII century AD.

  16. Fast and accurate estimation of the covariance between pairwise maximum likelihood distances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pairwise evolutionary distances are a model-based summary statistic for a set of molecular sequences. They represent the leaf-to-leaf path lengths of the underlying phylogenetic tree. Estimates of pairwise distances with overlapping paths covary because of shared mutation events. It is desirable to take these covariance structure into account to increase precision in any process that compares or combines distances. This paper introduces a fast estimator for the covariance of two pairwise maximum likelihood distances, estimated under general Markov models. The estimator is based on a conjecture (going back to Nei & Jin, 1989) which links the covariance to path lengths. It is proven here under a simple symmetric substitution model. A simulation shows that the estimator outperforms previously published ones in terms of the mean squared error. PMID:25279263

  17. Isolation and characterization of genetic variability in bacteria with β-hemolytic and antifungal activity isolated from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, J E; Prieto-Barajas, C M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Santoyo, G

    2014-07-04

    In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of hemolytic and antifungal activities in bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants. Of the 2000 bacterial colonies, 96 showed β-hemolytic activities (frequency, 4.8 x 10(-2)). Hemolytic isolates were analyzed for their genetic diversity by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA, yielding 88 haplotypes. The similarity coefficient of Nei and Li showed a polymorphic diversity ranging from 0.3 to 1. Additionally, 8 of the hemolytic isolates showed antifungal activity toward plant pathogens, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. The 16S ribosomal sequencing analysis showed that antagonistic bacterial isolates corresponded to Bacillus subtilis (UM15, UM33, UM42, UM49, UM52, and UM91), Bacillus pumilus (UM24), and Bacillus licheniformis (UM88). The present results revealed a higher genetic diversity among hemolytic isolates compared to that of isolates with antifungal action.

  18. Visualizing the search for radiation-damaged DNA bases in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Andrea J.; Wallace, Susan S.

    2016-11-01

    The Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway removes the vast majority of damages produced by ionizing radiation, including the plethora of radiation-damaged purines and pyrimidines. The first enzymes in the BER pathway are DNA glycosylases, which are responsible for finding and removing the damaged base. Although much is known about the biochemistry of DNA glycosylases, how these enzymes locate their specific damage substrates among an excess of undamaged bases has long remained a mystery. Here we describe the use of single molecule fluorescence to observe the bacterial DNA glycosylases, Nth, Fpg and Nei, scanning along undamaged and damaged DNA. We show that all three enzymes randomly diffuse on the DNA molecule and employ a wedge residue to search for and locate damage. The search behavior of the Escherichia coli DNA glycosylases likely provides a paradigm for their homologous mammalian counterparts.

  19. The NIST radioactivity measurement assurance program for the radiopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Cessna, Jeffrey T; Golas, Daniel B

    2012-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) maintains a program for the establishment and dissemination of activity measurement standards in nuclear medicine. These standards are disseminated through Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), Calibration Services, radionuclide calibrator settings, and the NIST Radioactivity Measurement Assurance Program (NRMAP, formerly the NEI/NIST MAP). The MAP for the radiopharmaceutical industry is described here. Consolidated results show that, for over 3600 comparisons, 96% of the participants' results differed from that of NIST by less than 10%, with 98% being less than 20%. Individual radionuclide results are presented from 214 to 439 comparisons, per radionuclide, for (67)Ga, (90)Y, (99m)Tc, (99)Mo, (111)In, (125)I, (131)I, and (201)Tl. The percentage of participants results within 10% of NIST ranges from 88% to 98%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Suzaku monitoring of hard X-ray emission from η Carinae over a single binary orbital cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Yuasa, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu; Pittard, Julian M.; Russell, Christopher M. P.

    2014-11-10

    The Suzaku X-ray observatory monitored the supermassive binary system η Carinae 10 times during the whole 5.5 yr orbital cycle between 2005 and 2011. This series of observations presents the first long-term monitoring of this enigmatic system in the extremely hard X-ray band between 15 and 40 keV. During most of the orbit, the 15-25 keV emission varied similarly to the 2-10 keV emission, indicating an origin in the hard energy tail of the kT ∼ 4 keV wind-wind collision (WWC) plasma. However, the 15-25 keV emission declined only by a factor of three around periastron when the 2-10 keV emission dropped by two orders of magnitude due probably to an eclipse of the WWC plasma. The observed minimum in the 15-25 keV emission occurred after the 2-10 keV flux had already recovered by a factor of ∼3. This may mean that the WWC activity was strong, but hidden behind the thick primary stellar wind during the eclipse. The 25-40 keV flux was rather constant through the orbital cycle, at the level measured with INTEGRAL in 2004. This result may suggest a connection of this flux component to the γ-ray source detected in this field. The helium-like Fe Kα line complex at ∼6.7 keV became strongly distorted toward periastron as seen in the previous cycle. The 5-9 keV spectra can be reproduced well with a two-component spectral model, which includes plasma in collision equilibrium and a plasma in non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) with τ ∼ 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3} s{sup –1}. The NEI plasma increases in importance toward periastron.