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Sample records for politica energetica europea

  1. [Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europea in patients with pollen allergy in Zadar County, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Skitarelić, Natasa; Mazzi, Antun; Skitarelić, Neven; Misulić, Josko; Vuletić, Ana

    2010-06-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most common respiratory allergens in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea in pollen allergic patients in the County of Zadar. The study included 671 patients with pollen allergy; 61 % were male and 39 % female. 53.5 % were children aged from 4 to 14 years and 46.5 % adolescents and adults from 15 to 59 years. We took their case history, clinically examined them, and tested using the skin prick test and enzymo-immunologic UniCAP test for specific IgE antibodies. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test. Hypersensitivity to Olea europea pollen was confirmed in 8.8 % patients with pollen allergy. Among them, the most prevalent symptom was rhinitis (58 %). Most hypersensitive patients were urban residents. Only 3 % patients lived on an island. Judging by available data, our findings show the lowest hypersensitivity to olive pollen in the Mediterranean. A comparison with our two earlier studies did not show any fluctuation in this kind of hypersensitivity.

  2. [Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europea in patients with pollen allergy in the area of Zadar and Dubrovnik].

    PubMed

    Skitarelić, Natasa; Sindik, Niksa; Skitarelić, Neven; Mazzi, Antun; Vuletić, Ana; Misulić, Josko

    2004-01-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of inhalant allergy in countries around the Mediterranean sea. Due to the lack of information on hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea from Croatian coast, the aim of this investigation was to establish the frequency of hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea in pollen allergic patients in Zadar and Dubrovnik. Also, we compared two areas of Dalmatia regarding the number of patients and expression of allergy to the Olea europea. A total of 810 patients, children and adults, with pollen allergy were examined in both areas, Zadar and Dubrovnik. In the area of Zadar we examined 546 participants and in the area of Dubrovnik 264 participants. The patients were assessed by anamnestic data, clinical examination, measurement of pulmonary function (adults and children older than 7 years), skin prick test and enzymo-immunologic UniCAP test for measurements of specific IgE antibodies. For statistical analysis we used chi square test. Hypersensitivity to the allergy of Olea europea occurred in 66/810 (8.15%) assessed participants with pollen allergy. The comparison between the two areas didn't show any statistical difference in the number of affected participants with hypersensitivity to the Olea europea. Also, we didn't show any statistical difference in comparison of skin prick tests, immunologic measurements of specific IgE antibodies, or clinical manifestations between participants in the two investigated areas. The most prevalent clinical manifestation was rhinitis registered in 39/66 (59%) patients with hypersensitivity to the olive pollen. The majority of patients with hypersensitivity to olive pollen 51/66 (77%) live in towns. Only 3/66 (4%) participants live on an island. Rhinitis was the most prevalent clinical manifestation in our patients with hypersensitivity to allergen of Olea europea. Hypersensitivity to olive pollen was higher in participants who lived in towns. The hypersensitivity to Olea

  3. Foederatio Europea Orthodontica FEO: its history, its aims and commitments, its achievements, its future goals.

    PubMed

    Dahan, José

    2006-01-01

    Created in 1996, the Foederatio Europea Orthodontica or European Federation of Orthodontics represents, today, 15 associations counting almost ten thousands European colleagues. Committed to establish and develop good relationships between the national scientific orthodontic societies of the European Continent and to pursue a common goal to communicate and share an up-to-date orthodontic information, it has undertaken, with a minimal budget (one Euro/orthodontist as annual fee), several actions including a valuable and user friendly internet site (www.Feoonline.com) - an annual award for the best scientific paper published in Europe - a list of excellent speakers ready to communicate, an objective support for the national association which is selected for hosting the general assembly and a newsletter on the web that will be soon published in national journals of the FEO members. Thanks to devoted professionals that have actively contribute in the founding and the management of the federation, FEO is now grown up and ready to plan and finalize, with the specially created think tank, new common actions and some exciting steps for the future. It is time for those that have been reluctant in the past, to join the group and be part of its further development.

  4. Heavy metal accumulation in the mole, Talpa europea, and earthworms as an indicator of metal bioavailability in terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, W.

    1987-12-01

    Bioaccumulation studies in animals can supply valuable information to supplement the data obtained by chemical analysis of pollutants in abiotic samples. With respect to the terrestrial ecosystem, suitable indicator species in the decomposer subsystem can be identified on the basis of functional characteristics and trophic level. Investigations on metal behavior at the first trophic level, done in lumbricid earthworms showed that the potential for bioaccumulation depends on the degree of contamination as well as on the metal-binding capacity of the soil. The present study was performed to investigate metal behavior at a higher trophic level, and the mole (Talpa europea) was chosen a representative of the terrestrial decomposer subsystem. As earthworms are the preferred food of moles, they provide the major source of ingested metals to these animals. The food chain involving earthworms and moles provides an example of a critical pathway for potentially toxic non-essential metals such as cadmium and lead.

  5. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Aldini, Rita; Angeletti, Andrea; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13 : 2 w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals. PMID:26180582

  6. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts.

    PubMed

    Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Aldini, Rita; Angeletti, Andrea; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13 : 2 w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals.

  7. Politicas de tolerancia cero (Zero Tolerance Policies). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrews, Tobin

    State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. They have arisen in part as a response to the threat of the withdrawal of federal funds under the 1994 Gun-Free Schools Act, and…

  8. Politica de las Construcciones Escolares (Policy for School Construction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storni, Adolfo Enrique, Ed.; And Others

    This document establishes the policy for school construction programs and projects to be conducted in Argentina. The first part establishes the bases for construction and defines the policy and its objectives. The second part discusses school construction in view of educational reform and planning and considers analysis of current systems,…

  9. Physics in Europe--A Data File of Selected Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-18

    Energy and environmental research; solar energy; geothermal, wave, arid wind powers; pollution; HYDROD--Hydrodynamics, fluid mechanics, oceanography...circuits, optical bistability and logic, superconductors, nonlinear behavior; WETHER--Atmospheric, ionospheric, and solar physics; communication by...limited to the near-Earth studies of ionospheric and solar physics because phenomena in these fields can affect communications. Although a hard-copy

  10. [National population policies. Costa Rica. Oficina de Planificacion Nacional y Politica Economica].

    PubMed

    1979-12-01

    Any population policy aimed at influencing population growth, or spacial distribution of population must take into consideration social policies, such as education and health, and also demographic policies, such as reduction of mortality. Such policy must be global in its outlook, and must plan for long term results. Economic and social development carries with it the almost irreversible phenomena of demographic transition and urbanization, and its implementation must never violate the fundamental rights and the dignity of the individual citizen. Designing a strategy to achieve certain demographic objectives implies the coordinated action of different sectorial policies, and a very precise knowledge of existing circumstances.

  11. Teacher Education Reform and Subaltern Voices: From Politica to Practica in Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany-Barmann, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, the National Educational Reform in Bolivia instituted reforms that called for a model of education that held at its center the knowledge and languages of Indigenous people. The types of change called for by the reforms in Bolivia signify major transformations in teacher preparation practices and a concerted emphasis on training in…

  12. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  13. Politicas de uniformes y codigos de vestuario (Uniforms and Dress-Code Policies). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    This digest in Spanish examines schools' dress-code policies and discusses the legal considerations and research findings about the effects of such changes. Most revisions to dress codes involve the use of uniforms, typically as a way to curb school violence and create a positive learning environment. A recent survey of secondary school principals…

  14. Estandares: El medio ambiente de las politicas (Standards: The Policy Environment). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This digest in Spanish offers a snapshot of the standards movement: its origins, the definitions of standards and which ones matter, its successes at the district and state levels, the backlash against the movement, and possible policy directions. While a broad coalition of constituencies has embraced standards-based reform as a means of improving…

  15. Educacion: Documento de Politica Sectorial. Tercera Edicion. (Education: Sector Policy Paper. Third Edition.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Wadi D.; And Others

    The present paper updates the World Bank's interpretations of education development and outlines a policy framework for lending for education. After chapters on the relationship between education and development and on the state of education development, the paper devotes a chapter to each of five issues: the expansion and equalization of…

  16. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe-A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-12-02

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO₂ were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no consistent impact on health equity from the strategies was found. The strategy types aiming to control air pollution in Europe and the health impact assessment methodology were also discussed in this review.

  17. Integration Policies in Europe--A Web-Based Search for Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öttl, Ulrich Franz Josef; Pichler, Bernhard; Schultze-Naumburg, Jonas; Wadispointner, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present paper is to describe a web-based consensus-finding procedure, resulting in an agreement among the group of participants representing global stakeholders regarding the interdisciplinary topic in a university master's seminar on "Global Studies". The result of the collectively elaborated solution…

  18. Varicella in Europe-A review of the epidemiology and experience with vaccination.

    PubMed

    Helmuth, Ida Glode; Poulsen, Anja; Suppli, Camilla Hiul; Mølbak, Kåre

    2015-05-15

    There is no consensus as regards the European varicella immunisation policy; some countries have introduced varicella vaccination in their routine childhood immunisation programs whereas others have decided against or are debating. With the aim of providing an overview of the epidemiology of varicella in Europe and addressing the different strategies and the experiences so far, we performed a review of epidemiological studies done in Europe from 2004 to 2014. Varicella is mainly a disease of childhood, but sero-epidemiological studies show regional differences in the proportion of susceptible adults. Hospitalisation due to varicella is not common, but complications and hospitalisation mainly affect previously healthy children, which underlines the importance of not dismissing varicella as a disease of little importance. The experience with universal vaccination in Europe shows that vaccination leads to a rapid reduction of disease incidence. Vaccine effectiveness is high and a protective herd effect is obtained. Experience with vaccination in Europe has not been long enough, though, to draw conclusions on benefits and drawbacks with vaccination as well as the capacity for national programs in Europe to maintain a sufficiently high coverage to prevent a change in age group distribution to older children and young adults or on the impact that varicella immunisation may have on the epidemiology of shingles.

  19. DIABCARE Quality Network in Europe--a model for quality management in chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Piwernetz, K

    2001-04-01

    The DIABCARE Q-Net project developed a complete and integrated information technology system to monitor diabetes care, according to the gold standards of the St Vincent Declaration Action Program. This is the first Telematic platform for standardized documentation on medical quality and evaluation across Europe, which will serve as a model for other chronic diseases. Quality development starts from the comparison of diabetes services, based on the key data on diabetes care in the basic information sheet. This is a 141 field form, which is to be completed once a year for each patient under the care of the diabetes team. The system performs an analysis of the local data and compares the data with peer teams by means of telecommunication of anonymous data. These data are collected regionally. At the next level these regional data are compared on a national basis across Europe using dedicated communication lines. National data can be compared transnationally by the use of the Internet and the DIABCARE benchmarking servers. These different lines are used according to the necessary security standards. Medical data are transferred via dedicated lines, aggregated data via the Internet. The architecture follows the open-platform concept in order to allow for heterogeneous technical environments. Already at the start of the project, the necessity for expanding the quality approach to telemedicine methodology was identified and included. For each level, specific programs are available to improve the performance of diabetes care delivery: DIABCARE data as client and DIABCARE server as regional and DIABCARE 'international server' as transnational server. Functioning pilots were established across all levels. The clients have been linked to the servers on a routine basis. According to the open architecture design, the various countries decided on different systems at the entry point: full system--Portugal; fax systems--Italy, Bavaria; implementation into doctor's office systems--Norway; paper forms and chip cards--France. This system can improve the local, regional and national diabetes care. Initiatives in several countries proved the feasibility of the system. The most extensive use, from Portugal, will be reported later in this paper. The exploitation of the DIABCARE Q-Net system will be performed with the DIABCARE International European Economic Interest Grouping as a co-ordinator and several commercial companies as contractors to market the products inside the system. The key project participants are: DIABCARE Office EURO, DIABCARE Portugal, DIABCARE France, DIABCARE Bavaria, DIABCARE UK, DIABCARE Netherlands, DIABCARE Norway, DIABCARE Italy, DIABCARE Sweden, DIABCARE Austria, DIABCARE Spain, GSF Research Centre for Health and Environment, FAST Research Institute for Applied Software Technology, Tromsø University Hospital, Stavanger Technical College, Technical University of Ilmenau, World Health Organisation (WHO), Regional Office for Europe.

  20. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Abaza, Leila; Taamalli, Amani; Nsir, Houda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analytical methods used to extract, identify, and/or quantify phenolic compounds in olive leaves. PMID:26783953

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein from Olea europea (olive) leaf extract and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Ye, Jian-Zhong; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Yu-Si

    2015-02-11

    Oleuropein (OE), the main polyphenol in olive leaf extract, is likely to decompose into hydroxytyrosol (HT) and elenolic acid under the action of light, acid, base, high temperature. In the enzymatic process, the content of OE in olive leaf extract and enzyme are key factors that affect the yield of HT. A selective enzyme was screened from among 10 enzymes with a high OE degradation rate. A single factor (pH, temperature, time, enzyme quantity) optimization process and a Box-Behnken design were studied for the enzymatic hydrolysis of 81.04% OE olive leaf extract. Additionally, enzymatic hydrolysis results with different substrates (38.6% and 81.04% OE) were compared and the DPPH antioxidant properties were also evaluated. The result showed that the performance of hydrolysis treatments was best using hemicellulase as a bio-catalyst, and the high purity of OE in olive extract was beneficial to biotransform OE into HT. The optimal enzymatic conditions for achieving a maximal yield of HT content obtained by the regression were as follows: pH 5, temperature 55 °C and enzyme quantity 55 mg. The experimental result was 11.31% ± 0.15%, and the degradation rate of OE was 98.54%. From the present investigation of the antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method, the phenol content and radical scavenging effect were both decreased after enzymatic hydrolysis by hemicellulase. However, a high antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate extract enzymatic hydrolysate (IC50 = 41.82 μg/mL) was demonstated. The results presented in this work suggested that hemicellulase has promising and attractive properties for industrial production of HT, and indicated that HT might be a valuable biological component for use in pharmaceutical products and functional foods.

  2. Una experiencia europea de innovacion pedagogica basada en la escritura de un ibro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montane, Mireia; Roc, Merce

    2002-01-01

    Describes a European project based on writing a book from an educational perspective. Participants included 18 schools from 13 countries. The study originated in a Spanish Comenius 3.1 project, which determined that university teams would visit "book writing" schools, supporting teachers and analyzing and publishing their experiences.…

  3. Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in clinical laboratories in Europe--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Manser, M; Granlund, M; Edwards, H; Saez, A; Petersen, E; Evengard, B; Chiodini, P

    2014-01-01

    To determine the routine diagnostic methods used and compare the performance in detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium species and cysts of Giardia intestinalis in faecal samples by European specialist parasitology laboratories and European clinical laboratories. Two sets of seven formalin-preserved faecal samples, one containing cysts of Giardia intestinalis and the other, containing oocysts of Cryptosporidium, were sent to 18 laboratories. Participants were asked to examine the specimens using their routine protocol for detecting these parasites and state the method(s) used. Eighteen laboratories answered the questionnaire. For detection of Giardia, 16 of them used sedimentation/concentration followed by light microscopy. Using this technique the lower limit of detection of Giardia was 17.2 cysts/mL of faeces in the best performing laboratories. Only three of 16 laboratories used fluorescent-conjugated antibody-based microscopy. For detection of Cryptosporidium acid-fast staining was used by 14 of the 17 laboratories that examined the samples. With this technique the lower limit of detection was 976 oocysts/mL of faeces. Fluorescent-conjugated antibody-based microscopy was used by only five of the 17 laboratories. There was variation in the lower limit of detection of cysts of Giardia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium between laboratories using the same basic microscopic methods. Fluorescent-conjugated antibody-based microscopy was not superior to light microscopy under the conditions of this study. There is a need for a larger-scale multi-site comparison of the methods used for the diagnosis of these parasites and the development of a Europe-wide laboratory protocol based upon its findings.

  4. El programa científico de la Agencia Espacial Europea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C.

    2016-08-01

    The rendezvous of the spatial mission Rosetta with the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and the spectacular deployment of the Philae lander to its surface marked the conclusion of the European Space Agency's (ESA's) scientific program Horizon 2000, 30 years after it had been conceived, back in 1985. Three of its cornerstone missions continue today observing and producing first quality science. They are: i) the solar observatory SOHO (a common mission with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the U.S.A.), which together with the Cluster mission studies the Sun, the solar plasma and the magnetosphere; ii) the X-ray astronomical observatory XMM-Newton and iii) the already mentioned Rosetta. The other cornerstone mission, the infrared observatory Herschel, concluded its operational phase around two years ago. From the following program (Horizon 2000+, conceived in 1995) one of its large projects, GAIA, is already obtaining astrometry of stars at the micro arc second level, while the Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo is in the final stages of preparation for a launch in early 2017. Another ten middle and small class missions, many of them still active, complete the suite Horizon 2000/2000+. The next large program, Cosmic Vision, has been conceived ten years ago and it is called to cover ESA's science activities of the next 15 years. Six of the missions composing the program have been already approved (JUICE, Athena, Solar Orbiter, Euclid, Plato and Cheops), with the aim of giving answers to the following four fundamental scientific questions: 1) What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life, 2) How does the Solar System work, 3) What are the fundamental physical laws of the Universe, and 4) How did the Universe originate and what is it made of. In this report we'll try to discuss the background and the contributions of astrophysical space missions and planetary sciences of the scientifically most productive period in the history of ESA. We will discuss also some of the main technical characteristics as well as the scientific and technological challenges they represent.

  5. Educacion en Poblaciones Indigenas: Politicas y Estrategias en America Latina. (Education for Indigenous Populations: Policies and Strategies in Latin America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Madeleine, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a compilation of 20 papers from a seminar on educational policy and strategy for educating the indigenous peoples of Latin America and Mexico. There is a growing awareness among linguistics and anthropology specialists and educators of the necessity to validate education that respects the values of an indigenous culture. This…

  6. KITAE I: Edge Organisation in Battlespace Helmand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Politica , 2004. http://www.politica.dk/showarticle.asp?articleID=194 6 Optimality Historically the RCT assumption of optimality has been greatly...www.dodccrp.org/html4/journal_v4n1.html Mitchell, William. (2004) Instrumental Friend or Foe? Constructivist Activism in Security Policy Means Analysis. Politica

  7. Standard skin prick testing and sensitization to inhalant allergens across Europe--a survey from the GALEN network.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, L; Frew, A J; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bonini, S; Bousquet, J; Bresciani, M; Carlsen, K-H; van Cauwenberge, P; Darsow, U; Fokkens, W J; Haahtela, T; van Hoecke, H; Jessberger, B; Kowalski, M L; Kopp, T; Lahoz, C N; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Papadopoulos, N G; Ring, J; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Vignola, A M; Wöhrl, S; Zuberbier, T

    2005-10-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) is the standard method for diagnosing allergic sensitization but is to some extent performed differently in clinical centres across Europe. There would be advantages in harmonizing the standard panels of allergens used in different European countries, both for clinical purposes and for research, especially with increasing mobility within Europe and current trends in botany and agriculture. As well as improving diagnostic accuracy, this would allow better comparison of research findings in European allergy centres. We have compared the different SPT procedures operating in 29 allergy centres within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN). Standard SPT is performed similarly in all centres, e.g. using commercial extracts, evaluation after 15-20 min exposure with positive results defined as a wheal >3 mm diameter. The perennial allergens included in the standard SPT panel of inhalant allergens are largely similar (e.g. cat: pricked in all centres; dog: 26 of 29 centres and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: 28 of 29 centres) but the choice of pollen allergens vary considerably, reflecting different exposure and sensitization rates for regional inhalant allergens. This overview may serve as reference for the practising doctor and suggests a GA(2)LEN Pan-European core SPT panel.

  8. Water quality indices across Europe--a comparison of the good ecological status of five river basins.

    PubMed

    von der Ohe, Peter Carsten; Prüss, Andrea; Schäfer, Ralf Bernhard; Liess, Matthias; de Deckere, Eric; Brack, Werner

    2007-09-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires the definition of near-natural reference conditions to determine the extent of water bodies' deviation from "good ecological status" caused by stress gradients. However, the classification of ecological quality depends on the assessment method applied and the stressor concerned. While assessment methods that are generally applicable would be favourable, many European countries employ the locally developed water quality metrics that assess the impact of organic pollution (including eutrophication) and the associated decrease in dissolved oxygen. These indices do not specifically address stress from organic toxicants, such as pesticides. The aim of this study was to examine the performance of presently used assessment methods to identify reference conditions of non-contaminated streams in five selected European river basins, covering the geographical region from Spain to Finland, as a crucial prerequisite to indicate toxic gradients. The analysis comprised the Belgium biotic index (BBI), the biological monitoring working party (BMWP) scoring system and the revised German saprobic index. For comparison, we included an adaptation of the recently developed SPEAR index. In two previous field studies, this metric highly correlated with measured pesticide gradients. In this study, SPEAR was the only indicator that was generally applicable to all monitoring data and capable of determining "high ecological status" of reference conditions in all basins. Thus, based upon previous and own results, the authors suggest the species at risk (SPEAR) index to be potentially useful as a European-wide index to address deviations from "good ecological status" due to organic toxicants and recommend it for consideration in integrated water-resource evaluations under the WFD.

  9. Olive (Olea europea) and privet (Ligustrum vulgare) pollen allergens. Identification and cross-reactivity with grass pollen proteins.

    PubMed

    Baldo, B A; Panzani, R C; Bass, D; Zerboni, R

    1992-10-01

    Protein blotting studies showed that three olive pollen components with mol. wts approximately 18-19, 20 and 40 kD can be considered to be major allergens. For privet pollen, the highest recognition frequencies were for allergens of mol. wts approximately 20, approximately 19, approximately 40 and approximately 70 kD. When results with the 62 subjects examined were separated into groups corresponding to their geographical locations, viz. Italy, France and Australia, subjects sensitized to olive, but not other pollens (some Italian subjects), were found to show higher frequencies of recognition of major olive allergens than subjects sensitized to olive pollen via cross-reacting allergens from unrelated pollen sources (the Australian and French subjects). Blotting, adsorption and elution and inhibition studies clearly demonstrated allergenic cross-reactivity (that is, antigenic cross-reactivity detected by IgE antibodies) between olive, privet, ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and couch grass (Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon) pollen components. As with our previous findings with birch pollen, we conclude that the presence of pollen-reactive IgE antibodies may not necessarily be a true reflection of the sensitizing pollen species.

  10. Oil composition and genetic biodiversity of ancient and new olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and accessions of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cicatelli, Angela; Fortunati, Tancredi; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    The present study is focused on determining the olive oil fatty acid composition of ancient and recent varieties of the Campania region (Italy), but also on molecularly characterizing the most common cultivated varieties in the same region, together with olive trees of the garden of the University Campus of Salerno and of three olive groves of south Italy. Fatty acid methyl esters in the extra virgin oil derived olive fruits were determined, during three consecutive harvests, by gas chromatography. The statistical analysis on fatty acid composition was performed with the ffmanova package. The genetic biodiversity of the olive collection was estimated by using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and calculating the most commonly used indexes. "Dice index" was employed to estimate the similarity level of the analysed olive samples, while the Structure software to infer their genetic structure. The fatty acid content of extra virgin olive oils, produced from the two olive groves in Campania, suggests that the composition is mainly determined by genotype and not by cultural practices or climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis conducted on the molecular data revealed the presence of 100 distinct genotypes and seven homonymies out of the 136 analysed trees.

  11. Schola Europea--The European School: The Fifteen-Nation School in Luxemburg. The Pedagogical Mini-Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Ludwig

    2004-01-01

    Originally, European schools were established for children of European Union (EU) staff members to enable them while they were abroad to send their children to schools where they could be taught by teachers from their home country. Each country has its own language department with its own teaching staff. This ensures that the pupils will not feel…

  12. Olea Europea-derived phenolic products attenuate antinociceptive morphine tolerance: an innovative strategic approach to treat cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Muscoli, C; Lauro, F; Dagostino, C; D'Agostino, C; Ilari, S; Giancotti, L A; Gliozzi, M; Costa, N; Carresi, C; Musolino, V; Casale, F; Ventrice, D; Oliverio, M; Oliverio, E; Palma, E; Nisticò, S; Nistico', S; Procopio, A; Rizzo, M; Mollace, V

    2014-01-01

    Morphine and related opioid drugs are currently the major drugs for severe pain. Their clinical utility is limited in the management of severe cancer pain due to the rapid development of tolerance. Restoring opioid efficacy is therefore of great clinical importance. A great body of evidence suggests the key role of free radicals and posttranslational modulation in the development of tolerance to the analgesic activity of morphine. Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between the Mediterranean diet and a reduced incidence of pathologies such as coronary heart disease and cancer. A central hallmark of this diet is the high consumption of virgin olive oil as the main source of fat which contains antioxidant components in the non-saponifiable fraction, including phenolic compounds absent in seed oils. Here, we show that in a rodent model of opiate tolerance, removal of the free radicals with phenolic compounds of olive oil such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein reinstates the analgesic action of morphine. Chronic injection of morphine in mice led to the development of tolerance and this was associated with increased nitrotyrosin and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation together with nitration and deactivation of MnSOD in the spinal cord. Removal of free radicals by hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein blocked morphine tolerance by inhibiting nitration and MDA formation and replacing the MnSOD activity. The phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil exerts antioxidant activities in vivo and free radicals generation occurring during chronic morphine administration play a crucial role in the development of opioid tolerance. Our data suggest novel therapeutic approach in the management of chronic cancer pain, in particular for those patients who require long-term opioid treatment for pain relief without development of tolerance.

  13. Politica Nacional sobre Discapacidad: Un Informe del Progreso, Diciembre 2000-Diciembre 2001 (National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2000-December 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This report (written in Spanish) of the National Council on Disability (NCD) describes the nation's progress in advancing public policies to increase the inclusion, empowerment, and independence of people with disabilities in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The report covers December 2000 through December 2001. It reviews…

  14. Investigacion Educativa: Areas - Politicas - Estrategias y Proyectos del ICOLPE, 2 (Educational Research: Topics, Policies, Strategies, and Projects of the Colombian Institute of Pedagogy, 2),

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.

    This booklet defines and establishes guidelines for educational research in Colombia. Sections describe basic philosophy and objectives, types of research, policies for educational investigation, governmental role, and principle areas for educational research. A listing of current and proposed research projects is provided. The final section…

  15. Nacao e Cidadania: A Constituicao de 1824 e Suas Implicacoes Politicas (Nation and Citizenship: The Constitution of 1824 and Its Political Implications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Cecilia Helena Lorenzini de Salles

    1998-01-01

    Brings a different reading of 1824's Brazilian Imperial Political Constitution. Discusses some historical and political circumstances of the document's construction. Investigates practices, conceptions, and supports that could have clarified some principles stressed by the document, especially those related to citizenship matters. (PA)

  16. Assessing the Spanish Army Role in a Future European Security System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-06

    de Ojeda. Modelo Espanol de Participacion . Revista Politica Exterior. May, 1989. Javier Tusel. Transition to democracy and membership in NATO. Madrid...quickly.There were demonstrations and citizen movements against the decision. 13La Opinion Publica Espanola y la Politica Exterior. Informe INCIPE. p 77...BIBLIOGRAPHY Archivo de Prensa Mas. Espana en la Alianza Atlantica. Vol. I y II. Madrid. 1987. Carlos Alonso Zaldivar. Politica Espanola de Paz y securidad

  17. Relationships between Religion and Two Forms of Homonegativity in Europe--A Multilevel Analysis of Effects of Believing, Belonging and Religious Practice.

    PubMed

    Doebler, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between religion and two forms of homonegativity across 43 European countries using a bivariate response binary logistic multilevel model. The model analyzes effects of religious believing, belonging and practice on two response variables: a) a moral rejection of homosexuality as a practice and b) intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. The findings indicate that both forms of homonegativity are prevalent in Europe. Traditional doctrinal religious believing (belief in a personal God) is positively related to a moral rejection of homosexuality but to a much lesser extent associated with intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. Members of religious denominations are more likely than non-members to reject homosexuality as morally wrong and to reject homosexuals as neighbors. The analysis found significant differences between denominations that are likely context-dependent. Attendance at religious services is positively related to homonegativity in a majority of countries. The findings vary considerably across countries: Religion is more strongly related to homonegativity in Western than in Eastern Europe. In the post-soviet countries homonegativity appears to be largely a secular phenomenon. National contexts of high religiosity, high perceived government corruption, high income inequality and shortcomings in the implementation of gay rights in the countries' legislations are statistically related to higher levels of both moralistic homonegativity and intolerance toward homosexuals as a group.

  18. Desire and reality--teaching and assessing communicative competencies in undergraduate medical education in German-speaking Europe--a survey.

    PubMed

    Härtl, Anja; Bachmann, Cadja; Blum, Katharina; Höfer, Stefan; Peters, Tim; Preusche, Ingrid; Raski, Bianca; Rüttermann, Stefan; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela; Wünsch, Alexander; Kiessling, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: An deutschsprachigen medizinischen Fakultäten (n=43, Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz; (D-A-CH)) sind kommunikative Kompetenzen zunehmend fest in Lehre und Prüfungen verankert. Zur Unterstützung der weiteren curricularen Entwicklung bezüglich kommunikativer Kompetenzen arbeitet die Umfrage des GMA Ausschusses „Kommunikative und soziale Kompetenzen“ (KusK) systematisch auf, in welchem Umfang und in welcher Form unterrichtet und geprüft wird.Methodik: Der iterativ in Zusammenarbeit mit „KusK“ entwickelte Onlinefragebogen umfasst 70 Fragen zu Unterricht (n=14), Prüfungen (n=48), lokalen Bedingungen (n=5) und drei Felder für sonstige Anmerkungen. Pro Standort wurden zwei bis drei Personen, die mit dem Curriculum vor Ort vertraut sind, zur Teilnahme an der Umfrage eingeladen.Ergebnisse: Es beteiligten sich 39 medizinische Fakultäten (40 Studiengänge) an der Umfrage. In allen Studiengängen werden kommunikative Kompetenzen unterrichtet. Zehn Studiengänge haben ein longitudinales Curriculum für kommunikative Kompetenzen, in 25 Studiengängen existiert dies teilweise. 16 der 40 Studiengänge orientieren sich am Baseler Consensus Statement. In über 80 % der Studiengänge werden kommunikative Kompetenzen im zweiten und dritten Studienjahr unterrichtet. Fast alle arbeiten mit Simulationspatienten (n=38) und Feedback (n=37). Geprüft wird nur summativ (n=11), nur formativ (n=3) und sowohl summativ als auch formativ (n=16). Am häufigsten wird im vierten bzw. fünften Studienjahr geprüft (n=22 bzw. n=20). Neben schriftlichen Tests (n=15) und Referaten (n=9) sind vor allem praktische Prüfungen implementiert (OSCE (n=31); WPA (n=8)), meist mit selbst entwickelten Beurteilungsskalen (OSCE: n=19). Bezüglich der Schulungen der Prüfer sowie der Art und Weise der Ergebnisrückmeldung an Studierende besteht eine hohe Varianz.Schlussfolgerung: Der Unterricht von kommunikativen Kompetenzen wurde an allen beteiligten 39 medizinischen Fakultäten implementiert. Kommunikative Kompetenzen werden in medizinischen Curricula in D-A-CH überwiegend in kleinen Gruppen unterrichtet und mittels OSCE geprüft. Herausforderungen für die weitere curriculare Entwicklung liegen im Ausbau von Feedback, der kritischen Überprüfung von geeigneten Assessmentstrategien und in der Qualitätssicherung der Prüfungen.

  19. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees present significant accumulation of Hg in leaf).

  20. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2) to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference), EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study will result in a unique dataset, enabling cross country comparisons in overweight, obesity, risk behaviours for these conditions as well as the correlates of engagement in these risk behaviours. PMID:21281466

  1. Olive leaves (Olea europea L.) and α-tocopheryl acetate as feed antioxidants for improving the oxidative stability of α-linolenic acid-enriched eggs.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, E; Govaris, A; Fletouris, D; Iliadis, S

    2013-08-01

    Ninety-six brown Lohmann laying hens were equally assigned into four groups with six replicates. Hens within the control group were fed a corn-soybean-based diet supplemented with 4% linseed oil. Two other groups were given the same diet further supplemented with 5 or 10 g ground olive leaves/kg feed, while the diet of the fourth group was further supplemented with 200 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg. Supplementing diets with olive leaves had no effect on egg production, feed intake and egg traits. Eggs collected 28 days after feeding the experimental diets were analysed for lipid hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, fatty acid profile, α-tocopherol concentrations and susceptibility to iron-induced lipid oxidation. Olive leaves were also analysed for total and individual phenolics, and total flavonoids, whereas their antioxidant capacity was determined using both the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activity assays. Results showed that neither α-tocopheryl acetate nor olive leaves supplementation exerted (p>0.05) any effect on the fatty acid composition of n-3 eggs. Supplementing the diet with 5 g olive leaves/kg had no (p>0.05) effect on the hydroperoxide levels of n-3 eggs, while supplementing with 10 g olive leaves/kg or 200 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg, the lipid hydroperoxide levels were reduced (p≤0.05) compared to control. However, although hydroperoxides were reduced, MDA, a secondary lipid oxidation product, was not affected (p>0.05). Iron-induced lipid oxidation increased MDA values in eggs from all groups, the increase being higher (p≤0.05) in the control group and the group supplemented with 5 g olive leaves/kg. The group supplemented with 10 g olive leaves/kg presented MDA values lower (p≤0.05) than the control but higher (p≤0.05) than the α-tocopheryl acetate group, which presented MDA concentrations lower (p≤0.05) than all other experimental diets at all incubation time points.

  2. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Flowers and Olea Europea L. Leaves Extract-Based Formulation for Hypertension Care: In Vitro Efficacy and Toxicological Profile.

    PubMed

    Micucci, Matteo; Angeletti, Andrea; Cont, Massimiliano; Corazza, Ivan; Aldini, Rita; Donadio, Elisa; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2016-05-01

    Olea europaea L. leaves extract (Oe) and Hybiscus sabdariffa L. flowers extract (Hs) have calcium antagonistic properties. Aim of this work was to study the cardiovascular effects of Pres Phytum(®), a nutraceutical formulation containing a mixture of the two extracts and the excipients, and investigate its possible off-target effects, using in vitro biological assays on guinea pig isolated organs. Cardiovascular effects were assessed using guinea pig atria and aorta. The effects of Pres Phytum on spontaneous gastrointestinal, urinary, and respiratory tracts smooth muscle contractility were evaluated. Pres Phytum exerted a vasorelaxant effect (IC50 = 2.38 mg/mL) and a negative chronotropic effect (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL) at concentrations lower than those producing smooth muscle spontaneous contractility alterations in the other organs. Compared to Pres Phytum, the mixture did not exert negative inotropic activity, while it maintained a negative chronotropic efficacy (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL). These experimental data suggest a possible nutraceutical use of this food supplement for the management of preclinical hypertension.

  3. Effect of olive leaf (Olea europea L.) extracts on protein and lipid oxidation of long-term frozen n-3 fatty acids-enriched pork patties.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexander; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios; Botsoglou, Nikolas

    2014-10-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated the protective effects of olive leaf extracts on the oxidation of pork patties from n-3 fatty acid-enriched meat during refrigerated storage. The target of the present study was to examine these effects during frozen storage. Results showed that frozen storage accelerated (P=0.05) both lipid and protein oxidation in pork patties, but an addition of olive leaf extract at 200mg gallic acid equivalent/kg improved sensory attributes by delaying oxidation of lipids (reduction (P=0.05) of conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde), and of proteins (reduction (P=0.05) of protein carbonyls and inhibition (P=0.05) of the decrease of protein sulfhydryls).

  4. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper. Funcion del banco mundial en el sector de la electricidad: politicas para efectuar una reforma institucional, regulatoria y financiera eficaz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The paper outlines the World Bank's new policies for the energy sector. It recommends several new policies to improve the performance of the electric power sector in developing countries. Bank loans for electric power will go first to countries clearly committed to improving the performance of their power sectors. The Bank will also discourage subsidies on energy prices and will encourage private investment in utilities. And it will provide financing to help the least developed countries import power where local generation is not practical.

  5. Politicas y Gobierno de la Educacion Superior En American Latina. (Policies and Governance of Higher Education in Latin America). Texas Papers on Latin America. Paper No. 99-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardiel, Hugo Casanova

    Higher education is undergoing a complex process of transformation at the international level. This transformation is based especially in the fields of policies and governance of higher education institutions. In Latin America this trend has been growing since the 1980s, and higher education is undergoing a strong modification in its processes and…

  6. The Colombian Remote Sensing Program,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Politica Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia. The goals and organization of the program are presented in the last part of this report, together with the description of those activities deemed necessary for performing them.

  7. The Free Trade Area of the Americas: Can Regional Economic Integration Lead to Greater Cooperation on Security?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    Varas and Cruz Johnson, eds., Percepciones de Amenza y Politica de Defensa en America Latina (Santiago: FLASCO, 1993). Sidney...hemisferica y la defensa nacional,” in Agusto Varas and Cruz Johnson, eds., Percepciones de Amenza y Politica de Defensa en America ... Latina (Santiago: FLASCO, 1993), 1-69. 2 security. Specifically, can the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) lead to enhanced

  8. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  9. Europea Symposium. Education for Older Adults: A Mirror to Society = Europes Symposium. Educatie en Ouderen: Een Spiegelbeeld voor de Samenleving (Berg en Dal, The Netherlands, November 14-16, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klercq, Jumbo, Ed.; Damen, Ulrich, Ed.

    The following papers and workshop presentations are included in these proceedings: "Grandparents and Grandchild" (Goezinne-Zijlmans, Hirsch); "Call for an Open Discussion among the Professional Educators" (Klercq); "Energetic But Marginal--Paradox and Promise" (ter Steege); "Integration of Older People within the…

  10. Potential effect of Olea europea leaves, Sonchus oleraceus leaves and Mangifera indica peel extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes and CYP19A1 expression in MCF-7 cell line: Comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shaban, N Z; Hegazy, W A; Abdel-Rahman, S M; Awed, O M; Khalil, S A

    2016-08-29

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) provide novel approaches to the adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers. In this study, different plant extracts from Olea europaea leaves (OLE), Sonchus oleraceus L. (SOE) and Mangifera indica peels (MPE) were prepared to identify phytoconstituents and measure antioxidant capacities. The effects of these three extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes were evaluated. Additionally, the effects of these extracts on tissue-specific promoter expression of CYP19A1 gene in cell culture model (MCF-7) were assessed using qRT-PCR. Results showed a concentration-dependent decrease in aromatase activity after treatment with OLE and MPE, whereas, SOE showed a biphasic effect. The differential effects of OLE, SOE and MPE on aromatase expression showed that OLE seems to be the most potent suppressor followed by SOE and then MPE. These findings indicate that OLE has effective inhibitory action on aromatase at both the enzymatic and expression levels, in addition to its cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells. Also, MPE may be has the potential to be used as a tissue-specific aromatase inhibitor (selective aromatase inhibitor) and it may be promising to develop a new therapeutic agent against ER+ breast cancer.

  11. Influenza vaccination: key facts for general practitioners in Europe-a synthesis by European experts based on national guidelines and best practices in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kassianos, George; Blank, Patricia; Falup-Pecurariu, Oana; Kuchar, Ernest; Kyncl, Jan; De Lejarazu, Raul Ortiz; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; van Essen, Gerrit A

    2016-01-01

    Currently there is no influenza vaccination guidance for European general practitioners. Furthermore, although the European Council recommends a target seasonal influenza vaccination rate of 75% in the elderly (65 years and above) and in anyone aged >6 months with a chronic medical condition, there remain wide discrepancies throughout Europe. A harmonised guideline regarding not only vaccination strategy but also for the consistent diagnosis of influenza across Europe is essential to support a common approach for the implementation of seasonal influenza vaccination across Europe. This document is based on pre-existing guidelines available in the UK and Netherlands and has been approved by a group of European experts for use throughout Europe. As well as providing a standardised influenza diagnosis, it also reviews the current recommendations for influenza vaccination, the types of vaccine available, the contraindications, vaccine use in special populations (in pregnancy, children, and in those with egg allergy), and concomitant administration with other vaccines. The effectiveness, safety, and timing of the seasonal influenza vaccine are also reviewed. A second section provides practical guidance for general practitioners for the implementation of a seasonal influenza vaccination program, including the selection and notification of those eligible for vaccination, as well as suggestions for the organisation of a vaccination programme. Finally, suggested responses to common patient misconceptions and frequently asked questions are included. The aim of this article is to harmonise the diagnosis of seasonal influenza and the approach of European general practitioners to seasonal influenza vaccination in order to better identify influenza outbreaks and to move towards reaching the target vaccination rate of 75% throughout Europe.

  12. Non-Linear Effects of Self Generated Alfven Waves in Oblique Shocks and Cosmic Ray Acceleration Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Tanco, G. A.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se presentan resultados numericos para un modelo hidrodinamico de cuatro componentes (plasma de fondo, particulas energeticas, ondas de Alfven autogeneradas y campo magnetico) para choques oblicuos. ABSTRACT. Numerical results of a four component hydrodynamic model (background plasma, energetic particles, self-generated Alfven waves and magnetic field) for oblique shocks are presented. Keq wo't : COSMIC RAY-GENERAL - PLASMAS - SHOCK WAVES

  13. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  14. The Dynamics o f Institutional Reform in Contemporary Italian Politics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Guglielmetti, Paolo, and Rosa, Giuseppe, "Il mezzogiorno tra squilibri e segnali di vitalita’," Rivista di politica economica , series III, no. 2...and Giuseppe Rosa, "Il mezzogiorno tra squilibri e segnali di vitalita’," R di p economica , series III, no. 2, February 1992, 97-8. 1 64 for hope. The...34Riforme contro i partiti? Un commento," Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica , vol. 21, no. 3, December 1991, 409-418. "Breve guida alle riforme

  15. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  16. A Comparison of United States, Colombian and Peruvian Domestic Law on Terrorism. Are We Becoming More Like Our Neighbors to the South?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-18

    fisica 0 su salud mental 0 danen la propiedad publica 0 privada, 0 cuando de cualquier otra manera se pueda generar grave peligro para la poblaci6n. [The...See COdigo PenaL art. 319 (pern). 147 See Constituci6n Politica del Peru de 1979 arts. 227,228, 231(a). 33 decree law (luring its dismissal, as

  17. Yesterday’s Doctrine for Today’s Contingencies: The Small Wars Manual and the Security Assistance Force in Low Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-21

    program of rodent control and food protection."’ In Honduras a highly successful, long-term civic action project offered instruction in "agriculture, food...formidable task complicated by its various intertwining politica " economic, psychological, and military factors. Conversely, this monograph has revealed

  18. Tactical Implications of the U.S. Army’s Insurgent War Theory and Counterinsurgent Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-05

    their protection from a strong patron include the CONTRAs whose sanctuaries in Honduras are guaranteed by the USA, and the UNITA and FRELIMO insurgents...counterinsurgent to risk the international politica . consequences of striking out against them. An example of this situation is provided by the MUJAHEDIN sanctuaries

  19. NATO Armaments Cooperation: The Case of the European Fighter Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    of keeping an acquisition program within cost and schedule may become harder .n a multinational environment, it appears that the burden of politica ...34 Participacion Industrial en el EFA," Revista de Aeronautica y Astronautica, 5: 498-500 (May 1987). 38. "Germany said likely to withdraw from

  20. Colombia: Emerging Labor Movement and the State Colombian Drug Problem: Effect on the Peace Process between the M19 and the State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Bibliografico, VII, 9, Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango (1964), 1670-1680. 9 instrumental in the defeat of Spanish forces at Portobelo and were governors of...Obreras y Politica Laboral en Colombia. Medellin: Editorial Lealon, 1978. Nichols, Theodore E. Tres Puertos de Colombia, Bogota: Biblioteca Banco

  1. Strategic Requirements for the Army to the Year 2000. Volume III. The Americas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Paradoxically, any efrective French policy Will have been paralyzed by the contradictory thrusts of maintaining a politica ± and cultural presence in...inviting external intervention), on the other. As a result, the 1990s may be characterized by growing * instability in Peru and Ecuador , outright civil

  2. Parliamentary Majorities and National Minorities: Moldova’s Accommodation of the Gagauz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    group of politica session d a invalid and unconstitutional.91 A new parliamentary decree had an ominous tone called on the government to monitor...Fianantse, November 1994b; l Juridic Special Al Gagauz Ieri -- Gagauziei", signed by Valeriu Senic, Parlamentul Republicii Moldova Comisia pentru Cultura

  3. Military Ethics in Counterinsurgency: a New Look at an Old Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-14

    analysis and cultura ion analysis. Understanding a population’s history can help predict expectations and key activities can be observed to determine...for the Soviet Union.” Kohlman 60 ere the ate w d atrocities contributed greatly to Soviet politica , delegiti observes that the Soviets had

  4. The Defense Resource Allocation Process. Revision. Selected Reading in National Security Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    1980s," Optimum 10:23-35, Novem- ber 4, 1979. - Casarosa, "Ii Simesta di pianiticam, one, programmazione, e bilancio (PPBS)" Revista di Politica ... Economica . 11. DODINST 7045.7 12. This objective is present, if not obscured, in DOD inst. 7045.7", enclosure (8). 13. Wilson and Lewis, "PPBS and MAC

  5. The Decade of the Seventies in El Salvador: Prelude to Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-05

    Victor. "Estructura y Desarrollo Social en El Salvador," Desarrollo Economica 20:77 (1981): 121-134. Druger, Alexander. "El Salvador’s Marxist Revolution...Studies Vol.13 (April, 1985), pp. 129-152. Gordon, Sara. "El Salvador: Crisis Politica y Movimiento Popular," Estudios Sociales Centroamericanos. 9:27

  6. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    Available from <http://www.rr.ee.gov.bo/ministerio/ POLITICA EXTERIOR /memoria.htm >. Internet. Accessed 28 October 2004. Gray, Colin. “Thinking...Bolivia’s gas to Mexico and North America. Chile’s President Lagos likewise invited Bolivia to construct a plant in Chile to facilitate gas production at

  7. The Contribution of the Peruvian Armed Forces to the Socio-Economic Development of the Country.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    cial concerns involved in steel production, pharmaceuticals, cement, and shipping. [Ref. 7: p. 1521. in Brasil , the Brazilian navy provides advanced...Army, 1981. 10. Constituent Assembly, of 1979, Constitucion Politica del Peru, Peruvian -%ir Force Press, 1979. 11. Benoit, E. , Defense and Economics

  8. Security Assistance Rationales: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    function to defray the cost of Soviet arms development. 96 The linkage of arms sales and comercial sales is not a factor in Soviet arms transfer to Eastern...of plant, R&D institution representatives, and politica .’wer over the GOSPLAN mechanism, does have a feedback loop. _.Ae defense ministries must be

  9. On the Effectiveness of Military Institutions: Historical Case Studies from World War I, The Interwar Period and World War II. Volume 1. World War I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Le forze armate (Turin, 1981), pp. 118, 161. 15. Aldo Valori, La condotta politica della guerra (Milan, 1934), 3 p. 245. 16. Cadorna to Boselli, 7...the War Ministry. 33. On the mood in 1914 see Lieven’s analysis In Russia and 61e 3 qrigins, chapter 4, and Leopold Ha.oson’s pessimistic ’The Problem

  10. Constitutions and Democratic Consolidation: Brazil in Comparative Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Politica. Uma Estrategia para a Democracia," in Fabio W. Reis and Guillermo O’Donnell, eds.,A Democracia no Brasil: Dilemas e Perspectivas (Sao Paulo... Perspectiva dos Anos 80, Dados 24, no. 2, pp. 139-59. 32. Interview with a consultant to lobbies in Brasilia on May 16, 1988. Veja gave coverage to some

  11. AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph Company) Aftermath of Antitrust. Preserving Positive Command and Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    operation was complicated by (a key) factor-one unique in naval history and, indeed, unparalleled in modem relations between American politica leaders and...vital to success as FOCUS says It Is, then technical standards would implicitly be followed. The FOCUS publica - tion’s chapter on Defense

  12. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  13. The Malvinas Conflict: Argentine Practice of the Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-25

    January 1983), p. 175. 5. Clausewitz, p. IG4. E. Comision de analisis y evaluacion de las responrsa- bilidades politicas y estrategico militares en el...War. ed. arnd trans by Micha:2 Howard and Peter Paret. P;-irnceto:- Prir ce t on, iv..ity Press, 1976. Comnision de Analisis y Evaluacion de las

  14. A Plan for the Study of Influence Processes in Military Organizations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-05-01

    clinical and experimental hypnosis . Macmillan: New York, 1967. Gordon, M., et al. COCON-Counterconspiracy (Politica): The development of a...34grasshopper" experiment . Report from the Experimental Social Psychology Laboratory, University College of New York university, Department of Psychology...Attributed social power and group acceptance: A classroom experimental demonstration. Journal of Abnormal and Social Pscychology. 1955, 5L, 490-492

  15. Minority Languages of the Russian Federation: Perspectives for a Ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages. Mercator Working Papers = Las lenguas minoritarias de la Federacion Rusa Perspectivas para una ratificacion de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales y Minoritarias. Mercator Documentos de trabajo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieytez, Eduardo J. Ruiz

    This paper describes the linguistic plurality of the Russian Federation, assessing the impact that the hypothetical ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages could have on it. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Part 1--The Linguistic Plurality of the Russian Federation":…

  16. Land Combat Systems Industry, 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    of partnerships, new methods of support, the Europea L Growing Use of Partnerships Proponents tout partnerships as an opportunity to leverage the...specialty (e.g., fire trucks) markets, while Europea w commercial truck markets. Regardless of this difference in approach, the tactical wheeled vehicles in...Motoren & Turbinen- Union OEF – Operation Enduring Freedom OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer OIF – Operation Iraqi Freedom ORR – Operational

  17. US Policy Options Mitigating Venezuelan Sponsored Security Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-12

    Democratic Action Party ( Accion , Democratica - AD) and the Social Christian Party (Comite de Organizacion Politica Electoral Independiente-COPEI...forces, planning to seize control of the government. In 1992, he attempted a coup that failed and he was imprisoned for two years. Upon his release, he...globally. His domestic program has enjoyed popular support. Chavez’s social Plan Bolivar 2000 proposes ambitious programs to build or renovate schools

  18. Counterinsurgency in Brazil: Lessons of the Fighting from 1968 to 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    1964-1967): The organisms of spying and repression),” Quoted in Vestígios do Passado. Ampuh, RS: Associacao Nacional de Historia , 2008. http...Guerrilha e Movimentos de Resistencia ao longo da Historia (Irregular Warfare: Terrorism, Guerrilla Warfare and Resistance Movements throughout History...Castro. “O Brasil na Operação Condor (Brazil in Condor Operation). Aventuras na Historia ,” Abril online, http://historia.abril.com.br/politica/brasil

  19. USSR Report, Military Affairs, No. 1741, Aviatsiya I Kosmonavtika, No. 9, September 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-10

    deeply revealing the essence of the problems of flight training and com- petently and purposefully conducting party- politica 1 work in the units and...atmosphere is created in seminars, and the airmen freely volunteer their own points of view and enter into debates, bringing up substantial, persuasive ...signi- ficantly. This is having a positive effect on the way students perform their official and party responsibilities. Persuasive evidence of this

  20. The Foreign Policy of Venezuela Toward El Salvador: 1979-1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Memorias y Cuentas de otros ministerios y entidades involucradas en el suministro de ayuda a El Salvador, tales como el Kinisterlo de Energia y Minas...que estuviese ligada a cualquier ideologia politica. El Ministro de Energia y Minas, Calderbn. Berti, afirm6 que no existia, de parte de Venezuela, Wia...stamos a largo plazo. La duraci6n del Programa f ue de un aKo, renovable anualmente, previo acuerdo mutuo. En el primer afto de vigencia del acuerdo, los

  1. Colombia: Learning Institutions Enable Integrated Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    publica - tions of the “human rights cartel.” The frames whereby the parastates assessed the conflict remained virtually unchanged, and in some cases...Politica de Defensa y 144 | FRoM the FIeld PRISM 1, no. 4 Seguridad Democratica, requires slightly more pages for its presentation but is identical...capability” to “establish security force presence throughout the country” (lograr presencia fuerza publica en todo territorio nacional). Though a

  2. Buffer or Highway: Cyclical Patterns of Security Development in East Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    i, Cultura I elat i-"nJs wth Euo’,:’e,<, 191>-1933, 19P4, 32-33. The ueiulsicnl ,Ir iliegality was pe’uliau t_0 Wilson, buJt Impr,3tan bec,3ause ,:,of...Of *western politica 1989- The Wiest. The fareign tnternalt Economic, political, 19:192And domestic- Political military, and social1992:.policy

  3. Trends in Egyptian Salafi Activism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    members were detained after the 2005 parliamentary elections (after the Brotherhood won 88 of the 454 seats). The Mubarak regime recently declared the...existing politica , in a sense, create two istinct Cairos–those with access to the proceeds of development and those without. Clearly ass, and of...Banna organized in the late 1920s, but by 1932 he focused his efforts n ekly h entary elections on a platform centered largely o Muslim

  4. Decisive Point, Center of Gravity or Something Else: The Effort to Ascertain the Role of the Affected Populace in COIN Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-26

    affected population that sits on the fence waiting to see what will happen or debating which belligerent would be in its best interests to 6 support...national elections , establishing, training, equipping, and facilitating local security elements (police or citizen‟s watch type element, such as the Sons...34 Mdunarodna Politica , 1970: 192. Fick, Nathaniel C., and John A. Nagl. "Counterinsurgency Field Manual: Afghanistan Edition." Foreign Policy, 2009: 42-47

  5. Honduras Defense Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-22

    and Company. 1985 5. Herrera, Roberto,1 Politica Exterior y Presencia de Honduras En Las Naciones Unidas, New York, 25 March 1986. 6. Lincoln, Jennie...Discovered by Columbus in his last voyage in August 1502, Honduras was part of the Mayan Empire that flourished throughout Southern Mexico , Guatemala...Belize, and the Northwestern area of El Salvador. The period of colonization began in the early 1520’s after the arrival of Hernan Cortez to Mexico

  6. The Influence of Soviet and American Political Culture on Negotiating Positions: The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force Case.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    AD-Ri42 990 THE INFLUENCE OF SOVIET AND AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE 1/2 ON~ NEGOTIATING POS..(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA W R BLACKBURN...SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC 0f JUL1 3ŕ H THESIS THE INFLUENCE OF SOVIET AND AMERICAN POLITICA CULTURE ON NEGOTIATING POSITIONS: THE INTERMEDIATE...4. TITL.E (and Sublto) S. TYPE[ OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Influence of Soviet and American Master’s Thesis Political Culture on Negotiating

  7. The Semi-Submersible Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    recovered territory claimed by the guerrillas.42 Despite the tactical defeat, Tirofijo and his leaders managed to escape government capture. Soon...With this large area under its control, the FARC was able to increase its military capacity and turn its territory into a “drug depot.”76 By the end...p_arg_names=identificador&p_arg_values319140 22. http://www.revistagobierno.com/portal/index.php/politica/ conflicto -y-justicia/6594-operacion-troya

  8. Shallow Water Reverberation Measurement and Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    could have made it through the program. vi L INTRODUCTION A. MOTIVATION As the world politica climate continues to shift, the new naval battlefield...the bottom, and changes in sound velocity in the medium away from a perfect isovelocity structure (vertical or horizontal effects) all contribute as...scattering were considered. In generalthe chice oft dtie su -akcto g func i n tends to change the slope of die estimate with time, while the choice of

  9. The Political Control of the Soviet Armed Forces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-05

    operational responsibilities. The most important job of the MPA is its responsibility for directing the political education of all military personnel...the next higher headquarters on the morale of the personnel, about the conduct of politica 5 affairs and the political education work.1 While there is...company Zampolit provides the first line political contact with the men. He plays a major role in their political education by holding daily discussions

  10. Seven new species of helminths for reptiles from Armenia.

    PubMed

    Nelli, Sargsyan; Felix, Danielyan; Marine, Arakelyan

    2014-09-01

    Helminthic infections of reptiles habiting in the territory of Armenia are examined. Seven species of helminths new for reptiles from Armenia are registered: Parapharyngodon skrjabini, Oswaldocruzia goezei, Neoxysomatium sp., Telorchis assula, Nematotaenia tarentolae, Mesocestoides lineatus and Spirometra erinacei europea. Descriptions and pictures of them are given.

  11. Reforming Systems and Institutions of Higher Learning: Towards the Creation of a European and Global Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarab, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Before Europe--as a continent--could seriously think of creating a common European Higher Education Area grave differences between the former West and East had to be dealt with. The fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 made it possible to start reforming totalitarian educational systems and introduce principles of democratization and academic…

  12. Caregiver Responses to the Language Mixing of a Young Trilingual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The situation once described by Hoffmann (1985), in which children grow up exposed to three languages from an early age, is a reality for an increasing number of families. In Europe--as elsewhere--greater mobility is leading to greater numbers of mixed-language couples (Piller 2002), and, by extension, multilingual families. For such families,…

  13. Soil Moisture and Agromet Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    decade of each month also produces monthly summaries. The Soil Moisture program covers two geographical areas. Area 1, the " Europea |," or "Soviet...American Geophysical Union , 25, 683-693. Thornthwaite, C. W. and J. R. Mather, 1955: The Water Balance. Publicatiuns in Climatology, Drexel Inst. of

  14. The European Union faces up to the threat of a pandemic: meeting at the DGV on the influenza A (H5N1) of the ad hoc group on communicable diseases Luxembourg 14 January 1998.

    PubMed

    Desenclos, J-C.; Manigat, R

    1998-03-01

    The transmission of an avian influenza H5N1 virus to a child in Hong Kong in May 1997 followed by the occurrence of 17 other human cases with a high case fatality rate (6/18, 33%) suggested that an influenza pandemic could be imminent and led many Europea

  15. Thirteenth Century Mongol Warfare: Classical Military Strategy of Operational Art?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-05

    two arguments. The first purports that operational art emerged with the industrial revolution. Union General Ulysses S. Grant’s 1864-65 campaign during...wage war. T= CZUAL EUROPEA CAMPAIGN (1241, Genghis Khan died in 1227, but his successors carried on his method of warfare with extraordinary skill

  16. SEMATECH, A Case Study: Analysis of a Government-Industry Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-23

    Europea iRnns Rest of World FIgure 1: Annual nominal sales growth in 1992 was 17 percent. SOUICL SMUT" d tM~ 3er lAUDYs &MCA market share in memory chips...defeating the Soviet Union . That global threat has subsided and defense protectionism should die with it. 77 Overtly preserving the "defense industrial

  17. Of Tanks and Toyotas: An Assessment of Japan’s Defense Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    dissolution of the Soviet Union itself. The LDP’s loss of its majority in the Upper House of the Diet, which will probably continue through the mid...doelts budgets ae not only consideral msiler than tho ofmamy Europea NATO members, but their compoition is also different, with a smaler oha going to R

  18. Policy Dilemmas in Brazil-Africa Relations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-22

    dirloiratic planner and spokesman is founc In Pona:Jc Sardenberz, "A politica externa do Brasil nas duas ultimas decadas," Re’.ista d Servicc 1u0ico 0 1...the cunntrv. Even though political interests may eventua!!1Y accrue with the development of comercial involvement in Africa, Brazil resists engagement...34Brazil’s Arms find Willing Buyers in the Third World," New York Times (August ?, 1?81), p. E-3; "Armas: Brasil invade o mercado mundial," Senhor (February

  19. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  20. The Changing Capability of the Textile Industry to Support National Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-06-01

    17.2 218.5 ltaiy 47.6 141.4 11.0 200.0 Canada 39.7 111.7 151.4 Mexico 96.8 51.0 147.8 India 133.8 133.8 Pakistan 132.4 132.4 Brazil 93.8 14.5 108.3...serious consequences upon the military, politica !, and economic security of the United States, since our country would become increasingly dependent on...observed from outside the tent. The second type of fire condition arises from an exterior fire such as would occur to a tent’urrounded by high, dry

  1. Decisions in Operations Other Than War: The United States Intervention in Somalia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    1960 to rtitigate these Anticipated problenis, it was tco late N:)rth and suti. w.-e auted wthout any senioa:• negotiations about iti por.utt politica ...his return from exile that reads in part: "prior to the racc of Europemi powers to divide up the coast of Africa, Ethiopia included an exterior ...forces. This disarmament agreement took years to forge as well - A U.N. brokered peace agreement was signed in Mexico in January 1992 that began the

  2. Development and application of a safety assessment methodology for waste disposals

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.H.; Torres, C.; Schaller, K.H.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a European Commission funded research programme, QuantiSci (formerly the Environmental Division of Intera Information Technologies) and Instituto de Medio Ambiente of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (IMA/CIEMAT) have developed and applied a comprehensive, yet practicable, assessment methodology for post-disposal safety assessment of land-based disposal facilities. This Safety Assessment Comparison (SACO) Methodology employs a systematic approach to the collection, evaluation and use of waste and disposal system data. It can be used to assess engineered barrier performance, the attenuating properties of host geological formations, and the long term impacts of a facility on the environment and human health, as well as allowing the comparison of different disposal options for radioactive, mixed and non-radioactive wastes. This paper describes the development of the methodology and illustrates its use.

  3. Energy Savers: Tips for Saving Energy and Money at Home; El Ahorro de Energa: Sugerencias para ahorrar energa y dinero en el hogar

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy of the United States of America works to guarantee provisions of safe energy, reliable and economically accessible to support to one developing economy and to protect the atmosphere. These suggestions and ideas to increase the energy efficiency in their house represent simple ways in which our citizens can contribute to preserve the atmosphere at world-wide level, to reduce the level of contamination of the air and to reserve our natural resources for future generations. [Spanish] El Departamento de Energa de los Estados Unidos de America trabaja para garantizar suministros de energa seguros, confiables y econmicamente accesibles para apoyar a una economa en desarrollo y proteger el medio ambiente. Estas sugerencias e ideas para aumentar la eficiencia energetica en su casa representan maneras sencillas en que nuestros ciudadanos pueden contribuir a preservar el medio ambiente a nivel mundial, a reducir el nivel de contaminacin del aire y a reservar nuestros recursos naturales para las generaciones futuras.

  4. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Propano

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El propano provee energia a mas de 143.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y 23 millones en todo el mundo. Flotas de todos los Estados Unidos han implementado con exito el uso de vehiculos que funcionan con gas propano, y en la actualidad varios funcionan gracias a este gas, incluyendo autobuses escolares, lanzaderas y autobuses publicos, asi como tambien furgonetas, taxis, vehiculos utilizados por las fuerzas del orden, barredoras de calles y camiones para uso profesional. El propano tambien se utiliza con frecuencia en aplicaciones fuera de la carretera, tales como montacargas, podadoras y equipos de uso profesional y otros equipos agricolas. Las ventajas del propano incluyen la disponibilidad interna, su rendimiento y el hecho de que genera menos emisiones de gases contaminantes que otras alternativas energeticas.

  5. Recent investigations on robot mechanics at D.I.M.E.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancati, Renato; Rossi, Cesare; Russo, Michele

    1999-03-01

    Recent investigations in robot mechanics at Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica per l'Energetica of the University of Naples Federico II (D.I.M.E.) are here reported. In general, the aim of these investigations is to obtain trajectories and paths from the end effector of a robot with the highest possible accuracy. In particular, these investigations consider the influence of circumferential backlash and transmission elasticity on the accuracy of a trajectory, and the possibility of obtaining more accurate paths via optimum positioning and orientation of the paths in the work space. The investigations were carried out both through simulation and experimentally; the simulations were performed using the ADAMS and Matlab-Simulink computer programs while the experiments involved use of an industrial robot and a prototype designed and built at D.I.M.E.

  6. [Bioindication of environmental quality based on plant mutational and modification variability].

    PubMed

    Mamedova, A O

    2009-01-01

    The level of mutations (aberrations of chromosomes, gene mutations) and modifications (bilateral asymmetry of the leaves) induced with NG (N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitro-zoguanidine) and granozane, as well as with environmental pollutants have been studied on Vicia faba, Triticum aestivum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Ligustrum japonicum, Olea europea. The tested xenobiotic increased the level of mutations and modifications. The bilateral asymmetry is suggested as a test for environmental quality assessment.

  7. The New World Order: A Second Look. A Selected Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    228pp. (P95.8 .054 1993) Podraza, Andrzej. The Western European Union and Central Europe: A New Relationship. London: Royal Institute of International...Press, 1993. 461pp. (HF1413 .C73 1993) Jackbon, Tim. The Next Battleagound: Lanan. America. and the New Europea Market. Boston: Houghton Mufflin, 1993...War College, 6 April 1993. 47 pp. (AD-A265-096) 35 Podraza, Andrzej. The Western Euroocan Union and Central Europe: A New Relationship. London: Royal

  8. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College, Volume 19, Number 6, November-December 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    rejuvenated you’ll hear they are genuinely proud Western European Union (WEU) is # to be part of this determincd move- asserting itself as a unifying force I...corresponding to their vital interests economies through the benefits of for operating an open Europea , and their possibilities. Therefore open competition...EUROPEAN EUROPEAN COMMUNITY PROGRAM UNION GROUP COMMON REQUIREMENTS CAPS PANEL1 (ECONOMIES OF SCALE) I AND PROJECT I COORDINATION I (REDUCTION OF

  9. [Darwin versus Marx? Reflections on a book by Giovanni Jervis].

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis'2002 book Individualismo e cooperazione. Psicologia della politica [Individualism and Cooperation: Psychology of Politics] is the outcome of a critical reflection begun by the author at the end of the 1970s in order to explore the manifestations and the problems of cooperation between individuals, and to identify some "universal" psychological factors that could define the role of psychology within politics and constitute an "objective foundation" of any human culture. Although Jervis was, so to speak,favoring Darwin against Marx, it is argued that,from his overall reasoning, several of his arguments actually are in favor of the inevitable "historicity" of individuals, due to the social conditioning they are subjected since birth: too often certain "universalistic" approaches transmit, together with scientific advances (or even without them), well identifiable ideological motives linked to precise and well defined historical and economic interests?

  10. The use of lichen (Canoparmelia texana) as biomonitor of atmospheric deposition of natural radionuclides from U-238 and Th-232 series

    SciTech Connect

    Leonardo, Lucio; Damatto, Sandra Regina; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Saiki, Mitiko

    2008-08-07

    Lichens have been used in studies of environmental pollution monitoring of various air pollutants, especially heavy metals. This paper aims to study the possibility of using this specimen for the assessment of radionuclides deposition in the vicinity of a nuclear research institute, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) located in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This Institute has as major activity to perform research in the field of the nuclear fuel cycle, and therefore deals with considerable amounts of natural radionuclides of the U and Th series. The activity of the naturally occurring radionuclides U-238, Ra-226, Ra-226 and Pb-210 was determined in samples of lichen (Canoparmelia texana) and soil collected at IPEN campus. The concentrations of Ra-228, Ra-226 and Pb-210 were determined by measuring alpha and beta gross counting in a gas flow proportional detector; U and Th were determined by neutron activation analysis. The values obtained varied from 164 Bq/kg to 864 Bq/kg, 13 Bq/kg to 50 Bq/kg, and from 287 Bq/kg to 730 Bq/kg for Ra-228, Ra-226 and Pb-210 respectively. For natural U and Th the values obtained varied from 1.2 Bq/kg to 162 Bq/kg and 1.84 Bq/kg to 5.17 Bq/kg respectively. The results obtained so far suggest that the Canoparmelia texana can be used as radionuclide monitor in the vicinity of nuclear installations.

  11. Monitoring an Experimental Reactor Using the Group Method of Data Handling Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez Goncalves, Iraci Martinez; Ting, Daniel K.S.; Ferreira, Paulo Brasko; Upadhyaya, Belle R

    2005-01-15

    This paper presents a reactor-monitoring algorithm using the group method of data handling (GMDH) that creates nonlinear algebraic models for system characterization. The monitoring system was applied to the IEA-R1 experimental reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN). The IEA-R1 is a 5-MW pool-type research reactor that uses light water as coolant and moderator and graphite as reflector. The GMDH provides a general framework for characterizing the relationships among a set of state variables of a process system and is used for generating estimates of critical variables in an optimal data-driven model form. The monitoring system developed in this work was used to predict the IEA-R1 reactor environment, using nuclear power, rod position, and coolant temperatures, by combining two variables at a time. The results obtained using the GMDH models agreed very well with the dose rate measurements, with prediction errors of less than 5%. The error was minimal when the dose rate prediction was made using reactor power and coolant temperature.

  12. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  13. A small size continuous run industrial gamma irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Wilson A. P.; Rela, Paulo R.; Springer, Francisco E.; Costa, Fábio E. da; Omi, Nelson M.; Silva, Leonardo G. A. e.

    2004-09-01

    A new small size gamma irradiator is being set up at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil, with a revolutionary design. The developed technology for this facility consists of continuous tote box transport system, comprising a single concrete vault, where the automated transport system of products inside and outside of the irradiator utilizes a rotating door, integrated with the shielding, avoiding the traditional maze configuration. Covering 76 m 2 of floor area, the irradiator design is product overlap sources and the maximum capacity of Cobalt-60 wet sources is 37 PBq (1 MCi). The irradiator is being installed in a Governmental Institution and it will be used as a demonstration facility for manufacturers, who need an economic and logistic in-house irradiation system alternative. Also, it will be useful for supporting the local scientific community on development of products and process using gamma radiation, assisting the traditional and potential users on process validation, training and qualification of operators and radioprotection officers.

  14. Advances in commercial application of gamma radiation in tropical fruits at Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabato, S. F.; Silva, J. M.; Cruz, J. N.; Broisler, P. O.; Rela, P. R.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.

    2009-07-01

    All regions of Brazil are potential areas for growing tropical fruits. As this country is already a great producer and exporter of tropical fruits, ionizing radiation has been the subject of studies in many commodities. An important project has been carried out to increase the commercial use of gamma radiation in our country. Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)-CNEN/SP together with field producers in northeast region and partners like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), CIC, Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa na Agricultura (EMBRAPA) joined to demonstrate this technology, its application and commercial feasibility. The objective of this study is to show advances in feasibility demonstrate the quality of the irradiated fruits in an international consignment from Brazil to Canada. In this work, Tommy Atkins mangoes harvested in northeast region of Brazil were sent to Canada. The fruits were treated in a gamma irradiation facility at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy. The control group was submitted to hydrothermal treatment (46 °C for 110 min). The fruits were stored at 11 °C for 10 days until the international transportation and kept at an environmental condition (22 °C) for 12 days, where their physical-chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. The financial part of the feasibility study covers the scope of the investment, including the net working capital and production costs.

  15. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vallejos-Rojas, Andrea; Jaramillo-Gallardo, Javiera; Salas Bravo, Carlos; Cano-Montoya, Johnattan; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2016-03-25

     Introducción: obesidad e inactividad física son importantes factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de hipertensión en adultos. No obstante, hay poca evidencia sobre el efecto de estos factores de riesgo en el desarrollo de hipertensión en población infantil. Objetivo: investigar la asociación del estado nutricional, niveles de actividad física y etnicidad con niveles de hipertensión en escolares entre 6 y 13 años de edad. Métodos: un total de 418 escolares de ascendencia étnica europea (n = 311) y mapuche (n = 107) fueron participantes de este estudio transversal. Se midió el peso, talla, índice de masa corporal (IMC) y presión arterial, utilizando protocolos estandarizados. Resultados: no se encontraron diferencias significativas en IMC, estado nutricional y presión arterial entre niños con ascendencia europea y mapuche. No obstante, la prevalencia de prehipertensión (21,3% vs. 11,1%) e hipertensión (28,9% vs. 18,6%) fue significativamente mayor en escolares mapuches en comparación con europeos, respectivamente. Escolares con ascendencia mapuche tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar prehipertensión o hipertensión que escolares con ascendencia europea (OR: 1,92 [1,19 a 3,06], p < 0,01). La prevalencia de hipertensión aumenta significativamente en ambos grupos étnicos con el incremento de IMC y bajos niveles de actividad física. Conclusiones: el riesgo de desarrollar prehipertensión o hipertensión es mayor en población infantil ascendiente de mapuches que ascendiente de europeos y este riesgo se ve acentuado con el incremento de obesidad y bajos niveles de actividad física.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  17. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  18. Testing Local Position Invariance with Four Cesium-Fountain Primary Frequency Standards and Four NIST Hydrogen Masers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, N.; Heavner, T. P.; Jefferts, S. R.; Parker, T. E.; Radnaev, A. G.; Dudin, Y. O.

    2007-02-16

    We report the most sensitive tests to date of the assumption of local position invariance (LPI) underlying general relativity, based on a 7 yr comparison of cesium and hydrogen atomic clocks (frequency standards). The latest results place an upper limit that is over 20 times smaller than the previous most sensitive tests; this is consistent with the null shift predicted by LPI. The result is based on precise comparisons of frequencies of four hydrogen masers maintained by NIST, with four independent Cs fountain clocks--one at NIST and three in Europe--as the Sun's gravitational potential at Earth's surface varies due to Earth's orbital eccentricity.

  19. Testing local position invariance with four cesium-fountain primary frequency standards and four NIST hydrogen masers.

    PubMed

    Ashby, N; Heavner, T P; Jefferts, S R; Parker, T E; Radnaev, A G; Dudin, Y O

    2007-02-16

    We report the most sensitive tests to date of the assumption of local position invariance (LPI) underlying general relativity, based on a 7 yr comparison of cesium and hydrogen atomic clocks (frequency standards). The latest results place an upper limit that is over 20 times smaller than the previous most sensitive tests; this is consistent with the null shift predicted by LPI. The result is based on precise comparisons of frequencies of four hydrogen masers maintained by NIST, with four independent Cs fountain clocks--one at NIST and three in Europe--as the Sun's gravitational potential at Earth's surface varies due to Earth's orbital eccentricity.

  20. Space Power: Military Imperatives in Australia’s Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Australia’s closest ally and the Soviet Union has nothing to gain by invading Australia. On the other hand, the same features can work against Australia...missiles to be launched in a1 iorth westerly direction and tracked over 2,000 kilometer of virtually uninhabited land. During the 1960s, the Europea ...troubfe." 3’ Mr Beazley named China, Japan, India and the Soviet Union as being the major powers with the 50 potential to interfere in regional affairs

  1. International Military Commitment: A Conceptual Definition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    commitments chiefly in military terms--most recently, in terms of the threat to our interest posed by the Soviet Union and by Communist China" (1973...nd accurate the poli t i c i t, n policy o 198 0’s wi1 i (Sprout i.arch 25/ ns, Europea t i-polar condi t ions h y d i fferont f...behavior had been effected -- if only crudely and at a very basic level. A nuclear weapons duopoly by the Lmited States and the Soviet Union and a less

  2. Does NATO Weaken the West.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    x:,... can see, _v’vl r-ped two right • :] definitions , eter,,.- . The U.S. saw detent- as_ bringing the Soviet Union "into the comm.r it, ,.-f...line in ideology, in Eastern Europe .. " more eco:om ic minded leaders in the East, and the Soviet Union easing their 1iht reign on the East to the...cati ni i :i .j - ) rl I.ets. (7:50-5<: Also, t-,e Europea n view of ’-he pipeline em-tui-go i_.: .it is harder for- ;nroF.en-r, than f :nr the ’hittd i

  3. [Human basophil degranulation test. Results of a modified technic (I)].

    PubMed

    Román Pérez, F; Berlanga Cortés, J A; Urquiă, M; Guerra Pasadas, F; Peña Martínez, J

    1986-01-01

    The degranulation of human basophils towards antigenic substances, to which they must be previously sensitized as a result of the antigen-antibody union at the membrane level, is a phenomenon that has an important application complementing diagnosis of diseases mediated by the Gell and Coombs classification of Type I Hypersensitivity, on which the principle of Human Basophils Degranulation Test (HBDT) was based. An essential requirement is to be able to collect an adequate quantity of basophils, as well as the visualization by means of a technique of convenient stain. In this work, we show a modified HBDT technique for basophil granulocytes staining. A total of 33 HBDT was carried out on patients sensitive to grass pollen and/or Olea europea pollen and/or D. pteronyssinus, and as controls, HBDT was done on healthy individuals with negative clinical history. Basophil enrichemnt from the circulating blood sample was done by means of centrifugation in Percoll density gradients of 1072, 1076, 1080 and 1082, and we obtained a higher number of basophils with a density of 1080 at 400 Xg for 30 minutes. The cellular bottom was resuspended in 600 microliters of PBS. We employed lyophilized antigenic extracts from grass pollen, Olea europea and D. pteronyssinus, employing weight/volume concentration of 10(-4), 10(-5), 10(-6) and 10(-7). The optimum dilutions were 10(-5) for grass pollen and D. pteronyssinus.

  4. Surviving space flight: case study on MELiSSA's CIII nitrifying compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgrande, Chiara; Lasseur, Christophe; Mastroleo, Felice; Paille, Christel; Leys, Natalie; Morozova, Julia; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Prat, Delphine; Arroyo, Jose M. C.; Conincx, Ilse; Van Hoey, Olivier; Roume, Hugo; Udert, Kai; Sas, Benedikt

    2016-07-01

    Space synthetic biology offers key opportunities for long-term space missions. Planets mining, terraformation, space medicine and Life Support technologies would all benefit from an integrative biological approach. However, space is a harsh environment for life: microgravity, temperature, UV and cosmic radiation can affect the health and functionality of microorganisms and plants, possibly preventing the optimal performance of the systems. The European Space Agency's Life Support System (MELiSSA) has been developed as a model for future long term Space missions and Space habitation. MELiSSA is a 5 compartment artificial ecosystem with microorganisms and higher, that aims at completely recycling gas, liquid and solid waste. In this study, the survival and functional activity after Lower Earth Orbit conditions of microbial nitrogen conversions, relevant for MELiSSA's CIII compartment, was tested. Synthetic communities containing Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrosomonas ureae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Nitrospira moscoviensis and Cupriavidus pinatubonensis were exposed to the Lower Earth Orbit conditions of the International Space Station (ISS) for 7 days. Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Cupriavidus pinatubonensis, and three mixed communities (a urine nitrification sludge, a sludge containing aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria (OLAND), and an aquaculture sludge containing ammonia oxidizing archaea) were exposed to Lower Earth Orbit conditions for 44 days. Survival after both space flights was demonstrated because nitritation, nitratation, denitrification and anammox activity could be restored at a rate comparable to ground storage conditions. Our results validate the potential survival feasibility and suggest future space applications for N-related microorganisms.

  5. Quantum Dynamics of a d-wave Josephson Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Thilo

    2007-03-01

    Thilo Bauch ^1, Floriana Lombardi ^1, Tobias Lindstr"om ^2, Francesco Tafuri ^3, Giacomo Rotoli ^4, Per Delsing ^1, Tord Claeson ^1 1 Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 G"oteborg, Sweden. 2 National Physical Laboratory, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW, UK. 3 Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia-Dipartimento Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Aversa (CE), Italy. 4 Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Energetica e Gestionale, Universita of L'Aquila, Localita Monteluco, L'Aquila, Italy. We present direct observation of macroscopic quantum properties in an all high critical temperature superconductor d-wave Josephson junction. Although dissipation caused by low energy excitations is expected to strongly suppress quantum effects we demonstrate macroscopic quantum tunneling [1] and energy level quantization [2] in our d-wave Josephson junction. The results clearly indicate that the role of dissipation mechanisms in high temperature superconductors has to be revised, and may also have consequences for a new class of solid state ``quiet'' quantum bit with superior coherence time. We show that the dynamics of the YBCO grain boundary Josephson junctions fabricated on a STO substrate are strongly affected by their environment. As a first approximation we model the environment by the stray capacitance and stray inductance of the junction electrodes. The total system consisting of the junction and stray elements has two degrees of freedom resulting in two characteristic resonance frequencies. Both frequencies have to be considered to describe the quantum mechanical behavior of the Josephson circuit. [1] T. Bauch et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 087003 (2005). [2] T. Bauch et al, Science 311, 57 (2006).

  6. IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor: 58 Years of Operating Experience and Utilization for Research, Teaching and Radioisotopes Production

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio Nahuel; Filho, Tufic Madi; Saxena, Rajendra; Filho, Walter Ricci

    2015-07-01

    IEA-R1 research reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Nuclear and Energy Research Institute) IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil is the largest power research reactor in Brazil, with a maximum power rating of 5 MWth. It is being used for basic and applied research in the nuclear and neutron related sciences, for the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, and for providing services of neutron activation analysis, real time neutron radiography, and neutron transmutation doping of silicon. IEA-R1 is a swimming pool reactor, with light water as the coolant and moderator, and graphite and beryllium as reflectors. The reactor was commissioned on September 16, 1957 and achieved its first criticality. It is currently operating at 4.5 MWth with a 60-hour cycle per week. In the early sixties, IPEN produced {sup 131}I, {sup 32}P, {sup 198}Au, {sup 24}Na, {sup 35}S, {sup 51}Cr and labeled compounds for medical use. During the past several years, a concerted effort has been made in order to upgrade the reactor power to 5 MWth through refurbishment and modernization programs. One of the reasons for this decision was to produce {sup 99}Mo at IPEN. The reactor cycle will be gradually increased to 120 hours per week continuous operation. It is anticipated that these programs will assure the safe and sustainable operation of the IEA-R1 reactor for several more years, to produce important primary radioisotopes {sup 99}Mo, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 192}Ir. Currently, all aspects of dealing with fuel element fabrication, fuel transportation, isotope processing, and spent fuel storage are handled by IPEN at the site. The reactor modernization program is slated for completion by 2015. This paper describes 58 years of operating experience and utilization of the IEA-R1 research reactor for research, teaching and radioisotopes production. (authors)

  7. Childcare needs of female street vendors in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, P; Zetina, A; Tapia, M; Ortiz, C; Soto, I C

    1996-06-01

    This article reports on strategies developed by female street vendors (vendedoras ambulantes) in Mexico City to ensure the care of their young children in the absence of a specific and operational government policy to fulfil this need. The information concerning child care and health was gathered by a survey of 426 street traders selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling in four of the administrative districts (delegaciones politicas) of Mexico City during 1990. It was found that, as mothers of young children, street vendors most frequently looked after their children personally on the street or left them with other members of the family. Related factors were availability of alternative child care providers in the family, the age of the children and working conditions of the mother. Children who remained on the streets with their mothers suffered more frequently from gastro-intestinal diseases and accidents than the national average. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases, however, was similar in the cases of maternal care in the street and care by family members in another environment. Existing public health measures show a greater concern for the health of food consumers than that of workers in this area. Current public policy seeks to regulate street vending activities and to concentrate traders in ad hoc areas and facilities. Our research results document the need for actions that can contribute to an improvement in the care and health conditions of these young children.

  8. Crystal structures of TM0549 and NE1324—two orthologs of E. coli AHAS isozyme III small regulatory subunit

    PubMed Central

    Petkowski, Janusz J.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Zheng, Heping; Skarina, Tatiana; Onopriyenko, Olena; Cymborowski, Marcin T.; Koclega, Katarzyna D.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek

    2007-01-01

    Crystal structures of two orthologs of the regulatory subunit of acetohydroxyacid synthase III (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6) from Thermotoga maritima (TM0549) and Nitrosomonas europea (NE1324) were determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction methods with the use of selenomethionine derivatives at 2.3 Å and 2.5 Å, respectively. TM0549 and NE1324 share the same fold, and in both proteins the polypeptide chain contains two separate domains of a similar size. Each protein contains a C-terminal domain with ferredoxin-type fold and an N-terminal ACT domain, of which the latter is characteristic for several proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. The ferredoxin domain is stabilized by a calcium ion in the crystal structure of NE1324 and by a Mg(H2O)6 2+ ion in TM0549. Both TM0549 and NE1324 form dimeric assemblies in the crystal lattice. PMID:17586771

  9. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and HLA in the North of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís; Lopes, João; Ramalheira, João; Cunha, Daniela; Carvalho, Cláudia; Bettencourt, Andreia; Bras, Sandra; Costa, Sandra; Silva, M Berta; Martins-da-Silva, António

    2015-10-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS) es una enfermedad frecuente, compleja y poligenica, con diversas etiologias que interaccionan originando un fenotipo unico. El SAOS puede ocurrir a cualquier edad del individuo y se presume la existencia de agregacion familiar. Han sido descritos diversos factores de predisposicion, como la edad, el sexo y la obesidad. La relacion entre los polimorfismos del antigeno leucocitario humano (HLA) y trastornos del sueño esta confirmada, tanto en poblaciones europeas como no europeas. No obstante, las relaciones descritas entre los alelos HLA y SAOS no han sido coherentes y carecen de valor informativo para la clasificacion del trastorno del sueño. Objetivo. Explorar la asociacion genetica del HLA con el SAOS en una poblacion del norte de Portugal y evaluar el papel de la obesidad en el contexto del HLA en el SAOS. Pacientes y metodos. Se estudio una cohorte de 131 pacientes con SAOS. Los pacientes fueron atendidos en una clinica del sueño ambulatoria donde se valoraron los antecedentes clinicos, se les practico una polisomnografia nocturna, una prueba de latencia multiple del sueño (si lo exigio el diagnostico diferencial), analiticas y estudios demograficos. A efectos comparativos, se utilizo una poblacion de control de 223 personas sanas. Se efectuo el genotipado del HLA-DRB1 con la reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa mediante cebadores de secuencia especifica. Resultados. En esta cohorte, el alelo HLA-DRB1*03 fue identificado como un factor de predisposicion para el SAOS (24% del SAOS frente a 15% de la poblacion de control; p = 0,025; odds ratio = 1,861; intervalo de confianza al 95% = 1,081-3,205). No hubo diferencias significativas en lo referente a otros alelos HLA-DBR1*. Conclusion. El HLA-DRB1*03 es un factor de predisposicion para el SAOS en la poblacion portuguesa.

  10. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life

  11. [Cyberstalking among Italian nurses: a large multicentric study].

    PubMed

    Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina; Lupo, Roberto; Galli, Francesco; Bocij, Paul; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Scopo. Determinare la prevalenza di cyberstalking tra gli infermieri italiani e valutare il livello di ansia e depressione nelle vittime. Metodo. Da aprile a settembre 2014 è stato condotto uno studio multicentrico trasversale in un campione di infermieri italiani (n=997) utilizzando il questionario “Cyberstalking” per analizzare il fenomeno del cyberstalking. Ai partecipanti, che si sono autodefinite vittime di cyberstalking, è stato chiesto anche di compilare gli strumenti “Beck Depression Inventory” e “State-Trait Anxiety Inventory” per valutare, rispettivamente, i livelli di depressione ed ansia. Risultati. La prevalenza di cyberstalking tra gli infermieri italiani è risultata pari al 23.3%. Il 42.7% ha dovuto cambiare il proprio stile di vita e lavorativo. Il cyberstalker era prevalentemente di sesso maschile (52%) e, nel 49% dei casi, era un paziente. Le vittime hanno riferito moderati livelli di ansia (media=28.4, SD=23.2) e depressione (media=92.7, SD=18.3); i risultati hanno mostrato un aumento dei livelli di depressione negli infermieri esperti nell’utilizzo del computer, gestori di siti web o blog, e una correlazione negativa tra il livello di ansia e gli infermieri esperti (r = -0.264). Conclusioni. Il cyberstalking è un fenomeno che si riscontra frequentemente tra gli infermieri. Il rapporto infermiere - paziente gioca un ruolo centrale nello sviluppo del fenomeno e le vittime hanno riferito disordini correlati allo stress che influenzano la vita lavorativa. Questi risultati preliminari potrebbero sensibilizzare, i dirigenti ospedalieri, la politica e i centri antiviolenza al fine di sviluppare strategie risolutive a sostegno delle vittime.

  12. Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  13. La Serra d'Almos (Tarragona): an example of phenological data rescue and preservation in Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavi; Borrell, Josep

    2016-04-01

    The interruption of important phenological series and the progressive disappearance of phenological observations in Catalonia led the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) to design and impulse a new phenological network promoted by the Climate Change Unit of this Met Service. The "Fenocat" network was born in March 2013, and currently has around fifty observers distributed throughout Catalonia that observe plants, birds and butterflies. We are providing data from different plant phenophases to PEP725 database. Besides this new phenological network (Fenocat), one of the aims of SMC is to rescue and preserve historical data from different observation points in Catalonia. We show in this poster the example of rescue and preservation of phenological data from la Serra d'Almos (in Tivissa, near Tarragona, Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula), an observation series that began in 1973. After digitalization process and quality control tasks, we show preliminary results of this phenological series, and we compare them with those of similar European series. We show the evolution trends for different observed species, such as almond tree (Prunus dulcis), hazel (Corylus avellana), plum (Prunus domestica), olive tree (Olea europea), apple tree (Malus domestica) or vineyard (Vitis vinifera).

  14. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions.

  15. Airborne pollen of Olea in five regions of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Helena; Cunha, Mário; Abreu, Ilda

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study spatial and temporal distribution of Olea europeae airborne pollen in different Portuguese regions: Reguengos de Monsaraz (south); Bairrada (west); Braga (northwest); Valença do Douro and Foz Côa (north-east). Airborne pollen sampling was conducted from 1998-2003 using "Cour" type samplers located in each region. The main pollen season (MPS) of Olea lasted on average 36 days and occurred from late April until middle-to-end of June. During the studied period, inter-annual variations among and within regions, concerning the total annual pollen counts and the beginning, peak and ending dates of the MPS, were reported. Reguengos de Monsaraz and Bairrada registered the earliest MPS starting date, followed by Valença do Douro and Foz-Côa, and the latest date was verified in Braga that also had the shortest MPS. Reguengos de Monsaraz presented the longest MPS with the highest differences in the beginning and ending dates, but minimum differences in the dates of the maximum pollen peak. Our results showed an increase in the Olea annual pollen index, from north to south, and from the west to the east regions of the country.

  16. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  17. Infrared thermography to detect residual ceramic in gas turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meola, C.; Carlomagno, G. M.; di Foggia, M.; Natale, O.

    2008-06-01

    A serious problem in the production of gas turbine blades is the detection of residual ceramic cores inside the cooling passages; in fact, the presence of even small ceramic pieces affects turbine performance and may cause difficulties in successive manufacturing. Therefore, it is important to have a non-destructive technique that must be capable of detecting tiny ceramic fragments in a fast and easy way. In this perspective, the suitability of infrared thermography was investigated within cooperation between the University of Naples and the Europea Microfusioni Aerospaziali S.p.A. (EMA). Several blades of three different types were inspected revealing that in many cases infrared thermography can discover small ceramic fragments which were missed by X-ray inspection. In addition, infrared thermography allows gaining of information about other types of anomalies (e.g., surface defects) during the same testing step (by eventually changing the test parameters) and then saving time and money. The obtained results look promising in view of introducing infrared thermography among industrial instrumentation as an alternative to, or integrated with, the most currently utilized non-destructive techniques.

  18. Evaluation of metabolizable energy values of some feeding stuffs.

    PubMed

    Lotfollahian, H; Hosseini, S A

    2007-03-15

    In a trail the Apparent Metabolizable Energy (AME), Apparent Metabolizable Energy corrected to Nitrogen retention (AMEn), True Metabolizable Energy (TME) and True Metabolizable Energy corrected to Nitrogen retention (TMEn) content of some feeding stuffs for poultry were determined with cockerels. The test materials consisted of feed grade Oak (Quercusfaginea), Fig (Ficus carica), Olive (Olea europea) pulp with nucleolus and without nucleolus. The result showed that Oak, Fig, Olive pulp with nucleolus and without nucleolus according to their component can be noticed as an energy sources. Their crude protein was low. The nitrogen- corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy (AMEn) values for Oak, Fig and Olive pulp with nucleolus and without nucleolus were 2775.04 +/- 29, 2558.7 +/- 35, 1347.05 +/- 64 and 3052.33 +/- 122 Kcal kg(-1) dry matter, respectively. The nitrogen-corrected True Metabolizable Energy (TMEn) value for the respective feeding stuffs were 3177.99 +/- 30, 2999.06 +/- 33, 1537.02 +/- 59 and 3243.34 +/- 126 Kcal kg(-1) dry matter.

  19. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W. Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  20. [FIRST: a tool for facilitating reading comprehension in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder].

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, Ana; Freire-Prudencio, Sandra; Gil, David; Martos-Pérez, Juan; Jordanova, Vesna; Cerga-Pashoja, Arlinda; Shishkova, Antoneta; Evans, Richard

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. Durante las ultimas decadas han surgido numerosas investigaciones que documentan las dificultades de comprension lectora que muestran las personas con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), incluidas aquellas que tienen la inteligencia preservada. Estas dificultades pueden condicionar su trayectoria educativa e incidir de forma directa sobre su inclusion social, autonomia y acceso al mundo laboral. Desarrollo. Este articulo presenta el trabajo elaborado por un equipo multidisciplinar en el marco de un proyecto financiado por la Union Europea. Es un documento explicativo que pretende justificar las necesidades que tiene la poblacion de personas con TEA de alto funcionamiento para acceder a la informacion escrita. Es un proyecto que esta desarrollando una herramienta informatica (Open Book) que no solo esta siendo diseñada 'para' personas con TEA, sino que esta siendo desarrollada 'con' personas con TEA. Conclusion. Tanto la poblacion infantil como la poblacion adulta de personas con TEA muestran dificultades en todos los componentes formales del lenguaje escrito. La herramienta tiene que ser flexible y favorecer su uso individualizado, para dar respuesta a la enorme heterogeneidad de esta poblacion.

  1. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes.

  2. Mixtures of Olive Pomace with Different Nitrogen Sources for the Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Estaún, V.; Pinochet, J.; Marfá, O.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of mixtures of dry olive (Olea europea) pomace with biuret, guanidine, and melamine for control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was studied in greenhouse experiments. Olive pomace (OP) applied pre-plant at 10 g/kg soil was phytotoxic. Mixtures of OP (10 g/kg soil) with biuret or guanidine at 200-300 mg/kg soil reduced or eliminated the phytotoxic effect, controlled root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity indicative of microbial activity. The addition of biuret or guanidine without OP to soil at rates <300 mg/kg soil did not control root-knot nematodes. Melamine applied at 100-400 mg/kg soil was phytotoxic as were mixtures of melamine with OP. Treatment of OP with anhydrous ammonia increased N content of the material. In another greenhouse experiment, NH₃-treated OP added to soil was not phytotoxic to tomato, suppressed root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity. Greenhouse and microplot experiments with OP plus chicken litter demonstrated the efficacy of these combination amendments to control root-knot nematodes and increase tomato yields in Meloidogyne-infested soil. PMID:19277325

  3. Leaf conductance and carbon gain under salt-stressed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, V.; Manzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Katul, G.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of plants to salt stress is often accompanied by reductions in leaf photosynthesis and in stomatal and mesophyll conductances. To separate the effects of salt stress on these quantities, a model based on the hypothesis that carbon gain is maximized subject to a water loss cost is proposed. The optimization problem of adjusting stomatal aperture for maximizing carbon gain at a given water loss is solved for both a non-linear and a linear biochemical demand function. A key novel theoretical outcome of the optimality hypothesis is an explicit relationship between the stomatal and mesophyll conductances that can be evaluated against published measurements. The approaches here successfully describe gas-exchange measurements reported for olive trees (Olea europea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleraceaL.) in fresh water and in salt-stressed conditions. Salt stress affected both stomatal and mesophyll conductances and photosynthetic efficiency of both species. The fresh water/salt water comparisons show that the photosynthetic capacity is directly reduced by 30%-40%, indicating that reductions in photosynthetic rates under increased salt stress are not due only to a limitation of CO2diffusion. An increase in salt stress causes an increase in the cost of water parameter (or marginal water use efficiency) exceeding 100%, analogous in magnitude to findings from extreme drought stress studies. The proposed leaf-level approach can be incorporated into physically based models of the soil-plant-atmosphere system to assess how saline conditions and elevated atmospheric CO2 jointly impact transpiration and photosynthesis.

  4. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    PubMed

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  5. Is rootstock-induced dwarfing in olive an effect of reduced plant hydraulic efficiency?

    PubMed

    Nardini, Andrea; Gascó, Antonio; Raimondo, Fabio; Gortan, Emmanuelle; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Caruso, Tiziano; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the hydraulic architecture of young olive trees either self-rooted or grafted on rootstocks with contrasting size-controlling potential. Clones of Olea europea L. (Olive) cv 'Leccino' inducing vigorous scion growth (Leccino 'Minerva', LM) or scion dwarfing (Leccino 'Dwarf', LD) were studied in different scion/rootstock combinations (LD, LM, LD/LD, LM/LM, LD/LM and LM/LD). Shoots growing on LD root systems developed about 50% less leaf surface area than shoots growing on LM root systems. Root systems accounted for 60-70% of plant hydraulic resistance (R), whereas hydraulic resistance of the graft union was negligible. Hydraulic conductance (K = 1/R) of LD root systems was up to 2.5 times less than that of LM root systems. Total leaf surface area (A(L)) was closely and positively related to root hydraulic conductance so that whole-plant hydraulic conductance scaled by A(L) did not differ between experimental groups. Accordingly, maximum transpiration rate and minimum leaf water potential did not differ significantly among experimental groups. We conclude that reduced root hydraulic conductance may explain rootstock-induced dwarfing in olive.

  6. Bases para la elaboracion de unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de ciencias (Fisica y Quimica 3 deg ESO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccioni, Elena Lucia

    Este Trabajo Fin de Master tiene como objeto, el estudio previo de la educacion de la ciencia en la actualidad y mas destacable, del diseno de las unidades didacticas segun las metodologias mas frecuentes aplicadas por los diferentes sistemas educativos en el area de las Ciencias teniendo en cuenta la importancia y el efecto de la psicologia del alumnado y todo ello como no puede ser de otro modo bajo el corse de la Legislacion aplicable, Estatal, Autonomica y europea. Con estos antecedentes, se extrae cuales son las preguntas que deben contestarse en la elaboracion de una unidad didactica de calidad en el contexto, generacional (edad y sexo), del Proyecto Educativo de Centro, y de la Programacion del Departamento, discutiendo y justificando cada uno de los apartados en que estructuradamente dividiremos dicha Unidad, con un formato manejable, util, y dinamico en el tiempo que sea un verdadero instrumento educativo de aula. Teniendo en cuenta estas premisas, se procede a hacer una recopilacion de una misma unidad didactica publicada por diferentes editoriales, elegidas no al azar, sino en funcion de su penetracion editorial en nuestros centros de ESO, siendo las elegidas (SM y Oxford). Las diferentes unidades seleccionadas son analizadas de forma critica, atendiendo a los criterios generales de calidad bajo parametros cientificos y normativos, concluyendo con la aportacion final que es la redaccion de unas pautas cientifico-pedagogicas, para redactar unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de la Ciencias, en concreto en la Asignatura de Fisica y Quimica de 3º de ESO.

  7. Hydroxytyrosol rich extract from olive leaves modulates cell cycle progression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Han, Junkuy; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the history, olive (Olea europea L.) leaves have been heavily exploited for the prevention or the treatment of hypertension, carcinogenesis, diabetes, atherosclerosis and so many other traditional therapeutic uses. These activities are thought to be the output of olive micronutrients especially polyphenols. Hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein are considered as major polyphenolic compounds in olive leaf. In this work, a hydroxytyrosol rich olive leaves extract was investigated for potential anti-tumoral activities. In vitro cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast cancer cells were examined using MTT and neutral red tests. The anti-tumor activities were further investigated by flow cytometry and western blotting. Cytotoxicity assays resulted in a dose dependent growth inhibition of MCF-7 cells. This inhibition was due to the cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The understanding of the molecular mechanism by which olive leaves extract arrested cell growth showed a down-expression of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Pin1 which in turn decreased the level of a G1 key protein; Cyclin D1. Additionally, olive leaves extract treatment up-regulated the AP1 transcription factor member, c-jun. Therefore, olive leaves extract will necessitate further deep investigation for a probable use as a cancer preventive food additive.

  8. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  9. Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J

    2002-10-01

    Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10

  10. PubMed

    Izaola, Olatz; De la Fuente, Beatriz; Gómez Hoyos, Emilia; López Gómez, Juan José; Torres, Beatriz; Ortola, Ana; De Luis, Daniel A

    2017-02-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de una fórmula enteral con alta densidad energetica en pacientes hospitalizados en una unidad de coronarias con indicación de soporte enteral al menos durante cinco días.Métodos: estudio abierto, no comparativo, no aleatorizado, descriptivo, para evaluar la tolerancia de una fórmula enteral con alta densidad energética en pacientes ingresados en una unidad coronaria.Resultados: se incluyeron 31 pacientes con una media de edad de 67,32 ± 13,8 años y de los cuales el 66,7% eran varones. El volumen medio final prescrito de Nutrison Energy®fue de 928,5 ± 278,5 ml/día (rango: 800-1.500 ml/día). La duración media de la nutrición enteral fue de 11,2 ± 3,2 días. El aporte final promedio de calorías fue de 1.392 ± 417 cal/día, con 169,9 ± 50,9 g/día de hidratos de carbono, 53,8 ± 16,1 g/día de grasas y 55,7 ± 16,9 g/día de proteínas. Tras la administ racion existió un aumento significativo de los niveles de transferrina. Un total de 3 pacientes habían presentado algún episodio de diarrea (9,7%). El número de pacientes que presentaron al menos un episodio de residuo gástrico fue de 5 (16,1%) que no obligo en ningún caso a la suspensión de la nutrición enteral, obligando en 2 pacientes a disminuir el volumen del aporte nutricional durante 24 horas. Durante el soporte nutricional, solo en 3 pacientes fue necesario disminuir el volumen aportado el día previo de la fórmula energética. Con respecto a los vómitos, solo en 1 paciente se constató esta situación (3,2%). Ningún paciente presentó en el estudio otras complicaciones digestivas asociadas a la administración de la fórmula de nutrición enteral. Por último, no se registraron acontecimientos adversos relacionados con la fórmula administrada.Conclusiones: los resultados reflejan que una fórmula enteral con alta densidad energética es una fórmula bien tolerada con una muy baja frecuencia de s

  11. The effects of olives harvest period and production year on olive mill wastewater properties - evaluation of Pleurotus strains as bioindicators of the effluent's toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Katsaris, Panagiotis; Skoulika, Stavroula; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2013-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated during the oil extraction from Olea europea L. var. koroneiki olives was sampled at the beginning, the middle and the end of the harvesting season for three successive crop production years, and from four olive mills. OMW samples were examined in respect to their physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction, and adverse effects on biomass production of nine white-rot fungi of the basidiomycetous genus Pleurotus. Total N, nitrogen species, potassium and phosphate concentrations as well as total phenolics content of OMW samples were influenced by the crop year but not from the harvest period (albeit higher values for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and potassium as well as total phenolics contents were obtained during ripening of olives), whereas protein concentration, total organic carbon and total solids were not significantly affected by the crop year or the harvest period. In addition, fatty acids composition, i.e. nC14:0, nC16:1Δ9cis, nC17:1Δ10cis, nC18:0, nC18:1Δ9cis, nC22:0 and nC24:0 varied significantly during different crop years and harvest periods. Olive fruits maturity and biannual alternate-bearing appear to play key-roles in the fatty acid variation detected in OMW samples. OMW toxicity as evaluated by the mycelium growth of Pleurotus strains was influenced significantly by the phenolic content of OMW samples obtained during three successive crop years; in contrast, the olives harvest period did not affect Pleurotus biomass production. Hence, experimental data indicated that selected Pleurotus strains could serve as bioindicators of OMW toxicity. Development of viable OMW detoxification processes as well as the exploitation of the effluent's fertilizing value are discussed in the light of the above findings.

  12. The indole alkaloid meleagrin, from the olive tree endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, as a novel lead for the control of c-Met-dependent breast cancer proliferation, migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Mady, Mohamed S; Mohyeldin, Mohamed M; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Elsayed, Heba E; Houssen, Wael E; Haggag, Eman G; Soliman, Randa F; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2016-01-15

    Fungi of the genus Penicillium produce unique and chemically diverse biologically active secondary metabolites, including indole alkaloids. The role of dysregulated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, in the development and progression of breast carcinoma is documented. The goal of this work is to explore the chemistry and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites of the endophytic Penicillium chrysogenum cultured from the leaf of the olive tree Olea europea, collected in its natural habitat in Egypt. This fungal extract showed good inhibitory activities against the proliferation and migration of several human breast cancer lines. The CH2Cl2 extract of P. chrysogenum mycelia was subjected to bioguided chromatographic separation to afford three known indole alkaloids; meleagrin (1), roquefortine C (2) and DHTD (3). Meleagrin inhibited the growth of the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-468, BT-474, SK BR-3, MCF7 and MCF7-dox, while similar treatment doses were found to have no effect on the growth and viability of the non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells MCF10A. Meleagrin also showed excellent ATP competitive c-Met inhibitory activity in Z-Lyte assay, which was further confirmed via molecular docking studies and Western blot analysis. In addition, meleagrin treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of HGF-induced cell migration, and invasion of breast cancer cell lines. Meleagrin treatment potently suppressed the invasive triple negative breast tumor cell growth in an orthotopic athymic nude mice model, promoting this unique natural product from hit to a lead rank. The indole alkaloid meleagrin is a novel lead c-Met inhibitory entity useful for the control of c-Met-dependent metastatic and invasive breast malignancies.

  13. [Experience in molecular diagnostic in hereditary neuropathies in a pediatric tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín A; López-Laso, Eduardo; Camino-León, Rafael; Gascón-Jiménez, Francisco J; Jiménez-González, M Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) es la neuropatia hereditaria sensitivomotora mas frecuente. Avances en el diagnostico molecular han incrementado las posibilidades diagnosticas de estos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 36 casos pediatricos diagnosticados de CMT en un centro terciario en el periodo 2003-2015. Resultados. Se identificaron 16 pacientes con CMT1A por una duplicacion en PMP22; dos casos se diagnosticaron de neuropatia hereditaria con predisposicion a paralisis por presion, uno de ellos con una mutacion puntual en PMP22; un varon con un fenotipo leve desmielinizante se diagnostico de CMTX1 por mutacion en GJB1; un paciente con una hipotonia paralitica en el nacimiento y un patron axonal por mutacion en MFN2; un paciente de origen rumano se diagnostico de CMT4D por una mutacion en el gen NDRG1; una paciente con una atrofia muscular espinal congenita distal con neuropatia axonal leve asociada por mutacion en el gen TRPV4; tres niñas de una familia consanguinea de etnia gitana se diagnosticaron de CMT axonal con descargas neuromiotonicas por una mutacion en el gen HINT1; 12 pacientes no tienen diagnostico molecular actualmente, cuatro de ellos de etnia gitana. Conclusiones. CMT1A predomino en nuestra serie (44%), como corresponde a la bibliografia. Destacamos la descripcion de una paciente con una mutacion en TRPV4 recientemente descrita como causa de CMT2C y tres casos de una misma familia consanguinea gitana con la misma mutacion en el gen HINT1 recientemente publicada como causa de neuropatia axonal con neuromiotonia autosomica recesiva (AR-CMT2). El porcentaje de casos sin diagnostico molecular es similar al de grandes series europeas.

  14. [DEMOCOPHES SPAIN AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE HARMONIZATION OF EUROPEAN HUMAN BIOMONITORING].

    PubMed

    Esteban López, Marta; López Martín, Estrella; Rodríguez García, Carolina; Posada De la Paz, Manuel; Castaño Calvo, Argelia

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: contribuir a la armonización europea de la biovigilancia en humanos (proyecto DEMOCOPHES) demostrando la utilidad de los estudios de biovigilancia para valorar la influencia de la dieta y los estilos de vida como vía de exposición a contaminantes ambientales. Métodos: se adaptó el protocolo europeo a las necesidades nacionales, siguiendo los controles de calidad definidos en él y sin comprometer la obtención de datos comparables entre los países participantes. Resultados: la adaptación nacional del protocolo europeo no presentó grandes dificultades y, salvo mínimas modificaciones, se respetó el diseño original del estudio. Participaron 134 parejas madre-hijo, seleccionados en un colegio de Añover de Tajo (Toledo) y tres colegios de Madrid. Los voluntarios donaron una muestra de pelo y de orina y contestaron a las preguntas del cuestionario epidemiológico. Se observaron diferencias significativas en la participación de los voluntarios en las dos localizaciones de muestreo. Discusión: la estandarización de todas las etapas de un estudio de biovigilancia en humanos es esencial para su desarrollo armonizado a escala internacional. Los resultados obtenidos han contribuido a la obtención de datos sobre exposición ambiental, por primera vez comparables en 17 países europeos, y han permitido observar diferencias relacionadas con la dieta y los hábitos de vida. Las experiencias y el material de trabajo desarrollado para el estudio piloto serán aplicables al diseño e implementación de futuros estudios de HBM.

  15. Comparative uptake of trace elements in vines and olive trees over calcareous soils in western La Mancha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel Amorós, José; Higueras, Pablo; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García, Francisco; Villaseñor, Begoña; Bravo, Sandra; Losilla, María Luisa; María Moreno, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and olive-tree (Olea europea L.) are very important cultures in Castilla-La Mancha for its extension and contribution to the regional economy. This study was carried out in the municipality of Carrión de Calatrava (Ciudad Real) where the variability of soils of different geological origin, with different evolutions giving a great diversity of soils. The metabolism of trace elements in plants has been extensively studied although each soil-plant system must be investigated, especially since small variations in composition can lead to marked differences. It can be stated that the composition of the plant reflects the environment where it is cultivated and the products of the plant (leaves, fruits, juices, etc…) will be influenced by the composition of the soil. The main aim of the work was to compare the uptake of 24 trace elements in grapevine and olive-tree cultivated in the same soil. Samples from surface soils and plant material (leaf) have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, obtaining trace elements in mg/kg. It can be concluded that the leaves of grapevines in the studied plots have shown content in elements: -Similar to the olive-tree in case of: Co, Ga, Y, Ta, Th, U y Nd. -Over to the olive-tree in: Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Hf y W. -Below to the olive-tree in: Cu, Zn, Cs y Pb. Keywords: woody culture soils, mineral nutrition, X-ray fluorescence.

  16. [Mortality from respiratory diseases in the provinces of Apulia Region (Southern Italy) from 1933 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Montinari, Maria Rosa; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Vigotti, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    OBIETTIVI: valutare l'andamento temporale della mortalità per patologie respiratorie nelle province pugliesi utilizzando dati omogenei per fonte e metodologia di calcolo. DISEGNO: analisi ecologica storica degli andamenti temporali di mortalità per tumori e patologie dell'apparato respiratorio nelle province pugliesi, in Puglia e nelle ripartizioni geografiche italiane dal 1933 al 2010. SETTING E PARTECIPANTI: i dati di mortalità e le popolazioni residenti sono di fonte Istat. Sono state esaminate tutte le cause di decesso, il tumore della laringe, il tumore del polmone, l'insieme dei tumori respiratori, la bronchite, la polmonite e la broncopolmonite considerate congiuntamente, e l'insieme delle patologie respiratorie. Le analisi sono disaggregate per sesso dal 1969. PRINCIPALI MISURE DI OUTCOME: rapporti standardizzati di mortalità (SMR%) in riferimento all'Italia, con intervalli di confidenza al 95%, e tassi di mortalità standardizzati col metodo diretto (TSD ) in riferimento alla popolazione standard europea. RISULTATI: dal 1933 al 2010, i TSD per tumori respiratori e per bronchiti diminuiscono in tutte le aree analizzate. Tuttavia, nelle province di Taranto, Brindisi e Lecce, l'SMR% per tumori respiratori, inferiore al riferimento nazionale fino agli anni Sessanta, si allinea (a Brindisi) e supera (a Lecce e Taranto) il riferimento negli anni successivi. Nelle province di Foggia e Bari il numero dei decessi per tumore del polmone è costantemente inferiore all'atteso. CONCLUSIONI: la ricostruzione storica e l'analisi dei trend temporali di mortalità dal 1933 al 2010 mostrano alcune criticità sanitarie in periodi specifici. L'elaborazione dei dati di mortalità per un arco temporale di circa 80 anni ha messo in evidenza la maggiore rilevanza di queste criticità con l'avvio dello sviluppo industriale.

  17. [Levels of trace elements in the fruits and vegetables from the so-called Land of fires in Campania Region (Southern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Cavallo, Stefania; Rosato, Guido; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Miedico, Oto; Pellicanò, Roberta; Soprano, Vittorio; Baldi, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUZIONE: una vasta area compresa tra le province di Napoli e Caserta nella regione Campania ha negli ultimi anni attirato l'attenzione dei mass media a causa degli interramenti illeciti di rifiuti di varia origine nei campi o del loro abbandono lungo le strade. A tali pratiche illecite si aggiunge il fenomeno dei roghi incontrollati di questo materiale, motivo per il quale la zona è stata soprannominata "Terra dei fuochi". OBIETTIVI: ricerca di elementi in tracce presenti nei prodotti alimentari di origine vegetale prodotti nella Terra dei fuochi. DISEGNO E SETTING: piano di monitoraggio per il rilevamento dei livelli di alcuni metalli tossici ed essenziali nei vegetali coltivati in Campania nella Terra dei fuochi. La determinazione dei microelementi è stata effettuata dopo mineralizzazione della sostanza organica mediante microonde, utilizzando la spettrometria di massa a plasma induttivamente accoppiato (ICP-MS). RISULTATI: durante l'attività di monitoraggio sono stati raccolti 65 campioni di ortaggi e 49 campioni di frutta in 43 comuni rientranti nella Terra dei fuochi. Il contenuto medio di metalli tossici, cadmio e piombo nei prodotti ortofrutticoli è risultato ben lontano dai limiti massimi fissati dalla normativa europea. I valori delle concentrazioni sono significativamente inferiori rispetto a quanto riscontrato in zone ad alto impatto ambientale a causa della presenza di impianti industriali. CONCLUSIONI: la presenza di elementi tossici o potenzialmente tali nei campioni vegetali prodotti nella Terra dei fuochi è attribuibile a una varietà di fattori ambientali rilevanti (caratteristiche geologiche dell'area, inquinamento del suolo, dell'atmosfera e delle acque di irrigazione, pratiche illecite di smaltimento dei rifiuti industriali); non sembra, tuttavia, sussistere un rischio per la salute dei consumatori. Resta comunque l'allerta per la loro presenza nell'ambiente e la necessità che le attività di monitoraggio continuino.

  18. Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in asthmatic patients and its in vitro diagnostic confirmation.

    PubMed

    Resano, A; Sanz, M L; Oehling, A

    1998-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of airborne mould sensitization and the reliability of the in vitro diagnostic techniques in daily practice (antigen-specific IgE and histamine release test), we performed a 3-year study in 2,200 patients diagnosed with rhinosinusitis and/or bronchial asthma. We found mould sensitization in 101 patients, 20% of whom presented monosensitization against airborne moulds, and the rest associated other sensitizations as follows: 53.7% against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, 45% against grass pollen and 30% against Olea europea. The most frequently involved moulds in our patients were Alternaria and Cladosporium. Seventy-six percent of the patients presented sensitization against Alternaria, 56% of whom were monosensitized, 26% presented cosensitization to Cladosporium and the remainder were sensitive to more than two moulds. Regarding Cladosporium, the percentage of patients was similar (66%), although only 23% were monosensitized and 46% presented an associated sensitization against Alternaria. We also observed a correlation between skin tests and both in vitro diagnostic techniques, with a relative sensitivity of the specific IgE determination compared to the skin test of 98% against Alternaria and 90.4% against Cladosporium, whereas the relative sensitivity of the histamine release test was 97.4% for Alternaria and 85% for Cladosporium. In conclusion, we think that in order to confirm the etiopathogenesis of the airborne moulds and before an immunotherapy treatment is indicated, the positive skin reactions should be confirmed by means of reliable laboratory diagnostic techniques, such as antigen-specific IgE determination and histamine release test.

  19. Grape and grape seed extract capacities at protecting LDL against oxidation generated by Cu2+, AAPH or SIN-1 and at decreasing superoxide THP-1 cell production. A comparison to other extracts or compounds.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Manijeh; Carbonneau, Marie-Annette; Urban, Nelly; Descomps, Bernard; Leger, Claude L

    2003-05-01

    A large body of evidence supports the key role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare the capacity of natural polyphenols (PP) from Vitis vinifera and Olea europea at protecting LDL against oxidation brought about by Cu2+, oxygen-centered radical-generating AAPH, or peroxynitrite-generating SIN-1 in vitro systems, or at impairing superoxide production in promonocyte cells (THP-1) conveniently differentiated into adherent macrophages. PP were either from the whole grape (fraction A) containing mainly procyanidins, (epi)-catechin and anthocyanins, or from grape seed extracts (fractions B and C) consisting of tannins and procyanidin oligomers with a higher content in B than in C, or from a grape skin extract (fraction D) consisting mainly of anthocyanins, or from a hydrosoluble olive mill wastewater PP extract (fraction E) containing hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein. Chlorogenic acid (F) and catechin (G) were taken as archetypes of PP preventing oxidation partly as copper scavenger and as radical scavenger only, respectively. All grape fractions were efficient towards Cu2+ system (equally or more efficient than F), whereas they were rather poorly efficient towards AAPH and SIN-1 (less efficient than G but as efficient as F). Among the PP fractions, B was the most effective at protecting LDL in the SIN-1 system and at impairing THP-1 superoxide production. Taken together, these data suggest that the PP fraction from grape seed rich in procyanidins achieves the best compromise between the direct and indirect (i.e. cell-mediated) types of action in protecting LDL against oxidation, strengthening the need for improving the knowledge of its bioavailability in humans.

  20. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Moreno, Luis A; Bueno, Gloria

    2016-07-12

    Introducción: la elevada prevalencia de obesidad en niños es un problema de salud global y conlleva el desarrollo de comorbilidades asociadas, como hipertensión, dislipemia, inflamación crónica e hiperinsulinemia, que a su vez son reconocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Algunos estudios han observado que el consumo de productos lácteos podría ejercer un papel protector sobre el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares; sin embargo, la evidencia científica es bastante limitada en niños y adolescentes.Objetivos: investigar la relación entre el consumo de productos lácteos y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en poblaciones jóvenes.Material y métodos: se ha revisado la literatura reciente, incluyendo adicionalmente datos procedentes del estudio HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence). Se incluyó una muestra de adolescentes (12,5-17,5 años) provenientes de 8 ciudades europeas.Resultados: datos estadounidenses muestran una disminución en la frecuencia de consumo de leche, así como en el tamaño de la porción consumida. En el estudio HELENA los productos lácteos fueron el grupo de alimentos que mejor identificó a los adolescentes con bajo riesgo cardiovascular. Además, un consumo elevado de leche y yogur, así como de bebidas a base de leche y yogur, se asoció con niveles más bajos de grasa corporal, menor riesgo cardiovascular y mayor condición física cardiorrespiratoria.Conclusiones: son necesarios más estudios para proporcionar evidencia y comprender mejor los mecanismos subyacentes de la asociación entre la ingesta de lácteos, especialmente el yogur, y la obesidad, la diabetes, y otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular.

  1. Hydrolyzed olive vegetation water in mice has anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Bitler, Catherine M; Viale, Tiffany M; Damaj, Bassam; Crea, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable simple and polyphenols are potent antioxidants. One of the most effective in terms of free radical scavenging is 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol or hydroxytyrosol (HT), a simple phenol found predominantly in Olea europea, or the olive plant. HT is most abundant in the aqueous fraction of olive pulp with trace amounts in the olive oil fraction and in the leaves. For these experiments, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of olive vegetation water (OVW), which we showed previously to have potent antioxidant activity. Because some simple phenols and polyphenols with antioxidant activity have shown varying anti-inflammatory activities, we tested OVW and HT for their ability to inhibit the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a pivotal cytokine in inflammation. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BALB/c mice, a model system of inflammation, OVW at a dose of 125 mg/mouse (500 mg/kg) reduced serum TNF-alpha levels by 95%. In the human monocyte cell line, THP-1, OVW reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by 50% at a concentration of 0.5 g/L (equivalent to approximately 0.03 g/L simple and polyphenols). OVW had no toxic effects in vitro or in vivo. When OVW was combined with glucosamine, a component of proteoglycans and glycoproteins that was shown to decrease inducible nitric oxide synthase production in cultured macrophage cells, the 2 compounds acted synergistically to reduce serum TNF-alpha levels in LPS-treated mice. These findings suggest that a combination of OVW and glucosamine may be an effective therapy for a variety of inflammatory processes, including rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.

  2. Phenotypic plasticity of stem water potential correlates with crop load in horticultural trees.

    PubMed

    Sadras, Victor O; Trentacoste, Eduardo R

    2011-05-01

    Conceptual models accounting for the influence of source:sink ratio on water relations of trees are theoretically relevant from a physiological perspective and practically important for irrigation scheduling. Midday stem water potential of horticultural trees often declines with increasing crop load but the actual response depends on environmental, management and plant factors. Here we advance a quantitative synthesis of the response of stem water potential to crop load from the perspective of phenotypic plasticity, defined as 'the amount by which the expression of individual characteristics of a genotype are changed by different environments'. Data sets of stem water potential for contrasting crop loads were compiled for apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh.), olive (Olea europea L.), peach (Prunus persica L.), pear (Pyrus communis L.) and plum (Prunus domestica L.). Phenotypic plasticity of stem water potential was calculated as the slope of the linear regression between stem water potential for each crop load and the environmental mean of stem water potential across crop loads. Regression lines for trees with different crop load diverged with decreasing environmental mean stem water potential. For the pooled data, plasticity of stem water potential was a linear function of relative crop load. This represents a significant shift in perspective: the effect of crop load on the trait per se (stem water potential) is environmentally contingent, but the effect of crop load on the plasticity of the trait is not. We conclude that research on the effects of crop load on tree water relations would return more robust results if plant traits are considered from the dual perspective of the trait per se and its plasticity.

  3. Effects of Olive Metabolites on DNA Cleavage Mediated by Human Type II Topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several naturally occurring dietary polyphenols with chemopreventive or anticancer properties are topoisomerase II poisons. To identify additional phytochemicals that enhance topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage, a library of 341 Mediterranean plant extracts was screened for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. An extract from Phillyrea latifolia L., a member of the olive tree family, displayed high activity against the human enzyme. On the basis of previous metabolomics studies, we identified several polyphenols (hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, verbascoside, tyrosol, and caffeic acid) as potential candidates for topoisomerase II poisons. Of these, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside enhanced topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. The potency of these olive metabolites increased 10–100-fold in the presence of an oxidant. Hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside displayed hallmark characteristics of covalent topoisomerase II poisons. (1) The activity of the metabolites was abrogated by a reducing agent. (2) Compounds inhibited topoisomerase II activity when they were incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of DNA. (3) Compounds were unable to poison a topoisomerase IIα construct that lacked the N-terminal domain. Because hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside are broadly distributed across the olive family, extracts from the leaves, bark, and fruit of 11 olive tree species were tested for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. Several of the extracts enhanced enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage. Finally, a commercial olive leaf supplement and extra virgin olive oils pressed from a variety of Olea europea subspecies enhanced DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IIα. Thus, olive metabolites appear to act as topoisomerase II poisons in complex formulations intended for human dietary consumption. PMID:26132160

  4. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province).

    PubMed

    Tahraoui, A; El-Hilaly, J; Israili, Z H; Lyoussi, B

    2007-03-01

    This survey was undertaken in the Errachidia province in south-eastern Morocco in order to inventory the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Four hundred individuals who knew about and/or had used the medicinal plants for the indicated diseases, including some herbal healers, were interviewed throughout different regions of the province. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common name of the plant, its ecological distribution, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 64 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families; of these, 45 are used for diabetes, 36 for hypertension, and 18 for both diseases. Of these plants, 34% grow in the wild, 44% are cultivated, and 22% are not indigenous to the area and are brought from other parts of Morocco or from outside the country. The survey shows that 78% of the patients regularly use these medicinal plants. In this region, the most frequently used plants to treat diabetes include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Artemisia herba-alba, Carum carvi, Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Peganum harmala, Phoenix dactylifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Zygophyllum gaetulum, and those to treat hypertension include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Carum carvi, Nigella sativa, Olea europea, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, Peganum harmala, and Phoenix dactylifera. The local people recognize the toxic plants and are very careful in using such plants, which are Citrullus colocynthis, Datura stramonium, Nerium oleander, Nigella sativa, Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum gaetulum. Our survey shows that traditional medicine in the south-eastern Moroccan population has not only survived but has thrived in the transcultural environment and intermixture of many ethnic traditions and

  5. Fuel-mix, fuel efficiency, and transport demand affect prospects for biofuels in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2010-04-01

    Rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the road transport sector represents a difficult mitigation challenge due to a multitude of intricate factors, namely the dependency on liquid energy carriers and infrastructure lock-in. For this reason, low-carbon renewable energy carriers, particularly second generation biofuels, are often seen as a prominent candidate for realizing reduced emissions and lowered oil dependency over the medium- and long-term horizons. However, the overarching question is whether advanced biofuels can be an environmentally effective mitigation strategy in the face of increasing consumption and resource constraints. Here we develop both biofuel production and road transport consumption scenarios for northern Europe-a region with a vast surplus of forest bioenergy resources-to assess the potential role that forest-based biofuels may play over the medium- and long-term time horizons using an environmentally extended, multiregion input-output model. Through scenarios, we explore how evolving vehicle technologies and consumption patterns will affect the mitigation opportunities afforded by any future supply of forest biofuels. We find that in a scenario involving ambitious biofuel targets, the size of the GHG mitigation wedge attributed to the market supply of biofuels is severely reduced under business-as-usual growth in consumption in the road transport sector. Our results indicate that climate policies targeting the road transport sector which give high emphases to reducing demand (volume), accelerating the deployment of more fuel-efficient vehicles, and promoting altered consumption patterns (structure) can be significantly more effective than those with single emphasis on expanded biofuel supply.

  6. PubMed

    Lopéz-Galán, Belinda; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2017-02-01

    Introducción: a pesar de que estudios anteriores han proporcionado información relevante respecto al avance en la aplicación del Reglamento (CE) n.o 1924/2006 de la Unión Europea, hasta ahora no se ha determinado la prevalencia de las declaraciones nutricionales relevantes en la prevención de la obesidad en el mercado español.Objetivo: determinar la presencia de las declaraciones nutricionales relevantes en la prevención de la obesidad en el mercado español.Materiales y métodos: se realizó un registro de productos alimenticios comercializados en 3 cadenas de distribución alimentaria que concentran el 40% del mercado. Se registró información nutricional de 9 categorías de productos representativos en la cesta de la compra de las familias españolas. Las declaraciones nutricionales analizadas hacen mención de los nutrientes que pueden contribuir o no al exceso de peso.Resultados: se examinó un total de 4.568 productos y se encontraron un total de 900 declaraciones nutricionales en el 20% de los productos analizados. Los nutrientes referidos en las declaraciones nutricionales encontrados con mayor frecuencia en las 9 categorías de productos fueron las grasas (42%), los azúcares (32%), la fibra alimentaria (20%) y la sal (6%). Conclusiones: al igual que en otros estudios realizados en España, nuestro estudio mostró una baja proporción de declaraciones nutricionales. Por lo tanto, para que estas cumplan su función informativa tanto la industria como la distribución alimentaria deben seguir trabajando por incluir más declaraciones en los alimentos que ofrecen. De esta manera facilitarán a los consumidores una mejor toma de decisiones alimentarias.

  7. Impact: an Integrated Approach (Space and Ground) for Monitoring the Threat of Earth Orbit Corssing Celestial Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussolino, L.; Somma, R.

    The threat of possible collision of asteroids and comets with our planet has reached an international stage since 1990 when U.S.A. Congress set up a dedicated committee for the analysis and the assessment of this problem.The U.N. organized a congress later on to summarize the current knowledge on this subject as well as the Europea Council recommended its member states to conduct studies to further deepen the understanding in terms of tackling and solving this kind of problem interesting the entire world. IMPACT is the acronym for " International Monitoring Program for Asteroids and Comets Threats " coming out as proposal from a study funded by the italian region PIEMONTE throughout the Civil Protection Bureau and performed by the Planetology Group of the Astronomical Observatory of Torino ( Italy ) and Alenia Spazio for the engineering part. They have carried out a series of analyses aimed at contributing in subsequent steps to the solution of the two fundamental problems associated to the potential impact threat : the assessment of the numbers of killers/terminators and the impact rates from one side and the development of the idea of considering space segments for supporting activities of discovery as well as the physical and mineralogical characterization using satellites in orbit around the Earth. other additional studies also funded by the European Space Agency where the space technology appears to offer a great contribution if conveniently integrated with the Earth networks for Potentially Hazardous Asteroids ( PHA ) detection. An international approach for monitoring this threat for the Earth is then proposed.

  8. The pedagogic evolution in Surgery: the University at the centre of a training which becomes territorialized The model of the region Marche.

    PubMed

    Patrizi, Andrea; Tranà, Cristian; Baldoni, Andrea; Coletta, Pietro; Marmorale, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    La formazione in Chirurgia è un tema di grande interesse in un’epoca di crisi, ma anche di grandi cambiamenti mossi dalla spinta della Comunità Europea di uniformare i Percorsi Formativi di tutti i suoi Stati Membri. I punti principali delle riforme attuate per uniformarci al contesto Comunitario, vertevano sulla riduzione dei tempi e sulla implementazione della multidisciplinarietà della formazione specialistica, con il rischio di adombrare quelli che sono i punti di forza del nostro Sistema Sanitario, tra cui l’alto livello assistenziale dei nostri ospedali territoriali. La Scuola di Specializzazione di Chirurgia Generale dell’UNIVPM da alcuni anni punta su un progetto che vede la Clinica Universitaria al Centro di una Formazione Specialistica che si sviluppa sempre più sul territorio, avvicinando il mondo Ospedaliero a quello Universitario. Questo nuovo modello organizzativo prevede una prima fase all’interno della Clinica Universitaria ed una seconda nella Rete Formativa, nella quale rientrano Centri a differente impatto specialistico, all’interno di Strutture Ospedaliere Italiane ed Estere, e la possibilità di poter collaborare con l’Organizzazione di Emergency. Per testare questa nuova organizzazione del Corso Specialistico, abbiamo preso in analisi l’attività chirurgica svolta dagli specializzandi del nostro Ateneo, che hanno terminato il loro percorso formativo in Chirurgia Generale a Marzo 2014, essendo loro i primi ad aver beneficiato di questo modello. L’attività operatoria è stata, per ciascuno, mediamente di 400 interventi da primo operatore (237-476) distribuiti in chirurgia maggiore 44 (13-80), media 172 (129-268) e minore 209 (70-378), rapportando i loro risultati con gli standard complessivi di addestramento professionalizzante previsti dallo Statuto Nazionale si osserva il buon rendimento di questo sistema, che vede i suoi punti di forza nell’EQUITA dell’offerta, in quanto standardizzabile; nel concetto di RETE

  9. A combined physicochemical-biological method of NaCl extraction from the irrigation solution in the BTLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    The use of processed human wastes as a source of minerals for plants in closed biotechnical life support systems (BTLSS) leads to high salt levels in the irrigation solution, as urine contains high concentrations of NaCl. It is important to develop a process that would effectively decrease NaCl concentration in the irrigation solution and return this salt to the crew's diet. The salt-tolerant plants (Salicornia europea) used to reduce NaCl concentration in the irrigation solution require higher salt concentrations than those of the solution, and this problem cannot be resolved by concentrating the solution. At the same time, NaCl extracted from mineralized wastes by physicochemical methods is not pure enough to be included in the crew's diet. This study describes an original physicochemical method of NaCl extraction from the solution, which is intended to be used in combination with the biological method of NaCl extraction by using saltwort plants. The physicochemical method produces solutions with high NaCl concentrations, and saltwort plants serve as a biological filter in the final phase, to produce table salt. The study reports the order in which physicochemical and biological methods of NaCl extraction from the irrigation solution should be used to enable rapid and effective inclusion of NaCl into the cycling of the BTLSS with humans. This study was carried out in the IBP SB RAS and supported by the grant of the Russian Science Foundation (Project No. 14-14-00599).

  10. The experience of educational quality in undergraduate nursing students: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Macale, Loreana; Vellone, Ercole; Scialò, Gennaro; Iossa, Mauro; Cristofori, Elena; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Scopo. La valutazione della formazione accademica è diventata fondamentale nell'Unione Europea da quando il Processo di Bologna ha incoraggiato tutte le università europee a raggiungere elevati standard di qualità nella formazione. Anche se diversi studi sono stati condotti sulla qualità della formazione negli studenti di infermieristica, pochi hanno esplorato questa tematica dalla prospettiva degli studenti. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato di descrivere l'esperienza della qualità formativa negli studenti del corso di laurea in infermieristica. Metodo. E’ stato utilizzato il metodo fenomenologico per studiare 55 studenti (età media 24 anni; 73% donne) che frequentavano il corso di laurea in infermieristica in tre università del centro Italia. Risultati. Dall'analisi fenomenologica sono emersi i seguenti cinque temi: 1) Qualità dei docenti: capacità di insegnamento, preparazione, sensibilità per gli studenti, autodisciplina; 2) Integrazione teoria-pratica e comunicazione tra l'insegnamento e l'area clinica; 3) gestione generale e organizzazione del corso; 4) la qualità delle infrastrutture: biblioteche, aule, tecnologie dell'informazione, servizi, amministrazione, comunicazione; e 5) tutorato clinico: umanità, relazioni e capacità del tutor clinico di guidare e supportare lo studente. Conclusione. I risultati di questo studio forniscono una comprensione nuova e più approfondita sul significato della qualità della formazione negli studenti di infermieristica. Gli studenti ritenevano che la qualità della formazione consistesse nella sensibilità dei docenti verso i loro problemi e nell’umanità, capacità interpersonali, guida e supporto dei tutor cli.

  11. Organic compounds in PM 2.5 emitted from fireplace and woodstove combustion of typical Portuguese wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Alves, Célia; Fernandes, Ana Patrícia; Monteiro, Cristina; Tarelho, Luís; Evtyugina, Margarita; Pio, Casimiro

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is the further characterisation of PM 2.5 emissions from the residential wood combustion of common woods grown in Portugal. This new research extends to eight the number of biomass fuels studied and tries to understand the differences that the burning appliance (fireplace versus woodstove) and the combustion temperature (cold and hot start) have on emissions. Pinus pinaster (Maritime pine), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalypt), Quercus suber (cork oak), Acacia longifolia (Golden wattle), Quercus faginea (Portuguese oak), Olea europea (Olive), Quercus ilex rotundifolia (Holm oak) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste were used in the combustion tests. Determinations included fine particle emission factors, carbonaceous content (OC and EC) by a thermal-optical transmission technique and detailed identification and quantification of organic compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fine particle emission factors from the woodstove were lower than those from the fireplace. For both combustion appliances, the OC/EC ratio was higher in "cold start" tests (1.56 ± 0.95 for woodstove and 2.03 ± 1.34 for fireplace). These "cold start" OC/EC values were, respectively, for the woodstove and the fireplace, 51% and 69% higher than those obtained in "hot start" experiments. The chromatographically resolved organics included n-alkanes, n-alkenes, PAHs, n-alkanals, ketones, n-alkanols, terpenoids, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, alcohols, n-alkanoic acids, n-di-acids, unsaturated acids and alkyl esters of acids. The smoke emission rate and composition varied widely depending on fuel type, burning appliance and combustion temperature.

  12. [Sleep deprivation effects on cognitive, psychomotor skills and its relationship with personal characteristics of resident doctors].

    PubMed

    Hamui-Sutton, Liz; Barragán-Pérez, Virginia; Fuentes-García, Ruth; Monsalvo-Obregón, Erika Cristina; Fouilloux-Morales, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: en países como Estados Unidos y las naciones europeas se han propuesto cambios a la estructura asistencial y académica de los médicos especialistas en formación que proponen transformaciones a las normas relativas al número de horas que trabajan a la semana los residentes. El argumento principal que sustenta esas transformaciones se basa en el supuesto de que las horas de trabajo excesivas (más de 16 horas ininterrumpidas) provocan alteraciones cognitivas y psicomotrices en los residentes. Objetivo: evaluar la asociación entre la privación de sueño y las habilidades cognitivas y psicomotoras de una muestra de residentes de diferentes especialidades médicas. Material y métodos: estudio longitudinal, con mediciones pre y post guardia, en 31 residentes de Medicina. Se midieron las variables de: habilidades cognitivas y psicomotoras, datos sociodemográficos y de condiciones de guardia, calidad de sueño y psicopatología. resultados: 81% de los residentes tuvo detrimento en, al menos, una de las pruebas realizadas; sin embargo, en los resultados de las habilidades psicomotoras y en la maniobra de reanimación cardiopulmonar básica se encontró una diferencia significativa en los momentos pre y post guardia con mejoría en las puntuaciones. Conclusiones: la privación de sueño disminuye las habilidades cognitivas y psicomotoras. Si bien nuestros resultados no son generalizables, pueden constituir un precedente para fundamentar posibles cambios referentes a las guardias en las residencias médicas.

  13. Effects of Olive Metabolites on DNA Cleavage Mediated by Human Type II Topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Vann, Kendra R; Sedgeman, Carl A; Gopas, Jacob; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi; Osheroff, Neil

    2015-07-28

    Several naturally occurring dietary polyphenols with chemopreventive or anticancer properties are topoisomerase II poisons. To identify additional phytochemicals that enhance topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage, a library of 341 Mediterranean plant extracts was screened for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. An extract from Phillyrea latifolia L., a member of the olive tree family, displayed high activity against the human enzyme. On the basis of previous metabolomics studies, we identified several polyphenols (hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, verbascoside, tyrosol, and caffeic acid) as potential candidates for topoisomerase II poisons. Of these, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside enhanced topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. The potency of these olive metabolites increased 10-100-fold in the presence of an oxidant. Hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside displayed hallmark characteristics of covalent topoisomerase II poisons. (1) The activity of the metabolites was abrogated by a reducing agent. (2) Compounds inhibited topoisomerase II activity when they were incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of DNA. (3) Compounds were unable to poison a topoisomerase IIα construct that lacked the N-terminal domain. Because hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside are broadly distributed across the olive family, extracts from the leaves, bark, and fruit of 11 olive tree species were tested for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. Several of the extracts enhanced enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage. Finally, a commercial olive leaf supplement and extra virgin olive oils pressed from a variety of Olea europea subspecies enhanced DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IIα. Thus, olive metabolites appear to act as topoisomerase II poisons in complex formulations intended for human dietary consumption.

  14. [Economic evaluation of Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonists in the treatment of chronic primary immune thrombocytopenia].

    PubMed

    Parrondo, J; Grande, C; Ibáñez, J; Palau, J; Páramo, J A; Villa, G

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Desarrollar una herramienta de apoyo a la decisión en la selección de agonistas del receptor de trombopoyetina en el tratamiento de pacientes adultos con trombocitopenia inmune primaria crónica (PTI) refractaria. Métodos: Análisis coste-efectividad estocástico con un modelo de Markov de seis estados: estable, sangrado tipo 2, 3 ó 4, post-sangrado 4 y muerte. Cada simulación analiza un escenario aleatoriamente generado que describe las características del paciente, los resultados medidos en años de vida ajustados a calidad (AVACs) y los costes (en ?2011). Se obtuvieron distribuciones a partir de los datos para España de la Encuesta Europea de Salud de 2009, de la estimación de población para 2011 del INE, de los estudios a 6 meses de Eltrombopag y Romiplostim, de las utilidades obtenidas de la bibliografía y de las tarifas oficiales en España para procesos y actividad. Se generaron 10.000 escenarios aleatorios y se simuló la evolución de los pacientes de cada escenario durante un horizonte temporal de cinco años (ciclos de dos semanas). Perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS). Tasa de descuento anual del 3% para costes y efectos. Resultados: En 9.983 escenarios Eltrombopag mostró mayor efectividad y en 17 no hubo diferencias. Eltombopag fue la alternativa dominante en 7.048 escenarios y la más coste efectiva en otros 19 (umbral 30.000 ?/AVAC). Conclusiones: Eltrombopag es la alternativa más coste-efectiva en el 70,67% de los escenarios simulados, por lo que su uso podría producir menores costes al SNS.

  15. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants

  16. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Menal-Puey, Susana; Morán Del Ruste, Manuel; Marques-Lopes, Iva

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: una dieta vegetariana puede satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales si está bien planificada. En este sentido, los vegetarianos deben ser aconsejados para elegir alimentos alternativos a los productos de origen animal seleccionando el tamaño de porción adecuada de cada uno de ellos. El valor nutricional de las porciones de los alimentos vegetales tradicionales es bien conocido, sin embargo, el mercado vegetariano ofrece otros productos cuya composición química es menos conocida, ya que no son alimentos ampliamente consumidos por la población. Es necesario conocer tanto el contenido de nutrientes de las porciones de estos alimentos como la biodisponibilidad de estos nutrientes en la dieta vegetariana. Objetivos: este trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la información disponible sobre el aporte nutricional a la dieta de un adulto sano de las porciones de alimentos utilizados por la población vegetariana. Además, se discuten algunos puntos sobre la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más relevantes, y se proponen alternativas para mejorar su utilización. Métodos: los datos de composición de los alimentos veganos, por 100 g, se buscaron en bases de datos de composición de alimentos, y a partir de ellos se calculó la composición química de las porciones. Después, estos datos nutricionales se compararon con las ingestas dietéticas de referencia europeas para la población adulta, y se discutió la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más importantes.

  17. The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management

    PubMed Central

    Batáry, Péter; Dicks, Lynn V; Kleijn, David; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    la Conservación y el Manejo Ambiental Batáry et al. Resumen Más de la mitad de las tierras europeas está bajo manejo agrícola y así ha sido durante milenios. Muchas especies y ecosistemas de interés de conservación en Europa dependen del manejo agrícola y están mostrando una declinación continua. Los esquemas agro-ambientales (EAA) están diseñados en parte para encarar esto. Los esquemas son una gran fuente de financiamiento para la conservación dentro de la Unión Europea (UE) y el mayor gasto de conservación en Europa. Revisamos la estructura de los EAA actuales a lo largo del continente. Desde que en 2003 una revisión cuestionó la efectividad general de los EAA para la biodiversidad, ha habido una plétora de estudios de caso y meta-análisis que examinan su efectividad. La mayoría de las síntesis demuestran un incremento general en la biodiversidad de las tierras de cultivo en respuesta a los EAA, con la magnitud del efecto dependiente de la estructura y el manejo del terreno circundante. Esto es importante a la luz del crecimiento sucesivo de la UE y las continuas reformas a los EAA. Examinamos el cambio en la magnitud del efecto a través del tiempo al fusionar los conjuntos de datos de tres meta-análisis recientes y encontramos que los esquemas implementados después de la revisión de los programas agro-ambientales de la UE en 2007 no fueron más efectivos que los esquemas implementados antes de la revisión. Además, los esquemas enfocados en las áreas fuera de producción (como los márgenes de campo y los setos vivos) son más efectivos en el mejoramiento de la riqueza de especies que aquellos enfocados en las áreas productivas (como los cultivos arables y los pastizales). Las preguntas sobresalientes de la investigación incluyen si los EAA mejoran los servicios ambientales, si son más efectivos en las áreas agrícolas marginales que en las áreas de cultivo intensivo, si son más o menos rentables para la biodiversidad de las

  18. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  19. Contemporary attitudes and their ideological representation in Flanders (Belgium), Poland, and the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hiel, Alain Van; Kossowska, Malgorzata

    2007-02-01

    'élargissement de l'UE). Dans la discussion, il est aussi argumenté que la correspondance plus étroite entre la représentation idéologique de ces attitudes dans les sociétés polonaise et occidentale peut être due au fait que le communisme a moins réussi à pénétrer la mentalité politique en Pologne qu'en Ukraine. La presente investigación somete a prueba la validez de un modelo de dos dimensiones, cultural y económico de ideología de derecha, así como las relaciones entre estas dimensiones y actitudes hacia temas políticos recientes. Las opiniones sobre el ambiente, la guerra al terror, y la ampliación de la Unión Europea se seleccionaron como actitudes representativas contemporáneas. Se investigaron las preguntas de investigación en muestras flamencas (N = 176), polacas (N = 93) y ucranianas (N = 93). Los resultados revelan que subyacen dos dimensiones al espectro ideológico en todas las muestras, una se refiere al conservadurismo cultural y al autoritarismo de derecha (AD), y otra que se refiere al conservadurismo económico y a la orientación de dominancia social (ODS). A pesar de que los estudios en muestras occidentales han ilustrado ampliamente la validez de las diferencias entre estas dimensiones ideológicas, la réplica de estos estudios en países anteriormente comunistas contribuye a su validez y generalidad, porque estos países poseen una cultura e historia política específica. Sin embargo, también se obtuvieron diferencias interculturales importantes respecto a la representación de las actitudes contemporáneas en este espacio ideológico de dos dimensiones. En tanto que la guerra al terror se relacionó de manera significativa a la dimensión de derecha en todas las muestras, las relaciones para el ambientalismo y la ampliación de la Unión Europea dependieron de la muestra. Las diferencias interculturales se explican en términos de la notoriedad del tema (relaciones no significativas contra significativas en el caso del

  20. The use of medicinal herbs by diabetic Jordanian patients.

    PubMed

    Otoom, S A; Al-Safi, S A; Kerem, Z K; Alkofahi, A

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. To date, there have been no reports on the frequency of use of herb medicines in the managements of diabetes mellitus in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 310 diabetic patients visiting two medical centers in Jordan: Jordan University of Science & Technology Medical Center and Sarih Medical Center between December 2003 and August 2004. It is found that 31% of interviewed patients have used herbal products (96 patients). The results revealed that the most commonly used herbs by diabetic patients in Jordan were Trigonella foenumgraecum (22.9%), Lupinus albus (14.6%), Allium sativum (11.5%), Allium cepa (5.2%), Nigella sativa (7.3%), Zea mays L. (6.3%), Urtica dioica L. (8.3%), Eucalyptus globules LA (9.4%), Olea europea L. (3.1%), Cumminum cyminum (9.4%), Coriandrum sativum (10.4%), Salvia officinalis L. (3.1%), and Tilia cordata (1%). Furthermore, it is found that 47.9% of the patients used herbs according to advice from their friends on a daily basis. The side effects were reported by 36.5% of the patients and include headache, nausea, dizziness, itching, palpitation, and sweating. Among the patients, 72.9% used the herbs as adjunctive therapy along with their anti-diabetic drugs and 80.2% of the patients informed their physicians about their use. A 79.2% of the sample confirmed their intention to re-use these herbs as 86.5% of them were satisfied with their diabetes control. There was a significant relationship between the use of herbs, the patient's place of residence and his/her level of education. The main conclusion of this survey is that the use of medicinal herbs among diabetic patient in Jordan is common. Therefore, it is essential to increase the level of awareness among diabetic patients and health care providers regarding the efficacy and toxicity of these medicinal herbs.

  1. [ADHERENCE TO THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET AND HYDRATION IN SPANISH AND MOROCCAN POPULATIONS].

    PubMed

    Benhammou, Samira; Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Ortega, Virginia; Rivas, Ana; Ortega, Eduardo; Lorenzo, M Luisa; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la dieta mediterránea (DM) comprende la ribera europea, africana y asiática del mar Mediterráneo. Características de la DM son variedad de alimentos y sobriedad. Junto a los nutrientes, es esencial la ingesta de agua y bebidas. Objetivo: estudiar la DM y la contribución del agua y las bebidas a la hidratación de dos poblaciones de la ribera mediterránea. Métodos: adultos procedentes del noroeste de Marruecos y sur de España (n = 400), completaron un cuestionario semi-cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos. Se analizó agua envasada consumida por la población y comprada en el mercado local (17 marcas/ tipos en Marruecos y 30 en el sur de España). Resultados: por cromatografía de intercambio iónico se analizaron diversas sales. El rango fue: Ca entre 140,16 y 439 mg/L; Mg entre 53,15 y 87,5 mg/L; Na entre 1169,78 y 257,2 mg/L y K 50,26 y 26,5 mg/L, valores tanto para muestras españolas como marroquís. Son aguas de mineralización media y su ingesta de minerales no contribuye más del 7% a la RDA de las poblaciones estudiadas. El seguimiento de la DM es superior en la población española (6,28 ± 1,38) que en la marroquí (4,42 ± 1,52). El perfil de ingesta de bebidas permite clasificar a la población al encontrar valores OR que van desde 1,6 a 11,01 para mayor ingesta de zumo, refrescos, te, agua envasada y total de ingesta de líquidos para la población marroquí frente a la española. Conclusión: el consumo de aguas envasadas no supone un suplemento mineral de interés en estas poblaciones.

  2. [Design of a risk matrix to assess sterile formulations at health care facilities].

    PubMed

    Martín de Rosales Cabrera, A M; López Cabezas, C; García Salom, P

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Diseñar una matriz que permita la clasificación de los preparadosestériles que se elaboran en el hospital en diferentes nivelesde riesgo.Material y métodos: i) Revisión bibliográfica y lectura crítica delmodelo propuesto por la resolución europea CM/ResAp(2011)1, ii)Identificación de los riesgos asociados al proceso de elaboración,mediante metodología AMFE (Análisis Modal de Fallos y Efectos),iii) estimación de la gravedad asociada a los riesgos detectados.Tras probar inicialmente un modelo de puntuación numérica, semodificó la matriz a una clasificación alfabética, graduando cadacriterio de la A a la D. Cada preparación evaluada obtiene unacombinación de 6 letras, que lleva a tres posibles niveles de riesgo:bajo, medio y alto. Este modelo presentó menor dificultad a la horade asignar riesgos, así como mayor reproducibilidad.Resultados: El modelo final diseñado analiza 6 criterios: proceso depreparación, vía de administración, perfil de seguridad del medicamento,cantidad preparada, distribución y susceptibilidad de contaminaciónmicrobiológica. El nivel de riesgo obtenido condicionarálos requerimientos de la zona de elaboración, plazo de validezy las condiciones de conservación.Conclusiones: El modelo de matriz propuesta puede ayudar a lasinstituciones sanitarias a discernir el riesgo de las preparacionesestériles que se realizan, aportando información sobre el plazo devalidez aceptable en función de las condiciones de conservación yel lugar de fabricación. Su aplicación conllevará un incremento enla seguridad de este proceso, a la vez que puede ayudar a la planificacióny distribución de recursos.

  3. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A CITY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA: COMPARISON OF TWO DEFINITIONS.

    PubMed

    Galera-Martínez, Rafael; García-García, Emilio; Vázquez-López, M Ángeles; Ortiz-Pérez, María; Ruiz-Sánchez, Ana Mar; Martín-González, Manuel; Garrido-Fernández, Pablo; Bonillo-Perales, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Introducción y objetivos: existen escasos estudios acerca de la prevalencia de síndrome metabólico (MetS) en la población general adolescente en Europa. Algunos resultados muestran mayor prevalencia en adolescentes del área mediterránea. Nuestro objetivo fue estudiar la prevalencia de MetS en la población general adolescente de una ciudad del área mediterránea en España, comparando dos definiciones de MetS y los factores de riesgo asociados. Material y métodos: estudio epidemiológico observacional sobre una muestra de base poblacional, elegida de forma aleatoria, representativa de los adolescentes de 12 a 16,9 años escolarizados en la ciudad de Almería. Se recogieron variables antropométricas y analíticas. Se compararon dos definiciones de SM para población adolescente: National Cholesterol Education Program (NECP- ATPIII) e International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Estadística: coeficiente kappa para analizar la concordancia entre definiciones y regresión logística múltiple para el estudio de factores de riesgo asociados. Resultados: la prevalencia de MetS fue 5,7% (95%IC 3,33-8,07) con la definición NECP-ATPIII y 3,8% (95%IC 1,85-5,75) con los criterios IDF. No se encontraron diferencias entre sexos ni entre grupos de edad. La concordancia entre ambas definiciones fue muy buena a nivel global (kappa 0,815) y especialmente en el grupo de obesos, pero empeoró entre adolescentes con normopeso (kappa 0,497). Los factores asociados a ambas definiciones fueron obesidad y resistencia insulínica. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran una prevalencia de MetS en adolescentes mayor a la media europea. Aunque la concordancia entre definiciones fue muy buena a nivel global, la prevalencia fue mayor con la definición NECP-ATPIII. Obesidad y resistencia insulínica fueron los factores de riesgo asociados.

  4. Screen-based sedentary time: Association with soft drink consumption and the moderating effect of parental education in European children: The ENERGY study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K.; Chinapaw, Mai J.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Bere, Elling; Kovacs, Eva; Verloigne, Maïté; Stok, F. Marijn; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Lien, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to explore if children who spend more time on screen-based sedentary behaviors (i.e.TV viewing and computer use) drink more sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The study also assessed whether these associations were independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption and whether they were moderated by parental education. Methods Data were collected from 7886 children participating in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) survey conducted in eight European countries. Self-report questionnaires were used. Multilevel linear regression analyses with soft drink consumption as dependent variable, TV viewing and computer use as independent variables and age, gender, parental education, attitude towards soft drinks, self-efficacy, parental modelling, parental rules and home availability of soft drinks as covariates were conducted. Further interactions were tested to explore if these associations were moderated by parental education. Country-specific analyses were conducted. Results In six of the eight included countries, a significant positive association was observed between TV viewing (min/day) and soft drink consumption (ml/day), independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption (B = 0.46 (0.26–0.66) in Greece, B = 0.77 (0.36–1.17) in Norway, B = 0.82 (0.12–1.51) in Hungary, B = 1.06 (0.67–1.46) in Spain, B = 1.21 (0.67–1.74) in Belgium and B = 1.49 (0.72–2.27) in Switzerland). There was no significant association between computer use and soft drink consumption in six of the eight included countries in the final models. Moderation effects of parental education in the association between TV viewing and soft drink consumption were found in Norway and Hungary, the association being stronger among those with low parental education. Conclusions TV viewing appears to be independently associated with soft drink

  5. Fireplace and woodstove fine particle emissions from combustion of western Mediterranean wood types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Célia; Gonçalves, Cátia; Fernandes, Ana Patrícia; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2011-08-01

    Wood from seven species of trees grown in the Portuguese forest ( Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia), and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste were burned in a fireplace and in a woodstove to determine the chemical composition of fine particle (PM 2.5) emissions. Samples were analysed for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), water soluble ions (Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42-) and 67 elements. The PM 2.5 emission factors (g kg - 1 fuel burned, dry basis) were in the ranges 9.9-20.2 and 4.2-16.3, respectively, for the fireplace and the woodstove. Organic carbon contributed to about 50% of the fine particle mass in the emissions from every wood species studied in both burning appliances. The carbonaceous component of PM 2.5 was dominated by organic carbon, accounting for more than 85% of the total carbon (TC): OC/TC ranged from 0.85 to 0.96 (avg. 0.92) for the fireplace and from 0.86 to 0.97 (avg. 0.93) for the woodstove. The water-soluble ions accounted for 0.64 to 11.3% of the PM 2.5 mass emitted from the fireplace, whereas mass fractions between 0.53 and 13.6% were obtained for the woodstove. The golden wattle wood smoke showed a much higher ionic content than the emissions from the other wood types. Trace elements represented 0.4 to 2.5% and 0.2 to 2.2% of the PM 2.5 mass emitted, respectively, from the fireplace and the woodstove, which corresponded to average total emissions of 132 ± 77.3 mg kg - 1 and 93.4 ± 60.8 mg kg - 1 of wood burned. Among these, K, Pb, Al, Mn and Sr were present in all samples. From the emission profiles of the individual experiments, composite wood combustion profiles are suggested with the aid of a cluster analysis.

  6. Emissions from fireplace and woodstove combustion of prevalent Portuguese woods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Célia

    2010-05-01

    P. Fernandes, C. Gonçalves, C.A. Alves, L. Tarelho, F. Mirante, T. Nunes and C. Pio Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal In Portugal, it was estimated that around 390000 ton/year of wood is burned in fireplaces, although the chemical characterisation of emission profiles has not yet been performed. Emission inventories and source apportionment, photochemistry and climate change models use values obtained for American or Alpine wood-fuels, uncommon in South Europe. Previous work has suggested that the species of wood used can have a huge influence on the particle emissions. Since the distribution of compounds emitted differs by species and burning conditions and there are many variations among published profiles, it is desirable to obtain specific data at a regional level on the chemical characterisation of wood smoke. A series of source tests was performed to compare the emission profiles from the woodstove combustion to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: seven species of wood grown in Portugal (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europea, Quercus ilex rotundifolia), and briquettes of biomass residues. The gas sampling was carried out in the exhaust ducts of both combustion systems. The collection of particles (PM2.5) was conducted in the dilution tunnel that was directly coupled to the chimney. Dilution sampling was used to characterise fine particle emissions from the combustion sources because it simulates the rapid cooling and dilution that occurs as exhaust mixes with the atmosphere. During each burning cycle, the concentrations of O2, CO2 and CO, as well as operational parameters (e.g. temperatures, flows, etc.), were automatically monitored. The PM2.5 samples were analysed by a thermal optical technique in order to obtain their organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content

  7. [Tasks, roles and expectations of safety practitioners at free-standing occupational health and safety services in Spain].

    PubMed

    Boix Ferrando, Pere; Gil Alcamí, Josep; Velarde Collado, José María; García, María Inés; Daniou Vargas, Ximena

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer las actividades profesionales que realizan habitualmente los prevencionistas y su grado de satisfacción con las mismas. Métodos: Se accedió a una muestra de 236 técnicos de prevención con actividad en servicios de prevención ajenos de las comunidades autónomas de Baleares, Andalucía y Madrid a los que se les administró un cuestionario entre noviembre de 2009 y mayo de 2011 basado en el cuestionario propuesto por la Asociación Internacional de la Seguridad Social y la Red Europea de Organizaciones Profesionales en Salud y Seguridad (ISSA-ENSHPO). Resultados: Las tareas más frecuentemente realizadas por los prevencionistas en nuestra muestra (80% o más las realizan como mínimo una vez al mes) son la evaluación de riesgos, la formulación de recomendaciones preventivas, la información y la formación. Algunas tareas, como la fijación de criterios de selección del personal o la realización de análisis coste-beneficio, son mayoritariamente (por más del 50% de los encuestados) consideradas como impropias de los profesionales de la prevención. Los encuestados desearían dedicar más tiempo a la mayoría de las tareas que llevan a cabo, especialmente a las relacionadas con la propia formación y con la interacción en el seno de la empresa. Conclusiones: En el patrón de actividad de los profesionales entrevistados predominan las tareas relacionadas con el asesoramiento técnico en el puesto de trabajo, la formación de trabajadores y la difusión de informaciones, siendo los ámbitos de la gestión del propio conocimiento y el de las relaciones humanas en la empresa los que generan un deseo de mayor dedicación.

  8. Maintaining A Physiological Blood Glucose Level with ‘Glucolevel’, A Combination of Four Anti-Diabetes Plants Used in the Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fulder, Stephen; Khalil, Khaled; Azaizeh, Hassan; Kassis, Eli; Saad, Bashar

    2008-01-01

    Safety and anti-diabetic effects of Glucolevel, a mixture of dry extract of leaves of the Juglans regia L, Olea europea L, Urtica dioica L and Atriplex halimus L were evaluated using in vivo and in vitro test systems. No sign of toxic effects (using LDH assay) were seen in cultured human fibroblasts treated with increasing concentrations of Glucolevel. Similar observations were seen in vivo studies using rats (LD50: 25 g/kg). Anti-diabetic effects were evidenced by the augmentation of glucose uptake by yeast cells (2-folds higher) and by inhibition of glucose intestinal absorption (∼49%) in a rat gut-segment. Furthermore, treatment with Glucolevel of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 2–3 weeks showed a significant reduction in glucose levels [above 400 ± 50 mg/dl to 210 ± 22 mg/dl (P < 0.001)] and significantly improved sugar uptake during the glucose tolerance test, compared with positive control. In addition, glucose levels were tested in sixteen human volunteers, with the recent onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, who received Glucolevel tablets 1 × 3 daily for a period of 4 weeks. Within the first week of Glucolevel consumption, baseline glucose levels were significantly reduced from 290 ± 40 to 210 ± 20 mg/dl. At baseline, a subgroup of eleven of these subjects had glucose levels below 300 mg% and the other subgroup had levels ≥ 300 mg%. Clinically acceptable glucose levels were achieved during the 2–3 weeks of therapy in the former subgroup and during the 4th week of therapy in the latter subgroup. No side effect was reported. In addition, a significant reduction in hemoglobin A1C values (8.2 ± 1.03 to 6.9 ± 0.94) was found in six patients treated with Glucolevel. Results demonstrate safety, tolerability and efficacy of herbal combinations of four plants that seem to act differently but synergistically to regulate glucose-homeostasis. PMID:18955212

  9. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  10. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and bone health.

    PubMed

    Romero Pérez, Antonio; Rivas Velasco, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Se han encontrado diferencias en los valores de incidencia de osteoporosis y fracturas relacionadas entre los países de la Unión Europea, siendo menor en los países de la zona mediterránea. Este hecho se atribuye principalmente a un patrón de alimentación específica común. La dieta mediterránea contiene un complejo conjunto de componentes bioactivos con propiedades antioxidantes, anti-inflamatorias y alcalinizantes que pueden contribuir al efecto de esta dieta en la salud ósea. Objetivo: El propósito de esta revisión es examinar la evidencia hasta la fecha sobre los efectos de la dieta mediterránea sobre la salud ósea. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en la literatura científica utilizando las siguientes base de datos: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. Utilizamos los términos de búsqueda “Dieta Mediterránea”, “adhesión“, “frutas y verduras”, “aceite de oliva“, “pescado” “legumbres”, “cereal”, “alcohol”, “hueso“, “osteoporosis”,”fractura”, y combinaciones, como “Dieta Mediterránea y el hueso“ o “Dieta mediterránea y fracturas“. Resultados: Existe un número limitado de estudios que analicen la relación entre el seguimiento de la Dieta Mediterránea y la salud ósea, mostrando resultados contradictorios. Diversos trabajos han mostrado que la adherencia a una dieta mediterránea tradicional se asociado con una mayor densidad mineral ósea y un menor riesgo de fractura en población adulta. Los resultados de estos estudios podrían atribuirse a un efecto beneficioso combinado de los componentes individuales de la dieta mediterránea. Por el contrario, en otros trabajos no se ha encontrado ninguna asociación entre la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea y los índices de masa ósea. Conclusiones: Se requieren más estudios a gran escala para aclarar el efecto de la dieta mediterránea sobre la salud ósea, con el fin de establecer el papel de la dieta en la prevención de la

  11. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    PubMed

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  12. Mediterranean diet adherence and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    López-Guarnido, Olga; Álvarez-Cubero, María Jesus; Saiz, Maria; Lozano, David; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Pascual, Manrique; Cozar, Jose Manuel; Rivas, Ana

    2014-10-31

    Introducción: Los países del sur de Europa, tienen una menor incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer de próstata en comparación con otras regiones europeas. Este efecto beneficioso se ha atribuido a un patrón de alimentación específica. Objetivo: El objetivo de esta revisión es examinar la evidencia sobre los efectos de la adhesión a la dieta mediterránea en el riesgo de cáncer de próstata; e identificar que componentes de la dieta mediterránea protegen contra el cáncer de próstata. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en la literatura científica utilizando las siguientes base de datos: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. Utilizamos los términos de búsqueda “dieta mediterránea”, “adhesión”, “frutas y verduras”, “aceite de oliva”, “pescado” “legumbres”, “cereal” “alcohol” “leche”, “producto lácteo”, “cáncer de próstata”, y combinaciones, tales como”dieta mediterránea y cáncer de próstata “o” aceite de oliva y cáncer de próstata “. Resultados: Existe una fuerte evidencia que soporta una asociación entre alimentos que son típicos de un patrón de alimentación mediterránea y un menor riesgo de cáncer de próstata. Sin embargo, son pocos los estudios que han evaluado el efecto de la dieta mediterránea sobre la incidencia del cáncer de próstata. Los datos recientes no apoyan una asociación entre el seguimiento de este tipo de dieta y el riesgo de cáncer de próstata o su progresión. Sin embargo, un patrón de alimentación mediterránea después del diagnóstico de cáncer no metastásico se ha asociado con una disminución de la mortalidad global. Conclusión: Se requieren más estudios a gran escala para aclarar el efecto de la dieta mediterránea sobre la salud prostática, con el fin de establecer su papel en la prevención de cáncer de próstata.

  13. Nesting biology, morphological remarks, and description of the mature larva of Mellinus arvensis obscurus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Boesi, R.; Polidori, C.; Andrietti, F.; Gayubo, S.F.; Tormos, J.; Asis, J.D.

    2007-03-15

    subespecie de la bien estudiada subespecie nominal. Mellinus arvensis obscurus nidifica a gran altitud, en terreno inclinado, con y sin vegetacion, expuesto en mayor o menor medida al sol y en agregaciones muy compactas. Durante la estacion lluviosa la hembras llevan a cabo pocos vuelos de aprovisonamiento. Las presas pertenecen al orden de los dipteros, aunque, en una ocasion se observo el aporte de una arana. Gran numero de las interacciones intraespecificas observadas sugieren un alto grado de intentos de usurpacion de nidos. Los enemigos naturales mas sobresalientes pertenecen al orden de los dipteros y a la familia de los formicidos. Del estudio morfologico del adulto, mencionaremos que la foma del terguito 1 y la escultura del cuerpo, en las hembras de las poblaciones del Nepal, son mas semejantes a los de las hembras de las poblaciones europeas que no a los de las japonesas. De la fase larvaria se describe el ultimo estado larvario, a la vez que se compara con la otra larva madura ya descrita del genero. Las diferencias entre ambas larvas maduras radican en la presencia/ausencia, numero o diferenciacion de las estructuras tegumentarias. El estudio finaliza concluyendo que los rasgos morfologicos son mas importantes, que los aspectos ecologicos y comportamentales, a la hora de establecer una separacion entre las dos subespecies (author)

  14. [Effects of branched amino acids in endurance sports: a review].

    PubMed

    Salinas-García, María Elia; Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Norte Navarro, Aurora; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio

    2014-11-16

    Introducción: El informe emitido por la Agencia Europea de Seguridad Alimentaria (EFSA) en 2010 sobre las declaraciones nutricionales y propiedades saludables, muestra que no existen evidencias científicas que apoyen la suplementación con aminoácidos ramificados (BCAAs). El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los efectos del consumo de suplementos de BCAAs en deportes de larga duración (DLD). Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de revisión bibliográfica sobre el estado actual del efecto del consumo de suplementos de BCAAs. Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos PubMed y estrategia de bola de nieve. Criterios de inclusión: Estudios realizados en humanos, ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados (ECCA) en castellano/inglés relacionados con el consumo de BCAAs, leucina, valina e isoleucina en DLD y sus efectos sobre el daño muscular, rendimiento deportivo, fatiga central, respuesta anabólica y sistema inmunológico publicados en cualquier país hasta mayo 2014. Resultados: De los 330 estudios identificados, 14 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. La media de sujetos participantes en los estudio es igual a (11,36 ± 7,43). Sólo dos estudios incluyen un grupo de mujeres. Las disciplinas deportivas que se encontraron en los estudios fueron carrera a pie, ciclismo, combinación ciclismo y carrera a pie, triatlón distancia olímpica y un estudio que incluía 2 grupos de deportistas (triatlón distancia olímpica y carrera a pie). Se estudian los efectos de los BCAAs y daño muscular, rendimiento deportivo, fatiga central, respuesta anabólica en periodo de recuperación y respuesta inmunológica en periodos diferentes del entrenamiento: antes, durante y después o una combinación de éstos. Discusión: Se observa que existe un menor grado de dolor y daño muscular, menor percepción del esfuerzo y fatiga mental, mayor respuesta anabólica en periodo de recuperación y mejora de la respuesta inmunológica cuando se suplementa con BCAAs, no obstante su

  15. Using DInSAR as a tool to detect unstable terrain areas in an Andes region in Ecuador (South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorga Torres, Tannia

    2014-05-01

    deeper into vegetation cover than C band (Raucoules et al., 2007). The study processed ERS with descending orbit and ALOS with ascending orbit, due to the availability of data. Ferretti et al. (2007) said that ERS looks to the right and a slope mainly oriented to the west could have foreshortening effect in ascending orbit. Wei & Sandwell (2010) mention that ALOS in ascending orbit identifies vertical mass movements along fault systems; however, descending data has better geometry to measure mass movements. The study has fewer scenes in descending orbit. For further work, ALOS 2 will let to have more data in descending orbit. 4. CENTRAL CONCLUSIONS For mass movement having high-resolution radar is the best option; however, this data is not useful on all due to cover vegetation. Characterizing mass movements in Ecuador in necessary to put monitoring systems to avoid economic and human lost. Processing ERS and ALOS data was very useful because penetration band results were clearly identified in coherence masks. The result of Stacking DInSAR did not show clearly fringes, indeed the amount of interferograms were no enough for this technique. Researching other DInSAR techniques is necessary due to the singular characteristics of Ecuador. 5. REFERENCES Ferretti Alessandro, Monti-Guarnieri Andrea, Prati Claudio, Rocca Fabio, Massonnet Didier (2007). InSAR Principles: Guidelines for SAR Interferometry Processing and Interpretation (TM-19, Febrero 2007). K. Fletcher, Agencia Espacial Europea Publicaciones. ESTEC. Postbus 2009. 2200 AG Noordwijk. The Netherlands. Raucoules Daniel, Colesanti Carlo, Carnec Claudie (2007). "Use of SAR interferometry for detecting and assessing ground subsidence." C. R. Geoscience 339(289-302): 14. Sandwell David T., Price Evelyn J. (1998). "Phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms." Journal of Geophysical Research 103(N. B12): 30, 183-30, 204. Wei Meng, Sandwell David T (2010). "Decorrelation of L-Band and C-Band Interferometry Over