Science.gov

Sample records for political reforms lead

  1. [Health reform and its political component: a feasibility analysis].

    PubMed

    González Rossetti, A; Mogollón, O

    2002-01-01

    The political dimension of the health reform is a fundamental aspect that not only influences the project's feasibility, but also its form and content. Therefore the study of the political aspects involved in the health reform process is essential to determine the political feasibility of the reform. Based on the case studies of Colombia and Mexico, this study concentrates on the State's capability to promote health reform projects successfully. It specifically focuses on those elements that seek to improve the political feasibility of formulating, legislating and implementing reform proposals. The relevant variables under study are: the institutional context in which the reform initiatives develop; the political dynamic of the reform process; and the characteristics and strategies of the teams in charge of leading the reforms (change teams). The similarities in the political strategies used by the teams in charge of the health reform, and those of similar technocratic teams in charge of economic reform, stand out as one the study's main findings. It is argued that, although these strategies were effective in bringing about the creation of new actors in the health sector such as private organizations for the financing and provision of health services, they did not have the same impact on the transformation of the old actors the health ministries and the social security institutes, therefore considerably limiting the scope of the reforms.

  2. Educational Reform: The Players and the Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Steve

    Substantive arguments on school reform may be disguising a hidden debate over the process and politics of such reform--a debate over who should be responsible for educating our youth, the parties responsible for the current difficulties, and how severe these difficulties are. This document attempts to identify the attitudes that drive this hidden…

  3. Political Transformations and Higher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Tamas

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a comprehensive concept for European higher education reforms of the 20th and 21st centuries. However, it means something else in Central European countries than it does in the rest of Europe. It has been combined in Central Europe with a major social change referred to as the "political transformation" (Johnson 1996).…

  4. China Update: Economic Reforms and Political Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates that China has been undergoing an unprecedented rapidity of change. Discusses the high unemployment rates, job markets, reform movements, differences in economic equality, the role of the National People's Congress, and the changing political climate. Reveals that freedom is subtly beginning to permeate the lives of Chinese citizens.…

  5. Health reform redux: learning from experience and politics.

    PubMed

    Ross, Johnathon S

    2009-05-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups.

  6. Health Reform Redux: Learning From Experience and Politics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups. PMID:19299668

  7. Teaching American Politics through Student Projects: Electoral Reform Issues and Political Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Donald K.; Hogan, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Describes two projects which involve college students in political science courses on American politics in doing research and giving class reports on proposals for reforming the electoral college and the electoral process. Findings indicate that students participating in the projects become more aware of political realities and learn how to use…

  8. Law reform, politics and mental health.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M D

    1983-03-01

    A major problem of democratic government is to get lawmakers to address controversial and sensitive subjects such as mental health law reform. By reference to current and past projects in the Australian Law Reform Commission, its Chairman outlines the way in which permanent law reform agencies can mobilise expert and community opinion to help the lawmaking process address sufficiently the needs of law reform. After outlining briefly the history of mental health law reform in English-speaking countries, the author suggests that moves for reform tend to come in 'cycles' or 'waves'. This is especially so in federations such as Australia. Reforms introduced in South Australia in 1976 are now working their way into the laws of other jurisdictions of Australia, where mental health law is basically a state concern. The reforms deal with such matters as legal representation for persons involuntarily committed and stricter definitions of circumstances for and objectives of hospitalisation of the mentally ill. Some comments are offered on new approaches to the defence of insanity in criminal trials following the jury verdict in the Hinkley case arising out of an attempt on the life of a President of the United States. The implications of this and other cases for the 'anti-psychiatry' movement are referred to and discussed. The author concludes with comments on the implications of mental health law reform for democracies. He suggests a law for law reform agencies in reconciling needs for law reform and community tolerance of change.

  9. The Politics of Basic Education Reform in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, David N.

    1990-01-01

    Resumption of democratic politics in Brazil has had mixed consequences for basic education. Although the "Education for All" program aims to improve access to basic education for poor children, politically powerful groups oppose reallocation of resources at their expense and ensure that educational reform remains rhetoric. Contains 85 references.…

  10. Gender Politics in 21st Century Literacy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kay

    2013-01-01

    From 2001 to 2004 Education Queensland undertook significant literacy reform in schools through the Literate Futures Project. Research into the impact of this reform has revealed that significant demands were placed on women at all levels, from those producing resources to those leading change within schools. Although the reform was a government…

  11. Political Science, Political Scientists, and the Baccalaureate Reform Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarulli, Guy C.; D'Lugin, Victor F.

    This article reviews the Association of American Colleges' (AAC) report titled "Integrity in the College Curriculum: A Report to the Academic Community" in terms of its relevance to political science instruction at the undergraduate level. The report examines two issues: (1) political science as a core component of a general education curriculum;…

  12. The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

  13. Cultural Flashpoint: The Politics of Teacher Education Reform in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 (Cosgrove et al., 2010; Perkins et al., 2010) reading literacy results heralded a crisis of confidence in educational standards in Ireland. This article examines the national and international context of teacher education reform and the politics of the policy…

  14. Rethinking Democratic Education: The Politics of Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, David M.

    This book argues that democratic education should equip citizens to be "the measure of all things." The volume contends that the voices of society should develop the skills of questioning, criticizing, and reconstructing the language of the day in order to dissect the rhetoric of politics, economy, and culture. But the volume asserts that these…

  15. The politics of health reform: why do bad things happen to good plans?

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines political feasibility and its implications for health reform. I discuss the political obstacles to health reform in the United States, disentangling perennial barriers from contemporary constraints. I then explore major reform options and their political prospects. I argue that while incremental reform now appears to be the most feasible option, the political climate may change in a way that permits a bolder vision. Moreover, incremental reform may not be sustainable in the long run, for the same reason that makes it politically popular now: It does not change the status quo in the health system.

  16. Leading Mathematics Reform and the Lost Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    Queensland's primary school teachers have experienced change in every Key Learning Area in the last few years. This avalanche of curriculum reform is set to continue as schools prepare for the imminent release of the Australian national curriculum. This article reports on one school's approach to dealing with this avalanche of curriculum reform.…

  17. The politics of paying for health reform: zombies, payroll taxes, and the holy grail.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the politics of paying for health care reform. It surveys the political strengths and weaknesses of major options to fund universal coverage and explores obstacles to changing how the United States finances health care. Finding a politically viable means to finance universal coverage remains a central barrier to enacting health reform.

  18. The politics of paying for health reform: zombies, payroll taxes, and the holy grail.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the politics of paying for health care reform. It surveys the political strengths and weaknesses of major options to fund universal coverage and explores obstacles to changing how the United States finances health care. Finding a politically viable means to finance universal coverage remains a central barrier to enacting health reform. PMID:18940835

  19. Implications of the new political realities on healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    2010-11-01

    With the recent change in power in the US House of Representatives that will take effect in January, questions arise regarding potential modifications to some features in the healthcare reform bill and its implementation. With many provisions scheduled to take effect between 2011 and 2014, the political implications of the elections have an immediate practical relevance to health plans, employers, and other healthcare stakeholders. American Health & Drug Benefits discussed some of these issues with Dan Mendelson, who served in the Clinton administration between 1997 and 2000, when there was a similar division of party power between Congress and the administration.

  20. Medicaid in Ohio: The Politics of Expansion, Reauthorization, and Reform.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    When, in 2012, the US Supreme Court held that Medicaid expansion sanctioned by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was essentially optional for states, it ushered in a newly contentious state politics. States led by Republican governors and legislatures opposed to the ACA had to decide whether to accept extensive federal funding to expand Medicaid for citizens in their states who were earning up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level. This Report from the States focuses on Ohio, whose Republican governor successfully navigated the rancorous politics of Medicaid to expand the state's program in 2014. Working at odds with his own party and gaining praise from traditional political opponents for his leadership on the issue, John Kasich circumvented the state legislature, turning to the Controlling Board to bring about initial expansion. In the wake of Kasich's landslide reelection in 2014, the politics of expansion and reauthorization have given way to a pervasive discourse of "reform." In this next phase Kasich has endorsed policy positions (e.g., cost sharing, a focus on "personal responsibility") that reunite him with his party's more traditional view of Medicaid while continuing to emphasize the importance of expansion. PMID:26447021

  1. Medicaid in Ohio: The Politics of Expansion, Reauthorization, and Reform.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    When, in 2012, the US Supreme Court held that Medicaid expansion sanctioned by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was essentially optional for states, it ushered in a newly contentious state politics. States led by Republican governors and legislatures opposed to the ACA had to decide whether to accept extensive federal funding to expand Medicaid for citizens in their states who were earning up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level. This Report from the States focuses on Ohio, whose Republican governor successfully navigated the rancorous politics of Medicaid to expand the state's program in 2014. Working at odds with his own party and gaining praise from traditional political opponents for his leadership on the issue, John Kasich circumvented the state legislature, turning to the Controlling Board to bring about initial expansion. In the wake of Kasich's landslide reelection in 2014, the politics of expansion and reauthorization have given way to a pervasive discourse of "reform." In this next phase Kasich has endorsed policy positions (e.g., cost sharing, a focus on "personal responsibility") that reunite him with his party's more traditional view of Medicaid while continuing to emphasize the importance of expansion.

  2. Political Reform and the Historical Trajectories of U.S. Social Movements in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amenta, Edwin; Caren, Neal; Stobaugh, James E.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a political reform theory, a political and historical institutionalist argument that holds that shifts in political structures, partisan regimes and policy greatly influence movements. We appraise this argument, along with resource mobilization, political opportunity and media alternatives, by analyzing 600,000 articles in the "New York…

  3. A network approach for researching political feasibility of healthcare reform: the case of universal healthcare system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Xu

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluates the political feasibility of healthcare reform taking place in Taiwan in the past decade. Since Taiwan adopted National Health Insurance (NHI) in 1995, it has provided coverage for virtually all of the island's citizens. However, the imbalance between expenditure and revenue has resulted in a cycle of unsustainable spending which has necessitated financial reforms and political confrontations. By applying social network analysis, this paper examines multiple types of ties between policy elites and power distribution that have evolved in crucial policy events of the NHI's financial reforms between 1998 and 2010. Data sources include official documents and 62 social network interviews that were held with government officials and related unofficial policy participants. Blockmodeling and multidimensional scaling (MDS) are used to determine the major participants and network structures in the NHI domain, as well as the influential policy actors, based on information transmission, resource exchange, reputation attribution and action-set coalition networks in Taiwan's current political situation. The results show that although both public actors and all medical associations are the leading actors in the NHI reform, without good communication with societal actors, the promotion of reform proposals ends in failure. As a tool of political feasibility evaluation, social network analysis can map the political conflict between policy stakeholders systematically when policy makers pursue the result of policy adoption. PMID:23026074

  4. The Politics of Teacher Education Reform. The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association. [Volume 13].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Karen Symms, Ed.; Bailey, Jerry D., Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers on the politics of teacher education reform. The book begins with "Introduction to the Politics of Teacher Preparation Reform" (Karen Symms Gallagher and Jerry D. Bailey). Part 1, "Issues From the National Arena," includes "The Politics of Teacher Education Reform: Strategic Philanthropy and Public Policy…

  5. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but much vaunted…

  6. Electricity sector liberalization in the European Union: The political economy of regulatory reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infante Durana, Maria Dolores

    This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became

  7. The politics of local hospital reform: a case study of hospital reorganization following the 2002 Norwegian hospital reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Norwegian hospital reform of 2002 was an attempt to make restructuring of hospitals easier by removing politicians from the decision-making processes. To facilitate changes seen as necessary but politically difficult, the central state took over ownership of the hospitals and stripped the county politicians of what had been their main responsibility for decades. This meant that decisions regarding hospital structure and organization were now being taken by professional administrators and not by politically elected representatives. The question raised here is whether this has had any effect on the speed of restructuring of the hospital sector. Method The empirical part is a case study of the restructuring process in Innlandet Hospital Trust (IHT), which was one of the largest enterprise established after the hospital reform and where the vision for restructuring was clearly set. Different sources of qualitative data are used in the analysis. These include interviews with key actors, observational data and document studies. Results The analysis demonstrates how the new professional leaders at first acted in accordance with the intentions of the hospital reform, but soon chose to avoid the more ambitious plans for restructuring the hospital structure and in fact reintroduced local politics into the decision-making process. The analysis further illustrates how local networks and engagement of political representatives from all levels of government complicated the decision-making process surrounding local structural reforms. Local political representatives teamed up with other actors and created powerful networks. At the same time, national politicians had incentives to involve themselves in the processes as supporters of the status quo. Conclusion Because of the incentives that faced political actors and the controversial nature of major hospital reforms, the removal of local politicians and the centralization of ownership did not necessarily facilitate

  8. The Reform of Education in Burundi: Enlightened Theory Faced with Political Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, J.

    1974-01-01

    This article described the contents of a Reform Report developed by the Ministry of Education in Burundi, Africa and considered their likely implementation in the light of the political upheaval that country has undergone. (Author/RK)

  9. Implementing health care reform in the United States: intergovernmental politics and the dilemmas of institutional design.

    PubMed

    Béland, Daniel; Rocco, Philip; Waddan, Alex

    2014-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted, and continues to operate, under conditions of political polarization. In this article, we argue that the law's intergovernmental structure has amplified political conflict over its implementation by distributing governing authority to political actors at both levels of the American federal system. We review the ways in which the law's demands for institutional coordination between federal and state governments (and especially the role it preserves for governors and state legislatures) have created difficulties for rolling out health-insurance exchanges and expanding the Medicaid program. By way of contrast, we show how the institutional design of the ACA's regulatory reforms of the insurance market, which diminish the reform's political salience, has allowed for considerably less friction during the implementation process. This article thus highlights the implications of multi-level institutional designs for the post-enactment politics of major reforms. PMID:24508181

  10. Politics, Modernisation and Educational Reform in Russia: From Past to Present. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this volume give an account of the process of modernisation and educational reform in Russia, variously considering the cultural and political dilemmas provoked by democratisation, the structural and policy challenges associated with the reform of higher and vocational education, and the deep divisions exposed as socio-cultural…

  11. Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…

  12. Ghetto Schooling: A Political Economy of Urban Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    This book is based on a study of a 4-year reform effort in the Newark (New Jersey) public schools. The discussion focuses on an elementary school as it attempted reform in an effort that was ultimately unsuccessful. Part I opens the discussion of the effects of social class and race on educational reform. To see why inner city schools have not…

  13. Technical, Political and Cultural Barriers to Science Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative support is essential for reform efforts to take place at the building and district level. This study explored barriers teachers encountered while implementing science education reform and the impact those barriers had on change in instructional practices and reform. Findings in this study reveal that support from administration is…

  14. Interest Group Influences in Advancing and Inhibiting Educational Finance Reform: The Politics of Equity in Vermont's Act 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, William J.

    This paper analyzes educational-finance reform in Vermont, which culminated in the passage of Act 60, a comprehensive education and tax reform measure, and the subsequent political furor the act engendered. It outlines the pre-reform background focusing on early civil-society organizations and the unique political landscape in Vermont. The article…

  15. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  16. The Politics of Privatisation, Decentralisation and Education Reform in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornelas, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Reform in the Mexican education system accords with global patterns of liberalisation, decentralisation, compensatory programs and accountability. The present study analyses reform in that country during the past 15 years. It reveals that despite expectations of change attending the installation of the new government which replaced the ruling…

  17. Power, Politics, Democracy and Reform: A Historical Review of Curriculum Reform, Academia and Government in British Columbia, Canada, 1920 to 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelations between power, politics, academia and curriculum reform in British Columbia (BC) using social studies curriculum documents as a case study. It describes how curriculum reform occurred and argues that reform was undemocratic as it was largely the product of individuals with power who invited individuals with…

  18. The Political Dynamics of District Reform: The Form and Fate of the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scholars widely acknowledge that politics help explain why policies are adopted and how they play out in states, districts, and schools. To date, political analyses of education reform tend to isolate a particular policy and examine the politics of its adoption or implementation, but pay less attention to the effects of the politics of…

  19. The Politics of Reforming School Finance in Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geske, Terry G.

    This paper is primarily concerned with identifying and explicating the environmental forces and political factors responsible for legislative enactment of major school finance changes in Wisconsin in 1973. Easton's political systems theory serves as a conceptual framework for the study. In addition, Lindblom's leadership model, Truman's interest…

  20. The Tragedy of American School Reform: How Curriculum Politics and Entrenched Dilemmas Have Diverted Us from Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2011-01-01

    Two persistent dilemmas haunt school reform: curriculum politics and classroom constancy. Both undermined the 1960s' new social studies, a dynamic reform movement centered on inquiry, issues, and social activism. Dramatic academic freedom controversies ended reform and led to a conservative restoration. On one side were teachers and curriculum…

  1. Education Reform When Nations Undergo Radical Political and Social Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Belle, Thomas J.; Ward, Christopher R.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between radical social transformation and educational reform in Algeria, China, Cuba, Ethiopia, Iran, Mozambique, and Nicaragua. Examines seven policy areas before and after transformation: centralized control, access to education, tracking, curriculum, personnel, language of instruction, and literacy. (28 references) (SV)

  2. Reform, Resistance, . . . Retreat? The Predictable Politics of Accountability in Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2002-01-01

    In the 1990s, Virginia launched one of the nation's most ambitious standards-based reform efforts. Encouraged by a budding national accountability movement and motivated by conservative distrust of the public school establishment, state officials sought to clarify what students needed to know and to hold students and educators accountable for…

  3. The Politics and Sustainability of Middle Grades Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Jennifer I.; Thompson, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    Jennifer's first years as a middle school principal occurred during a time of transformation initiated by the federal No Child Left Behind Act and further intensified by demographic changes within her Midwest suburban district of 25,000 students. In the context of national educational reform during this time period, Tom Erb asked, "Who will…

  4. Politics and History Curriculum Reform in Post-Mao China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alisa

    2002-01-01

    In post-Mao China, wide-ranging reform programmes have affected almost every sphere of life. History education has been no exception, and in addition to attempts to revise teaching, learning and assessment methods, there have been preliminary forays into textbook pluralism and gradual devolution of curriculum development. History education…

  5. Beyond the Popular and Politically Correct: Multicultural Education and the Reform of Theatre Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Becky K.

    Multicultural education is still a relatively new trend in the American system of higher education. As with any new pedagogy, there is a tendency to reduce the genuine possibility of educational reform to mere superficiality--good intentions lacking substance. Behind the "camouflage" of politically correct language and actions, individuals need…

  6. Politics of Externalization in Reflexive Times: Reinventing Japanese Education Reform Discourses through "Finnish PISA Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a critical theoretical paradigm and critically engaging with the externalization thesis that Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Jurgen Schriewer have developed, this article examines the politics of "Finnish education" in the ongoing Japanese education reform debate. More specifically, it examines the various discursive uses of "Finnish education…

  7. Navigating the Waves of Change: Political Education and Democratic School Reform in Postwar West Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puaca, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    This article concentrates on two pieces of legislation promulgated in the early 1960s in order to investigate the broader ideas and concerns surrounding political education in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. These pieces of educational policy highlight the consensus for continued reform while recognizing the value of curricular and…

  8. The Cultural Politics of Constructivist Pedagogies: Teacher Education Reform in the United Republic of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2009-01-01

    This article examines recent educational reforms in Tanzania by looking at the cultural politics of pedagogical change in secondary and teacher education. It presents an ethnography of a teachers college founded on the principles of social constructivism in a country where formalistic, teacher-centered pedagogy is the norm. Using data collected…

  9. The policy and politics of the 2015 long-term care reform in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Maarse, J A M Hans; Jeurissen, P P Patrick

    2016-03-01

    As of 2015 a major reform in LTC is taking place in the Netherlands. An important objective of the reform is to reign in expenditure growth to safeguard the fiscal sustainability of LTC. Other objectives are to improve the quality of LTC by making it more client-tailored. The reform consists of four interrelated pillars: a normative reorientation, a shift from residential to non-residential care, decentralization of non-residential care and expenditure cuts. The article gives a brief overview of these pillars and their underlying assumptions. Furthermore, attention is paid to the political decision-making process and the politics of implementation and evaluation. Perceptions of the effects of the reform so far widely differ: positive views alternate with critical views. Though the reform is radical in various aspects, LTC care will remain a largely publicly funded provision. A statutory health insurance scheme will remain in place to cover residential care. The role of municipalities in publicly funded non-residential care is significantly upgraded. The final section contains a few policy lessons. PMID:26872702

  10. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide...

  11. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide...

  12. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide...

  13. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide...

  14. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide...

  15. The emergence of managed care in Europe. Some thoughts on the politics of healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    Elze, C

    1998-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate that healthcare reform in Europe can be successful only if it leads to more efficient resource use while maintaining a large degree of equity in the system. Globalisation is undermining the social contracts that established Europe's egalitarian societies after World War II. While socialised healthcare will continue to be an essential building block of social cohesion, public expenditures must be contained. The only approach to maintaining equity of access and financing in the face of a mounting resource constraint is to embark upon a radical re-engineering of the entire healthcare supply chain, introducing and adapting proven US managed-care techniques to the European environment. Through enabling legislation, most European countries are in a phase of testing the feasibility, cost effectiveness and quality enhancement potential of managed-care approaches, before applying them more broadly. While political opposition to change on the part of those whose current positions are threatened continues to run high, the practice of medicine can be expected to converge on the basis of standards of care and information technology over the next 10 to 15 years.

  16. Rethinking Schools. An Agenda for Change. Leading Reformers Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David, Ed.; And Others

    This collection presents the best of 8 years of "Rethinking Schools," an education reform journal created in Milwaukee (Wisconsin) in 1986 by teachers vitally concerned with educational change. This volume contains 29 essays by classroom teachers, as well as pieces by such national reform figures as Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Herbert Kohl, Bill…

  17. Pay, Professionalism, and Politics: Reforming Teachers, Reforming Education. Australian Education Review No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Terri, Ed.

    In the late 1980s a new concept entered the educational lexicon in Australia--"award restructuring," or paid training leave for teachers. However, by 1993 the term had disappeared from public view. What began as a new politics of work developed into a complex debate about governance and leadership in Australian education. This book documents both…

  18. Rodriquez V. San Antonio Independent School District: Gathering the Ayes of Texas--The Politics of School Finance Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudof, Mark G.; Morgan, Daniel C.

    1974-01-01

    An historical account is given of movements toward educational finance reform in Texas, culminating in the Rodriquez v. San Antonio Independent School District case and its aftermath. The role of political pressures applied by various interest groups is traced and the prospects for future reform assessed. (EH)

  19. Good Ideas and Engagement Aren't Enough: School District Central Offices and the Micro-Politics of Implementing Comprehensive Human Resource Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeArmond, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about how organizational politics--or what some scholars call micro-politics--shapes the implementation of comprehensive human resource (HR) reform in school district central offices. Over the last decade, education reformers and advocates have promoted comprehensive HR reform as a way to improve teaching and learning in K-12…

  20. Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-01

    Universal access to healthcare has assumed renewed importance in global health discourse, along with a focus on strengthening health systems. These developments are taking place in the backdrop of concerted efforts to advocate moving away from vertical, disease-based approaches to tackling health problems. While this approach to addressing public health problems is a step in the right direction, there is still insufficient emphasis on understanding the socio-political context of health systems. Reforms to strengthen health systems and achieve universal access to healthcare should be cognizant of the importance of the socio-political context, especially state-society relations. That context determines the nature and trajectory of reforms promoting universality or any pro-equity change. Brazil and Venezuela in recent years have made progress in developing healthcare systems that aim to achieve universal access. These achievements are noteworthy given that, historically, both countries had a long tradition of healthcare systems which were highly privatized and geared towards access to healthcare for a small segment of the population while the majority was excluded. These achievements are also remarkable since they took place in an era of neoliberalism when many states, even those with universally-based healthcare systems, were moving in the opposite direction. We analyze the socio-political context in each of these countries and look specifically at how the changing state-society relations resulted in health being constitutionally recognized as a social right. We describe the challenges that each faced in developing and implementing healthcare systems embracing universality. Our contention is that achieving the principle of universality in healthcare systems is less of a technical matter and more a political project. It involves opposition from the socially conservative elements in the society. Navigation to achieve this goal requires a political strategy that

  1. Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-01

    Universal access to healthcare has assumed renewed importance in global health discourse, along with a focus on strengthening health systems. These developments are taking place in the backdrop of concerted efforts to advocate moving away from vertical, disease-based approaches to tackling health problems. While this approach to addressing public health problems is a step in the right direction, there is still insufficient emphasis on understanding the socio-political context of health systems. Reforms to strengthen health systems and achieve universal access to healthcare should be cognizant of the importance of the socio-political context, especially state-society relations. That context determines the nature and trajectory of reforms promoting universality or any pro-equity change. Brazil and Venezuela in recent years have made progress in developing healthcare systems that aim to achieve universal access. These achievements are noteworthy given that, historically, both countries had a long tradition of healthcare systems which were highly privatized and geared towards access to healthcare for a small segment of the population while the majority was excluded. These achievements are also remarkable since they took place in an era of neoliberalism when many states, even those with universally-based healthcare systems, were moving in the opposite direction. We analyze the socio-political context in each of these countries and look specifically at how the changing state-society relations resulted in health being constitutionally recognized as a social right. We describe the challenges that each faced in developing and implementing healthcare systems embracing universality. Our contention is that achieving the principle of universality in healthcare systems is less of a technical matter and more a political project. It involves opposition from the socially conservative elements in the society. Navigation to achieve this goal requires a political strategy that

  2. The Role of Ideas in Education Politics: Using Discourse Analysis To Understand Barriers To Reform in Multiethnic Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidney, Mara S.

    2002-01-01

    Examines how the presence of multiple racial/ethnic groups complicates educational politics. Interviews with participants in education politics in four cities highlight a complex arena of problem definitions and assessment of reforms. The arena is so infused with issues of race/ethnicity that groups agreeing upon some elements of the education…

  3. Leading through the Challenge of Change: African-American Women Principals on Small School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, April L.

    2012-01-01

    The context of education is changing based upon social, political, and accountability factors. As a result, many large urban districts have turned to small school reform in efforts to address student learning outcomes. Research demonstrates that effective leadership influences school achievement and culture. This qualitative study examines the…

  4. The pleasures and perils of prophetic advocacy: Henry E. Sigerist and the politics of medical reform.

    PubMed Central

    Fee, E

    1996-01-01

    Henry E. Sigerist, an internationally renowned medical historian, played a surprisingly important and visible role in American medical politics in the 1930s and 1940s. Born in Paris of Swiss parents, he was professor in Leipzig, Germany, before coming to the United States in 1932 as professor of the history of medicine at Johns Hopkins University. Once in America. Sigerist became deeply involved in medical politics and the campaign for national health insurance. He argued that individualized medical practice was outdated and should gradually be superseded by state-run and state-financed health services. National health insurance was but one step in this historical progression. Sigerist thus lent the weight of history itself to the cause of medical care reform. The charming and erudite Sigerist was welcomed by the leaders of academic medicine in America. Soon, he emerged as a spokesman of the left wing of the medical profession, an effective and popular speaker and an impassioned advocate of socialized medicine. This paper traces Sigerist's political ideas and activities, and his contributions toward medical care reform in the United States. Images p1639-a p1642-a PMID:8916536

  5. 40 CFR 35.6060 - Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial... subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) If the Award Official determines that a political subdivision's lead involvement in pre-remedial activities would be more efficient, economical and...

  6. 40 CFR 35.6060 - Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial... subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) If the Award Official determines that a political subdivision's lead involvement in pre-remedial activities would be more efficient, economical and...

  7. 40 CFR 35.6060 - Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial... subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) If the Award Official determines that a political subdivision's lead involvement in pre-remedial activities would be more efficient, economical and...

  8. 40 CFR 35.6060 - Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial... subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) If the Award Official determines that a political subdivision's lead involvement in pre-remedial activities would be more efficient, economical and...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6060 - Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial... subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) If the Award Official determines that a political subdivision's lead involvement in pre-remedial activities would be more efficient, economical and...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6155 - State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State, political subdivision or Indian... § 35.6155 State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements. (a) The State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe must comply with the requirements described in § 35.6105...

  11. 40 CFR 35.6155 - State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State, political subdivision or Indian... § 35.6155 State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements. (a) The State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe must comply with the requirements described in § 35.6105...

  12. 40 CFR 35.6155 - State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State, political subdivision or Indian... § 35.6155 State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements. (a) The State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe must comply with the requirements described in § 35.6105...

  13. 40 CFR 35.6155 - State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State, political subdivision or Indian... § 35.6155 State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements. (a) The State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe must comply with the requirements described in § 35.6105...

  14. Leading for Urban School Reform and Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Terrance L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Improving urban schools of color and the communities where they are located requires leadership that spans school and community boundaries. The purpose of this study is to understand how principal and community leader actions support urban school reform along with community development at two community schools in the urban Midwest and…

  15. Making Good Choices: Districts Take the Lead. Comprehensive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Public schools across the country are aiming to improve student performance by engaging in comprehensive school reform (CSR). This guide was created to help school districts make CSR an integral part of their strategies for improving student achievement. Five components for CSR are described: (1) Strategizing, whereby the district supports CSR by…

  16. Why Do Policy Leaders Adopt Global Education Reforms? A Political Analysis of SBM Reform Adoption in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a political analysis of school-based management reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). School-based management (SBM), based on the principle of school autonomy and community participation, is a school governance system introduced in many parts of the world, including post-conflict nations. Such a phenomenon seems to follow the…

  17. Reform and the politics of hybridization in mature health care states.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Carolyn Hughes

    2012-08-01

    This article examines the cases of three health care states -- two of which (Britain and the Netherlands) have undergone major policy reform and one of which (Canada) has experienced only marginal adjustments. The British and Dutch reforms have variously altered the balance of power, the mix of instruments of control, and the organizing principles. As a result, mature systems representing the ideal-typical health care state categories of national health systems and social insurance (Britain and the Netherlands, respectively) were transformed into distinctive national hybrids. These processes have involved a politics of redesign that differs from the politics of earlier phases of establishment and retrenchment. In particular, the redesign phase is marked by the activity of institutional entrepreneurs who exploit specific opportunities afforded by public programs to combine public and private resources in innovative organizational arrangements. Canada stands as a counterpoint: no window of opportunity for major change occurred, and the bilateral monopoly created by its prototypical single-payer model provided few footholds for entrepreneurial activity. The increased significance of institutional entrepreneurs gives greater urgency to one of the central projects of health policy: the design of accountability frameworks to allow for an assessment of performance against objectives.

  18. The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed. PMID:22292173

  19. Political order and the ambivalence of expertise: Count Rumford and welfare reform in late eighteenth-century Munich.

    PubMed

    Maerker, Anna

    2010-01-01

    From 1784 to 1798, the military expert and natural philosopher Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, worked in Munich for Elector Karl Theodor of Bavaria on a series of reforms that demanded a careful articulation of the reformer's expertise. This case study of Rumford's welfare reforms posits that the ambivalent nature of expertise, which relies simultaneously on generally accessible and on exclusive knowledge, was already present in the conceptual framework of Rumford's mechanical experimental philosophy and that this ambivalence was visible in the performative practice of the experimenter. Gestures of revelation and concealment and of displaying and obscuring were crucial to Rumford's (temporary) success in establishing his authority in Bavaria. Challenged by local advisers, the reformer called on a newly emergent form of public. Rumford's conceptual and practical articulation of expertise thus contributed to an increasing polarization of the political order in the Bavarian capital.

  20. Toward health reform for seniors in Bermuda: historical constraints on political possibilities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Edward Alan; Nadash, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, as the United States moved toward health care reform, the government of Bermuda implemented its FutureCare program to make health care for seniors more affordable. This article investigates how preferences for reform and its eventual design were shaped by the country's social history and commitment to free market values. Data derive from 36 in-depth interviews with key stakeholders deemed knowledgeable about health care financing and delivery in Bermuda, including government officials, provider representatives, insurance executives, and consumer advocates. Data also derive from a variety of documentary sources. Results indicate that although a clear need for health care and the ability to finance it for seniors exists in Bermuda, the scope of reform was circumscribed by preferences for prior policy decisions, creating a favorable tax and business environment for international corporations and a minimalist social welfare state for addressing racial and economic inequality. This suggests that widespread agreement on the challenges in meeting the health and long-term care needs of the elderly does not necessarily lead to equally commensurable solutions to addressing it.

  1. FYI: Reforming Social Welfare Policy...Indiana's Children...Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes results of reports and resources concerning the reform of social welfare policy. Focuses on a profile of Indiana children, hospital policies and programs designed to meet the psychosocial needs of hospitalized children and their families, a senior center/latchkey program, and lead poisoning prevention. (BB)

  2. Court-Led Educational Reforms in Political Third Rails: Lessons from the Litigation over Ultra-Religious Jewish Schools in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a model for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of judicial involvement in educational reforms. It uses the model to analyze two case studies of court-led educational reforms in the third rail of Israeli politics--the curricula and the admission policies of ultra-Othodox (Haredi) schools. These case studies are located at the…

  3. Innovative service redesign and resource reallocation: responding to political realities, mental health reform and community mental health needs.

    PubMed

    Read, N; Gehrs, M

    1997-01-01

    General hospital mental health programs in large inner city communities face challenges in developing responsive services for populations facing high rates of serious mental illness, substance abuse, homelessness, and poverty. In addition provincial political pressures such as Mental Health Reform and hospital restructuring have caused general hospital mental health programs to reevaluate how services are delivered and resources are allocated. This paper describes how one inner city mental health service in a university teaching setting developed successful strategies to respond to these pressures. Strategies included: (a) merging two general hospital mental health services to pool resources; (b) allocating resources to innovative care delivery models consistent with provincial reforms and community needs; (c) fostering staff role changes, job transitions, and the development of new professional competencies to complement the innovative care delivery models; and (d) developing processes to evaluate the effects of these changes on client. PMID:9450410

  4. The political effects of ideas and markets on China's economic reforms: The case of electrical power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Laura Washington

    This study examines factors influencing contemporary economic policy-making and reform in China's electric power industry. Results of the study suggest that there is an ongoing paradigm change in China's policy-making. However, institutional resistance to changes in the policy process is strong. Policy outcomes in the case of electric power reforms reflect the interaction of both dynamics. In the early 1990s, the central government in Beijing began to consider restructuring the electric power industry to introduce competition and establish markets for electricity supply. Until then, economic policies had resulted from a process of deliberation within the upper echelons of the Communist Party. Although the Party considered the interests of dominant economic actors, particularly the large State-owned sector, its channels for participation in the policy process were closed to most economic actors. Central bureaucratic and provincial interests largely governed policy processes, leading observers to describe the Chinese State as bureaucratic authoritarian. Bureaucracy's heavy role in the economy led to what some called a corporatist State, whereby organs of government infiltrated most aspects of the economy. This institutional arrangement perpetuated bureaucracy's influence in policy-making. This study hypothesizes that transformation in domestic financial markets poses a threat to the entrenched institutions of the electric power industry. The integration of China's economy with foreign firms and markets enabled actors outside of the dominant State-owned economy to improve their positions vis-a-vis the state-owned sector, and eventually to play a role in the policy process. At the same time, Beijing's adaptation of foreign-designed restructuring policies threatened the deep-rooted institutions. The study analyzes the behavior, statements and channels utilized by those actors affected by power sector policies. Based on interviews conducted between 2000 through 2002

  5. Nursing's agenda for health care reform: policy, politics, and power through professional leadership.

    PubMed

    Betts, V T

    1996-01-01

    This article is an eye witness account of nursing's participation in the health care reform debate from 1991 to 1994. In that debate, the nursing profession achieved high visibility and recognition for the cogency of its policy positions as developed in Nursing's Agenda for Health Care Reform and for its united voice through the leadership of the American Nurses Association, the Tricouncil for Nursing, and the Nursing Organization Liaison Forum. While comprehensive health care reform failed to pass the 103rd Congress, nursing and nurses gained much in the process of their participation.

  6. Political System Theory as an Explanatory Paradigm for Teacher Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestine, Nona A.

    1991-01-01

    Using a political system theory approach, this case study examined the conflict that developed between the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the State Department of Public Instruction between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s for control of a teacher education program. Conclusions highlight political and governance ramifications for teacher…

  7. The political act of public talk: how legislators justified welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Toft, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Prior to the creation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, federal legislation primarily positioned mothers in the private sphere of parenting and men in the public sphere of work. Welfare reform changed this citizenship construction dramatically, requiring mothers to work but failing to acknowledge their caretaking responsibilities. This article presents a discourse and content analysis of the welfare reform debate that directly referenced citizenship. Findings suggest that legislators emphasized paid work as a citizenship activity while rarely portraying parenting as such. Furthermore, legislators' endorsement of paid work as a duty of citizenship, and the manner in which they paired this endorsement with the minimizing of parenting as such a duty, may have further diminished the perception of parenting as a valuable citizenship activity. Welfare reform may have been possible because the heretofore recognized citizenship work of mothering was largely ignored in the congressional debate.

  8. Promise Neighborhoods: The Promise and Politics of Community Capacity Building as Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…

  9. The Politics of Literacy in the Context of Large-Scale Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I will consider the lessons that can be learnt about literacy policy and its role in large-scale education reform programmes, with particular reference to policy-making in England since the election of New Labour in 1997. New Labour's promise to the electorate in 1997 was that state-funded education could be fixed and turned into a…

  10. The Recent Reform of Teacher Education in Japan: Politics, Education, and Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takakura, Sho

    1993-01-01

    Three issues related to Japan's recent passage of an amendment designed to reform two teacher education regulations are discussed: (1) circumstances surrounding implementation of the amendment; (2) essential points of the amendment; and (3) some controversial issues that emerged from consideration of the amendment in the national legislature. (IAH)

  11. Political Forces in Education: Bright Prospects in the Shift to Systemic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loup, Karen S.; Blase, Jo

    1999-01-01

    Neglect of divergent cultural values and belief systems; perennial debates about moral, ethical, and legal questions; power struggles; and technically oriented initiatives have thwarted school-reform efforts. Initiating frequent policy changes to accommodate fads overlooks the slowness of change and the learning process in complex social…

  12. The Politics of Naming Reform in the Gendered Spheres of Home and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauwels, Anne; Winter, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Naming has been a central focus of feminist language planning. The initial emphasis was on reforming naming practices for women in public spheres (work, education, media). More recently public discourses about work/life balance have drawn together the public and private, shaping the naming practices for women and men in these domains. This paper…

  13. Black Political Marginalization? Regime Change and School Reform in Charlotte, NC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen Samuel

    This paper builds on previous research by exploring how the combination of white in-migration and recent school reform has affected the relationship between the formation, adoption, and implementation of educational policy in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district (North Carolina) and the district's African American citizens. The unexpected…

  14. Promoting Curriculum Reforms in the Context of a Political Transition: An Analysis of Hong Kong's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes creation and implementation of Hong Kong's Target Oriented Curriculum (TOC), an education reform effort, in light of the country's transition to Chinese rule in 1997. Examines TOC's origins, its nature, means of implementation, and its impact. Discusses tension between "policy intent" and "policy actions," and consequent evolution of the…

  15. Public Understanding to Political Voice: Action Research and Generative Curricular Practices in Issues and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnello, Mary Frances

    2007-01-01

    The author and preservice teachers in a postbaccalaureate Issues and Reform in Secondary Education course engaged Ernest Stringer's (2004) model of action research to develop generative curricula. They adhered to Walter C. Parker's (1991, 2006) vision of public formation and essential social studies teaching and used student-centered teaching…

  16. Educational Reform at the State Level: The Politics and Problems of Implementation. Education Policy Perspective Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Jean

    This book provides insights into how one state department of education perceived its role in the interpretation and implementation of educational reform legislation. It is based on the experiences of a former state department of education employee and her coworker, who were hired to administer three new programs to increase teacher retention--a…

  17. Learning from Leaders: Welfare Reform Politics and Policy in Five Midwestern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissert, Carol S., Ed.

    This book examines welfare reform, occasioned by the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which abolished Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). It is based on research in Ohio, Kansas, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan that…

  18. The Hub and the Spokes: Foundations, Intermediary Organizations, Incentivist Reforms, and the Politics of Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Janelle; Jabbar, Huriya

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the influence of and spending by educational philanthropists and foundations over the past two decades, especially in the area of market-based reforms, such as charter schools, vouchers, and merit pay, is evident across the United States. Largely due to philanthropic investments, relatively new educational intermediary organizations…

  19. Education Reform, Indigenous Politics, and Decolonisation in the Bolivia of Evo Morales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rosaleen

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between education reform and Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) for Bolivia's majority indigenous peoples, as this has evolved since the 1990s into the era of Evo Morales, Latin America's first indigenous president, elected in 2005. In order to bring out the significance of the new Education Bill awaiting…

  20. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    PubMed

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.

  1. The Politics of California School Mathematics: The Anti-Reform of 1997-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jerry P.; Jacob, Bill

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a powerful group of parents and mathematicians manipulated information and capitalized on the public's perception of California's "failing schools" to acquire political clout. In California, "teaching for understanding" is now a banished concept, and mastery of procedural skills ("parrot math") has scored a big victory. (Contains 34…

  2. Fearful Reformers: The Institutionalization of the Christian Right in American Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibulka, James G.; Myers, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    This research article analyzes the ways that the Christian right uses fear as an instrument in the politics of education. The main source of data for this analysis draws from source-protected interviews with directors in state-level Christian right organizations. A semistructured, elite interviewing approach was used. The authors reframe the…

  3. Political Broadcasting after the "Aspen" Ruling: Legislative Reform of Section 315 (a).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Stuart N.

    This paper offers a discussion of the rulings of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) related to Section 315 (a) of the Communications Act of 1934--the section concerning equal access to broadcast media by all political candidates. Following a general discussion of Section 315 (a) and the exemptions that are part of the act, the paper then…

  4. Market-Driven Education Reform and the Racial Politics of Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Janelle T.

    2011-01-01

    What is the landscape of the racial politics of public education in the age of Obama? To what factors can we attribute the seeming educational policy consensus from Washington, DC, to the states and from philanthropies and policy entrepreneurs in urban school districts? How should we understand opposition to the policy menu? This article examines…

  5. Political Instability, Austerity and Wishful Thinking: Analysing Stakeholders' Perceptions of Higher Education's Funding Reforms in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Pedro; Koryakina, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, European higher education systems have been experiencing an unprecedented expansion, which created significant financial and political challenges. At the same time, we have seen a shift in attitudes towards public higher education that has promoted new ways of funding this sector. This context has led to major changes in the…

  6. The politics of pharmaceutical reform: the case of the Philippine National Drug Policy.

    PubMed

    Lee, M B

    1994-01-01

    A national drug policy was formulated in the Philippines after the rise of the Aquino government in 1986. In this article, the author discusses the pharmaceutical situation before the policy was announced, and argues that the major push for a policy came from the confluence of four factors: a change in the structures of political power, especially the rise of a new government and the empowerment of health non-governmental organizations as new participants in the policy process; members of the Department of Health who pushed for a policy; a more conductive social and political climate, both locally and internationally; and a growing body of knowledge about the drug issue. The author discusses the policy's achievements as well as the limitations that have beset the policy from 1987 to 1992.

  7. The Austrian health reform 2013 is promising but requires continuous political ambition.

    PubMed

    Hofmarcher, Maria M

    2014-10-01

    The Austrian health system is much more complex and fragmented than in other OECD countries. In 2013 legislation was adopted to enhance efficiency through better balancing care provision across providers by promoting new primary care models and better coordination of care. Reform objectives should be achieved by cooperative and unified decision making across key stakeholders and by adherence to a budget cap that prescribes fiscal containment on the order of 3.4 billion Euros until 2016. This is priced into the envisaged savings of the current consolidation program. Efforts have been made to bridge the accountability divide by establishing agreements and administrative layers to govern the health system by objectives. Yet, more could have been achieved. For example, cross-stakeholder pooling of funds for better contracting governance and effective purchasing across care settings could have been introduced. This would have required addressing over capacity and fragmentation within social security. At the same time, legal provisions for cooperative governance between Sickness Funds and the governments on the regional level should have been stipulated. The Austrian 2013 reform is interesting to other countries as it aims to ensure better-balanced care at a sustainable path by employing a public management approach to governance relations across key payers of care.

  8. "We Can't Let Them Fail for One More Day": School Reform Urgency and the Politics of Reformer-Community Alliances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Hava Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a critical examination of neoliberal urgency in education reform. While critics of neoliberal reform policies have argued that these reforms exclude low-income community participation almost entirely, I argue that in practice this exclusion is not as total or as overt as macro-analyses would suggest. These macro analyses do…

  9. Reforming Medicare: the limited framework of political discourse on equity and economy.

    PubMed

    Walker, G K

    1986-01-01

    Medicare, the major program that organizes the delivery and financing of health care for the elderly in the United States, is being rapidly and significantly changed in order to bring Federal expenditures for health care under control. Questions of 'equity', 'justice' and 'access to health care' (that have long been associated with liberal ideology) have lost discursive currency within the realm of acceptable political debate that now focuses on 'economy' and the restoration of 'competitive market forces' to the health care industry (a point of view associated with conservative ideology). Pluralistic analyses of American health care policy most often focus on the differences between liberals and conservatives and could only explain the current bipartisan effort to reorganize Medicare as a defeat for liberals and as a vindication for the conservative perspective during a period of economic crisis. This essay develops the alternative point of view that American political debate on health care, among and between liberals and conservatives, has always taken place within a space bracketed by well defined limits established by widespread support for the market model of health care. The strength and dominance of this model that organizes and supports the private production of health care for profit is far more important in explaining the continuity in American health care policy over time and the recent policy adjustments than any examination of ideological differences between political conservatives and liberals. After analyzing the limited framework of debate structured by the market model of health care, this paper critically examines the recent changes in Medicare and challenges the market model on empirical grounds. Finally, the author returns to a discussion of the implications of these changes for equity and justice.

  10. Leading Inclusive Reform for Students with Disabilities: A School- and Systemwide Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theoharis, George; Causton, Julie

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to maximize access to general education for all students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders create inclusive schools for all students--inclusive school reform. Inclusive school reform can result in all students with disabilities being placed into general education settings (including students with…

  11. Exploring Principal Capacity to Lead Reform of Teaching and Learning Quality in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lee, Moosung

    2013-01-01

    In 1999 Thailand passed an ambitious national educational law that paved the way for major reforms in teaching, learning and school management. Despite the ambitious vision of reform embedded in this law, recent studies suggest that implementation progress has been slow, uneven, and lacking deep penetration onto classrooms. Carried out ten years…

  12. The Little District that Could: Literacy Reform Leads to Higher Achievement in California District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Budicin-Senters, Antoinette; King, L. McLean

    2005-01-01

    This article describes educational reform developed over a 10-year period in California's Lemon Grove School District, which resulted in a steady and remarkable upward shift in achievement for the students of this multicultural district just outside San Diego. Six elements of literacy reform emerged as the most significant factors affecting…

  13. Gender-based violence in Egypt: analyzing impacts of political reforms, social, and demographic change.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, Elena; Abu Amara, Nisrin; Condon, Stéphanie

    2013-03-01

    Over recent decades, Egypt has witnessed developments in gender equality. This article discusses recent changes relating to violence against women within this context. Statistical data from the Egyptian DHS surveys is used to describe trends in reported violence and in attitudes toward marital abuse, as well as to examine the survey tools used to measure violence. While findings reflect a growing awareness regarding the issue, the number of women reporting spousal violence remained stable during the study period. The results are contextualized within the political and social debate in which NGO's and women's rights activists play a central role.

  14. Abortion and politics in Nicaragua: the women's movement in the debate on the Abortion Law Reform 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Heumann, Silke G

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses discussion on a proposed reform to the abortion law in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2002, as a struggle between different actors - politicians, religious leaders, doctors and feminists - over the meaning of abortion, motherhood and sexuality, and ultimately the value of women's lives. It shows how the interplay of gender discourses and political practices shaped the process of discussion: on one hand by making a broad alliance against abortion possible, on the other by highlighting the contradictory role of the women's movement in this discussion, between a dominant leadership and a low mobilizing capacity. The paper argues for the need of an inwards oriented process within the women's movement, that departs from the recognition of the personal issues at stake for women in order to break the silence surrounding abortion, such as prevailing feelings of fear and guilt. This entails recognition of the limits of the liberal feminist claim to 'abortion as a free choice', as a discourse of rights that is disconnected from the everyday life conditions and constraints under which women make choices and develop their notions of rights.

  15. Abortion and politics in Nicaragua: the women's movement in the debate on the Abortion Law Reform 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Heumann, Silke G

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses discussion on a proposed reform to the abortion law in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2002, as a struggle between different actors - politicians, religious leaders, doctors and feminists - over the meaning of abortion, motherhood and sexuality, and ultimately the value of women's lives. It shows how the interplay of gender discourses and political practices shaped the process of discussion: on one hand by making a broad alliance against abortion possible, on the other by highlighting the contradictory role of the women's movement in this discussion, between a dominant leadership and a low mobilizing capacity. The paper argues for the need of an inwards oriented process within the women's movement, that departs from the recognition of the personal issues at stake for women in order to break the silence surrounding abortion, such as prevailing feelings of fear and guilt. This entails recognition of the limits of the liberal feminist claim to 'abortion as a free choice', as a discourse of rights that is disconnected from the everyday life conditions and constraints under which women make choices and develop their notions of rights. PMID:17457727

  16. Political Change in a School District Leading to Cultural Change in a High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.; Johnson-Howard, Debra

    To construct the outlines of a theoretical model relating contextual political change in a school district to cultural organizational change in a school within the district, a political change in a specific school district and the resultant cultural change in one of the district's high schools were analyzed. The school district, chosen to ensure a…

  17. School Leadership in the 21st Century: Leading in the Age of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to increase student readiness for college and career, many States have adopted new academic standards encouraged by education reform advocates. These standards are commonly referred to as the Common Core Standards. Schools from States that have adopted the Common Core Standards have been compelled to significantly restructure their…

  18. It's about Time: Leading School Reform in an Era of Time Scarcity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, James E.

    Research about the American experience with school reform has underscored time as the major obstacle to change. This book presents a psychosocial perspective of time and the problems it presents for teachers and administrators in an era of time scarcity. Specifically, it explores the effects of five major concepts (time investment portfolios,…

  19. The Politics of Data Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many contemporary education reformers present themselves as reformers who, armed with data and evidence, are locked in battle against politics, the weapon of choice for entrenched defenders of the status quo. Although studies of school reform increasingly recognize that politics is inevitably intertwined with reform efforts,…

  20. Political and Social Roots of Education Reform: A Look at the States in the Mid-1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feir, Robert E.

    Between 1983 and 1987, every state in the United States adopted some sort of education reform. This paper presents findings of an analysis of reform activity in the 50 states during the mid-1980s, with a focus on several education and socioeconomic indicators. The conceptual framework was grounded in general-systems theory, which attributes some…

  1. The Politics of Affirmation Theory: When Group-Affirmation Leads to Greater Ingroup Bias.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Gaven A; Gramzow, Richard H

    2015-08-01

    It has been well established in the literature that affirming the individual self reduces the tendency to exhibit group-favoring biases. The limited research examining group-affirmation and bias, however, is inconclusive. We argue that group-affirmation can exacerbate group-serving biases in certain contexts, and in the current set of studies, we document this phenomenon directly. Unlike self-affirmation, group-affirmation led to greater ingroup-favoring evaluative judgments among political partisans (Experiment 1). This increase in evaluative bias following group-affirmation was moderated by political party identification and was not found among those who affirmed a non-political ingroup (Experiment 2). In addition, the mechanism underlying these findings is explored and interpreted within the theoretical frameworks of self-categorization theory and the multiple self-aspects model (Experiments 2 and 3). The broader implications of our findings for the understanding of social identity and affirmation theory are discussed. PMID:26070859

  2. The Politics of Affirmation Theory: When Group-Affirmation Leads to Greater Ingroup Bias.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Gaven A; Gramzow, Richard H

    2015-08-01

    It has been well established in the literature that affirming the individual self reduces the tendency to exhibit group-favoring biases. The limited research examining group-affirmation and bias, however, is inconclusive. We argue that group-affirmation can exacerbate group-serving biases in certain contexts, and in the current set of studies, we document this phenomenon directly. Unlike self-affirmation, group-affirmation led to greater ingroup-favoring evaluative judgments among political partisans (Experiment 1). This increase in evaluative bias following group-affirmation was moderated by political party identification and was not found among those who affirmed a non-political ingroup (Experiment 2). In addition, the mechanism underlying these findings is explored and interpreted within the theoretical frameworks of self-categorization theory and the multiple self-aspects model (Experiments 2 and 3). The broader implications of our findings for the understanding of social identity and affirmation theory are discussed.

  3. Leading change: curriculum reform in graduate education in the biomedical sciences.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shoumita; Symes, Karen; Hyman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Graduate Medical Sciences at the Boston University School of Medicine houses numerous dynamic graduate programs. Doctoral students began their studies with laboratory rotations and classroom training in a variety of fundamental disciplines. Importantly, with 15 unique pathways of admission to these doctoral programs, there were also 15 unique curricula. Departments and programs offered courses independently, and students participated in curricula that were overlapping combinations of these courses. This system created curricula that were not coordinated and that had redundant course content as well as content gaps. A partnership of key stakeholders began a curriculum reform process to completely restructure doctoral education at the Boston University School of Medicine. The key pedagogical goals, objectives, and elements designed into the new curriculum through this reform process created a curriculum designed to foster the interdisciplinary thinking that students are ultimately asked to utilize in their research endeavors. We implemented comprehensive student and peer evaluation of the new Foundations in Biomedical Sciences integrated curriculum to assess the new curriculum. Furthermore, we detail how this process served as a gateway toward creating a more fully integrated graduate experience, under the umbrella of the Program in Biomedical Sciences.

  4. University Students' Views on Political Influences and the Status of Law in Post-Reform China: A Moderation and Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoping; Lo, T Wing

    2016-07-01

    Scholars categorize societies into "rule of man" societies, "rule by law" societies, and "rule of law" societies on the basis of a status of law. After 1978, China's leaders invoked law as an alternative to the arbitrariness of the Cultural Revolution. In this study, we used quantitative methods to explore university students' views on the status of law in post-reform China. Surveys were conducted in three national universities located in different regions of China. Responses from university students show that their perceptions of well-developed legislation and perceptions of the publicity of law are associated with their perceptions of equality before the law, which could be the consequence of a "rule of law" system. However, the study found that university students are of the view that the political nature of legislation and interference in law enforcement moderate the relationship between legislation and equality before the law. The political nature of legislation also moderates the mediation effect of interference in law enforcement between law publicity and equality before the law. As such, the article concludes that although university students are no longer primary movers in China's social and political development after the Tiananmen incident, they are still knowledgeable if not critical about the status of law and its political implications.

  5. Arkansas: a leading laboratory for health care payment and delivery system reform.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Deborah; du Pont, Lammot; Lipson, Mindy

    2014-08-01

    As states' Medicaid programs continue to evolve from traditional fee-for-service to value-based health care delivery, there is growing recognition that systemwide multipayer approaches provide the market power needed to address the triple aim of improved patient care, improved health of populations, and reduced costs. Federal initiatives, such as the State Innovation Model grant program, make significant funds available for states seeking to transform their health care systems. In crafting their reform strategies, states can learn from early innovators. This issue brief focuses on one such state: Arkansas. Insights and lessons from the Arkansas Health Care Payment Improvement Initiative (AHCPII) suggest that progress is best gained through an inclusive, deliberative process facilitated by committed leadership, a shared agreement on root problems and opportunities for improvement, and a strategy grounded in the state's particular health care landscape. PMID:25204031

  6. Arkansas: a leading laboratory for health care payment and delivery system reform.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Deborah; du Pont, Lammot; Lipson, Mindy

    2014-08-01

    As states' Medicaid programs continue to evolve from traditional fee-for-service to value-based health care delivery, there is growing recognition that systemwide multipayer approaches provide the market power needed to address the triple aim of improved patient care, improved health of populations, and reduced costs. Federal initiatives, such as the State Innovation Model grant program, make significant funds available for states seeking to transform their health care systems. In crafting their reform strategies, states can learn from early innovators. This issue brief focuses on one such state: Arkansas. Insights and lessons from the Arkansas Health Care Payment Improvement Initiative (AHCPII) suggest that progress is best gained through an inclusive, deliberative process facilitated by committed leadership, a shared agreement on root problems and opportunities for improvement, and a strategy grounded in the state's particular health care landscape.

  7. Ethnonational Questions, Educational Reform, and Political Socialization in the Post-Cold War Era: Case of Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Aftab A.

    Relying upon the conceptual constructs from international relations, politics, and sociology, this study analyzes education policy and political socialization processes in the developing multiethnic/national societies with specific reference to Pakistan. The paper descriptively analyzes Pakistan social studies curriculum as an instrument of…

  8. Responding to obesity in Brazil: understanding the international and domestic politics of policy reform through a nested analytic approach to comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-02-01

    Why do governments pursue obesity legislation? And is the case of Brazil unique compared with other nations when considering the politics of policy reform? Using a nested analytic approach to comparative research, I found that theoretical frameworks accounting for why nations implement obesity legislation were not supported with cross-national statistical evidence. I then turned to the case of Brazil's response to obesity at three levels of government, national, urban, and rural, to propose alternative hypotheses for why nations pursue obesity policy. The case of Brazil suggests that the reasons that governments respond are different at these three levels. International forces, historical institutions, and social health movements were factors that prompted national government responses. At the urban and rural government levels, receiving federal financial assistance and human resource support appeared to be more important. The case of Brazil suggests that the international and domestic politics of responding to obesity are highly complex and that national and subnational political actors have different perceptions and interests when pursuing obesity legislation. PMID:25480854

  9. Responding to obesity in Brazil: understanding the international and domestic politics of policy reform through a nested analytic approach to comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-02-01

    Why do governments pursue obesity legislation? And is the case of Brazil unique compared with other nations when considering the politics of policy reform? Using a nested analytic approach to comparative research, I found that theoretical frameworks accounting for why nations implement obesity legislation were not supported with cross-national statistical evidence. I then turned to the case of Brazil's response to obesity at three levels of government, national, urban, and rural, to propose alternative hypotheses for why nations pursue obesity policy. The case of Brazil suggests that the reasons that governments respond are different at these three levels. International forces, historical institutions, and social health movements were factors that prompted national government responses. At the urban and rural government levels, receiving federal financial assistance and human resource support appeared to be more important. The case of Brazil suggests that the international and domestic politics of responding to obesity are highly complex and that national and subnational political actors have different perceptions and interests when pursuing obesity legislation.

  10. Current Conditions and Reform of the Leadership System in Ideological and Political Education among College and University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhixiang; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a survey that evaluated the leadership system in ideological and political education presently in place in colleges and universities in Beijing, China. Describes the current system and suggests improvements that can be made. (GG)

  11. The politics of lead toxicology and the devastating consequences for children.

    PubMed

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2007-10-01

    At virtually every step in the history of the uncovering of lead's toxic qualities, resistance was shown by a variety of industrial interests to the association of lead and toxicity. During the first half of the last century, three primary means were used to undermine the growing body of evidence: first, the lead industry sought to control lead research by sponsoring and funding university research. In the 1920s, the General Motors Company, with the aide of DuPont and Standard Oil Companies, established the Kettering Labs, a research unit at the University of Cincinnati which, for many decades was largely supported by industry funds. In the same decade, the lead industry sponsored the research of Joseph Aub at Harvard who worked on neurophysiology of lead. A second way was to shape our understanding of lead itself, portraying it as an indispensable and healthful element essential for all modern life. Lead was portrayed as safe for children to use, be around, and even touch. The third way that lead was exempted from the normal public health measures and regulatory apparatus that had largely controlled phosphorus poisoning, poor quality food and meats and other potential public health hazards was more insidious and involved directly influencing the scientific integrity of the clinical observations and research. Throughout the past century tremendous pressure by the lead industry itself was brought to bear to quiet, even intimidate, researchers and clinicians who reported on or identified lead as a hazard. This article will draw on our previous work and add new documentation of the trajectory of industry attempts to keep out of the public view the tremendous threat of lead poisoning to children.

  12. Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

  13. Rethinking School Reform: The Distractions of Dogma and the Potential for a New Politics of Progressive Pragmatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Jeffrey R.; Stone, Clarence N.

    2008-01-01

    At the national level, debate about school reform typically has been characterized by clashing paradigms offering unicausal explanations and universal prescriptions. At the street level, where parents and practitioners wrestle on a day-to-day basis with questions of what to do, the terms of discussion more typically are concrete, rooted in local…

  14. The Future of Vouchers as Educational Reform, Political Strategy, Economic Solution, and Public Policy in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan Brown, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the burden of vouchers to be all things to all constituencies. Proponents and opponents envision vouchers as accomplishing many objectives. To some, vouchers represent an educational reform that brings change to public schools and saves children from monopolistic bureaucrats. To others, they signify a threat to the very…

  15. To Lead Education Reform: An Appraisal of the Oregon Department of Education. No. 97-37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Secretary of State, Salem. Audits Div.

    The Oregon Department of Education (ODE) operates under two main statutory charges: to administer state and federal programs, and to serve as the state's lead agent in implementing the Oregon Educational Act for the 21st Century. This report presents the results of a contracted program evaluation of the ODE. Data were collected through document…

  16. The politics of learning to teach: The juxtaposition of reform, risk-taking, and survival for a prospective science teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLoughlin, Andrea Sabatini

    1998-12-01

    It has proven difficult for teachers to enact and sustain the changes to thinking and pedagogy called for in science education reforms. It may be especially difficult for prospective teachers to create coherent professional identities as they learn to teach in the borderland between educational change and the existing context of education. Field experiences remain a pivotal point in teacher education, as prospective teachers mature from the perspective they have lived as students to the vantage point they are constructing as developing teachers. This qualitative, naturalistic case study examined a reform-oriented preservice science teacher's beliefs and actions during a year of field practica, including student teaching. Interviews, observations, and written documents were collected to examine the extent to which the prospective teacher's thoughts and actions continued to reflect reform ideals across that time. Inductive data analysis indicated that tacit beliefs held by the participant interacted with significant events of the field experiences to direct her learning to teach process in non-educative ways. Implications include: (a) deeper examination of the beliefs and experiences of prospective teachers would allow teacher educators the ability to understand and guide professional development in deeper and more productive ways, (b) the establishment of an atmosphere of experimentation/inquiry and a more cohesive, collaborative approach to teacher education are needed, especially during field experiences, if teacher education programs are to foster the productive and educative experiences supportive of reform ideals, (c) the preparation of prospective teachers who intend to implement reform ideals should include developing understandings of the dynamics of the change process, and (d) the exploration/confrontation of the power structures inherent in the existing educational system is essential if they are to be prevented from undermining reform efforts. As science

  17. Reforming Welfare in America. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Edward T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three books on welfare reform: "The Poverty of Welfare Reform" (Joel F. Handler); "The Politics of Welfare Reform" (Donald F. Norris, Lyke Thompson, editors); and "Living on the Edge: The Realities of Welfare in America" (Mark Robert Rank). (JOW)

  18. The fate of a progressive science: the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory, athletes, the science of work and the politics of reform.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2011-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, fatigue research marked a site of conflicting scientific, industrial, and cultural understandings of working bodies. Many fatigue researchers understood fatigue to be a physiological fact and allied themselves with Progressive-era reformers in urging industrial regulation. Reformers clashed with advocates of Taylorism, who held that productivity could be perpetually increased through managerial efficiency. Histories of this conflict typically cease with the end of the First World War. I examine the work of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in the 1920s and 1930s to explore the impact that the introduction of biochemical methods had on the relationship between science and reform. The Laboratory developed sophisticated techniques to study the blood of exercising individuals. In particular, it found that exercising individuals could attain a biochemically "steady state," or equilibrium, and extrapolated from this to assert that fatigue was psychological, not physiological, in nature. In contrast to Progressive-era research, the Laboratory reached this conclusion through laboratory examination, not of workers, but of Laboratory staff members and champion marathon runners. I present the Laboratory's institutional history, scientific work, and finally how common cultural understandings of athletes and work lent plausibility to its efforts to make authoritative statements about industrial conditions.

  19. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  20. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  1. Nurses: Leading to Reduce Health Disparities in an Era of Healthcare Reform.

    PubMed

    Bates, Mekeshia; Aurelien, Louise; Phillips, Janice

    2015-12-01

    Persistent disparities in health status and outcomes for racial/ethnic minority populations are well documented. African-Americans are disproportionately impacted by a number of conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and inadequate mental healthcare. The 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) contains provisions to reduce health disparities. These provisions aim to improve the quality of care, reduce costs, increase access to care, strengthen the health-care workforce, and make health coverage more obtainable. Thus, the objectives of this paper are to describe key elements outlined in the ACA aimed at reducing health disparities and identify implications for nurses to lead in the reduction of health-care disparities through practice, education, research, and advocacy. Nurses at all levels of practice and education are encouraged to intensify their advocacy and legislative efforts to help ensure that key ACA provisions are funded and implemented to improve the overall well-being of underserved communities. PMID:27045160

  2. Politics, Policy, Practice and Personal Responsibility: Adult Education in an Era of Welfare Reform. NCSALL Reports #10A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Deobrah

    The relationship of literacy to work should be considered in terms of the political and economic conditions that structure the experiences of the working and non-working poor with respect to education and work. Research shows welfare-to-work programs constitute behavioral solutions to what are structural economic problems; literacy alone cannot…

  3. Experiments in Political Socialization: Kids Voting USA as a Model for Civic Education Reform. CIRCLE Working Paper 49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michael; Kiousis, Spiro

    2006-01-01

    This report describes how an innovative curriculum promoted the civic development of high school students along with parents by stimulating news media attention and discussion in families. Evidence is based on a three-year evaluation of Kids Voting USA, an interactive, election-based curriculum. Political communication in the home increased the…

  4. The politics of reproductive hazards in the workplace: class, gender, and the history of occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Morello-Frosch, R A

    1997-01-01

    Over the past two decades, several U.S. companies have sought to bar women from jobs that expose them to potential reproductive hazards, justifying these exclusionary policies by their professed concerns for the well-being of unborn children and potential liability. Although recent court cases have stimulated academic interest in this issue, a historical review of the public health and medical literature reveals that this debate is not new. To understand the logic behind the emergence of "fetal protection" policies, one must examine the scientific history of occupational teratogens and the socio-political and economic forces that have driven scientific research in this field. Using lead as an example, the author argues that research on the reproductive hazards of employment has historically emphasized the risks to women and downplayed the risks to men. This results in environmental health policies that do not uphold the ultimate goal of occupational safety for all workers, but rather reinforce the systemic segregation of men and women in the workplace. Although the political struggle over exclusionary policies has a feminist orientation, it also has important class dimensions and ultimately must be viewed within the broader context of American capitalist production.

  5. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built before ... of the RRP rule. Read more . Learn about Lead Poisoning Prevention Week . Report Uncertified Contractors and Environmental Violations ...

  6. Teacher Perceptions of Bologna Reforms in Armenian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakhanyan, Susanna; Van Veen, Klaas; Bergen, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The perceptions of the implementation of the Bologna reforms in Armenian higher education were examined in a questionnaire study with 279 university teachers, revealing how eight leading higher education institutions have adapted to the political directive to create alignment with the Bologna principles. The literature on educational change is…

  7. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program is committed to the Healthy People ... Lead Levels Information for Parents Tips for preventing lead poisoning About Us Overview of CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning ...

  8. "Coming to grips with the nursing question": the politics of nursing education reform in 1960s America.

    PubMed

    Tobbell, Dominique A

    2014-01-01

    The 1950s and 1960s were decades of change for the American nursing profession. A new generation of nurse educators sought to create greater professional autonomy for the nurse by introducing new models of education that emphasized science-based learning over technical skills and bedside care, and creating new clinical roles for the nurse, based on advanced graduate education. They confronted resistance from an older generation of nurses who feared becoming "second-class citizens" in increasingly academic nursing schools, and from academic health care institutions all too comfortable with the gendered hierarchy on which the traditional model of nursing education and practice was predicated. Using the University of Minnesota and University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) as case studies, and based on institutional records and more than 40 oral histories with nursing and medical faculty, this article describes the generational conflicts this new cadre of nurse educators confronted within schools of nursing, and the institutional politics they struggled with as they sought to secure greater institutional status for the schools among the universities' other health science units.

  9. The 2015 hospital treatment choice reform in Norway: Continuity or change?

    PubMed

    Ringard, Ånen; Saunes, Ingrid Sperre; Sagan, Anna

    2016-04-01

    In several European countries, including Norway, polices to increase patient choice of hospital provider have remained high on the political agenda. The main reason behind the interest in hospital choice reforms in Norway has been the belief that increasing choice can remedy the persistent problem of long waiting times for elective hospital care. Prior to the 2013 General Election, the Conservative Party campaigned in favour of a new choice reform: "the treatment choice reform". This article describes the background and process leading up to introduction of the reform in the autumn of 2015. It also provides a description of the content and discusses possible implications of the reform for patients, providers and government bodies. In sum, the reform contains elements of both continuity and change. The main novelty of the reform lies in the increased role of private for-profit healthcare providers. PMID:27005300

  10. The Effects of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; Giron, Graciela; De-La-Luz-Arellano, Ivan; Ayon-Bañuelos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Educational reform implies questions of social production and of state regulation that are the key words in educational reform, education and educational policies. These reforms are always on the political agenda of countries and involve international organisms, since education is a vehicle of development for social progress. A point of departure…

  11. Putting politics first.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  12. Putting politics first.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old. PMID:18474963

  13. Leading Education Reform Initiatives: How SWIFT (Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation) Coordinates and Enhances Impact. Issue Brief #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Mary; Richards, Curtis; Blank, Rolf; Stonemeier, Jennifer; Trader, Barbara; East, Bill

    2014-01-01

    In this Issue Brief we discuss the impact that the Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation (SWIFT) has on improving the outcomes of several current federal, state, district, and school education reform initiatives. Federal initiatives include Race to the Top, School Improvement Grants, and Campaign for Grade-Level Reading; Common Core…

  14. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  15. The politics of public health policy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Politics, for better or worse, plays a critical role in health affairs. The purpose of this article is to articulate a role for political analysis of public health issues, ranging from injury and disease prevention to health care reform. It begins by examining how health problems make it onto the policy agenda. Perceptions regarding the severity of the problem, responsibility for the problem, and affected populations all influence governmental responses. Next, it considers how bounded rationality, fragmented political institutions, resistance from concentrated interests, and fiscal constraints usually lead political leaders to adopt incremental policy changes rather than comprehensive reforms even when faced with serious public health problems. It then identifies conditions under which larger-scale transformation of health policy can occur, focusing on critical junctures in policy development and the role of policy entrepreneurs in seizing opportunities for innovation. Finally, it reviews the challenges confronting officials and agencies who are responsible for implementing and administering health policies. Public health professionals who understand the political dimensions of health policy can conduct more realistic research and evaluation, better anticipate opportunities as well as constraints on governmental action, and design more effective policies and programs.

  16. Controlled Surface Segregation Leads to Efficient Coke-Resistant Nickel/Platinum Bimetallic Catalysts for the Dry Reforming of Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lidong; Zhou, Lu; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Kanoun, Mohammed B.; Scaranto, Jessica; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Khalid, Syed; Laveille, Paco V.; Lawrence D'Souza; Clo, Alain; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-02-03

    The surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. Moreover, the evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. The catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.

  17. [Health care reform in the Obama administration: difficulties of reaching a similar agreement in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belmartino, Susana

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the processes leading to health care reform in Argentina and in the USA. The core of the analysis centers on the ideological references utilized by advocates of the reform and the decision-making processes that support or undercut such proposals. The analysis begins with a historical summary of the issue in each country. The political process that led to the sanction of the Obama reform is then described. The text defends a hypothesis aiming to show that deficiencies in the institutional capacities of Argentina's decision-making bodies are a severe obstacle to attaining substantial changes in this area within the country.

  18. Neo-Liberalism and the Politics of Higher Education Policy in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Indonesia's experience with neo-liberal higher education reform. It argues that this agenda has encountered strong resistance from the dominant predatory political, military, and bureaucratic elements who occupy the state apparatus, their corporate clients, and popular forces, leading to continuation of the centralist and…

  19. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  20. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  1. Identity Politics and Critical Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Hank

    1989-01-01

    This essay investigates what identity politics may have to contribute to the reformation of Marxist theories of education through considering how it would theorize the practice of explicitly critical pedagogy. (IAH)

  2. The New Technology and Educational Reform: Guidelines for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Mark; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper presents the results of a literature review on educational methodology reforms. The first section discusses five factors in broad-based school reforms: change theory; organizational theory; state/national politics; local politics/governance; and leadership theory. Five types of reforms for school-wide success are described in the second…

  3. Reforming Science: Methodological and Cultural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture. PMID:22184414

  4. The Politics of Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergari, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Charter schools, and other market-based reforms such as school vouchers and the student tutoring provision of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, are steeped in politics largely because they challenge the legitimacy of traditional power and funding arrangements in public education. The charter school reform is a significant public-private hybrid…

  5. The Politics of Privatization and Decentralization in Global School Reform: The Value of Equity Claims for Neoliberalism at the World Bank and in El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Cheryl

    This paper focuses on the role of the World Bank and its subsidiaries in promoting the neoliberal educational reforms of privatization and decentralization globally and in El Salvador. Neoliberalism is first defined as a sociopolitical philosophy that supports concepts such as the free market, market-driven education, and the use of a voucher…

  6. Free Education! A "Live" Report on the Chilean Student Movement 2011-2014--Reform or Revolution? [A Political Sociology for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simbuerger, Elisabeth; Neary, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a report on the Chilean student movement, 2011-2014, from the perspective of the students themselves, based on the main research question: are the student protests for reform or revolution? The research data was collected during October 2013 before the Chilean Presidential and Parliamentary elections using the methodology of…

  7. The Ideology of Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiden, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article in "Academic Questions" political scientists Robert Maranto and Matthew C. Woessner have suggested a program to reform their discipline and enhance its social utility. They encourage researchers to engage with consequential social issues and educate the public, while admonishing political scientists to resist partisan advocacy…

  8. Reforming Science: Structural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

  9. Child Health, Medicaid, and Welfare "Reform." Report III, Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local government, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle, aside from exploratory and analytic work, is a series of…

  10. Emancipation or Neo-Colonisation? Global Gender Mainstreaming Policies, Swedish Gender Equality Politics and Local Negotiations about Putting Gender into Education Reforms in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach…

  11. The Unknown Cultural Revolution: Educational Reforms and Their Impact on China's Rural Development. East Asia: History, Politics, Sociology, Culture. A Garland Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dongping

    China's official history maintains that the radical egalitarianism of the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) led to economic disaster. This book challenges that view. Drawing on local interviews and records in rural Jimo County, Shandong Province, this study contends that the Cultural Revolution's political convulsions democratized village political…

  12. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  13. Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?

    PubMed Central

    Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

    2006-01-01

    Background It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions – like education and income – affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Discussion Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Summary Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health – such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future. PMID:16737549

  14. Health care reforms

    PubMed Central

    Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country. PMID:27703543

  15. Neoliberalism and Corporate School Reform: "Failure" and "Creative Destruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, corporate school reform or neoliberal educational restructuring has overtaken educational policy, practice, curriculum, and nearly all aspects of educational reform. Although this movement began on the political right, the corporate school model has been heralded across the political spectrum and is aggressively embraced now…

  16. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  17. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  18. Academics and Athletics: Playing for the Same Team: NCAA President Discusses the Challenges of Leading the Organization in an Era of Academic Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    High expectations greeted Dr. Myles Brand when he became president of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in January 2003. As the fourth president of the nation's most powerful amateur sports organization, Brand has the distinction of being the first to have been a college president. To carry out reforms that put academics first…

  19. The University Reform in Korea: A Deregulation To Be Deregulated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Bong Gun

    This paper explores the current situation of universities in Korea in an era of reform. University reform was initiated by the government in the 1980s and brought to the universities in the 1990s. In the interval, there have been many social, economic, and political changes in Korean society. The current approach to university reform in Korea…

  20. Less State, More Market: University Reform in Canada and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G.; Bruneau, William

    2004-01-01

    Political, economic, and social explanations of higher education reform, and the very definition of "reform," are the main departure points of this volume. The introduction uses the examples of Canada, Austria, Germany, and Japan to show that in all these countries, reform has meant reduced state funding and control and increased reliance on…

  1. Challenging Corporate Ed Reform: And 10 Hopeful Signs of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate school reformers like to call themselves just "reformers" and counterpose themselves to the "status quo." There is no doubt that the corporate/foundation crowd has successfully captured the media label as "education reformers." However, this political branding has little to do with reality or the substance of the issues under debate.…

  2. Vermont's Catamount Health: a roadmap for health care reform?

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Kenneth E

    2007-01-01

    Vermont's new health reform program was enacted under a Republican governor in a state with a Democrat-controlled legislature. It thus serves as an intriguing approach to resolving political differences in health care. James Maxwell's interview of Vermont governor Jim Douglas provides background and insight on these reforms. I build on the interview, focusing on what changed between the 2005 reform failure and the passage of the new reforms. Key to the reform's political success was the recognition by both sides that it focused on issues of bipartisan concern: cost control through the effective management and prevention of disease.

  3. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. PMID:26283476

  4. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment.

  5. Reform in Polish Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojcicka, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the essential concept of reforms, implemented in Poland's education system since the early 1990s and some of their outcomes. Special attention is paid to one particular aspect of the reforms, i.e. structural diversification of the system, leading to diversification of education levels and corresponding diplomas. The article…

  6. Teachers' Perspectives on Evaluation Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing momentum to reform teacher evaluation in order to increase its impact on teachers' practice and persistence in the profession, very little research examines how current reforms influence teachers' attitudes or reported instructional practices. Do the new evaluation systems lead to enhancements in teachers' instruction overall? And…

  7. Political Interference in Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-02-01

    ``All of us have a right to our own views about the seriousness of global warming,'' U.S. Rep. Henry Waxman (D-Calif.), chair of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, said at a 30 January committee hearing held to examine political interference in climate science. ``But we don't have a right to our own science.''

  8. Comprehensive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide school leaders with guidance in determining how to choose and implement the schoolwide program that is best for their school. American Institutes for Research's "An Educator's Guide to Schoolwide Reform" provides educators with comprehensive profiles and evaluations of 24 of the leading schoolwide…

  9. Reform, change, and continuity in Finnish health care.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Unto; Lehto, Juhani

    2005-01-01

    This article describes some essential aspects of the Finnish political and governmental system and the evolution of the basic institutional elements of the health care system. We examine the developments that gave rise to a series of health care reforms and reform proposals in the late 1980s and early 1990s and relate them to changes in health care expenditure, structure, and performance. Finally, we discuss the relationship between policy changes, reforms, and health system changes and the strength of neo-institutional theory in explaining both continuity and change. Much of the change in Finnish health care can be explained by institutional path dependency. The tradition of strong but small local authorities and the lack of legitimate democratic regional authorities as well as the coexistence of a dominant Beveridge-style health system with a marginal Bismarckian element explain the specific path of Finnish health care reform. Public responsibility for health care has been decentralized to smaller local authorities (known as municipalities) more than in any other country. Even an exceptionally deep economic recession in the early 1990s did not lead to systems change; rather, the economic imperative was met by the traditional centralized policy pattern. Some of the developments of the 1990s are, however, difficult to explain by institutional theory. Thus, there is a need for testing alternative theories as well. PMID:15943388

  10. Differences in negativity bias underlie variations in political ideology.

    PubMed

    Hibbing, John R; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R

    2014-06-01

    Disputes between those holding differing political views are ubiquitous and deep-seated, and they often follow common, recognizable lines. The supporters of tradition and stability, sometimes referred to as conservatives, do battle with the supporters of innovation and reform, sometimes referred to as liberals. Understanding the correlates of those distinct political orientations is probably a prerequisite for managing political disputes, which are a source of social conflict that can lead to frustration and even bloodshed. A rapidly growing body of empirical evidence documents a multitude of ways in which liberals and conservatives differ from each other in purviews of life with little direct connection to politics, from tastes in art to desire for closure and from disgust sensitivity to the tendency to pursue new information, but the central theme of the differences is a matter of debate. In this article, we argue that one organizing element of the many differences between liberals and conservatives is the nature of their physiological and psychological responses to features of the environment that are negative. Compared with liberals, conservatives tend to register greater physiological responses to such stimuli and also to devote more psychological resources to them. Operating from this point of departure, we suggest approaches for refining understanding of the broad relationship between political views and response to the negative. We conclude with a discussion of normative implications, stressing that identifying differences across ideological groups is not tantamount to declaring one ideology superior to another. PMID:24970428

  11. Positive politics.

    PubMed

    Saberton, S

    1990-05-01

    The term "playing politics" usually brings to mind undesirable qualities such as manipulation, power abuse and overt self-interest. Yet politics is a constant in daily life and indeed is very necessary in gaining support for both personal and corporate projects. This article discusses how, through communication and leadership, political skills can be used to realize common goals in an organization.

  12. Reforming the politics of animal research.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lisa Hara; Reppy, William A

    2015-07-01

    An unfortunate tension exists between the biomedical research and animal welfare/rights communities. We believe that despite the mistrust between these groups, there are individuals on both sides of the controversy who seek to better understand the other. We recommend an update of institutional policies that will better inform the public about the use of non-human animals in biomedical research and improve a dialogue on such use between concerned individuals who either support or oppose non-human animal-based biomedical research. Such interactions may well determine the longevity of using non-human animals as experimental subjects.

  13. Political Reform and Gridlock Elimination Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration. (text of measure as introduced: CR S129) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Teaching Politically without Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…

  15. Ecuador's silent health reform.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Pierre; Echeverría Tapia, Ramiro; Aguilar Santacruz, Edison; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Health sector reform was implemented in many Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to reduced public expenditure on health, limitations on public provision for disease control, and a minimum package of services, with concomitant growth of the private sector. At first sight, Ecuador appeared to follow a different pattern: no formal reform was implemented, despite many plans to reform the Ministry of Health and social health insurance. The authors conducted an in-depth review and analysis of published and gray literature on the Ecuadorian health sector from 1990 onward. They found that although neoliberal reform of the health sector was not openly implemented, many of its typical elements are present: severe reduction of public budgets, "universal" health insurance with limited coverage for targeted groups, and contracting out to private providers. The health sector remains segmented and fragmented, explaining the population's poor health status. The leftist Correa government has prepared an excellent long-term plan to unite services of the Ministry of Health and social security, but implementation is extremely slow. In conclusion, the health sector in Ecuador suffered a "silent" neoliberal reform. President Correa's progressive government intends to reverse this, increasing public budgets for health, but hesitates to introduce needed radical changes.

  16. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  17. Drivers of health reform in the United States: 2012 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Lexa, Frank J

    2012-10-01

    American medicine has seen radical changes in the past decade. In particular, radiology has been affected, notably first with the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act in 2005 and then with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010. Health care reforms are not only driven by political agendas. This process is also a response to underlying social, economic, and technological realities. It is unlikely that reform efforts will just evaporate because of a single change in government or with a decision by the US Supreme Court. Regardless of who sits in the Oval Office and which party controls Congress, there are forces that will need to be addressed through policy changes in the coming years. The underlying drivers of health care reform are legion, but health care inflation, fiscal mismanagement by government, poor planning for demographic changes that affect entitlement programs, questions about the quality of health outcomes, and a desire for universal health care were all central factors in the reforms put forth since 2009. Radiologists should be preparing now for continued change in both the public and private sectors in health care for the foreseeable future. These changes are likely to have profound impacts on our profession. Radiologists and their groups should plan to pay greater attention to these events and should seek to have a much greater level of involvement in the political and social processes that lead to policy changes in health care. PMID:23025861

  18. Boundaries of Trust and Confidence: Negotiating Evaluation and Research Constraints in the Context of Kentucky's Systemic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams-Rodgers, Lois; Lindle, Jane Clark

    Kentucky's systemic reform initiative has been heralded as one of the more comprehensive and well-sustained reforms in recent history. To evaluate the course of this reform, the challenges associated with researching and evaluating a statewide systemic reform effort are detailed here. By using a description of the politics of evaluating systemic…

  19. Slab reformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  20. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  1. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  2. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  3. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  4. Fashion as Argument: Nineteenth-Century Dress Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the place of the body in the dress-reform movement, a social movement that focused on fashion as a vehicle for achieving social and political equality. Discusses how fashion became one arena in which definitions of gender were contested. Suggests the dress-reform movement's failure in redefining femininity indicates the depth of…

  5. Charter Laws: Disaster, Detour, Irrelevant, or Reform Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, John

    2006-01-01

    Charter laws have been the reform debate's path of least resistance. But the combination of regulatory barriers, open admissions, lack of consumer sovereignty, preferential funding of traditional public schools, and political control of prices means that charter laws may be irrelevant as reform catalysts, or worse. Even the strongest charter laws…

  6. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three areas:…

  7. A Postmodern Perspective on Current Curriculum Reform in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yu-le; Li, Ling

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the curriculum reform of basic education in China from 2001 to 2008. We first discuss postmodern features of the social background in which the curriculum reform movement takes place: (1) the political ideal of innovation, open-endedness, and harmony; (2) the economic ideal of ecological, stable, and sustainable development;…

  8. Rethinking Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, James C.

    2010-01-01

    As president of Miami University of Ohio from 1996 until 2006, James C. Garland redefined the public institution as a "semi-private" university by implementing the same tuition for both in-state and out-of-state students. Students from Ohio with need received large scholarships--but those who could afford to pay more did so. The reform, which…

  9. Toothless Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2010-01-01

    To many education reformers, the passage of the federal government's massive stimulus plan, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), appeared to be a final bright star falling into alignment. The ARRA seemed to complete the constellation: an astounding $100 billion of new federal funds--nearly twice the annual budget of the U.S.…

  10. What Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    A teacher explores the recent educational reform movement and discusses the studies of schools done by Sociologist Christopher Jencks in the 1970s. An important idea that can be extrapolated from Jencks' studies is that schools should function more like families than factories. This would empower teachers and make schooling more equitable,…

  11. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  12. Spaghetti Politics: Local Electoral Systems and Alliance Structure in Italy, 1984-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parigi, Paolo; Bearman, Peter S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the impact of the Italian electoral reforms of 1993 on the structure of local political alliances. The reform, which moved Italy from a purely proportional representation system to a mixed, largely majoritarian system, was designed to increase transparency, reduce corruption, limit the number of political parties, and create…

  13. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  14. Loud Thunder, Small Raindrops: The Reform Movement and the Press in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starck, Kenneth; Xu, Yu

    Economic change in China is coming about through wide-ranging economic reforms, is taking place at an unprecedented pace, and is affecting the lives of many of the inhabitants of the world's most populous nation. However, the attempts to reform the political process have been slow, like the attempts to reform the Chinese press. The Chinese press…

  15. Elusive Sex Acts: Pleasure and Politics in Norwegian Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Stine H. Bang

    2012-01-01

    While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…

  16. The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Discontent with failed, top-down reform and the immediate prospect of political change have created a rare opportunity to reinvent education policy and to think afresh about how teachers and children should be encouraged to develop their full potential. "The Pendulum Swings" explores alternative, genuinely transformative conceptions of leadership…

  17. Future Imaginaries of Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on analytic heuristics from critical discourse analysis and cultural political economy (Jessop, 2010; Wodak, 2002), this article examines the temporal premises and "futures" embedded in a report and reform proposal created in a mid-sized, American city, Columbus, Ohio, in 2013. The product of a city-wide commission appointed in…

  18. Education Reform Sparks Teacher Protest in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    The current tumult in the Mexican education arena has deep roots in politics and tradition, but it is latter-day global competition and international measures of student performance that are driving reform efforts. Teacher strikes and demonstrations are not new in Mexico, but issues raised by today's protesting teachers represent a…

  19. Where Will LEAD Lead? An Update on My LEAD Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    Issues in the future of a federal collaborative program, Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD), are discussed in this paper. Problems attributed to LEAD are its antagonistic posture to educational administration programs in higher education and political conflicts of interest. Methodology involved analysis of successful LEAD…

  20. Health insurance reform: labor versus health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Walid; Awar, May

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Labor (MOL) has submitted to the Council of Ministers a social security reform plan. The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) considers that health financing should be dealt with as part of a more comprehensive health reform plan that falls under its prerogatives. While a virulent political discussion is taking place, major stakeholders' inputs are very limited and civil society is totally put away from the whole policy making process. The role of the media is restricted to reproducing political disputes, without meaningful substantive debate. This paper discusses health insurance reform from labor market as well as public health perspectives, and aims at launching a serious public debate on this crucial issue that touches the life of every citizen.

  1. The Reformers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Backed with political and financial capital, advocates of change push to improve America's education system. For most people, the purpose of education is self-improvement--becoming better informed, more knowledgeable, better equipped to solve problems, more able to earn a living and prosper. The more effectively an education system delivers on…

  2. Reforming Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert, Ed.; Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue highlights the diversity of reform initiatives in order to provide a deep understanding of the complexities associated with educational reform in general and the reform of science education in particular. Systemic reform initiatives at the national and state levels along with locally-inspired efforts at reform are outlined.…

  3. The Politics of Education Policy in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this appreciative discussion paper I provide an overview of the reforms made to education in England, and engage with the politics of education through examining the simultaneous and inter-related processes of politicisation, depoliticisation and repoliticisation of educational matters. I engage in a discussion of the papers in this special…

  4. Split WHO in two: strengthening political decision-making and securing independent scientific advice.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has never fulfilled its original mission of simultaneously serving as the world's pre-eminent public health authority and intergovernmental platform for global health negotiations. While WHO's secretariat works hard to fulfill both functions, it is undermined by an institutional design that mixes technical and political mandates. This forces staff to walk uncomfortably along many fine lines: advising but never directing; guiding but never governing; leading but never advocating; evaluating but never judging. The result is mediocrity on both fronts. Instead, WHO should be split in two, separating its technical and political stewardship functions into separate entities, with collaboration in areas of overlap. The Executive Board and secretariat would be bifurcated, with technical units reporting to a Technical Board and political units reporting to a Political Board. Both boards would report to the World Health Assembly where all member states would continue to provide ultimate oversight. Such bold changes can be implemented either by revising WHO's constitution or through simpler mechanisms. Either way, structural governance reforms would need to be accompanied by complementary changes in culture that support strengthened political decision-making and scientific independence. States' inability to act on WHO's institutional design challenges will only lead them and non-state actors to continue bypassing the organization through the creation of new entities as they have done over the last 15 years. The key will be to mobilize those advocates and decision-makers who have the audacity to demand more from WHO and convince member states to elevate their ambitions in current WHO reform efforts. Continued progress in global health depends on it. PMID:24434035

  5. Split WHO in two: strengthening political decision-making and securing independent scientific advice.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has never fulfilled its original mission of simultaneously serving as the world's pre-eminent public health authority and intergovernmental platform for global health negotiations. While WHO's secretariat works hard to fulfill both functions, it is undermined by an institutional design that mixes technical and political mandates. This forces staff to walk uncomfortably along many fine lines: advising but never directing; guiding but never governing; leading but never advocating; evaluating but never judging. The result is mediocrity on both fronts. Instead, WHO should be split in two, separating its technical and political stewardship functions into separate entities, with collaboration in areas of overlap. The Executive Board and secretariat would be bifurcated, with technical units reporting to a Technical Board and political units reporting to a Political Board. Both boards would report to the World Health Assembly where all member states would continue to provide ultimate oversight. Such bold changes can be implemented either by revising WHO's constitution or through simpler mechanisms. Either way, structural governance reforms would need to be accompanied by complementary changes in culture that support strengthened political decision-making and scientific independence. States' inability to act on WHO's institutional design challenges will only lead them and non-state actors to continue bypassing the organization through the creation of new entities as they have done over the last 15 years. The key will be to mobilize those advocates and decision-makers who have the audacity to demand more from WHO and convince member states to elevate their ambitions in current WHO reform efforts. Continued progress in global health depends on it.

  6. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  7. Gender, religion and democratic politics in India.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zoya

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of identity politics on gender equality. More specifically it explores the paradoxical and complex relationship of religion and politics in a multi-religious society and the complicated ways in which women's activism has both reinforced and challenged their gender identities. Contrary to the argument that religious politics does not always negate gender equality, the article argues that the Hindu religious politics and women's activism associated with it provides a compelling example of the instrumentalisation of women to accomplish the political goals of the Hindu right. It also examines the approach and strategies of influential political parties, women's organisations and Muslim women's groups towards legal reform and the contested issue of a uniform civil code. Against those who argue that, in the current communal conjuncture, reform within Muslim personal laws or Islamic feminism is the best strategy for enhancing the scope of Muslim women's rights, the article argues that such an approach tends to freeze identities within religious boundaries. It shows how women's and minority rights are used within the politics of religion to sideline the agenda of women's rights. PMID:20857570

  8. Gender, religion and democratic politics in India.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zoya

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of identity politics on gender equality. More specifically it explores the paradoxical and complex relationship of religion and politics in a multi-religious society and the complicated ways in which women's activism has both reinforced and challenged their gender identities. Contrary to the argument that religious politics does not always negate gender equality, the article argues that the Hindu religious politics and women's activism associated with it provides a compelling example of the instrumentalisation of women to accomplish the political goals of the Hindu right. It also examines the approach and strategies of influential political parties, women's organisations and Muslim women's groups towards legal reform and the contested issue of a uniform civil code. Against those who argue that, in the current communal conjuncture, reform within Muslim personal laws or Islamic feminism is the best strategy for enhancing the scope of Muslim women's rights, the article argues that such an approach tends to freeze identities within religious boundaries. It shows how women's and minority rights are used within the politics of religion to sideline the agenda of women's rights.

  9. Rekindling reform--how goes business?

    PubMed

    Maher, Walter B

    2003-01-01

    Employers were a major cause of the failure of President Clinton's Health Security bill. This did not have to be so. The substantive and political factors that caused employers to turn against the Clinton Plan could prove instructive in the next reform effort. The unwillingness of employers who do provide benefits to engage seriously in the struggle over health care reform contributes to maintaining the status quo that penalizes them while rewarding employers who fail to provide coverage. The lessons that can be learned from the Clinton Plan debate, if heeded by both employers and health reform advocates, raise hope that key elements of the business community can play a positive role in the next comprehensive health reform effort.

  10. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance.

  11. Political bugs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  12. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  13. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  14. Political model of social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Acemoglu, Daron; Egorov, Georgy; Sonin, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Almost all democratic societies evolved socially and politically out of authoritarian and nondemocratic regimes. These changes not only altered the allocation of economic resources in society but also the structure of political power. In this paper, we develop a framework for studying the dynamics of political and social change. The society consists of agents that care about current and future social arrangements and economic allocations; allocation of political power determines who has the capacity to implement changes in economic allocations and future allocations of power. The set of available social rules and allocations at any point in time is stochastic. We show that political and social change may happen without any stochastic shocks or as a result of a shock destabilizing an otherwise stable social arrangement. Crucially, the process of social change is contingent (and history-dependent): the timing and sequence of stochastic events determine the long-run equilibrium social arrangements. For example, the extent of democratization may depend on how early uncertainty about the set of feasible reforms in the future is resolved. PMID:22198760

  15. Constructivism and the Neoliberal Agenda in the Spanish Curriculum Reform of the 1980s and 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Encarna

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the assumption underlying most education reforms that constructivism is politically neutral and intrinsically democratic. It makes this argument by examining the curriculum reform in Spain during the 1980s and 1990s in light of the neoliberal politics that the country was experiencing at that time. This study employs the…

  16. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  17. Metropolitan reform in Allegheny County: the local failure of National Urban Reform Advocacy, 1920-1929.

    PubMed

    Glass, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    During the 1920-1929 period, the Civic Club of Allegheny County supported political consolidation of the county's municipalities and townships. Civic Club leaders sought boundary reform to tackle perceived social problems and political inefficiencies in the Pittsburgh region. This policy was aligned with a national network of Progressive urban reformers, some of whom guided the Civic Club's plans. These reform efforts culminated in the 1929 Metropolitan Charter, which was rejected by Allegheny County voters. Traditional explanations of this failed vote emphasize the high threshold for success of the charter. However, such accounts ignore the apparent disjunction between the national perception of regional problems and the local reception of recommended solutions. Reform advocates were unable to adapt national Progressive theories to the local context of Allegheny County. This article first describes the national network of Progressive Era research that prescribed metropolitan solutions for urban problems in cities such as Pittsburgh. The article then examines attempts by the Civic Club of Allegheny County to introduce these theories to Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The failure of the 1929 Metropolitan Charter is reevaluated, and the implications of these events for current proponents of metropolitanism and political reform are discussed.

  18. Dutch research reforms cause a stir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Martijn

    2015-02-01

    All 69 winners of the Spinoza prize - the highest award in Dutch science - have signed a petition against proposed reforms to the country's leading funding agency, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  19. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming from the…

  20. ``Political'' Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  1. The Reform of Secondary Education in Indonesia during the 1990s: Basic Education Expansion and Quality Improvement through Curriculum Decentralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeom, Min-Ho; Acedo, Clementina; Utomo, Erry

    2002-01-01

    Case study of two main secondary education reforms in Indonesia in the 1990s: Expansion of basic education and the decentralization of curriculum. Discusses the social, political, and economic trends in the 1990s, context of the secondary education reforms, and the rationale for the reforms. Focuses on the curriculum decentralization design and…

  2. Reforming Again: Now Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Educational reform responds to local and national pressures to improve educational outcomes, and reform efforts cycle as similar pressures recur. Currently, reform efforts focus on teachers, even though confidence in a host of American social institutions is dropping. One of the most widespread reforms regarding teachers is the…

  3. The origins of political electricity: Market failure or political opportunism?

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.L. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The current debate over restructuring the electric industry, which includes such issues as displacing the regulatory covenant, repealing the Public Utility Holding Company Act, and privatizing municipal power systems, the Rural Utilities Service (formerly Rural Electrification Administration), and federally owned power systems, makes a look back at the origins of political electricity relevant. The thesis of this essay, that government intervention into electric markets was not the result of market failures but, rather, represented business and political opportunism, suggests that the intellectual and empirical case for market-oriented reform is even stronger than would otherwise be the case. A major theme of applied political economy is the dynamics of government intervention in the marketplace. Because interventions are often related, an analytical distinction can be made between basis point and cumulative intervention. Basis point regulation, taxation, or subsidizaion is the opening government intervention into a market setting; cumulative intervention is further regulation, taxation, or subsidization that is attributable to the effects of prior (basis point or cumulative) intervention. The origins and maturation of political electricity, as will be seen, are interpretable through this theoretical framework.

  4. Minorities, the Poor and School Finance Reform. Vol. 2: The Impact of Texas' 1975 School Finance Reform on Poor and Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brischetto, Robert

    As part of a nine-volume, six-state study of the impact of school finance reforms on minorities and the poor, the author examines the history and effects of finance reform in Texas. He presents a political and socioeconomic profile of the state and discusses past Texas school financing, the role of the Rodriguez v. San Antonio Independent School…

  5. [Theory and practice of the health systems reforms: the cases of Brazil and Mexico].

    PubMed

    Abrantes Pego, Raquel; Almeida, Celia

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of public health experts in the contemporary health sector reform process. The authors discuss the issue based on the case of Brazil and Mexico, where a group of public health specialists have oriented their participation to influence the conflict concerning health policy reform in the respective countries. One approach has been to develop a new cognitive framework for technical health sector reform projects viewed as policy proposals with technical content. The purpose is to demonstrate how these specialists have managed to influence the national debate over health sector reform when the technical and scientific discussion leaves the academic sphere and reaches the social and political realm. The authors contend that this occurs because such technical and scientific knowledge has been postulated (independently of its intrinsic value) as a political and ideological alternative platform for sustaining a health sector reform proposal which, once transformed into a policy project, has served to aggregate certain political and social forces.

  6. Integration of care systems in Portugal: anatomy of recent reforms

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silvina; Szczygiel, Nina; Redondo, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated care is increasingly present in the agenda of policy-makers, health professionals and researchers as a way to improve care services in relation to access, quality, user satisfaction and efficiency. These are overarching objectives of most sectoral reforms. However, health care and social care services and systems are more and more dependent on the performance of each other, imposing the logic of network. Demographic, epidemiologic and cultural changes result in pressure to increase efficiency and efficacy of services and organisations in both sectors and that is why integrated care has become so relevant in the last years. Methods We first used concept maps to organise and systematise information that we had gathered through deep literature review in order to set a framework where to base the subsequent work. Then, we interviewed informants at several levels of the health and social care systems and we built a list of major recent reforms addressing integrated care in Portugal. In a third step, we conducted two independent focus groups where those reforms were discussed and evaluated within the context of the concepts and frameworks identified from the literature. Results were confronted and reconciled, giving place to a list of requisites and guidelines that oriented further search for documentation on those reforms. Results Several important health reforms are in course in primary and hospital care in Portugal, while a so-called third level of care has been introduced with the launch of the National Network of Long-Term Integrated Care (RNCCI – Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados). The social care sector has itself been a subject of alternative models springing from opposite political orientations. All these changes are having repercussions on the way the systems work with each other as they are leading to ongoing and ill-evaluated reformulations on the way they are governed, financed, structured and operated. Conclusions Care

  7. American Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This text presents high school students with up-to-date findings of social scientists about political behavior in order to increase their political knowledge and sophistication. Case studies which describe the various political activities of typical citizens and political leaders are used throughout the work. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  8. Nuclear politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranson, John

    2009-04-01

    The sentiments expressed by Sidney Drell in his forum article "The nuclear threat: a new start" (February pp16-17) are laudable, but it was disappointing to find this almost entirely political story in isolation. The article, which outlined the prospects for reducing weapons stockpiles under the new US administration, would have been more pertinent as an introduction to a series describing the technology used in detecting nuclear-testing activity. It would have been interesting to discuss the specific equipment and methods used, together with the analysis and correlation techniques - along with an indication of how sensitive and reliable they are (if the information is not classified). It is far easier to detect an explosive event than it is to detect and quantify weapons stores, which is a key factor for any negotiated solution. Apart from deductions based on actual inspection and satellite surveillance, are there other techniques that can be applied to this issue?

  9. Health reforms as examples of multilevel interventions in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Flood, Ann B; Fennell, Mary L; Devers, Kelly J

    2012-05-01

    To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation's health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform.

  10. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and anticipates…

  11. Beyond Reform: Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jill

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) is not a reform movement. To reform is to make a thing again; reformation implies a stasis that doesn't deliver enough for the educational future. This issue of Horace demonstrates that Essential schools and the districts and networks that support them are at various points in the journey of transformation,…

  12. Sputnik Reform Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    Educational reforms being called for in the 1980's are compared to reforms of the 1950's. The Sputnik-inspired quest for quality called for reform in the content and structure of basic subjects. Current reports say that what educators are doing in the basic subjects is ok, but they need to do more. (RM)

  13. School Reforms in England, Japan, Korea and the U.S.: Policy Variation and Educational Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    Education reform during the last 2 decades has been shaped by the forces of growing public distrust of educational bureaucracies in a climate of rapid political change and growing international competition in the context of a global economy. Major school reforms in four selected industrial countries that differ significantly in terms of…

  14. Instructors' Perceptions of the Bologna Model of Higher Education Reform in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mngo, Zachary Y.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Statement. The literature on education in Cameroon suggests that there is a deep-rooted history of resistance to educational reform and harmonization both at the K12 and higher education levels. Attempts by political and educational leaders to reform and harmonize the two very distinct systems of education, inherited from former colonizers…

  15. The Real Intentions of Zhang Bojun and Other Rightists in Opposing Writing Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Que, Wei

    1977-01-01

    Evaluates the extent to which political self-interest motivates Chinese scholars who oppose the work of the Chinese Communist Party's Committee for Writing Reform. Concludes that those opposed to writing reform are wrongfully using the issue to incite intellectuals to oppose the Communist Party and the Chinese government. (Author/DB)

  16. Thirty Years of Reform and Opening Up: Teaching International Relations in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Patrice C.; Zou, Yue

    2011-01-01

    In 1978, Deng Xiaoping declared that China's future depended on "gaige kaifang" (reform and opening up to the West). By any standard, China has reformed its economic system and prospered handsomely by integrating into the world economy. With less fanfare, China has taken steps to restructure its political system and committed substantial resources…

  17. School Finance Reform in a Growing Economy: Using the Growth Dividend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Kalman

    2000-01-01

    lllinois's school finance reform goals may be achieved by providing property tax relief and increasing state funding out of income tax receipts, relying primarily on the state's growth dividend. Distributing the largesse of growth to poor districts over time minimizes richer citizens' sense of fiscal loss, making reform more politically palatable.…

  18. School Finance Reform in a Growing Economy: Using the Growth Dividend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Kalman; Scott, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a proposal to achieve major finance reform goals by providing property tax relief and increasing state funding out of income-tax receipts, relying on Illinois' growth dividend. The plan is funded by proportional taxes and would make school reform more politically palatable to affluent taxpayers. (28 footnotes) (MLH)

  19. Teaching Youngsters About Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunkins, Francis P.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses four possible approaches for teaching political science in the classroom, including analyzing the classroom as a political arena, employing case studies, using simulation games, and orchestrating encounters with political figures. (Author/JG)

  20. Seeing difference: market health reform in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, A

    1998-02-01

    The comparative literature on health care reform has identified a convergence upon market models as nations respond to similar economic, technological, social, and demographic pressures. In this article I first challenge the conventional view by comparing "market" reforms of the late 1980s and early 1990s in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Though these nations did indeed converge upon the instrument of the market incentive, there was considerable divergence in the content and aims of their reform strategies. These nations designed their respective markets to make different tradeoffs among competing values. While all three exploited the principle of provider competition, they appointed different actors to judge the contest: the cost-conscious public authority in the United Kingdom, the quality-conscious patient in Sweden, and the optimizing consumer in the Netherlands. I argue that these countries were thus using common market tools to promote different health policy goals. Distinguishing these reforms further is the fact that--particularly in the Netherlands--there was a gap between market plans and the reality of implemented change. I then ask why nations responded so differently to such similar objective pressures. My contention is that this divergence reflects, in part, the different ideological orientations of the ruling party or coalition in each nation. Yet divergence is also the result of differences in both the design of political institutions and the structure of the pre-reform health system in each country.

  1. Professional Societies, Political Action Committees, and Party Preferences.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Steven L; Barsky, Carol L; Powell, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Societies representing physician specialties and other health care personnel commonly have political action committees (PACs). These PACs seek to advance their members' interests through advocacy and campaign contributions. We examined contribution data for health care workers' PACs from the 2010 to 2012 election cycles and found that higher annual income was strongly associated with greater giving to Republican candidates. Patterns of giving may offer insights into various medical workers' party preferences, political leanings, and views of health care reform.

  2. School Reform and Related Issues. Proceedings of the Conference of the University Urban Schools National Task Force (5th, Palm Beach, Florida, November 11-12, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossone, Richard M., Ed.; Polishook, Irwin, Ed.

    The theme of the conference reported on here was school reform and related issues. An introductory statement, "Thoughts on School Reform," by Jerome Bruner, and a list of conference participants are followed by a group of papers on education and politics. The papers are "Reform and Partnership in Education," by Albert Shanker; "Mandating…

  3. Education Reform in Hong Kong: The ``Through-Road'' Model and its Societal Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Anita Y. K.; Wong, Yiu-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Although Hong Kong's education system has long been criticized as lacking in creativity and over-emphasising rote learning, on the whole it has served Hong Kong well in the past years, breeding outstanding business, academic and political leaders who continue to maintain Hong Kong's competitive edge. The traditional elite schools have played a crucial role in the process. The education reform, which is still on-going, aims to overhaul the entire system by introducing the "through-road" model. To accomplish this, some mechanisms need to be changed. J.P. Farrell's concepts of equality and equity, C.W. Mills' concept of elitism, and P. Bourdieu and J. Coleman's concepts of cultural and social capital will be applied to analyse the consequences of the reform. The paper argues that the education reform may be well-intentioned in eliminating some elements of inequality and inequity in education, but that this comes at the expense of Hong Kong's cultural and social capital and leads to the development of new forms of inequality.

  4. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  5. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights." PMID:24684150

  6. Challenging the neoliberal trend: the Venezuelan health care reform alternative.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Rueda, Sergio; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented to varying degrees health care sector reforms underpinned by a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care as less of a social right and more of a market commodity. These health care sector reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states prescribed consistently by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program called Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighbourhood). In this article, we introduce Misión Barrio Adentro in its historical, political, and economic contexts. We begin by analyzing Latin American neoliberal health sector reforms in their political economic context, with a focus on Venezuela. The analysis reveals that the major beneficiaries of both broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states and neoliberal health reforms have been transnational capital interests and domestic Latin American elites. We then provide a detailed description of Misión Barrio Adentro as a challenge to neoliberalism in health care in its political economic context, noting the role played in its development by popular resistance to neoliberalism and the unique international cooperation model upon which it is based. Finally, we suggest that the Venezuelan experience may offer valuable lessons not only to other low- to middle-income countries, but also to countries such as Canada.

  7. Paradoxical Images of the Student in Spanish Educational Reforms (1990-2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraco, Juan Carlos Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    Examines contradictory images of the student's role and childhood in general that appear in discourses concerning educational reform in Spain. Draws upon interviews with diverse participants in the politics of Spanish education that were conducted as part of a research project, also analyzing Spanish education politics since 1996. Discuses the…

  8. Getting beyond the Facts: Reforming California School Finance. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersin, Alan; Kirst, Michael W.; Liu, Goodwin

    2008-01-01

    California's school finance system is long overdue for reform. The authors propose a new system that is more rational, more equitable, and, they believe, politically feasible. At its core, their proposal aims to link district revenue to student needs and regional costs while ensuring that all districts are held harmless at current funding levels.…

  9. Understanding electricity market reforms and the case of Philippine deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago, Andrea; Roxas, Fernando

    2010-03-15

    The experience of the Philippines offers lessons that should be relevant to any country seeking to deregulate its power industry. Regardless of structure, consumers must face the real price of electricity production and delivery that is closer to marginal cost. Politically motivated prices merely shift the burden from ratepayers to taxpayers. And any reform should work within a reasonable timetable. (author)

  10. R. H. Tawney and the Reform of the Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Tom; Taylor, Richard

    2008-01-01

    R. H. Tawney was a major figure in shaping both the philosophy and the political practice of the British Labour Party. His involvement was also remarkably lengthy, and his influence lasting. The pursuit of equality, particularly through educational reform and restructuring, lay at the heart of his concerns. This paper analyses both Tawney's…

  11. Negotiating for Change: Women's Movements and Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shu-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…

  12. Selected Readings on School Reform. Vol. 2, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Selected current readings in the area of school reform are presented. Seven selections in "The Front Lines" focus on current developments in educational change in the political arena. A section on "Charter Schools" contains eight readings on the development and implementation of charter schools. A section titled "School Choice" contains six essays…

  13. Urban School Reform, Family Support, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kiersten; Anyon, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Teachers and other education professionals find themselves in schools and districts bombarded by reforms--each one purporting to improve student achievement, particularly in reading and mathematics. This article lays the political economic groundwork of student achievement in urban areas in an attempt to contextualize the studies of literacy in…

  14. Influence of Social Reform Ideologies on Industrial/Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireh, Maduakolam

    2016-01-01

    The founding of industrial/technology education in Ameria represents the convergence of many influences dating back to the pre-industrial revolution era. Social reform movement, one of these influences, set out to change conditions considered to be causes of poverty and other social problems through active engagements in political, educational,…

  15. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  16. Attitudes to abortion in the era of reform: evidence from the Abortion Law Reform Association correspondence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma L

    2011-01-01

    This article examines letters sent by members of the general public to the Abortion Law Reform Association (ALRA) in the decade immediately before the 1967 Abortion Act. It shows how a voluntary organisation, in their aim of supporting a specific cause of unclear legality, called forth correspondence from those in need. In detailing the personal predicaments of those facing an unwanted pregnancy, this body of correspondence was readily deployed by ALRA in their efforts to mobilise support for abortion law reform, thus exercising a political function. A close examination of the content of the letters and the epistolary strategies adopted by their writers reveals that as much as they were a lobbying tool for changes in abortion law, these letters were discursively shaped by debates surrounding that very reform.

  17. Language and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  18. Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political knowledge…

  19. Public pension reform in Japan.

    PubMed

    Liu, L

    2000-01-01

    The March 2000 pension reform in Japan focused on the long-term financial sustainability of the country's two-tiered public pension system. The government opted for incremental changes in order to maintain pension solvency through 2060. Those changes could reduce future pension funding liability by an estimated one-third. Further, the decision to avoid structural reforms of its pension programs was based on fiscal considerations. Expanding general revenue funding for the first tier from the current share of one-third to cover the entire cost would require increases in the consumption tax that proved to be politically unacceptable. Fully privatizing the second, earnings-related tier would entail transition costs too great to bear at a time of rising budget deficits. In addition, the Japanese public generally supported the sharing of financial burden for public pension programs through a combination of benefit cuts, a raise in the pensionable age, and contribution rate increases. If current cost projections prove to be inaccurate, future pension reviews (scheduled every 5 years) will give the government further opportunity to fine-tune program changes.

  20. "Vergara v. State of California": A Political Analysis and Implications for Principal Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabron, Lolita A.; Irby, Beverly J.

    2015-01-01

    This political analysis uses the Vergara case as an example of how principals can be dynamic leaders who are well prepared for and engaged in their political terrain. This will be important to decrease judicial dependency and legislative interference to better ensure that reform begins with those closest to the problem.

  1. Political Correctness and Its Challenge to Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Scott M.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses speech codes, admissions policies, and curriculum reform as areas of great debate and complication as they relate to political correctness (PC). Although its main goal has been to increase diversity awareness on campus, the author posits PC has taken a superficial approach to complex debates. (JBJ)

  2. Political Context of Education Finance in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.

    2008-01-01

    The political landscape in school finance has undergone significant changes in the United States in recent years. It was only a generation ago that the state government assumed the primary funding responsibility in public schools, public agencies at the state and local level "monopolized" service delivery, and many reform initiatives did not…

  3. The Forest Indians in the Present Political Situation of Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    The article focuses on tribal minorities (American Indians) of the Peruvian tropical forest from the point of view of the political circumstances and the general administrative conditions of the country. In 1968 the revolutionary military government initiated a series of structural reforms which aimed at transforming Peru. This article poses and…

  4. The Politics of 'Lifelong Learning' in Post-1997 Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article is concerned with the politics of lifelong learning policy in post-1997 Hong Kong (HK). The paper is in four parts. Continuing Education, recast as 'lifelong learning', is to be the cornerstone of the post-Handover education reform agenda. The lineaments of a familiar discourse are evident in the Education Commission policy documents.…

  5. Health care reform in the new South Africa.

    PubMed

    Benatar, S R

    1997-03-20

    The social transition which must follow the political transition in South Africa will pose major challenges for many decades. While it clear that inequities must be reduced, it is less clear how to effectively and sustainably achieve that end, especially given current rapid population growth and minimal additional resources in an economy which is growing less rapidly than hoped for by the new government. Health care reform is one of the country's many challenges. This paper provides insight into the shift from the conventional biomedical model of health care to the primary health care approach within a fixed public health budget. Obstacles to change, threats to academic activities, the 1980s and 1990s, political and social transition, health care reform since 1994, academic medicine and medical education, choices facing society, movement from political apartheid to economic apartheid, and public awareness are described.

  6. Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panfilova, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

  7. Law & School Reform: Six Strategies for Promoting Educational Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heubert, Jay P., Ed.

    This book describes the growing involvement of lawyers in America's public schools in the past half century. It discusses comparatively what leading educators and lawyers believe to be the most important law-driven school reforms and examines these reform efforts from the perspectives of law, education, research, and practice. It also considers…

  8. Health care reform and changes: the Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Merican, Mohd Ismail; bin Yon, Rohaizat

    2002-01-01

    Health care reform is an intentional, sustained and systematic process of structural change to one or more health subsystems to improve efficiency, effectiveness, patient choices and equity. Health care all over the world is continuously reforming with time. Health care reform has become an increasingly important agenda for policy change in both developed and developing countries including Malaysia. This paper provides an overview of the Malaysian health care system, its achievements, and issues and challenges leading to ongoing reform towards a more efficient and equitable health care system that possess a better quality of life for the population.

  9. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  10. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'.

  11. The sex reform movement and eugenics in interwar Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawin, Magdalena

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.

  12. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-12-15

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires

  13. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires

  14. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  15. An introduction to oral health care reform.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Kristen L

    2009-07-01

    Oral health care reform is made up of several components, but access to care is central. Health care reform will occur in some fashion at some point, and how it will impact the entire dental sector is unclear. In the short term, there is likely to be a dental component during the reauthorization of State Children's Health Insurance Program in early 2009, and several federal oral health bills are expected to be reintroduced as well. Additional public funding for new programs and program expansions remains questionable, as federal funding will be tight. Fiscal conservancy will be occurring in the states as well; however, various proposals to expand dental hygienists' duties are likely, as are proposals related to student grants for dental schools. Regardless of one's political stance, the profile of oral health care has been elevated, offering countless opportunities for improvement in the oral health of the nation. PMID:19482130

  16. Where Will LEAD Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    After setting forth eight assumptions concerning the education of educational administrators, findings about the Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD) program are discussed. The analysis is based on the first-year applications, telephone conversations with staff at a majority of the project sites, and additional material…

  17. The Lessons of Historical Reform Movements: The Racism Mental Health Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourie, Norman; Walden, Daniel

    The history of reform and the origins of unrest in America are briefly reviewed. Concurrent reform streams of the past are examined in terms of an emerging awareness of the relationship between racism and poverty and social environment. The mental health and social welfare movements paralleled this recognition, but did not lead the new reform.…

  18. Thinking about Tax Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boskin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

  19. Small Schools Reform Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Beth M.; Berghoff, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored complicated personal narratives of school reform generated by participants in response to a particular small schools reform initiative. Narrative data was dialogically generated in interviews with nine past participants of an urban high school conversion project planned and implemented over a span of five years toward the goal…

  20. Reform: To What End?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The author looks at school reform in light of his experiences documenting effective public education in classrooms across the United States. Observing in an inner-city 1st grade classroom, he sees a teacher who is knowledgeable, resourceful, and particularly effective with her students. He notes that none of the current high-profile reform ideas…

  1. School Reform. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue addresses school reform, focusing on accountability, attrition, public-supported private education, equitable education, and schoolwide reform. "School-Student Performance and Accountability" (Jose A. Cardenas) discusses what constitutes good performance in school; the shifting emphasis among the input, output, and process of…

  2. Educational Reform in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butorac, Marylin M.; First, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    Oklahoma's answer to the cry for reform and involvement in education emerged as House Bill 1017, a comprehensive $223 million school reform and tax act. This article reviews the HR 1017 story, focusing on its legislative enactment history and offering a content analysis of mandated changes in finance, personnel, governance, student assessment,…

  3. Tax Reform & University Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John Holt

    This brochure discusses the implications of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 for university and college development officers charged with the responsibility for solicitation of gifts, bequests and grants from foundations. The solicitation of deferred gifts, bequests and grants from foundations is discussed in chapter one in relation to tax reform and…

  4. Adolescent Political Education and Political Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewellen, James R.

    This research report studies the impact of informal extracurricular activities and formal social studies curriculum on the political socialization process of high school students. The hypothesis is that involvement in extracurricular activities, school partisan political activities, and exposure to formal course work in social studies is…

  5. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world’s nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

  6. [The absence of stewardship in the Chilean health authority after the 2004 health reform].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Tania; Sánchez, Sergio

    2014-11-26

    Stewardship is the most important political function of a health system. It is a government responsibility carried out by the health authority. Among other dimensions, it is also a meta-function that includes conduction and regulation. The Health Authority and Management Act, which came about from the health reform of 2004, separated the functions of service provision and stewardship with the aim of strengthening the role of the health authority. However, the current structure of the health system contains overlapping functions between the different entities that leads to lack of coordination and inconsistencies, and a greater weight on individual health actions at the expense of collective ones. Consequently, a properly funded national health strategy to improve the health of the population is missing. Additionally, the components of citizen participation and governance are weak. It is necessary, therefore, to revisit the Chilean health structure in order to develop one that truly enables the exercise of the health authority’s stewardship role.

  7. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  8. Health care reform in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hackler, C

    1993-06-01

    The need for change in the system of health care delivery in the United States has finally emerged as a political issue alongside continuing budget deficits, a growing national debt, declining educational outcomes, and decreased competitiveness of American business in the global economy. The two most pressing health care problems at the present time are rapidly increasing costs and lack of access to the system. A more distant but potentially more recalcitrant problem is the ageing of our population. This paper outlines and discusses some of the options for reform which are currently under consideration in the United States. PMID:10134356

  9. Reform, Inequalities of Process and the Transformative Potential of Communities of Practice in the Pre-School Sector of England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The integration of care and education across pre-school sectors of several European countries is currently a key policy priority. In England this necessitates reform aimed at re-modelling a traditionally hierarchical and divided workforce. Drawing on research with early years professionals, this article explores the micro-politics of reform with a…

  10. Pushing up against the Limit-Horizon of Educational Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Popular Education Reform Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ashlee; Aronson, Brittany; Ellison, Scott; Fairchild-Keyes, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    With this article, we work to identify the limit-horizon of possible ideas, practices, and ways of talking about education reform and schooling via a critical discourse analysis of selected popular political and governmental texts. To do so, we explore the popular discourse of education reform in the United States through our analyses of three…

  11. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    fundamental reforms in public education is challenging. The coalition must be able to reach consensus on a vision of reform and, then, sustain the reform over an extended period of time. This is not easy when power and authority are highly fragmented (and perhaps at odds), where interest groups live or die on confromtation politics, when public and private sectors exhibit a basic distrust of one another, and when everyone is an expert--real or imagined--on topics more-or-less related to education. In addition, the SSI's are operating in a turbulent climate. Policy makers may be working on standards-based reforms in K-12 education at the same time they are seeking efficiencies in state government, consider deregulation, and experiment with integrated social services. Criminal justice, health, and welfare are competing in state capitols for the resources required to bring about education reforms. And, within this shifting policy landscape, the SSI's are seeking higher priority for mathematics and science, as well as attempting to develop the infrastructure and capacity to support change in the schools. Simply keeping mathematics and science education high on the agenda of state policy-makers is a challenge. Each of these component strategies of the SSI's is important. The critical question is whether, in a given state, the SSI strategies, when combined with other state reform initiatives, form a coherent, comprehensive plan for improving public education. While the oldest of the SSI's are only in their fourth year of activity, it is already clear that the reforms they are seeking will take longer than five years to accomplish. (The SSI's are supported by five-year grants from the NSF.) The instructional reforms advocated by the SSI's require time to implement, and once in place, additional time to produce results. Elected officials often focus on the short-term, and they can become impatient when the results are slow. There appears to be no ready solution to the conflict

  12. Transcendentalism and the Promise of Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Janette E.

    The philosophy of Transcendentalism developed in the early nineteenth century among such thinkers as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, Theodore Parker, George Ripley, Bronson Alcott, and Caleb Sprague Henry. Transcendentalism emphasized the need for social reform that would lead the individual to self-reliance, and education…

  13. China at the Crossroads: Reform after Tiananmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven M.

    1992-01-01

    This publication analyzes the reform movement in China before and after the Tiananmen Square demonstrations of 1989. In the aftermath of the cold war and because of recent mutual hostility, U.S.-Chinese relations are at a critical juncture. The events leading up to and encompassing the demonstrations in Tiananmen Square and the brutal manner in…

  14. Education Reform and Competency-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Yong-lin

    2007-01-01

    The core purpose of this paper is to describe a new educational paradigm as well as possible directions and tasks for education reform in the 21st century. The present-day education system has failed to nurture the kind of creative people who can play leading roles in development or to produce citizens of a good character and democratic…

  15. On the Road to Reform: A Sociocultural Interpretation of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I…

  16. Teaching Politically Correct Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsehelska, Maryna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…

  17. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  18. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  19. What is Political Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  20. Political Education in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  1. Brokerage, Political Opportunity, and Protest in Venezuelan Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two episodes of contention in the ongoing conflict between the Venezuelan government and the country's autonomous universities. In August 2009, Venezuela's National Assembly approved and implemented the controversial Organic Education Law. Sixteen months later, the Assembly approved the similarly polarizing Law of University…

  2. An Exploration of Foreign Language Teachers' Beliefs about Curriculum Innovation in Algeria: A Socio-Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellalem, Fouzi

    2008-01-01

    Recent political and economic developments in Algeria have brought about reforms of the educational system. A new curriculum was introduced as part of these reforms. This study explores the beliefs of French and English school teachers about curriculum innovation in Algeria. The study is positioned in the qualitative research tradition and looks…

  3. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    PubMed

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War. PMID:10643131

  4. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOEpatents

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  5. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  6. On medicine and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451

  7. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  8. American Political Behavior. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This textbook is designed to increase political knowledge and sophistication about the U.S. political system. The volume consisting of five units tries to capture the vitality and drama of politics through the use of cases that describe the political activities of typical citizens and political leaders. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  9. The politics of researching global health politics

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  10. Political Information Content and Children's Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Karin L.; Ostroff, David H.

    1981-01-01

    A content analysis of television programs presented during times likely to have high proportions of children in the audience indicated that entertainment programs contain messages about the political system which are often negative or inaccurate. (Author/MER)

  11. Evidence as Source of Power in School Reforms: The Quest for the Extension of Compulsory Education in Zurich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imlig, Flavian; Ruoss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of evidence in educational policy and politics, and how this use has changed over time. Using an analytical framework that combines research approaches from both political and educational science, evidence-related arguments in two major school reforms in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland are described. In…

  12. Incentive Structures for Professors in Germany and the United States: Implications for Cross-National Borrowing in Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Egon; Opitz, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The international competitiveness of national higher education systems is an important political issue in many countries. These politics drive some governments to reform their systems by borrowing elements from societies with systems thought to be superior. These authors argue that a simple transfer of isolated elements from one higher education…

  13. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  14. Ritualism, Privilege, and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefferlin, JB Lon

    1970-01-01

    Revised version of paper given at National Conference on Higher Education in March 1970, on the need to break away from routine and ritual in higher education insitutions and establish educational and institutional reforms. (IR)

  15. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  16. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented. PMID:21709974

  17. Reformer Fuel Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most

  18. The road to recovery: Egypt's healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    Haley, Donald Robert; Bég, Sama A

    2012-01-01

    As many industrial and third-world countries recover from the severe economic crisis of a global recession, they continue to struggle with its negative effect on their healthcare systems. Healthcare reform has become a leading policy agenda item for most countries. This is especially true for countries in the developing world who are struggling to allocate very limited resources to meet the growing health needs of their residents and the expectations of global health. In the late 1990s, the Egyptian government, in conjunction with the United States Agency for International Development, initiated a Health Sector Reform Program (HSRP) to completely reform the way healthcare was financed, organized and delivered with the intent to extend healthcare coverage to all of its citizens. Although some successes have resulted from the HSRP, Egypt's new government leaders will need to be informed on policies that may more effectively improve the health of the Egyptian population. PMID:21638310

  19. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  20. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to determine lead sources, educating family members about lead poisoning , and instituting follow-up testing to monitor the ... high levels of lead, see the article on Lead Poisoning . The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has ...

  1. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  2. Cross-Border Transitions: Navigating Conflict and Political Change through Community Education Practices in Myanmar and the Thai Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maber, Elizabeth J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Political oscillations in Myanmar and Thailand, between militarisation and democratic reform, have prompted a rapid renegotiation of the alignments, goals and priorities of non-state education providers, both international and community-based, along the two countries' border. This paper explores the responses to shifts in political environment…

  3. Access to Basic Education in Ghana: Politics, Policies and Progress. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph examines the history and politics of educational reform in Ghana. Using data from interviews conducted with senior policy-makers, implementers and researchers, as well as documentary sources, to explore the drivers and inhibitors of change at the political, bureaucratic and grass-roots levels. The monograph explores the nature of…

  4. On the road to reform: a sociocultural interpretation of reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-09-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I address some familiar areas that must be considered when teachers undertake curriculum reform and how science educators may fulfill the role of facilitator and advocate in the support of teachers on the road to reform. The commentary focuses on how Barma retells the story through the lens of activity theory.

  5. Legislating delivery system reform: a 30,000-foot view of the 800-pound gorilla.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M

    2007-01-01

    Between 1993 and today, health policy experts have reached consensus that quality assurance, cost discipline, and equitable access depend on delivering health care at times, in places, and in ways much different from those to which we are accustomed. The challenge for the next generation of health reformers is to improve coverage by improving care. This can happen only if reform legislation has a theory for success, collective social meaning, and political champions.

  6. Getting Politically Active

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Projects can, and do, succeed because of politics. And they can fail due to politics, as well. Politics does not have to be a dirty word, if it means working closely and openly with customers and stakeholder s; it is an essential approach that requires continuous dedication of time and attention. Project management is a people industry. Gainin g the trust of your followers will grant you more influence than any formal authority.

  7. Multiple Aims in the Development of a Major Reform of the National Curriculum for Science in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Jim; Banner, Indira

    2011-03-01

    In the context of a major reform of the school science curriculum for 14-16-year-olds in England, we examine the aims ascribed to the reform, the stakeholders involved, and the roles of differing values and authority in its development. This reform includes an emphasis on socioscientific issues and the nature of science; curriculum trends of international relevance. Our analysis identifies largely 'instrumental' aims, with little emphasis on 'intrinsic' aims and associated values. We identify five broad categories of stakeholders focusing on different aims with, for example, a social, individual, political, or economic emphasis. We suggest that curriculum development projects reflecting largely social and individual aims were appropriated by other stakeholders to serve political and economic aims. We argue that a curriculum reform body representing all stakeholder interests is needed to ensure that multiple aims are considered throughout the curriculum reform process. Within such a body, the differentiated character of the science teaching community would need to be represented.

  8. Astronomy and Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  9. Envy, politics, and age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Henniger, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase "politics of envy" has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177

  10. The primacy of politics: charting the governance of the Papua New Guinea health system since independence.

    PubMed

    Day, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    To chart the course of health governance in Papua New Guinea (PNG) since Independence, this article identifies two arks of public sector administration in PNG. Each was instigated by the passing of an Organic Law. The reform periods presaged by the Organic Law on Provincial Government 1976 (OLPG) and the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and Local-level Governments 1995 (OLPGLLG) have fundamentally transformed the political and administrative structures governing the country, and in particularly those relating to health. Comparing the organization of the government-operated health system during each of these reform periods not only reveals why PNG's health services have struggled to improve since Independence, but also casts light on the key drivers of fundamental reforms in PNG. Ultimately, the exercise illustrates the 'primacy of politics', and why political concerns invariably trump service delivery concerns. PMID:21877576

  11. The primacy of politics: charting the governance of the Papua New Guinea health system since independence.

    PubMed

    Day, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    To chart the course of health governance in Papua New Guinea (PNG) since Independence, this article identifies two arks of public sector administration in PNG. Each was instigated by the passing of an Organic Law. The reform periods presaged by the Organic Law on Provincial Government 1976 (OLPG) and the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and Local-level Governments 1995 (OLPGLLG) have fundamentally transformed the political and administrative structures governing the country, and in particularly those relating to health. Comparing the organization of the government-operated health system during each of these reform periods not only reveals why PNG's health services have struggled to improve since Independence, but also casts light on the key drivers of fundamental reforms in PNG. Ultimately, the exercise illustrates the 'primacy of politics', and why political concerns invariably trump service delivery concerns.

  12. [Health system reforms in South America: an opportunity for UNASUR].

    PubMed

    Gomes-Temporão, José; Faria, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Health systems in South America still support segmentation, privatization and fragmentation. Health reforms of the structural adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s in South America followed different purposes and strategies ranging from privatization, commodification and state intervention for the implementation of a national public health service with universal access as a right of the citizens. Since the 2000s, many countries have expanded social policies, reduced poverty and social inequalities, and improved access to healthcare. This article proposes to discuss the health systems in South America from historical and political backgrounds, and the progress from the reforms in the last three decades. It also presents the three paradigmatic models of reform and their evolution, as well as the contrasts between universal coverage and universal systems. Finally, it presents current strengths and weaknesses of the twelve South American health systems as well as current opportunities and challenges in health for UNASUR. PMID:25597728

  13. Presidents and health reform: from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Barack Obama.

    PubMed

    Morone, James A

    2010-06-01

    The health care reforms that President Barack Obama signed into law in March 2010 were seventy-five years in the making. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt, U.S. presidents have struggled to enact national health care reform; most failed. This article explores the highly charged political landscape in which Obama maneuvered and the skills he brought to bear. It contrasts his accomplishments with the experiences of his Oval Office predecessors. Going forward, implementation poses formidable challenges for Democrats, Republicans, and the political process itself. PMID:20530336

  14. Educational reform and the public: Two case studies of Poland and Saskatchewan (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaproń, Danuta; Stephan, Werner

    1991-09-01

    The involvement of the public in educational reform processes in modern democratic societies primarily serves the purpose of politically legitimizing the reform agenda. This study examines the rationales implicitly or explicitly submitted to the public to explain why educational reforms in the two countries should be endorsed. Although differences in the political culture caution against a hasty comparison of the two case studies, a number of politico-economic similarities allow for a valid juxtaposition. In Poland the context of socio-political and economic renewal prompted the reformers to emphasize the human-capital model which heightened public awareness and participation in the debate surrounding the reform. Public involvement in Saskatchewan was negatively affected for mainly two reasons. First, the government evidently manipulated public input by various means and thereby appears to have predetermined the outcome. Second, the rationale for the reform, based on a free-market model, tightened the linkage between the needs of the labour market and the mandate of the schools. As a result, public interest and participation was greatly diminished.

  15. The politics of water

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, S.

    1993-08-01

    Wars have been waged over oil and gold, but it is water that now poses the greatest potential for provoking conflict among nations-and the greatest need for new guarantees of cooperation. Athough water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Nearly 40 percent of the world's population depends on river systems shared by two or more countries, leading to political hot spots, most critically in the middle east. This article describes in detail the water problems in the middle east, starting with the Jordan River basin, the Golan Heights, and the coastal aquifer, partly polluted. On the Sinai Peninsula the Nile River is the water source for nine countries, and the Tigris-Euphrates, although still providing water in relative abundance, is prey to the failure of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey to reach water-sharing agreements. Discussion includes the possibilities of turning the win-lose situations into win-win situations by appropriate water management and the problem of lack of a clear legal framework for settling disputes.

  16. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... homes. • Most people, especially children, who suffer from lead poisoning are exposed through lead-contaminated household dust or ... and six if they are at risk of lead poisoning (see: ). Who can I call to get more ...

  17. Jury Selection as Political Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowlkes, Diane L.; And Others

    Three political scientists diagnose the current state of political influence on jury selection in political trials, based upon personal experience, upon the literature of political theory, justice, and law, and upon recent action of lawyers, judges, defense committees, and some defendants. Political trials are interpreted as formal examinations of…

  18. The Politics of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Forness, Steven R.

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of the politics of learning disabilities finds that the balance between political and scientific aspects of learning disabilities has been disturbed, with political aspects being overly influential. Discussed in detail are the scientific side of learning disabilities, politics as advocacy, politics as ideology (especially Marxism),…

  19. Federalist flirtations: the politics and execution of health services decentralization for the uninsured population in Mexico, 1985-1995.

    PubMed

    Birn, A E

    1999-01-01

    Around the world health services delivery systems are undergoing decentralization, responding to pressure to increase equity, efficiency, participation, intersectoral collaboration and accountability. This study examines the Mexican health decentralization efforts of the past decade to discern the motivations for the reform, the context for its implementation, the politics of its downfall, and the reform's impact at subnational levels of government. Sparked by economic crisis and pressure from international creditors for fiscal reform; demands for greater democracy, equity, and quality; and technocratic impulses to rationalize health services delivery, the decentralization reform could not overcome the authoritarian centralism of the federal government and its corporatist clients. In the end, even in the most technically capable states, the reform was unable to overcome political obstacles to decentralizing fiscal power, redistributing resources in an equitable fashion, and eliminating the inefficiencies of separate but unequal health systems for social security recipients and the uninsured population. PMID:10874399

  20. Nursing leadership and health sector reform.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, C; Galbally, R

    2001-06-01

    The political, technological and economic changes that have occurred over the past decade are increasingly difficult to manage within the traditional framework of health-care, and the organisation of health-care is seen to need radical reform to sweep away many of the internal barriers that now divide one form of health-care, and one profession, from another. Nursing must equip itself with skills in advocacy and political action to influence the direction the system will take. Nursing currently suffers from a weakness in self-concept that goes hand in hand with a weakness in political status, and nursing leadership must build the foundations for both advocacy for others and self-advocacy for the nursing movement. The profession faces tensions between different conceptions of its role and status, its relationship to medicine, and its relationship to health. Health indices are tightly linked to status, and to trust, hope, and control of one's own life. Can nurses help empower others when they are not particularly good at empowering themselves? What will the role of the nurse be in creating the information flows that will guide people toward health? Nursing's long history of adaptation to an unsettled and negotiated status may mean that it is better fitted to make this adaptation than other more confident disciplines.

  1. Sexuality, Power, and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Nancy C. M.

    The source of contemporary attitudes toward sexuality, power, and politics is found in the literature of the ancient Greeks, specifically, Plato's "Republic" and "Symposium," Aristotle's "Politics," and the plays of Aeschylus and Aristophanes. The "Symposium" can be read as an account of how sexuality can be incorporated into the public life of…

  2. ICTs and Political Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbin, Alice; Courtright, Christina; Davis, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to information and communications technologies (ICTs): (1) theories of ICTs and how they frame political life; (2) normative democratic theory and concepts; (3) e-political life; and (4) research on e-government, e-governance, and e-democracy; (Contains 276 references.) (MES)

  3. Educating for Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that teachers…

  4. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  5. America's Political Cartoon Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, William Ray

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of political cartoons in the United States from the first (Benjamin Franklin's "Unite or Die") in 1754 to the present. Discusses three requirements for effective cartoons, and identifies important cartoonists and their work. Characterizes political cartoons as one of the United States' liveliest, most enjoyable, and permanent…

  6. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  7. The Politics of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gell, Marilyn K.

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the political issues to be discussed at the first White House Conference on Library and Information Services which will focus on citizen control of the information flow in view of developing demands and technology. A desired political result of the conference is the creation of a citizens' lobby. (SW)

  8. [Foreseeable and possible developments of Law 180 and its impact on various forms of psychotherapy. Brief notes on the relationship between psychoanalysis and politics].

    PubMed

    Albarello, B

    1993-09-01

    The author points out that the law of reform of mental health has had a strong influence above all upon the pharmacological field. Finally he makes a few remarks about the connections between the practice of psychiatry and political ideologies.

  9. Public health challenges in the political economy of conflict: the case of Syria.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al

    2015-01-01

    Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides.

  10. Public health challenges in the political economy of conflict: the case of Syria.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al

    2015-01-01

    Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides. PMID:26358960

  11. Comprehensive Solutions for Urban Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Sally

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive school reform (CSR) models build consistency throughout a district while addressing the needs of individual schools. The high-quality CSR programs offer a most effective option for urban education reform.

  12. Adequacy, accountability, autonomy and equity in a Middle Eastern school reform: The case of Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.

    2012-04-01

    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and its sustainability in light of concerns that movements in these directions might be politically unfeasible. To some degree, these concerns are substantiated by the developments we trace. However, it is important to note that the reform has changed the landscape of primary and secondary education in Qatar and that many reform principles, though diluted, have been retained. This paper highlights lessons learned - both hopeful and cautionary - in the first few years of reform and presents a methodology for evaluating progress along key dimensions that can be applied to school systems in many nations.

  13. There's "private" and then there's "private": ERISA, its impact, and options for reform.

    PubMed

    Borzi, Phyllis C

    2008-01-01

    The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), a federal law regulating private employer-sponsored employee benefit plans, was primarily designed for pension plans, but has had a profound impact on state health care reform efforts. ERISA's broad preemption language has been judicially interpreted to preclude states from most forms of regulation of employer health plans, including benefit design (except through regulation of insurance products) and incorporating employer expenditure requirements in state health reform financing. But since 1974, Congress has never seriously returned to reexamine several fundamental questions: Should employers be required to offer or contribute to employee health coverage? Should ERISA preempt state efforts to take such actions? Or should ERISA incorporate more comprehensive regulation of health plans in these areas? Although the politics of ERISA preemption have thus far blocked federal reform, while allowing state reform activity to be simultaneously curtailed, new health reform efforts may force Congress to address these questions.

  14. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be found in all parts of our environment. Much of it comes from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may still have lead paint. You could be exposed to lead by Eating food or drinking water that contains lead. Water pipes in older homes ...

  15. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  16. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…

  17. Peculiar politics of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Green, H.P.

    1982-12-01

    The struggle to regulate the atom has produced compromises that could balance competing social pressures only temporarily. Creating special authorities invited social and political reaction that would ultimately lead to their destruction, but they had to become visibly troublesome to many members of the public before they could be abolished. The same is true of the censorship policy created to protect atomic secrets. If nuclear regulation is to succeed as sound public policy, it must recognize that public policy means everyone. Greene outlines a way out of the current impasse that eliminates some of the regulatory steps allowing excessive intercession and takes steps to improve regulatory credibility.

  18. Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

  19. Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been…

  20. The Latest Chapter in Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imber, Michael

    2003-01-01

    As David Tyack and Larry Cuban demonstrate in "Tinkering Toward Utopia," the history of U.S. education reforms is that of mixed success and failure. Characteristics of reforms that take hold in schools include those that involve building new facilities, are easy to administer, and are legally mandated. Another major school reform initiative, the…

  1. Reforming Technical and Technological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Review of technical and technological educational reform in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sweden shows that reform takes time to complete effectively, long-term approaches are needed, and reform is linked to industrial development, regional cooperation, and decentralized decision making. (SK)

  2. Teacher Education Reforms in Albania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Drawing on insights from Albanian teacher educators and government representatives, this paper examines processes of change and types of reform (modernization, structural, and systemic reform) in Albania. It also discusses the initial implementation of one of the reforms, which was directed at the balance and role of school experiences, analyzing…

  3. Student life - Making politics matter.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Siobhan

    2014-12-01

    'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'

  4. Leading Learning: Science Departments and the Chair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Jones, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we have considered the role of the chair in leading the learning necessary for a department to become effective in the teaching and learning of science from a reformed perspective. We conceptualize the phrase "leading learning" to mean the chair's constitution of influence, power, and authority to intentionally impact…

  5. Reforming the Undergraduate Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderPol, Diane; Brown, Jeanne M.; Iannuzzi, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The higher education literature abounds with reports and studies calling for reform in undergraduate education. An alphabet soup of higher education associations creates or advocates desired learning outcomes for postsecondary education and endorses approaches for student learning. This article shows connections between some of the major…

  6. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  7. Reforming Underperforming High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

  8. Educational Reform in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Nicholas

    1975-01-01

    Recommendations for the reform of the administrative structure, curriculum and methods, and equality of Thailand's educational system are provided. This journal is available from the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia, Darakarn Building, 920 Sukhumvit Road, P.O. Box 1425, Bangkok, Thailand.

  9. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

  10. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  11. Reform and Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefferlin, JB Lon

    This article is the 7th in a series of AAHE research reports. It summarizes research that has been done on academic reform and the resistance to it and speculates what this research implies for future practice. Academic or curricular change is first of all organizational change and colleges and universities are organized and run in such a way as…

  12. Examining Comprehensive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K., Ed.; Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Urban school reformers for decades have tried to improve educational outcomes for underserved and disadvantaged students, with the assistance of constantly evolving federal and state policies. In recent years, education policies have shifted from targeting individual students to developing universal standards for teaching and learning, and…

  13. The Stuttgart Reform Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bienert, F.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews curriculum reform being implemented at the Library School of Stuttgart for students planning to work in public libraries. Components of the new curriculum include core courses in library science, electives in special areas of librarianship, seminars in chosen subject disciplines, and field work in libraries and government agencies. (LRW)

  14. Reforming using erionite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Liers, J.; Meusinger, J.; Moesch, A. ); Reschetilowski, W. )

    1993-08-01

    The advantage of reforming on erionite catalysts is a product with high octane numbers and low amounts of aromatics. This advantage seems to be slight at reaction pressures lower than 25 bar. But it is possible to compensate for the influence of pressure by varying the erionite content within the catalyst and the reaction temperature. When reforming on Pt/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts, the following reactions take place: dehydrocyclization of paraffins to naphthenes, dehydrogenation of naphthenes to aromatics, isomerication of normal paraffins remains in the product, lowering its octane number. By using a Ni/H-erionite catalyst, the octane rating can be increased by 3 to 7 numbers through selective hydrocracking of n-alkanes in the reformate. Erionite catalysts favor shape-selective hydrocracking of normal paraffins and the formation of cyclopentane derivatives lowering the content of aromatics during reforming reactions. Reducing the reaction pressure decreases hydrocracking activity and cyclopentane formation. These results can be interpreted in terms of thermodynamic restrictions and deactivation.

  15. Reforming Teacher Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Susan Freeman; Gardner, Catherine D.

    2010-01-01

    A recent Google search for information regarding performance pay in education produced 6.1 million results. This number should come as no surprise given the current level of interest in incentives as a popular reform option in public education. Supporters believe pay-for-performance programs encourage less effective teachers to improve and will…

  16. Educational Reform in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxcy, Spencer J.; Maxcy, Doreen O.

    1993-01-01

    Although education has appealed to southern governors as a catapult to historical recognition, future governors should consider Louisiana Governor Buddy Roemer's ill-fated educational reform plan for Louisiana State University's College of Education, particularly its teacher evaluation and internship program. Public education seems a low-priority…

  17. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  18. Reform on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

  19. Benzene upgrading reformer integration

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a continuous process for providing an integrated product recovery system for a primary catalytic hydrocarbon reforming reactor and a secondary catalytic olefins oligomerization-alkylation reactor. It comprises: withdrawing reformer effluent from primary reformer reactor; separating in a primary separation zone the reformer effluent into a primary overhead stream comprising noncondensible light paraffins and a primary bottoms stream comprising C{sub 6} to C{sub 8} aromatic hydrocarbons; withdrawing oligomerization effluent from secondary oligomerization-alkylation reactor; separating in a secondary separation zone the oligomerization effluent into a secondary overhead stream; adding the primary bottoms stream and the secondary bottoms stream to the fractionation column; withdrawing from the top of the fractionation column a stream comprising C{sub 4} {minus} hydrocarbons; withdrawing from the bottom of the fractionation column a stream comprising C{sub 5} + hydrocarbons; adding the C{sub 5} + hydrocarbon stream to the reboiler unit; withdrawing from the reboiler unit a vapor stream comprising benzene and a liquid stream comprising C{sub 5} + hydrocarbons boiling in the gasoline range; adding at least a portion of the vapor stream comprising benzene to the secondary catalytic olefins oligomerization-alkylation reactor; and adding a light olefins feedstream.

  20. Student Representation and Multiparty Politics in African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luescher-Mamashela, Thierry M.; Mugume, Taabo

    2014-01-01

    The transition from one-party rule and other forms of authoritarianism to multiparty democracy in the 1990s has had a profound impact on the organisation and role of student politics in Africa. Against the background of student involvement in African politics in the twentieth century, leading up to student participation in Africa's…

  1. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation: Evidence From Germany.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach-by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour-and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  2. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation: Evidence From Germany.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach-by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour-and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.

  3. Advancing universal coverage of healthcare in China: translating political will into policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shenglan; Brixi, Hana; Bekedam, Henk

    2014-01-01

    China launched its new health system reform plan in 2009 to advance its universal coverage of healthcare, after more than 4 years' consultations and discussions with various stakeholders including the public. This paper aims to introduce and discuss the context and process of China's current health system reform and analyse how political will in China has been translated into policy practice over the past decade. The paper also shares the insights of World Health Organization's contribution to China's health system reform, as the authors advised the Chinese government on the reform options and process. Furthermore, the paper describes and discusses key challenges in the implementation of the reform plan over the past 3 years and draws lessons for other countries.

  4. Education Reform as it Relates to Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, R. J.

    2005-05-01

    Four decades of educational reform efforts from the nineteen sixties have not significantly improved our schools. It is believed that in the equation of educational reform, leadership and power in educational reform have mitigated against educational reform through the misapplicaiton of examination and accountability. A major subset of the field on public administration is accountability. Accountability is widely used in government although the concept is loosely defined. Most often it is used to express public frustration, to call for control, and to transmit a range of political agendas. Any accountability framework originates from the American model of shared powers between independent governmental bodies. It allows for institutions to depend on and accommodate other institutions. Accountability assumes that individuals or agencies may hold accountable for their performance. This assumes that there is a unidirectional flow of power and influence between a controlling partner and a controlled partner. This assumption is false. Individual administrators are exposed to the authority and persuasion within a democratic framework. Educators are also confronted with control mechanisms that are rooted in the organizational and professional standards and disciplinary standards regardless of whether any democratic controls are evoked. Accountability relationships have the potential to become quite complicated. Performance evaluation is significant to every accountability relationship. In the public sector, the citizens hold government accountable and the idea of performance evaluation is relative at best, however, in education the use of examination for accountability allows for the misapplication of the exam and affects education reform in negative ways.

  5. Health reform in Finland: current proposals and unresolved challenges.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B; Teperi, Juha

    2016-07-01

    The Finnish health care system is widely respected for its pilot role in creating primary-care-led health systems. In the early 1990s, however, a severe economic downturn in Finland reduced public funding and weakened the Finnish system's deeply decentralized model of health care administration. Recent Bank of Finland projections forecasting several decades of slow economic growth, combined with the impact of an aging population, appear to make major reform of the existing public system inevitable. Over the last several years, political attention has focused mostly on administrative consolidation inside the public sector, particularly integration of health and social services. Current proposals call for a reformed health sector governance structure based on a new meso-level configuration of public administration. In addition, Finland's national government has proposed replacing the current multi-channel public funding structure (which includes health insurance subsidies for occupational health services) with a single-channel public funding structure. This commentary examines several key issues involved in reforming the delivery structure of the Finnish health care system. It also explores possible alternative strategies to reform current funding arrangements. The article concludes with a brief discussion of implications from this Finnish experience for the wider health reform debate. PMID:26865494

  6. Abortion law in Nepal: the road to reform.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Shyam

    2004-11-01

    In 2002 Nepal's parliament passed a liberal abortion law, after nearly three decades of reform efforts. This paper reviews the history of the movement for reform and the combination of factors that contributed to its success. These include sustained advocacy for reform; the dissemination of knowledge, information and evidence; adoption of the reform agenda by the public sector and its leadership in involving other stakeholders; the existence of work for safe motherhood as the context in which the initiative could gain support; an active women's rights movement and support from international and multilateral organisations; sustained involvement of local NGOs, civil society and professional organisations; the involvement of journalists and the media; the absence of significant opposition; courageous government officials and an enabling democratic political system. The overriding rationale for reforming the abortion law in Nepal has been to ensure safe motherhood and women's rights. The first government abortion services officially began in March 2004 at the Maternity Hospital in Kathmandu; services will be expanded gradually to other public and private hospitals and private clinics in the coming years.

  7. Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

  8. A Case of Chicano Politics: Parlier, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Adaljiza Sosa; Aguallo, Robert, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Parlier's powerless Chicanos wrested the power from the dominant Anglo business elite. The events, which enabled the Chicanos to gain control of the local government, constitute an example of Chicano political activism. This article demonstrates the significance of the events leading to the Chicano takeover and its uniqueness. (NQ)

  9. Lead poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Todd, A C

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning is the most common disease of environmental origin in the United States today. Adult lead poisoning results primarily from exposure by inhalation in the workplace. Pediatric lead poisoning results principally from the ingestion of lead from environmental media, including paint chips, dust, soil, drinking water, ceramics, and medications. Lead is toxic to many organ systems, among them developing erythrocytes, the kidneys, and the nervous system. Lead-induced toxicity to the central nervous system causes delayed development, diminished intelligence, and altered behavior. In young children, this effect has been demonstrated convincingly to occur at blood lead levels between 10 and 20 micrograms per dl. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per dl or higher be considered evidence of increased lead absorption, and the National Academy of Sciences has concurred in that recommendation. Unresolved issues in need of further study include the frequency of screening young children for lead, the question of whether women should be offered screening for lead before conceiving a pregnancy, the role of x-ray fluorescence analysis in assessing lead in bone, and the appropriate legislative response of the United States government to lead-based paint abatement. PMID:7941534

  10. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

  11. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  12. Political leadership and the politics of nursing.

    PubMed

    Davies, Celia

    2004-07-01

    This article provides a critical examination of the concept of political leadership as it has recently developed in the field of nursing, arguing that despite its undoubted usefulness, there are important issues that it obscures. Using five guiding questions, it is proposed that a focus on political leadership is inward-looking and individualizing. It encourages a view of the profession as immature and it emphasizes separation instead of alliance formation. An alternative perspective starting from an assumption that nursing operates in a position of cultural and structural disadvantage is proposed. A close analysis of the government's strategy for nursing in England confirms the continuing cultural ambiguity that surrounds nursing. This enables a number of questions to be posed concerning where nursing fits in relation to current health policy on workforce change and raises doubts about just how far the historical neglect of nursing in policy arenas has been overcome.

  13. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead is still found in some modern faucets. Soil contaminated by decades of car exhaust or years ... house paint scrapings. Lead is more common in soil near highways and houses. Hobbies involving soldering, stained ...

  14. The politics of water.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Water scarcity in some regions is a leading source of economic and political instability. Upstream countries have a clear advantage over downstream countries. Almost 40% of the world's population relies on river systems used by at least 2 countries. Water conflicts are most evident in the Middle East where population growth rates are among the world's highest and agricultural productivity depends almost exclusively on irrigation. Water scarcity is most critical in the Jordan River basin which Israel, Jordan, the occupied West Bank, and part of Syria share. Israel exceeds its renewable water supply by 15%. Even though Jordanians use less than 50% of the water/capita Israel uses, its population grows 3.4%/year of Israel's water supply is the Yarqon-Taninim aquifer whose recharge area is on the West Bank. Israel draws water from this aquifer for its own use, but does not let West Bank Arabs draw from it. Another water supply lies in the Golan Heights with Israel seized from Syria. Its other source is an overpumped coastal aquifer. 9 nations claim the Nile with Egypt being the last country to receive its waters. Egypt has very few of its own water sources plus is has rapid population growth. Turkey plans on constructing 22 dams, 19 hydropower stations, and 25 irrigation systems on the Euphrates river, resulting in a 35% reduction in water flow to Syria in normal years and even more in dry years. This project would also pollute the river with irrigation runoff. International cooperation is needed to address wait crisis. Israel could share its drip irrigation technology with others, such as it has done with the Islamic Central Asian republics. Ethiopia could store Nile water in its highlands which have a lower evaporation rate than that at Egypt's Aswan Dam, resulting in more available water. Perhaps the mutual gains possible from cooperation will unite long standing enemies toward peace.

  15. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change.

  16. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change. PMID:21057098

  17. Higher Education Reform for Quality Higher Education Management in the 21st Century: Economic, Technological, Social, and Political Forces Affecting Higher Education. Proceedings of the 1999 Six-Nation Summit (Hiroshima, Japan, September 20-21, 1999). RIHE International Seminar Reports, No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    This publication presents proceedings from a 1999 conference on higher education reform and quality that involved six countries: China, Germany, Japan, Singapore, Switzerland, and the United States. The first section, "Report of the Six-Nation Higher Education Project," presents "Summary of the Progress of the Higher Education Research Project and…

  18. Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…

  19. Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…

  20. Australia's Political Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawer, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Australia is an independent nation-state, federally constituted under a democratic parliamentary system. Being part of the Commonwealth of Nations, with feelings of loyalty to the Crown, Australia is also a democratic monarchy. Its political structure is discussed. (RM)

  1. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    PubMed

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine. PMID:2042221

  2. Hispanics: A Political Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Edward R.

    1979-01-01

    Provides insight into the experience of Spanish Americans in the predominantly Anglo culture of the United States and evaluates political gains made by Hispanics since the establishment of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus in 1976. (DB)

  3. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    PubMed

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine.

  4. The Politics of Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, John

    1979-01-01

    Contends that the political philosophy underlying Mina Shaughnessy's "Errors and Expectations" is one which reinforces both the teacher's position of control and the training of minority students to follow and obey authority. (DD)

  5. [Neoliberal health sector reforms in Latin America: unprepared managers and unhappy workers].

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Antonio; Homedes, Nuria

    2005-03-01

    This work analyzes the neoliberal health sector reforms that have taken place in Latin America, the preparation of health care workers for the reforms, the reforms' impacts on the workers, and the consequences that the reforms have had on efficiency and quality in the health sector. The piece also looks at the process of formulating and implementing the reforms. The piece utilizes secondary sources and in-depth interviews with health sector managers in Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Mexico. Neoliberal reforms have not solved the human resources problems that health sector evaluations and academic studies had identified as the leading causes of health system inefficiency and low-quality services that existed before the reforms. The reforms worsened the situation by putting new pressures on health personnel, in terms of both the lack of necessary training to face the challenges that came with the reforms and efforts to take away from workers the rights and benefits that they had gained during years of struggles by unions, and to replace them with temporary contracts, reduced job security, and lower benefits. The secrecy with which the reforms were developed and applied made workers even more unified. In response, unions opposed the reforms, and in some countries they were able to delay the reforms. The neoliberal reforms have not improved the efficiency or quality of health systems in Latin America despite the resources that have been invested. Nor have the neoliberal reforms supported specific changes that have been applied in the public sector and that have demonstrated their ability to solve important health problems. These specific changes have produced better results than the neoliberal reforms, and at a lower cost.

  6. The professionalisation of midwifery through education or politics?

    PubMed

    James, H L; Willis, E

    2001-01-01

    The midwifery profession is redefining itself, with a national initiative to separate from nursing using several strategies at political, legal, educational and professional levels. These include lobbying for a Midwives' Act, a national approach to co-ordinate the education of student midwives, the introduction by the ACMI of competency based practice, the initiation of various models of practice and a three-year Bachelor of Midwifery. This paper argues that the educational strategy employed by midwifery is similar to that used by nursing. This strategy was overtaken by political and economic reforms within the health care sector. We argue that achieving professional dominance is not achieved simply through education but is fundamentally a political process.

  7. Ethical and Human Rights Foundations of Health Policy: Lessons from Comprehensive Reform in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2015-12-10

    This paper discusses the use of an explicit ethical and human rights framework to guide a reform intended to provide universal and comprehensive social protection in health for all Mexicans, independently of their socio-economic status or labor market condition. This reform was designed, implemented, and evaluated by making use of what Michael Reich has identified as the three pillars of public policy: technical, political, and ethical. The use of evidence and political strategies in the design and negotiation of the Mexican health reform is briefly discussed in the first part of this paper. The second part examines the ethical component of the reform, including the guiding concept and values, as well as the specific entitlements that gave operational meaning to the right to health care that was enshrined in Mexico's 1983 Constitution. The impact of this rights-based health reform, measured through an external evaluation, is discussed in the final section. The main message of this paper is that a clear ethical framework, combined with technical excellence and political skill, can deliver major policy results.

  8. Administrative reform in the Venezuelan Ministry of Education: A case analysis of the 1970's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    1984-06-01

    Democracy arrived in Venezuela in 1958, and reforming the rigid, centralized and unrepresentative institutions of government subsequently assumed a high priority. This article, based on data gathered in Venezuela several times over a twelve-year period by means of a standard field research methodology, represents a longitudinal case study of efforts through the 70's to generate administrative reform in the Ministry of Education. Specifically, the reform proposed to decentralize and regionalize the organization and management of education in order to promote regional socio-economic development. The study describes and discusses political and organizational factors which disrupted and frustrated the reform process, including: (1) lack of political continuity and maturity; (2) lack of appropriate structures within the system and of real desire on the part of ministry officials to initiate an effective delegation of powers and responsibilities; (3) lack of adequate mechanisms for gathering, processing and distributing information; and (4) lack of sufficient personnel within the ministry with the training and sustained experience to manage complex programs. As in many other countries, the ideals of the reform in Venezuela outstripped the political and human realities of the situation there. Comparative research is now needed to enable other nations to learn from this experience.

  9. What Can the Study of Micropolitics Contribute to the Practice of Leadership in Reforming Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindle, Jane C.

    1999-01-01

    The increased expectations for educational reform make schools and their communities unavoidably more political. These conditions mean that the study of micropolitics is absolutely a question of survival for school leaders. Inserting micropolitics into both the scholarship and curriculum of school leadership is inevitable, advisable, and…

  10. "The More Things Change...?": The Thatcher Years and Educational Reform in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    The period of the Thatcher Government continues to have special significance for politics and governance in Scotland. In the 11 years of the Thatcher Government, landmark legislation and reforms affected key areas of the Scottish society and economy. Education featured prominently in the Thatcherite agenda in Scotland. In Scotland, the education…

  11. International Comparison of the Influence of Educational Reform on Superintendent Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björk, Lars G.; Johansson, Olof; Bredeson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, the rise of the global economy launched a wide array of social, economic, and political changes in nations throughout the world. Heightened concern about the quality of schools launched what is arguably the most pervasive, intense, and protracted attempts at educational reform in recent history. Examinations of the…

  12. Politicians, Judges, and City Schools. Reforming School Finance in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berke, Joel S.; And Others

    This book is designed to provide public officials, leaders of organizations concerned with school funding issues, and citizens active in educational affairs with information about the political, economic, and equity issues that underlie the school finance reform debate in New York State. It discusses present inequities and potential approaches to…

  13. A Critical Look at Four Multicultural Reform Efforts in One Urban College of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, Mary K.; Volk, Dinah; Still, Kristine; Huang, Grace Hui-Chen; Thomas-Alexander, Sashelle

    2011-01-01

    This analysis encompassed four different projects that were implemented as reform initiatives at the college. The authors' collaborative work and this subsequent analysis have drawn on insights from Cochran-Smith (2004), who describes teacher education as both a "learning problem and a political problem" that involves the creation of inquiry…

  14. From the Pedestal to PR: Women Reformers and Public Relations, 1910-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Genevieve G.

    Analysis of the Wisconsin woman suffrage campaign of 1910-1920 suggests that public relations belonged not only to political or business practices, but was equally a process by which the masses achieved their own best interests in nineteenth and early twentieth century social reform movements. Woman suffragists were led by women, and the public…

  15. Selecting Presidential Nominees: The Evolution of the Current System and Prospects for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piroth, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how political parties select presidential candidates focusing on the roles of party leaders, activities, supporters, and campaign contributors. Discusses the history of presidential nominations focusing on how the present system evolved. Reviews a particular reform proposal called the Delaware Plan that intends to stop the front loading…

  16. The Vocational Education and Training System in Bulgaria. Current Situation, Challenges and Reform Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleev, Tzako; Kalandarova, Natalia; Dineva, Nedka; Panev, Georgi; Petrova, Iskra

    This report reviews the current situation of Bulgaria's vocational education and training (VET) system to identify challenges facing the system and areas needing reform. Section 1 explores the following five aspects of Bulgaria's political and socioeconomic situation: (1) demography; (2) economic developments (privatization of state enterprises,…

  17. Imaging the Frame: Media Representations of Teachers, Their Unions, NCLB, and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the political discourse surrounding NCLB, educational reform, and how that discourse shaped perceptions of public education during the Bush Administration. Examining mass media campaigns in the New York Times and Time Magazine, the article demonstrates how the media has visually and textually framed and reinforced NCLB and…

  18. The Role of District Leaders in School Reform: Implementing Year-Round Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Carolyn M.; Oberg, Steven Lynn; LaRocque, Linda J.

    1999-01-01

    Explores district leaders' roles in implementing a year-round schooling reform. Examines experiences of four Florida districts, stressing social, political, and fiscal contexts. Leaders promote innovation by acting humanely and openly, and by eschewing unfulfillable promises. Creating widespread support, being flexible, and crafting a climate for…

  19. A Comparison of Higher Education Reform in South Korea and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Joon-Young; Bessey, Donata

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we compare two recent university reform projects: the Korean Brain Korea 21 project and the German Universities Excellence Initiative. We describe and compare both projects' goals, selection processes, and preliminary outcomes. While the Korean project is characterized by a relatively high level of political intervention and…

  20. Educational Reform and the Birth of a Mathematical Community in Revolutionary France, 1790-1815.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Eduard

    2003-01-01

    Explores how Carnot's and Monge's mathematical endeavors responded to social, political, and technological developments in French society; how these concerns were reflected in the education reforms that they carried through; and how absolutely essential the new educational arrangements were for the reception and transmission of the conceptual…

  1. Educational Reform and Educational Research in Central-Eastern Europe: The Case of Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzea, Cesar

    This report describes difficulties in educational reform faced by countries in transition, those post-communist countries from Eastern and Central Europe that have been changing their social, economic, and political systems since 1989. Romania is the case study used for this example and is viewed in terms of four stages: (1) deconstruction, an…

  2. Rapid Response, Radical Reform: The Story of School Finance Litigation in Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.; Metzler, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the legal precursor and political context for the Vermont state legislature's rapid enactment of the 1997 Equal Educational Opportunity Act, commonly know as Act 60, a radical and controversial school fiscal-equity-reform initiative. Describe public reaction and engagement. (Contains 138 references.) (PKP)

  3. Detracking in Context: How Local Constructions of Ability Complicate Equity-Geared Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Beth C.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Recent sociocultural studies of detracking describe the ways in which notions of ability--local understandings of students' intellectual capacities--are at play in these settings, shaping both the politics and the practice of the reform. This study extends this examination into the classrooms of detracking schools. Purpose:…

  4. Postcolonial Teacher Education Reform in Namibia: Travelling of Policies and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreman, Inger Erixon; Erixon, Per-Olof; Rehn, Karl-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Long before Namibia's independence in 1990, Sweden initiated a policy dialogue with Namibia's future political leadership. This article reviews the impact of an educational reform in Namibia in the early 1990s called the Integrated Teacher Training Programme (ITTP), which was an outcome of collaboration between the South West African People's…

  5. Public and Private in South Korea's Education Reform Vocabulary: An Evolving Statist Culture of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    2004-01-01

    Statism is a political economy that prevails in many East Asian countries. This paper explores its negative role in South Korea's education reform since the restoration of civilian democracy in 1993. It takes note of South Koreans' aberrant use of the terms "public education" and "private education" and the frame of reference for policy discourses…

  6. Reforming the World Bank: From Social-Liberalism to Neo-Liberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdwood, John

    2007-01-01

    Using an analytics of government perspective, it is argued that neo-liberalism as an art of government, especially its form as North American advanced liberal political reason, has shaped enterprise governance and managerial reform at the World Bank. With a focus on the World Bank as a financial banking enterprise, the article explores questions…

  7. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  8. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  9. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  10. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  11. Women and Politics in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  12. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  13. Human resources: the Cinderella of health sector reform in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Human resources are the most important assets of any health system, and health workforce problems have for decades limited the efficiency and quality of Latin America health systems. World Bank-led reforms aimed at increasing equity, efficiency, quality of care and user satisfaction did not attempt to resolve the human resources problems that had been identified in multiple health sector assessments. However, the two most important reform policies – decentralization and privatization – have had a negative impact on the conditions of employment and prompted opposition from organized professionals and unions. In several countries of the region, the workforce became the most important obstacle to successful reform. This article is based on fieldwork and a review of the literature. It discusses the reasons that led health workers to oppose reform; the institutional and legal constraints to implementing reform as originally designed; the mismatch between the types of personnel needed for reform and the availability of professionals; the deficiencies of the reform implementation process; and the regulatory weaknesses of the region. The discussion presents workforce strategies that the reforms could have included to achieve the intended goals, and the need to take into account the values and political realities of the countries. The authors suggest that autochthonous solutions are more likely to succeed than solutions imported from the outside. PMID:15659241

  14. Unraveling the Complexity of Critical Consciousness, Political Efficacy, and Political Action Among Marginalized Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Diemer, Matthew A; Rapa, Luke J

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the complex patterns by which distinct dimensions of critical consciousness may lead marginalized adolescents toward distinct forms of political action. Structural equation modeling was applied to nationally representative data from the Civic Education Study (2,811 ninth graders; Mage  = 14.6), first establishing the measurement invariance of constructs across samples of poor or working class African American and Latino/a adolescents. Perceptions of societal inequality and aspirational beliefs that society ought to be more equal differentially predicted expected voting, conventional political action, and social action-while controlling for civic achievement and with nuances between ethnic and racial groups. Contrary to hypotheses and extant scholarship, political efficacy did not mediate or moderate relations between critical reflection and disparate forms of political action.

  15. School Food Politics: The Complex Ecology of Hunger and Feeding in Schools around the World. Global Studies in Education, Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Sarah A., Ed.; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in "School Food Politics" explore the intersections of food and politics on all six of the inhabited continents of the world. Including electoral fights over universally free school meals in Korea, nutritional reforms to school dinners in England and canteens in Australia, teachers' and doctors' work on school feeding in Argentina, and…

  16. Health sector reform and reproductive health in Latin America and the Caribbean: strengthening the links.

    PubMed Central

    Langer, A.; Nigenda, G.; Catino, J.

    2000-01-01

    Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are currently reforming their national health sectors and also implementing a comprehensive approach to reproductive health care. Three regional workshops to explore how health sector reform could improve reproductive health services have revealed the inherently complex, competing, and political nature of health sector reform and reproductive health. The objectives of reproductive health care can run parallel to those of health sector reform in that both are concerned with promoting equitable access to high quality care by means of integrated approaches to primary health care, and by the involvement of the public in setting health sector priorities. However, there is a serious risk that health reforms will be driven mainly by financial and/or political considerations and not by the need to improve the quality of health services as a basic human right. With only limited changes to the health systems in many Latin American and Caribbean countries and a handful of examples of positive progress resulting from reforms, the gap between rhetoric and practice remains wide. PMID:10859860

  17. Political Emotions: Toward a Fresh Perspective on Collective Emotion in Composition Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfus, Jonna Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines theories of emotion in politically contentious discourse in order to better understand the implications for teachers and students in composition classrooms where critical pedagogical practices lead to contentious political work. I suggest that partly as a result of the social and political turn in composition studies,…

  18. Ethics and the politics of advancing nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-04-01

    The politics of academia involve intricate human relationships that are political in nature as nurse leaders and scholars struggle to advance nursing science with complex leading-following situations. This article begins a dialogue of considering potential meanings for what it means to be political within competing interest groups in academia, and within the discipline of nursing. What is most important in the struggle for identity and what possibilities surface when potential competing interests in academia collide? The ethical tenets of humanbecoming and the leading-following model are used to illustrate issues surrounding academic integrity and possibilities for the advancement of nursing scholarship in future generations.

  19. Central Asian republics: a case study for medical education reform.

    PubMed

    Conaboy, Kathleen A; Nugmanova, Zhamilya; Yeguebaeva, Saltanat; Jaeger, Frances; Daugherty, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    Social, political, and economic changes in the former Soviet Union precipitated both the collapse of a once-centralized medical education system in the region and the development of individual models in its place. In the context of rapid globalization and international concerns about health, this development of "nation-based" models for the structure, content, language, and duration of instruction generated concerns about regional accreditation; workforce planning; student qualifications; residency training; continuing education; and infrastructure, such as access to literature, an adequate clinical training base, and links to certification and licensure. The World Health Organization acknowledges that the development of human resources for health is a complex and key element in reforming health systems. In Central Asia, international donor agencies facilitated the development of a regional council of rectors and a partnership consortium of medical academies as reform vehicles. International medical education organizations provide counsel and share their organizations' models, greatly facilitating the reform progress. The groups work to address both the political and regulatory environment and the professional and academic environment that affect the quality of medical schools. The council of rectors is establishing credibility as a regional nongovernmental organization that can advise governments about workforce planning, budgeting, admissions policies, accreditation, and licensure. The group sponsors faculty development workshops, bringing together regional educators around educational and institutional issues of mutual concern. Partnership academies collaborate to develop institutional and individual professional capacity, focusing on standardized evaluation, structure and content of the curriculum, pedagogy, and leadership development.

  20. Integrated reforming/aromatization process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes an integrated process for increasing the gasoline yield from a catalytic reforming process. It comprises: charging a naphtha boiling range feedstream to a catalytic reforming reaction zone under reforming conversion conditions; withdrawing a reactor effluent stream from the reforming reaction zone; separating the reactor effluent stream into a hydrogen-rich gas stream and an unstabilized reformate stream; further separating the unstabilized reformate in a fractionator into an overhead stream containing C{sub 4} - components and a bottom stream containing C{sub 6} + components; charging the fractionator overhead stream to a catalytic aromatization zone under aromatization conversion conditions; withdrawing an aromatization zone effluent stream from the aromatization zone; cooling the aromatization zone effluent stream; separating the cooled aromatization zone effluent steam into a C{sub 4} - stream and a C{sub 5} + stream; and refluxing the C{sub 5} + aromatic gasoline stream to the fractionation zone.

  1. [The democratic movement, cholera epidemic and public health reform in the Zurich canton (1867)].

    PubMed

    Condrau, F

    1996-01-01

    In the summer of 1867 Zurich, Switzerland, was struck by a severe Cholera outbreak. Recent research suggests that the Cholera epidemic had such an influence on the municipal policy makers that they pushed through a major reform of the public health system, namely of water supply and sewerage. This paper adopts a theoretical conception of crisis and social change to evaluate the plausibility of this hypothesis. The basic idea is that structural change can be usually understood as the consequence of a major social crisis. Exactly this was the case in Zurich during the 1860s. After a decade of economic stability and progress, a severe crisis simultaneously stuck Zurich's agriculture, textile industry and railway companies. The so called Democratic Movement threatened the existing political system; the old political establishment feared a political revolution. On top of all this, Cholera struck Zurich, precipitating a crisis in the public health system. Suddenly, old concepts and institutions were felt to be outdated. The democrats put through political reforms, the economic downswing ended and a large program to reshape the urban environment was initiated. It can be concluded that the Cholera epidemic alone did not cause the public health reform. But together with other crisis phenomena it played a major role in weakening the stability of the old system, and thus contributed to the society's ability to put in place new political, economic, and social structures. PMID:9092134

  2. Changing Ideological-Political Orientations in Chinese Moral Education: Some Personal and Professional Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maosen, Li

    2011-01-01

    Moral education in the People's Republic of China is dominated by ideological-political orientations. However, in the last 30 years China has experienced extensive economic reform, bringing about many social changes, such as decreasing reliance on the state-owned workplace, increasing private property ownership and enhancement of the rule of law.…

  3. Thinking Whimsically: Queering the Study of Educational Policy-Making and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.; Murphy, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses employing queer theory (QT) and queer legal theory (QLT) for critical policy analysis as applied to education. In doing so, the authors will highlight how both QT and QLT can empower analyses to look beyond the identity politics of a particular time period or space and toward potential reforms in curriculum, pedagogy, and…

  4. The Nigerian State and Global Economic Crises: Socio-Political Implications and Policy Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaopa, O. R.; Ogundari, I. O.; Akindele, S. T.; Hassan, O. M.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how economic reforms, as a reaction to the effects of the global financial crises, have intensified popular unrests and redefined the composition, interests, and socio-economic and political attitudes of Nigeria's increasingly complex social strata. We relied basically on secondary data to analyze some of the fundamental…

  5. Media's Impact on Educational Policies and Practices: Political Spectacle and Social Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    To understand the role of the media in schooling and school reform, it is necessary to examine how the media collude in the construction of the political spectacle, which Edelman (1988) called a meaning machine of alternative realities. The media uses spectacle to generate points of view, perceptions, anxieties, aspirations, and strategies to…

  6. The Politics of Diversifying Basic Education Delivery: A Comparative Analysis from East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppers, Wim

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the politics and policy-making of alternative forms of basic education in the context of EFA, with an emphasis on non-formal education (NFE) for school-age children. It explores how policy-makers interpret the relevance of such alternatives, the steps that are taken to implement the reforms and factors that play a role in…

  7. Comparative Analysis of Policy Making: Politics and Education in Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marie Thourson

    This paper examines the relationship between politics and education in developing nations in light of the question: "Under what conditions is educational reform successful?" The objective is to create a framework for investigating educational policies based on outcomes rather than objectives or needs. The author recommends that, in addition to…

  8. Cultivating Borrowed Futures: The Politics of Neoliberal Loanwords in South Korean Cross-National Policy Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the politics of policy-borrowing in Korean education. I use the term "loanwords" as a metaphor for the practice in some Korean educational sectors of using borrowed English-origin educational rhetoric to create actual policy reform. I argue that discourses of choice and diversity, as loanwords, are initially bifurcated into…

  9. School and the Future: How Teachers and Teacher Education Are Articulated in the Political Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssell, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To Govern in the name of the future is considered to be an essential part of policy-making in education. In Sweden, this is particularly evident in the political and public rhetoric used in debates on modern schooling and educational reform. However, this is not merely a national phenomenon; rather, educational governance in the name of the future…

  10. Assembling the "Accomplished" Teacher: The Performativity and Politics of Professional Teaching Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Set within the socio-political context of standards-based education reform, this article explores the constitutive role of teaching standards in the production of the practice and identity of the "accomplished" teacher. It contrasts two idioms for thinking about and studying these standards, the representational and the performative. Utilising the…

  11. To Reclaim a Legacy of Diversity: Analyzing the "Political Correctness" Debates in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Debra L.; And Others

    "Political correctness" has recently been appropriated by organizations and individual advocates seeking to attack and focus negative media attention on reforms in higher education. This report documents both the facts and media distortions that have shaped almost a decade of campus debate on affirmative action, multicultural and feminist…

  12. The Egyptian Press: An Historical View of Its Importance in Political Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John

    This report traces the development of the Egyptian press, from its origin with the arrival of the first printing press in 1789 to the present free press policies of Anwar Sadat. Because political struggle and social reform have accompanied the educational and cultural progress of Egypt, the news publications have traditionally been utilitarian.…

  13. Educational Reevaluation, Political Transformation: Québec and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the history of Québec's higher education system and the reforms that have contributed to the role of education in the province. Québec's education system has repeatedly been a site for social and political transformation; most recently, reevaluation of education's role in the province has revealed a tension…

  14. Netting the hospice butterfly: politics, policy, and translation of an ideal.

    PubMed

    Buck, Joy

    2007-10-01

    This article presents a historical analysis of the American hospice movement. It examines the social and political factors that created an environment for the movement to emerge. In doing so, it explores the processes by which multidisciplinary teams came together to advance hospice as a necessary healthcare reform and the challenges they faced in doing so.

  15. A primer on politics.

    PubMed

    Dean, S F

    1987-03-01

    In the preceding discussion "politics" was defined as the pursuit of power, and that pursuit of power was examined in the context of the local political scene. With this information, EMTs and paramedics may be better able to make sense of the complexities of local EMS politics and thereby relieve some of the frustration that all of us must feel as we look at a system that appears to be unresponsive and unmoving. John Naisbitt in his book Megatrends and Alvin Toffler in The Third Wave both discuss the decentralization of political power in the U.S. and the movement of power away from the federal government to state and local governments. There will probably be more opportunities, not less, for EMTs and paramedics to participate in local government decisions concerning the provision of emergency medical services in their community. Using the questions in each of the models will provide EMTS and paramedics a great deal of insight into the local political process. This will enable EMTs and paramedics to do themselves and their patients a great service by influencing the decisions made by local politicians, which will have a great impact on the quality of care that patients receive.

  16. Women and political representation.

    PubMed

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  17. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  18. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  19. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  20. Student Views of Teacher Actions in Science Classrooms Designed to Meet Current Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan; Dogan, Ozgur Kivilcan; Yager, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Science/Technology/Society (STS) as a reform effort has been active in Iowa for three decades. A program called Iowa Chautauqua has evolved over the four decades to promote K-12 STS teaching in Iowa's 300 school districts. This is a study of how teachers have become Teacher Leaders of the reforms and lead other teachers who enroll as new…

  1. An Unfulfilled Dream of an Urban Community School for Girls: A Failed Experiment in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    This research presents the qualitative case study of an urban community school initiative that began as an educational reform effort and that ultimately failed. The process of emergence for this school and factors leading to its collapse are described through participant interviews and document analysis. Nationally, policy reformers,…

  2. The politics of paranoia.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    For almost 20 years, gay rights advocates and defenders of military anti-gay discrimination engaged in a phony debate about whether allowing open service would undermine unit cohesion. To be sure, a preponderance of evidence showed that open service would not undermine cohesion, and the repeal of don't ask, don't tell (DADT) required advocates to prevail on that point in the court of public opinion. But concerns about cohesion were never the basis of opposition to open service. Rather, opposition was a modern incarnation of the politics of paranoia, a dangerous tradition in American history. Acknowledging that DADT had nothing to do with cohesion and that military leaders allowed the armed forces to be implicated in the politics of paranoia could facilitate disabling paranoia as the basis for other political projects such as anti-immigrant xenophobia. For a video on DADT and paranoia, search for "Donnelly Belkin DADT" on YoutTube.

  3. Astronomy and political theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

  4. Depression and Political Participation*

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  5. Problems of reforming educational systems in post-communist countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastuović, Nikola

    1993-09-01

    The main problems of educational reform in post-communist countries are identified, by use of an interactive model of education and developmental dimensions of society. The relation of implicit and explicit educational goals and characteristics of a society is reviewed, and a typology of the relations between political and economic state regulation on the one side, and the structure of educational goals on the other is suggested. It is established that the so-called"socialist pedagogy" decreases the transparency of educational goals and obstructs a systematic analysis of education. The role of education in the transition policy of post-communist countries in discussed, with a special emphasis on economic and political reforms, and ideological changes. It is concluded that the Europeanization of education in Eastern European countries will be impeded because of the stalemate in the transformation of ownership and political modernization, as well as ideological conservatism. The educational effects of European cooperation in the economic recovery of the East are to be expected in the areas of standardization and unification of education, while the effects in the internalization of modern values and attitudes are expected to be much less prominent.

  6. Global environmental politics

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, G.; Brown, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors explore past international environmental negotiations and the broader political landscape in which they take place to discern some elements of success. The overridding message is that it may take a long time, but in the end some combination of new scientific evidence, domestic political pressures, and international persuasion will likely turn the tide in favor of cooperative action. The authors feel that an incremental change approach, based on current international environmental governance, is the one most likely to be followed, although global governance, with a greatly strengthened UN and environmental law, or global partnership, developmental assistance from richer countries to poorer countries, are the better choices.

  7. The inter-section of political history and health policy in Asia--the historical foundations for health policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Grundy, John; Hoban, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve; Annear, Peter

    2014-09-01

    One of the challenges for health reform in Asia is the diverse set of socio-economic and political structures, and the related variability in the direction and pace of health systems and policy reform. This paper aims to make comparative observations and analysis of health policy reform in the context of historical change, and considers the implications of these findings for the practice of health policy analysis. We adopt an ecological model for analysis of policy development, whereby health systems are considered as dynamic social constructs shaped by changing political and social conditions. Utilizing historical, social scientific and health literature, timelines of health and history for five countries (Cambodia, Myanmar, Mongolia, North Korea and Timor Leste) are mapped over a 30-50 year period. The case studies compare and contrast key turning points in political and health policy history, and examines the manner in which these turning points sets the scene for the acting out of longer term health policy formation, particularly with regard to the managerial domains of health policy making. Findings illustrate that the direction of health policy reform is shaped by the character of political reform, with countries in the region being at variable stages of transition from monolithic and centralized administrations, towards more complex management arrangements characterized by a diversity of health providers, constituency interest and financing sources. The pace of reform is driven by a country's institutional capability to withstand and manage transition shocks of post conflict rehabilitation and emergence of liberal economic reforms in an altered governance context. These findings demonstrate that health policy analysis needs to be informed by a deeper understanding and questioning of the historical trajectory and political stance that sets the stage for the acting out of health policy formation, in order that health systems function optimally along their own

  8. LEAD STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Aub, Joseph C.; Reznikoff, Paul; Smith, Dorothea E.

    1924-01-01

    It appears, from the investigations in other laboratories, that the anemia observed in cases of lead poisoning is due to destruction of blood rather than to diminished production of blood. The method of poisoning cells in vitro with lead was adopted in order to study this phenomenon, and distinct effects were thereby obtained, even when only 0.001 mg. of lead is added to approximately 5 billion washed red corpuscles. In order to obtain optimum results the usual dosage employed was ten times this or 0.01 mg. per 5 billion cells. The following changes were observed in cells so treated. 1. Such a marked increase in the resistance to hypotonic salt solution develops that complete hemolysis does not occur until the cells are exposed to a saline solution of 0.05 per cent. Untreated cells are completely hemolyzed in 0.25 or 0.225 per cent saline. 2. This reaction is quantitative and varies with the concentration of lead used. Under the conditions of our experiments this phenomenon seems to be unique. The effects of arsenic are very slight in comparison. 3. While from this reaction it may be concluded that lead increases cellular resistance, it also appears that it shortens the life of blood cells. This may be demonstrated by the much more rapid appearance of hemolysis than normal when the cells are merely allowed to stand in Ringer solution of any dilution. 4. In rabbits with acute lead poisoning these same phenomena may be noted in vivo. 5. Both phenomena may be changed in vitro by varying the time and temperature of the reaction and the concentration of lead, as Fici has already pointed out. 6. If normal cells stand in Ringer solution for 6 hours something diffuses into the solution which largely reduces the action of lead. After repeated washing these cells react with lead in the usual manner. 7. Small amounts of serum react with lead and eliminate its effects. Red blood cells, treated with a mixture of lead and blood serum, show normal hemolysis in hypotonic salt

  9. Reform in the United States: its impact on medicine and education for family practice.

    PubMed

    Stephens, G G

    1976-10-01

    The historical concept of reform is useful as an aid to understand the modern rise of family practice education. Beginning about 1890, historians have identified several themes of reform in the United States which have been expressed culturally, politically, and socially. Each of these themes, agrarianism, bureaucratization of the professions, and utopianism, has influenced medicine and medical education--first at the turn of the century in the activities of the AMA in promoting public health and in establishing the natural sciences as a basis for medical education and practice. Since the end of World War II, additional reform themes have become visible which are also influencing medicine. Among these are humanism, consumerism, and the women's movement. It is the author's thesis that the present vitality and future development of family practice as a discipline is more dependent on its capacity and willingness to be identified with these expressions of reform than on its negotiations and compromises within the medical education establishment.

  10. National Health Insurance or Incremental Reform: Aim High, or at Our Feet?

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, David U.; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2003-01-01

    Single-payer national health insurance could cover the uninsured and upgrade coverage for most Americans without increasing costs; savings on insurance overhead and other bureaucracy would fully offset the costs of improved care. In contrast, proposed incremental reforms are projected to cover a fraction of the uninsured, at great cost. Moreover, even these projections are suspect; reforms of the past quarter century have not stemmed the erosion of coverage. Despite incrementalists’ claims of pragmatism, they have proven unable to shepherd meaningful reform through the political system. While national health insurance is often dismissed as ultra left by the policy community, it is dead center in public opinion. Polls have consistently shown that at least 40%, and perhaps 60%, of Americans favor such reform. PMID:12511395

  11. National Health Insurance or Incremental Reform: Aim High, or at Our Feet?

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, David U.; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2008-01-01

    Single-payer national health insurance could cover the uninsured and upgrade coverage for most Americans without increasing costs; savings on insurance overhead and other bureaucracy would fully offset the costs of improved care. In contrast, proposed incremental reforms are projected to cover a fraction of the uninsured, at great cost. Moreover, even these projections are suspect; reforms of the past quarter century have not stemmed the erosion of coverage. Despite incrementalists’ claims of pragmatism, they have proven unable to shepherd meaningful reform through the political system. While national health insurance is often dismissed as ultra left by the policy community, it is dead center in public opinion. Polls have consistently shown that at least 40%, and perhaps 60%, of Americans favor such reform. PMID:18687624

  12. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  13. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  14. Unraveling the Complexity of Critical Consciousness, Political Efficacy, and Political Action among Marginalized Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Rapa, Luke J.

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the complex patterns by which distinct dimensions of critical consciousness may lead marginalized adolescents toward distinct forms of political action. Structural equation modeling was applied to nationally representative data from the Civic Education Study (2,811 ninth graders; M[subscript age] = 14.6), first establishing…

  15. Explaining Large-Scale Policy Change in the Turkish Health Care System: Ideas, Institutions, and Political Actors.

    PubMed

    Agartan, Tuba I

    2015-10-01

    Explaining policy change has been one of the major concerns of the health care politics and policy development literature. This article aims to explain the specific dynamics of large-scale reforms introduced within the framework of the Health Transformation Program in Turkey. It argues that confluence of the three streams - problem, policy, and politics - with the exceptional political will of the Justice and Development Party's (JDP) leaders opened up a window of opportunity for a large-scale policy change. The article also underscores the contribution of recent ideational perspectives that help explain "why" political actors in Turkey would focus on health care reform, given that there are a number of issues waiting to be addressed in the policy agenda. Examining how political actors framed problems and policies deepens our understanding of the content of the reform initiatives as well as the construction of the need to reform. The article builds on the insights of both the ideational and institutionalist perspectives when it argues that the interests, aspirations, and fears of the JDP, alongside the peculiar characteristics of the institutional context, have shaped its priorities and determination to carry out this reform initiative. PMID:26195607

  16. Explaining Large-Scale Policy Change in the Turkish Health Care System: Ideas, Institutions, and Political Actors.

    PubMed

    Agartan, Tuba I

    2015-10-01

    Explaining policy change has been one of the major concerns of the health care politics and policy development literature. This article aims to explain the specific dynamics of large-scale reforms introduced within the framework of the Health Transformation Program in Turkey. It argues that confluence of the three streams - problem, policy, and politics - with the exceptional political will of the Justice and Development Party's (JDP) leaders opened up a window of opportunity for a large-scale policy change. The article also underscores the contribution of recent ideational perspectives that help explain "why" political actors in Turkey would focus on health care reform, given that there are a number of issues waiting to be addressed in the policy agenda. Examining how political actors framed problems and policies deepens our understanding of the content of the reform initiatives as well as the construction of the need to reform. The article builds on the insights of both the ideational and institutionalist perspectives when it argues that the interests, aspirations, and fears of the JDP, alongside the peculiar characteristics of the institutional context, have shaped its priorities and determination to carry out this reform initiative.

  17. Biology and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Pat

    1977-01-01

    A state representative from Oregon uses his state as example for political action regarding critical sociobiological issues having great bearing on world ecosystems: pollution, energy-resource allocation, and population density. Discusses ozone depletion, use of fluorocarbons, and the Oregon Energy Policy. Suggests methods of involving educators.…

  18. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  19. Prejudice and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Charles P.; Felknor, Bruce L.

    This monograph, written in 1960, examines the part prejudice played in politics throughout our national history. Part I of the monograph discusses "The Colonial Era." The immigrants that populated the new nation brought with them varied cultural heritages and different religious faiths. Soon the colonial pattern of religious prejudice reflected…

  20. Political Communication Yearbook 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Keith R., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on current scholarship in the evolving field of political communication, this publication is organized in three sections. Part 1, "Current Perspectives on the Spiral of Silence," features essays by Charles T. Salmon and F. Gerald Kline, Klaus Merten, Carroll J. Glynn and Jack M. McLeod, and a response by the theory's original positor,…