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Sample records for political reforms lead

  1. The politics of immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A K

    1984-01-01

    The US is the target for international migration, now more than ever. Population growth and economic stragnation in the Third World are increasing the pressures for out-migration, and current immigration law is wholly incapable of responding to the ever increasing flow of illegal immigrants. Border apprehensions of illegal aliens in the US were up 40% during 1983, and total apprehensions reached 1.25 million by the year's end. Recent public opinion polls have disclosed that an overwhelming majority of the American public demands immigration reform, and yet we as a nation have been distinctly unwilling or unable to respond to this clear public sentiment. This paper discusses the politics of the "Simpson-Mazzoli" Immigration Reform and Control Act, previous immigration legislation, current counterproposals for US immigration policy, and the political realities of immigration reform.

  2. Educational Reform: The Players and the Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Steve

    Substantive arguments on school reform may be disguising a hidden debate over the process and politics of such reform--a debate over who should be responsible for educating our youth, the parties responsible for the current difficulties, and how severe these difficulties are. This document attempts to identify the attitudes that drive this hidden…

  3. Educational Reform: The Players and the Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Steve

    Substantive arguments on school reform may be disguising a hidden debate over the process and politics of such reform--a debate over who should be responsible for educating our youth, the parties responsible for the current difficulties, and how severe these difficulties are. This document attempts to identify the attitudes that drive this hidden…

  4. Political Strategies for School Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, G. Kent

    In order to achieve school finance reform at the state level, six levels of local and state educational and political responsibility must be involved. The six levels are educational leadership (local and state school executives), the executive and legislative branches of government, the state educational department, the teachers association, the…

  5. Political Transformations and Higher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Tamas

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a comprehensive concept for European higher education reforms of the 20th and 21st centuries. However, it means something else in Central European countries than it does in the rest of Europe. It has been combined in Central Europe with a major social change referred to as the "political transformation" (Johnson…

  6. The Politics of Military Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    choices for ayq CWagsm. DoD umratards that it is to its advntage to let Ontracts in as many Cogressional districts as possible. The chArt below...believe that alternative (e.g., social spending, debt reduction measures , or foreign aid) avenues for defense dollars should be pursued. Our research...underbudgeting and underfunding of new systems and their corresponding operation and maintenance accounts . 1 0 Reformers are convinced that DoD realizes

  7. Spinning Wheels: The Politics of Urban School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    Much of what ails urban education is actually the result of continuous or fragmentary reform efforts. A study of 57 school districts shows how political pressures drive reform, and suggests ways to nurture a more focused agenda for urban schools. The chapters are: (1) "The Politics of Urban School Reform"; (2) "Organizational and Personal…

  8. Politics and Systemic Education Reform. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrman, Susan

    This brief describes political challenges to systemic reform and explores the conditions under which coherent policymaking might occur. A focus is the role of states in achieving policy integration. The first section describes political challenges to systemic reform, which include a lack of consensus on student standards, a focus on inputs and…

  9. Leading Change: Principals' Stories of School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Susan, Ed.

    This little book contains eight stories of school reform and leadership by eight public-school principals. Each principal leads a school that is a member of the Coalition of Essential Schools. The principals' stories are highly personal, often focusing more on the individual principal than on the reforms they brought about. Nevertheless, through…

  10. Health Reform Redux: Learning From Experience and Politics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups. PMID:19299668

  11. Bringing Home the Bacon: The Politics of Rural School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Jonathan P.

    1983-01-01

    Self-interested political, corporate, and education leaders have undermined recent West Virginia court decisions mandating educational reform. Three implications are: (1) principals, teachers, parents, and students must be equal partners in the educaiton reform process; (2) a constituency for rural children is needed; and (3) rural educators must…

  12. Educational Reform in Florida: Context, Substance and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Carolyn D.; Cistone, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    The last decade in Florida has seen an increase in reform efforts and public scrutiny, but no evidence of across-the-board achievement gains. The state's capacity for forging coalitions and funding reforms is threatened by continuing political volatility, ideological and partisan cleavages, and increasing competition for tax dollars. (38…

  13. History and Politics in State Accountability Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Thomas W.; Sunshine, Phyllis M.

    The formation of hypotheses and generation of a theory to explain and predict the outcomes of educational reforms based on the concept of school reform cycles is the purpose of this paper. Two complementary hypotheses are proposed to explain the success or failure of educational reforms. The first hypothesis is based on an inverse relationship…

  14. Teaching American Politics through Student Projects: Electoral Reform Issues and Political Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Donald K.; Hogan, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Describes two projects which involve college students in political science courses on American politics in doing research and giving class reports on proposals for reforming the electoral college and the electoral process. Findings indicate that students participating in the projects become more aware of political realities and learn how to use…

  15. The politics of health sector reform in developing countries: three cases of pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Reich, M R

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the political dynamics of health sector reform in poor countries, through a comparative study of pharmaceutical policy reform in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. The paper first reviews five reasons why policy reform is political. It then presents three political economic models of the policy reform process: the political will, political factions, and political survival models. Next, the paper describes the three cases of national pharmaceutical policy reform, and identifies common conditions that made these reforms politically feasible. The paper's analysis suggests that health sector reform is feasible at certain definable, and perhaps predictable, political moments, especially in the early periods of new regimes. The most important and manipulable political factors are: political timing, which provides opportunities for policy entrepreneurs to introduce their ideas into public debate, and political management of group competition, which allows leaders to control the political effects of distributional consequences and protect the regime's stability. A strong and narrow political coalition improves the capacity of political leaders to resist the pressures of concentrated economic costs (both inside and outside national boundaries). The paper argues that for reform to succeed, policy-makers need effective methods to analyze relevant political conditions and shape key political factors in favor of policy reform. The method of Political Mapping is briefly introduced as a technique that can help policy-makers in analyzing and managing the political dimensions of policy reform and in improving the political feasibility of reform.

  16. Gender Politics in 21st Century Literacy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kay

    2013-01-01

    From 2001 to 2004 Education Queensland undertook significant literacy reform in schools through the Literate Futures Project. Research into the impact of this reform has revealed that significant demands were placed on women at all levels, from those producing resources to those leading change within schools. Although the reform was a government…

  17. Introduction to "The Politics of Educational Reforms"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that education is a site of conflict. This essay examines the ideological positions that now dominate educational reforms and suggests a number of roles that critically democratic educators should play in confronting these reforms. It then details the contributions that the authors included in this special issue…

  18. Reform and Non-Reform in Education: The Political Costs and Benefits of Reform Policies in France and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Hans N.; Miyake, Eriko

    This paper examines how the perception and anticipation of political costs and benefits affects decisions about whether and how plans for educational reforms are to be pursued. Two case studies of major educational reform attempts are described: France and Japan. The study analyzes the two societies' underlying dilemmas, which manifest themselves…

  19. Political Science, Political Scientists, and the Baccalaureate Reform Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarulli, Guy C.; D'Lugin, Victor F.

    This article reviews the Association of American Colleges' (AAC) report titled "Integrity in the College Curriculum: A Report to the Academic Community" in terms of its relevance to political science instruction at the undergraduate level. The report examines two issues: (1) political science as a core component of a general education curriculum;…

  20. Beyond Incrementalism? SCHIP and the politics of health reform.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Jonathan B; Lyons, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    When Congress enacted the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 1997, it was heralded as a model of bipartisan, incremental health policy. However, despite the program's achievements in the ensuing decade, SCHIP's reauthorization triggered political conflict, and efforts to expand the program stalemated in 2007. The 2008 elections broke that stalemate, and in 2009 the new Congress passed, and President Barack Obama signed, legislation reauthorizing SCHIP. Now that attention is turning to comprehensive health reform, what lessons can reformers learn from SCHIP's political adventures?

  1. Politics and Prison Reform: Three Test Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Howard B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Attica prison riot, the shooting of George Jackson at San Quentin, and a major prison scandal in Arkansas, an assessment of public reaction to inmate grievances tests basic values in American politics. (Editor)

  2. The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

  3. Cultural Flashpoint: The Politics of Teacher Education Reform in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 (Cosgrove et al., 2010; Perkins et al., 2010) reading literacy results heralded a crisis of confidence in educational standards in Ireland. This article examines the national and international context of teacher education reform and the politics of the policy…

  4. The Politics of Reform at Stephen K. Hayt School, Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joravsky, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Three years after the passage of the Chicago Public Schools Reform Act, Stephen K. Hayt School in Chicago (Illinois) has shown some successes, but neighborhood politics have hampered progress as ethnic groups and others dispute issues. In addition, cuts in the citywide school budget left teachers scrambling for supplies. (JB)

  5. History, Myth, and the Politics of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddick, Robert Nelson

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the politics of education in the United States by considering the ideas and lives of Emma Willard and Catharine Beecher, nineteenth century educational reformers. It argues that understanding these women as American Antigones, as working through the contradictions between their public writing and their private lives, provides a…

  6. Cultural Flashpoint: The Politics of Teacher Education Reform in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 (Cosgrove et al., 2010; Perkins et al., 2010) reading literacy results heralded a crisis of confidence in educational standards in Ireland. This article examines the national and international context of teacher education reform and the politics of the policy…

  7. The Politics of Reform at Stephen K. Hayt School, Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joravsky, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Three years after the passage of the Chicago Public Schools Reform Act, Stephen K. Hayt School in Chicago (Illinois) has shown some successes, but neighborhood politics have hampered progress as ethnic groups and others dispute issues. In addition, cuts in the citywide school budget left teachers scrambling for supplies. (JB)

  8. Production and the welfare state: the political context of reforms.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1991-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the political context of reforms in the production process and in the welfare state. The theories of legitimation and Fordism are criticized for considering the capitalist class the main force behind the reforms. The working class and the process of class struggle are primarily responsible for changes in production and for the establishment of the welfare state. The author then shows that the changes in production and in the state that occurred after World War II were a response to political events triggered by labor's rebellions and capital's need to respond to those rebellions. Post-Fordism and the political practice that derives from it are criticized for their hasty dismissal of class and class practices by the dominated forces in society. The article ends by offering an alternative strategy for change.

  9. Rethinking Democratic Education: The Politics of Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, David M.

    This book argues that democratic education should equip citizens to be "the measure of all things." The volume contends that the voices of society should develop the skills of questioning, criticizing, and reconstructing the language of the day in order to dissect the rhetoric of politics, economy, and culture. But the volume asserts that these…

  10. The politics of paying for health reform: zombies, payroll taxes, and the holy grail.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the politics of paying for health care reform. It surveys the political strengths and weaknesses of major options to fund universal coverage and explores obstacles to changing how the United States finances health care. Finding a politically viable means to finance universal coverage remains a central barrier to enacting health reform.

  11. Leading Mathematics Reform and the Lost Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    Queensland's primary school teachers have experienced change in every Key Learning Area in the last few years. This avalanche of curriculum reform is set to continue as schools prepare for the imminent release of the Australian national curriculum. This article reports on one school's approach to dealing with this avalanche of curriculum reform.…

  12. The political economy of healthy system reform in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, D; Chinitz, D

    1995-01-01

    Commission for structural change in the system, and review the politics of implementing the recommended reforms.

  13. Medicaid in Ohio: The Politics of Expansion, Reauthorization, and Reform.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    When, in 2012, the US Supreme Court held that Medicaid expansion sanctioned by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was essentially optional for states, it ushered in a newly contentious state politics. States led by Republican governors and legislatures opposed to the ACA had to decide whether to accept extensive federal funding to expand Medicaid for citizens in their states who were earning up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level. This Report from the States focuses on Ohio, whose Republican governor successfully navigated the rancorous politics of Medicaid to expand the state's program in 2014. Working at odds with his own party and gaining praise from traditional political opponents for his leadership on the issue, John Kasich circumvented the state legislature, turning to the Controlling Board to bring about initial expansion. In the wake of Kasich's landslide reelection in 2014, the politics of expansion and reauthorization have given way to a pervasive discourse of "reform." In this next phase Kasich has endorsed policy positions (e.g., cost sharing, a focus on "personal responsibility") that reunite him with his party's more traditional view of Medicaid while continuing to emphasize the importance of expansion.

  14. Political Reform and the Historical Trajectories of U.S. Social Movements in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amenta, Edwin; Caren, Neal; Stobaugh, James E.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a political reform theory, a political and historical institutionalist argument that holds that shifts in political structures, partisan regimes and policy greatly influence movements. We appraise this argument, along with resource mobilization, political opportunity and media alternatives, by analyzing 600,000 articles in the "New York…

  15. Political Reform and the Historical Trajectories of U.S. Social Movements in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amenta, Edwin; Caren, Neal; Stobaugh, James E.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a political reform theory, a political and historical institutionalist argument that holds that shifts in political structures, partisan regimes and policy greatly influence movements. We appraise this argument, along with resource mobilization, political opportunity and media alternatives, by analyzing 600,000 articles in the "New York…

  16. A network approach for researching political feasibility of healthcare reform: the case of universal healthcare system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Xu

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluates the political feasibility of healthcare reform taking place in Taiwan in the past decade. Since Taiwan adopted National Health Insurance (NHI) in 1995, it has provided coverage for virtually all of the island's citizens. However, the imbalance between expenditure and revenue has resulted in a cycle of unsustainable spending which has necessitated financial reforms and political confrontations. By applying social network analysis, this paper examines multiple types of ties between policy elites and power distribution that have evolved in crucial policy events of the NHI's financial reforms between 1998 and 2010. Data sources include official documents and 62 social network interviews that were held with government officials and related unofficial policy participants. Blockmodeling and multidimensional scaling (MDS) are used to determine the major participants and network structures in the NHI domain, as well as the influential policy actors, based on information transmission, resource exchange, reputation attribution and action-set coalition networks in Taiwan's current political situation. The results show that although both public actors and all medical associations are the leading actors in the NHI reform, without good communication with societal actors, the promotion of reform proposals ends in failure. As a tool of political feasibility evaluation, social network analysis can map the political conflict between policy stakeholders systematically when policy makers pursue the result of policy adoption.

  17. The Politics of Teacher Education Reform. The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association. [Volume 13].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Karen Symms, Ed.; Bailey, Jerry D., Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers on the politics of teacher education reform. The book begins with "Introduction to the Politics of Teacher Preparation Reform" (Karen Symms Gallagher and Jerry D. Bailey). Part 1, "Issues From the National Arena," includes "The Politics of Teacher Education Reform: Strategic…

  18. The Politics of Teacher Education Reform. The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association. [Volume 13].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Karen Symms, Ed.; Bailey, Jerry D., Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers on the politics of teacher education reform. The book begins with "Introduction to the Politics of Teacher Preparation Reform" (Karen Symms Gallagher and Jerry D. Bailey). Part 1, "Issues From the National Arena," includes "The Politics of Teacher Education Reform: Strategic…

  19. States Will Lead the Way toward Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Arne

    2009-01-01

    This document contains remarks delivered by the Secretary of Education who spoke at the 2009 Governors Education Symposium. Secretary Duncan spoke about uses of Recovery Act funding to drive reform in four core areas of education: (1) Robust data systems that track student achievement and teacher effectiveness; (2) Teacher and principal quality;…

  20. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…

  1. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…

  2. Electricity sector liberalization in the European Union: The political economy of regulatory reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infante Durana, Maria Dolores

    This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became

  3. The politics of local hospital reform: a case study of hospital reorganization following the 2002 Norwegian hospital reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Norwegian hospital reform of 2002 was an attempt to make restructuring of hospitals easier by removing politicians from the decision-making processes. To facilitate changes seen as necessary but politically difficult, the central state took over ownership of the hospitals and stripped the county politicians of what had been their main responsibility for decades. This meant that decisions regarding hospital structure and organization were now being taken by professional administrators and not by politically elected representatives. The question raised here is whether this has had any effect on the speed of restructuring of the hospital sector. Method The empirical part is a case study of the restructuring process in Innlandet Hospital Trust (IHT), which was one of the largest enterprise established after the hospital reform and where the vision for restructuring was clearly set. Different sources of qualitative data are used in the analysis. These include interviews with key actors, observational data and document studies. Results The analysis demonstrates how the new professional leaders at first acted in accordance with the intentions of the hospital reform, but soon chose to avoid the more ambitious plans for restructuring the hospital structure and in fact reintroduced local politics into the decision-making process. The analysis further illustrates how local networks and engagement of political representatives from all levels of government complicated the decision-making process surrounding local structural reforms. Local political representatives teamed up with other actors and created powerful networks. At the same time, national politicians had incentives to involve themselves in the processes as supporters of the status quo. Conclusion Because of the incentives that faced political actors and the controversial nature of major hospital reforms, the removal of local politicians and the centralization of ownership did not necessarily facilitate

  4. The politics of local hospital reform: a case study of hospital reorganization following the 2002 Norwegian hospital reform.

    PubMed

    Tjerbo, Trond

    2009-11-20

    The Norwegian hospital reform of 2002 was an attempt to make restructuring of hospitals easier by removing politicians from the decision-making processes. To facilitate changes seen as necessary but politically difficult, the central state took over ownership of the hospitals and stripped the county politicians of what had been their main responsibility for decades. This meant that decisions regarding hospital structure and organization were now being taken by professional administrators and not by politically elected representatives. The question raised here is whether this has had any effect on the speed of restructuring of the hospital sector. The empirical part is a case study of the restructuring process in Innlandet Hospital Trust (IHT), which was one of the largest enterprise established after the hospital reform and where the vision for restructuring was clearly set. Different sources of qualitative data are used in the analysis. These include interviews with key actors, observational data and document studies. The analysis demonstrates how the new professional leaders at first acted in accordance with the intentions of the hospital reform, but soon chose to avoid the more ambitious plans for restructuring the hospital structure and in fact reintroduced local politics into the decision-making process. The analysis further illustrates how local networks and engagement of political representatives from all levels of government complicated the decision-making process surrounding local structural reforms. Local political representatives teamed up with other actors and created powerful networks. At the same time, national politicians had incentives to involve themselves in the processes as supporters of the status quo. Because of the incentives that faced political actors and the controversial nature of major hospital reforms, the removal of local politicians and the centralization of ownership did not necessarily facilitate reforms in the hospital structure

  5. Implementing health care reform in the United States: intergovernmental politics and the dilemmas of institutional design.

    PubMed

    Béland, Daniel; Rocco, Philip; Waddan, Alex

    2014-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted, and continues to operate, under conditions of political polarization. In this article, we argue that the law's intergovernmental structure has amplified political conflict over its implementation by distributing governing authority to political actors at both levels of the American federal system. We review the ways in which the law's demands for institutional coordination between federal and state governments (and especially the role it preserves for governors and state legislatures) have created difficulties for rolling out health-insurance exchanges and expanding the Medicaid program. By way of contrast, we show how the institutional design of the ACA's regulatory reforms of the insurance market, which diminish the reform's political salience, has allowed for considerably less friction during the implementation process. This article thus highlights the implications of multi-level institutional designs for the post-enactment politics of major reforms.

  6. Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…

  7. Politics, Modernisation and Educational Reform in Russia: From Past to Present. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this volume give an account of the process of modernisation and educational reform in Russia, variously considering the cultural and political dilemmas provoked by democratisation, the structural and policy challenges associated with the reform of higher and vocational education, and the deep divisions exposed as socio-cultural…

  8. Politics, Modernisation and Educational Reform in Russia: From Past to Present. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this volume give an account of the process of modernisation and educational reform in Russia, variously considering the cultural and political dilemmas provoked by democratisation, the structural and policy challenges associated with the reform of higher and vocational education, and the deep divisions exposed as socio-cultural…

  9. Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…

  10. Ghetto Schooling: A Political Economy of Urban Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    This book is based on a study of a 4-year reform effort in the Newark (New Jersey) public schools. The discussion focuses on an elementary school as it attempted reform in an effort that was ultimately unsuccessful. Part I opens the discussion of the effects of social class and race on educational reform. To see why inner city schools have not…

  11. Technical, Political and Cultural Barriers to Science Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative support is essential for reform efforts to take place at the building and district level. This study explored barriers teachers encountered while implementing science education reform and the impact those barriers had on change in instructional practices and reform. Findings in this study reveal that support from administration is…

  12. Ghetto Schooling: A Political Economy of Urban Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    This book is based on a study of a 4-year reform effort in the Newark (New Jersey) public schools. The discussion focuses on an elementary school as it attempted reform in an effort that was ultimately unsuccessful. Part I opens the discussion of the effects of social class and race on educational reform. To see why inner city schools have not…

  13. Politics, religions, and grief: the cases of American spiritualism and the Deuteronomic reform in Israel.

    PubMed

    Klass, Dennis; Goss, Robert

    2002-11-01

    The article is a contribution to the task of developing a cross-cultural model of grief. It shows that grief narratives can be complexly interwoven with the religious and political narratives of the culture. Two political reforms in which religious narratives figured prominently are given as case examples: 19th-century Spiritualism in North America and the Deuteronomic reform in 7th-century BCE Israel. Similarities and differences between the two are discussed. The article concludes that an adequate cross-cultural model of grief must be capable of explaining how a particular grief narrative relates to the politics and religious narratives in which it is set.

  14. Prospective political analysis for policy design: enhancing the political viability of single-payer health reform in Vermont.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Nathan J; Fox, Ashley M

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 the state of Vermont adopted legislation that aims to create the nation's first state-level single-payer health care system, a system that would go well beyond national reform efforts. To conduct a prospective, institutional stakeholder analysis to guide development of a politically viable, universal health care reform proposal, as commissioned by Vermont's legislature in July 2010. A total of 64 semi-structured stakeholder interviews with nearly 120 individuals, representing 60 different groups/institutions, were conducted between July and December 2010. Interviews probed stakeholders regarding five major design components: financing options, decoupling insurance from employment, organization/governance, comprehensiveness of benefits, and payment reform. There was a range of opposition and support across stakeholder groups and components, and more remarkably a diversity of views within groups often believed to be unwavering supporters or detractors of comprehensive health reform. Given the balance of conflicting views, relative power, and acceptable trade-offs, the research team proposed a single-payer health care system financed through payroll taxes, decoupled from employment, with a generous benefit package, governed by a public-private intermediary. Prospective political analysis can assist in choosing among a range of technically sound policy options to create a more politically viable health reform package. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  16. Power, Politics, Democracy and Reform: A Historical Review of Curriculum Reform, Academia and Government in British Columbia, Canada, 1920 to 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelations between power, politics, academia and curriculum reform in British Columbia (BC) using social studies curriculum documents as a case study. It describes how curriculum reform occurred and argues that reform was undemocratic as it was largely the product of individuals with power who invited individuals with…

  17. Power, Politics, Democracy and Reform: A Historical Review of Curriculum Reform, Academia and Government in British Columbia, Canada, 1920 to 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelations between power, politics, academia and curriculum reform in British Columbia (BC) using social studies curriculum documents as a case study. It describes how curriculum reform occurred and argues that reform was undemocratic as it was largely the product of individuals with power who invited individuals with…

  18. The Politics of Privatisation, Decentralisation and Education Reform in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornelas, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Reform in the Mexican education system accords with global patterns of liberalisation, decentralisation, compensatory programs and accountability. The present study analyses reform in that country during the past 15 years. It reveals that despite expectations of change attending the installation of the new government which replaced the ruling…

  19. Scaling up Education Reform: Addressing the Politics of Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Russell; O'Sullivan, Dominic; Berryman, Mere

    2010-01-01

    What is school reform? What makes it sustainable? Who needs to be involved? How is scaling up achieved? This book is about the need for educational reforms that have built into them, from the outset, those elements that will see them sustained in the original sites and spread to others. Using the Te Kotahitanga Project as a model the authors…

  20. The Political Dynamics of District Reform: The Form and Fate of the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scholars widely acknowledge that politics help explain why policies are adopted and how they play out in states, districts, and schools. To date, political analyses of education reform tend to isolate a particular policy and examine the politics of its adoption or implementation, but pay less attention to the effects of the politics of…

  1. The Political Dynamics of District Reform: The Form and Fate of the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scholars widely acknowledge that politics help explain why policies are adopted and how they play out in states, districts, and schools. To date, political analyses of education reform tend to isolate a particular policy and examine the politics of its adoption or implementation, but pay less attention to the effects of the politics of…

  2. Framing divorce reform: media, morality, and the politics of family.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michele; Coltrane, Scott

    2007-03-01

    No-fault statutes changed divorce from an adversarial system pitting victims against victimizers, with the state acting as enforcer of marital norms, to a private decision between unhappily married but legally blameless partners. Divorce reform following no-fault primarily focused on making divorce more fair for the parties involved. Over the last several decades, divorce reform has transitioned from making divorce better to making marriage healthier. The good divorce has slipped from policy attention, elevating the potential for restigmatization of divorced couples and their children. We trace the trajectory of media framing of divorce reform discourse in three general circulation newspapers from the start of the no-fault revolution, noting how media framing parallels and naturalizes the transition in divorce reform policy. We conclude by observing the prevalence of divorce and the related need for therapists to be cognizant of this naturalization process, thereby keeping the good divorce as a goal for those who desire to end their marriages.

  3. The Politics of Reforming School Finance in Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geske, Terry G.

    This paper is primarily concerned with identifying and explicating the environmental forces and political factors responsible for legislative enactment of major school finance changes in Wisconsin in 1973. Easton's political systems theory serves as a conceptual framework for the study. In addition, Lindblom's leadership model, Truman's interest…

  4. The Political Economy of Market-Based Educational Policies: Race and Reform in Urban School Districts, 1915 to 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Janelle; Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2016-01-01

    The authors situate the emergence and effects of contemporary market-based reforms within a framework of urban political economy that centers on racial inequality. They discuss how and why market-based reforms have evolved alongside racialized political and economic trends that have transformed cities over the past century, and they critically…

  5. The Political Economy of Market-Based Educational Policies: Race and Reform in Urban School Districts, 1915 to 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Janelle; Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2016-01-01

    The authors situate the emergence and effects of contemporary market-based reforms within a framework of urban political economy that centers on racial inequality. They discuss how and why market-based reforms have evolved alongside racialized political and economic trends that have transformed cities over the past century, and they critically…

  6. Accretion, reform, and crisis: a theory of public health politics in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Standard interpretations of the history of public health in New York City in the twentieth century describe either the decline or the growth of the importance accorded to public health activities. To the contrary, public health has, paradoxically, both declined in salience and attracted increasing resources. This article describes the politics of public health in New York City since the 1920s. First it describes events in the history of public health in the context of events in the economy and in city, state, and national politics. Then it proposes three descriptive models for arraying the data about public health politics: accretion, reform, and crisis. Next it describes how the politics of AIDS in New York City in the 1980s was a consequence of the history that produced these three political styles. Finally, it argues that the three political styles are generalizable to the history of public health throughout the United States in the twentieth century. PMID:1814059

  7. Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

    Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point

  8. The Tragedy of American School Reform: How Curriculum Politics and Entrenched Dilemmas Have Diverted Us from Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2011-01-01

    Two persistent dilemmas haunt school reform: curriculum politics and classroom constancy. Both undermined the 1960s' new social studies, a dynamic reform movement centered on inquiry, issues, and social activism. Dramatic academic freedom controversies ended reform and led to a conservative restoration. On one side were teachers and curriculum…

  9. The Tragedy of American School Reform: How Curriculum Politics and Entrenched Dilemmas Have Diverted Us from Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2011-01-01

    Two persistent dilemmas haunt school reform: curriculum politics and classroom constancy. Both undermined the 1960s' new social studies, a dynamic reform movement centered on inquiry, issues, and social activism. Dramatic academic freedom controversies ended reform and led to a conservative restoration. On one side were teachers and curriculum…

  10. The Politics and Sustainability of Middle Grades Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Jennifer I.; Thompson, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    Jennifer's first years as a middle school principal occurred during a time of transformation initiated by the federal No Child Left Behind Act and further intensified by demographic changes within her Midwest suburban district of 25,000 students. In the context of national educational reform during this time period, Tom Erb asked, "Who will…

  11. The Politics of Off-the-Shelf School Finance Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.; Elmer, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes and evaluates two "Off-the-Shelf" school finance reforms that gained then waned in popularity over the past several years. The 65 percent solution claims that requiring all public school districts to allocate 65 cents of every education dollar "to the classroom" would drive substantial additional resources to children…

  12. Reform and Reaction: The Political Economy of Education in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Timothy

    Kentucky has a long history of educational problems and of reform efforts that failed because of state neglect. These problems, which deeply affect rural economic development and are closely tied to patterns of unequal development, have become more troublesome as world markets have changed. The roots of these problems are planted in the state's…

  13. Education Reform When Nations Undergo Radical Political and Social Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Belle, Thomas J.; Ward, Christopher R.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between radical social transformation and educational reform in Algeria, China, Cuba, Ethiopia, Iran, Mozambique, and Nicaragua. Examines seven policy areas before and after transformation: centralized control, access to education, tracking, curriculum, personnel, language of instruction, and literacy. (28 references) (SV)

  14. Education Reform When Nations Undergo Radical Political and Social Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Belle, Thomas J.; Ward, Christopher R.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between radical social transformation and educational reform in Algeria, China, Cuba, Ethiopia, Iran, Mozambique, and Nicaragua. Examines seven policy areas before and after transformation: centralized control, access to education, tracking, curriculum, personnel, language of instruction, and literacy. (28 references) (SV)

  15. Reform, Resistance, . . . Retreat? The Predictable Politics of Accountability in Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2002-01-01

    In the 1990s, Virginia launched one of the nation's most ambitious standards-based reform efforts. Encouraged by a budding national accountability movement and motivated by conservative distrust of the public school establishment, state officials sought to clarify what students needed to know and to hold students and educators accountable for…

  16. The Cultural Politics of Constructivist Pedagogies: Teacher Education Reform in the United Republic of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2009-01-01

    This article examines recent educational reforms in Tanzania by looking at the cultural politics of pedagogical change in secondary and teacher education. It presents an ethnography of a teachers college founded on the principles of social constructivism in a country where formalistic, teacher-centered pedagogy is the norm. Using data collected…

  17. Problem-Based Learning and Improved Learning Outcomes in "The Politics of Welfare Reform"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity of a major Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Assignment to improve students' content knowledge surrounding relevant course concepts in two sections of "The Politics of Welfare Reform," a 200-level class offered at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth. The hypothesis was that performance on the PBL assignment, which…

  18. Educational Reconstruction "By the Dawn's Early Light": Violent Political Conflict and American Overseas Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobe, Noah W.

    2009-01-01

    Using a historical approach, Sobe examines the myths and ideals that have underlain U.S. educational initiatives in postconflict nations abroad. Building on its tradition of modern schooling designed to advance civic and social order, America has sought to extend its political and cultural values overseas through educational reforms in…

  19. Politics of Externalization in Reflexive Times: Reinventing Japanese Education Reform Discourses through "Finnish PISA Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a critical theoretical paradigm and critically engaging with the externalization thesis that Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Jurgen Schriewer have developed, this article examines the politics of "Finnish education" in the ongoing Japanese education reform debate. More specifically, it examines the various discursive uses of…

  20. The Politics of Curriculum Reform in Canada: The Case of Technology Education in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrina, Stephen; Dalley, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrates the case of technology education in British Colombia and discusses its invulnerability of teachers to curriculum reform. Draws on historical and survey data related to school practices and Ministry of Education enrollment data disaggregated by sex. Casts these data into a politics of curriculum framework informed by the work of…

  1. Liking Health Reform But Turned Off By Toxic Politics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lawrence R; Mettler, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Six years after the Affordable Care Act (ACA) became law, the number of nonelderly Americans with health insurance has expanded by twenty million, and the uninsurance rate has declined nearly 9 percentage points. Nevertheless, public opinion about the law remains deeply divided. We investigated how individuals may be experiencing and responding to health reform implementation by analyzing three waves of a panel study we conducted in 2010, 2012, and 2014. While public opinion about the ACA remains split (45.6 percent unfavorable and 36.2 percent favorable), there have been several detectable shifts. The share of respondents believing that reform had little or no impact on access to health insurance or medical care diminished by 18 percentage points from 2010 to 2014, while those considering reform to have some or a great impact increased by 19 percentage points. Among individuals who held unfavorable views toward the law in 2010, the percentage who supported repeal-while still high, at 72 percent-shrank by 9 percentage points from 2010 to 2014. We found that party affiliation and distrust in government were influential factors in explaining the continuing divide over the law. The ACA has delivered discernible benefits, and some Americans are increasingly recognizing that it is improving access to health insurance and medical care.

  2. Educational Reform: The Political Roots of National Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Landon E.

    1985-01-01

    Although "A Nation at Risk" identifies many legitimate problems, the report misconstrues their causes and proposes inappropriate solutions. By blaming schools for America's economic, military, and moral shortcomings, it deflects criticism from education's social, economic, and political context, which we must analyze if we seek a more…

  3. The policy and politics of the 2015 long-term care reform in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Maarse, J A M Hans; Jeurissen, P P Patrick

    2016-03-01

    As of 2015 a major reform in LTC is taking place in the Netherlands. An important objective of the reform is to reign in expenditure growth to safeguard the fiscal sustainability of LTC. Other objectives are to improve the quality of LTC by making it more client-tailored. The reform consists of four interrelated pillars: a normative reorientation, a shift from residential to non-residential care, decentralization of non-residential care and expenditure cuts. The article gives a brief overview of these pillars and their underlying assumptions. Furthermore, attention is paid to the political decision-making process and the politics of implementation and evaluation. Perceptions of the effects of the reform so far widely differ: positive views alternate with critical views. Though the reform is radical in various aspects, LTC care will remain a largely publicly funded provision. A statutory health insurance scheme will remain in place to cover residential care. The role of municipalities in publicly funded non-residential care is significantly upgraded. The final section contains a few policy lessons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. PISA as a Political Tool in Spain: Assessment Instrument, Academic Discourse and Political Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega Gil, Leoncio; Hernández Beltrán, Juan Carlos; García Redondo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study examines to what extent there is a sort of "political appropiation" by political parties when they seek to set a discourse about the Spanish PISA outcomes. We have consistently found that programs for assessing the competencies of students, especially PISA, have become tools of rationalization and the legitimization of…

  5. PISA as a Political Tool in Spain: Assessment Instrument, Academic Discourse and Political Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega Gil, Leoncio; Hernández Beltrán, Juan Carlos; García Redondo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study examines to what extent there is a sort of "political appropiation" by political parties when they seek to set a discourse about the Spanish PISA outcomes. We have consistently found that programs for assessing the competencies of students, especially PISA, have become tools of rationalization and the legitimization of…

  6. The emergence of managed care in Europe. Some thoughts on the politics of healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    Elze, C

    1998-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate that healthcare reform in Europe can be successful only if it leads to more efficient resource use while maintaining a large degree of equity in the system. Globalisation is undermining the social contracts that established Europe's egalitarian societies after World War II. While socialised healthcare will continue to be an essential building block of social cohesion, public expenditures must be contained. The only approach to maintaining equity of access and financing in the face of a mounting resource constraint is to embark upon a radical re-engineering of the entire healthcare supply chain, introducing and adapting proven US managed-care techniques to the European environment. Through enabling legislation, most European countries are in a phase of testing the feasibility, cost effectiveness and quality enhancement potential of managed-care approaches, before applying them more broadly. While political opposition to change on the part of those whose current positions are threatened continues to run high, the practice of medicine can be expected to converge on the basis of standards of care and information technology over the next 10 to 15 years.

  7. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide the...

  8. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide...

  11. Democratically Elected Socialist Presidents and Free-Market Reforms: A Political Economy Examination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    Dani Rodrik , a political economist for Columbia University, after two significant events.1 First was the popularity, then failure, of import...and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America, (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1991), 136. 1 2 Dani , Rodrik , “Understanding...Latin America: Theory and Policy, ed. Jeffry Frieden, Manuel Pastor Jr., and Michael Tomz (Boulder: Westview, 2000) 155. 4 Dani Rodrik , “Understanding

  12. Rethinking Schools. An Agenda for Change. Leading Reformers Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David, Ed.; And Others

    This collection presents the best of 8 years of "Rethinking Schools," an education reform journal created in Milwaukee (Wisconsin) in 1986 by teachers vitally concerned with educational change. This volume contains 29 essays by classroom teachers, as well as pieces by such national reform figures as Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Herbert Kohl,…

  13. Rethinking Schools. An Agenda for Change. Leading Reformers Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David, Ed.; And Others

    This collection presents the best of 8 years of "Rethinking Schools," an education reform journal created in Milwaukee (Wisconsin) in 1986 by teachers vitally concerned with educational change. This volume contains 29 essays by classroom teachers, as well as pieces by such national reform figures as Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Herbert Kohl,…

  14. Pay, Professionalism, and Politics: Reforming Teachers, Reforming Education. Australian Education Review No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Terri, Ed.

    In the late 1980s a new concept entered the educational lexicon in Australia--"award restructuring," or paid training leave for teachers. However, by 1993 the term had disappeared from public view. What began as a new politics of work developed into a complex debate about governance and leadership in Australian education. This book…

  15. Fashioning Curriculum Reform as Identity Politics--Taiwan's Dilemma of Curriculum Reform in New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Chin-Ju

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores indigenization and globalization, the double issue of curriculum and identity as a dialectical contradiction that characterizes the ambivalence of "Taiwanese identity." "Taiwanese identity" is treated as a social, political, and cultural construct rather than a fixed term in an essentialist sense.…

  16. Good Ideas and Engagement Aren't Enough: School District Central Offices and the Micro-Politics of Implementing Comprehensive Human Resource Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeArmond, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about how organizational politics--or what some scholars call micro-politics--shapes the implementation of comprehensive human resource (HR) reform in school district central offices. Over the last decade, education reformers and advocates have promoted comprehensive HR reform as a way to improve teaching and learning in K-12…

  17. Good Ideas and Engagement Aren't Enough: School District Central Offices and the Micro-Politics of Implementing Comprehensive Human Resource Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeArmond, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about how organizational politics--or what some scholars call micro-politics--shapes the implementation of comprehensive human resource (HR) reform in school district central offices. Over the last decade, education reformers and advocates have promoted comprehensive HR reform as a way to improve teaching and learning in K-12…

  18. Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-01

    Universal access to healthcare has assumed renewed importance in global health discourse, along with a focus on strengthening health systems. These developments are taking place in the backdrop of concerted efforts to advocate moving away from vertical, disease-based approaches to tackling health problems. While this approach to addressing public health problems is a step in the right direction, there is still insufficient emphasis on understanding the socio-political context of health systems. Reforms to strengthen health systems and achieve universal access to healthcare should be cognizant of the importance of the socio-political context, especially state-society relations. That context determines the nature and trajectory of reforms promoting universality or any pro-equity change. Brazil and Venezuela in recent years have made progress in developing healthcare systems that aim to achieve universal access. These achievements are noteworthy given that, historically, both countries had a long tradition of healthcare systems which were highly privatized and geared towards access to healthcare for a small segment of the population while the majority was excluded. These achievements are also remarkable since they took place in an era of neoliberalism when many states, even those with universally-based healthcare systems, were moving in the opposite direction. We analyze the socio-political context in each of these countries and look specifically at how the changing state-society relations resulted in health being constitutionally recognized as a social right. We describe the challenges that each faced in developing and implementing healthcare systems embracing universality. Our contention is that achieving the principle of universality in healthcare systems is less of a technical matter and more a political project. It involves opposition from the socially conservative elements in the society. Navigation to achieve this goal requires a political strategy that

  19. The Politics of Aborted Reform: Education and the Legitimacy of the State in France and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Hans N.

    As this paper demonstrates, studying abortive educational reforms reveals a great deal about the complex political dynamics involved in making (and unmaking) key policy decisions. Using case studies of France and West Germany, the paper argues that the state in advanced industrial countries tends to maximize the political gains derived from…

  20. Leading through the Challenge of Change: African-American Women Principals on Small School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, April L.

    2012-01-01

    The context of education is changing based upon social, political, and accountability factors. As a result, many large urban districts have turned to small school reform in efforts to address student learning outcomes. Research demonstrates that effective leadership influences school achievement and culture. This qualitative study examines the…

  1. Leading through the Challenge of Change: African-American Women Principals on Small School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, April L.

    2012-01-01

    The context of education is changing based upon social, political, and accountability factors. As a result, many large urban districts have turned to small school reform in efforts to address student learning outcomes. Research demonstrates that effective leadership influences school achievement and culture. This qualitative study examines the…

  2. The pleasures and perils of prophetic advocacy: Henry E. Sigerist and the politics of medical reform.

    PubMed Central

    Fee, E

    1996-01-01

    Henry E. Sigerist, an internationally renowned medical historian, played a surprisingly important and visible role in American medical politics in the 1930s and 1940s. Born in Paris of Swiss parents, he was professor in Leipzig, Germany, before coming to the United States in 1932 as professor of the history of medicine at Johns Hopkins University. Once in America. Sigerist became deeply involved in medical politics and the campaign for national health insurance. He argued that individualized medical practice was outdated and should gradually be superseded by state-run and state-financed health services. National health insurance was but one step in this historical progression. Sigerist thus lent the weight of history itself to the cause of medical care reform. The charming and erudite Sigerist was welcomed by the leaders of academic medicine in America. Soon, he emerged as a spokesman of the left wing of the medical profession, an effective and popular speaker and an impassioned advocate of socialized medicine. This paper traces Sigerist's political ideas and activities, and his contributions toward medical care reform in the United States. Images p1639-a p1642-a PMID:8916536

  3. Leading for Urban School Reform and Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Terrance L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Improving urban schools of color and the communities where they are located requires leadership that spans school and community boundaries. The purpose of this study is to understand how principal and community leader actions support urban school reform along with community development at two community schools in the urban Midwest and…

  4. Making Good Choices: Districts Take the Lead. Comprehensive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Public schools across the country are aiming to improve student performance by engaging in comprehensive school reform (CSR). This guide was created to help school districts make CSR an integral part of their strategies for improving student achievement. Five components for CSR are described: (1) Strategizing, whereby the district supports CSR by…

  5. 40 CFR 35.6060 - Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial... subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) If the Award Official determines that a political subdivision's lead involvement in pre-remedial activities would be more efficient, economical and appropriate...

  6. Why Do Policy Leaders Adopt Global Education Reforms? A Political Analysis of SBM Reform Adoption in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a political analysis of school-based management reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). School-based management (SBM), based on the principle of school autonomy and community participation, is a school governance system introduced in many parts of the world, including post-conflict nations. Such a phenomenon seems to follow the…

  7. The Science and Politics of Naming: Reforming Anatomical Nomenclature, ca. 1886-1955.

    PubMed

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2017-04-01

    Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology. I focus on the controversial and ultimately failed attempt to reform anatomical nomenclature, known as Jena Nomina Anatomica (INA), of 1935. Discussions around nomenclature reveal not only how anatomical names are made and communicated, but also the relationship of anatomy with the clinic; disciplinary controversies within anatomy; national traditions in science; and the interplay between international and scientific disciplinary politics. I show how the current anatomical nomenclature, a successor to the NAP, is an outcome of both political and disciplinary tensions that reached their peak before 1945. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Political change, disease and healthcare reform: the response to the Toxic Oil Syndrome (Spain, 1981-1998)].

    PubMed

    Martín, Gregoria Hernández; Martínez-Pérez, José

    2011-01-01

    In 1981, Spain was threatened by the sudden appearance of an epidemic-like disease, one which was unknown to that date. The Toxic Oil Syndrome, as it was later named after the oil that caused it, thus demanded a response that became conditioned by the fact that the biological nature of the disease was unknown, but also, significantly by the complex situation in the country at that time. Spain was immersed in process of great political change, as well as a difficult economic situation, the authorities were obliged to react in not ideal conditions and in accordance with the very values that the new model of social relations that was being developed. This paper aims to look at the way in which the Toxic Oil Syndrome acted as a catalyst and accelerated the healthcare reform that, already prior to the outbreak of the epidemic, had been deemed necessary. This work focuses mainly on the response of the health system regarding those affected by the epidemic, as it was forced to treat a group of people with severe physical side effects which would lead to disability within a new framework of social relations. It thus aims to illustrate how many of the measures adopted were in accordance with the main ideas behind the reform, and also how these measures were precursors of those which were later applied to the population as a whole.

  9. Health system strengthening in Myanmar during political reforms: perspectives from international agencies.

    PubMed

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Coker, Richard; Piot, Peter; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2014-07-01

    Myanmar has undergone a remarkable political transformation in the last 2 years, with its leadership voluntarily transitioning from an isolated military regime to a quasi-civilian government intent on re-engaging with the international community. Decades of underinvestment have left the country underdeveloped with a fragile health system and poor health outcomes. International aid agencies have found engagement with the Myanmar government difficult but this is changing rapidly and it is opportune to consider how Myanmar can engage with the global health system strengthening (HSS) agenda. Nineteen semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with representatives from international agencies working in Myanmar to capture their perspectives on HSS following political reform. They explored their perceptions of HSS and the opportunities for implementation. Participants reported challenges in engaging with government, reflecting the disharmony between actors, economic sanctions and barriers to service delivery due to health system weaknesses and bureaucracy. Weaknesses included human resources, data and medical products/infrastructure and logistical challenges. Agencies had mixed views of health system finance and governance, identifying problems and also some positive aspects. There is little consensus on how HSS should be approached in Myanmar, but much interest in collaborating to achieve it. Despite myriad challenges and concerns, participants were generally positive about the recent political changes, and remain optimistic as they engage in HSS activities with the government.

  10. The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed.

  11. The Educational Argumentation of the Hellenic Political Forces on Special Education in the 1913, 1929, 1964, and 1985 Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzakis, Sifis; Berdousi, Eleni

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to show the educational argumentation of the Greek liberal political forces with respect to special education within the reform attempts that were undertaken in 1913, 1929, 1964, and 1985. More specifically, we detect the concepts that prevailed in each of the three main phases through which special education in Greece…

  12. Taking the Lead: The Role of the Principal in School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trail, Kathleen, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The lead article of this issue, "Taking the Lead: The Role of the Principal in School Reform" (Kathleen Trial), discusses the various roles of the principal: psychologist, teacher, facilities manager, philosopher, police officer, diplomat, social worker, mentor, PR director, coach, and cheerleader. A second article discusses making shared…

  13. Toward health reform for seniors in Bermuda: historical constraints on political possibilities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Edward Alan; Nadash, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, as the United States moved toward health care reform, the government of Bermuda implemented its FutureCare program to make health care for seniors more affordable. This article investigates how preferences for reform and its eventual design were shaped by the country's social history and commitment to free market values. Data derive from 36 in-depth interviews with key stakeholders deemed knowledgeable about health care financing and delivery in Bermuda, including government officials, provider representatives, insurance executives, and consumer advocates. Data also derive from a variety of documentary sources. Results indicate that although a clear need for health care and the ability to finance it for seniors exists in Bermuda, the scope of reform was circumscribed by preferences for prior policy decisions, creating a favorable tax and business environment for international corporations and a minimalist social welfare state for addressing racial and economic inequality. This suggests that widespread agreement on the challenges in meeting the health and long-term care needs of the elderly does not necessarily lead to equally commensurable solutions to addressing it.

  14. FYI: Reforming Social Welfare Policy...Indiana's Children...Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes results of reports and resources concerning the reform of social welfare policy. Focuses on a profile of Indiana children, hospital policies and programs designed to meet the psychosocial needs of hospitalized children and their families, a senior center/latchkey program, and lead poisoning prevention. (BB)

  15. Court-Led Educational Reforms in Political Third Rails: Lessons from the Litigation over Ultra-Religious Jewish Schools in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a model for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of judicial involvement in educational reforms. It uses the model to analyze two case studies of court-led educational reforms in the third rail of Israeli politics--the curricula and the admission policies of ultra-Othodox (Haredi) schools. These case studies are located at the…

  16. Court-Led Educational Reforms in Political Third Rails: Lessons from the Litigation over Ultra-Religious Jewish Schools in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a model for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of judicial involvement in educational reforms. It uses the model to analyze two case studies of court-led educational reforms in the third rail of Israeli politics--the curricula and the admission policies of ultra-Othodox (Haredi) schools. These case studies are located at the…

  17. A Systems Approach to School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes leading scholars' findings in leadership theory, local politics and government, state and national school politics, and change theory. Integrating this knowledge into a systematic reform effort requires superintendents with integrity and vision; political stability; good board/superintendent relations; long-term, statewide commitment;…

  18. A Systems Approach to School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes leading scholars' findings in leadership theory, local politics and government, state and national school politics, and change theory. Integrating this knowledge into a systematic reform effort requires superintendents with integrity and vision; political stability; good board/superintendent relations; long-term, statewide commitment;…

  19. Politics, Language, and Culture: A Critical Look at Urban School Reform. Series in Language and Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph W.

    This book presents a critique of urban school reform that emerges from an exploration of three avenues: learning from the country's long history of previous attempts at reform, listening seriously to the voices of urban practitioners, and going beyond best practices in pedagogy and school organization to view reform in the larger, more…

  20. Globalization, Statist Political Economy, and Unsuccessful Education Reform in South Korea, 1993-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between globalization and national education reforms, especially those of educational systems. Instead of exploring the much debated issues of how globalization affects national educational systems and how the nations react by what kinds of systemic education reform, however, it focuses on what such a method…

  1. The political effects of ideas and markets on China's economic reforms: The case of electrical power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Laura Washington

    This study examines factors influencing contemporary economic policy-making and reform in China's electric power industry. Results of the study suggest that there is an ongoing paradigm change in China's policy-making. However, institutional resistance to changes in the policy process is strong. Policy outcomes in the case of electric power reforms reflect the interaction of both dynamics. In the early 1990s, the central government in Beijing began to consider restructuring the electric power industry to introduce competition and establish markets for electricity supply. Until then, economic policies had resulted from a process of deliberation within the upper echelons of the Communist Party. Although the Party considered the interests of dominant economic actors, particularly the large State-owned sector, its channels for participation in the policy process were closed to most economic actors. Central bureaucratic and provincial interests largely governed policy processes, leading observers to describe the Chinese State as bureaucratic authoritarian. Bureaucracy's heavy role in the economy led to what some called a corporatist State, whereby organs of government infiltrated most aspects of the economy. This institutional arrangement perpetuated bureaucracy's influence in policy-making. This study hypothesizes that transformation in domestic financial markets poses a threat to the entrenched institutions of the electric power industry. The integration of China's economy with foreign firms and markets enabled actors outside of the dominant State-owned economy to improve their positions vis-a-vis the state-owned sector, and eventually to play a role in the policy process. At the same time, Beijing's adaptation of foreign-designed restructuring policies threatened the deep-rooted institutions. The study analyzes the behavior, statements and channels utilized by those actors affected by power sector policies. Based on interviews conducted between 2000 through 2002

  2. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    PubMed

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.

  3. Education Reform, Indigenous Politics, and Decolonisation in the Bolivia of Evo Morales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rosaleen

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between education reform and Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) for Bolivia's majority indigenous peoples, as this has evolved since the 1990s into the era of Evo Morales, Latin America's first indigenous president, elected in 2005. In order to bring out the significance of the new Education Bill awaiting…

  4. The Politics of Literacy in the Context of Large-Scale Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I will consider the lessons that can be learnt about literacy policy and its role in large-scale education reform programmes, with particular reference to policy-making in England since the election of New Labour in 1997. New Labour's promise to the electorate in 1997 was that state-funded education could be fixed and turned into a…

  5. Learning from Leaders: Welfare Reform Politics and Policy in Five Midwestern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissert, Carol S., Ed.

    This book examines welfare reform, occasioned by the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which abolished Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). It is based on research in Ohio, Kansas, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan that…

  6. The Hub and the Spokes: Foundations, Intermediary Organizations, Incentivist Reforms, and the Politics of Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Janelle; Jabbar, Huriya

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the influence of and spending by educational philanthropists and foundations over the past two decades, especially in the area of market-based reforms, such as charter schools, vouchers, and merit pay, is evident across the United States. Largely due to philanthropic investments, relatively new educational intermediary organizations…

  7. The Politics of Literacy in the Context of Large-Scale Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I will consider the lessons that can be learnt about literacy policy and its role in large-scale education reform programmes, with particular reference to policy-making in England since the election of New Labour in 1997. New Labour's promise to the electorate in 1997 was that state-funded education could be fixed and turned into a…

  8. Promise Neighborhoods: The Promise and Politics of Community Capacity Building as Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…

  9. Promise Neighborhoods: The Promise and Politics of Community Capacity Building as Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…

  10. The Hub and the Spokes: Foundations, Intermediary Organizations, Incentivist Reforms, and the Politics of Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Janelle; Jabbar, Huriya

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the influence of and spending by educational philanthropists and foundations over the past two decades, especially in the area of market-based reforms, such as charter schools, vouchers, and merit pay, is evident across the United States. Largely due to philanthropic investments, relatively new educational intermediary organizations…

  11. The Politics of Naming Reform in the Gendered Spheres of Home and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauwels, Anne; Winter, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Naming has been a central focus of feminist language planning. The initial emphasis was on reforming naming practices for women in public spheres (work, education, media). More recently public discourses about work/life balance have drawn together the public and private, shaping the naming practices for women and men in these domains. This paper…

  12. The Politics of Naming Reform in the Gendered Spheres of Home and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauwels, Anne; Winter, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Naming has been a central focus of feminist language planning. The initial emphasis was on reforming naming practices for women in public spheres (work, education, media). More recently public discourses about work/life balance have drawn together the public and private, shaping the naming practices for women and men in these domains. This paper…

  13. Black Political Marginalization? Regime Change and School Reform in Charlotte, NC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen Samuel

    This paper builds on previous research by exploring how the combination of white in-migration and recent school reform has affected the relationship between the formation, adoption, and implementation of educational policy in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district (North Carolina) and the district's African American citizens. The unexpected…

  14. Education Reform, Indigenous Politics, and Decolonisation in the Bolivia of Evo Morales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rosaleen

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between education reform and Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) for Bolivia's majority indigenous peoples, as this has evolved since the 1990s into the era of Evo Morales, Latin America's first indigenous president, elected in 2005. In order to bring out the significance of the new Education Bill awaiting…

  15. Promoting Curriculum Reforms in the Context of a Political Transition: An Analysis of Hong Kong's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes creation and implementation of Hong Kong's Target Oriented Curriculum (TOC), an education reform effort, in light of the country's transition to Chinese rule in 1997. Examines TOC's origins, its nature, means of implementation, and its impact. Discusses tension between "policy intent" and "policy actions," and…

  16. Examining the Streams of a Retention Policy to Understand the Politics of High-Stakes Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2007-01-01

    Using John Kingdon's (2003) multiple streams approach to agenda setting, I analyze how key actors within the state of Wisconsin understood the need to construct and implement the state's No Social Promotion statutes to improve students' academic performance. Policymakers within the state focused their standards-based reforms on the issue of…

  17. The EDUCO Program, Impact Evaluations, and the Political Economy of Global Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brent, Jr.; Loucel Urquilla, Claudia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    During the 1990s and 2000s, a policy known as Education with Community Participation (EDUCO) not only became the cornerstone of education reform in El Salvador but also became a global education policy, one which is known for decentralizing to rural families the responsibility for hiring and firing teachers. As is shown in this paper, its rise to…

  18. The Reform and Reconstitution of the Educational Administration Program in California: A Study of Politics, Posturing, and the Devaluation of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, David O.; Stine, Deborah E.

    During the last 30 years, the state of California has had a great obsession with determining appropriate preparation programs for public school administrators. In all reform cases, the alterations have come in the name of strong leadership, school improvement, quality leadership, and instructional leadership. Political posturing has been evident,…

  19. Organizing for Change: Latinx Im/migrant Parents, School Decision-Making, and the Racial Politics of Parent Leadership in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Verónica N.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on a multi-year, participatory action case study of ALIANZA, a Califonia-based Latinx im/migrant parent group. Grounded in Latina/o Critical Theory (LatCrit), this article focuses specifically on the development of political agency among ALIANZA members, highlighting organizational strategies aimed at school reform while…

  20. Organizing for Change: Latinx Im/migrant Parents, School Decision-Making, and the Racial Politics of Parent Leadership in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Verónica N.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on a multi-year, participatory action case study of ALIANZA, a Califonia-based Latinx im/migrant parent group. Grounded in Latina/o Critical Theory (LatCrit), this article focuses specifically on the development of political agency among ALIANZA members, highlighting organizational strategies aimed at school reform while…

  1. A Shift Away from an Egalitarian System: Where Do the Current Reforms in Japan Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yano, Hirotoshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with an overall changing trend witnessed in public schooling in Japan, known as educational reforms. Through looking at recent reforms in Japan, with an international trend in view, the author first summarizes educational reforms as waves of liberalization that have changed the post-war fundamental principle of Japanese education.…

  2. Political and Budgetary Oversight of the Ukrainian Intelligence Community: Processes, Problems and Prospects for Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    the FISU Budget ..................................................................71 Figure 8. The Evolution of the MDI Budget...high-tech equipment, economic, political, social , and military analysts, as well as recruited agents around the world. As it was announced in...Information Operations Groups (FIOG);38 and in Australia, it is the Defense Signal Directorate (DSD).39 In an effort to make national intelligence

  3. The Politics of California School Mathematics: The Anti-Reform of 1997-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jerry P.; Jacob, Bill

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a powerful group of parents and mathematicians manipulated information and capitalized on the public's perception of California's "failing schools" to acquire political clout. In California, "teaching for understanding" is now a banished concept, and mastery of procedural skills ("parrot math") has scored…

  4. Political Instability, Austerity and Wishful Thinking: Analysing Stakeholders' Perceptions of Higher Education's Funding Reforms in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Pedro; Koryakina, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, European higher education systems have been experiencing an unprecedented expansion, which created significant financial and political challenges. At the same time, we have seen a shift in attitudes towards public higher education that has promoted new ways of funding this sector. This context has led to major changes in the…

  5. Political Instability, Austerity and Wishful Thinking: Analysing Stakeholders' Perceptions of Higher Education's Funding Reforms in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Pedro; Koryakina, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, European higher education systems have been experiencing an unprecedented expansion, which created significant financial and political challenges. At the same time, we have seen a shift in attitudes towards public higher education that has promoted new ways of funding this sector. This context has led to major changes in the…

  6. Fearful Reformers: The Institutionalization of the Christian Right in American Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibulka, James G.; Myers, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    This research article analyzes the ways that the Christian right uses fear as an instrument in the politics of education. The main source of data for this analysis draws from source-protected interviews with directors in state-level Christian right organizations. A semistructured, elite interviewing approach was used. The authors reframe the…

  7. Market-Driven Education Reform and the Racial Politics of Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Janelle T.

    2011-01-01

    What is the landscape of the racial politics of public education in the age of Obama? To what factors can we attribute the seeming educational policy consensus from Washington, DC, to the states and from philanthropies and policy entrepreneurs in urban school districts? How should we understand opposition to the policy menu? This article examines…

  8. The Politics of "Crazy-Making" and Control: A Reform Teacher's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchese, Stephanie Jo

    2017-01-01

    As a young educator, Stephanie Jo Marchese was initially emboldened by hope and naivety. However, trying to balance the resistance to her body politics and the rules of engagement forced upon her in schools set the stage for an inevitable collision. She faced the devastating reality that a Queer-White-Radical-Feminist-Survivor-Teacher heralding…

  9. Specialty, Political Affiliation, and Perceived Social Responsibility Are Associated with U.S. Physician Reactions to Health Care Reform Legislation.

    PubMed

    Antiel, Ryan M; James, Katherine M; Egginton, Jason S; Sheeler, Robert D; Liebow, Mark; Goold, Susan Dorr; Tilburt, Jon C

    2013-06-25

    Little is known about how U.S. physicians' political affiliations, specialties, or sense of social responsibility relate to their reactions to health care reform legislation. To assess U.S. physicians' impressions about the direction of U.S. health care under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), whether that legislation will make reimbursement more or less fair, and examine how those judgments relate to political affiliation and perceived social responsibility. A cross-sectional, mailed, self-reported survey. Simple random sample of 3,897 U.S. physicians. Views on the ACA in general, reimbursement under the ACA in particular, and perceived social responsibility. Among 2,556 physicians who responded (RR2: 65 %), approximately two out of five (41 %) believed that the ACA will turn U.S. health care in the right direction and make physician reimbursement less fair (44 %). Seventy-two percent of physicians endorsed a general professional obligation to address societal health policy issues, 65 % agreed that every physician is professionally obligated to care for the uninsured or underinsured, and half (55 %) were willing to accept limits on coverage for expensive drugs and procedures for the sake of expanding access to basic health care. In multivariable analyses, liberals and independents were both substantially more likely to endorse the ACA (OR 33.0 [95 % CI, 23.6-46.2]; OR 5.0 [95 % CI, 3.7-6.8], respectively), as were physicians reporting a salary (OR 1.7 [95 % CI, 1.2-2.5]) or salary plus bonus (OR 1.4 [95 % CI, 1.1-1.9) compensation type. In the same multivariate models, those who agreed that addressing societal health policy issues are within the scope of their professional obligations (OR 1.5 [95 % CI, 1.0-2.0]), who believe physicians are professionally obligated to care for the uninsured / under-insured (OR 1.7 [95 % CI, 1.3-2.4]), and who agreed with limiting coverage for expensive drugs and procedures to expand insurance coverage (OR 2.3 [95 % CI, 1

  10. The Political Economy of India’s Economic Reforms: Three Periods from 1947-2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    destroyed India’s oldest and largest mosque, Babri Masjid.150 Babri Masjid and other instances of domestic violence incited by Hindu nationalists caused...1947. The evolution of the policies can be assessed by the unique domestic and international environment that existed during the most pivotal parts of...India’s economic history. This research explores some of the most notable parts of India’s political economy and analyzes the domestic and

  11. "We Can't Let Them Fail for One More Day": School Reform Urgency and the Politics of Reformer-Community Alliances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Hava Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a critical examination of neoliberal urgency in education reform. While critics of neoliberal reform policies have argued that these reforms exclude low-income community participation almost entirely, I argue that in practice this exclusion is not as total or as overt as macro-analyses would suggest. These macro analyses do…

  12. "We Can't Let Them Fail for One More Day": School Reform Urgency and the Politics of Reformer-Community Alliances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Hava Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a critical examination of neoliberal urgency in education reform. While critics of neoliberal reform policies have argued that these reforms exclude low-income community participation almost entirely, I argue that in practice this exclusion is not as total or as overt as macro-analyses would suggest. These macro analyses do…

  13. The Austrian health reform 2013 is promising but requires continuous political ambition.

    PubMed

    Hofmarcher, Maria M

    2014-10-01

    The Austrian health system is much more complex and fragmented than in other OECD countries. In 2013 legislation was adopted to enhance efficiency through better balancing care provision across providers by promoting new primary care models and better coordination of care. Reform objectives should be achieved by cooperative and unified decision making across key stakeholders and by adherence to a budget cap that prescribes fiscal containment on the order of 3.4 billion Euros until 2016. This is priced into the envisaged savings of the current consolidation program. Efforts have been made to bridge the accountability divide by establishing agreements and administrative layers to govern the health system by objectives. Yet, more could have been achieved. For example, cross-stakeholder pooling of funds for better contracting governance and effective purchasing across care settings could have been introduced. This would have required addressing over capacity and fragmentation within social security. At the same time, legal provisions for cooperative governance between Sickness Funds and the governments on the regional level should have been stipulated. The Austrian 2013 reform is interesting to other countries as it aims to ensure better-balanced care at a sustainable path by employing a public management approach to governance relations across key payers of care. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Partial Reform Equilibrium in Russia: A Case Study of the Political Interests of and in the Russian Gas and Oil Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Rabekah

    While several theories abound that attempt to explain the obstacles to democracy in Russia, Joel Hellman's partial reform equilibrium model is an institutional theory that illustrates how weak institutions, combined with an instrumentalist cultural approach to the law and authoritarian-minded leadership, allowed the struggle over interests to craft and determine the nature of Russia's political structure. This thesis builds on the work of Hellman by using the partial reform theory to understand the evolution of interest infiltration and their impact on the formation of policies and institutions in favour of the elites or winners from 2004 to the present time period that allow them to wield law as a political weapon. The hypothesis posits that through their vested interests in state politics, the political and economic elites of the oil and gas industry have successfully stalled reform in Russia resulting in partial reform equilibrium. This is illustrated in a case study that was designed to collect the names, backgrounds, and social networks of gas and oil executives in order to determine how many of them have a history of, or are currently working as, ministers in the government or representatives in the Federation Council. The objective being to measure the degree to which gas and oil interests are present in government decision-making and conversely, the degree to which the government is present in the gas and oil industry. The thesis stresses the importance of institutional structure in determining Russia's political evolution, and uses vested interests as a primary source of structural institutional change, while also stressing on the social and international implications of this evolution.

  15. Leading a School through Change--Principals' Hands-on Leadership Strategies in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Principal's hands-on strategies reflecting their theories of changing have a substantial effect on the development of their schools and on how the large-scale reform takes root. The study explores five comprehensive school principals' leadership strategies during a large-scale school reform in Finland. The principals' strategies in the middle of…

  16. Exploring Principal Capacity to Lead Reform of Teaching and Learning Quality in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lee, Moosung

    2013-01-01

    In 1999 Thailand passed an ambitious national educational law that paved the way for major reforms in teaching, learning and school management. Despite the ambitious vision of reform embedded in this law, recent studies suggest that implementation progress has been slow, uneven, and lacking deep penetration onto classrooms. Carried out ten years…

  17. Leading Inclusive Reform for Students with Disabilities: A School- and Systemwide Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theoharis, George; Causton, Julie

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to maximize access to general education for all students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders create inclusive schools for all students--inclusive school reform. Inclusive school reform can result in all students with disabilities being placed into general education settings (including students with…

  18. The Little District that Could: Literacy Reform Leads to Higher Achievement in California District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Budicin-Senters, Antoinette; King, L. McLean

    2005-01-01

    This article describes educational reform developed over a 10-year period in California's Lemon Grove School District, which resulted in a steady and remarkable upward shift in achievement for the students of this multicultural district just outside San Diego. Six elements of literacy reform emerged as the most significant factors affecting…

  19. Dilemmas of Leading National Curriculum Reform in a Global Era: A Chinese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Wang, Wenlan

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a global resurgence of large-scale reform in the field of education has been witnessed. Implementing these reforms has created many dilemmas for change leaders. Following a three-year qualitative research project, the present study explores the dilemmas leaders faced during the implementation of the national curriculum reform…

  20. Exploring Principal Capacity to Lead Reform of Teaching and Learning Quality in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lee, Moosung

    2013-01-01

    In 1999 Thailand passed an ambitious national educational law that paved the way for major reforms in teaching, learning and school management. Despite the ambitious vision of reform embedded in this law, recent studies suggest that implementation progress has been slow, uneven, and lacking deep penetration onto classrooms. Carried out ten years…

  1. The Little District that Could: Literacy Reform Leads to Higher Achievement in California District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Budicin-Senters, Antoinette; King, L. McLean

    2005-01-01

    This article describes educational reform developed over a 10-year period in California's Lemon Grove School District, which resulted in a steady and remarkable upward shift in achievement for the students of this multicultural district just outside San Diego. Six elements of literacy reform emerged as the most significant factors affecting…

  2. Dilemmas of Leading National Curriculum Reform in a Global Era: A Chinese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Wang, Wenlan

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a global resurgence of large-scale reform in the field of education has been witnessed. Implementing these reforms has created many dilemmas for change leaders. Following a three-year qualitative research project, the present study explores the dilemmas leaders faced during the implementation of the national curriculum reform…

  3. El Salvador and Guatemala: Security Sector Reform and Political Party System Effects on Organized Crime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Labor Unrest and Organized Crime.” September 1995. http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /1891 (accessed June 8, 2009). 117 Ibid. 118 Call...Free Market Myth.” June 2005. http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /2975 (accessed May 22, 2009). ———. “Labor Unrest and Organized Crime.” September 1995...http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /1891 (accessed June 8, 2009). Richani, Nazih. “Systems of Violence and their Political Economy in Post-Conflict

  4. Personal and political histories in the designing of health reform policy in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Alissa

    2017-03-01

    While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism). Brought into power through the momentum of indigenous social movements, the MAS government platform addressed racism, colonialism, and human rights in a number of major reforms, with a focus on cultural identity and indigeneity. One of the MAS's projects was the design of a new national health policy in 2008 called The Family Community Intercultural Health Policy (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural). This policy aimed to address major health inequities through primary care in a country that is over 60% indigenous. Methods used were interviews with Bolivian policymakers and other stakeholders, participant observation at health policy conferences and in rural community health programs that served as models for aspects of the policy, and document analysis to identify core premises and ideological areas. I argue that health policies are historical both in their relationship to national contexts and events on a timeline, but also because of the ways they intertwine with participants' personal histories, theoretical frameworks, and reflections on national historical events. By studying the Bolivian policymaking process, and particularly those who helped design the policy, it is possible to understand how and why particular progressive ideas were able to translate into policy. More broadly, this work also suggests how a uniquely anthropological approach to the study of health policy

  5. Gaining control: reform, reimbursement and politics in New York's community hospitals, 1890--1915.

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, D

    1980-01-01

    This is an historical study of an early twentieth century political struggle regarding hospital reimbursement in New York City. During a period called the "Progressive Era" (1895--1915), administrators in the City's Comptroller's office sought to gain control over small, locally run community hospitals by dismantling the long-standing practice of flat-grant payments to institutions. Central office planners felt that these payments gave too much control to trustees. In its place, the Comptroller initiated a system of per-capita, per-diem reimbursement. Inspectors now judged for the institutions which services and which clients were appropriate for municipal reimbursement. From the perspective of the Comptroller's office, this change was an attempt to put rationality into the system of municipal support for charitable institutions. From the perspective of trustees and community representatives, however, this change was a political attack on the rights of institutions and local communities to control their own fate. Within the context of the larger Progressive Era "good government" movement to centralize decision-making in the hands of experts who believed strongly in the efficiency of larger institutions, it was generally the smallest, most financially troubled community institutions which felt the brunt of these changes. PMID:6990801

  6. The Medical Profession in Upper Canada reconsidered: politics, medical reform, and law in a colonial Society.

    PubMed

    Baehre, R

    1995-01-01

    This study explores some of the important questions raised but not answered in William Canniff's standard century-old study, The Medical Profession in Upper Canada, 1783-1850. Primarily based on the original medical licenses issued between 1819 and 1841, an array of manuscript material belonging to the Civil Secretary of Upper Canada and the Colonial Office, and documents pertaining to the Medical Board of Upper Canada, this article argues that the disallowance of legislation for the establishment of a colonial College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1839 can only be fully understood in the context of demographic, political, and medical developments which included factors such as ethnicity, tensions between the colony and mother country, and rivalry between medical schools. It explains why the issues of the 1830s continued into the 1840s and undermined any possibility by the profession of forming a single, self-regulating, and unified medical body for licensing and educating practitioners.

  7. The yin and yang of health care system reform. Professional and political strategies for setting limits.

    PubMed

    Daniels, N; Sabin, J E

    1995-01-01

    President Clinton's proposed Health Security Act would establish a National Health Board (NHB) with three key functions. The NHB would (1) decide which services are "medically necessary or appropriate" (Title I, Subtitle B, Section 1154), (2) "recommend ... appropriate revisions (to the benefit package) ... to reflect changes in technology, health care needs, health care costs, and methods of service delivery" (Title I, Subtitle F, Section 1503, [a] [2]), and (3) "determine a national per capita baseline premium target" (Title VI, Subtitle A, Section 6002, [a]), thereby establishing a national health care budget. To date, including the work of Mrs Clinton's Task Force on Health Care System Reform, there has been little discussion of how the NHB would carry out these responsibilities. Critics claim that a budget cap would require rationing. Advocates counter that eliminating waste would make rationing unnecessary. In the imagined "testimony" that follows, we recommend two strategies to the NHB for carrying out its three key functions and for addressing the controversy about whether it should consider rationing.

  8. The political economy of healthcare reform in China: negotiating public and private.

    PubMed

    Daemmrich, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    China's healthcare system is experiencing significant growth from expanded government-backed insurance, greater public-sector spending on hospitals, and the introduction of private insurance and for-profit clinics. An incremental reform process has sought to develop market incentives for medical innovation and liberalize physician compensation and hospital finance while continuing to keep basic care affordable to a large population that pays for many components of care out-of-pocket. Additional changes presently under consideration by policymakers are likely to further restructure insurance and the delivery of care and will alter competitive dynamics in major healthcare industries, notably pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and diagnostic testing. This article describes the institutional history of China's healthcare system and identifies dilemmas emerging as the country negotiates divisions between public and private in healthcare. Building on this analysis, the article considers opportunities for public-private partnerships and greater systems integration to reconcile otherwise incommensurable approaches to rewarding innovation and improving access. The article concludes with observations on the public function of health insurance and its significance to further development of China's healthcare system.

  9. Abortion and politics in Nicaragua: the women's movement in the debate on the Abortion Law Reform 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Heumann, Silke G

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses discussion on a proposed reform to the abortion law in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2002, as a struggle between different actors - politicians, religious leaders, doctors and feminists - over the meaning of abortion, motherhood and sexuality, and ultimately the value of women's lives. It shows how the interplay of gender discourses and political practices shaped the process of discussion: on one hand by making a broad alliance against abortion possible, on the other by highlighting the contradictory role of the women's movement in this discussion, between a dominant leadership and a low mobilizing capacity. The paper argues for the need of an inwards oriented process within the women's movement, that departs from the recognition of the personal issues at stake for women in order to break the silence surrounding abortion, such as prevailing feelings of fear and guilt. This entails recognition of the limits of the liberal feminist claim to 'abortion as a free choice', as a discourse of rights that is disconnected from the everyday life conditions and constraints under which women make choices and develop their notions of rights.

  10. Specialty, political affiliation, and perceived social responsibility are associated with U.S. physician reactions to health care reform legislation.

    PubMed

    Antiel, Ryan M; James, Katherine M; Egginton, Jason S; Sheeler, Robert D; Liebow, Mark; Goold, Susan Dorr; Tilburt, Jon C

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about how U.S. physicians’ political affiliations, specialties, or sense of social responsibility relate to their reactions to health care reform legislation. To assess U.S. physicians’ impressions about the direction of U.S. health care under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), whether that legislation will make reimbursement more or less fair, and examine how those judgments relate to political affiliation and perceived social responsibility. A cross-sectional, mailed, self-reported survey. Simple random sample of 3,897 U.S.physicians. Views on the ACA in general, reimbursement under the ACA in particular, and perceived social responsibility. Among 2,556 physicians who responded (RR2: 65 %), approximately two out of five (41 %) believed that the ACA will turn U.S. health care in the right direction and make physician reimbursement less fair (44 %). Seventy-two percent of physicians endorsed a general professional obligation to address societal health policy issues, 65 % agreed that every physician is professionally obligated to care for the uninsured or underinsured, and half (55 %) were willing to accept limits on coverage for expensive drugs and procedures for the sake of expanding access to basic health care. In multivariable analyses, liberals and independents were both substantially more likely to endorse the ACA (OR 33.0 [95 % CI, 23.6–46.2]; OR 5.0 [95 % CI, 3.7–6.8], respectively), as were physicians reporting a salary (OR 1.7 [95 % CI, 1.2–2.5])or salary plus bonus (OR 1.4 [95 % CI, 1.1–1.9)compensation type. In the same multivariate models, those who agreed that addressing societal health policy issues are within the scope of their professional obligations (OR 1.5 [95 % CI, 1.0–2.0]), who believe physicians are professionally obligated to care for the uninsured / under-insured (OR 1.7 [95 % CI,1.3–2.4]), and who agreed with limiting coverage for expensive drugs and procedures to expand insurance coverage (OR 2.3 [95 % CI, 1.8

  11. Political strategies of safety-net providers in response to medicaid managed care reforms.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Colleen M; Gusmano, Michael K

    2009-02-01

    Safety-net providers play a central role in the U.S. health care system because they provide the bulk of services to the poor and the uninsured. The health policy literature focuses a great deal on the capacity of these institutions to provide services and the forces that shape these institutions and the services they provide, yet little is made of safety-net providers' potential role as advocates for the poor and for disadvantaged groups. In this article, we draw on findings from a case study of Medicaid policy making in Connecticut to explore efforts by safety-net providers and other nonprofit organizations to advocate around health care policy for the poor. Our findings illustrate how the capacity of nonprofit advocates to represent the poor can be compromised when the rules of the game change and nonprofit providers are asked to compete with for-profit organizations. We find that under a change in the contracting regime--from collaboration to competition--nonprofit service providers may increase political activity to secure a favorable role under the new regime, but these efforts may compromise their ability to act as representatives of the poor.

  12. Poverty, Privilege, and Political Dynamics within Rural School Reform: Unraveling Educational Leadership in the Invisible America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mette, Ian M.; Biddle, Catharine; Mackenzie, Sarah V.; Harris-Smedberg, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This case was written to help prepare teacher-leaders, principals, and central office administrators, particularly those in rural and economically marginalized settings, who are expected to lead teachers and stakeholders in their community through increasingly stressed economic conditions. The intent of the case study is for educators to examine…

  13. The Assault on Public Education: Confronting the Politics of Corporate School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, William H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In this timely interdisciplinary volume, William Watkins has brought together leading scholars and activists to address some of the most urgent issues facing public education. What is underneath and behind the language of choice, efficiency, and improvement in current neoliberal discourse? How will urban and poor populations be affected? Will…

  14. Poverty, Privilege, and Political Dynamics within Rural School Reform: Unraveling Educational Leadership in the Invisible America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mette, Ian M.; Biddle, Catharine; Mackenzie, Sarah V.; Harris-Smedberg, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This case was written to help prepare teacher-leaders, principals, and central office administrators, particularly those in rural and economically marginalized settings, who are expected to lead teachers and stakeholders in their community through increasingly stressed economic conditions. The intent of the case study is for educators to examine…

  15. Political Change in a School District Leading to Cultural Change in a High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.; Johnson-Howard, Debra

    To construct the outlines of a theoretical model relating contextual political change in a school district to cultural organizational change in a school within the district, a political change in a specific school district and the resultant cultural change in one of the district's high schools were analyzed. The school district, chosen to ensure a…

  16. School Leadership in the 21st Century: Leading in the Age of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to increase student readiness for college and career, many States have adopted new academic standards encouraged by education reform advocates. These standards are commonly referred to as the Common Core Standards. Schools from States that have adopted the Common Core Standards have been compelled to significantly restructure their…

  17. It's about Time: Leading School Reform in an Era of Time Scarcity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, James E.

    Research about the American experience with school reform has underscored time as the major obstacle to change. This book presents a psychosocial perspective of time and the problems it presents for teachers and administrators in an era of time scarcity. Specifically, it explores the effects of five major concepts (time investment portfolios,…

  18. School Leadership in the 21st Century: Leading in the Age of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to increase student readiness for college and career, many States have adopted new academic standards encouraged by education reform advocates. These standards are commonly referred to as the Common Core Standards. Schools from States that have adopted the Common Core Standards have been compelled to significantly restructure their…

  19. The Politics of Data Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many contemporary education reformers present themselves as reformers who, armed with data and evidence, are locked in battle against politics, the weapon of choice for entrenched defenders of the status quo. Although studies of school reform increasingly recognize that politics is inevitably intertwined with reform efforts,…

  20. The Politics of Data Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many contemporary education reformers present themselves as reformers who, armed with data and evidence, are locked in battle against politics, the weapon of choice for entrenched defenders of the status quo. Although studies of school reform increasingly recognize that politics is inevitably intertwined with reform efforts,…

  1. The Politics of Reform of Teachers' Work and the Consequences for Schools: Some Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that we are currently experiencing a debilitating overload of political interference and media hyperbole in respect of teaching and teacher education, and that much of this blitzkrieg amounts to a "political spectacle" and blatant neo-liberal ideology dressed up as rational analysis. The politics of disparagement being unleashed…

  2. Political Processes in Prison Education; A History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Howard S.

    1996-01-01

    Political processes that shaped the introduction of Mutual Welfare Leagues in New York prisons at the turn of the century demonstrate politicians' indifference to reforms, conflicts between reformers, and the blurring of distinctions between reformers and politicians when reformers engage in political activities in order to initiate reform. (SK)

  3. University Students' Views on Political Influences and the Status of Law in Post-Reform China: A Moderation and Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoping; Lo, T Wing

    2016-07-01

    Scholars categorize societies into "rule of man" societies, "rule by law" societies, and "rule of law" societies on the basis of a status of law. After 1978, China's leaders invoked law as an alternative to the arbitrariness of the Cultural Revolution. In this study, we used quantitative methods to explore university students' views on the status of law in post-reform China. Surveys were conducted in three national universities located in different regions of China. Responses from university students show that their perceptions of well-developed legislation and perceptions of the publicity of law are associated with their perceptions of equality before the law, which could be the consequence of a "rule of law" system. However, the study found that university students are of the view that the political nature of legislation and interference in law enforcement moderate the relationship between legislation and equality before the law. The political nature of legislation also moderates the mediation effect of interference in law enforcement between law publicity and equality before the law. As such, the article concludes that although university students are no longer primary movers in China's social and political development after the Tiananmen incident, they are still knowledgeable if not critical about the status of law and its political implications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Leading change: curriculum reform in graduate education in the biomedical sciences.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shoumita; Symes, Karen; Hyman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Graduate Medical Sciences at the Boston University School of Medicine houses numerous dynamic graduate programs. Doctoral students began their studies with laboratory rotations and classroom training in a variety of fundamental disciplines. Importantly, with 15 unique pathways of admission to these doctoral programs, there were also 15 unique curricula. Departments and programs offered courses independently, and students participated in curricula that were overlapping combinations of these courses. This system created curricula that were not coordinated and that had redundant course content as well as content gaps. A partnership of key stakeholders began a curriculum reform process to completely restructure doctoral education at the Boston University School of Medicine. The key pedagogical goals, objectives, and elements designed into the new curriculum through this reform process created a curriculum designed to foster the interdisciplinary thinking that students are ultimately asked to utilize in their research endeavors. We implemented comprehensive student and peer evaluation of the new Foundations in Biomedical Sciences integrated curriculum to assess the new curriculum. Furthermore, we detail how this process served as a gateway toward creating a more fully integrated graduate experience, under the umbrella of the Program in Biomedical Sciences. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6115 Political... response and enter into a parallel Superfund State Contract with the State, if required (See §...

  6. Arkansas: a leading laboratory for health care payment and delivery system reform.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Deborah; du Pont, Lammot; Lipson, Mindy

    2014-08-01

    As states' Medicaid programs continue to evolve from traditional fee-for-service to value-based health care delivery, there is growing recognition that systemwide multipayer approaches provide the market power needed to address the triple aim of improved patient care, improved health of populations, and reduced costs. Federal initiatives, such as the State Innovation Model grant program, make significant funds available for states seeking to transform their health care systems. In crafting their reform strategies, states can learn from early innovators. This issue brief focuses on one such state: Arkansas. Insights and lessons from the Arkansas Health Care Payment Improvement Initiative (AHCPII) suggest that progress is best gained through an inclusive, deliberative process facilitated by committed leadership, a shared agreement on root problems and opportunities for improvement, and a strategy grounded in the state's particular health care landscape.

  7. Disease management and health care reforms in Germany - does more competition lead to less solidarity?

    PubMed

    Stock, Stephanie Anja Katharina; Redaelli, Marcus; Lauterbach, Karl Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    Up to the 1990s German health care legislation was dominated by measures regulating the supply side. Measures, such as budgets, aimed at volume control and sought to confine the increase of health care spending to the growth of the national income. To curb costs more effectively, competitive elements were introduced in the 1990s with free choice of sickness funds (open enrollment). To balance competition and solidarity, a risk compensation scheme (RCS) was implemented two years prior to open enrollment. Since then, balancing competition and solidarity has been a key feature of all consecutive health care reforms. The implementation of disease management programs in the statutory health insurance (SHI) served the dual purpose to promote quality of care and to foster competition. Preliminary experiences suggest, that the aligning of disease management programs with a RCS can greatly aid its implementation and benefit solidarity and competition.

  8. The Politics of Education Reform: Bolstering the Supply and Demand; Overcoming Institutional Blocks. Country Studies: Education Reform and Management Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrales, Javier

    There is widespread consensus worldwide that improving the performance of education systems is necessary to advance socioeconomic development, reduce inequality, enhance economic competitiveness of nations, and possibly fortify governmental institutions. This paper explores the political conditions that may enhance or hinder the adoption of…

  9. The Politics of Affirmation Theory: When Group-Affirmation Leads to Greater Ingroup Bias.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Gaven A; Gramzow, Richard H

    2015-08-01

    It has been well established in the literature that affirming the individual self reduces the tendency to exhibit group-favoring biases. The limited research examining group-affirmation and bias, however, is inconclusive. We argue that group-affirmation can exacerbate group-serving biases in certain contexts, and in the current set of studies, we document this phenomenon directly. Unlike self-affirmation, group-affirmation led to greater ingroup-favoring evaluative judgments among political partisans (Experiment 1). This increase in evaluative bias following group-affirmation was moderated by political party identification and was not found among those who affirmed a non-political ingroup (Experiment 2). In addition, the mechanism underlying these findings is explored and interpreted within the theoretical frameworks of self-categorization theory and the multiple self-aspects model (Experiments 2 and 3). The broader implications of our findings for the understanding of social identity and affirmation theory are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Responding to obesity in Brazil: understanding the international and domestic politics of policy reform through a nested analytic approach to comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-02-01

    Why do governments pursue obesity legislation? And is the case of Brazil unique compared with other nations when considering the politics of policy reform? Using a nested analytic approach to comparative research, I found that theoretical frameworks accounting for why nations implement obesity legislation were not supported with cross-national statistical evidence. I then turned to the case of Brazil's response to obesity at three levels of government, national, urban, and rural, to propose alternative hypotheses for why nations pursue obesity policy. The case of Brazil suggests that the reasons that governments respond are different at these three levels. International forces, historical institutions, and social health movements were factors that prompted national government responses. At the urban and rural government levels, receiving federal financial assistance and human resource support appeared to be more important. The case of Brazil suggests that the international and domestic politics of responding to obesity are highly complex and that national and subnational political actors have different perceptions and interests when pursuing obesity legislation. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  11. Reforming Welfare in America. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Edward T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three books on welfare reform: "The Poverty of Welfare Reform" (Joel F. Handler); "The Politics of Welfare Reform" (Donald F. Norris, Lyke Thompson, editors); and "Living on the Edge: The Realities of Welfare in America" (Mark Robert Rank). (JOW)

  12. Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

  13. Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

  14. How five leading safety-net hospitals are preparing for the challenges and opportunities of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Teresa A; Long, Sharon K; Sheen, Edward; Tolbert, Jennifer

    2012-08-01

    Safety-net hospitals will continue to play a critical role in the US health care system, as they will need to care for the more than twenty-three million people who are estimated to remain uninsured after the Affordable Care Act is implemented. Yet such hospitals will probably have less federal and state support for uncompensated care. At the same time, safety-net hospitals will need to reposition themselves in the marketplace to compete effectively for newly insured people who will have a choice of providers. We examine how five leading safety-net hospitals have begun preparing for reform. Building upon strong organizational attributes such as health information technology and system integration, the study hospitals' preparations include improving the efficiency and quality of care delivery, retaining current and attracting new patients, and expanding the medical home model.

  15. The Future of Vouchers as Educational Reform, Political Strategy, Economic Solution, and Public Policy in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan Brown, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the burden of vouchers to be all things to all constituencies. Proponents and opponents envision vouchers as accomplishing many objectives. To some, vouchers represent an educational reform that brings change to public schools and saves children from monopolistic bureaucrats. To others, they signify a threat to the very…

  16. Organizational Politics of Parental Engagement: The Intersections of School Reform, Anti-Immigration Policies, and Latinx Parent Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Fernández, Erica

    2017-01-01

    This article presents results from community-engaged research conducted with Latinx immigrant parents advocating for their students and themselves in and around an urban school engaged in multiple reforms, in a context affected by anti-immigrant policies and sentiments. The authors analyzed the intersection of organizing narratives related to…

  17. Rethinking School Reform: The Distractions of Dogma and the Potential for a New Politics of Progressive Pragmatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Jeffrey R.; Stone, Clarence N.

    2008-01-01

    At the national level, debate about school reform typically has been characterized by clashing paradigms offering unicausal explanations and universal prescriptions. At the street level, where parents and practitioners wrestle on a day-to-day basis with questions of what to do, the terms of discussion more typically are concrete, rooted in local…

  18. The politics of learning to teach: The juxtaposition of reform, risk-taking, and survival for a prospective science teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLoughlin, Andrea Sabatini

    1998-12-01

    It has proven difficult for teachers to enact and sustain the changes to thinking and pedagogy called for in science education reforms. It may be especially difficult for prospective teachers to create coherent professional identities as they learn to teach in the borderland between educational change and the existing context of education. Field experiences remain a pivotal point in teacher education, as prospective teachers mature from the perspective they have lived as students to the vantage point they are constructing as developing teachers. This qualitative, naturalistic case study examined a reform-oriented preservice science teacher's beliefs and actions during a year of field practica, including student teaching. Interviews, observations, and written documents were collected to examine the extent to which the prospective teacher's thoughts and actions continued to reflect reform ideals across that time. Inductive data analysis indicated that tacit beliefs held by the participant interacted with significant events of the field experiences to direct her learning to teach process in non-educative ways. Implications include: (a) deeper examination of the beliefs and experiences of prospective teachers would allow teacher educators the ability to understand and guide professional development in deeper and more productive ways, (b) the establishment of an atmosphere of experimentation/inquiry and a more cohesive, collaborative approach to teacher education are needed, especially during field experiences, if teacher education programs are to foster the productive and educative experiences supportive of reform ideals, (c) the preparation of prospective teachers who intend to implement reform ideals should include developing understandings of the dynamics of the change process, and (d) the exploration/confrontation of the power structures inherent in the existing educational system is essential if they are to be prevented from undermining reform efforts. As science

  19. The politics of lead toxicology and the devastating consequences for children.

    PubMed

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2007-10-01

    At virtually every step in the history of the uncovering of lead's toxic qualities, resistance was shown by a variety of industrial interests to the association of lead and toxicity. During the first half of the last century, three primary means were used to undermine the growing body of evidence: first, the lead industry sought to control lead research by sponsoring and funding university research. In the 1920s, the General Motors Company, with the aide of DuPont and Standard Oil Companies, established the Kettering Labs, a research unit at the University of Cincinnati which, for many decades was largely supported by industry funds. In the same decade, the lead industry sponsored the research of Joseph Aub at Harvard who worked on neurophysiology of lead. A second way was to shape our understanding of lead itself, portraying it as an indispensable and healthful element essential for all modern life. Lead was portrayed as safe for children to use, be around, and even touch. The third way that lead was exempted from the normal public health measures and regulatory apparatus that had largely controlled phosphorus poisoning, poor quality food and meats and other potential public health hazards was more insidious and involved directly influencing the scientific integrity of the clinical observations and research. Throughout the past century tremendous pressure by the lead industry itself was brought to bear to quiet, even intimidate, researchers and clinicians who reported on or identified lead as a hazard. This article will draw on our previous work and add new documentation of the trajectory of industry attempts to keep out of the public view the tremendous threat of lead poisoning to children. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The fate of a progressive science: the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory, athletes, the science of work and the politics of reform.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2011-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, fatigue research marked a site of conflicting scientific, industrial, and cultural understandings of working bodies. Many fatigue researchers understood fatigue to be a physiological fact and allied themselves with Progressive-era reformers in urging industrial regulation. Reformers clashed with advocates of Taylorism, who held that productivity could be perpetually increased through managerial efficiency. Histories of this conflict typically cease with the end of the First World War. I examine the work of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in the 1920s and 1930s to explore the impact that the introduction of biochemical methods had on the relationship between science and reform. The Laboratory developed sophisticated techniques to study the blood of exercising individuals. In particular, it found that exercising individuals could attain a biochemically "steady state," or equilibrium, and extrapolated from this to assert that fatigue was psychological, not physiological, in nature. In contrast to Progressive-era research, the Laboratory reached this conclusion through laboratory examination, not of workers, but of Laboratory staff members and champion marathon runners. I present the Laboratory's institutional history, scientific work, and finally how common cultural understandings of athletes and work lent plausibility to its efforts to make authoritative statements about industrial conditions.

  1. Experiments in Political Socialization: Kids Voting USA as a Model for Civic Education Reform. CIRCLE Working Paper 49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michael; Kiousis, Spiro

    2006-01-01

    This report describes how an innovative curriculum promoted the civic development of high school students along with parents by stimulating news media attention and discussion in families. Evidence is based on a three-year evaluation of Kids Voting USA, an interactive, election-based curriculum. Political communication in the home increased the…

  2. Politics, Policy, Practice and Personal Responsibility: Adult Education in an Era of Welfare Reform. NCSALL Reports #10A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Deobrah

    The relationship of literacy to work should be considered in terms of the political and economic conditions that structure the experiences of the working and non-working poor with respect to education and work. Research shows welfare-to-work programs constitute behavioral solutions to what are structural economic problems; literacy alone cannot…

  3. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  4. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  5. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  6. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  7. Assessment of the political acceptability of an ecological tax reform in the transport sector - the Willingness to Accept (WTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Schlor, H.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental economists recommend the use of taxes and fiscal changes as market economy instruments for environmental policy. The purpose of such measures is to reduce or to avoid market failure due to negative external effects. Normally, taxes are fiscal income sources whereas environmental taxes serve as an incentive to change consumer behavior. In this paper, the effects of an ecological tax reform in the traffic sector on a selected German household will be illustrated on the basis of a theoretical welfare approach. The basic idea used for an ecological tax reform is first to reduce those household activities which produce greenhouse gas emissions, then to use the earned tax revenue to compensate the household, so that the household budget is unchanged to a large degree. In this work, direct monetary compensation models are compared to the idea of the indirect utility compensation. Direct monetary compensation gives every household a flat amount of money (lump-sum transfer) so the individual has the choice to decide which sort of transportation he prefers.

  8. [Working in mental health services in the context of Brazilian psychiatric reform: a technical, political and ethical challenge].

    PubMed

    Sampaio, José Jackson Coelho; Guimarães, José Maria Ximenes; Carneiro, Cleide; Garcia Filho, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with mental health taken within the context of Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and profiling the transformations in the organization of work processes. This has occurred as a result of the advances with respect to the implementation of the services that replaced the classic psychiatric model and the reconfiguration of the scope of intervention and practices. From this standpoint, the paper seeks to pinpoint the contradictions and problems related to this process and its impact on the organization of work processes on the management of services and on worker health. Lastly, strategies are prepared for the purpose of tackling the problem, chief among which are the following: the redefinition of spaces, practices, and the relationships among the different actors, namely managers, workers, and users; the adoption of co-management mechanisms; and clinical-institutional supervision.

  9. Teacher Perceptions of Bologna Reforms in Armenian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakhanyan, Susanna; Van Veen, Klaas; Bergen, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The perceptions of the implementation of the Bologna reforms in Armenian higher education were examined in a questionnaire study with 279 university teachers, revealing how eight leading higher education institutions have adapted to the political directive to create alignment with the Bologna principles. The literature on educational change is…

  10. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead Contact Us Share Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built ... to protect people from harmful lead exposures. Less Lead in Drinking Water = Better Health Learn about the ...

  11. Free Speech and Campaign Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Harry, Jr.

    The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, a political campaign reform measure, was enacted to limit campaign contributions and independent expenditures, to mandate disclosure of contributors, and to establish public financing of campaigns, all to minimize the opportunity for political corruption. Unfortunate implications of such reform on the…

  12. The Effects of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; Giron, Graciela; De-La-Luz-Arellano, Ivan; Ayon-Bañuelos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Educational reform implies questions of social production and of state regulation that are the key words in educational reform, education and educational policies. These reforms are always on the political agenda of countries and involve international organisms, since education is a vehicle of development for social progress. A point of departure…

  13. [Seiichi Ishida, a chief physician of Shinsaku Takasugi: culture and politics as seen by a doctor of the Reformation period].

    PubMed

    Kameda, Kazukuni

    2009-12-01

    This is first paper on Seiichi Ishida, who worked as the Bakan town doctor at the end of the Edo period. Seiichi was initially a private practice physician of Habuura, Asa-gun. He then studied Dutch medicine under Banri Hyakutake of Hakata and on his return home he further prospered. From the Kaei period, the assessment of Seiichi as an artistic, cultured person became high and at the beginning of the Ansei period he moved to Okinoshima of Shimonoseki. By the Bunkyu period, Seiichi held an important place in the history of cultural exchange among Shimonoseki's cultural figures. In the Keio period he moved to Odo, which was to the West of Isakiura and further inland. It was a very tranquil and beautiful place. It was from around this time that his socialization commenced with samurai belonging to the reformist group of the Hagi Domain. Shinsaku Takasugi in particular, adored Seiichi as a friend of the heart who loved Chinese poetry, and trusted him as his chief physician. Furthermore, Seiichi's political activity intensified and it has become clear that he was deeply involved in rescuing Botoni Nomura from Himeshima and the Hagi Domain's production of counterfeit currency.

  14. "Coming to grips with the nursing question": the politics of nursing education reform in 1960s America.

    PubMed

    Tobbell, Dominique A

    2014-01-01

    The 1950s and 1960s were decades of change for the American nursing profession. A new generation of nurse educators sought to create greater professional autonomy for the nurse by introducing new models of education that emphasized science-based learning over technical skills and bedside care, and creating new clinical roles for the nurse, based on advanced graduate education. They confronted resistance from an older generation of nurses who feared becoming "second-class citizens" in increasingly academic nursing schools, and from academic health care institutions all too comfortable with the gendered hierarchy on which the traditional model of nursing education and practice was predicated. Using the University of Minnesota and University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) as case studies, and based on institutional records and more than 40 oral histories with nursing and medical faculty, this article describes the generational conflicts this new cadre of nurse educators confronted within schools of nursing, and the institutional politics they struggled with as they sought to secure greater institutional status for the schools among the universities' other health science units.

  15. Putting politics first.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  16. The Politics of Organizational Reform: An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Corporate Management on Selected Aspects of the Education Service in English Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housego, Ian E.

    In 1974 local government in England underwent external and internal reform. The external reforms involved changes in governmental structures and functions, while the internal reforms involved the introduction of "corporate management," a concept stressing more centralized administration and fewer local executive bodies. This paper first…

  17. Educational Reform and Policy Implementation in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul; Scott, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between educational reform in Hong Kong and the changing political system. Finds that political problems (regime legitimacy, destructive political culture) have obstructed the meaningful implementation of educational reform. Thus reform initiatives have been largely symbolic. (Contains 30 references.) (PKP)

  18. Leading in the Age of Post-Socialist Education Transformations: Examining Sustainability of Teacher Education Reform in Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Colin; Silova, Iveta; Moyer, Amy; McAllister, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    As the former socialist countries of Southeastern/Central Europe and the former Soviet Union have embarked on their journeys from authoritarian to democratic societies in the early 1990s, education systems across the region have experienced major changes. From curriculum revision to education finance reforms, virtually no aspect of the education…

  19. Leading in the Age of Post-Socialist Education Transformations: Examining Sustainability of Teacher Education Reform in Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Colin; Silova, Iveta; Moyer, Amy; McAllister, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    As the former socialist countries of Southeastern/Central Europe and the former Soviet Union have embarked on their journeys from authoritarian to democratic societies in the early 1990s, education systems across the region have experienced major changes. From curriculum revision to education finance reforms, virtually no aspect of the education…

  20. Leading Education Reform Initiatives: How SWIFT (Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation) Coordinates and Enhances Impact. Issue Brief #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Mary; Richards, Curtis; Blank, Rolf; Stonemeier, Jennifer; Trader, Barbara; East, Bill

    2014-01-01

    In this Issue Brief we discuss the impact that the Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation (SWIFT) has on improving the outcomes of several current federal, state, district, and school education reform initiatives. Federal initiatives include Race to the Top, School Improvement Grants, and Campaign for Grade-Level Reading; Common Core…

  1. Reforming and Restructuring Education. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C., Ed.

    This booklet contains four selected conference papers on educational reform and restructuring. In "Can Rational Organization Models Really Reform Anything? A Case Study of Reform in Chicago," Fenwick English describes reform efforts in the Chicago Public Schools and examines the political, social, organizational, and bureaucratic factors that have…

  2. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  3. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  4. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... are approximately half a million U.S. children ages 1-5 with blood lead levels above 5 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL), the reference level at which CDC recommends public health actions be initiated. No safe blood lead level in children has been ...

  5. The politics of public health policy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Politics, for better or worse, plays a critical role in health affairs. The purpose of this article is to articulate a role for political analysis of public health issues, ranging from injury and disease prevention to health care reform. It begins by examining how health problems make it onto the policy agenda. Perceptions regarding the severity of the problem, responsibility for the problem, and affected populations all influence governmental responses. Next, it considers how bounded rationality, fragmented political institutions, resistance from concentrated interests, and fiscal constraints usually lead political leaders to adopt incremental policy changes rather than comprehensive reforms even when faced with serious public health problems. It then identifies conditions under which larger-scale transformation of health policy can occur, focusing on critical junctures in policy development and the role of policy entrepreneurs in seizing opportunities for innovation. Finally, it reviews the challenges confronting officials and agencies who are responsible for implementing and administering health policies. Public health professionals who understand the political dimensions of health policy can conduct more realistic research and evaluation, better anticipate opportunities as well as constraints on governmental action, and design more effective policies and programs.

  6. Implementing Comprehensive Reform: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the challenges and practical barriers community colleges face when implementing comprehensive reform, exploring how reforms are leading to some improvements but not often scaled improvements.

  7. Implementing Comprehensive Reform: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the challenges and practical barriers community colleges face when implementing comprehensive reform, exploring how reforms are leading to some improvements but not often scaled improvements.

  8. [Health care reform in the Obama administration: difficulties of reaching a similar agreement in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belmartino, Susana

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the processes leading to health care reform in Argentina and in the USA. The core of the analysis centers on the ideological references utilized by advocates of the reform and the decision-making processes that support or undercut such proposals. The analysis begins with a historical summary of the issue in each country. The political process that led to the sanction of the Obama reform is then described. The text defends a hypothesis aiming to show that deficiencies in the institutional capacities of Argentina's decision-making bodies are a severe obstacle to attaining substantial changes in this area within the country.

  9. The Other Face of Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Ursula M.; Compton, Cynthia M.

    2001-01-01

    According to William Spady's "Beyond Counterfeit Reforms," politically driven, mechanistic "reforms" box educators into smaller, limiting ways of thinking and running schools. Donald McAdams's book "Fighting to Save Our Urban Schools...and Winning!" shows the salubrious effects of high expectations and community…

  10. Controlled surface segregation leads to efficient coke-resistant nickel/platinum bimetallic catalysts for the dry reforming of methane

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Lidong; Zhou, Lu; Ould-Chikh, Samy; ...

    2015-02-03

    Surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. The evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanningmore » transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. As a result, these catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.« less

  11. Controlled surface segregation leads to efficient coke-resistant nickel/platinum bimetallic catalysts for the dry reforming of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lidong; Zhou, Lu; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Kanoun, Mohammed B.; Scaranto, Jessica; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Khalid, Syed; Laveille, Paco V.; D'Souza, Lawrence; Clo, Alain; Basset, Jean -Marie

    2015-02-03

    Surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. The evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. As a result, these catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.

  12. Controlled Surface Segregation Leads to Efficient Coke-Resistant Nickel/Platinum Bimetallic Catalysts for the Dry Reforming of Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lidong; Zhou, Lu; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Kanoun, Mohammed B.; Scaranto, Jessica; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Khalid, Syed; Laveille, Paco V.; Lawrence D'Souza; Clo, Alain; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-02-03

    The surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. Moreover, the evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. The catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.

  13. Neo-Liberalism and the Politics of Higher Education Policy in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Indonesia's experience with neo-liberal higher education reform. It argues that this agenda has encountered strong resistance from the dominant predatory political, military, and bureaucratic elements who occupy the state apparatus, their corporate clients, and popular forces, leading to continuation of the centralist and…

  14. Neo-Liberalism and the Politics of Higher Education Policy in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Indonesia's experience with neo-liberal higher education reform. It argues that this agenda has encountered strong resistance from the dominant predatory political, military, and bureaucratic elements who occupy the state apparatus, their corporate clients, and popular forces, leading to continuation of the centralist and…

  15. Reforming Science: Methodological and Cultural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture. PMID:22184414

  16. Policy process for health sector reforms: a case study of Punjab Province (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Tarin, Ehsanullah; Green, Andrew; Omar, Maye; Shaw, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The health sector in the Punjab (Pakistan) faces many problems, and, the government introduced reforms during 1993-2000. This paper explores the policy process for the reforms. A case study method was used and, to assist this, a conceptual framework was developed. Analysis of four initiatives indicated that there were deviations from the government guidelines and that the policy processes used were weak. The progress of different reforms was affected by a variety of factors: the immaturity of the political process and civil society, which together with innate conservatism and resistance to change on the part of the bureaucracy resulted in weak strategic sectoral leadership and a lack of clear purpose underpinning the reforms. It also resulted in weaknesses in preparation of the detail of reforms leading to poor implementation. The study suggests a need for broadening the stakeholders' base, building the capacity of policy-makers in policy analysis and strengthening the institutional basis of policymaking bodies.

  17. Educational Reforms in Yugoslavia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    1978-01-01

    Yugoslavia's educational system had to be completely rebuilt after World War II to ensure the nation's full and rapid competition in the postwar world. The reforms are discussed in light of the political, social, and economic structure of Yugoslavia. (Author/LBH)

  18. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  19. Convergence or divergence? Reforming primary care in Norway and Britain.

    PubMed

    Lian, Olaug S

    2003-01-01

    Many countries are currently reorganizing their health services in response to cultural, economic, and technological changes. Because the changes are global, different countries are drawn toward similar reform programs. But countries' cultural, economic, and political differences also may lead to divergent responses. This article examines the convergence thesis by comparing recent changes in primary care in Norway and Britain. There seems to be a convergence in objectives, a divergence in remuneration systems, and both divergence and convergence in organizational structures. To understand the dynamics of change, divergence is discussed in relation to the social context of the political initiatives. Divergences are explained by economic, political, and cultural differences, as well as differences in physicians' political power and density.

  20. The Politics of Privatization and Decentralization in Global School Reform: The Value of Equity Claims for Neoliberalism at the World Bank and in El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Cheryl

    This paper focuses on the role of the World Bank and its subsidiaries in promoting the neoliberal educational reforms of privatization and decentralization globally and in El Salvador. Neoliberalism is first defined as a sociopolitical philosophy that supports concepts such as the free market, market-driven education, and the use of a voucher…

  1. The Politics of Teacher Reform in Florida: Analyzing Causal Narratives Surrounding State Adoption of Performance-Based Evaluations, Performance Pay, and Tenure Elimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2012-01-01

    Following a multiyear debate, Florida lawmakers passed the "Student Success Act" in March 2011, introducing some of the most sweeping educational reforms in the state's history--the introduction of teacher evaluation systems based on value-added modeling, mandatory "performance pay" for teachers, and the elimination of…

  2. Free Education! A "Live" Report on the Chilean Student Movement 2011-2014--Reform or Revolution? [A Political Sociology for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simbuerger, Elisabeth; Neary, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a report on the Chilean student movement, 2011-2014, from the perspective of the students themselves, based on the main research question: are the student protests for reform or revolution? The research data was collected during October 2013 before the Chilean Presidential and Parliamentary elections using the methodology of…

  3. Free Education! A "Live" Report on the Chilean Student Movement 2011-2014--Reform or Revolution? [A Political Sociology for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simbuerger, Elisabeth; Neary, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a report on the Chilean student movement, 2011-2014, from the perspective of the students themselves, based on the main research question: are the student protests for reform or revolution? The research data was collected during October 2013 before the Chilean Presidential and Parliamentary elections using the methodology of…

  4. Health reform: a bipartisan view.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jim; Castle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This optimistic assessment of the prospects for health reform from senior Democratic and Republican congressmen spells out several reasons why reform can be achieved early in the first year of the Obama administration. Political and policy factors suggest that President-elect Barack Obama is in a much better position than his predecessors to achieve comprehensive health reform, including universal coverage. The Obama administration will have to overcome numerous obstacles and resistance to enact reform. Still, after decades of frustration and disappointment, policymakers should set aside their differences and enable the United States to join the ranks of developed nations by making sure every American has health insurance.

  5. The Ideology of Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiden, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article in "Academic Questions" political scientists Robert Maranto and Matthew C. Woessner have suggested a program to reform their discipline and enhance its social utility. They encourage researchers to engage with consequential social issues and educate the public, while admonishing political scientists to resist partisan advocacy…

  6. The Ideology of Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiden, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article in "Academic Questions" political scientists Robert Maranto and Matthew C. Woessner have suggested a program to reform their discipline and enhance its social utility. They encourage researchers to engage with consequential social issues and educate the public, while admonishing political scientists to resist partisan advocacy…

  7. Reforming Science: Structural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

  8. Catalytic Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Little, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Don Little's Catalytic Reforming deals exclusively with reforming. With the increasing need for unleaded gasoline, the importance of this volume has escalated since it combines various related aspects of reforming technology into a single publication. For those with no practical knowledge of catalytic reforming, the chemical reactions, flow schemes and how the cat reformer fits into the overall refinery process will be of interest. Contents include: Catalytic reforming in refinery processing: How catalytic reformers work - chemical reactions; Process design; The catalyst, process variables and unit operation; Commercial processes; BTX operation; Feed preparation; naphtha hydrotreating and catalytic reforming; Index.

  9. Emancipation or Neo-Colonisation? Global Gender Mainstreaming Policies, Swedish Gender Equality Politics and Local Negotiations about Putting Gender into Education Reforms in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach…

  10. Child Health, Medicaid, and Welfare "Reform." Report III, Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local government, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle, aside from exploratory and analytic work, is a…

  11. Middle-Class School Choice in Urban Spaces: The Economics of Public Schooling and Globalized Education Reform. Routledge Research in Education Policy and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Emma E.

    2016-01-01

    "Middle-class School Choice in Urban Spaces" examines government funded public schools from a range of perspectives and scholarship in order to examine the historical, political and economic conditions of public schooling within a globalized, post-welfare context. In this book, Rowe argues that post-welfare policy conditions are…

  12. Middle-Class School Choice in Urban Spaces: The Economics of Public Schooling and Globalized Education Reform. Routledge Research in Education Policy and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Emma E.

    2016-01-01

    "Middle-class School Choice in Urban Spaces" examines government funded public schools from a range of perspectives and scholarship in order to examine the historical, political and economic conditions of public schooling within a globalized, post-welfare context. In this book, Rowe argues that post-welfare policy conditions are…

  13. The Unknown Cultural Revolution: Educational Reforms and Their Impact on China's Rural Development. East Asia: History, Politics, Sociology, Culture. A Garland Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dongping

    China's official history maintains that the radical egalitarianism of the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) led to economic disaster. This book challenges that view. Drawing on local interviews and records in rural Jimo County, Shandong Province, this study contends that the Cultural Revolution's political convulsions democratized village political…

  14. Child Welfare in the Context of Welfare "Reform." Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States. Report V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local governments, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle, aside from exploratory and analytic work, is a…

  15. The Politics of Educational Reform in Nineteenth-Century Massachusetts: The Controversy Over the Beverly High School in 1860. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinovskis, Maris A.

    A case study of events involving the Beverly High School (Beverly, Massachusetts) circa 1860 exemplifies educational trends in mid-19th century Massachusetts. The hypothesis is that the political situation in mid-19th century Massachusetts was much more complex than has been suggested by radical revisionsts who tend to interpret educational and…

  16. The Impact of Incentive-Based Budgeting on Planning: Understanding the Structural and Political Aspects of Budget Reform. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James; St. John, Edward P.

    An increasing number of public research universities have turned to incentive-based budgeting systems (IBBS) as a means of managing change. It is appropriate to view IBBS as a new attempt to introduce rational systems into university administrative structures that are largely political in nature. This study examined the influence an IBBS has on…

  17. Chile's health sector reform: lessons from four reform periods.

    PubMed

    de la Jara, J J; Bossert, T

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies an interdisciplinary approach to analyze the process of health reform in four significant periods in Chilean history: (1) the consolidation of state responsibility for public health in the 1920s, (2) the creation of the state-run National Health Service in the 1950s, (3) the decentralization of primary care and privatization of health insurance in the 1980s, and (4) the strengthening of the mixed public-private market in the 1990s. Building on the authors' separate disciplines, the paper examines the epidemiological, political and economic contexts of these reforms to test simple hypotheses about how these factors shape reform adoption and implementation. The analysis underlines: (1) the importance of epidemiological data as an impetus to public policy; (2) the inhibiting role of economic recession in adoption and implementation of reforms: and (3) the importance of the congruence of reforms with underlying political ideology in civil society. The paper also tests several hypotheses about the reform processes themselves, exploring the role of antecedents, interest groups, and consensus-building in the policy process. It found that incremental processes building on antecedent trends characterize most reform efforts. However, interest group politics and consensus building were found to be complex processes that are not easily captured by the simple hypotheses that were tested. The interdisciplinary approach is found to be a promising form of analysis and suggests further theoretical and empirical issues to be explored.

  18. Alaska public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2008-04-01

    The Turning Point Model State Public Health Act (Turning Point Act), published in September 2003, provides a comprehensive template for states seeking public health law modernization. This case study examines the political and policy efforts undertaken in Alaska following the development of the Turning Point Act. It is the first in a series of case studies to assess states' consideration of the Turning Point Act for the purpose of public health law reform. Through a comparative analysis of these case studies and ongoing legislative tracking in all fifty states, researchers can assess (1) how states codify the Turning Point Act into state law and (2) how these modernized state laws influence or change public health practice, leading to improved health outcomes.

  19. Commentary: Personalized health planning and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: an opportunity for academic medicine to lead health care reform.

    PubMed

    Dinan, Michaela A; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Snyderman, Ralph

    2010-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA) mandates the exploration of new approaches to coordinated health care delivery--such as patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, and disease management programs--in which reimbursement is aligned with desired outcomes. PPACA does not, however, delineate a standardized approach to improve the delivery process or a specific means to quantify performance for value-based reimbursement; these details are left to administrative agencies to develop and implement. The authors propose that coordinated care can be implemented more effectively and performance quantified more accurately by using personalized health planning, which employs individualized strategic health planning and care relevant to the patient's specific needs. Personalized health plans, developed by providers in collaboration with their patients, quantify patients' health and health risks over time, identify strategies to mitigate risks and/or treat disease, deliver personalized care, engage patients in their care, and measure outcomes. Personalized health planning is a core clinical process that can standardize coordinated care approaches while providing the data needed for performance-based reimbursement. The authors argue that academic health centers have a significant opportunity to lead true health care reform by adopting personalized health planning to coordinate care delivery while conducting the research and education necessary to enable its broad clinical application.

  20. When Mayors Use School Choice as a Reform Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.; Pachucki, Lauren M.

    2006-01-01

    All political scientists who study education policy start their analysis with a similar premise: "educational reform does not take place in political vacuum." Studies of the politics of school choice have focused primarily on state-level political dynamics. This line of research makes sense since the charter school market is initially…

  1. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A.

    1982-09-07

    A process, or procedure, is disclosed for the start-up of reforming units, particularly those employing highly active sulfur-sensitive polymetallic, promoted noble metal containing catalysts. On start -up of a reforming unit, a sulfur-containing naphtha feed is fed at reforming conditions over a platinum-catalyst containing lead reactor of a series while bypassing subsequent reactors of the series, the product therefrom is separated into hydrogen-containing gas and C5+ liquid fractions, the hydrogen-containing gas fraction is desulfurized and dried and recycled to the platinum-catalyst containing lead reactor and, after sufficient hydrogen has been generated for operation of a hydrofiner which is used to hydrodesulfurize the naphtha feed for the reformer, product from the platinum-catalyst containing lead reactor is fed to subsequent reactors of the series which contain the more sulfur-sensitive catalysts.

  2. Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?

    PubMed Central

    Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

    2006-01-01

    Background It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions – like education and income – affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Discussion Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Summary Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health – such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future. PMID:16737549

  3. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  4. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  5. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Oyekau, S.O.; Swan, G.A.

    1984-03-13

    A process wherein, in a series of reforming zones, or reactors, each of which contains a bed, or beds of catalyst, the catalyst in the leading reforming zones is constituted of supported platinum and a relatively low concentration of rhenium, and the catalyst in the last reforming zone, or reactor of the series, is constituted of platinum and a relatively high concentration of rhenium. The amount of rhenium relative to the platinum in the last reforming zone, or reactor is present in an atomic or weight ratio of rhenium:platinum of at least about 1.5:1; preferably at least about 2:1, and more preferably ranges from about 2:1 to about 3:1. The beds of catalyst are contacted with a hydrocarbon or naphtha feed and hydrogen at reforming conditions to produce a hydrocarbon, or naphtha product of improved octane, and the product is withdrawn.

  6. The Three R's- Reaction, Revolt, and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Martha A.

    1970-01-01

    Dean of students at Goucher College discusses not those students who make the news by violence but those who have reacted to the existing campus and political structures and seek their reform through legitimate processes. (CJ)

  7. Health care reforms.

    PubMed

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  8. Health care reforms

    PubMed Central

    Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country. PMID:27703543

  9. Evolution of US Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm Ii, Standiford; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2017-03-01

    Major health policy creation or changes, including governmental and private policies affecting health care delivery are based on health care reform(s). Health care reform has been a global issue over the years and the United States has seen proposals for multiple reforms over the years. A successful, health care proposal in the United States with involvement of the federal government was the short-lived establishment of the first system of national medical care in the South. In the 20th century, the United States was influenced by progressivism leading to the initiation of efforts to achieve universal coverage, supported by a Republican presidential candidate, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Democrat, included a publicly funded health care program while drafting provisions to Social Security legislation, which was eliminated from the final legislation. Subsequently, multiple proposals were introduced, starting in 1949 with President Harry S Truman who proposed universal health care; the proposal by Lyndon B. Johnson with Social Security Act in 1965 which created Medicare and Medicaid; proposals by Ted Kennedy and President Richard Nixon that promoted variations of universal health care. presidential candidate Jimmy Carter also proposed universal health care. This was followed by an effort by President Bill Clinton and headed by first lady Hillary Clinton in 1993, but was not enacted into law. Finally, the election of President Barack Obama and control of both houses of Congress by the Democrats led to the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), often referred to as "ObamaCare" was signed into law in March 2010. Since then, the ACA, or Obamacare, has become a centerpiece of political campaigning. The Republicans now control the presidency and both houses of Congress and are attempting to repeal and replace the ACA. Key words: Health care reform, Affordable Care Act (ACA), Obamacare, Medicare, Medicaid, American Health Care Act.

  10. Neoliberalism and Corporate School Reform: "Failure" and "Creative Destruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, corporate school reform or neoliberal educational restructuring has overtaken educational policy, practice, curriculum, and nearly all aspects of educational reform. Although this movement began on the political right, the corporate school model has been heralded across the political spectrum and is aggressively embraced now…

  11. Neoliberalism and Corporate School Reform: "Failure" and "Creative Destruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, corporate school reform or neoliberal educational restructuring has overtaken educational policy, practice, curriculum, and nearly all aspects of educational reform. Although this movement began on the political right, the corporate school model has been heralded across the political spectrum and is aggressively embraced now…

  12. Historical Contexts of Educational Reforms in Present-Day China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanzhao, Zhou

    1988-01-01

    Educational reform efforts in China, in response to the national modernization program, are linked with socio-political changes. This article presents general observations and perspectives on Chinese educational reform, emphasizing the transition from traditionalism to republicanism and the socio-economic, political and cultural aspects of the…

  13. Pulling Together: Civic Capacity and Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipps, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    Educators often ignore the political requirements of urban reform in their focus on the research and models that guide it. Conversely, political scientists frequently miss the differences among reforms in their focus on coalitions and resources. Integrating Clarence N. Stone's concept of "civic capacity" with an educator's view of reform…

  14. Pulling Together: Civic Capacity and Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipps, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    Educators often ignore the political requirements of urban reform in their focus on the research and models that guide it. Conversely, political scientists frequently miss the differences among reforms in their focus on coalitions and resources. Integrating Clarence N. Stone's concept of "civic capacity" with an educator's view of reform…

  15. Recent History of Schooling Reform in Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common, Dianne L.

    The social climate in Manitoba has led, in the past 25 years, to an expectation of school reform that has been translated into varieties of political action. However, most of the reforms, instituted by government policymakers, have fallen short of public expectations. This paper explores lessons to be taken from these experiences in school reform…

  16. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  17. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  18. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  19. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  20. Polite Theories Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Dejan; Barrett, Clark

    The classic method of Nelson and Oppen for combining decision procedures requires the theories to be stably-infinite. Unfortunately, some important theories do not fall into this category (e.g. the theory of bit-vectors). To remedy this problem, previous work introduced the notion of polite theories. Polite theories can be combined with any other theory using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen approach. In this paper we revisit the notion of polite theories, fixing a subtle flaw in the original definition. We give a new combination theorem which specifies the degree to which politeness is preserved when combining polite theories. We also give conditions under which politeness is preserved when instantiating theories by identifying two sorts. These results lead to a more general variant of the theorem for combining multiple polite theories.

  1. Challenging Corporate Ed Reform: And 10 Hopeful Signs of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate school reformers like to call themselves just "reformers" and counterpose themselves to the "status quo." There is no doubt that the corporate/foundation crowd has successfully captured the media label as "education reformers." However, this political branding has little to do with reality or the substance of the issues under debate.…

  2. Challenging Corporate Ed Reform: And 10 Hopeful Signs of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate school reformers like to call themselves just "reformers" and counterpose themselves to the "status quo." There is no doubt that the corporate/foundation crowd has successfully captured the media label as "education reformers." However, this political branding has little to do with reality or the substance of the issues under debate.…

  3. Less State, More Market: University Reform in Canada and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G.; Bruneau, William

    2004-01-01

    Political, economic, and social explanations of higher education reform, and the very definition of "reform," are the main departure points of this volume. The introduction uses the examples of Canada, Austria, Germany, and Japan to show that in all these countries, reform has meant reduced state funding and control and increased…

  4. Examining the Potential of Critical and Kaupapa Maori Approaches to Leading Education Reform in New Zealand's English-Medium Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Mere; Egan, Margaret; Ford, Therese

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses expectations, policies and practices that currently underpin education within the New Zealand context. It acknowledges the ongoing failure of this policy framework to positively influence reform for Indigenous Maori students in regular, state-funded schools and highlights the need for extensive change in the positioning and…

  5. Academics and Athletics: Playing for the Same Team: NCAA President Discusses the Challenges of Leading the Organization in an Era of Academic Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    High expectations greeted Dr. Myles Brand when he became president of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in January 2003. As the fourth president of the nation's most powerful amateur sports organization, Brand has the distinction of being the first to have been a college president. To carry out reforms that put academics first…

  6. The art and science of political advocacy.

    PubMed

    Kosiorowski, Donna

    2014-01-01

    School nurses throughout the nation, individually and collectively, work to bring about change for the school nursing profession and to safeguard the health of children and the public. School nurses practice amidst education reform, health care reform, changes in society, and medical and technological advancements. School nurses must be active in decisions that affect their daily practice by involvement in the local, state, and federal political process. School nurses must craft the art and develop the science of political advocacy.

  7. Health care reform 2010: a fresh view on tort reform.

    PubMed

    Stimson, C J; Dmochowski, Roger; Penson, David F

    2010-11-01

    We reviewed the state of medical malpractice tort reform in the context of a new political climate and the current debate over comprehensive health care reform. Specifically we asked whether medical malpractice tort reform is necessary, and evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of contemporary reform proposals. The medical, legal and public policy literature related to medical malpractice tort reform was reviewed and synthesized. We include a primer for understanding the current structure of medical malpractice law, identify the goals of the current system and analyze whether these goals are presently being met. Finally, we describe and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the current reform proposals including caps on damages, safe harbors and health care courts. Medical malpractice tort law is designed to improve health care quality and appropriately compensate patients for medical malpractice injuries, but is failing on both fronts. Of the 3 proposed remedies, caps on damages do little to advance the quality and compensatory goals, while safe harbors and health care courts represent important advancements in tort reform. Tort reform should be included in the current health policy debate because the current medical malpractice system is not adequately achieving the basic goals of tort law. While safe harbors and health care courts both represent reasonable remedies, health care courts may be preferred because they do not rely on jury determination in the absence of strong medical evidence. Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reform of Chinese Higher Education in 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuo, Xin

    1993-01-01

    Reforms are productive only when guided by fundamental educational principles: efficiency, justice, progress, and humanization. Using higher education as a political weapon and subjecting education to politics and economics undermines the nature of higher education. The present grass-roots decision-making movement for university autonomy in China…

  9. Politics and policies.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Anna; Horwitz, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 major reforms of the public pension system in Denmark were implemented. The aim was to reduce the number of early retirees. Focus was changed from limitations to abilities and flexible jobs (flex-jobs) were introduced. However, the criteria for invalidity pensions (IP) in the private sector remained unchanged according to the policies. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of IP in a member owned pension fund-before and after the pension reforms. Furthermore we analyzed the distribution of diagnoses that led to IP and with which mortality these were related. A prospective design was used. All the applications for IP in Finanssektorens Pensionskasse (FSP) in the period from January 1, 1997 to May 1, 2009 were registered continuously. In total, 317 persons were granted IP. Thirty percent of payouts were related psychiatric disorders, 18% were due to cancer and 52% to other somatic disorders. The mortality for cancer patients was significantly higher than those with other diagnoses. The incidence of IP in FSP was about one third compared to the background population. The incidence of IP peaked in 2001 and 2007 to 2009. We were not able to detect any positive effects from the pension reform, and this corresponds with studies from the Danish public sector. The Danish pension reform was unsuccessful in reducing the number of early retirees, and created a new government supported group of flex-jobber. Future reforms need to coordinate politics and policies.

  10. Reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Givens, E.N.; Plank, C.J.; Rosinski, E.J.

    1980-03-04

    Crystalline aluminosilicate zeolites are mixed with conventional reforming catalysts to produce new catalytic compositions with high catalytic activity and selectivity and excellent aging characteristics. These new catalytic compositions may be utilized alone or in conjunction with conventional reforming catalysts. The acidic activity of the total catalyst system is controlled within defined limits. When so controlled the utility of these catalyst systems in reforming hydrocarbon mixtures is to reduce the C1 and C2 concentrations in reformer gas product, while increasing the C3 and C4 concentrations and maintaining high liquid yield at high octane numbers.

  11. Teachers' Perspectives on Evaluation Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing momentum to reform teacher evaluation in order to increase its impact on teachers' practice and persistence in the profession, very little research examines how current reforms influence teachers' attitudes or reported instructional practices. Do the new evaluation systems lead to enhancements in teachers' instruction overall? And…

  12. Health care reform and federalism.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L; Jacobson, Peter D

    2010-04-01

    Health policy debates are replete with discussions of federalism, most often when advocates of reform put their hopes in states. But health policy literature is remarkably silent on the question of allocation of authority, rarely asking which levels of government ought to lead. We draw on the larger literatures about federalism, found mostly in political science and law, to develop a set of criteria for allocating health policy authority between states and the federal government. They are social justice, procedural democracy, compatibility with value pluralism, institutional capability, and economic sustainability. Of them, only procedural democracy and compatibility with value pluralism point to state leadership. In examining these criteria, we conclude that American policy debates often get federalism backward, putting the burden of health care coverage policy on states that cannot enact or sustain it, while increasing the federal role in issues where the arguments for state leadership are compelling. We suggest that the federal government should lead present and future financing of health care coverage, since it would require major changes in American intergovernmental relations to make innovative state health care financing sustainable outside a strong federal framework.

  13. [Changes necessary for continuing health reform: II. The "internal" change].

    PubMed

    Martín Martín, J; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Carmona López, G; Martínez Olmos, J

    1990-01-01

    The article desired organizational and managerial changes in Primary Health Care, so as to develop a sound and feasible social marketing strategy. Key elements that should be changed are: 1. Rigid and centralized administrative structures and procedures. 2. Incentives system centralized and dissociated from the managerial structure. 3. Primary Health Care management units immersed in political conflict. 4. Absence of alternative in the margin. Users cannot choose. 5. Lack of an internal marketing strategy. Several ways of internal markets simulation are assessed as potential means for internal change. The need for an administration reform leading to a less inflexible system in the Spanish national and regional health services in reviewed too. Three changes are considered essential: a) Payment systems in Primary Health Care. b) Modifications in the personnel contracts. c) Reform of the budgeting processes. Specific strategies in each of these issues are suggested, making emphasizing the need of their interrelationship and coherence.

  14. The Politics of School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Although bureaucratic decentralization lies at the heart of educational restructuring, many state-level reform strategies adopted since 1983 perpetuate the regulatory orientation of school improvement. This article assesses the restructuring movement, exemplified by the Coalition of Essential Schools, and the overall politics of American…

  15. Political economy challenges in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Reich, Michael R

    2016-11-05

    Historically, implementing nutrition policy has confronted persistent obstacles, with many of these obstacles arising from political economy sources. While there has been increased global policy attention to improving nutrition in recent years, the difficulty of translating this policy momentum into results remains. We present key political economy themes emanating from the political economy of nutrition literature. Together, these interrelated themes create a complex web of obstacles to moving nutrition policy forward. From these themes, we frame six political economy challenges facing the implementation of nutrition policy today. Building awareness of the broader political and economic issues that shape nutrition actions and adopting a more systematic approach to political economy analysis may help to mitigate these challenges. Improving nutrition will require managing the political economy challenges that persist in the nutrition field at global, national and subnational levels. We argue that a "mindshift" is required to build greater awareness of the broader political economy factors shaping the global nutrition landscape; and to embed systematic political economy analysis into the work of stakeholders navigating this field. This mindshift may help to improve the political feasibility of efforts to reform nutrition policy and implementation-and ensure that historical legacies do not continue to shape the future.

  16. Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Janet

    The need exists for educational reform. Student achievement scores are down, unemployment and dropout rates are up, social and welfare costs are up, economic productivity has declined, and shortages of qualified teachers are imminent. After Chapter 1 of this paper provides background and history for school reform, Chapter 2 reviews the literature,…

  17. Let's make a deal: trading malpractice reform for health reform.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; Hyman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Physician leadership is required to improve the efficiency and reliability of the US health care system, but many physicians remain lukewarm about the changes needed to attain these goals. Malpractice liability-a sore spot for decades-may exacerbate physician resistance. The politics of malpractice have become so lawyer-centric that recognizing the availability of broader gains from trade in tort reform is an important insight for health policy makers. To obtain relief from malpractice liability, physicians may be willing to accept other policy changes that more directly improve access to care and reduce costs. For example, the American Medical Association might broker an agreement between health reform proponents and physicians to enact federal legislation that limits malpractice liability and simultaneously restructures fee-for-service payment, heightens transparency regarding the quality and cost of health care services, and expands practice privileges for other health professionals. There are also reasons to believe that tort reform can make ongoing health care delivery reforms work better, in addition to buttressing health reform efforts that might otherwise fail politically.

  18. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  19. Differences in negativity bias underlie variations in political ideology.

    PubMed

    Hibbing, John R; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R

    2014-06-01

    Disputes between those holding differing political views are ubiquitous and deep-seated, and they often follow common, recognizable lines. The supporters of tradition and stability, sometimes referred to as conservatives, do battle with the supporters of innovation and reform, sometimes referred to as liberals. Understanding the correlates of those distinct political orientations is probably a prerequisite for managing political disputes, which are a source of social conflict that can lead to frustration and even bloodshed. A rapidly growing body of empirical evidence documents a multitude of ways in which liberals and conservatives differ from each other in purviews of life with little direct connection to politics, from tastes in art to desire for closure and from disgust sensitivity to the tendency to pursue new information, but the central theme of the differences is a matter of debate. In this article, we argue that one organizing element of the many differences between liberals and conservatives is the nature of their physiological and psychological responses to features of the environment that are negative. Compared with liberals, conservatives tend to register greater physiological responses to such stimuli and also to devote more psychological resources to them. Operating from this point of departure, we suggest approaches for refining understanding of the broad relationship between political views and response to the negative. We conclude with a discussion of normative implications, stressing that identifying differences across ideological groups is not tantamount to declaring one ideology superior to another.

  20. Catalytic reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Aldag, A.W. Jr.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound. The process consists of contacting the feedstock under suitable reforming conditions with a catalyst composition selected from the group consisting of a catalyst. The catalyst essentially consists of zinc oxide and a spinel structure alumina. Another catalyst consists essentially of a physical mixture of zinc titanate and a spinel structure alumina in the presence of sufficient added hydrogen to substantially prevent the formation of coke. Insufficient zinc is present in the catalyst composition for the formation of a bulk zinc aluminate.

  1. Reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsche, R.T.; Pope, G.N.

    1981-01-06

    A process for reforming a naphtha feedstock is disclosed. The reforming process is effected at reforming conditions in contact with a catalyst comprising a platinum group metal component and a group iv-a metal component composited with an alumina support wherein said support is prepared by admixing an alpha alumina monohydrate with an aqueous ammoniacal solution having a ph of at least about 7.5 to form a stable suspension. A salt of a strong acid, e.g., aluminum nitrate, is commingled with the suspension to form an extrudable paste or dough. On extrusion, the extrudate is dried and calcined to form said alumina support.

  2. Reforming the politics of animal research.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lisa Hara; Reppy, William A

    2015-07-01

    An unfortunate tension exists between the biomedical research and animal welfare/rights communities. We believe that despite the mistrust between these groups, there are individuals on both sides of the controversy who seek to better understand the other. We recommend an update of institutional policies that will better inform the public about the use of non-human animals in biomedical research and improve a dialogue on such use between concerned individuals who either support or oppose non-human animal-based biomedical research. Such interactions may well determine the longevity of using non-human animals as experimental subjects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Political Reform and Gridlock Elimination Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration. (text of measure as introduced: CR S129) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Urban School Politics: Professionalism vs. Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Marilyn

    1970-01-01

    Analyzes why, as the process of decision-making has been centralized by school bureaucracies, and as professional educators have gained power, public education has become a closed social institution neither accountable nor responsible to the citizens it serves. (JM)

  5. Catalyst reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A. III

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a process for catalytically reforming a gasoline boiling range naphtha, with hydrogen, in a semi-regenerative or semi-cyclic reforming process unit comprised of serially connected reactors, inclusive of a lead reactor and one or more downstream reactors, the last of which is the tail reactor, each of which contains a halogenated reforming catalyst comprised of a halide, a Group VIII noble metal, and an inorganic oxide support, the improvement which comprises continuously injecting into each downstream reactor a mixture of water and halide at a water to halide ratio from about 20:1 to about 60:1 wherein the specific ratio of water to halide for each individual downstream reactor is chosen so as to maintain the level of halide on catalyst in each downstream reactor from about 0.5 to 1.5 wt. % based on the total weight of the catalyst.

  6. Evaluate reformer performance at a glance

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, A.

    1996-02-01

    Catalytic reforming is becoming increasingly important in replacing octane lost as the removal of lead from worldwide gasoline pools continues. A method has been developed that can quickly evaluate the performance of any catalytic reformer. The catalytic naphtha reforming process primarily involves three well-known reactions. These are aromatization of naphthenes, cyclization of paraffins and hydrocracking of paraffins. Hydrogen is produced in the process of aromatization and dehydrocyclization of paraffins. Reformer performance is normally evaluated with a reformate analysis (PONA) and yield of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate. This method of quick evaluation of reformer performance is based upon the main assumption that the increase in hydrocarbon moles in the process is equal to the number of C{single_bond}C bond ruptures and one mole of hydrogen is absorbed to saturate the same. This new method calculates aromatization efficiency, paraffin conversion, aromatic selectivity and finally the paraffin, naphthene and aromatic content of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate.

  7. Ecuador's silent health reform.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Pierre; Echeverría Tapia, Ramiro; Aguilar Santacruz, Edison; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Health sector reform was implemented in many Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to reduced public expenditure on health, limitations on public provision for disease control, and a minimum package of services, with concomitant growth of the private sector. At first sight, Ecuador appeared to follow a different pattern: no formal reform was implemented, despite many plans to reform the Ministry of Health and social health insurance. The authors conducted an in-depth review and analysis of published and gray literature on the Ecuadorian health sector from 1990 onward. They found that although neoliberal reform of the health sector was not openly implemented, many of its typical elements are present: severe reduction of public budgets, "universal" health insurance with limited coverage for targeted groups, and contracting out to private providers. The health sector remains segmented and fragmented, explaining the population's poor health status. The leftist Correa government has prepared an excellent long-term plan to unite services of the Ministry of Health and social security, but implementation is extremely slow. In conclusion, the health sector in Ecuador suffered a "silent" neoliberal reform. President Correa's progressive government intends to reverse this, increasing public budgets for health, but hesitates to introduce needed radical changes.

  8. Teaching Politically without Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…

  9. The Politics of Agenda Setting in Late 19th Century Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes nineteenth-century newspapers to show that reformers and journalists then believed in the political power of information and used political information and agenda-setting as tools for gaining political power. Suggests that political science agenda-setting models are better than those from communication research for understanding past…

  10. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  11. Does more equitable governance lead to more equitable health care? A case study based on the implementation of health reform in Aboriginal health Australia.

    PubMed

    Kelaher, Margaret; Sabanovic, Hana; La Brooy, Camille; Lock, Mark; Lusher, Dean; Brown, Larry

    2014-12-01

    There is growing evidence that providing increased voice to vulnerable or disenfranchised populations is important to improving health equity. In this paper we will examine the engagement of Aboriginal community members and community controlled organisations in local governance reforms associated with the Aboriginal Health National Partnership Agreements (AHNPA) in Australia and its impact on the uptake of health assessments. The sample included qualitative and quantitative responses from 188 people involved in regional governance in Aboriginal health. The study included data on the uptake of Aboriginal health assessments from July 2008 to December 2012. The study population was 83190 in 2008/9, 856986 in 2009/10, 88256 in 2010/11 and 90903 in 2011/12. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between organisations within forums and the regional uptake of Aboriginal health assessments. The independent variables included before and after the AHNPA, state, remoteness, level of representation from Aboriginal organisations and links between Aboriginal and mainstream organisations. The introduction of the AHNPA was associated with a shift in power from central government to regional forums. This shift has enabled Aboriginal people a much greater voice in governance. The results of the analyses show that improvements in the uptake of health assessments were associated with stronger links between Aboriginal organisations and between mainstream organisations working with Aboriginal organisations. Higher levels of community representation were also associated with improved uptake of health assessments in the AHNPA. The findings suggest that the incorporation of Aboriginal community and community controlled organisations in regional planning plays an important role in improving health equity. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the processes through which the incorporation of disadvantaged groups into governance might contribute to

  12. The Agony of School Reform: Race, Class, and the Elusive Search for Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2003-01-01

    Reviews "Education and Democratic Theory: Finding a Place for Community Participation in Public School Reform" (A. Belden Fields and Walter Feinberg) and "The Color of School Reform: Race, Politics, and the Challenge of Urban Education" (J. Henig, R. Hula, M. Orr, and D. Pedescleaux). Both books examine the political aspects of…

  13. Naphtha reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Marschner, F.; Renner, H.J.

    1982-04-01

    Most synthesis gases - mixtures of CO and H/sub 2/ - are produced from natural gas. However, a considerable percentage is also produced from naphtha. Syngas via naphtha is economical when natural gas is unavailable and when low hydrogen content syngas is needed. The discussion covers the following topics - catalytic steam reforming; naphtha qualities; process description; desulfurization reactors; rich gas reactors; tubular reactors; fire box; burner and firing systems; reformer tubes; inlet header and outlet manifold systems; waste heat systems, heat exchangers, piping. 10 refs.

  14. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  15. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  16. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  17. Slab reformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  18. Slab reformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  19. Voluntary Self-Control: Education Reform as a Governmental Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongratz, Ludwig A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper takes the vigorous political debate unleashed in Germany by the results of the PISA study as a stimulus to take a closer look at the strategic aims and effects of the current education reforms, of which the PISA study is only one example. It shows that the reform measures underpin a powerful process of normalisation. In this context,…

  20. Charter Laws: Disaster, Detour, Irrelevant, or Reform Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, John

    2006-01-01

    Charter laws have been the reform debate's path of least resistance. But the combination of regulatory barriers, open admissions, lack of consumer sovereignty, preferential funding of traditional public schools, and political control of prices means that charter laws may be irrelevant as reform catalysts, or worse. Even the strongest charter laws…

  1. American School Reform: What Works, What Fails, and Why

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Dissecting twenty years of educational politics in our nation's largest cities, "American School Reform" offers one of the clearest assessments of school reform as it has played out in our recent history. Joseph P. McDonald and his colleagues evaluate the half-billion-dollar Annenberg Challenge--launched in 1994--alongside other…

  2. A Postmodern Perspective on Current Curriculum Reform in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yu-le; Li, Ling

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the curriculum reform of basic education in China from 2001 to 2008. We first discuss postmodern features of the social background in which the curriculum reform movement takes place: (1) the political ideal of innovation, open-endedness, and harmony; (2) the economic ideal of ecological, stable, and sustainable development;…

  3. Reinventing Tenure: What Schools Can Learn from Public Reform Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick; Maranto, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Tenure has lost public legitimacy. Of 30 states reforming civil-service systems or proposing reforms, Georgia has gone the farthest. Since 1996, new state government hires have been "at will" employees. Erosion of private-sector union strength may aid antitenure political leaders' efforts. A sidebar outlines states' actions. (10…

  4. Fashion as Argument: Nineteenth-Century Dress Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the place of the body in the dress-reform movement, a social movement that focused on fashion as a vehicle for achieving social and political equality. Discusses how fashion became one arena in which definitions of gender were contested. Suggests the dress-reform movement's failure in redefining femininity indicates the depth of…

  5. Voluntary Self-Control: Education Reform as a Governmental Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongratz, Ludwig A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper takes the vigorous political debate unleashed in Germany by the results of the PISA study as a stimulus to take a closer look at the strategic aims and effects of the current education reforms, of which the PISA study is only one example. It shows that the reform measures underpin a powerful process of normalisation. In this context,…

  6. Fashion as Argument: Nineteenth-Century Dress Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the place of the body in the dress-reform movement, a social movement that focused on fashion as a vehicle for achieving social and political equality. Discusses how fashion became one arena in which definitions of gender were contested. Suggests the dress-reform movement's failure in redefining femininity indicates the depth of…

  7. Charter Laws: Disaster, Detour, Irrelevant, or Reform Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, John

    2006-01-01

    Charter laws have been the reform debate's path of least resistance. But the combination of regulatory barriers, open admissions, lack of consumer sovereignty, preferential funding of traditional public schools, and political control of prices means that charter laws may be irrelevant as reform catalysts, or worse. Even the strongest charter laws…

  8. A Postmodern Perspective on Current Curriculum Reform in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yu-le; Li, Ling

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the curriculum reform of basic education in China from 2001 to 2008. We first discuss postmodern features of the social background in which the curriculum reform movement takes place: (1) the political ideal of innovation, open-endedness, and harmony; (2) the economic ideal of ecological, stable, and sustainable development;…

  9. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three…

  10. A "Democratic Moment": Political Education in the Chinese Liberation Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff

    1993-01-01

    This review of China's liberation struggle, 1920-40, examines political education in the Chinese Communist army, the educational process during land reform, and the participatory process of learning in social action exemplified by the history of this period. (SK)

  11. Equity through Assessment? Teachers' Mediation of Outcome-Focused Reforms in Socioeconomically Different Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandler, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Despite uncertainties regarding the effects of outcome-focused reforms on teaching practices, the political confidence in the potential of such reforms to create educational change remains high. This article problematizes the assumption that two such Swedish reforms (grades and national tests in younger years) can function as an impetus for…

  12. Equity through Assessment? Teachers' Mediation of Outcome-Focused Reforms in Socioeconomically Different Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandler, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Despite uncertainties regarding the effects of outcome-focused reforms on teaching practices, the political confidence in the potential of such reforms to create educational change remains high. This article problematizes the assumption that two such Swedish reforms (grades and national tests in younger years) can function as an impetus for…

  13. Reform Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoloye, E. Ayotunde

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on issues in evaluating educational change. Topics include what should be evaluated, management of reform and evaluation, evaluation as a threat, attitudes toward evaluation, factors in drawing up an evaluation plan, management information systems, evaluation techniques, financing evaluation, and indicators of success. (KC)

  14. Toothless Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2010-01-01

    To many education reformers, the passage of the federal government's massive stimulus plan, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), appeared to be a final bright star falling into alignment. The ARRA seemed to complete the constellation: an astounding $100 billion of new federal funds--nearly twice the annual budget of the U.S.…

  15. Rethinking Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, James C.

    2010-01-01

    As president of Miami University of Ohio from 1996 until 2006, James C. Garland redefined the public institution as a "semi-private" university by implementing the same tuition for both in-state and out-of-state students. Students from Ohio with need received large scholarships--but those who could afford to pay more did so. The reform,…

  16. Toothless Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2010-01-01

    To many education reformers, the passage of the federal government's massive stimulus plan, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), appeared to be a final bright star falling into alignment. The ARRA seemed to complete the constellation: an astounding $100 billion of new federal funds--nearly twice the annual budget of the U.S.…

  17. Spaghetti Politics: Local Electoral Systems and Alliance Structure in Italy, 1984-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parigi, Paolo; Bearman, Peter S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the impact of the Italian electoral reforms of 1993 on the structure of local political alliances. The reform, which moved Italy from a purely proportional representation system to a mixed, largely majoritarian system, was designed to increase transparency, reduce corruption, limit the number of political parties, and create…

  18. Spaghetti Politics: Local Electoral Systems and Alliance Structure in Italy, 1984-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parigi, Paolo; Bearman, Peter S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the impact of the Italian electoral reforms of 1993 on the structure of local political alliances. The reform, which moved Italy from a purely proportional representation system to a mixed, largely majoritarian system, was designed to increase transparency, reduce corruption, limit the number of political parties, and create…

  19. Political psychology.

    PubMed

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Inexpensive health care reform: the mathematics of medicine.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Roger A

    2010-02-01

    There is data to support the hypothesis that US healthcare reform will require systemic changes in their delivery system rather than a segment-by-segment approach to improving individual components such as administrative or pharmaceutical costs or illness-by-illness programs such as comparative effectiveness or disease management. Mathematically, personnel costs provide the largest potential for savings. These costs are reflected in utilization rates. However, when governments or insurers try to control utilization, shortages or dissatisfaction ensue. Therefore, reform should be structured to encourage individually initiated reductions in utilization. This can be facilitated by changing from employer-paid comprehensive group policies of variable coverage to a three-part, standardized, individually purchased, group policy with a targeted deductible and co-pays that provide disincentives to over-utilization and incentives (refunds on unused contributions) to reduce utilization. There will be a public health policy (maternal, infant, and immunizations) that will be very inexpensive and not subject to any disincentives, a catastrophic policy with a deductible and enhanced but diminishing co-pays, and a Health Savings Account that pre-positions funds to cover the deductible and co-pays. These changes will lead to a reduction in administrative costs. The excess capacity created will provide care for the currently uninsured. Savings will be refunded to individuals thereby generating taxes that can pay for needed subsidies. Reform can be inexpensive if it puts the mathematics before the politics.

  1. The Politics of Teaching Time in Disciplinary and Control Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that education reform agendas which use policy levers, standardised testing and new regulatory authorities to steer teachers' work at a distance are creating a new temporal politics. Evidence from interviews with teachers and principals in Australian schools suggests that these reforms are impacting on individual experiences of…

  2. Elusive Sex Acts: Pleasure and Politics in Norwegian Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Stine H. Bang

    2012-01-01

    While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…

  3. Elusive Sex Acts: Pleasure and Politics in Norwegian Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Stine H. Bang

    2012-01-01

    While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…

  4. The Politics of Teaching Time in Disciplinary and Control Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that education reform agendas which use policy levers, standardised testing and new regulatory authorities to steer teachers' work at a distance are creating a new temporal politics. Evidence from interviews with teachers and principals in Australian schools suggests that these reforms are impacting on individual experiences of…

  5. Reforming Teacher Supervision and Evaluation: What Makes a Good Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, P. Michael

    The economic and political forces behind recent calls for excellence in education are pointing to necessarily dramatic changes in the nature of the teaching profession. Members of the business community, state political leaders, and teachers are working together--with substantial private and state monies--to implement a radical reform agenda that…

  6. The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Discontent with failed, top-down reform and the immediate prospect of political change have created a rare opportunity to reinvent education policy and to think afresh about how teachers and children should be encouraged to develop their full potential. "The Pendulum Swings" explores alternative, genuinely transformative conceptions of…

  7. Education "Reforms" in England since 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Denis

    1996-01-01

    The story of England's 1988 Education Reform Act is a sad account of a government's efforts to introduce educational innovations based on a political agenda. The result was teacher demoralization and at least 500 million pounds wasted on the national curriculum and its assessment. ERA's real aim was to encourage parental choice and open up…

  8. Inclusive Education Reform: Implications for Teacher Aides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Patricia; Carrington, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    In Queensland, inclusive education reform is on the political agenda, following the report of the Ministerial Taskforce on Inclusive Education (students with disabilities) in 2004. The Government's responses to the initiatives outlined in the taskforce report emphasise a commitment to social justice and equity so that all students can be included…

  9. The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Discontent with failed, top-down reform and the immediate prospect of political change have created a rare opportunity to reinvent education policy and to think afresh about how teachers and children should be encouraged to develop their full potential. "The Pendulum Swings" explores alternative, genuinely transformative conceptions of…

  10. Educational Reform and the University of Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gilbert G.

    1981-01-01

    Using Columbia as a case study, the author argues that educational reform in Latin America is a method used by United States economic interests, along with the national elites, to maintain their dominant political and economic position. Part of a theme issue on Third World educational development. (Author/SJL)

  11. Education Reform Sparks Teacher Protest in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    The current tumult in the Mexican education arena has deep roots in politics and tradition, but it is latter-day global competition and international measures of student performance that are driving reform efforts. Teacher strikes and demonstrations are not new in Mexico, but issues raised by today's protesting teachers represent a combination of…

  12. The Beleaguered College. Essays on Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tussman, Joseph

    The five essays of this book focus on educational reform in higher education and are based on several persistent themes: that there is a fatal conflict between the graduate school and the undergraduate college; that "liberal" education is in a fundamental sense "politics", therefore, an education needed by everyone for all in a…

  13. Future Imaginaries of Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on analytic heuristics from critical discourse analysis and cultural political economy (Jessop, 2010; Wodak, 2002), this article examines the temporal premises and "futures" embedded in a report and reform proposal created in a mid-sized, American city, Columbus, Ohio, in 2013. The product of a city-wide commission appointed in…

  14. Four Basic Dilemmas in University Governance Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ingvild M.; Maassen, Peter; Stensaker, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, modernising university governance has been a constant item on the political agenda of most countries, often followed by reforms attempting to change how universities are managed and led. However, when considering the effects of the many initiatives taken, a rather complex picture appears with respect to the scope and depths of…

  15. Metropolitan Reform: Propositions Derived From Two Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Elinor

    1972-01-01

    One purpose of this essay is to attempt to isolate the theoretical sturcture implicit in the traditional metropolitan reform movement so that empirical research can be organized to examine the warrantability of the propositions contained therein; a second is to pose an alternative theoretical structure derived from work of political economists.…

  16. Education Reform Sparks Teacher Protest in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    The current tumult in the Mexican education arena has deep roots in politics and tradition, but it is latter-day global competition and international measures of student performance that are driving reform efforts. Teacher strikes and demonstrations are not new in Mexico, but issues raised by today's protesting teachers represent a combination of…

  17. Four Basic Dilemmas in University Governance Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ingvild M.; Maassen, Peter; Stensaker, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, modernising university governance has been a constant item on the political agenda of most countries, often followed by reforms attempting to change how universities are managed and led. However, when considering the effects of the many initiatives taken, a rather complex picture appears with respect to the scope and depths of…

  18. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  19. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  20. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  1. Reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.C. Jr.; Swan, G.A.

    1991-11-19

    This patent describes a catalyst useful for reforming a naphtha feed at high severity reforming conditions. It comprises the metals, platinum, rhenium and iridium on a refractory porous inorganic oxide support, the support consisting essentially of alumina, wherein the concentration by weight of each of the metals platinum and rhenium is at least 0.1 percent and iridium at least 0.15 percent and at least one of the metals is present in a concentration of at least 0.3 percent, and the sum-total; concentration of the metals is greater than 0.9 percent, and wherein each catalyst particle contains all three of the metals platinum, rhenium and iridium. This patent also describes this composition wherein the catalyst contains from about 0.1 percent to about 3 percent of a halogen and from about 0.05 percent to about 0.02 percent sulfur.

  2. Tort reform: the pathologists' perspective.

    PubMed

    Foucar, Elliott; Wick, Mark R

    2007-05-01

    Physicians who become ensnarled in malpractice litigation often feel that the tort system has treated them unfairly. This negative perception has fueled physician efforts to enact "reforms" intended to mitigate the damage that allegations of medical negligence currently have on both individual physicians and on the practice of medicine itself. Although physicians are generally enthusiastic about "reform," there is currently no definition that allows tort "reform" to be separated from related initiatives. Some physicians largely restrict the term to defendant-friendly changes in the rules and procedures governing the workings of the tort system, whereas others take a somewhat broader view. In the present paper, we have favored the broader approach to the topic, leading to a discussion of 30 measures that have been presented in the context of tort "reform." Although most of these measures involve changes in the complex rules governing the malpractice tort system itself (eg, capping jury awarded damages), our broader view of "reform" also includes attempts to exert influence on the tort system from the outside (eg, peer review of expert testimony) and measures designed to keep patient dissatisfaction out of the tort system (eg, apology for error). Some would argue for an even broader view of tort "reform" that would including measures for reducing the pool of dissatisfied patients. For example, trial lawyers have claimed that physicians have put far too much effort into "reforms" that reduce the legal consequences of committing medical errors, and not enough effort into "reforms" that would reduce the errors themselves. The latter point may or may not have some validity, but there is a natural demarcation between measures designed to align medical outcomes with patient expectations (eg, error reduction, better diagnostic technology) and others designed to improve the processes that resolve patient dissatisfaction. Only the latter meet our definition of tort "reform."

  3. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reforming Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert, Ed.; Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue highlights the diversity of reform initiatives in order to provide a deep understanding of the complexities associated with educational reform in general and the reform of science education in particular. Systemic reform initiatives at the national and state levels along with locally-inspired efforts at reform are outlined.…

  5. The Reformers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Backed with political and financial capital, advocates of change push to improve America's education system. For most people, the purpose of education is self-improvement--becoming better informed, more knowledgeable, better equipped to solve problems, more able to earn a living and prosper. The more effectively an education system delivers on…

  6. The Reformers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Backed with political and financial capital, advocates of change push to improve America's education system. For most people, the purpose of education is self-improvement--becoming better informed, more knowledgeable, better equipped to solve problems, more able to earn a living and prosper. The more effectively an education system delivers on…

  7. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A.; Baird, W.C. Jr.

    1986-09-23

    In a process for improving the octane quality of a naphtha in a reforming unit comprised of a plurality of serially connected reactors, inclusive of one or more lead reactors and a tail reactor, each of which contains a platinum or platinum-rhenium catalyst, the naphtha flowing in sequence from one reactor of the series to another and contacting the catalyst at reforming conditions in the presence of hydrogen, the improvement is described which consists of: providing the tail reactor with a platinum-rhenium catalyst to which iridium has been added in amount sufficient to increase the C/sub 5/+ liquid yield via-a-vis a similar process utilizing in the tall reactor a platinum-rhenium catalyst to which no iridium has been added.

  8. Reforming Educational Reform: Teachers' Union Leading Teacher Research in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montecinos, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The teacher research movement in Chile has, historically, been an expression of the profession's concerns with the ways in which schooling reproduces and produces the social order in the broader society. The work currently done by members of the union's Pedagogical Movement is described, showing the connections between the scope of problems…

  9. Dimensions of health system reform.

    PubMed

    Frenk, J

    1994-01-31

    During recent years there has been a growth of worldwide interest in health system reform. Countries at all levels of economic development are engaged in a creative search for better ways of organizing and financing health care, while promoting the goals of equity, effectiveness, and efficiency. Together with economic, political, and ideological reasons, this search has been fueled by the need to find answers to the complexities posed by the epidemiologic transition, whereby many nations are facing the simultaneous burdens of old, unresolved problems and new, emerging challenges. In order to better understand reform attempts, it is necessary to develop a clear conception of the object of reform: the health system. This paper presents the health system as a set of relationships among five major groups of actors: the health care providers, the population, the state as a collective mediator, the organizations that generate resources, and the other sectors that produce services with health effects. The relationships among providers, population, and the state form the basis for a typology of health care modalities. The type and number of modalities present in a country make it possible to characterize its health system. In the last part, the paper proposes that health system reform operates at four policy levels: systemic, which deals with the institutional arrangements for regulation, financing, and delivery of services; programmatic, which specifies the priorities of the system, by defining a universal package of health care interventions; organizational, which is concerned with the actual production of services by focusing on issues of quality assurance and technical efficiency; and instrumental, which generates the institutional intelligence for improving system performance through information, research, technological innovation, and human resource development. The dimensions of reform offer a repertoire of policy options, which need to be enriched by cross

  10. Commentary: malpractice reform in policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Bovbjerg, Randall R

    2007-06-01

    Enacted caps on malpractice awards and proposed early offer reform address the sometimes excessive verdicts of conventional liability and its very high overhead costs. However, such reforms greatly benefit medical defendants while doing too little for claimants or patients in general. Caps and early offer only affect current claims; far broader reforms are therefore needed to improve the woeful performance of liability as a general promoter of patient safety and injury compensation. Broad reforms, however desirable, seldom surmount high political and practical hurdles. A good, more evenhanded start would seek to make claims resolution faster, more accurate, more predictable, and less expensive, while separately promoting medical quality and safety as well as greater transparency for law, medicine, and insurance.

  11. Commentary: Malpractice Reform in Policy Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bovbjerg, Randall R

    2007-01-01

    Enacted caps on malpractice awards and proposed early offer reform address the sometimes excessive verdicts of conventional liability and its very high overhead costs. However, such reforms greatly benefit medical defendants while doing too little for claimants or patients in general. Caps and early offer only affect current claims; far broader reforms are therefore needed to improve the woeful performance of liability as a general promoter of patient safety and injury compensation. Broad reforms, however desirable, seldom surmount high political and practical hurdles. A good, more evenhanded start would seek to make claims resolution faster, more accurate, more predictable, and less expensive, while separately promoting medical quality and safety as well as greater transparency for law, medicine, and insurance. PMID:17517117

  12. The Politics of Education Policy in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this appreciative discussion paper I provide an overview of the reforms made to education in England, and engage with the politics of education through examining the simultaneous and inter-related processes of politicisation, depoliticisation and repoliticisation of educational matters. I engage in a discussion of the papers in this special…

  13. The Politics of Education Policy in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this appreciative discussion paper I provide an overview of the reforms made to education in England, and engage with the politics of education through examining the simultaneous and inter-related processes of politicisation, depoliticisation and repoliticisation of educational matters. I engage in a discussion of the papers in this special…

  14. Split WHO in two: strengthening political decision-making and securing independent scientific advice.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has never fulfilled its original mission of simultaneously serving as the world's pre-eminent public health authority and intergovernmental platform for global health negotiations. While WHO's secretariat works hard to fulfill both functions, it is undermined by an institutional design that mixes technical and political mandates. This forces staff to walk uncomfortably along many fine lines: advising but never directing; guiding but never governing; leading but never advocating; evaluating but never judging. The result is mediocrity on both fronts. Instead, WHO should be split in two, separating its technical and political stewardship functions into separate entities, with collaboration in areas of overlap. The Executive Board and secretariat would be bifurcated, with technical units reporting to a Technical Board and political units reporting to a Political Board. Both boards would report to the World Health Assembly where all member states would continue to provide ultimate oversight. Such bold changes can be implemented either by revising WHO's constitution or through simpler mechanisms. Either way, structural governance reforms would need to be accompanied by complementary changes in culture that support strengthened political decision-making and scientific independence. States' inability to act on WHO's institutional design challenges will only lead them and non-state actors to continue bypassing the organization through the creation of new entities as they have done over the last 15 years. The key will be to mobilize those advocates and decision-makers who have the audacity to demand more from WHO and convince member states to elevate their ambitions in current WHO reform efforts. Continued progress in global health depends on it. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    resource-mobilization theory in meso-level analysis.218 The final component is the psychological process of cognitive liberation, a concept developed by...236 Neal Caren, “Political Process Theory ” In The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, ed. George Ritzer (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2007), 3456...important enabler. In applying models of social movement theory to historical analysis, this thesis identifies and develops the contentious politics

  16. Gender, religion and democratic politics in India.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zoya

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of identity politics on gender equality. More specifically it explores the paradoxical and complex relationship of religion and politics in a multi-religious society and the complicated ways in which women's activism has both reinforced and challenged their gender identities. Contrary to the argument that religious politics does not always negate gender equality, the article argues that the Hindu religious politics and women's activism associated with it provides a compelling example of the instrumentalisation of women to accomplish the political goals of the Hindu right. It also examines the approach and strategies of influential political parties, women's organisations and Muslim women's groups towards legal reform and the contested issue of a uniform civil code. Against those who argue that, in the current communal conjuncture, reform within Muslim personal laws or Islamic feminism is the best strategy for enhancing the scope of Muslim women's rights, the article argues that such an approach tends to freeze identities within religious boundaries. It shows how women's and minority rights are used within the politics of religion to sideline the agenda of women's rights.

  17. Leaving Fingerprints: Principals' Considerations While Implementing Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Shaked, Haim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Turning an education reform program into school reality greatly depends on the principal. In certain cases, principals choose to implement reform instructions only partially. The purpose of this paper is to explore school principals' considerations leading to their decisions not to fulfill a national reform's guidelines in a full and…

  18. Constructivism and the Neoliberal Agenda in the Spanish Curriculum Reform of the 1980s and 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Encarna

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the assumption underlying most education reforms that constructivism is politically neutral and intrinsically democratic. It makes this argument by examining the curriculum reform in Spain during the 1980s and 1990s in light of the neoliberal politics that the country was experiencing at that time. This study employs the…

  19. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  20. Leaders Leading and Learning (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Lynne M.; Manning, Michael; Earl, Sandra; Blair, Don

    2006-01-01

    Internationally, large scale reform is big business and yet relatively little is known about the senior administrators who manage and lead local educational reform implementation. In this first of a two-part article, the authors focus on the role of senior administrators in facilitating large-scale reform in one Ontario, Canada school district…

  1. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented.

  2. Metropolitan reform in Allegheny County: the local failure of National Urban Reform Advocacy, 1920-1929.

    PubMed

    Glass, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    During the 1920-1929 period, the Civic Club of Allegheny County supported political consolidation of the county's municipalities and townships. Civic Club leaders sought boundary reform to tackle perceived social problems and political inefficiencies in the Pittsburgh region. This policy was aligned with a national network of Progressive urban reformers, some of whom guided the Civic Club's plans. These reform efforts culminated in the 1929 Metropolitan Charter, which was rejected by Allegheny County voters. Traditional explanations of this failed vote emphasize the high threshold for success of the charter. However, such accounts ignore the apparent disjunction between the national perception of regional problems and the local reception of recommended solutions. Reform advocates were unable to adapt national Progressive theories to the local context of Allegheny County. This article first describes the national network of Progressive Era research that prescribed metropolitan solutions for urban problems in cities such as Pittsburgh. The article then examines attempts by the Civic Club of Allegheny County to introduce these theories to Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The failure of the 1929 Metropolitan Charter is reevaluated, and the implications of these events for current proponents of metropolitanism and political reform are discussed.

  3. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  4. The Soviet Union: Political and military trends

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Garrity, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    On July 20, 1989, the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a workshop on The Soviet Union: Political and Military Trends.'' The morning session was devoted to a discussion of the magnitude of the problems confronting the Soviet Union, the political and economic reforms designed to address those problems, and the repercussions of those reforms on Soviet foreign policy and defense spending. In the afternoon session, the Soviet view of the changing character of warfare, the technologies and force structures that the Soviets might develop and deploy to anticipate the battlefield of the future, and the role that conventional arms control might play in Soviet political and military strategy were examined.

  5. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance.

  6. In Search of a Coherent Policy of Reform: A Longitudinal Examination of Educational Reform in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the social, cultural, and political context for educational reform in Utah, highlighting Mormon influences, high educational valuation and aspiration, booming public school enrollments, moderate revenue growth, and the state's "minimalist" tax mood. Discusses the character and impact of efficiency, effectiveness, strategic…

  7. Speaking about Education Reform: Constructing Failure to Legitimate Entrepreneurial Reforms of Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollar, Jesslyn

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how this conception of failure came to prevail in the political discourse around the reform of teacher education. It explores how discursive structures and strategies in two speeches by former Secretary of Education Arne Duncan legitimate a particular construction of the failure of teacher education and encourage…

  8. In Search of a Coherent Policy of Reform: A Longitudinal Examination of Educational Reform in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the social, cultural, and political context for educational reform in Utah, highlighting Mormon influences, high educational valuation and aspiration, booming public school enrollments, moderate revenue growth, and the state's "minimalist" tax mood. Discusses the character and impact of efficiency, effectiveness, strategic…

  9. Catalytic reforming of heart cut fcc naphthas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsen, L.A.

    1985-03-01

    The anticipated lead phasedown in the USA and the growing demand for unleaded gasoline will require a higher gasoline pool octane number. One of the possibilities to achieve this increase of pool octane will be catalytic reforming of FCC naphtha. In this paper we evaluate the effects of FCC naphtha reforming on the reformer operation and gasoline pool volume for various lead phasedown scenarios. High-stability reforming catalysts, like TPR-8/CK-522 TRILOBE catalyst, will be required to maintain acceptable cycle lengths at the more severe reformer operating conditions. The properties and octane distribution of FCC naphtha are discussed, as well as its hydrotreating with high-active NiMo catalysts.

  10. Negotiating reform at an arm's length from the state: Disease Management Programmes and the introduction of clinical standards in Germany.

    PubMed

    Burau, Viola

    2009-07-01

    Studies of German health policy often highlight institutional constraints to reform. However, based on a case study of the introduction of clinical standards as part of the Disease Management Programmes for chronic illnesses, this article suggests that negotiating reform at an arm's length from the state can also lead to governance change, although the strengthening of hierarchy is not as prominent as that in some of the countries studied in this special issue. As such, the case of Germany offers interesting insights into the politics of governance change that occur in the shadow, but largely without the direct involvement of the state, which is typical of a corporatist health-care state. In this respect, the analysis identifies three leverages for change. First, the change in medical governance explicitly builds on earlier reforms and gives the reform alliance a competitive edge. Second, the organisations of the joint self-administration, as a more or less open ally of the state, play an influential role throughout the reform process. Importantly and third, this is complemented by the state steering at a distance.

  11. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Schorfheide, J.J.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes a process for improving the octane quality of a naphtha in a reforming unit comprised of serially connected reactors, inclusive of a lead reactor and one or more subsequent reactors. Each of the reactors contains a sulfur-sensitive polymetallic platinum-containing catalyst which contains sulfur in concentration ranging from 0.03 to about 0.2 percent, based on the weight of the catalyst, and coke in concentration ranging up to about 10 percent, based on the weight of the catalyst, naphtha and hydrogen being introduced into the lead reactor and flowing in sequence from one reactor to the next subsequent reactor of the series contacting the catalyst at reforming conditions, the improvement described here comprising. introducing sulfur to the tail reactor of the series and maintaining therein, as a component of the naphtha, sulfur in concentration ranging from 0.5 wppm to about 20 wppm, based on the weight of the naphtha feed, while maintaining the concentration of sulfur in the feed naphtha entering the lead reactor below 0.5 wppm.

  12. NHS reforms in the United Kingdom and learning from developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Collins, C D; Green, A T; Hunter, D J

    2000-01-01

    The NHS has been the object of much international interest from its inception and through its periodic reforms. However, UK policy-makers have expressed only limited and selective concern for health sector reforms in other countries. This paper seeks to identify key elements of the present process and content of reforms to the UK NHS and examine the extent to which international learning would be important in developing these reforms. Particular emphasis is placed on learning from developing country experience. The paper therefore considers the policy process in the UK, the focus on primary care, the shift from competitive to collaborative strategies in addition to prioritising and planning. Each is considered in relation to developing country experience and the opportunities for learning. The paper concludes by setting out four areas leading to an international opening in NHS policy processes: developing political space in policy making, developing mechanisms for international exchanges, understanding policy context, and broadening international experience and changing values. The notion of a one-way process in international policy learning is rejected: while the South can learn from the North, so too can the North from the South.

  13. Political model of social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Acemoglu, Daron; Egorov, Georgy; Sonin, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Almost all democratic societies evolved socially and politically out of authoritarian and nondemocratic regimes. These changes not only altered the allocation of economic resources in society but also the structure of political power. In this paper, we develop a framework for studying the dynamics of political and social change. The society consists of agents that care about current and future social arrangements and economic allocations; allocation of political power determines who has the capacity to implement changes in economic allocations and future allocations of power. The set of available social rules and allocations at any point in time is stochastic. We show that political and social change may happen without any stochastic shocks or as a result of a shock destabilizing an otherwise stable social arrangement. Crucially, the process of social change is contingent (and history-dependent): the timing and sequence of stochastic events determine the long-run equilibrium social arrangements. For example, the extent of democratization may depend on how early uncertainty about the set of feasible reforms in the future is resolved. PMID:22198760

  14. Dutch research reforms cause a stir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Martijn

    2015-02-01

    All 69 winners of the Spinoza prize - the highest award in Dutch science - have signed a petition against proposed reforms to the country's leading funding agency, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  15. The politics of energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Nivola, P.

    1986-01-01

    After a decade of debate about U.S. energy policy, the two political parties reached consensus that conservation is needed to achieve energy efficiency and to ensure adequate future supplies. But what is the most effective spur to energy conservation. In this book, Pietro S. Nivola argues that basic pricing reform in all energy sectors, though politically controversial, should be the heart of a national energy plan. Petroleum prices were fully deregulated in 1981, but wasteful pricing formulas still plague other important energy sectors like natural gas and electricity. In tracing congressional action on various energy bills in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the author shows that federal policymakers often bypassed or delayed important decisions on pricing reform. He analyzes how special interest groups, public opinion, and geographically based influences have affected congressional voting patterns and led to compromises that resulted in ineffective, or even harmful, legislation. He also addresses the role of governmental leaders and institutions in shaping the legislation. Beyond these various pressures, Nivola asserts, the conflict in Congress over energy pricing stems from intense political convictions about the role of government. One side in the congressional debate persistently attempted to use federal energy pricing policy to solve general problems of social inequity.

  16. Issue ads and the health reform debate.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Daniel; Risner, Genevieve

    2012-06-01

    The public debate over health care reform in 2009 was carried out partly through issue advertisements aired online and on television. Did these advertisements alter the course of the debate over health care reform? While millions of dollars are spent each year on issue ads, little is known about their effects. Results from a naturalistic online experiment on the effects of issue ads suggest that they can influence the perceived importance of an issue and perceptions of politicians associated with the featured policy while influencing policy support only among those low in political awareness.

  17. Political bugs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  18. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  19. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  20. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  1. Reforming Again: Now Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Educational reform responds to local and national pressures to improve educational outcomes, and reform efforts cycle as similar pressures recur. Currently, reform efforts focus on teachers, even though confidence in a host of American social institutions is dropping. One of the most widespread reforms regarding teachers is the…

  2. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…

  3. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…

  4. Comparative State Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course dealing with comparative state politics. Students learn about the way in which political scientists employ the study of American state politics as a "laboratory" for the development of scientific explanations of political phenomena. (RM)

  5. ``Political'' Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  6. Why Do They Tax Dogs in West Virginia? Teaching Political Science through Comparative State Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Christopher Z.

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the state government course at West Virginia University that leads students in a comparative study of state governments. Uses a natural progression of course topics from basic state-level characteristics, to political behavior, to political institutions, to policy in order to facilitate understanding of interstate political variation.…

  7. Minorities, the Poor and School Finance Reform. Vol. 2: The Impact of Texas' 1975 School Finance Reform on Poor and Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brischetto, Robert

    As part of a nine-volume, six-state study of the impact of school finance reforms on minorities and the poor, the author examines the history and effects of finance reform in Texas. He presents a political and socioeconomic profile of the state and discusses past Texas school financing, the role of the Rodriguez v. San Antonio Independent School…

  8. Minorities, the Poor and School Finance Reform. Vol. 2: The Impact of Texas' 1975 School Finance Reform on Poor and Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brischetto, Robert

    As part of a nine-volume, six-state study of the impact of school finance reforms on minorities and the poor, the author examines the history and effects of finance reform in Texas. He presents a political and socioeconomic profile of the state and discusses past Texas school financing, the role of the Rodriguez v. San Antonio Independent School…

  9. The origins of political electricity: Market failure or political opportunism?

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.L. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The current debate over restructuring the electric industry, which includes such issues as displacing the regulatory covenant, repealing the Public Utility Holding Company Act, and privatizing municipal power systems, the Rural Utilities Service (formerly Rural Electrification Administration), and federally owned power systems, makes a look back at the origins of political electricity relevant. The thesis of this essay, that government intervention into electric markets was not the result of market failures but, rather, represented business and political opportunism, suggests that the intellectual and empirical case for market-oriented reform is even stronger than would otherwise be the case. A major theme of applied political economy is the dynamics of government intervention in the marketplace. Because interventions are often related, an analytical distinction can be made between basis point and cumulative intervention. Basis point regulation, taxation, or subsidizaion is the opening government intervention into a market setting; cumulative intervention is further regulation, taxation, or subsidization that is attributable to the effects of prior (basis point or cumulative) intervention. The origins and maturation of political electricity, as will be seen, are interpretable through this theoretical framework.

  10. China's military reforms: International and domestic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, C.D. Jr.; Watson, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    China's reform policies during the past decade have resulted in the reorganization of economic and political structures and have led to a dramatic reorientation of the nation's foreign policy. These reforms have especially influenced China's military establishment, which is now in a period of major transition. What new paradigm is replacing the old Maoist model of People's War, however, is not clear. This book examines what China's military modernization means for the global and regional balance of power and for China's internal political-economic system. Specific chapters focus on changes in Chinese strategy and doctrine, developments in defense industries and military procurement, China's acquisition of foreign technology, its military education system, and its nuclear weapons program.

  11. Devolution and welfare reform: re-evaluating "success".

    PubMed

    Sheely, Amanda

    2012-10-01

    The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or decreased since the start of the recession in late 2007. The uneven responsiveness of the welfare system to growing economic needs prompts the question of whether the safety net is functioning as intended. This article evaluates the literature on the state and local implementation of welfare to assess whether devolution has yielded the positive outcomes promised by proponents. Findings suggest that, under welfare reform, state and local governments are enacting diverse programs and do not appear to be limiting welfare provision in new ways to avoid becoming "welfare magnets." However, the type of program they adopt is systematically related to the racial and ethnic composition of the caseloads and the local political climate, leading to a fragmentary system in which some states and localities are more responsive than others. Social workers can help poor families in critical need of assistance by voicing these concerns at the local, state, and national levels.

  12. Prevention in Poland: health care system reform.

    PubMed Central

    Sheahan, M D

    1995-01-01

    Despite the political and economic reforms that have swept Eastern Europe in the past 5 years, there has been little change in Poland's health care system. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare has targeted preventive care as a priority, yet the enactment of legislation to meet this goal has been slow. The process of reform has been hindered by political stagnation, economic crisis, and a lack of delineation of responsibility for implementing the reforms. Despite the delays in reform, recent developments indicate that a realistic, sustainable restructuring of the health care system is possible, with a focus on preventive services. Recent proposals for change have centered on applying national goals to limited geographic areas, with both local and international support. Regional pilot projects to restructure health care delivery at a community level, local health education and disease prevention initiatives, and a national training program for primary care and family physicians and nurses are being planned. Through regionalization, an increase in responsibility for both the physician and the patient, and redefinition of primary health care and the role of family physicians, isolated local movements and pilot projects have shown promise in achieving these goals, even under the current budgetary constraints. PMID:7610217

  13. Integration of care systems in Portugal: anatomy of recent reforms

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silvina; Szczygiel, Nina; Redondo, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated care is increasingly present in the agenda of policy-makers, health professionals and researchers as a way to improve care services in relation to access, quality, user satisfaction and efficiency. These are overarching objectives of most sectoral reforms. However, health care and social care services and systems are more and more dependent on the performance of each other, imposing the logic of network. Demographic, epidemiologic and cultural changes result in pressure to increase efficiency and efficacy of services and organisations in both sectors and that is why integrated care has become so relevant in the last years. Methods We first used concept maps to organise and systematise information that we had gathered through deep literature review in order to set a framework where to base the subsequent work. Then, we interviewed informants at several levels of the health and social care systems and we built a list of major recent reforms addressing integrated care in Portugal. In a third step, we conducted two independent focus groups where those reforms were discussed and evaluated within the context of the concepts and frameworks identified from the literature. Results were confronted and reconciled, giving place to a list of requisites and guidelines that oriented further search for documentation on those reforms. Results Several important health reforms are in course in primary and hospital care in Portugal, while a so-called third level of care has been introduced with the launch of the National Network of Long-Term Integrated Care (RNCCI – Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados). The social care sector has itself been a subject of alternative models springing from opposite political orientations. All these changes are having repercussions on the way the systems work with each other as they are leading to ongoing and ill-evaluated reformulations on the way they are governed, financed, structured and operated. Conclusions Care

  14. Health Reforms as Examples of Multilevel Interventions in Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, Mary L.; Devers, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation’s health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform. PMID:22623600

  15. Health reforms as examples of multilevel interventions in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Flood, Ann B; Fennell, Mary L; Devers, Kelly J

    2012-05-01

    To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation's health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform.

  16. China's Health Reform Update.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Vortherms, Samantha A; Hong, Xuezhi

    2017-03-20

    China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Health care financing reform led to universal basic medical insurance, whereas the public hospital reform required more complex measures ranging from changes in regulatory, operational, and service delivery settings to personnel management. This article reviews these major policy changes and the literature-based evidence of the effects of reforms on cost, access, and quality of care. It then highlights the outlook for future reforms. We argue that a better understanding of the unintended consequences of reform policies and of how practitioners' and patients' interests can be better aligned is essential for reforms to succeed.

  17. Startup procedure for reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, W.D.; Schoennagel, H.J.

    1984-08-14

    Process for reforming a hydrocarbon charge under reforming conditions in a reforming zone containing a sulfur-sensitive metal containing reforming catalyst wherein over-cracking of the charge stock and excessive temperature rise in the reforming zone is suppressed by pre-conditioning the catalyst, prior to contact with the charge, with a reformate of specified octane number and aromatics content.

  18. Systems Reform and Local Government: Improving Outcomes for Children, Families, and Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potapchuk, William R.; Crocker, Jarle P.; Schechter, William H.

    Local governments play a central role in improving the lives of children and families and in piecing together solutions to other major social, economic, environmental, and political challenges. Some ways to nurture and support systems reform activities in local governments, including those of educational systems, are explored. Systems reform can…

  19. Thirty Years of Reform and Opening Up: Teaching International Relations in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Patrice C.; Zou, Yue

    2011-01-01

    In 1978, Deng Xiaoping declared that China's future depended on "gaige kaifang" (reform and opening up to the West). By any standard, China has reformed its economic system and prospered handsomely by integrating into the world economy. With less fanfare, China has taken steps to restructure its political system and committed substantial…

  20. School Finance Reform in a Growing Economy: Using the Growth Dividend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Kalman

    2000-01-01

    lllinois's school finance reform goals may be achieved by providing property tax relief and increasing state funding out of income tax receipts, relying primarily on the state's growth dividend. Distributing the largesse of growth to poor districts over time minimizes richer citizens' sense of fiscal loss, making reform more politically palatable.…

  1. School Finance Reform in a Growing Economy: Using the Growth Dividend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Kalman; Scott, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a proposal to achieve major finance reform goals by providing property tax relief and increasing state funding out of income-tax receipts, relying on Illinois' growth dividend. The plan is funded by proportional taxes and would make school reform more politically palatable to affluent taxpayers. (28 footnotes) (MLH)

  2. School Reforms in England, Japan, Korea and the U.S.: Policy Variation and Educational Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    Education reform during the last 2 decades has been shaped by the forces of growing public distrust of educational bureaucracies in a climate of rapid political change and growing international competition in the context of a global economy. Major school reforms in four selected industrial countries that differ significantly in terms of…

  3. Engaging the Community, Targeted Interventions: Achieving Scale in Basic Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebres, Bienvenido Florendo

    2009-01-01

    In 1983, after over 10 years of working on mathematics education reform in the Philippines, I wrote a paper for a Tokyo conference arguing that education reform in developing countries such as the Philippines should begin by working on macro-problems, namely the social, political, and economic environment of the schools, as a context for the…

  4. Curriculum Reform, Challenges, and Coping Strategies in the Ethiopian Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mebratu, Belete; Hoot, James

    2005-01-01

    Ethiopia is a nation of more than 70 million people characterized by diverse ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. Since the early 1990s Ethiopia has entered into the process of transformation towards a more civil society. This transformational process has led to numerous socioeconomic and political policy reforms. Central to reforms in the…

  5. Instructors' Perceptions of the Bologna Model of Higher Education Reform in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mngo, Zachary Y.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Statement. The literature on education in Cameroon suggests that there is a deep-rooted history of resistance to educational reform and harmonization both at the K12 and higher education levels. Attempts by political and educational leaders to reform and harmonize the two very distinct systems of education, inherited from former colonizers…

  6. Instructors' Perceptions of the Bologna Model of Higher Education Reform in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mngo, Zachary Y.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Statement. The literature on education in Cameroon suggests that there is a deep-rooted history of resistance to educational reform and harmonization both at the K12 and higher education levels. Attempts by political and educational leaders to reform and harmonize the two very distinct systems of education, inherited from former colonizers…

  7. Jump-Starting Educational Reform. Implementing British Columbia's Comprehensive School Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Paul

    An educational reform effort to implement a comprehensive school act in British Columbia (Canada) is analyzed with a focus on some sociotechnical and political aspects. An overview of the content, background, and implementation of the reform effort is followed by identification of seven contradictions inherent in the plan. Contradictions are as…

  8. Secondary Education in Argentina during the 1990s: The Limits of a Comprehensive Reform Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorostiaga, Jorge M.; Acedo, Clementina; Xifra, Susana E.

    2003-01-01

    Used data from many sources to examine the reform of secondary education in Argentina in the 1990s. Findings suggest that political, economic, and technical factors, as well as strategies chosen by the national government, limited the implementation of reforms. (SLD)

  9. Thirty Years of Reform and Opening Up: Teaching International Relations in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Patrice C.; Zou, Yue

    2011-01-01

    In 1978, Deng Xiaoping declared that China's future depended on "gaige kaifang" (reform and opening up to the West). By any standard, China has reformed its economic system and prospered handsomely by integrating into the world economy. With less fanfare, China has taken steps to restructure its political system and committed substantial…

  10. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  11. Sputnik Reform Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    Educational reforms being called for in the 1980's are compared to reforms of the 1950's. The Sputnik-inspired quest for quality called for reform in the content and structure of basic subjects. Current reports say that what educators are doing in the basic subjects is ok, but they need to do more. (RM)

  12. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  13. Time for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Brief, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Parents, teachers, and government officials agree that America's schools must be reformed. However, new research suggests that most reforms will not work without closer attention to one critical resource--time. This document presents findings of a study conducted by the Rand Institute on Education and Training, which found that any reform takes…

  14. History and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Robert L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Features comments from Robert L. Hampel, William R. Johnson, Diane Ravitch, and David N. Plank on David Tyack and Larry Cuban's book, "Tinkering toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform." The book argues that educational reformers in the 20th century have attempted large-scale systemic reforms instituted from the top down. (MJP)

  15. School Reform Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning, Aurora, CO.

    This manual is designed to help schools make successful school reform a reality. It provides the background and perspectives necessary for a school constituency to understand the current climate of education reform in the United States and what is known about successful school reform. The manual also provides inquiry-based techniques for…

  16. History and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Robert L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Features comments from Robert L. Hampel, William R. Johnson, Diane Ravitch, and David N. Plank on David Tyack and Larry Cuban's book, "Tinkering toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform." The book argues that educational reformers in the 20th century have attempted large-scale systemic reforms instituted from the top down. (MJP)

  17. Sputnik Reform Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    Educational reforms being called for in the 1980's are compared to reforms of the 1950's. The Sputnik-inspired quest for quality called for reform in the content and structure of basic subjects. Current reports say that what educators are doing in the basic subjects is ok, but they need to do more. (RM)

  18. Beyond Reform: Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jill

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) is not a reform movement. To reform is to make a thing again; reformation implies a stasis that doesn't deliver enough for the educational future. This issue of Horace demonstrates that Essential schools and the districts and networks that support them are at various points in the journey of transformation,…

  19. Political Reactance and Political Reality: A Theory of Political Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    The research investigated political and psychological reactance among adolescents. Political reactance is interpreted to include feelings of political alienation and distrust. Psychological reactance is defined as behavior by an individual in response to reduction or threatened reduction of freedom. A model was created which expanded existing…

  20. American Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This text presents high school students with up-to-date findings of social scientists about political behavior in order to increase their political knowledge and sophistication. Case studies which describe the various political activities of typical citizens and political leaders are used throughout the work. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  1. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-05

    Youyuan’s political- lyrical poems "Snoring Conference" and "The Motive in Joining the Party" caused quite an uproar. He wrote: "People who knew that...Celebrates Founding Anniversary (XINHUA, 16 Apr 86) ...................................... 50 Publishing House To Release 11 Long Novels (XINHUA, 17 Apr 86...confining ourselves to partial improvements, we should institute a funda- mental reform." For quite a long time in the past, the Soviet Union has frequently

  2. Seeing difference: market health reform in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, A

    1998-02-01

    The comparative literature on health care reform has identified a convergence upon market models as nations respond to similar economic, technological, social, and demographic pressures. In this article I first challenge the conventional view by comparing "market" reforms of the late 1980s and early 1990s in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Though these nations did indeed converge upon the instrument of the market incentive, there was considerable divergence in the content and aims of their reform strategies. These nations designed their respective markets to make different tradeoffs among competing values. While all three exploited the principle of provider competition, they appointed different actors to judge the contest: the cost-conscious public authority in the United Kingdom, the quality-conscious patient in Sweden, and the optimizing consumer in the Netherlands. I argue that these countries were thus using common market tools to promote different health policy goals. Distinguishing these reforms further is the fact that--particularly in the Netherlands--there was a gap between market plans and the reality of implemented change. I then ask why nations responded so differently to such similar objective pressures. My contention is that this divergence reflects, in part, the different ideological orientations of the ruling party or coalition in each nation. Yet divergence is also the result of differences in both the design of political institutions and the structure of the pre-reform health system in each country.

  3. School Reform and Related Issues. Proceedings of the Conference of the University Urban Schools National Task Force (5th, Palm Beach, Florida, November 11-12, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossone, Richard M., Ed.; Polishook, Irwin, Ed.

    The theme of the conference reported on here was school reform and related issues. An introductory statement, "Thoughts on School Reform," by Jerome Bruner, and a list of conference participants are followed by a group of papers on education and politics. The papers are "Reform and Partnership in Education," by Albert Shanker;…

  4. Health Education: What Can It Look Like after Health Care Reform? 1993 SOPHE Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cynthia M.

    1994-01-01

    In plans for health care reform, the role of health education in reducing risk behaviors associated with leading causes of death must be recognized. Reform offers new opportunities for prevention programs in schools, worksites, and communities. (SK)

  5. Polarized stakeholders and institutional vulnerabilities: the enduring politics of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Béland, Daniel; Rocco, Philip; Waddan, Alex

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a comparative study of how state-level political stakeholders affected the implementation of 3 major reforms within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Our goal was to analyze the effects of policy legacy, institutional fragmentation, and public sentiments on state obstruction of the reform. We gathered quantitative and qualitative evidence to generate cross-case comparisons of state implementation of 3 reform streams within the ACA: health insurance exchanges, Medicaid expansion, and regulatory reform. Our sources included secondary literature, analysis of official decisions, and background interviews with experts and public officials. We found that state-level opponents of the ACA were most likely to be successful in challenging reforms with few preexisting policy legacies, high institutional fragmentation, and negative public sentiments. Reforms that built on existing state legislation, avoided state veto points or offered lucrative fiscal incentives, and elicited less negative public reaction were less likely to be contested. Our findings point to the importance of institutional design for the role of political stakeholders in implementing reforms to improve the cost, quality, and availability of medical treatments. Although other research has found that political polarization has shaped early ACA outcomes, comparative analysis suggests political stakeholders have had the highest effect on reforms that were particularly vulnerable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Education Reform in Hong Kong: The ``Through-Road'' Model and its Societal Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Anita Y. K.; Wong, Yiu-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Although Hong Kong's education system has long been criticized as lacking in creativity and over-emphasising rote learning, on the whole it has served Hong Kong well in the past years, breeding outstanding business, academic and political leaders who continue to maintain Hong Kong's competitive edge. The traditional elite schools have played a crucial role in the process. The education reform, which is still on-going, aims to overhaul the entire system by introducing the "through-road" model. To accomplish this, some mechanisms need to be changed. J.P. Farrell's concepts of equality and equity, C.W. Mills' concept of elitism, and P. Bourdieu and J. Coleman's concepts of cultural and social capital will be applied to analyse the consequences of the reform. The paper argues that the education reform may be well-intentioned in eliminating some elements of inequality and inequity in education, but that this comes at the expense of Hong Kong's cultural and social capital and leads to the development of new forms of inequality.

  7. Professional Societies, Political Action Committees, and Party Preferences.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Steven L; Barsky, Carol L; Powell, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Societies representing physician specialties and other health care personnel commonly have political action committees (PACs). These PACs seek to advance their members' interests through advocacy and campaign contributions. We examined contribution data for health care workers' PACs from the 2010 to 2012 election cycles and found that higher annual income was strongly associated with greater giving to Republican candidates. Patterns of giving may offer insights into various medical workers' party preferences, political leanings, and views of health care reform.

  8. Professional Societies, Political Action Committees, and Party Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Barsky, Carol L.; Powell, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Societies representing physician specialties and other health care personnel commonly have political action committees (PACs). These PACs seek to advance their members’ interests through advocacy and campaign contributions. We examined contribution data for health care workers’ PACs from the 2010 to 2012 election cycles and found that higher annual income was strongly associated with greater giving to Republican candidates. Patterns of giving may offer insights into various medical workers’ party preferences, political leanings, and views of health care reform. PMID:25393192

  9. A Critical Evaluation of Education Reforms in Hong Kong: Counting Our Losses to Economic Globalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Po-King

    2005-01-01

    Not long after the political transition in 1997, Hong Kong witnessed a spate of top-down education reforms that had been conceived within the neoliberal ideology of economic globalisation. Neoliberalism is particularly pervasive here, because of the underdevelopment of representative politics and of critical, social democratic discourse in…

  10. Challenging the neoliberal trend: the Venezuelan health care reform alternative.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Rueda, Sergio; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented to varying degrees health care sector reforms underpinned by a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care as less of a social right and more of a market commodity. These health care sector reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states prescribed consistently by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program called Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighbourhood). In this article, we introduce Misión Barrio Adentro in its historical, political, and economic contexts. We begin by analyzing Latin American neoliberal health sector reforms in their political economic context, with a focus on Venezuela. The analysis reveals that the major beneficiaries of both broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states and neoliberal health reforms have been transnational capital interests and domestic Latin American elites. We then provide a detailed description of Misión Barrio Adentro as a challenge to neoliberalism in health care in its political economic context, noting the role played in its development by popular resistance to neoliberalism and the unique international cooperation model upon which it is based. Finally, we suggest that the Venezuelan experience may offer valuable lessons not only to other low- to middle-income countries, but also to countries such as Canada.

  11. Political dimensions of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blewett, N

    1988-01-01

    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  12. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  13. R. H. Tawney and the Reform of the Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Tom; Taylor, Richard

    2008-01-01

    R. H. Tawney was a major figure in shaping both the philosophy and the political practice of the British Labour Party. His involvement was also remarkably lengthy, and his influence lasting. The pursuit of equality, particularly through educational reform and restructuring, lay at the heart of his concerns. This paper analyses both Tawney's…

  14. Understanding electricity market reforms and the case of Philippine deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago, Andrea; Roxas, Fernando

    2010-03-15

    The experience of the Philippines offers lessons that should be relevant to any country seeking to deregulate its power industry. Regardless of structure, consumers must face the real price of electricity production and delivery that is closer to marginal cost. Politically motivated prices merely shift the burden from ratepayers to taxpayers. And any reform should work within a reasonable timetable. (author)

  15. The Higher Education System in Macedonia: Overview, Reforms, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanov, Georgi; Angeloska-Galevska, Natasha

    2006-01-01

    The system of higher education in Macedonia is undergoing the largest reform process since the mid-1940s. The context is rather turbulent. Fourteen years after Macedonia's separation from the Yugoslav Federation, this small country now deals with an unstable political situation (the Kosovo question) and awaits an answer from Brussels (expected in…

  16. Negotiating for Change: Women's Movements and Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shu-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…

  17. Urban School Reform, Family Support, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kiersten; Anyon, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Teachers and other education professionals find themselves in schools and districts bombarded by reforms--each one purporting to improve student achievement, particularly in reading and mathematics. This article lays the political economic groundwork of student achievement in urban areas in an attempt to contextualize the studies of literacy in…

  18. Nationalism, Internationalization, and the Dilemma of Educational Reform in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincicome, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ideological contradictions in the philosophy of internationalization supported by Japan's National Council on Educational Reform and the political contradictions inherent in Ministry of Education implementation efforts. Provides examples of attempts by Japanese high schools to internationalize their curricula and reintegrate students…

  19. Problems of Reforming Educational Systems in Post-Communist Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastuovic, Nikola

    1993-01-01

    Identifies the main problems of educational reform in postcommunist countries by using an interactive model of education and developmental dimensions of society. Suggests that the stalemate in the transformation of ownership and political modernization and ideological conservativism will impede the Europeanization of education in Eastern European…

  20. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  1. Negotiating for Change: Women's Movements and Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shu-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…

  2. Radical Reform: Reorganization and Resolve for Educational Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negroni, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of a universal choice plan as leverage for a wide range of school improvements in the Springfield Public School System (Massachusetts). The author examines the educational reform movement in terms of change coupled with concurrent development of four transformations: organizational, pedagogical, social/attitudinal, and political.…

  3. Influence of Social Reform Ideologies on Industrial/Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireh, Maduakolam

    2016-01-01

    The founding of industrial/technology education in Ameria represents the convergence of many influences dating back to the pre-industrial revolution era. Social reform movement, one of these influences, set out to change conditions considered to be causes of poverty and other social problems through active engagements in political, educational,…

  4. Getting beyond the Facts: Reforming California School Finance. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersin, Alan; Kirst, Michael W.; Liu, Goodwin

    2008-01-01

    California's school finance system is long overdue for reform. The authors propose a new system that is more rational, more equitable, and, they believe, politically feasible. At its core, their proposal aims to link district revenue to student needs and regional costs while ensuring that all districts are held harmless at current funding levels.…

  5. Multilingual Educational Reform and Teacher Training in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Benson

    1996-01-01

    Examines the political implications of linguistic policy and reports on a recent visit to an Ethiopian Teachers' Training Institute. The article discusses the difficulties inherent in the imposition of major educational reform under severe resource restraints. (20 references) (Author/CK)

  6. The Higher Education System in Macedonia: Overview, Reforms, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanov, Georgi; Angeloska-Galevska, Natasha

    2006-01-01

    The system of higher education in Macedonia is undergoing the largest reform process since the mid-1940s. The context is rather turbulent. Fourteen years after Macedonia's separation from the Yugoslav Federation, this small country now deals with an unstable political situation (the Kosovo question) and awaits an answer from Brussels (expected in…

  7. Urban School Reform, Family Support, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kiersten; Anyon, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Teachers and other education professionals find themselves in schools and districts bombarded by reforms--each one purporting to improve student achievement, particularly in reading and mathematics. This article lays the political economic groundwork of student achievement in urban areas in an attempt to contextualize the studies of literacy in…

  8. R. H. Tawney and the Reform of the Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Tom; Taylor, Richard

    2008-01-01

    R. H. Tawney was a major figure in shaping both the philosophy and the political practice of the British Labour Party. His involvement was also remarkably lengthy, and his influence lasting. The pursuit of equality, particularly through educational reform and restructuring, lay at the heart of his concerns. This paper analyses both Tawney's…

  9. Attitudes to abortion in the era of reform: evidence from the Abortion Law Reform Association correspondence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma L

    2011-01-01

    This article examines letters sent by members of the general public to the Abortion Law Reform Association (ALRA) in the decade immediately before the 1967 Abortion Act. It shows how a voluntary organisation, in their aim of supporting a specific cause of unclear legality, called forth correspondence from those in need. In detailing the personal predicaments of those facing an unwanted pregnancy, this body of correspondence was readily deployed by ALRA in their efforts to mobilise support for abortion law reform, thus exercising a political function. A close examination of the content of the letters and the epistolary strategies adopted by their writers reveals that as much as they were a lobbying tool for changes in abortion law, these letters were discursively shaped by debates surrounding that very reform.

  10. Comparative effectiveness research: policy and politics.

    PubMed

    Zusman, Edie E

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is the basis for some of the fiercest rhetoric of the current political era. While it is a relatively old and previously academic pursuit, CER may well become the foundation upon which the future of health care in the US is based. The actual impact of CER on-and uptake among-doctors, patients, hospitals, and health insurers, however, remains to be seen. Political considerations and compromises have led to the removal of key aspects of CER implementation from policy legislation to prevent alienating stakeholders critical to the success of health care reform. Health care providers, including specialists such as neurosurgeons, will need to understand both the policies and political implications of CER as its practices becomes an indelible part of the future health care landscape.

  11. Foreign oil companies weathering Peru's political crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies are weathering Peru's political crisis, and the outlook for increased foreign participation in Peru's petroleum sector remains promising. There has been improvement in the political turmoil and soured international relations that followed President Alberto Fujimori's Apr. 5 suspension of Peru's Congress, charging political corruption and attempts to block his fiscal reforms. But there are fresh concerns over an increase in terrorism aimed at oil industry facilities by antigovernment guerrilla groups in Peru. Meanwhile, state-owned oil company Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) continues efforts to sell assets as part of Fujimori's mandated privatization program. And foreign companies continue to grapple with uncertainty and bureaucratic red tape in chasing investment opportunities in Peru's beleaguered but opening petroleum sector.

  12. "Vergara v. State of California": A Political Analysis and Implications for Principal Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabron, Lolita A.; Irby, Beverly J.

    2015-01-01

    This political analysis uses the Vergara case as an example of how principals can be dynamic leaders who are well prepared for and engaged in their political terrain. This will be important to decrease judicial dependency and legislative interference to better ensure that reform begins with those closest to the problem.

  13. Chinese Higher Education and Commodity Socialism: The Problem of Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Ruth

    This paper reviews trends in political education in China and examines implications of the new market emphasis on political education in institutions of higher education. Trends toward increased academic openness and cross fertilization among academic fields after the Cultural Revolution are identified. Reforms during this period are seen to have…

  14. The Political Economy of Education in the Sahel. Efficiency Indicators Activity. IEES Project Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Simon M.; And Others

    The role of the political class in the debate on how to improve education in the Sahelian countries is examined in this monograph. Although cultural backwardness and faulty inquiry impede educational quality, the major problem is the absence of political forms through which all people can participate in educational reform. A review of the…

  15. MPC improves reformer control

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, C.S.; Noh, K.K.; Yi, S.; Kim, J.S.; Song, H.K.; Hyun, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    A model predictive control strategy was applied to a synthesis gas reformer of Samsung-BP Chemicals in Korea that produces carbon monoxide and hydrogen from naphtha. A strongly endothermic reaction occurs in a catalytic reformer, and reformer outlet temperature is considered to have the most significant effect on product composition. The newly developed reformer is known to be a cost-effective process operating at high reaction temperatures and low steam-to-carbon ratio, but its drawback is temperature control difficulty due to the use of offgas as a part of the fuel. Without smooth control of the reformer outlet temperature, stable operation of the downstream separation units cannot be expected. Therefore, it is a great challenge to apply a model predictive control technique for tight control of reformer outlet temperature. The paper describes model predictive control, the process advanced control project, computer system architecture, analysis of operating condition, control structure, sampling rate, and disturbance estimation.

  16. Galactic politics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-07

    Only rarely does an astronomical object have a political association. However, the spiral galaxy NGC 7252 acquired exactly that when it was given an unusual nickname. In December 1953, the US President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave a speech advocating the use of nuclear power for peaceful purposes. This  “Atoms for Peace” speech was significant for the scientific community, as it brought nuclear research into the public domain, and NGC 7252, which has a superficial resemblance to an atomic nucleus surrounded by the loops of electronic orbits, was dubbed the Atoms for Peace galaxy in honour of this. These loops are well visible in a wider field of view image. This nickname is quite ironic, as the galaxy’s past was anything but peaceful. Its peculiar appearance is the result of a collision between two galaxies that took place about a billion years ago, which ripped both galaxies apart. The loop-like outer structures, likely made up of dust and stars flung outwards by the crash, but recalling orbiting electrons in an atom, are partly responsible for the galaxy’s nickname. This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the inner parts of the galaxy, revealing a pinwheel-shaped disc that is rotating in a direction opposite to the rest of the galaxy. This disc resembles a spiral galaxy like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, but is only about 10 000 light-years across — about a tenth of the size of the Milky Way. It is believed that this whirling structure is a remnant of the galactic collision. It will most likely have vanished in a few billion years’ time, when NGC 7252 will have completed its merging process.

  17. Politics, power, and birth.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.

  18. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  19. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  20. The Forest Indians in the Present Political Situation of Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    The article focuses on tribal minorities (American Indians) of the Peruvian tropical forest from the point of view of the political circumstances and the general administrative conditions of the country. In 1968 the revolutionary military government initiated a series of structural reforms which aimed at transforming Peru. This article poses and…

  1. Political Correctness and Its Challenge to Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Scott M.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses speech codes, admissions policies, and curriculum reform as areas of great debate and complication as they relate to political correctness (PC). Although its main goal has been to increase diversity awareness on campus, the author posits PC has taken a superficial approach to complex debates. (JBJ)

  2. Society, Social Justice, and Social/Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitty, Geoff

    1981-01-01

    Discusses postwar social studies reform in England in terms of the social studies movement (1940-50), the new social studies movement (1960-70), and the political education movement (late 1970s). Argues that the movements are limited because of their inadequate understanding of the relationship between schooling and society and the nature of the…

  3. Naphtha reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, K.R.; Houston, R.J.; Hughes, T.R.; Jacobson, R.L.

    1984-07-17

    In a process for reforming light naphtha with a bimetallic or multimetallic reforming catalyst, such as a platinum-rhenium-halogen catalyst, at conventional reforming conditions, wherein the catalyst is used for an extended continuous on-stream period, the aromatics selectivity of the catalyst is rapidly increased by contacting the naphtha and hydrogen with the catalyst at increased severity operating conditions, such as a reduced pressure less than 90% of the normal reforming pressure, during an initial portion of the on-stream period.

  4. Sustaining Successful School Reform: An Interview With Jordan Horowitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Inside High School Reform: Making Changes that Matter (WestEd) shares the critical lessons and compelling successes of 28 California Academic Partnership Program school reform efforts. In this interview, lead author Jordan Horowitz, WestEd's senior project director in evaluation research, recently shared some of the book's findings, and answered…

  5. Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panfilova, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

  6. Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panfilova, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

  7. Law & School Reform: Six Strategies for Promoting Educational Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heubert, Jay P., Ed.

    This book describes the growing involvement of lawyers in America's public schools in the past half century. It discusses comparatively what leading educators and lawyers believe to be the most important law-driven school reforms and examines these reform efforts from the perspectives of law, education, research, and practice. It also considers…

  8. Health care reform: initial implications for continuing education in nursing.

    PubMed

    Camin, L R

    1995-01-01

    Continuing education coordinators and interested others met statewide to consider the educational needs of nurses emerging with health care reform. It was agreed that continuing nursing education must aggressively pursue its mission and activities to lead, promote, and enhance the education of our profession on health care reform.

  9. Medical schools viewed from a political perspective: how political skills can improve education leadership.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Jonas; Grigsby, R Kevin

    2011-12-01

    Political science offers a unique perspective from which to inform education leadership practice. This article views leadership in the health professions through the lens of political science research and offers suggestions for how theories derived from political science can be used to develop education leadership practice. Political science is rarely used in the health professions education literature. This article illuminates how this discipline can generate a more nuanced understanding of leadership in health professions education by offering a terminology, a conceptual framework and insights derived from more than 80 years of empirical work. Previous research supports the premise that successful leaders have a good understanding of political processes. Studies show current health professional education is characterised by the influence of interest groups. At the same time, the need for urgent reform of health professional education is evident. Terminology, concepts and analytical models from political science can be used to develop the political understanding of education leaders and to ultimately support the necessary changes. The analytical concepts of interest and power are applicable to current health professional education. The model presented - analysing the policy process - provides us with a tool to fine-tune our understanding of leadership challenges and hence to communicate, analyse and create strategies that allow health professional education to better meet tomorrow's challenges. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  10. Behavioralism, Postbehavioralism, and the Reemergence of Political Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeman, Thomas S.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the long reign of the behavioralists and the postbehavioralists has reduced political science theory to a Tower of Babel. Loudly trumpets the revival of Aristotelian political philosophy and identifies some of its leading adherents. Posits three fundamental objections to behavioral political theory. (MJP)

  11. Behavioralism, Postbehavioralism, and the Reemergence of Political Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeman, Thomas S.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the long reign of the behavioralists and the postbehavioralists has reduced political science theory to a Tower of Babel. Loudly trumpets the revival of Aristotelian political philosophy and identifies some of its leading adherents. Posits three fundamental objections to behavioral political theory. (MJP)

  12. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'.

  13. The sex reform movement and eugenics in interwar Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawin, Magdalena

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.

  14. Unhealthy money: health reform and the 1994 elections.

    PubMed

    Podhorzer, M

    1995-01-01

    Health and insurance interests have substantially increased their contributions to members of Congress in response to the debate over national health care. During the 21 months from January 1, 1993, through September 30, 1994, campaign contributions from the health and insurance industries reached $37.9 million, a 51 percent increase over the same time period in the last election cycle. Health- and insurance-related large donor contributions ($200 or more) increased at the fastest rate, although both health- and insurance-related large donor and political action committee (PAC) contributions increased far faster than contributions by other industries. Contributions from health interests increased the fastest. The American Medical Association PAC was the leading contributor among health and insurance PACs. In the Senate, Republican incumbents received an average of 22.5 times as much from health and insurance interests as their Democratic challengers. No Democratic challenger was favored over an incumbent Republican. Democratic incumbents averaged only 3.5 times as much as their Republican challengers. Health and insurance interests favored seven of the nine Republicans seeking open Senate seats. Of course, one of the two Democrats favored was Jim Cooper, a leading opponent of comprehensive reform.

  15. Health care reform and changes: the Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Merican, Mohd Ismail; bin Yon, Rohaizat

    2002-01-01

    Health care reform is an intentional, sustained and systematic process of structural change to one or more health subsystems to improve efficiency, effectiveness, patient choices and equity. Health care all over the world is continuously reforming with time. Health care reform has become an increasingly important agenda for policy change in both developed and developing countries including Malaysia. This paper provides an overview of the Malaysian health care system, its achievements, and issues and challenges leading to ongoing reform towards a more efficient and equitable health care system that possess a better quality of life for the population.

  16. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  17. Final report of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission: will we get the health care governance reform we need?

    PubMed

    Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2009-10-05

    The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC) has recommended that Australia develop a "single health system", governed by the federal government. Steps to achieving this include: a "Healthy Australia Accord" to agree on the reform framework; the progressive takeover of funding of public hospitals by the federal government; and the possible implementation of a consumer-choice health funding model, called "Medicare Select". These proposals face significant implementation issues, and the final solution needs to deal with both financial and political sustainability. If the federal and state governments cannot agree on a reform plan, the Prime Minister may need to go to the electorate for a mandate, which may be shaped by other economic issues such as tax reform and intergenerational challenges.

  18. The politics of disaster - Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bommer, J

    1985-12-01

    The occurrence of natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes, are, in themselves, beyond oar control. However, careful preparation before such events, and the correct management of the problem once it occurs, can both lead to major redaction of the suffering involved. Disaster preparation and emergency planning are both inextricably linked to politics and economics, both on a national and an international scale. Disasters themselves raise a number of issues of a political or economic nature, and die response to a natural disaster both in the short and the long term is largely determined by the political relations within a country, and between that country and the international community. This paper examines these issues by taking the examples of the earthquake of Managua, Nicaragua in 1972 and the flooding that occurred in Nicaragua in 1982. These two natural disasters occurred under different administrations in Nicaragua, and tills allows some interesting comparisons.

  19. Health care reform. Gridlock and pork?

    PubMed

    Weil, T P

    1997-01-01

    Can Americans expect the same gridlock and pork between now and the 21st Century? What are the possible directions that the United States can move in regarding health care reform and the long-term financing of health entitlement programs? Here, the author offers a snapshot of current politics and some predictions for the next four years. And explores the question: Are Americans willing to make the necessary sacrifices for future generations to profit by the significant changes needed by entitlement and health reform, or will it be business as usual? America's centrist perspective was recently reinforced by the 1996 election, suggesting that no major innovations in entitlement or in the health system should be anticipated in the next four years.

  20. Reforming with polymetallic catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.C. Jr.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a process for catalytically reforming, with hydrogen, a hydrocarbon naphtha feed at reforming conditions, the improvement comprising contacting the naphtha feed, and hydrogen, with a halogenated, supported platinum-rhenium catalyst promoted with iridium agglomerated to exhibit a crystallinity greater than 50 percent, as measured by X-ray.