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Sample records for political reforms lead

  1. Political Transformations and Higher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Tamas

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a comprehensive concept for European higher education reforms of the 20th and 21st centuries. However, it means something else in Central European countries than it does in the rest of Europe. It has been combined in Central Europe with a major social change referred to as the "political transformation" (Johnson…

  2. Political Strategies for School Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, G. Kent

    In order to achieve school finance reform at the state level, six levels of local and state educational and political responsibility must be involved. The six levels are educational leadership (local and state school executives), the executive and legislative branches of government, the state educational department, the teachers association, the…

  3. The Politics of Military Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    choices for ayq CWagsm. DoD umratards that it is to its advntage to let Ontracts in as many Cogressional districts as possible. The chArt below...believe that alternative (e.g., social spending, debt reduction measures , or foreign aid) avenues for defense dollars should be pursued. Our research...underbudgeting and underfunding of new systems and their corresponding operation and maintenance accounts . 1 0 Reformers are convinced that DoD realizes

  4. Politics and Systemic Education Reform. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrman, Susan

    This brief describes political challenges to systemic reform and explores the conditions under which coherent policymaking might occur. A focus is the role of states in achieving policy integration. The first section describes political challenges to systemic reform, which include a lack of consensus on student standards, a focus on inputs and…

  5. Health Reform Redux: Learning From Experience and Politics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups. PMID:19299668

  6. Bringing Home the Bacon: The Politics of Rural School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Jonathan P.

    1983-01-01

    Self-interested political, corporate, and education leaders have undermined recent West Virginia court decisions mandating educational reform. Three implications are: (1) principals, teachers, parents, and students must be equal partners in the educaiton reform process; (2) a constituency for rural children is needed; and (3) rural educators must…

  7. History and Politics in State Accountability Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Thomas W.; Sunshine, Phyllis M.

    The formation of hypotheses and generation of a theory to explain and predict the outcomes of educational reforms based on the concept of school reform cycles is the purpose of this paper. Two complementary hypotheses are proposed to explain the success or failure of educational reforms. The first hypothesis is based on an inverse relationship…

  8. Teaching American Politics through Student Projects: Electoral Reform Issues and Political Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Donald K.; Hogan, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Describes two projects which involve college students in political science courses on American politics in doing research and giving class reports on proposals for reforming the electoral college and the electoral process. Findings indicate that students participating in the projects become more aware of political realities and learn how to use…

  9. The politics of health sector reform in developing countries: three cases of pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Reich, M R

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the political dynamics of health sector reform in poor countries, through a comparative study of pharmaceutical policy reform in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. The paper first reviews five reasons why policy reform is political. It then presents three political economic models of the policy reform process: the political will, political factions, and political survival models. Next, the paper describes the three cases of national pharmaceutical policy reform, and identifies common conditions that made these reforms politically feasible. The paper's analysis suggests that health sector reform is feasible at certain definable, and perhaps predictable, political moments, especially in the early periods of new regimes. The most important and manipulable political factors are: political timing, which provides opportunities for policy entrepreneurs to introduce their ideas into public debate, and political management of group competition, which allows leaders to control the political effects of distributional consequences and protect the regime's stability. A strong and narrow political coalition improves the capacity of political leaders to resist the pressures of concentrated economic costs (both inside and outside national boundaries). The paper argues that for reform to succeed, policy-makers need effective methods to analyze relevant political conditions and shape key political factors in favor of policy reform. The method of Political Mapping is briefly introduced as a technique that can help policy-makers in analyzing and managing the political dimensions of policy reform and in improving the political feasibility of reform.

  10. Introduction to "The Politics of Educational Reforms"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that education is a site of conflict. This essay examines the ideological positions that now dominate educational reforms and suggests a number of roles that critically democratic educators should play in confronting these reforms. It then details the contributions that the authors included in this special issue…

  11. Reform and Non-Reform in Education: The Political Costs and Benefits of Reform Policies in France and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Hans N.; Miyake, Eriko

    This paper examines how the perception and anticipation of political costs and benefits affects decisions about whether and how plans for educational reforms are to be pursued. Two case studies of major educational reform attempts are described: France and Japan. The study analyzes the two societies' underlying dilemmas, which manifest themselves…

  12. Politics and Prison Reform: Three Test Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Howard B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Attica prison riot, the shooting of George Jackson at San Quentin, and a major prison scandal in Arkansas, an assessment of public reaction to inmate grievances tests basic values in American politics. (Editor)

  13. Cultural Flashpoint: The Politics of Teacher Education Reform in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 (Cosgrove et al., 2010; Perkins et al., 2010) reading literacy results heralded a crisis of confidence in educational standards in Ireland. This article examines the national and international context of teacher education reform and the politics of the policy…

  14. The Politics of Reform at Stephen K. Hayt School, Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joravsky, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Three years after the passage of the Chicago Public Schools Reform Act, Stephen K. Hayt School in Chicago (Illinois) has shown some successes, but neighborhood politics have hampered progress as ethnic groups and others dispute issues. In addition, cuts in the citywide school budget left teachers scrambling for supplies. (JB)

  15. Production and the welfare state: the political context of reforms.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1991-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the political context of reforms in the production process and in the welfare state. The theories of legitimation and Fordism are criticized for considering the capitalist class the main force behind the reforms. The working class and the process of class struggle are primarily responsible for changes in production and for the establishment of the welfare state. The author then shows that the changes in production and in the state that occurred after World War II were a response to political events triggered by labor's rebellions and capital's need to respond to those rebellions. Post-Fordism and the political practice that derives from it are criticized for their hasty dismissal of class and class practices by the dominated forces in society. The article ends by offering an alternative strategy for change.

  16. Rethinking Democratic Education: The Politics of Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, David M.

    This book argues that democratic education should equip citizens to be "the measure of all things." The volume contends that the voices of society should develop the skills of questioning, criticizing, and reconstructing the language of the day in order to dissect the rhetoric of politics, economy, and culture. But the volume asserts that these…

  17. Leading Mathematics Reform and the Lost Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    Queensland's primary school teachers have experienced change in every Key Learning Area in the last few years. This avalanche of curriculum reform is set to continue as schools prepare for the imminent release of the Australian national curriculum. This article reports on one school's approach to dealing with this avalanche of curriculum reform.…

  18. The politics of paying for health reform: zombies, payroll taxes, and the holy grail.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the politics of paying for health care reform. It surveys the political strengths and weaknesses of major options to fund universal coverage and explores obstacles to changing how the United States finances health care. Finding a politically viable means to finance universal coverage remains a central barrier to enacting health reform.

  19. Medicaid in Ohio: The Politics of Expansion, Reauthorization, and Reform.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    When, in 2012, the US Supreme Court held that Medicaid expansion sanctioned by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was essentially optional for states, it ushered in a newly contentious state politics. States led by Republican governors and legislatures opposed to the ACA had to decide whether to accept extensive federal funding to expand Medicaid for citizens in their states who were earning up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level. This Report from the States focuses on Ohio, whose Republican governor successfully navigated the rancorous politics of Medicaid to expand the state's program in 2014. Working at odds with his own party and gaining praise from traditional political opponents for his leadership on the issue, John Kasich circumvented the state legislature, turning to the Controlling Board to bring about initial expansion. In the wake of Kasich's landslide reelection in 2014, the politics of expansion and reauthorization have given way to a pervasive discourse of "reform." In this next phase Kasich has endorsed policy positions (e.g., cost sharing, a focus on "personal responsibility") that reunite him with his party's more traditional view of Medicaid while continuing to emphasize the importance of expansion.

  20. The political economy of healthy system reform in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, D; Chinitz, D

    1995-01-01

    Commission for structural change in the system, and review the politics of implementing the recommended reforms.

  1. States Will Lead the Way toward Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Arne

    2009-01-01

    This document contains remarks delivered by the Secretary of Education who spoke at the 2009 Governors Education Symposium. Secretary Duncan spoke about uses of Recovery Act funding to drive reform in four core areas of education: (1) Robust data systems that track student achievement and teacher effectiveness; (2) Teacher and principal quality;…

  2. A network approach for researching political feasibility of healthcare reform: the case of universal healthcare system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Xu

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluates the political feasibility of healthcare reform taking place in Taiwan in the past decade. Since Taiwan adopted National Health Insurance (NHI) in 1995, it has provided coverage for virtually all of the island's citizens. However, the imbalance between expenditure and revenue has resulted in a cycle of unsustainable spending which has necessitated financial reforms and political confrontations. By applying social network analysis, this paper examines multiple types of ties between policy elites and power distribution that have evolved in crucial policy events of the NHI's financial reforms between 1998 and 2010. Data sources include official documents and 62 social network interviews that were held with government officials and related unofficial policy participants. Blockmodeling and multidimensional scaling (MDS) are used to determine the major participants and network structures in the NHI domain, as well as the influential policy actors, based on information transmission, resource exchange, reputation attribution and action-set coalition networks in Taiwan's current political situation. The results show that although both public actors and all medical associations are the leading actors in the NHI reform, without good communication with societal actors, the promotion of reform proposals ends in failure. As a tool of political feasibility evaluation, social network analysis can map the political conflict between policy stakeholders systematically when policy makers pursue the result of policy adoption.

  3. Political Reform and the Historical Trajectories of U.S. Social Movements in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amenta, Edwin; Caren, Neal; Stobaugh, James E.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a political reform theory, a political and historical institutionalist argument that holds that shifts in political structures, partisan regimes and policy greatly influence movements. We appraise this argument, along with resource mobilization, political opportunity and media alternatives, by analyzing 600,000 articles in the "New York…

  4. Can Russia Reform? Economic, Political, and Military Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    leading to national and social degra- dation with potentially dramatic consequences for the country. But this growing awareness has not yet pro- duced...of the authorities (under the condition that they do not meddle in politics) and Russia’s relative openness to the outside world lead to apathy...undermines itself with empty liberal rhetoric will hardly be sustainable either. It does not lead to the lib- eral opening. Quite the contrary: this

  5. The Politics of Teacher Education Reform. The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association. [Volume 13].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Karen Symms, Ed.; Bailey, Jerry D., Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers on the politics of teacher education reform. The book begins with "Introduction to the Politics of Teacher Preparation Reform" (Karen Symms Gallagher and Jerry D. Bailey). Part 1, "Issues From the National Arena," includes "The Politics of Teacher Education Reform: Strategic…

  6. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…

  7. Electricity sector liberalization in the European Union: The political economy of regulatory reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infante Durana, Maria Dolores

    This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became

  8. Implementing health care reform in the United States: intergovernmental politics and the dilemmas of institutional design.

    PubMed

    Béland, Daniel; Rocco, Philip; Waddan, Alex

    2014-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted, and continues to operate, under conditions of political polarization. In this article, we argue that the law's intergovernmental structure has amplified political conflict over its implementation by distributing governing authority to political actors at both levels of the American federal system. We review the ways in which the law's demands for institutional coordination between federal and state governments (and especially the role it preserves for governors and state legislatures) have created difficulties for rolling out health-insurance exchanges and expanding the Medicaid program. By way of contrast, we show how the institutional design of the ACA's regulatory reforms of the insurance market, which diminish the reform's political salience, has allowed for considerably less friction during the implementation process. This article thus highlights the implications of multi-level institutional designs for the post-enactment politics of major reforms.

  9. Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…

  10. Politics, Modernisation and Educational Reform in Russia: From Past to Present. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this volume give an account of the process of modernisation and educational reform in Russia, variously considering the cultural and political dilemmas provoked by democratisation, the structural and policy challenges associated with the reform of higher and vocational education, and the deep divisions exposed as socio-cultural…

  11. Ghetto Schooling: A Political Economy of Urban Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    This book is based on a study of a 4-year reform effort in the Newark (New Jersey) public schools. The discussion focuses on an elementary school as it attempted reform in an effort that was ultimately unsuccessful. Part I opens the discussion of the effects of social class and race on educational reform. To see why inner city schools have not…

  12. Politics, religions, and grief: the cases of American spiritualism and the Deuteronomic reform in Israel.

    PubMed

    Klass, Dennis; Goss, Robert

    2002-11-01

    The article is a contribution to the task of developing a cross-cultural model of grief. It shows that grief narratives can be complexly interwoven with the religious and political narratives of the culture. Two political reforms in which religious narratives figured prominently are given as case examples: 19th-century Spiritualism in North America and the Deuteronomic reform in 7th-century BCE Israel. Similarities and differences between the two are discussed. The article concludes that an adequate cross-cultural model of grief must be capable of explaining how a particular grief narrative relates to the politics and religious narratives in which it is set.

  13. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  14. Power, Politics, Democracy and Reform: A Historical Review of Curriculum Reform, Academia and Government in British Columbia, Canada, 1920 to 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelations between power, politics, academia and curriculum reform in British Columbia (BC) using social studies curriculum documents as a case study. It describes how curriculum reform occurred and argues that reform was undemocratic as it was largely the product of individuals with power who invited individuals with…

  15. The Political Dynamics of District Reform: The Form and Fate of the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scholars widely acknowledge that politics help explain why policies are adopted and how they play out in states, districts, and schools. To date, political analyses of education reform tend to isolate a particular policy and examine the politics of its adoption or implementation, but pay less attention to the effects of the politics of…

  16. Framing divorce reform: media, morality, and the politics of family.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michele; Coltrane, Scott

    2007-03-01

    No-fault statutes changed divorce from an adversarial system pitting victims against victimizers, with the state acting as enforcer of marital norms, to a private decision between unhappily married but legally blameless partners. Divorce reform following no-fault primarily focused on making divorce more fair for the parties involved. Over the last several decades, divorce reform has transitioned from making divorce better to making marriage healthier. The good divorce has slipped from policy attention, elevating the potential for restigmatization of divorced couples and their children. We trace the trajectory of media framing of divorce reform discourse in three general circulation newspapers from the start of the no-fault revolution, noting how media framing parallels and naturalizes the transition in divorce reform policy. We conclude by observing the prevalence of divorce and the related need for therapists to be cognizant of this naturalization process, thereby keeping the good divorce as a goal for those who desire to end their marriages.

  17. The Politics of Reforming School Finance in Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geske, Terry G.

    This paper is primarily concerned with identifying and explicating the environmental forces and political factors responsible for legislative enactment of major school finance changes in Wisconsin in 1973. Easton's political systems theory serves as a conceptual framework for the study. In addition, Lindblom's leadership model, Truman's interest…

  18. The Political Economy of Market-Based Educational Policies: Race and Reform in Urban School Districts, 1915 to 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Janelle; Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2016-01-01

    The authors situate the emergence and effects of contemporary market-based reforms within a framework of urban political economy that centers on racial inequality. They discuss how and why market-based reforms have evolved alongside racialized political and economic trends that have transformed cities over the past century, and they critically…

  19. Accretion, reform, and crisis: a theory of public health politics in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Standard interpretations of the history of public health in New York City in the twentieth century describe either the decline or the growth of the importance accorded to public health activities. To the contrary, public health has, paradoxically, both declined in salience and attracted increasing resources. This article describes the politics of public health in New York City since the 1920s. First it describes events in the history of public health in the context of events in the economy and in city, state, and national politics. Then it proposes three descriptive models for arraying the data about public health politics: accretion, reform, and crisis. Next it describes how the politics of AIDS in New York City in the 1980s was a consequence of the history that produced these three political styles. Finally, it argues that the three political styles are generalizable to the history of public health throughout the United States in the twentieth century. PMID:1814059

  20. Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

    Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point

  1. The Tragedy of American School Reform: How Curriculum Politics and Entrenched Dilemmas Have Diverted Us from Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2011-01-01

    Two persistent dilemmas haunt school reform: curriculum politics and classroom constancy. Both undermined the 1960s' new social studies, a dynamic reform movement centered on inquiry, issues, and social activism. Dramatic academic freedom controversies ended reform and led to a conservative restoration. On one side were teachers and curriculum…

  2. The Politics and Sustainability of Middle Grades Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Jennifer I.; Thompson, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    Jennifer's first years as a middle school principal occurred during a time of transformation initiated by the federal No Child Left Behind Act and further intensified by demographic changes within her Midwest suburban district of 25,000 students. In the context of national educational reform during this time period, Tom Erb asked, "Who will…

  3. Education Reform When Nations Undergo Radical Political and Social Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Belle, Thomas J.; Ward, Christopher R.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between radical social transformation and educational reform in Algeria, China, Cuba, Ethiopia, Iran, Mozambique, and Nicaragua. Examines seven policy areas before and after transformation: centralized control, access to education, tracking, curriculum, personnel, language of instruction, and literacy. (28 references) (SV)

  4. Reform, Resistance, . . . Retreat? The Predictable Politics of Accountability in Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2002-01-01

    In the 1990s, Virginia launched one of the nation's most ambitious standards-based reform efforts. Encouraged by a budding national accountability movement and motivated by conservative distrust of the public school establishment, state officials sought to clarify what students needed to know and to hold students and educators accountable for…

  5. The Politics of Off-the-Shelf School Finance Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.; Elmer, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes and evaluates two "Off-the-Shelf" school finance reforms that gained then waned in popularity over the past several years. The 65 percent solution claims that requiring all public school districts to allocate 65 cents of every education dollar "to the classroom" would drive substantial additional resources to children…

  6. Educational Reconstruction "By the Dawn's Early Light": Violent Political Conflict and American Overseas Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobe, Noah W.

    2009-01-01

    Using a historical approach, Sobe examines the myths and ideals that have underlain U.S. educational initiatives in postconflict nations abroad. Building on its tradition of modern schooling designed to advance civic and social order, America has sought to extend its political and cultural values overseas through educational reforms in…

  7. Politics of Externalization in Reflexive Times: Reinventing Japanese Education Reform Discourses through "Finnish PISA Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a critical theoretical paradigm and critically engaging with the externalization thesis that Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Jurgen Schriewer have developed, this article examines the politics of "Finnish education" in the ongoing Japanese education reform debate. More specifically, it examines the various discursive uses of…

  8. The Politics of Curriculum Reform in Canada: The Case of Technology Education in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrina, Stephen; Dalley, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrates the case of technology education in British Colombia and discusses its invulnerability of teachers to curriculum reform. Draws on historical and survey data related to school practices and Ministry of Education enrollment data disaggregated by sex. Casts these data into a politics of curriculum framework informed by the work of…

  9. The Cultural Politics of Constructivist Pedagogies: Teacher Education Reform in the United Republic of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2009-01-01

    This article examines recent educational reforms in Tanzania by looking at the cultural politics of pedagogical change in secondary and teacher education. It presents an ethnography of a teachers college founded on the principles of social constructivism in a country where formalistic, teacher-centered pedagogy is the norm. Using data collected…

  10. Problem-Based Learning and Improved Learning Outcomes in "The Politics of Welfare Reform"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity of a major Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Assignment to improve students' content knowledge surrounding relevant course concepts in two sections of "The Politics of Welfare Reform," a 200-level class offered at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth. The hypothesis was that performance on the PBL assignment, which…

  11. Navigating the Waves of Change: Political Education and Democratic School Reform in Postwar West Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puaca, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    This article concentrates on two pieces of legislation promulgated in the early 1960s in order to investigate the broader ideas and concerns surrounding political education in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. These pieces of educational policy highlight the consensus for continued reform while recognizing the value of curricular and…

  12. Liking Health Reform But Turned Off By Toxic Politics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lawrence R; Mettler, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Six years after the Affordable Care Act (ACA) became law, the number of nonelderly Americans with health insurance has expanded by twenty million, and the uninsurance rate has declined nearly 9 percentage points. Nevertheless, public opinion about the law remains deeply divided. We investigated how individuals may be experiencing and responding to health reform implementation by analyzing three waves of a panel study we conducted in 2010, 2012, and 2014. While public opinion about the ACA remains split (45.6 percent unfavorable and 36.2 percent favorable), there have been several detectable shifts. The share of respondents believing that reform had little or no impact on access to health insurance or medical care diminished by 18 percentage points from 2010 to 2014, while those considering reform to have some or a great impact increased by 19 percentage points. Among individuals who held unfavorable views toward the law in 2010, the percentage who supported repeal-while still high, at 72 percent-shrank by 9 percentage points from 2010 to 2014. We found that party affiliation and distrust in government were influential factors in explaining the continuing divide over the law. The ACA has delivered discernible benefits, and some Americans are increasingly recognizing that it is improving access to health insurance and medical care.

  13. Educational Reform: The Political Roots of National Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Landon E.

    1985-01-01

    Although "A Nation at Risk" identifies many legitimate problems, the report misconstrues their causes and proposes inappropriate solutions. By blaming schools for America's economic, military, and moral shortcomings, it deflects criticism from education's social, economic, and political context, which we must analyze if we seek a more…

  14. PISA as a Political Tool in Spain: Assessment Instrument, Academic Discourse and Political Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega Gil, Leoncio; Hernández Beltrán, Juan Carlos; García Redondo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study examines to what extent there is a sort of "political appropiation" by political parties when they seek to set a discourse about the Spanish PISA outcomes. We have consistently found that programs for assessing the competencies of students, especially PISA, have become tools of rationalization and the legitimization of…

  15. The policy and politics of the 2015 long-term care reform in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Maarse, J A M Hans; Jeurissen, P P Patrick

    2016-03-01

    As of 2015 a major reform in LTC is taking place in the Netherlands. An important objective of the reform is to reign in expenditure growth to safeguard the fiscal sustainability of LTC. Other objectives are to improve the quality of LTC by making it more client-tailored. The reform consists of four interrelated pillars: a normative reorientation, a shift from residential to non-residential care, decentralization of non-residential care and expenditure cuts. The article gives a brief overview of these pillars and their underlying assumptions. Furthermore, attention is paid to the political decision-making process and the politics of implementation and evaluation. Perceptions of the effects of the reform so far widely differ: positive views alternate with critical views. Though the reform is radical in various aspects, LTC care will remain a largely publicly funded provision. A statutory health insurance scheme will remain in place to cover residential care. The role of municipalities in publicly funded non-residential care is significantly upgraded. The final section contains a few policy lessons.

  16. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide...

  17. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide...

  18. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political.... If it is designated the lead for remedial action, the political subdivision must provide...

  19. The emergence of managed care in Europe. Some thoughts on the politics of healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    Elze, C

    1998-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate that healthcare reform in Europe can be successful only if it leads to more efficient resource use while maintaining a large degree of equity in the system. Globalisation is undermining the social contracts that established Europe's egalitarian societies after World War II. While socialised healthcare will continue to be an essential building block of social cohesion, public expenditures must be contained. The only approach to maintaining equity of access and financing in the face of a mounting resource constraint is to embark upon a radical re-engineering of the entire healthcare supply chain, introducing and adapting proven US managed-care techniques to the European environment. Through enabling legislation, most European countries are in a phase of testing the feasibility, cost effectiveness and quality enhancement potential of managed-care approaches, before applying them more broadly. While political opposition to change on the part of those whose current positions are threatened continues to run high, the practice of medicine can be expected to converge on the basis of standards of care and information technology over the next 10 to 15 years.

  20. Rethinking Schools. An Agenda for Change. Leading Reformers Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David, Ed.; And Others

    This collection presents the best of 8 years of "Rethinking Schools," an education reform journal created in Milwaukee (Wisconsin) in 1986 by teachers vitally concerned with educational change. This volume contains 29 essays by classroom teachers, as well as pieces by such national reform figures as Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Herbert Kohl,…

  1. Democratically Elected Socialist Presidents and Free-Market Reforms: A Political Economy Examination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    Dani Rodrik , a political economist for Columbia University, after two significant events.1 First was the popularity, then failure, of import...and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America, (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1991), 136. 1 2 Dani , Rodrik , “Understanding...Latin America: Theory and Policy, ed. Jeffry Frieden, Manuel Pastor Jr., and Michael Tomz (Boulder: Westview, 2000) 155. 4 Dani Rodrik , “Understanding

  2. Fashioning Curriculum Reform as Identity Politics--Taiwan's Dilemma of Curriculum Reform in New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Chin-Ju

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores indigenization and globalization, the double issue of curriculum and identity as a dialectical contradiction that characterizes the ambivalence of "Taiwanese identity." "Taiwanese identity" is treated as a social, political, and cultural construct rather than a fixed term in an essentialist sense.…

  3. Good Ideas and Engagement Aren't Enough: School District Central Offices and the Micro-Politics of Implementing Comprehensive Human Resource Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeArmond, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about how organizational politics--or what some scholars call micro-politics--shapes the implementation of comprehensive human resource (HR) reform in school district central offices. Over the last decade, education reformers and advocates have promoted comprehensive HR reform as a way to improve teaching and learning in K-12…

  4. Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-01

    Universal access to healthcare has assumed renewed importance in global health discourse, along with a focus on strengthening health systems. These developments are taking place in the backdrop of concerted efforts to advocate moving away from vertical, disease-based approaches to tackling health problems. While this approach to addressing public health problems is a step in the right direction, there is still insufficient emphasis on understanding the socio-political context of health systems. Reforms to strengthen health systems and achieve universal access to healthcare should be cognizant of the importance of the socio-political context, especially state-society relations. That context determines the nature and trajectory of reforms promoting universality or any pro-equity change. Brazil and Venezuela in recent years have made progress in developing healthcare systems that aim to achieve universal access. These achievements are noteworthy given that, historically, both countries had a long tradition of healthcare systems which were highly privatized and geared towards access to healthcare for a small segment of the population while the majority was excluded. These achievements are also remarkable since they took place in an era of neoliberalism when many states, even those with universally-based healthcare systems, were moving in the opposite direction. We analyze the socio-political context in each of these countries and look specifically at how the changing state-society relations resulted in health being constitutionally recognized as a social right. We describe the challenges that each faced in developing and implementing healthcare systems embracing universality. Our contention is that achieving the principle of universality in healthcare systems is less of a technical matter and more a political project. It involves opposition from the socially conservative elements in the society. Navigation to achieve this goal requires a political strategy that

  5. The Politics of Aborted Reform: Education and the Legitimacy of the State in France and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Hans N.

    As this paper demonstrates, studying abortive educational reforms reveals a great deal about the complex political dynamics involved in making (and unmaking) key policy decisions. Using case studies of France and West Germany, the paper argues that the state in advanced industrial countries tends to maximize the political gains derived from…

  6. Leading through the Challenge of Change: African-American Women Principals on Small School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, April L.

    2012-01-01

    The context of education is changing based upon social, political, and accountability factors. As a result, many large urban districts have turned to small school reform in efforts to address student learning outcomes. Research demonstrates that effective leadership influences school achievement and culture. This qualitative study examines the…

  7. The pleasures and perils of prophetic advocacy: Henry E. Sigerist and the politics of medical reform.

    PubMed Central

    Fee, E

    1996-01-01

    Henry E. Sigerist, an internationally renowned medical historian, played a surprisingly important and visible role in American medical politics in the 1930s and 1940s. Born in Paris of Swiss parents, he was professor in Leipzig, Germany, before coming to the United States in 1932 as professor of the history of medicine at Johns Hopkins University. Once in America. Sigerist became deeply involved in medical politics and the campaign for national health insurance. He argued that individualized medical practice was outdated and should gradually be superseded by state-run and state-financed health services. National health insurance was but one step in this historical progression. Sigerist thus lent the weight of history itself to the cause of medical care reform. The charming and erudite Sigerist was welcomed by the leaders of academic medicine in America. Soon, he emerged as a spokesman of the left wing of the medical profession, an effective and popular speaker and an impassioned advocate of socialized medicine. This paper traces Sigerist's political ideas and activities, and his contributions toward medical care reform in the United States. Images p1639-a p1642-a PMID:8916536

  8. Making Good Choices: Districts Take the Lead. Comprehensive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Public schools across the country are aiming to improve student performance by engaging in comprehensive school reform (CSR). This guide was created to help school districts make CSR an integral part of their strategies for improving student achievement. Five components for CSR are described: (1) Strategizing, whereby the district supports CSR by…

  9. Leading for Urban School Reform and Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Terrance L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Improving urban schools of color and the communities where they are located requires leadership that spans school and community boundaries. The purpose of this study is to understand how principal and community leader actions support urban school reform along with community development at two community schools in the urban Midwest and…

  10. Why Do Policy Leaders Adopt Global Education Reforms? A Political Analysis of SBM Reform Adoption in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a political analysis of school-based management reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). School-based management (SBM), based on the principle of school autonomy and community participation, is a school governance system introduced in many parts of the world, including post-conflict nations. Such a phenomenon seems to follow the…

  11. The Science and Politics of Naming: Reforming Anatomical Nomenclature, ca. 1886-1955.

    PubMed

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2017-02-11

    Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology. I focus on the controversial and ultimately failed attempt to reform anatomical nomenclature, known as Jena Nomina Anatomica (INA), of 1935. Discussions around nomenclature reveal not only how anatomical names are made and communicated, but also the relationship of anatomy with the clinic; disciplinary controversies within anatomy; national traditions in science; and the interplay between international and scientific disciplinary politics. I show how the current anatomical nomenclature, a successor to the NAP, is an outcome of both political and disciplinary tensions that reached their peak before 1945.

  12. [Political change, disease and healthcare reform: the response to the Toxic Oil Syndrome (Spain, 1981-1998)].

    PubMed

    Martín, Gregoria Hernández; Martínez-Pérez, José

    2011-01-01

    In 1981, Spain was threatened by the sudden appearance of an epidemic-like disease, one which was unknown to that date. The Toxic Oil Syndrome, as it was later named after the oil that caused it, thus demanded a response that became conditioned by the fact that the biological nature of the disease was unknown, but also, significantly by the complex situation in the country at that time. Spain was immersed in process of great political change, as well as a difficult economic situation, the authorities were obliged to react in not ideal conditions and in accordance with the very values that the new model of social relations that was being developed. This paper aims to look at the way in which the Toxic Oil Syndrome acted as a catalyst and accelerated the healthcare reform that, already prior to the outbreak of the epidemic, had been deemed necessary. This work focuses mainly on the response of the health system regarding those affected by the epidemic, as it was forced to treat a group of people with severe physical side effects which would lead to disability within a new framework of social relations. It thus aims to illustrate how many of the measures adopted were in accordance with the main ideas behind the reform, and also how these measures were precursors of those which were later applied to the population as a whole.

  13. Health system strengthening in Myanmar during political reforms: perspectives from international agencies.

    PubMed

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Coker, Richard; Piot, Peter; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2014-07-01

    Myanmar has undergone a remarkable political transformation in the last 2 years, with its leadership voluntarily transitioning from an isolated military regime to a quasi-civilian government intent on re-engaging with the international community. Decades of underinvestment have left the country underdeveloped with a fragile health system and poor health outcomes. International aid agencies have found engagement with the Myanmar government difficult but this is changing rapidly and it is opportune to consider how Myanmar can engage with the global health system strengthening (HSS) agenda. Nineteen semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with representatives from international agencies working in Myanmar to capture their perspectives on HSS following political reform. They explored their perceptions of HSS and the opportunities for implementation. Participants reported challenges in engaging with government, reflecting the disharmony between actors, economic sanctions and barriers to service delivery due to health system weaknesses and bureaucracy. Weaknesses included human resources, data and medical products/infrastructure and logistical challenges. Agencies had mixed views of health system finance and governance, identifying problems and also some positive aspects. There is little consensus on how HSS should be approached in Myanmar, but much interest in collaborating to achieve it. Despite myriad challenges and concerns, participants were generally positive about the recent political changes, and remain optimistic as they engage in HSS activities with the government.

  14. The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed.

  15. The Educational Argumentation of the Hellenic Political Forces on Special Education in the 1913, 1929, 1964, and 1985 Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzakis, Sifis; Berdousi, Eleni

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to show the educational argumentation of the Greek liberal political forces with respect to special education within the reform attempts that were undertaken in 1913, 1929, 1964, and 1985. More specifically, we detect the concepts that prevailed in each of the three main phases through which special education in Greece…

  16. Toward health reform for seniors in Bermuda: historical constraints on political possibilities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Edward Alan; Nadash, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, as the United States moved toward health care reform, the government of Bermuda implemented its FutureCare program to make health care for seniors more affordable. This article investigates how preferences for reform and its eventual design were shaped by the country's social history and commitment to free market values. Data derive from 36 in-depth interviews with key stakeholders deemed knowledgeable about health care financing and delivery in Bermuda, including government officials, provider representatives, insurance executives, and consumer advocates. Data also derive from a variety of documentary sources. Results indicate that although a clear need for health care and the ability to finance it for seniors exists in Bermuda, the scope of reform was circumscribed by preferences for prior policy decisions, creating a favorable tax and business environment for international corporations and a minimalist social welfare state for addressing racial and economic inequality. This suggests that widespread agreement on the challenges in meeting the health and long-term care needs of the elderly does not necessarily lead to equally commensurable solutions to addressing it.

  17. FYI: Reforming Social Welfare Policy...Indiana's Children...Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes results of reports and resources concerning the reform of social welfare policy. Focuses on a profile of Indiana children, hospital policies and programs designed to meet the psychosocial needs of hospitalized children and their families, a senior center/latchkey program, and lead poisoning prevention. (BB)

  18. Court-Led Educational Reforms in Political Third Rails: Lessons from the Litigation over Ultra-Religious Jewish Schools in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a model for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of judicial involvement in educational reforms. It uses the model to analyze two case studies of court-led educational reforms in the third rail of Israeli politics--the curricula and the admission policies of ultra-Othodox (Haredi) schools. These case studies are located at the…

  19. A Systems Approach to School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes leading scholars' findings in leadership theory, local politics and government, state and national school politics, and change theory. Integrating this knowledge into a systematic reform effort requires superintendents with integrity and vision; political stability; good board/superintendent relations; long-term, statewide commitment;…

  20. Politics, Language, and Culture: A Critical Look at Urban School Reform. Series in Language and Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph W.

    This book presents a critique of urban school reform that emerges from an exploration of three avenues: learning from the country's long history of previous attempts at reform, listening seriously to the voices of urban practitioners, and going beyond best practices in pedagogy and school organization to view reform in the larger, more…

  1. Globalization, Statist Political Economy, and Unsuccessful Education Reform in South Korea, 1993-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between globalization and national education reforms, especially those of educational systems. Instead of exploring the much debated issues of how globalization affects national educational systems and how the nations react by what kinds of systemic education reform, however, it focuses on what such a method…

  2. The political effects of ideas and markets on China's economic reforms: The case of electrical power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Laura Washington

    This study examines factors influencing contemporary economic policy-making and reform in China's electric power industry. Results of the study suggest that there is an ongoing paradigm change in China's policy-making. However, institutional resistance to changes in the policy process is strong. Policy outcomes in the case of electric power reforms reflect the interaction of both dynamics. In the early 1990s, the central government in Beijing began to consider restructuring the electric power industry to introduce competition and establish markets for electricity supply. Until then, economic policies had resulted from a process of deliberation within the upper echelons of the Communist Party. Although the Party considered the interests of dominant economic actors, particularly the large State-owned sector, its channels for participation in the policy process were closed to most economic actors. Central bureaucratic and provincial interests largely governed policy processes, leading observers to describe the Chinese State as bureaucratic authoritarian. Bureaucracy's heavy role in the economy led to what some called a corporatist State, whereby organs of government infiltrated most aspects of the economy. This institutional arrangement perpetuated bureaucracy's influence in policy-making. This study hypothesizes that transformation in domestic financial markets poses a threat to the entrenched institutions of the electric power industry. The integration of China's economy with foreign firms and markets enabled actors outside of the dominant State-owned economy to improve their positions vis-a-vis the state-owned sector, and eventually to play a role in the policy process. At the same time, Beijing's adaptation of foreign-designed restructuring policies threatened the deep-rooted institutions. The study analyzes the behavior, statements and channels utilized by those actors affected by power sector policies. Based on interviews conducted between 2000 through 2002

  3. A Shift Away from an Egalitarian System: Where Do the Current Reforms in Japan Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yano, Hirotoshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with an overall changing trend witnessed in public schooling in Japan, known as educational reforms. Through looking at recent reforms in Japan, with an international trend in view, the author first summarizes educational reforms as waves of liberalization that have changed the post-war fundamental principle of Japanese education.…

  4. Examining the Streams of a Retention Policy to Understand the Politics of High-Stakes Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2007-01-01

    Using John Kingdon's (2003) multiple streams approach to agenda setting, I analyze how key actors within the state of Wisconsin understood the need to construct and implement the state's No Social Promotion statutes to improve students' academic performance. Policymakers within the state focused their standards-based reforms on the issue of…

  5. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    PubMed

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.

  6. The EDUCO Program, Impact Evaluations, and the Political Economy of Global Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brent, Jr.; Loucel Urquilla, Claudia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    During the 1990s and 2000s, a policy known as Education with Community Participation (EDUCO) not only became the cornerstone of education reform in El Salvador but also became a global education policy, one which is known for decentralizing to rural families the responsibility for hiring and firing teachers. As is shown in this paper, its rise to…

  7. The Politics of Naming Reform in the Gendered Spheres of Home and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauwels, Anne; Winter, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Naming has been a central focus of feminist language planning. The initial emphasis was on reforming naming practices for women in public spheres (work, education, media). More recently public discourses about work/life balance have drawn together the public and private, shaping the naming practices for women and men in these domains. This paper…

  8. The Hub and the Spokes: Foundations, Intermediary Organizations, Incentivist Reforms, and the Politics of Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Janelle; Jabbar, Huriya

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the influence of and spending by educational philanthropists and foundations over the past two decades, especially in the area of market-based reforms, such as charter schools, vouchers, and merit pay, is evident across the United States. Largely due to philanthropic investments, relatively new educational intermediary organizations…

  9. The Politics of Literacy in the Context of Large-Scale Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I will consider the lessons that can be learnt about literacy policy and its role in large-scale education reform programmes, with particular reference to policy-making in England since the election of New Labour in 1997. New Labour's promise to the electorate in 1997 was that state-funded education could be fixed and turned into a…

  10. Education Reform, Indigenous Politics, and Decolonisation in the Bolivia of Evo Morales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rosaleen

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between education reform and Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) for Bolivia's majority indigenous peoples, as this has evolved since the 1990s into the era of Evo Morales, Latin America's first indigenous president, elected in 2005. In order to bring out the significance of the new Education Bill awaiting…

  11. Promise Neighborhoods: The Promise and Politics of Community Capacity Building as Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…

  12. Organizing for Change: Latinx Im/migrant Parents, School Decision-Making, and the Racial Politics of Parent Leadership in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Verónica N.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on a multi-year, participatory action case study of ALIANZA, a Califonia-based Latinx im/migrant parent group. Grounded in Latina/o Critical Theory (LatCrit), this article focuses specifically on the development of political agency among ALIANZA members, highlighting organizational strategies aimed at school reform while…

  13. Political Instability, Austerity and Wishful Thinking: Analysing Stakeholders' Perceptions of Higher Education's Funding Reforms in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Pedro; Koryakina, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, European higher education systems have been experiencing an unprecedented expansion, which created significant financial and political challenges. At the same time, we have seen a shift in attitudes towards public higher education that has promoted new ways of funding this sector. This context has led to major changes in the…

  14. The Politics of California School Mathematics: The Anti-Reform of 1997-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jerry P.; Jacob, Bill

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a powerful group of parents and mathematicians manipulated information and capitalized on the public's perception of California's "failing schools" to acquire political clout. In California, "teaching for understanding" is now a banished concept, and mastery of procedural skills ("parrot math") has scored…

  15. Political and Budgetary Oversight of the Ukrainian Intelligence Community: Processes, Problems and Prospects for Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    the FISU Budget ..................................................................71 Figure 8. The Evolution of the MDI Budget...high-tech equipment, economic, political, social , and military analysts, as well as recruited agents around the world. As it was announced in...Information Operations Groups (FIOG);38 and in Australia, it is the Defense Signal Directorate (DSD).39 In an effort to make national intelligence

  16. "We Can't Let Them Fail for One More Day": School Reform Urgency and the Politics of Reformer-Community Alliances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Hava Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a critical examination of neoliberal urgency in education reform. While critics of neoliberal reform policies have argued that these reforms exclude low-income community participation almost entirely, I argue that in practice this exclusion is not as total or as overt as macro-analyses would suggest. These macro analyses do…

  17. The Austrian health reform 2013 is promising but requires continuous political ambition.

    PubMed

    Hofmarcher, Maria M

    2014-10-01

    The Austrian health system is much more complex and fragmented than in other OECD countries. In 2013 legislation was adopted to enhance efficiency through better balancing care provision across providers by promoting new primary care models and better coordination of care. Reform objectives should be achieved by cooperative and unified decision making across key stakeholders and by adherence to a budget cap that prescribes fiscal containment on the order of 3.4 billion Euros until 2016. This is priced into the envisaged savings of the current consolidation program. Efforts have been made to bridge the accountability divide by establishing agreements and administrative layers to govern the health system by objectives. Yet, more could have been achieved. For example, cross-stakeholder pooling of funds for better contracting governance and effective purchasing across care settings could have been introduced. This would have required addressing over capacity and fragmentation within social security. At the same time, legal provisions for cooperative governance between Sickness Funds and the governments on the regional level should have been stipulated. The Austrian 2013 reform is interesting to other countries as it aims to ensure better-balanced care at a sustainable path by employing a public management approach to governance relations across key payers of care.

  18. Exploring Principal Capacity to Lead Reform of Teaching and Learning Quality in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lee, Moosung

    2013-01-01

    In 1999 Thailand passed an ambitious national educational law that paved the way for major reforms in teaching, learning and school management. Despite the ambitious vision of reform embedded in this law, recent studies suggest that implementation progress has been slow, uneven, and lacking deep penetration onto classrooms. Carried out ten years…

  19. Leading Inclusive Reform for Students with Disabilities: A School- and Systemwide Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theoharis, George; Causton, Julie

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to maximize access to general education for all students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders create inclusive schools for all students--inclusive school reform. Inclusive school reform can result in all students with disabilities being placed into general education settings (including students with…

  20. Dilemmas of Leading National Curriculum Reform in a Global Era: A Chinese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Wang, Wenlan

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a global resurgence of large-scale reform in the field of education has been witnessed. Implementing these reforms has created many dilemmas for change leaders. Following a three-year qualitative research project, the present study explores the dilemmas leaders faced during the implementation of the national curriculum reform…

  1. Leading a School through Change--Principals' Hands-on Leadership Strategies in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Principal's hands-on strategies reflecting their theories of changing have a substantial effect on the development of their schools and on how the large-scale reform takes root. The study explores five comprehensive school principals' leadership strategies during a large-scale school reform in Finland. The principals' strategies in the middle of…

  2. The Little District that Could: Literacy Reform Leads to Higher Achievement in California District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Budicin-Senters, Antoinette; King, L. McLean

    2005-01-01

    This article describes educational reform developed over a 10-year period in California's Lemon Grove School District, which resulted in a steady and remarkable upward shift in achievement for the students of this multicultural district just outside San Diego. Six elements of literacy reform emerged as the most significant factors affecting…

  3. Partial Reform Equilibrium in Russia: A Case Study of the Political Interests of and in the Russian Gas and Oil Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Rabekah

    While several theories abound that attempt to explain the obstacles to democracy in Russia, Joel Hellman's partial reform equilibrium model is an institutional theory that illustrates how weak institutions, combined with an instrumentalist cultural approach to the law and authoritarian-minded leadership, allowed the struggle over interests to craft and determine the nature of Russia's political structure. This thesis builds on the work of Hellman by using the partial reform theory to understand the evolution of interest infiltration and their impact on the formation of policies and institutions in favour of the elites or winners from 2004 to the present time period that allow them to wield law as a political weapon. The hypothesis posits that through their vested interests in state politics, the political and economic elites of the oil and gas industry have successfully stalled reform in Russia resulting in partial reform equilibrium. This is illustrated in a case study that was designed to collect the names, backgrounds, and social networks of gas and oil executives in order to determine how many of them have a history of, or are currently working as, ministers in the government or representatives in the Federation Council. The objective being to measure the degree to which gas and oil interests are present in government decision-making and conversely, the degree to which the government is present in the gas and oil industry. The thesis stresses the importance of institutional structure in determining Russia's political evolution, and uses vested interests as a primary source of structural institutional change, while also stressing on the social and international implications of this evolution.

  4. El Salvador and Guatemala: Security Sector Reform and Political Party System Effects on Organized Crime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Labor Unrest and Organized Crime.” September 1995. http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /1891 (accessed June 8, 2009). 117 Ibid. 118 Call...Free Market Myth.” June 2005. http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /2975 (accessed May 22, 2009). ———. “Labor Unrest and Organized Crime.” September 1995...http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /1891 (accessed June 8, 2009). Richani, Nazih. “Systems of Violence and their Political Economy in Post-Conflict

  5. Personal and political histories in the designing of health reform policy in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Alissa

    2017-03-01

    While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism). Brought into power through the momentum of indigenous social movements, the MAS government platform addressed racism, colonialism, and human rights in a number of major reforms, with a focus on cultural identity and indigeneity. One of the MAS's projects was the design of a new national health policy in 2008 called The Family Community Intercultural Health Policy (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural). This policy aimed to address major health inequities through primary care in a country that is over 60% indigenous. Methods used were interviews with Bolivian policymakers and other stakeholders, participant observation at health policy conferences and in rural community health programs that served as models for aspects of the policy, and document analysis to identify core premises and ideological areas. I argue that health policies are historical both in their relationship to national contexts and events on a timeline, but also because of the ways they intertwine with participants' personal histories, theoretical frameworks, and reflections on national historical events. By studying the Bolivian policymaking process, and particularly those who helped design the policy, it is possible to understand how and why particular progressive ideas were able to translate into policy. More broadly, this work also suggests how a uniquely anthropological approach to the study of health policy

  6. Gaining control: reform, reimbursement and politics in New York's community hospitals, 1890--1915.

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, D

    1980-01-01

    This is an historical study of an early twentieth century political struggle regarding hospital reimbursement in New York City. During a period called the "Progressive Era" (1895--1915), administrators in the City's Comptroller's office sought to gain control over small, locally run community hospitals by dismantling the long-standing practice of flat-grant payments to institutions. Central office planners felt that these payments gave too much control to trustees. In its place, the Comptroller initiated a system of per-capita, per-diem reimbursement. Inspectors now judged for the institutions which services and which clients were appropriate for municipal reimbursement. From the perspective of the Comptroller's office, this change was an attempt to put rationality into the system of municipal support for charitable institutions. From the perspective of trustees and community representatives, however, this change was a political attack on the rights of institutions and local communities to control their own fate. Within the context of the larger Progressive Era "good government" movement to centralize decision-making in the hands of experts who believed strongly in the efficiency of larger institutions, it was generally the smallest, most financially troubled community institutions which felt the brunt of these changes. PMID:6990801

  7. The political economy of healthcare reform in China: negotiating public and private.

    PubMed

    Daemmrich, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    China's healthcare system is experiencing significant growth from expanded government-backed insurance, greater public-sector spending on hospitals, and the introduction of private insurance and for-profit clinics. An incremental reform process has sought to develop market incentives for medical innovation and liberalize physician compensation and hospital finance while continuing to keep basic care affordable to a large population that pays for many components of care out-of-pocket. Additional changes presently under consideration by policymakers are likely to further restructure insurance and the delivery of care and will alter competitive dynamics in major healthcare industries, notably pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and diagnostic testing. This article describes the institutional history of China's healthcare system and identifies dilemmas emerging as the country negotiates divisions between public and private in healthcare. Building on this analysis, the article considers opportunities for public-private partnerships and greater systems integration to reconcile otherwise incommensurable approaches to rewarding innovation and improving access. The article concludes with observations on the public function of health insurance and its significance to further development of China's healthcare system.

  8. Abortion and politics in Nicaragua: the women's movement in the debate on the Abortion Law Reform 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Heumann, Silke G

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses discussion on a proposed reform to the abortion law in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2002, as a struggle between different actors - politicians, religious leaders, doctors and feminists - over the meaning of abortion, motherhood and sexuality, and ultimately the value of women's lives. It shows how the interplay of gender discourses and political practices shaped the process of discussion: on one hand by making a broad alliance against abortion possible, on the other by highlighting the contradictory role of the women's movement in this discussion, between a dominant leadership and a low mobilizing capacity. The paper argues for the need of an inwards oriented process within the women's movement, that departs from the recognition of the personal issues at stake for women in order to break the silence surrounding abortion, such as prevailing feelings of fear and guilt. This entails recognition of the limits of the liberal feminist claim to 'abortion as a free choice', as a discourse of rights that is disconnected from the everyday life conditions and constraints under which women make choices and develop their notions of rights.

  9. The Assault on Public Education: Confronting the Politics of Corporate School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, William H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In this timely interdisciplinary volume, William Watkins has brought together leading scholars and activists to address some of the most urgent issues facing public education. What is underneath and behind the language of choice, efficiency, and improvement in current neoliberal discourse? How will urban and poor populations be affected? Will…

  10. Poverty, Privilege, and Political Dynamics within Rural School Reform: Unraveling Educational Leadership in the Invisible America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mette, Ian M.; Biddle, Catharine; Mackenzie, Sarah V.; Harris-Smedberg, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This case was written to help prepare teacher-leaders, principals, and central office administrators, particularly those in rural and economically marginalized settings, who are expected to lead teachers and stakeholders in their community through increasingly stressed economic conditions. The intent of the case study is for educators to examine…

  11. Political Change in a School District Leading to Cultural Change in a High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.; Johnson-Howard, Debra

    To construct the outlines of a theoretical model relating contextual political change in a school district to cultural organizational change in a school within the district, a political change in a specific school district and the resultant cultural change in one of the district's high schools were analyzed. The school district, chosen to ensure a…

  12. It's about Time: Leading School Reform in an Era of Time Scarcity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, James E.

    Research about the American experience with school reform has underscored time as the major obstacle to change. This book presents a psychosocial perspective of time and the problems it presents for teachers and administrators in an era of time scarcity. Specifically, it explores the effects of five major concepts (time investment portfolios,…

  13. School Leadership in the 21st Century: Leading in the Age of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to increase student readiness for college and career, many States have adopted new academic standards encouraged by education reform advocates. These standards are commonly referred to as the Common Core Standards. Schools from States that have adopted the Common Core Standards have been compelled to significantly restructure their…

  14. The Politics of Data Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many contemporary education reformers present themselves as reformers who, armed with data and evidence, are locked in battle against politics, the weapon of choice for entrenched defenders of the status quo. Although studies of school reform increasingly recognize that politics is inevitably intertwined with reform efforts,…

  15. Leading change: curriculum reform in graduate education in the biomedical sciences.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shoumita; Symes, Karen; Hyman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Graduate Medical Sciences at the Boston University School of Medicine houses numerous dynamic graduate programs. Doctoral students began their studies with laboratory rotations and classroom training in a variety of fundamental disciplines. Importantly, with 15 unique pathways of admission to these doctoral programs, there were also 15 unique curricula. Departments and programs offered courses independently, and students participated in curricula that were overlapping combinations of these courses. This system created curricula that were not coordinated and that had redundant course content as well as content gaps. A partnership of key stakeholders began a curriculum reform process to completely restructure doctoral education at the Boston University School of Medicine. The key pedagogical goals, objectives, and elements designed into the new curriculum through this reform process created a curriculum designed to foster the interdisciplinary thinking that students are ultimately asked to utilize in their research endeavors. We implemented comprehensive student and peer evaluation of the new Foundations in Biomedical Sciences integrated curriculum to assess the new curriculum. Furthermore, we detail how this process served as a gateway toward creating a more fully integrated graduate experience, under the umbrella of the Program in Biomedical Sciences.

  16. University Students' Views on Political Influences and the Status of Law in Post-Reform China: A Moderation and Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoping; Lo, T Wing

    2016-07-01

    Scholars categorize societies into "rule of man" societies, "rule by law" societies, and "rule of law" societies on the basis of a status of law. After 1978, China's leaders invoked law as an alternative to the arbitrariness of the Cultural Revolution. In this study, we used quantitative methods to explore university students' views on the status of law in post-reform China. Surveys were conducted in three national universities located in different regions of China. Responses from university students show that their perceptions of well-developed legislation and perceptions of the publicity of law are associated with their perceptions of equality before the law, which could be the consequence of a "rule of law" system. However, the study found that university students are of the view that the political nature of legislation and interference in law enforcement moderate the relationship between legislation and equality before the law. The political nature of legislation also moderates the mediation effect of interference in law enforcement between law publicity and equality before the law. As such, the article concludes that although university students are no longer primary movers in China's social and political development after the Tiananmen incident, they are still knowledgeable if not critical about the status of law and its political implications.

  17. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6115 Political... response and enter into a parallel Superfund State Contract with the State, if required (See §...

  18. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6115 Political... response and enter into a parallel Superfund State Contract with the State, if required (See §...

  19. Political Processes in Prison Education; A History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Howard S.

    1996-01-01

    Political processes that shaped the introduction of Mutual Welfare Leagues in New York prisons at the turn of the century demonstrate politicians' indifference to reforms, conflicts between reformers, and the blurring of distinctions between reformers and politicians when reformers engage in political activities in order to initiate reform. (SK)

  20. Arkansas: a leading laboratory for health care payment and delivery system reform.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Deborah; du Pont, Lammot; Lipson, Mindy

    2014-08-01

    As states' Medicaid programs continue to evolve from traditional fee-for-service to value-based health care delivery, there is growing recognition that systemwide multipayer approaches provide the market power needed to address the triple aim of improved patient care, improved health of populations, and reduced costs. Federal initiatives, such as the State Innovation Model grant program, make significant funds available for states seeking to transform their health care systems. In crafting their reform strategies, states can learn from early innovators. This issue brief focuses on one such state: Arkansas. Insights and lessons from the Arkansas Health Care Payment Improvement Initiative (AHCPII) suggest that progress is best gained through an inclusive, deliberative process facilitated by committed leadership, a shared agreement on root problems and opportunities for improvement, and a strategy grounded in the state's particular health care landscape.

  1. Disease management and health care reforms in Germany - does more competition lead to less solidarity?

    PubMed

    Stock, Stephanie Anja Katharina; Redaelli, Marcus; Lauterbach, Karl Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    Up to the 1990s German health care legislation was dominated by measures regulating the supply side. Measures, such as budgets, aimed at volume control and sought to confine the increase of health care spending to the growth of the national income. To curb costs more effectively, competitive elements were introduced in the 1990s with free choice of sickness funds (open enrollment). To balance competition and solidarity, a risk compensation scheme (RCS) was implemented two years prior to open enrollment. Since then, balancing competition and solidarity has been a key feature of all consecutive health care reforms. The implementation of disease management programs in the statutory health insurance (SHI) served the dual purpose to promote quality of care and to foster competition. Preliminary experiences suggest, that the aligning of disease management programs with a RCS can greatly aid its implementation and benefit solidarity and competition.

  2. The Politics of Education Reform: Bolstering the Supply and Demand; Overcoming Institutional Blocks. Country Studies: Education Reform and Management Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrales, Javier

    There is widespread consensus worldwide that improving the performance of education systems is necessary to advance socioeconomic development, reduce inequality, enhance economic competitiveness of nations, and possibly fortify governmental institutions. This paper explores the political conditions that may enhance or hinder the adoption of…

  3. Responding to obesity in Brazil: understanding the international and domestic politics of policy reform through a nested analytic approach to comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-02-01

    Why do governments pursue obesity legislation? And is the case of Brazil unique compared with other nations when considering the politics of policy reform? Using a nested analytic approach to comparative research, I found that theoretical frameworks accounting for why nations implement obesity legislation were not supported with cross-national statistical evidence. I then turned to the case of Brazil's response to obesity at three levels of government, national, urban, and rural, to propose alternative hypotheses for why nations pursue obesity policy. The case of Brazil suggests that the reasons that governments respond are different at these three levels. International forces, historical institutions, and social health movements were factors that prompted national government responses. At the urban and rural government levels, receiving federal financial assistance and human resource support appeared to be more important. The case of Brazil suggests that the international and domestic politics of responding to obesity are highly complex and that national and subnational political actors have different perceptions and interests when pursuing obesity legislation.

  4. Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

  5. The politics of lead toxicology and the devastating consequences for children.

    PubMed

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2007-10-01

    At virtually every step in the history of the uncovering of lead's toxic qualities, resistance was shown by a variety of industrial interests to the association of lead and toxicity. During the first half of the last century, three primary means were used to undermine the growing body of evidence: first, the lead industry sought to control lead research by sponsoring and funding university research. In the 1920s, the General Motors Company, with the aide of DuPont and Standard Oil Companies, established the Kettering Labs, a research unit at the University of Cincinnati which, for many decades was largely supported by industry funds. In the same decade, the lead industry sponsored the research of Joseph Aub at Harvard who worked on neurophysiology of lead. A second way was to shape our understanding of lead itself, portraying it as an indispensable and healthful element essential for all modern life. Lead was portrayed as safe for children to use, be around, and even touch. The third way that lead was exempted from the normal public health measures and regulatory apparatus that had largely controlled phosphorus poisoning, poor quality food and meats and other potential public health hazards was more insidious and involved directly influencing the scientific integrity of the clinical observations and research. Throughout the past century tremendous pressure by the lead industry itself was brought to bear to quiet, even intimidate, researchers and clinicians who reported on or identified lead as a hazard. This article will draw on our previous work and add new documentation of the trajectory of industry attempts to keep out of the public view the tremendous threat of lead poisoning to children.

  6. Reforming Welfare in America. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Edward T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three books on welfare reform: "The Poverty of Welfare Reform" (Joel F. Handler); "The Politics of Welfare Reform" (Donald F. Norris, Lyke Thompson, editors); and "Living on the Edge: The Realities of Welfare in America" (Mark Robert Rank). (JOW)

  7. The Future of Vouchers as Educational Reform, Political Strategy, Economic Solution, and Public Policy in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan Brown, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the burden of vouchers to be all things to all constituencies. Proponents and opponents envision vouchers as accomplishing many objectives. To some, vouchers represent an educational reform that brings change to public schools and saves children from monopolistic bureaucrats. To others, they signify a threat to the very…

  8. The politics of learning to teach: The juxtaposition of reform, risk-taking, and survival for a prospective science teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLoughlin, Andrea Sabatini

    1998-12-01

    It has proven difficult for teachers to enact and sustain the changes to thinking and pedagogy called for in science education reforms. It may be especially difficult for prospective teachers to create coherent professional identities as they learn to teach in the borderland between educational change and the existing context of education. Field experiences remain a pivotal point in teacher education, as prospective teachers mature from the perspective they have lived as students to the vantage point they are constructing as developing teachers. This qualitative, naturalistic case study examined a reform-oriented preservice science teacher's beliefs and actions during a year of field practica, including student teaching. Interviews, observations, and written documents were collected to examine the extent to which the prospective teacher's thoughts and actions continued to reflect reform ideals across that time. Inductive data analysis indicated that tacit beliefs held by the participant interacted with significant events of the field experiences to direct her learning to teach process in non-educative ways. Implications include: (a) deeper examination of the beliefs and experiences of prospective teachers would allow teacher educators the ability to understand and guide professional development in deeper and more productive ways, (b) the establishment of an atmosphere of experimentation/inquiry and a more cohesive, collaborative approach to teacher education are needed, especially during field experiences, if teacher education programs are to foster the productive and educative experiences supportive of reform ideals, (c) the preparation of prospective teachers who intend to implement reform ideals should include developing understandings of the dynamics of the change process, and (d) the exploration/confrontation of the power structures inherent in the existing educational system is essential if they are to be prevented from undermining reform efforts. As science

  9. The fate of a progressive science: the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory, athletes, the science of work and the politics of reform.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2011-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, fatigue research marked a site of conflicting scientific, industrial, and cultural understandings of working bodies. Many fatigue researchers understood fatigue to be a physiological fact and allied themselves with Progressive-era reformers in urging industrial regulation. Reformers clashed with advocates of Taylorism, who held that productivity could be perpetually increased through managerial efficiency. Histories of this conflict typically cease with the end of the First World War. I examine the work of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in the 1920s and 1930s to explore the impact that the introduction of biochemical methods had on the relationship between science and reform. The Laboratory developed sophisticated techniques to study the blood of exercising individuals. In particular, it found that exercising individuals could attain a biochemically "steady state," or equilibrium, and extrapolated from this to assert that fatigue was psychological, not physiological, in nature. In contrast to Progressive-era research, the Laboratory reached this conclusion through laboratory examination, not of workers, but of Laboratory staff members and champion marathon runners. I present the Laboratory's institutional history, scientific work, and finally how common cultural understandings of athletes and work lent plausibility to its efforts to make authoritative statements about industrial conditions.

  10. Politics, Policy, Practice and Personal Responsibility: Adult Education in an Era of Welfare Reform. NCSALL Reports #10A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Deobrah

    The relationship of literacy to work should be considered in terms of the political and economic conditions that structure the experiences of the working and non-working poor with respect to education and work. Research shows welfare-to-work programs constitute behavioral solutions to what are structural economic problems; literacy alone cannot…

  11. Experiments in Political Socialization: Kids Voting USA as a Model for Civic Education Reform. CIRCLE Working Paper 49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michael; Kiousis, Spiro

    2006-01-01

    This report describes how an innovative curriculum promoted the civic development of high school students along with parents by stimulating news media attention and discussion in families. Evidence is based on a three-year evaluation of Kids Voting USA, an interactive, election-based curriculum. Political communication in the home increased the…

  12. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  13. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  14. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home Find a Lead-Safe Certified firm Before you renovate Before you buy or rent a home built before 1978 Test your home's drinking water Test for lead in paint, dust or soil ...

  15. The Effects of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; Giron, Graciela; De-La-Luz-Arellano, Ivan; Ayon-Bañuelos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Educational reform implies questions of social production and of state regulation that are the key words in educational reform, education and educational policies. These reforms are always on the political agenda of countries and involve international organisms, since education is a vehicle of development for social progress. A point of departure…

  16. "Coming to grips with the nursing question": the politics of nursing education reform in 1960s America.

    PubMed

    Tobbell, Dominique A

    2014-01-01

    The 1950s and 1960s were decades of change for the American nursing profession. A new generation of nurse educators sought to create greater professional autonomy for the nurse by introducing new models of education that emphasized science-based learning over technical skills and bedside care, and creating new clinical roles for the nurse, based on advanced graduate education. They confronted resistance from an older generation of nurses who feared becoming "second-class citizens" in increasingly academic nursing schools, and from academic health care institutions all too comfortable with the gendered hierarchy on which the traditional model of nursing education and practice was predicated. Using the University of Minnesota and University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) as case studies, and based on institutional records and more than 40 oral histories with nursing and medical faculty, this article describes the generational conflicts this new cadre of nurse educators confronted within schools of nursing, and the institutional politics they struggled with as they sought to secure greater institutional status for the schools among the universities' other health science units.

  17. [Seiichi Ishida, a chief physician of Shinsaku Takasugi: culture and politics as seen by a doctor of the Reformation period].

    PubMed

    Kameda, Kazukuni

    2009-12-01

    This is first paper on Seiichi Ishida, who worked as the Bakan town doctor at the end of the Edo period. Seiichi was initially a private practice physician of Habuura, Asa-gun. He then studied Dutch medicine under Banri Hyakutake of Hakata and on his return home he further prospered. From the Kaei period, the assessment of Seiichi as an artistic, cultured person became high and at the beginning of the Ansei period he moved to Okinoshima of Shimonoseki. By the Bunkyu period, Seiichi held an important place in the history of cultural exchange among Shimonoseki's cultural figures. In the Keio period he moved to Odo, which was to the West of Isakiura and further inland. It was a very tranquil and beautiful place. It was from around this time that his socialization commenced with samurai belonging to the reformist group of the Hagi Domain. Shinsaku Takasugi in particular, adored Seiichi as a friend of the heart who loved Chinese poetry, and trusted him as his chief physician. Furthermore, Seiichi's political activity intensified and it has become clear that he was deeply involved in rescuing Botoni Nomura from Himeshima and the Hagi Domain's production of counterfeit currency.

  18. Putting politics first.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  19. Leading Education Reform Initiatives: How SWIFT (Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation) Coordinates and Enhances Impact. Issue Brief #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Mary; Richards, Curtis; Blank, Rolf; Stonemeier, Jennifer; Trader, Barbara; East, Bill

    2014-01-01

    In this Issue Brief we discuss the impact that the Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation (SWIFT) has on improving the outcomes of several current federal, state, district, and school education reform initiatives. Federal initiatives include Race to the Top, School Improvement Grants, and Campaign for Grade-Level Reading; Common Core…

  20. Leading in the Age of Post-Socialist Education Transformations: Examining Sustainability of Teacher Education Reform in Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Colin; Silova, Iveta; Moyer, Amy; McAllister, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    As the former socialist countries of Southeastern/Central Europe and the former Soviet Union have embarked on their journeys from authoritarian to democratic societies in the early 1990s, education systems across the region have experienced major changes. From curriculum revision to education finance reforms, virtually no aspect of the education…

  1. Educational Reform and Policy Implementation in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul; Scott, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between educational reform in Hong Kong and the changing political system. Finds that political problems (regime legitimacy, destructive political culture) have obstructed the meaningful implementation of educational reform. Thus reform initiatives have been largely symbolic. (Contains 30 references.) (PKP)

  2. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... ATSDR Board of Scientific Counselors Lead in the environment: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Federal partner agencies: Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Data, ...

  3. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  4. The politics of public health policy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Politics, for better or worse, plays a critical role in health affairs. The purpose of this article is to articulate a role for political analysis of public health issues, ranging from injury and disease prevention to health care reform. It begins by examining how health problems make it onto the policy agenda. Perceptions regarding the severity of the problem, responsibility for the problem, and affected populations all influence governmental responses. Next, it considers how bounded rationality, fragmented political institutions, resistance from concentrated interests, and fiscal constraints usually lead political leaders to adopt incremental policy changes rather than comprehensive reforms even when faced with serious public health problems. It then identifies conditions under which larger-scale transformation of health policy can occur, focusing on critical junctures in policy development and the role of policy entrepreneurs in seizing opportunities for innovation. Finally, it reviews the challenges confronting officials and agencies who are responsible for implementing and administering health policies. Public health professionals who understand the political dimensions of health policy can conduct more realistic research and evaluation, better anticipate opportunities as well as constraints on governmental action, and design more effective policies and programs.

  5. Implementing Comprehensive Reform: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the challenges and practical barriers community colleges face when implementing comprehensive reform, exploring how reforms are leading to some improvements but not often scaled improvements.

  6. Controlled surface segregation leads to efficient coke-resistant nickel/platinum bimetallic catalysts for the dry reforming of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lidong; Zhou, Lu; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Kanoun, Mohammed B.; Scaranto, Jessica; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Khalid, Syed; Laveille, Paco V.; D'Souza, Lawrence; Clo, Alain; Basset, Jean -Marie

    2015-02-03

    Surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. The evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. As a result, these catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.

  7. Controlled Surface Segregation Leads to Efficient Coke-Resistant Nickel/Platinum Bimetallic Catalysts for the Dry Reforming of Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lidong; Zhou, Lu; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Kanoun, Mohammed B.; Scaranto, Jessica; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Khalid, Syed; Laveille, Paco V.; Lawrence D'Souza; Clo, Alain; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-02-03

    The surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. Moreover, the evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. The catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.

  8. Controlled surface segregation leads to efficient coke-resistant nickel/platinum bimetallic catalysts for the dry reforming of methane

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Lidong; Zhou, Lu; Ould-Chikh, Samy; ...

    2015-02-03

    Surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. The evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanningmore » transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. As a result, these catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.« less

  9. [Health care reform in the Obama administration: difficulties of reaching a similar agreement in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belmartino, Susana

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the processes leading to health care reform in Argentina and in the USA. The core of the analysis centers on the ideological references utilized by advocates of the reform and the decision-making processes that support or undercut such proposals. The analysis begins with a historical summary of the issue in each country. The political process that led to the sanction of the Obama reform is then described. The text defends a hypothesis aiming to show that deficiencies in the institutional capacities of Argentina's decision-making bodies are a severe obstacle to attaining substantial changes in this area within the country.

  10. Neo-Liberalism and the Politics of Higher Education Policy in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Indonesia's experience with neo-liberal higher education reform. It argues that this agenda has encountered strong resistance from the dominant predatory political, military, and bureaucratic elements who occupy the state apparatus, their corporate clients, and popular forces, leading to continuation of the centralist and…

  11. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  12. Reforming Science: Methodological and Cultural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture. PMID:22184414

  13. Policy process for health sector reforms: a case study of Punjab Province (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Tarin, Ehsanullah; Green, Andrew; Omar, Maye; Shaw, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The health sector in the Punjab (Pakistan) faces many problems, and, the government introduced reforms during 1993-2000. This paper explores the policy process for the reforms. A case study method was used and, to assist this, a conceptual framework was developed. Analysis of four initiatives indicated that there were deviations from the government guidelines and that the policy processes used were weak. The progress of different reforms was affected by a variety of factors: the immaturity of the political process and civil society, which together with innate conservatism and resistance to change on the part of the bureaucracy resulted in weak strategic sectoral leadership and a lack of clear purpose underpinning the reforms. It also resulted in weaknesses in preparation of the detail of reforms leading to poor implementation. The study suggests a need for broadening the stakeholders' base, building the capacity of policy-makers in policy analysis and strengthening the institutional basis of policymaking bodies.

  14. Educational Reforms in Yugoslavia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    1978-01-01

    Yugoslavia's educational system had to be completely rebuilt after World War II to ensure the nation's full and rapid competition in the postwar world. The reforms are discussed in light of the political, social, and economic structure of Yugoslavia. (Author/LBH)

  15. The Politics of Privatization and Decentralization in Global School Reform: The Value of Equity Claims for Neoliberalism at the World Bank and in El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Cheryl

    This paper focuses on the role of the World Bank and its subsidiaries in promoting the neoliberal educational reforms of privatization and decentralization globally and in El Salvador. Neoliberalism is first defined as a sociopolitical philosophy that supports concepts such as the free market, market-driven education, and the use of a voucher…

  16. Free Education! A "Live" Report on the Chilean Student Movement 2011-2014--Reform or Revolution? [A Political Sociology for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simbuerger, Elisabeth; Neary, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a report on the Chilean student movement, 2011-2014, from the perspective of the students themselves, based on the main research question: are the student protests for reform or revolution? The research data was collected during October 2013 before the Chilean Presidential and Parliamentary elections using the methodology of…

  17. The Politics of Teacher Reform in Florida: Analyzing Causal Narratives Surrounding State Adoption of Performance-Based Evaluations, Performance Pay, and Tenure Elimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2012-01-01

    Following a multiyear debate, Florida lawmakers passed the "Student Success Act" in March 2011, introducing some of the most sweeping educational reforms in the state's history--the introduction of teacher evaluation systems based on value-added modeling, mandatory "performance pay" for teachers, and the elimination of…

  18. Health reform: a bipartisan view.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jim; Castle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This optimistic assessment of the prospects for health reform from senior Democratic and Republican congressmen spells out several reasons why reform can be achieved early in the first year of the Obama administration. Political and policy factors suggest that President-elect Barack Obama is in a much better position than his predecessors to achieve comprehensive health reform, including universal coverage. The Obama administration will have to overcome numerous obstacles and resistance to enact reform. Still, after decades of frustration and disappointment, policymakers should set aside their differences and enable the United States to join the ranks of developed nations by making sure every American has health insurance.

  19. Reforming Science: Structural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

  20. The Ideology of Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiden, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article in "Academic Questions" political scientists Robert Maranto and Matthew C. Woessner have suggested a program to reform their discipline and enhance its social utility. They encourage researchers to engage with consequential social issues and educate the public, while admonishing political scientists to resist partisan advocacy…

  1. Catalytic Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Little, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Don Little's Catalytic Reforming deals exclusively with reforming. With the increasing need for unleaded gasoline, the importance of this volume has escalated since it combines various related aspects of reforming technology into a single publication. For those with no practical knowledge of catalytic reforming, the chemical reactions, flow schemes and how the cat reformer fits into the overall refinery process will be of interest. Contents include: Catalytic reforming in refinery processing: How catalytic reformers work - chemical reactions; Process design; The catalyst, process variables and unit operation; Commercial processes; BTX operation; Feed preparation; naphtha hydrotreating and catalytic reforming; Index.

  2. Child Welfare in the Context of Welfare "Reform." Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States. Report V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local governments, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle, aside from exploratory and analytic work, is a…

  3. Child Health, Medicaid, and Welfare "Reform." Report III, Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local government, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle, aside from exploratory and analytic work, is a…

  4. Middle-Class School Choice in Urban Spaces: The Economics of Public Schooling and Globalized Education Reform. Routledge Research in Education Policy and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Emma E.

    2016-01-01

    "Middle-class School Choice in Urban Spaces" examines government funded public schools from a range of perspectives and scholarship in order to examine the historical, political and economic conditions of public schooling within a globalized, post-welfare context. In this book, Rowe argues that post-welfare policy conditions are…

  5. The Unknown Cultural Revolution: Educational Reforms and Their Impact on China's Rural Development. East Asia: History, Politics, Sociology, Culture. A Garland Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dongping

    China's official history maintains that the radical egalitarianism of the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) led to economic disaster. This book challenges that view. Drawing on local interviews and records in rural Jimo County, Shandong Province, this study contends that the Cultural Revolution's political convulsions democratized village political…

  6. Emancipation or Neo-Colonisation? Global Gender Mainstreaming Policies, Swedish Gender Equality Politics and Local Negotiations about Putting Gender into Education Reforms in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach…

  7. The Impact of Incentive-Based Budgeting on Planning: Understanding the Structural and Political Aspects of Budget Reform. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James; St. John, Edward P.

    An increasing number of public research universities have turned to incentive-based budgeting systems (IBBS) as a means of managing change. It is appropriate to view IBBS as a new attempt to introduce rational systems into university administrative structures that are largely political in nature. This study examined the influence an IBBS has on…

  8. Alaska public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2008-04-01

    The Turning Point Model State Public Health Act (Turning Point Act), published in September 2003, provides a comprehensive template for states seeking public health law modernization. This case study examines the political and policy efforts undertaken in Alaska following the development of the Turning Point Act. It is the first in a series of case studies to assess states' consideration of the Turning Point Act for the purpose of public health law reform. Through a comparative analysis of these case studies and ongoing legislative tracking in all fifty states, researchers can assess (1) how states codify the Turning Point Act into state law and (2) how these modernized state laws influence or change public health practice, leading to improved health outcomes.

  9. Chile's health sector reform: lessons from four reform periods.

    PubMed

    de la Jara, J J; Bossert, T

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies an interdisciplinary approach to analyze the process of health reform in four significant periods in Chilean history: (1) the consolidation of state responsibility for public health in the 1920s, (2) the creation of the state-run National Health Service in the 1950s, (3) the decentralization of primary care and privatization of health insurance in the 1980s, and (4) the strengthening of the mixed public-private market in the 1990s. Building on the authors' separate disciplines, the paper examines the epidemiological, political and economic contexts of these reforms to test simple hypotheses about how these factors shape reform adoption and implementation. The analysis underlines: (1) the importance of epidemiological data as an impetus to public policy; (2) the inhibiting role of economic recession in adoption and implementation of reforms: and (3) the importance of the congruence of reforms with underlying political ideology in civil society. The paper also tests several hypotheses about the reform processes themselves, exploring the role of antecedents, interest groups, and consensus-building in the policy process. It found that incremental processes building on antecedent trends characterize most reform efforts. However, interest group politics and consensus building were found to be complex processes that are not easily captured by the simple hypotheses that were tested. The interdisciplinary approach is found to be a promising form of analysis and suggests further theoretical and empirical issues to be explored.

  10. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A.

    1982-09-07

    A process, or procedure, is disclosed for the start-up of reforming units, particularly those employing highly active sulfur-sensitive polymetallic, promoted noble metal containing catalysts. On start -up of a reforming unit, a sulfur-containing naphtha feed is fed at reforming conditions over a platinum-catalyst containing lead reactor of a series while bypassing subsequent reactors of the series, the product therefrom is separated into hydrogen-containing gas and C5+ liquid fractions, the hydrogen-containing gas fraction is desulfurized and dried and recycled to the platinum-catalyst containing lead reactor and, after sufficient hydrogen has been generated for operation of a hydrofiner which is used to hydrodesulfurize the naphtha feed for the reformer, product from the platinum-catalyst containing lead reactor is fed to subsequent reactors of the series which contain the more sulfur-sensitive catalysts.

  11. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  12. Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?

    PubMed Central

    Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

    2006-01-01

    Background It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions – like education and income – affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Discussion Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Summary Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health – such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future. PMID:16737549

  13. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Oyekau, S.O.; Swan, G.A.

    1984-03-13

    A process wherein, in a series of reforming zones, or reactors, each of which contains a bed, or beds of catalyst, the catalyst in the leading reforming zones is constituted of supported platinum and a relatively low concentration of rhenium, and the catalyst in the last reforming zone, or reactor of the series, is constituted of platinum and a relatively high concentration of rhenium. The amount of rhenium relative to the platinum in the last reforming zone, or reactor is present in an atomic or weight ratio of rhenium:platinum of at least about 1.5:1; preferably at least about 2:1, and more preferably ranges from about 2:1 to about 3:1. The beds of catalyst are contacted with a hydrocarbon or naphtha feed and hydrogen at reforming conditions to produce a hydrocarbon, or naphtha product of improved octane, and the product is withdrawn.

  14. Health care reforms.

    PubMed

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  15. Health care reforms

    PubMed Central

    Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country. PMID:27703543

  16. Evolution of US Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm Ii, Standiford; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2017-03-01

    Major health policy creation or changes, including governmental and private policies affecting health care delivery are based on health care reform(s). Health care reform has been a global issue over the years and the United States has seen proposals for multiple reforms over the years. A successful, health care proposal in the United States with involvement of the federal government was the short-lived establishment of the first system of national medical care in the South. In the 20th century, the United States was influenced by progressivism leading to the initiation of efforts to achieve universal coverage, supported by a Republican presidential candidate, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Democrat, included a publicly funded health care program while drafting provisions to Social Security legislation, which was eliminated from the final legislation. Subsequently, multiple proposals were introduced, starting in 1949 with President Harry S Truman who proposed universal health care; the proposal by Lyndon B. Johnson with Social Security Act in 1965 which created Medicare and Medicaid; proposals by Ted Kennedy and President Richard Nixon that promoted variations of universal health care. presidential candidate Jimmy Carter also proposed universal health care. This was followed by an effort by President Bill Clinton and headed by first lady Hillary Clinton in 1993, but was not enacted into law. Finally, the election of President Barack Obama and control of both houses of Congress by the Democrats led to the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), often referred to as "ObamaCare" was signed into law in March 2010. Since then, the ACA, or Obamacare, has become a centerpiece of political campaigning. The Republicans now control the presidency and both houses of Congress and are attempting to repeal and replace the ACA. Key words: Health care reform, Affordable Care Act (ACA), Obamacare, Medicare, Medicaid, American Health Care Act.

  17. Neoliberalism and Corporate School Reform: "Failure" and "Creative Destruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, corporate school reform or neoliberal educational restructuring has overtaken educational policy, practice, curriculum, and nearly all aspects of educational reform. Although this movement began on the political right, the corporate school model has been heralded across the political spectrum and is aggressively embraced now…

  18. Pulling Together: Civic Capacity and Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipps, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    Educators often ignore the political requirements of urban reform in their focus on the research and models that guide it. Conversely, political scientists frequently miss the differences among reforms in their focus on coalitions and resources. Integrating Clarence N. Stone's concept of "civic capacity" with an educator's view of reform…

  19. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  20. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  1. Recent History of Schooling Reform in Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common, Dianne L.

    The social climate in Manitoba has led, in the past 25 years, to an expectation of school reform that has been translated into varieties of political action. However, most of the reforms, instituted by government policymakers, have fallen short of public expectations. This paper explores lessons to be taken from these experiences in school reform…

  2. Polite Theories Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Dejan; Barrett, Clark

    The classic method of Nelson and Oppen for combining decision procedures requires the theories to be stably-infinite. Unfortunately, some important theories do not fall into this category (e.g. the theory of bit-vectors). To remedy this problem, previous work introduced the notion of polite theories. Polite theories can be combined with any other theory using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen approach. In this paper we revisit the notion of polite theories, fixing a subtle flaw in the original definition. We give a new combination theorem which specifies the degree to which politeness is preserved when combining polite theories. We also give conditions under which politeness is preserved when instantiating theories by identifying two sorts. These results lead to a more general variant of the theorem for combining multiple polite theories.

  3. Challenging Corporate Ed Reform: And 10 Hopeful Signs of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate school reformers like to call themselves just "reformers" and counterpose themselves to the "status quo." There is no doubt that the corporate/foundation crowd has successfully captured the media label as "education reformers." However, this political branding has little to do with reality or the substance of the issues under debate.…

  4. Less State, More Market: University Reform in Canada and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G.; Bruneau, William

    2004-01-01

    Political, economic, and social explanations of higher education reform, and the very definition of "reform," are the main departure points of this volume. The introduction uses the examples of Canada, Austria, Germany, and Japan to show that in all these countries, reform has meant reduced state funding and control and increased…

  5. The art and science of political advocacy.

    PubMed

    Kosiorowski, Donna

    2014-01-01

    School nurses throughout the nation, individually and collectively, work to bring about change for the school nursing profession and to safeguard the health of children and the public. School nurses practice amidst education reform, health care reform, changes in society, and medical and technological advancements. School nurses must be active in decisions that affect their daily practice by involvement in the local, state, and federal political process. School nurses must craft the art and develop the science of political advocacy.

  6. Reform of Chinese Higher Education in 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuo, Xin

    1993-01-01

    Reforms are productive only when guided by fundamental educational principles: efficiency, justice, progress, and humanization. Using higher education as a political weapon and subjecting education to politics and economics undermines the nature of higher education. The present grass-roots decision-making movement for university autonomy in China…

  7. Leading Counterinsurgency Effectively

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    numerous others in the “Danger” and “Borderline” categories based on social , economic, and political/military indicators.3 Many of the Middle East... social political and economic reforms. There are a myriad of other theories, but while some theorists acknowledge that leadership can be a factor in...further creative ideas. Intellectual Stimulation’s importance in counterinsurgent leadership stems from the constantly changing conditions and the

  8. Reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Givens, E.N.; Plank, C.J.; Rosinski, E.J.

    1980-03-04

    Crystalline aluminosilicate zeolites are mixed with conventional reforming catalysts to produce new catalytic compositions with high catalytic activity and selectivity and excellent aging characteristics. These new catalytic compositions may be utilized alone or in conjunction with conventional reforming catalysts. The acidic activity of the total catalyst system is controlled within defined limits. When so controlled the utility of these catalyst systems in reforming hydrocarbon mixtures is to reduce the C1 and C2 concentrations in reformer gas product, while increasing the C3 and C4 concentrations and maintaining high liquid yield at high octane numbers.

  9. Teachers' Perspectives on Evaluation Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing momentum to reform teacher evaluation in order to increase its impact on teachers' practice and persistence in the profession, very little research examines how current reforms influence teachers' attitudes or reported instructional practices. Do the new evaluation systems lead to enhancements in teachers' instruction overall? And…

  10. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment.

  11. [Changes necessary for continuing health reform: II. The "internal" change].

    PubMed

    Martín Martín, J; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Carmona López, G; Martínez Olmos, J

    1990-01-01

    The article desired organizational and managerial changes in Primary Health Care, so as to develop a sound and feasible social marketing strategy. Key elements that should be changed are: 1. Rigid and centralized administrative structures and procedures. 2. Incentives system centralized and dissociated from the managerial structure. 3. Primary Health Care management units immersed in political conflict. 4. Absence of alternative in the margin. Users cannot choose. 5. Lack of an internal marketing strategy. Several ways of internal markets simulation are assessed as potential means for internal change. The need for an administration reform leading to a less inflexible system in the Spanish national and regional health services in reviewed too. Three changes are considered essential: a) Payment systems in Primary Health Care. b) Modifications in the personnel contracts. c) Reform of the budgeting processes. Specific strategies in each of these issues are suggested, making emphasizing the need of their interrelationship and coherence.

  12. The Politics of School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Although bureaucratic decentralization lies at the heart of educational restructuring, many state-level reform strategies adopted since 1983 perpetuate the regulatory orientation of school improvement. This article assesses the restructuring movement, exemplified by the Coalition of Essential Schools, and the overall politics of American…

  13. Let's make a deal: trading malpractice reform for health reform.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; Hyman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Physician leadership is required to improve the efficiency and reliability of the US health care system, but many physicians remain lukewarm about the changes needed to attain these goals. Malpractice liability-a sore spot for decades-may exacerbate physician resistance. The politics of malpractice have become so lawyer-centric that recognizing the availability of broader gains from trade in tort reform is an important insight for health policy makers. To obtain relief from malpractice liability, physicians may be willing to accept other policy changes that more directly improve access to care and reduce costs. For example, the American Medical Association might broker an agreement between health reform proponents and physicians to enact federal legislation that limits malpractice liability and simultaneously restructures fee-for-service payment, heightens transparency regarding the quality and cost of health care services, and expands practice privileges for other health professionals. There are also reasons to believe that tort reform can make ongoing health care delivery reforms work better, in addition to buttressing health reform efforts that might otherwise fail politically.

  14. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  15. Differences in negativity bias underlie variations in political ideology.

    PubMed

    Hibbing, John R; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R

    2014-06-01

    Disputes between those holding differing political views are ubiquitous and deep-seated, and they often follow common, recognizable lines. The supporters of tradition and stability, sometimes referred to as conservatives, do battle with the supporters of innovation and reform, sometimes referred to as liberals. Understanding the correlates of those distinct political orientations is probably a prerequisite for managing political disputes, which are a source of social conflict that can lead to frustration and even bloodshed. A rapidly growing body of empirical evidence documents a multitude of ways in which liberals and conservatives differ from each other in purviews of life with little direct connection to politics, from tastes in art to desire for closure and from disgust sensitivity to the tendency to pursue new information, but the central theme of the differences is a matter of debate. In this article, we argue that one organizing element of the many differences between liberals and conservatives is the nature of their physiological and psychological responses to features of the environment that are negative. Compared with liberals, conservatives tend to register greater physiological responses to such stimuli and also to devote more psychological resources to them. Operating from this point of departure, we suggest approaches for refining understanding of the broad relationship between political views and response to the negative. We conclude with a discussion of normative implications, stressing that identifying differences across ideological groups is not tantamount to declaring one ideology superior to another.

  16. Catalytic reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Aldag, A.W. Jr.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound. The process consists of contacting the feedstock under suitable reforming conditions with a catalyst composition selected from the group consisting of a catalyst. The catalyst essentially consists of zinc oxide and a spinel structure alumina. Another catalyst consists essentially of a physical mixture of zinc titanate and a spinel structure alumina in the presence of sufficient added hydrogen to substantially prevent the formation of coke. Insufficient zinc is present in the catalyst composition for the formation of a bulk zinc aluminate.

  17. Reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsche, R.T.; Pope, G.N.

    1981-01-06

    A process for reforming a naphtha feedstock is disclosed. The reforming process is effected at reforming conditions in contact with a catalyst comprising a platinum group metal component and a group iv-a metal component composited with an alumina support wherein said support is prepared by admixing an alpha alumina monohydrate with an aqueous ammoniacal solution having a ph of at least about 7.5 to form a stable suspension. A salt of a strong acid, e.g., aluminum nitrate, is commingled with the suspension to form an extrudable paste or dough. On extrusion, the extrudate is dried and calcined to form said alumina support.

  18. Reforming the politics of animal research.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lisa Hara; Reppy, William A

    2015-07-01

    An unfortunate tension exists between the biomedical research and animal welfare/rights communities. We believe that despite the mistrust between these groups, there are individuals on both sides of the controversy who seek to better understand the other. We recommend an update of institutional policies that will better inform the public about the use of non-human animals in biomedical research and improve a dialogue on such use between concerned individuals who either support or oppose non-human animal-based biomedical research. Such interactions may well determine the longevity of using non-human animals as experimental subjects.

  19. Political Reform and Gridlock Elimination Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration. (text of measure as introduced: CR S129) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Catalyst reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A. III

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a process for catalytically reforming a gasoline boiling range naphtha, with hydrogen, in a semi-regenerative or semi-cyclic reforming process unit comprised of serially connected reactors, inclusive of a lead reactor and one or more downstream reactors, the last of which is the tail reactor, each of which contains a halogenated reforming catalyst comprised of a halide, a Group VIII noble metal, and an inorganic oxide support, the improvement which comprises continuously injecting into each downstream reactor a mixture of water and halide at a water to halide ratio from about 20:1 to about 60:1 wherein the specific ratio of water to halide for each individual downstream reactor is chosen so as to maintain the level of halide on catalyst in each downstream reactor from about 0.5 to 1.5 wt. % based on the total weight of the catalyst.

  1. Ecuador's silent health reform.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Pierre; Echeverría Tapia, Ramiro; Aguilar Santacruz, Edison; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Health sector reform was implemented in many Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to reduced public expenditure on health, limitations on public provision for disease control, and a minimum package of services, with concomitant growth of the private sector. At first sight, Ecuador appeared to follow a different pattern: no formal reform was implemented, despite many plans to reform the Ministry of Health and social health insurance. The authors conducted an in-depth review and analysis of published and gray literature on the Ecuadorian health sector from 1990 onward. They found that although neoliberal reform of the health sector was not openly implemented, many of its typical elements are present: severe reduction of public budgets, "universal" health insurance with limited coverage for targeted groups, and contracting out to private providers. The health sector remains segmented and fragmented, explaining the population's poor health status. The leftist Correa government has prepared an excellent long-term plan to unite services of the Ministry of Health and social security, but implementation is extremely slow. In conclusion, the health sector in Ecuador suffered a "silent" neoliberal reform. President Correa's progressive government intends to reverse this, increasing public budgets for health, but hesitates to introduce needed radical changes.

  2. Evaluate reformer performance at a glance

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, A.

    1996-02-01

    Catalytic reforming is becoming increasingly important in replacing octane lost as the removal of lead from worldwide gasoline pools continues. A method has been developed that can quickly evaluate the performance of any catalytic reformer. The catalytic naphtha reforming process primarily involves three well-known reactions. These are aromatization of naphthenes, cyclization of paraffins and hydrocracking of paraffins. Hydrogen is produced in the process of aromatization and dehydrocyclization of paraffins. Reformer performance is normally evaluated with a reformate analysis (PONA) and yield of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate. This method of quick evaluation of reformer performance is based upon the main assumption that the increase in hydrocarbon moles in the process is equal to the number of C{single_bond}C bond ruptures and one mole of hydrogen is absorbed to saturate the same. This new method calculates aromatization efficiency, paraffin conversion, aromatic selectivity and finally the paraffin, naphthene and aromatic content of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate.

  3. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  4. Naphtha reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Marschner, F.; Renner, H.J.

    1982-04-01

    Most synthesis gases - mixtures of CO and H/sub 2/ - are produced from natural gas. However, a considerable percentage is also produced from naphtha. Syngas via naphtha is economical when natural gas is unavailable and when low hydrogen content syngas is needed. The discussion covers the following topics - catalytic steam reforming; naphtha qualities; process description; desulfurization reactors; rich gas reactors; tubular reactors; fire box; burner and firing systems; reformer tubes; inlet header and outlet manifold systems; waste heat systems, heat exchangers, piping. 10 refs.

  5. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  6. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  7. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  8. The Agony of School Reform: Race, Class, and the Elusive Search for Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2003-01-01

    Reviews "Education and Democratic Theory: Finding a Place for Community Participation in Public School Reform" (A. Belden Fields and Walter Feinberg) and "The Color of School Reform: Race, Politics, and the Challenge of Urban Education" (J. Henig, R. Hula, M. Orr, and D. Pedescleaux). Both books examine the political aspects of…

  9. Voluntary Self-Control: Education Reform as a Governmental Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongratz, Ludwig A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper takes the vigorous political debate unleashed in Germany by the results of the PISA study as a stimulus to take a closer look at the strategic aims and effects of the current education reforms, of which the PISA study is only one example. It shows that the reform measures underpin a powerful process of normalisation. In this context,…

  10. Charter Laws: Disaster, Detour, Irrelevant, or Reform Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, John

    2006-01-01

    Charter laws have been the reform debate's path of least resistance. But the combination of regulatory barriers, open admissions, lack of consumer sovereignty, preferential funding of traditional public schools, and political control of prices means that charter laws may be irrelevant as reform catalysts, or worse. Even the strongest charter laws…

  11. Reinventing Tenure: What Schools Can Learn from Public Reform Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick; Maranto, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Tenure has lost public legitimacy. Of 30 states reforming civil-service systems or proposing reforms, Georgia has gone the farthest. Since 1996, new state government hires have been "at will" employees. Erosion of private-sector union strength may aid antitenure political leaders' efforts. A sidebar outlines states' actions. (10…

  12. Fashion as Argument: Nineteenth-Century Dress Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the place of the body in the dress-reform movement, a social movement that focused on fashion as a vehicle for achieving social and political equality. Discusses how fashion became one arena in which definitions of gender were contested. Suggests the dress-reform movement's failure in redefining femininity indicates the depth of…

  13. A Postmodern Perspective on Current Curriculum Reform in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yu-le; Li, Ling

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the curriculum reform of basic education in China from 2001 to 2008. We first discuss postmodern features of the social background in which the curriculum reform movement takes place: (1) the political ideal of innovation, open-endedness, and harmony; (2) the economic ideal of ecological, stable, and sustainable development;…

  14. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three…

  15. Rethinking Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, James C.

    2010-01-01

    As president of Miami University of Ohio from 1996 until 2006, James C. Garland redefined the public institution as a "semi-private" university by implementing the same tuition for both in-state and out-of-state students. Students from Ohio with need received large scholarships--but those who could afford to pay more did so. The reform,…

  16. Reform Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoloye, E. Ayotunde

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on issues in evaluating educational change. Topics include what should be evaluated, management of reform and evaluation, evaluation as a threat, attitudes toward evaluation, factors in drawing up an evaluation plan, management information systems, evaluation techniques, financing evaluation, and indicators of success. (KC)

  17. Toothless Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2010-01-01

    To many education reformers, the passage of the federal government's massive stimulus plan, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), appeared to be a final bright star falling into alignment. The ARRA seemed to complete the constellation: an astounding $100 billion of new federal funds--nearly twice the annual budget of the U.S.…

  18. Equity through Assessment? Teachers' Mediation of Outcome-Focused Reforms in Socioeconomically Different Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandler, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Despite uncertainties regarding the effects of outcome-focused reforms on teaching practices, the political confidence in the potential of such reforms to create educational change remains high. This article problematizes the assumption that two such Swedish reforms (grades and national tests in younger years) can function as an impetus for…

  19. Spaghetti Politics: Local Electoral Systems and Alliance Structure in Italy, 1984-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parigi, Paolo; Bearman, Peter S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the impact of the Italian electoral reforms of 1993 on the structure of local political alliances. The reform, which moved Italy from a purely proportional representation system to a mixed, largely majoritarian system, was designed to increase transparency, reduce corruption, limit the number of political parties, and create…

  20. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    guiding principle of "taking hold of organizational reforms and open up to the outside," suggesting therefore new themes for population statistical...Text/ On 22 September, the Ministry of Education sent out a circular to make known its " Suggestions for Improving and Strengthening Political...Theory Courses in Secondary Vocational and Secondary Normal Schools." In the " Suggestions ," it stresses the importance of political theory courses in

  1. Elusive Sex Acts: Pleasure and Politics in Norwegian Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Stine H. Bang

    2012-01-01

    While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…

  2. The Politics of Teaching Time in Disciplinary and Control Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that education reform agendas which use policy levers, standardised testing and new regulatory authorities to steer teachers' work at a distance are creating a new temporal politics. Evidence from interviews with teachers and principals in Australian schools suggests that these reforms are impacting on individual experiences of…

  3. Reforming Teacher Supervision and Evaluation: What Makes a Good Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, P. Michael

    The economic and political forces behind recent calls for excellence in education are pointing to necessarily dramatic changes in the nature of the teaching profession. Members of the business community, state political leaders, and teachers are working together--with substantial private and state monies--to implement a radical reform agenda that…

  4. Future Imaginaries of Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on analytic heuristics from critical discourse analysis and cultural political economy (Jessop, 2010; Wodak, 2002), this article examines the temporal premises and "futures" embedded in a report and reform proposal created in a mid-sized, American city, Columbus, Ohio, in 2013. The product of a city-wide commission appointed in…

  5. The Beleaguered College. Essays on Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tussman, Joseph

    The five essays of this book focus on educational reform in higher education and are based on several persistent themes: that there is a fatal conflict between the graduate school and the undergraduate college; that "liberal" education is in a fundamental sense "politics", therefore, an education needed by everyone for all in a…

  6. Metropolitan Reform: Propositions Derived From Two Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Elinor

    1972-01-01

    One purpose of this essay is to attempt to isolate the theoretical sturcture implicit in the traditional metropolitan reform movement so that empirical research can be organized to examine the warrantability of the propositions contained therein; a second is to pose an alternative theoretical structure derived from work of political economists.…

  7. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  8. Inclusive Education Reform: Implications for Teacher Aides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Patricia; Carrington, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    In Queensland, inclusive education reform is on the political agenda, following the report of the Ministerial Taskforce on Inclusive Education (students with disabilities) in 2004. The Government's responses to the initiatives outlined in the taskforce report emphasise a commitment to social justice and equity so that all students can be included…

  9. Education "Reforms" in England since 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Denis

    1996-01-01

    The story of England's 1988 Education Reform Act is a sad account of a government's efforts to introduce educational innovations based on a political agenda. The result was teacher demoralization and at least 500 million pounds wasted on the national curriculum and its assessment. ERA's real aim was to encourage parental choice and open up…

  10. The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Discontent with failed, top-down reform and the immediate prospect of political change have created a rare opportunity to reinvent education policy and to think afresh about how teachers and children should be encouraged to develop their full potential. "The Pendulum Swings" explores alternative, genuinely transformative conceptions of…

  11. Four Basic Dilemmas in University Governance Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ingvild M.; Maassen, Peter; Stensaker, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, modernising university governance has been a constant item on the political agenda of most countries, often followed by reforms attempting to change how universities are managed and led. However, when considering the effects of the many initiatives taken, a rather complex picture appears with respect to the scope and depths of…

  12. Education Reform Sparks Teacher Protest in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    The current tumult in the Mexican education arena has deep roots in politics and tradition, but it is latter-day global competition and international measures of student performance that are driving reform efforts. Teacher strikes and demonstrations are not new in Mexico, but issues raised by today's protesting teachers represent a combination of…

  13. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  14. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  15. Reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.C. Jr.; Swan, G.A.

    1991-11-19

    This patent describes a catalyst useful for reforming a naphtha feed at high severity reforming conditions. It comprises the metals, platinum, rhenium and iridium on a refractory porous inorganic oxide support, the support consisting essentially of alumina, wherein the concentration by weight of each of the metals platinum and rhenium is at least 0.1 percent and iridium at least 0.15 percent and at least one of the metals is present in a concentration of at least 0.3 percent, and the sum-total; concentration of the metals is greater than 0.9 percent, and wherein each catalyst particle contains all three of the metals platinum, rhenium and iridium. This patent also describes this composition wherein the catalyst contains from about 0.1 percent to about 3 percent of a halogen and from about 0.05 percent to about 0.02 percent sulfur.

  16. The Reformers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Backed with political and financial capital, advocates of change push to improve America's education system. For most people, the purpose of education is self-improvement--becoming better informed, more knowledgeable, better equipped to solve problems, more able to earn a living and prosper. The more effectively an education system delivers on…

  17. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A.; Baird, W.C. Jr.

    1986-09-23

    In a process for improving the octane quality of a naphtha in a reforming unit comprised of a plurality of serially connected reactors, inclusive of one or more lead reactors and a tail reactor, each of which contains a platinum or platinum-rhenium catalyst, the naphtha flowing in sequence from one reactor of the series to another and contacting the catalyst at reforming conditions in the presence of hydrogen, the improvement is described which consists of: providing the tail reactor with a platinum-rhenium catalyst to which iridium has been added in amount sufficient to increase the C/sub 5/+ liquid yield via-a-vis a similar process utilizing in the tall reactor a platinum-rhenium catalyst to which no iridium has been added.

  18. Health care reform in Vermont: the next chapter.

    PubMed

    Leichter, H M

    1994-01-01

    It seemed inconceivable that Vermont would not enact comprehensive health care reform in 1994. Two years earlier the Vermont legislature had created the Vermont Health Care Authority to prepare the groundwork for major reform. Yet the 1994 Vermont General Assembly could not reach agreement on legislation. What went wrong? Some on the political left and right say that the legislature stopped "bad" legislation. The Vermont story reveals the failure of reformers to convince interest groups and ordinary citizens about the capacity of government to reform the health system.

  19. Split WHO in two: strengthening political decision-making and securing independent scientific advice.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has never fulfilled its original mission of simultaneously serving as the world's pre-eminent public health authority and intergovernmental platform for global health negotiations. While WHO's secretariat works hard to fulfill both functions, it is undermined by an institutional design that mixes technical and political mandates. This forces staff to walk uncomfortably along many fine lines: advising but never directing; guiding but never governing; leading but never advocating; evaluating but never judging. The result is mediocrity on both fronts. Instead, WHO should be split in two, separating its technical and political stewardship functions into separate entities, with collaboration in areas of overlap. The Executive Board and secretariat would be bifurcated, with technical units reporting to a Technical Board and political units reporting to a Political Board. Both boards would report to the World Health Assembly where all member states would continue to provide ultimate oversight. Such bold changes can be implemented either by revising WHO's constitution or through simpler mechanisms. Either way, structural governance reforms would need to be accompanied by complementary changes in culture that support strengthened political decision-making and scientific independence. States' inability to act on WHO's institutional design challenges will only lead them and non-state actors to continue bypassing the organization through the creation of new entities as they have done over the last 15 years. The key will be to mobilize those advocates and decision-makers who have the audacity to demand more from WHO and convince member states to elevate their ambitions in current WHO reform efforts. Continued progress in global health depends on it.

  20. Commentary: malpractice reform in policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Bovbjerg, Randall R

    2007-06-01

    Enacted caps on malpractice awards and proposed early offer reform address the sometimes excessive verdicts of conventional liability and its very high overhead costs. However, such reforms greatly benefit medical defendants while doing too little for claimants or patients in general. Caps and early offer only affect current claims; far broader reforms are therefore needed to improve the woeful performance of liability as a general promoter of patient safety and injury compensation. Broad reforms, however desirable, seldom surmount high political and practical hurdles. A good, more evenhanded start would seek to make claims resolution faster, more accurate, more predictable, and less expensive, while separately promoting medical quality and safety as well as greater transparency for law, medicine, and insurance.

  1. The Politics of Education Policy in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this appreciative discussion paper I provide an overview of the reforms made to education in England, and engage with the politics of education through examining the simultaneous and inter-related processes of politicisation, depoliticisation and repoliticisation of educational matters. I engage in a discussion of the papers in this special…

  2. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    The upper- right quadrant of the PW spectrum represents direct, covert actions. Covert political warfare is any action that can be attributed to a...15 3. Covert, Indirect Actions The lower- right quadrant represents covert, indirect political warfare actions. Indirect PW is conducted through an... life . From those identities, social ties and organizational forms emerge both the collective claims that people make and the means they have for making

  3. Gender, religion and democratic politics in India.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zoya

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of identity politics on gender equality. More specifically it explores the paradoxical and complex relationship of religion and politics in a multi-religious society and the complicated ways in which women's activism has both reinforced and challenged their gender identities. Contrary to the argument that religious politics does not always negate gender equality, the article argues that the Hindu religious politics and women's activism associated with it provides a compelling example of the instrumentalisation of women to accomplish the political goals of the Hindu right. It also examines the approach and strategies of influential political parties, women's organisations and Muslim women's groups towards legal reform and the contested issue of a uniform civil code. Against those who argue that, in the current communal conjuncture, reform within Muslim personal laws or Islamic feminism is the best strategy for enhancing the scope of Muslim women's rights, the article argues that such an approach tends to freeze identities within religious boundaries. It shows how women's and minority rights are used within the politics of religion to sideline the agenda of women's rights.

  4. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  5. Constructivism and the Neoliberal Agenda in the Spanish Curriculum Reform of the 1980s and 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Encarna

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the assumption underlying most education reforms that constructivism is politically neutral and intrinsically democratic. It makes this argument by examining the curriculum reform in Spain during the 1980s and 1990s in light of the neoliberal politics that the country was experiencing at that time. This study employs the…

  6. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented.

  7. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  8. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance.

  9. The Soviet Union: Political and military trends

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Garrity, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    On July 20, 1989, the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a workshop on The Soviet Union: Political and Military Trends.'' The morning session was devoted to a discussion of the magnitude of the problems confronting the Soviet Union, the political and economic reforms designed to address those problems, and the repercussions of those reforms on Soviet foreign policy and defense spending. In the afternoon session, the Soviet view of the changing character of warfare, the technologies and force structures that the Soviets might develop and deploy to anticipate the battlefield of the future, and the role that conventional arms control might play in Soviet political and military strategy were examined.

  10. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Schorfheide, J.J.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes a process for improving the octane quality of a naphtha in a reforming unit comprised of serially connected reactors, inclusive of a lead reactor and one or more subsequent reactors. Each of the reactors contains a sulfur-sensitive polymetallic platinum-containing catalyst which contains sulfur in concentration ranging from 0.03 to about 0.2 percent, based on the weight of the catalyst, and coke in concentration ranging up to about 10 percent, based on the weight of the catalyst, naphtha and hydrogen being introduced into the lead reactor and flowing in sequence from one reactor to the next subsequent reactor of the series contacting the catalyst at reforming conditions, the improvement described here comprising. introducing sulfur to the tail reactor of the series and maintaining therein, as a component of the naphtha, sulfur in concentration ranging from 0.5 wppm to about 20 wppm, based on the weight of the naphtha feed, while maintaining the concentration of sulfur in the feed naphtha entering the lead reactor below 0.5 wppm.

  11. Catalytic reforming of heart cut fcc naphthas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsen, L.A.

    1985-03-01

    The anticipated lead phasedown in the USA and the growing demand for unleaded gasoline will require a higher gasoline pool octane number. One of the possibilities to achieve this increase of pool octane will be catalytic reforming of FCC naphtha. In this paper we evaluate the effects of FCC naphtha reforming on the reformer operation and gasoline pool volume for various lead phasedown scenarios. High-stability reforming catalysts, like TPR-8/CK-522 TRILOBE catalyst, will be required to maintain acceptable cycle lengths at the more severe reformer operating conditions. The properties and octane distribution of FCC naphtha are discussed, as well as its hydrotreating with high-active NiMo catalysts.

  12. In Search of a Coherent Policy of Reform: A Longitudinal Examination of Educational Reform in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the social, cultural, and political context for educational reform in Utah, highlighting Mormon influences, high educational valuation and aspiration, booming public school enrollments, moderate revenue growth, and the state's "minimalist" tax mood. Discusses the character and impact of efficiency, effectiveness, strategic…

  13. NHS reforms in the United Kingdom and learning from developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Collins, C D; Green, A T; Hunter, D J

    2000-01-01

    The NHS has been the object of much international interest from its inception and through its periodic reforms. However, UK policy-makers have expressed only limited and selective concern for health sector reforms in other countries. This paper seeks to identify key elements of the present process and content of reforms to the UK NHS and examine the extent to which international learning would be important in developing these reforms. Particular emphasis is placed on learning from developing country experience. The paper therefore considers the policy process in the UK, the focus on primary care, the shift from competitive to collaborative strategies in addition to prioritising and planning. Each is considered in relation to developing country experience and the opportunities for learning. The paper concludes by setting out four areas leading to an international opening in NHS policy processes: developing political space in policy making, developing mechanisms for international exchanges, understanding policy context, and broadening international experience and changing values. The notion of a one-way process in international policy learning is rejected: while the South can learn from the North, so too can the North from the South.

  14. Political model of social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Acemoglu, Daron; Egorov, Georgy; Sonin, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Almost all democratic societies evolved socially and politically out of authoritarian and nondemocratic regimes. These changes not only altered the allocation of economic resources in society but also the structure of political power. In this paper, we develop a framework for studying the dynamics of political and social change. The society consists of agents that care about current and future social arrangements and economic allocations; allocation of political power determines who has the capacity to implement changes in economic allocations and future allocations of power. The set of available social rules and allocations at any point in time is stochastic. We show that political and social change may happen without any stochastic shocks or as a result of a shock destabilizing an otherwise stable social arrangement. Crucially, the process of social change is contingent (and history-dependent): the timing and sequence of stochastic events determine the long-run equilibrium social arrangements. For example, the extent of democratization may depend on how early uncertainty about the set of feasible reforms in the future is resolved. PMID:22198760

  15. The politics of energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Nivola, P.

    1986-01-01

    After a decade of debate about U.S. energy policy, the two political parties reached consensus that conservation is needed to achieve energy efficiency and to ensure adequate future supplies. But what is the most effective spur to energy conservation. In this book, Pietro S. Nivola argues that basic pricing reform in all energy sectors, though politically controversial, should be the heart of a national energy plan. Petroleum prices were fully deregulated in 1981, but wasteful pricing formulas still plague other important energy sectors like natural gas and electricity. In tracing congressional action on various energy bills in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the author shows that federal policymakers often bypassed or delayed important decisions on pricing reform. He analyzes how special interest groups, public opinion, and geographically based influences have affected congressional voting patterns and led to compromises that resulted in ineffective, or even harmful, legislation. He also addresses the role of governmental leaders and institutions in shaping the legislation. Beyond these various pressures, Nivola asserts, the conflict in Congress over energy pricing stems from intense political convictions about the role of government. One side in the congressional debate persistently attempted to use federal energy pricing policy to solve general problems of social inequity.

  16. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  17. Political bugs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  18. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…

  19. ``Political'' Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  20. Comparative State Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course dealing with comparative state politics. Students learn about the way in which political scientists employ the study of American state politics as a "laboratory" for the development of scientific explanations of political phenomena. (RM)

  1. Minorities, the Poor and School Finance Reform. Vol. 2: The Impact of Texas' 1975 School Finance Reform on Poor and Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brischetto, Robert

    As part of a nine-volume, six-state study of the impact of school finance reforms on minorities and the poor, the author examines the history and effects of finance reform in Texas. He presents a political and socioeconomic profile of the state and discusses past Texas school financing, the role of the Rodriguez v. San Antonio Independent School…

  2. Devolution and welfare reform: re-evaluating "success".

    PubMed

    Sheely, Amanda

    2012-10-01

    The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or decreased since the start of the recession in late 2007. The uneven responsiveness of the welfare system to growing economic needs prompts the question of whether the safety net is functioning as intended. This article evaluates the literature on the state and local implementation of welfare to assess whether devolution has yielded the positive outcomes promised by proponents. Findings suggest that, under welfare reform, state and local governments are enacting diverse programs and do not appear to be limiting welfare provision in new ways to avoid becoming "welfare magnets." However, the type of program they adopt is systematically related to the racial and ethnic composition of the caseloads and the local political climate, leading to a fragmentary system in which some states and localities are more responsive than others. Social workers can help poor families in critical need of assistance by voicing these concerns at the local, state, and national levels.

  3. Prevention in Poland: health care system reform.

    PubMed Central

    Sheahan, M D

    1995-01-01

    Despite the political and economic reforms that have swept Eastern Europe in the past 5 years, there has been little change in Poland's health care system. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare has targeted preventive care as a priority, yet the enactment of legislation to meet this goal has been slow. The process of reform has been hindered by political stagnation, economic crisis, and a lack of delineation of responsibility for implementing the reforms. Despite the delays in reform, recent developments indicate that a realistic, sustainable restructuring of the health care system is possible, with a focus on preventive services. Recent proposals for change have centered on applying national goals to limited geographic areas, with both local and international support. Regional pilot projects to restructure health care delivery at a community level, local health education and disease prevention initiatives, and a national training program for primary care and family physicians and nurses are being planned. Through regionalization, an increase in responsibility for both the physician and the patient, and redefinition of primary health care and the role of family physicians, isolated local movements and pilot projects have shown promise in achieving these goals, even under the current budgetary constraints. PMID:7610217

  4. Integration of care systems in Portugal: anatomy of recent reforms

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silvina; Szczygiel, Nina; Redondo, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated care is increasingly present in the agenda of policy-makers, health professionals and researchers as a way to improve care services in relation to access, quality, user satisfaction and efficiency. These are overarching objectives of most sectoral reforms. However, health care and social care services and systems are more and more dependent on the performance of each other, imposing the logic of network. Demographic, epidemiologic and cultural changes result in pressure to increase efficiency and efficacy of services and organisations in both sectors and that is why integrated care has become so relevant in the last years. Methods We first used concept maps to organise and systematise information that we had gathered through deep literature review in order to set a framework where to base the subsequent work. Then, we interviewed informants at several levels of the health and social care systems and we built a list of major recent reforms addressing integrated care in Portugal. In a third step, we conducted two independent focus groups where those reforms were discussed and evaluated within the context of the concepts and frameworks identified from the literature. Results were confronted and reconciled, giving place to a list of requisites and guidelines that oriented further search for documentation on those reforms. Results Several important health reforms are in course in primary and hospital care in Portugal, while a so-called third level of care has been introduced with the launch of the National Network of Long-Term Integrated Care (RNCCI – Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados). The social care sector has itself been a subject of alternative models springing from opposite political orientations. All these changes are having repercussions on the way the systems work with each other as they are leading to ongoing and ill-evaluated reformulations on the way they are governed, financed, structured and operated. Conclusions Care

  5. China's Health Reform Update.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Vortherms, Samantha A; Hong, Xuezhi

    2017-03-20

    China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Health care financing reform led to universal basic medical insurance, whereas the public hospital reform required more complex measures ranging from changes in regulatory, operational, and service delivery settings to personnel management. This article reviews these major policy changes and the literature-based evidence of the effects of reforms on cost, access, and quality of care. It then highlights the outlook for future reforms. We argue that a better understanding of the unintended consequences of reform policies and of how practitioners' and patients' interests can be better aligned is essential for reforms to succeed.

  6. Health reforms as examples of multilevel interventions in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Flood, Ann B; Fennell, Mary L; Devers, Kelly J

    2012-05-01

    To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation's health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform.

  7. Health Reforms as Examples of Multilevel Interventions in Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, Mary L.; Devers, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation’s health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform. PMID:22623600

  8. Startup procedure for reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, W.D.; Schoennagel, H.J.

    1984-08-14

    Process for reforming a hydrocarbon charge under reforming conditions in a reforming zone containing a sulfur-sensitive metal containing reforming catalyst wherein over-cracking of the charge stock and excessive temperature rise in the reforming zone is suppressed by pre-conditioning the catalyst, prior to contact with the charge, with a reformate of specified octane number and aromatics content.

  9. School Finance Reform in a Growing Economy: Using the Growth Dividend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Kalman

    2000-01-01

    lllinois's school finance reform goals may be achieved by providing property tax relief and increasing state funding out of income tax receipts, relying primarily on the state's growth dividend. Distributing the largesse of growth to poor districts over time minimizes richer citizens' sense of fiscal loss, making reform more politically palatable.…

  10. School Finance Reform in a Growing Economy: Using the Growth Dividend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Kalman; Scott, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a proposal to achieve major finance reform goals by providing property tax relief and increasing state funding out of income-tax receipts, relying on Illinois' growth dividend. The plan is funded by proportional taxes and would make school reform more politically palatable to affluent taxpayers. (28 footnotes) (MLH)

  11. Instructors' Perceptions of the Bologna Model of Higher Education Reform in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mngo, Zachary Y.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Statement. The literature on education in Cameroon suggests that there is a deep-rooted history of resistance to educational reform and harmonization both at the K12 and higher education levels. Attempts by political and educational leaders to reform and harmonize the two very distinct systems of education, inherited from former colonizers…

  12. Thirty Years of Reform and Opening Up: Teaching International Relations in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Patrice C.; Zou, Yue

    2011-01-01

    In 1978, Deng Xiaoping declared that China's future depended on "gaige kaifang" (reform and opening up to the West). By any standard, China has reformed its economic system and prospered handsomely by integrating into the world economy. With less fanfare, China has taken steps to restructure its political system and committed substantial…

  13. Curriculum Reform, Challenges, and Coping Strategies in the Ethiopian Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mebratu, Belete; Hoot, James

    2005-01-01

    Ethiopia is a nation of more than 70 million people characterized by diverse ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. Since the early 1990s Ethiopia has entered into the process of transformation towards a more civil society. This transformational process has led to numerous socioeconomic and political policy reforms. Central to reforms in the…

  14. Political Reactance and Political Reality: A Theory of Political Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    The research investigated political and psychological reactance among adolescents. Political reactance is interpreted to include feelings of political alienation and distrust. Psychological reactance is defined as behavior by an individual in response to reduction or threatened reduction of freedom. A model was created which expanded existing…

  15. History and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Robert L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Features comments from Robert L. Hampel, William R. Johnson, Diane Ravitch, and David N. Plank on David Tyack and Larry Cuban's book, "Tinkering toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform." The book argues that educational reformers in the 20th century have attempted large-scale systemic reforms instituted from the top down. (MJP)

  16. Sputnik Reform Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    Educational reforms being called for in the 1980's are compared to reforms of the 1950's. The Sputnik-inspired quest for quality called for reform in the content and structure of basic subjects. Current reports say that what educators are doing in the basic subjects is ok, but they need to do more. (RM)

  17. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  18. School Reform Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning, Aurora, CO.

    This manual is designed to help schools make successful school reform a reality. It provides the background and perspectives necessary for a school constituency to understand the current climate of education reform in the United States and what is known about successful school reform. The manual also provides inquiry-based techniques for…

  19. American Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This text presents high school students with up-to-date findings of social scientists about political behavior in order to increase their political knowledge and sophistication. Case studies which describe the various political activities of typical citizens and political leaders are used throughout the work. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  20. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-05

    Youyuan’s political- lyrical poems "Snoring Conference" and "The Motive in Joining the Party" caused quite an uproar. He wrote: "People who knew that...Celebrates Founding Anniversary (XINHUA, 16 Apr 86) ...................................... 50 Publishing House To Release 11 Long Novels (XINHUA, 17 Apr 86...confining ourselves to partial improvements, we should institute a funda- mental reform." For quite a long time in the past, the Soviet Union has frequently

  1. Health Education: What Can It Look Like after Health Care Reform? 1993 SOPHE Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cynthia M.

    1994-01-01

    In plans for health care reform, the role of health education in reducing risk behaviors associated with leading causes of death must be recognized. Reform offers new opportunities for prevention programs in schools, worksites, and communities. (SK)

  2. School Reform and Related Issues. Proceedings of the Conference of the University Urban Schools National Task Force (5th, Palm Beach, Florida, November 11-12, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossone, Richard M., Ed.; Polishook, Irwin, Ed.

    The theme of the conference reported on here was school reform and related issues. An introductory statement, "Thoughts on School Reform," by Jerome Bruner, and a list of conference participants are followed by a group of papers on education and politics. The papers are "Reform and Partnership in Education," by Albert Shanker;…

  3. Education Reform in Hong Kong: The ``Through-Road'' Model and its Societal Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Anita Y. K.; Wong, Yiu-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Although Hong Kong's education system has long been criticized as lacking in creativity and over-emphasising rote learning, on the whole it has served Hong Kong well in the past years, breeding outstanding business, academic and political leaders who continue to maintain Hong Kong's competitive edge. The traditional elite schools have played a crucial role in the process. The education reform, which is still on-going, aims to overhaul the entire system by introducing the "through-road" model. To accomplish this, some mechanisms need to be changed. J.P. Farrell's concepts of equality and equity, C.W. Mills' concept of elitism, and P. Bourdieu and J. Coleman's concepts of cultural and social capital will be applied to analyse the consequences of the reform. The paper argues that the education reform may be well-intentioned in eliminating some elements of inequality and inequity in education, but that this comes at the expense of Hong Kong's cultural and social capital and leads to the development of new forms of inequality.

  4. Professional Societies, Political Action Committees, and Party Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Barsky, Carol L.; Powell, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Societies representing physician specialties and other health care personnel commonly have political action committees (PACs). These PACs seek to advance their members’ interests through advocacy and campaign contributions. We examined contribution data for health care workers’ PACs from the 2010 to 2012 election cycles and found that higher annual income was strongly associated with greater giving to Republican candidates. Patterns of giving may offer insights into various medical workers’ party preferences, political leanings, and views of health care reform. PMID:25393192

  5. Politics in Pakistan: The Stability of the Zia Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-06

    cabinet. 5. W. Howard Wriggins, The Ruler’s Imperative: Strategies for Political Survival in Asia and Africa (New York, Columbia University Press...Bhutto--but few posters of Zia. Whether this is an indication of how these vendors view politics or * of the low marketability of Zia posters is open...their power bases. Both fell from power when the urban U’ 52 rural development--the green revolution and land reforms. -’ The former, a strategy of

  6. Political dimensions of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blewett, N

    1988-01-01

    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  7. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma.

  8. Challenging the neoliberal trend: the Venezuelan health care reform alternative.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Rueda, Sergio; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented to varying degrees health care sector reforms underpinned by a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care as less of a social right and more of a market commodity. These health care sector reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states prescribed consistently by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program called Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighbourhood). In this article, we introduce Misión Barrio Adentro in its historical, political, and economic contexts. We begin by analyzing Latin American neoliberal health sector reforms in their political economic context, with a focus on Venezuela. The analysis reveals that the major beneficiaries of both broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states and neoliberal health reforms have been transnational capital interests and domestic Latin American elites. We then provide a detailed description of Misión Barrio Adentro as a challenge to neoliberalism in health care in its political economic context, noting the role played in its development by popular resistance to neoliberalism and the unique international cooperation model upon which it is based. Finally, we suggest that the Venezuelan experience may offer valuable lessons not only to other low- to middle-income countries, but also to countries such as Canada.

  9. R. H. Tawney and the Reform of the Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Tom; Taylor, Richard

    2008-01-01

    R. H. Tawney was a major figure in shaping both the philosophy and the political practice of the British Labour Party. His involvement was also remarkably lengthy, and his influence lasting. The pursuit of equality, particularly through educational reform and restructuring, lay at the heart of his concerns. This paper analyses both Tawney's…

  10. Radical Reform: Reorganization and Resolve for Educational Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negroni, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of a universal choice plan as leverage for a wide range of school improvements in the Springfield Public School System (Massachusetts). The author examines the educational reform movement in terms of change coupled with concurrent development of four transformations: organizational, pedagogical, social/attitudinal, and political.…

  11. Getting beyond the Facts: Reforming California School Finance. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersin, Alan; Kirst, Michael W.; Liu, Goodwin

    2008-01-01

    California's school finance system is long overdue for reform. The authors propose a new system that is more rational, more equitable, and, they believe, politically feasible. At its core, their proposal aims to link district revenue to student needs and regional costs while ensuring that all districts are held harmless at current funding levels.…

  12. Influence of Social Reform Ideologies on Industrial/Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireh, Maduakolam

    2016-01-01

    The founding of industrial/technology education in Ameria represents the convergence of many influences dating back to the pre-industrial revolution era. Social reform movement, one of these influences, set out to change conditions considered to be causes of poverty and other social problems through active engagements in political, educational,…

  13. Urban School Reform, Family Support, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kiersten; Anyon, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Teachers and other education professionals find themselves in schools and districts bombarded by reforms--each one purporting to improve student achievement, particularly in reading and mathematics. This article lays the political economic groundwork of student achievement in urban areas in an attempt to contextualize the studies of literacy in…

  14. Nationalism, Internationalization, and the Dilemma of Educational Reform in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincicome, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ideological contradictions in the philosophy of internationalization supported by Japan's National Council on Educational Reform and the political contradictions inherent in Ministry of Education implementation efforts. Provides examples of attempts by Japanese high schools to internationalize their curricula and reintegrate students…

  15. Multilingual Educational Reform and Teacher Training in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Benson

    1996-01-01

    Examines the political implications of linguistic policy and reports on a recent visit to an Ethiopian Teachers' Training Institute. The article discusses the difficulties inherent in the imposition of major educational reform under severe resource restraints. (20 references) (Author/CK)

  16. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  17. Negotiating for Change: Women's Movements and Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shu-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…

  18. The Higher Education System in Macedonia: Overview, Reforms, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanov, Georgi; Angeloska-Galevska, Natasha

    2006-01-01

    The system of higher education in Macedonia is undergoing the largest reform process since the mid-1940s. The context is rather turbulent. Fourteen years after Macedonia's separation from the Yugoslav Federation, this small country now deals with an unstable political situation (the Kosovo question) and awaits an answer from Brussels (expected in…

  19. Attitudes to abortion in the era of reform: evidence from the Abortion Law Reform Association correspondence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma L

    2011-01-01

    This article examines letters sent by members of the general public to the Abortion Law Reform Association (ALRA) in the decade immediately before the 1967 Abortion Act. It shows how a voluntary organisation, in their aim of supporting a specific cause of unclear legality, called forth correspondence from those in need. In detailing the personal predicaments of those facing an unwanted pregnancy, this body of correspondence was readily deployed by ALRA in their efforts to mobilise support for abortion law reform, thus exercising a political function. A close examination of the content of the letters and the epistolary strategies adopted by their writers reveals that as much as they were a lobbying tool for changes in abortion law, these letters were discursively shaped by debates surrounding that very reform.

  20. Comparative effectiveness research: policy and politics.

    PubMed

    Zusman, Edie E

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is the basis for some of the fiercest rhetoric of the current political era. While it is a relatively old and previously academic pursuit, CER may well become the foundation upon which the future of health care in the US is based. The actual impact of CER on-and uptake among-doctors, patients, hospitals, and health insurers, however, remains to be seen. Political considerations and compromises have led to the removal of key aspects of CER implementation from policy legislation to prevent alienating stakeholders critical to the success of health care reform. Health care providers, including specialists such as neurosurgeons, will need to understand both the policies and political implications of CER as its practices becomes an indelible part of the future health care landscape.

  1. MPC improves reformer control

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, C.S.; Noh, K.K.; Yi, S.; Kim, J.S.; Song, H.K.; Hyun, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    A model predictive control strategy was applied to a synthesis gas reformer of Samsung-BP Chemicals in Korea that produces carbon monoxide and hydrogen from naphtha. A strongly endothermic reaction occurs in a catalytic reformer, and reformer outlet temperature is considered to have the most significant effect on product composition. The newly developed reformer is known to be a cost-effective process operating at high reaction temperatures and low steam-to-carbon ratio, but its drawback is temperature control difficulty due to the use of offgas as a part of the fuel. Without smooth control of the reformer outlet temperature, stable operation of the downstream separation units cannot be expected. Therefore, it is a great challenge to apply a model predictive control technique for tight control of reformer outlet temperature. The paper describes model predictive control, the process advanced control project, computer system architecture, analysis of operating condition, control structure, sampling rate, and disturbance estimation.

  2. "Vergara v. State of California": A Political Analysis and Implications for Principal Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabron, Lolita A.; Irby, Beverly J.

    2015-01-01

    This political analysis uses the Vergara case as an example of how principals can be dynamic leaders who are well prepared for and engaged in their political terrain. This will be important to decrease judicial dependency and legislative interference to better ensure that reform begins with those closest to the problem.

  3. Chinese Higher Education and Commodity Socialism: The Problem of Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Ruth

    This paper reviews trends in political education in China and examines implications of the new market emphasis on political education in institutions of higher education. Trends toward increased academic openness and cross fertilization among academic fields after the Cultural Revolution are identified. Reforms during this period are seen to have…

  4. Politics, power, and birth.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.

  5. Naphtha reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, K.R.; Houston, R.J.; Hughes, T.R.; Jacobson, R.L.

    1984-07-17

    In a process for reforming light naphtha with a bimetallic or multimetallic reforming catalyst, such as a platinum-rhenium-halogen catalyst, at conventional reforming conditions, wherein the catalyst is used for an extended continuous on-stream period, the aromatics selectivity of the catalyst is rapidly increased by contacting the naphtha and hydrogen with the catalyst at increased severity operating conditions, such as a reduced pressure less than 90% of the normal reforming pressure, during an initial portion of the on-stream period.

  6. Behavioralism, Postbehavioralism, and the Reemergence of Political Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeman, Thomas S.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the long reign of the behavioralists and the postbehavioralists has reduced political science theory to a Tower of Babel. Loudly trumpets the revival of Aristotelian political philosophy and identifies some of its leading adherents. Posits three fundamental objections to behavioral political theory. (MJP)

  7. Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panfilova, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

  8. The Forest Indians in the Present Political Situation of Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    The article focuses on tribal minorities (American Indians) of the Peruvian tropical forest from the point of view of the political circumstances and the general administrative conditions of the country. In 1968 the revolutionary military government initiated a series of structural reforms which aimed at transforming Peru. This article poses and…

  9. Unhealthy money: health reform and the 1994 elections.

    PubMed

    Podhorzer, M

    1995-01-01

    Health and insurance interests have substantially increased their contributions to members of Congress in response to the debate over national health care. During the 21 months from January 1, 1993, through September 30, 1994, campaign contributions from the health and insurance industries reached $37.9 million, a 51 percent increase over the same time period in the last election cycle. Health- and insurance-related large donor contributions ($200 or more) increased at the fastest rate, although both health- and insurance-related large donor and political action committee (PAC) contributions increased far faster than contributions by other industries. Contributions from health interests increased the fastest. The American Medical Association PAC was the leading contributor among health and insurance PACs. In the Senate, Republican incumbents received an average of 22.5 times as much from health and insurance interests as their Democratic challengers. No Democratic challenger was favored over an incumbent Republican. Democratic incumbents averaged only 3.5 times as much as their Republican challengers. Health and insurance interests favored seven of the nine Republicans seeking open Senate seats. Of course, one of the two Democrats favored was Jim Cooper, a leading opponent of comprehensive reform.

  10. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  11. The sex reform movement and eugenics in interwar Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawin, Magdalena

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.

  12. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'.

  13. The politics of disaster - Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bommer, J

    1985-12-01

    The occurrence of natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes, are, in themselves, beyond oar control. However, careful preparation before such events, and the correct management of the problem once it occurs, can both lead to major redaction of the suffering involved. Disaster preparation and emergency planning are both inextricably linked to politics and economics, both on a national and an international scale. Disasters themselves raise a number of issues of a political or economic nature, and die response to a natural disaster both in the short and the long term is largely determined by the political relations within a country, and between that country and the international community. This paper examines these issues by taking the examples of the earthquake of Managua, Nicaragua in 1972 and the flooding that occurred in Nicaragua in 1982. These two natural disasters occurred under different administrations in Nicaragua, and tills allows some interesting comparisons.

  14. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  15. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-12-15

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires

  16. Final report of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission: will we get the health care governance reform we need?

    PubMed

    Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2009-10-05

    The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC) has recommended that Australia develop a "single health system", governed by the federal government. Steps to achieving this include: a "Healthy Australia Accord" to agree on the reform framework; the progressive takeover of funding of public hospitals by the federal government; and the possible implementation of a consumer-choice health funding model, called "Medicare Select". These proposals face significant implementation issues, and the final solution needs to deal with both financial and political sustainability. If the federal and state governments cannot agree on a reform plan, the Prime Minister may need to go to the electorate for a mandate, which may be shaped by other economic issues such as tax reform and intergenerational challenges.

  17. Reforming with polymetallic catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.C. Jr.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a process for catalytically reforming, with hydrogen, a hydrocarbon naphtha feed at reforming conditions, the improvement comprising contacting the naphtha feed, and hydrogen, with a halogenated, supported platinum-rhenium catalyst promoted with iridium agglomerated to exhibit a crystallinity greater than 50 percent, as measured by X-ray.

  18. Small Schools Reform Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Beth M.; Berghoff, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored complicated personal narratives of school reform generated by participants in response to a particular small schools reform initiative. Narrative data was dialogically generated in interviews with nine past participants of an urban high school conversion project planned and implemented over a span of five years toward the goal…

  19. Prison Reform and Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Briefly describing the history of prison reform and the American Indian, this article argues that the "professed" humanitarian philosophy of the reformers would not have been extended to "peoples languishing in prison or sequestered on reservations had it not been expedient for the business interests of the larger society". (JC)

  20. Thinking about Tax Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boskin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

  1. School Reform. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue addresses school reform, focusing on accountability, attrition, public-supported private education, equitable education, and schoolwide reform. "School-Student Performance and Accountability" (Jose A. Cardenas) discusses what constitutes good performance in school; the shifting emphasis among the input, output, and…

  2. Reform Disconnection in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Qian, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines many of the frustrations associated with implementing education reforms in mainland Chinese schools. Our basic argument is that when taken individually, many of the recent reforms are beneficial, but when parceled together and thrust hastily at schools, they are unwieldy and disconnected. We suggest that the inability of the…

  3. Educational Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksit, Necmi

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

  4. Health reform through tax reform: a primer.

    PubMed

    Furman, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Tax incentives for employer-sponsored insurance and other medical spending cost about $200 billion annually and have pervasive effects on coverage and costs. This paper surveys a range of proposals to reform health care, either by adding new tax incentives or by limiting or replacing the existing tax incentives. Replacing the current tax preference for insurance with an income-related, refundable tax credit has the potential to expand coverage and reduce inefficient spending at no net federal cost. But such an approach by itself would entail substantial risks, so complementary reforms to the insurance market are essential to ensure success.

  5. [The absence of stewardship in the Chilean health authority after the 2004 health reform].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Tania; Sánchez, Sergio

    2014-11-26

    Stewardship is the most important political function of a health system. It is a government responsibility carried out by the health authority. Among other dimensions, it is also a meta-function that includes conduction and regulation. The Health Authority and Management Act, which came about from the health reform of 2004, separated the functions of service provision and stewardship with the aim of strengthening the role of the health authority. However, the current structure of the health system contains overlapping functions between the different entities that leads to lack of coordination and inconsistencies, and a greater weight on individual health actions at the expense of collective ones. Consequently, a properly funded national health strategy to improve the health of the population is missing. Additionally, the components of citizen participation and governance are weak. It is necessary, therefore, to revisit the Chilean health structure in order to develop one that truly enables the exercise of the health authority’s stewardship role.

  6. Pushing up against the Limit-Horizon of Educational Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Popular Education Reform Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ashlee; Aronson, Brittany; Ellison, Scott; Fairchild-Keyes, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    With this article, we work to identify the limit-horizon of possible ideas, practices, and ways of talking about education reform and schooling via a critical discourse analysis of selected popular political and governmental texts. To do so, we explore the popular discourse of education reform in the United States through our analyses of three…

  7. Reform, Inequalities of Process and the Transformative Potential of Communities of Practice in the Pre-School Sector of England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The integration of care and education across pre-school sectors of several European countries is currently a key policy priority. In England this necessitates reform aimed at re-modelling a traditionally hierarchical and divided workforce. Drawing on research with early years professionals, this article explores the micro-politics of reform with a…

  8. Education in the New Era: The Dissemination of Education for Sustainable Development in the Political Science Programmes at Notre Dame University--Louaize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labaki, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development is continuous process of change requiring painful choices resting on political will. This paper examines the developments needed to engage with sustainable development in the field of political science through the following: the reform in political science programmes to cope with the need for sustainable development in…

  9. Mental health reform not always beneficial.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2007-01-01

    History is instructive even when the lessons learned cannot be easily transposed to a new time and place. The aim of this paper is to describe psychiatric reforms implemented one hundred years ago in Germany and how, contrary to their intention, they resulted, with changes in economics, politics and ideology, in disaster for psychiatric patients. The conclusion for our time is that the new and seemingly expedient need always to be questioned. If nothing else, the paper reviews an important era in the history of our profession.

  10. Teaching reforms required for Ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Jayaprakash

    2010-01-01

    This article concerns the 20th century saga of Ayurvedic Education up to the current situation, based on a general appreciation of knowledge in Ayurveda. In this light, it considers how to improve quality of teaching and teachers. This is most important, because in education, teachers are the custodians of tradition and knowledge. As those most responsible for maintaining or restoring quality, teachers have very important roles to play. The article also treats ‘learning and teaching’: who should learn Ayurveda, and how to teach Ayurveda so that it continues from generation to generation, leading to the final area of onsideration, reforms in teaching Ayurveda, and future prospects. PMID:21836806

  11. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    fundamental reforms in public education is challenging. The coalition must be able to reach consensus on a vision of reform and, then, sustain the reform over an extended period of time. This is not easy when power and authority are highly fragmented (and perhaps at odds), where interest groups live or die on confromtation politics, when public and private sectors exhibit a basic distrust of one another, and when everyone is an expert--real or imagined--on topics more-or-less related to education. In addition, the SSI's are operating in a turbulent climate. Policy makers may be working on standards-based reforms in K-12 education at the same time they are seeking efficiencies in state government, consider deregulation, and experiment with integrated social services. Criminal justice, health, and welfare are competing in state capitols for the resources required to bring about education reforms. And, within this shifting policy landscape, the SSI's are seeking higher priority for mathematics and science, as well as attempting to develop the infrastructure and capacity to support change in the schools. Simply keeping mathematics and science education high on the agenda of state policy-makers is a challenge. Each of these component strategies of the SSI's is important. The critical question is whether, in a given state, the SSI strategies, when combined with other state reform initiatives, form a coherent, comprehensive plan for improving public education. While the oldest of the SSI's are only in their fourth year of activity, it is already clear that the reforms they are seeking will take longer than five years to accomplish. (The SSI's are supported by five-year grants from the NSF.) The instructional reforms advocated by the SSI's require time to implement, and once in place, additional time to produce results. Elected officials often focus on the short-term, and they can become impatient when the results are slow. There appears to be no ready solution to the conflict

  12. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world’s nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

  13. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  14. China at the Crossroads: Reform after Tiananmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven M.

    1992-01-01

    This publication analyzes the reform movement in China before and after the Tiananmen Square demonstrations of 1989. In the aftermath of the cold war and because of recent mutual hostility, U.S.-Chinese relations are at a critical juncture. The events leading up to and encompassing the demonstrations in Tiananmen Square and the brutal manner in…

  15. The Scars and Trophies of a Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane

    2005-01-01

    America's leading historian of education recounts a lifetime in the cause of responsible school reform. Diane Ravitch's blow-by-blow description of run-ins with Afrocentrist firebrand Leonard Jeffries, misguided feminists at the AAUW, the language sensitivity police, and others offers a fascinating perspective on how the education establishment…

  16. Political Systems, Public Schools, and Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaNoue, George R.; Adler, Norman

    This paper, prepared for the Center for Research and Education in American Liberties Conference in 1968, argues that education is the foundation upon which democratic politics stands because of the transmittal by schools of the skills and values necessary for our political system to operate. The objective of the paper is to show the relationship…

  17. Reforming Educational Reform: A Democratic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.

    2005-05-01

    This essay examines the status of educational reform in the United States as represented by the current Bush administration's program titled "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB). Employing the techniques of critical theory and logical analysis, contemporary reform efforts are compared with other, more progressive, educational reform movements in an effort to gain perspective and conceptual "traction" as it were, in differentiating such movements. Criteria are established for the assessment and evaluation of reform movements. These are employed in judging the efficacy of NCLB's aim, content, and methods, as well as the results of its program following four years of implementation. The merits of the centrality of standardized testing, pre-ordained curricular content, and exclusively didactic teaching methodologies are criticized, along with the extra-school societal forces which ordain these and determine their prominence in the NCLB program. The essentialism adopted by NCLB is, moreover, evaluated in the light of pragmatic, phenomenological, and postmodern educational theory. Arguing that the school is always and inevitably an instrument of societal forces, interests, and groups, it is contended that these not only be acknowledged, but that avenues be formalized for a thorough going and continuous educational "conversation," to borrow Rorty's term, for an amicable resolution of the issues of education's aim(s), content, and methods.

  18. An Exploration of Foreign Language Teachers' Beliefs about Curriculum Innovation in Algeria: A Socio-Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellalem, Fouzi

    2008-01-01

    Recent political and economic developments in Algeria have brought about reforms of the educational system. A new curriculum was introduced as part of these reforms. This study explores the beliefs of French and English school teachers about curriculum innovation in Algeria. The study is positioned in the qualitative research tradition and looks…

  19. Education Reforms: Lessons from History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Policy makers in education have long embraced reform. Unfortunately, education reforms have consistently been plagued by the reformers' lack of knowledge and appreciation of the history of education. Accordingly, the latest reform, touted as a panacea, meets with failure, and the search for the magic elixir begins anew. The ahistorical nature of…

  20. Adolescent Rebellion and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 352 Dutch secondary school students reveals that adolescents with high-level education who endorse adolescent rebellion have a more distinctly left-wing profile--in both their political party preferences and their political views--than those with low-level education, who more often ratified political intolerance. (BJV)

  1. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  2. Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political…

  3. Political Education in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Mate

    1989-01-01

    The contradictions of political education in East European socialist countries based on the Hungarian experience are explored in this paper. Divided into three parts, the first part gives a brief sketch of institutionalized political education, while the second concerns the crisis of Hungary's political education emerging in the 1980s. In the…

  4. Political Education in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  5. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  6. The Dynamics o f Institutional Reform in Contemporary Italian Politics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Guglielmetti, Paolo, and Rosa, Giuseppe, "Il mezzogiorno tra squilibri e segnali di vitalita’," Rivista di politica economica , series III, no. 2...and Giuseppe Rosa, "Il mezzogiorno tra squilibri e segnali di vitalita’," R di p economica , series III, no. 2, February 1992, 97-8. 1 64 for hope. The...34Riforme contro i partiti? Un commento," Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica , vol. 21, no. 3, December 1991, 409-418. "Breve guida alle riforme

  7. Lamar Alexander and the Politics of School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, George R.

    1992-01-01

    Although U.S. Education Secretary Lamar Alexander's forceful presence on the educational scene has compelled attention and eclipsed his predecessors, we are a long way from knowing whether this consummate politician and his espoused causes (such as America 2000) are destined to make a serous difference in U.S. education. (MLH)

  8. Brokerage, Political Opportunity, and Protest in Venezuelan Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two episodes of contention in the ongoing conflict between the Venezuelan government and the country's autonomous universities. In August 2009, Venezuela's National Assembly approved and implemented the controversial Organic Education Law. Sixteen months later, the Assembly approved the similarly polarizing Law of University…

  9. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  10. Incentive Structures for Professors in Germany and the United States: Implications for Cross-National Borrowing in Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Egon; Opitz, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The international competitiveness of national higher education systems is an important political issue in many countries. These politics drive some governments to reform their systems by borrowing elements from societies with systems thought to be superior. These authors argue that a simple transfer of isolated elements from one higher education…

  11. Evidence as Source of Power in School Reforms: The Quest for the Extension of Compulsory Education in Zurich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imlig, Flavian; Ruoss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of evidence in educational policy and politics, and how this use has changed over time. Using an analytical framework that combines research approaches from both political and educational science, evidence-related arguments in two major school reforms in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland are described. In…

  12. Catalytic reforming of naphtha fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, K.C.; Vorhis, F.H.

    1980-09-16

    Production of motor gasoline and a btx-enriched reformate by fractionating a naphtha feedstock into a mid-boiling btxprecursor fraction, a relatively high-boiling fraction and a relatively low-boiling fraction; catalytically reforming the btxprecursor fraction in a first reforming zone; combining the relatively high-boiling and low-boiling fractions and catalytically reforming the combined fractions in a second reforming zone.

  13. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.C. Jr.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a process for reforming a paraffinic naphtha feed by introducing the feed, with hydrogen, into a reactor charged with a platinum-containing reforming catalyst, the paraffinic hydrocarbon naphtha feed containing from about 30 to about 100 wt. percent paraffinic hydrocarbons, from about 10 to about 70 wt. percent naphthenes, and from about 5 to about 30 wt. percent aromatics, of which less than about 5 wt. percent are C/sub 8/+ aromatics, and reacting the feed at reforming conditions. The improvement described here consists of: adding to the blend introduced to the reactor sufficient C/sub 8/+ aromatics to increase the C/sub 8/+ aromatics concentration of the feed introduced into the reactor to a level above about 5 wt. percent C/sub 8/+ aromatics; to increase C/sub 5/+ liquid vis-a-vis the paraffinic naphtha feed otherwise similar except that no C/sub 8/+ aromatics are added, similarly reformed.

  14. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  15. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  16. Defense Spending and Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-02

    Background paper on SIPRI military expenditure data Public Notice, “ Spending and Defending Defense spending has become a highly......Budget; Finance Reform; Military Spending ; Defense Spending ; Budget Cuts 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  17. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    PubMed

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War.

  18. When are health inequalities a political problem?

    PubMed

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2006-12-01

    Is it possible to define criteria by which a political decision on which inequities in health should be addressed can be made? It has been suggested that differences which are unnecessary and avoidable and those which are unfair and unjust are inequalities which should lead to political action. In the article it is argued that it is not possible to make a clear distinction between avoidable and unavoidable differences, and that the extent to which differences are considered unfair depends on political and normative standpoints, and generally acceptable criteria can therefore not be established.

  19. Reformer Fuel Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most

  20. On medicine and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451

  1. Multizone naphtha reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, B.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a catalytic reforming process for conversion of a naphtha hydrocarbon at reforming conditions having at least two segregated catalyst zones. The improvement comprises contacting the hydrocarbon in a first zone with a first catalyst comprising tin and at least one platinum group metal deposited on a solid catalyst support followed by contacting in a second zone with a second catalyst comprising at least one metal selected from the group consisting of platinum group metals deposited on a solid catalyst support.

  2. Quality reforms in Danish home care - balancing between standardisation and individualisation.

    PubMed

    Rostgaard, Tine

    2012-05-01

    Despite relatively generous coverage of the over-65 population, Danish home help services receive regular criticism in the media and public opinion polls. Perhaps as a consequence, reforms of Danish home care policy for senior citizens have placed a strong emphasis on quality since the 1990s. This reform strategy represents a shift from the welfare state modernisation programme of the 1980s, which built mainly on economic strategies of cost-efficiency and New Public Management principles, including contract management and performance management. Recent reforms have instead attempted to increase the overall quality of care by increasing the transparency at the political, administrative and user levels. However, reforms have revolved around the conflicting principles of standardisation and the individualisation of care provision. This approach has succeeded in increasing the political and administrative control over home help at the expense of the control by users, care workers and case managers.

  3. The politics of researching global health politics

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  4. On the road to reform: a sociocultural interpretation of reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-09-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I address some familiar areas that must be considered when teachers undertake curriculum reform and how science educators may fulfill the role of facilitator and advocate in the support of teachers on the road to reform. The commentary focuses on how Barma retells the story through the lens of activity theory.

  5. Cross-Border Transitions: Navigating Conflict and Political Change through Community Education Practices in Myanmar and the Thai Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maber, Elizabeth J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Political oscillations in Myanmar and Thailand, between militarisation and democratic reform, have prompted a rapid renegotiation of the alignments, goals and priorities of non-state education providers, both international and community-based, along the two countries' border. This paper explores the responses to shifts in political environment…

  6. Access to Basic Education in Ghana: Politics, Policies and Progress. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph examines the history and politics of educational reform in Ghana. Using data from interviews conducted with senior policy-makers, implementers and researchers, as well as documentary sources, to explore the drivers and inhibitors of change at the political, bureaucratic and grass-roots levels. The monograph explores the nature of…

  7. Advances in the chemistry of catalytic reforming of naphtha

    SciTech Connect

    Anabtawi, J.A.; Redwan, D.S.; Al-Jarallah, A.M.; Aitani, A.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Catalytic reforming of naphtha remains the key process for production of high octane gasoline and aromatics (BTX) which are used as petrochemicals feedstocks. The increased demand for these products has led refiners to investigate ways for improving the performance of the reforming process and its catalysts. Moreover, in order to comply with environmental restrictions, the reduction in lead content would require further increase in the reformate octane number. In response to these requirements, refiners and catalyst manufacturers are examining the role of the catalysts in improving the selectivity to aromatics and in octane enhancement. By understanding the chemistry and the mechanism of the reforming process, higher performance catalysts with longer life on stream and lower cost can be developed. This review covers recent developments in reforming catalysts, process reaction chemistry and mechanism. It also highlights prospective areas of research.

  8. Comparing Social Security reform options.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Craig

    2005-05-01

    Social Security is widely recognized as the nation's most effective anti-poverty program for the elderly and widow(er)s. It is so popular that it has often been dubbed the "third rail" of American politics ("touch it and you die"). As a result, changes have come slowly. For instance, in spite of years of warning in advance of the cash flow crisis of 1983, Congress waited until the last minute to act--and when it did, the action it took included a combination of tax increases and benefit reductions. By the mid-1990s, then-President Clinton was talking about the long-term financing issues faced by Social Security, but Congress did not act. President Bush has raised the same issues since 2000, and has now taken to the road to convince the nation that action should be taken now to assure the program's long-term solvency. Because Social Security is a sensitive, complicated, and emotional political topic, many concepts have been discussed but few elected officials have been willing to put forth detailed plans for fear of political backlash. The public, quite naturally, wants to know how they will be affected by "reform." In this introductory section, Figure S-1 seeks to provide a simple response to that question by following the method used in the Trustees' report, where earners maintain a constant percentage of the average wage. Take the year closest to when you were born, the earnings closest to your expected earnings this year (2005), and follow across the columns to see how much your annual benefit would be in today's dollars if you start taking benefits at age 65. For an example of a specific individual: Your 30-year-old child (born in 1975) makes a 2005 salary around $16,500. Under current law, your child's initial annual Social Security retirement benefit would be dollar 11,200 in today's dollars. However, given the projected funding shortfall currently facing the program, this promised benefit is not likely to materialize unless some sort of change is made to the

  9. Legislating Civil Service Reform: The Homeland Security Act of 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-22

    the motives behind them. Brian DeWyngaert , Assistant to the President of AFGE, saw the reforms as an attempt by the administration to weaken the...civil service system, to shift from “public administration” to “political administration.”95 DeWyngaert cites a paper, written by two former Republican...95 Brian DeWyngaert , interview by the authors, 19 January 2006. 39 associations representing civil servants.”96 DeWyngaert expresses union

  10. Legislating Civil Service Reform: The Homeland Security Act of 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-22

    DeWyngaert , Assistant to the President of AFGE, saw the reforms as an attempt by the administration to weaken the civil service system, to shift from...public administration” to “political administration.”95 DeWyngaert cites a paper, written by two former Republican personnel management officials, that...94 Senator Fred Thompson, “Congress Goes Back to Work,” Interview, PBS Online News Hour, 12 November 2002. 95 Brian DeWyngaert , interview by

  11. Presidents and health reform: from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Barack Obama.

    PubMed

    Morone, James A

    2010-06-01

    The health care reforms that President Barack Obama signed into law in March 2010 were seventy-five years in the making. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt, U.S. presidents have struggled to enact national health care reform; most failed. This article explores the highly charged political landscape in which Obama maneuvered and the skills he brought to bear. It contrasts his accomplishments with the experiences of his Oval Office predecessors. Going forward, implementation poses formidable challenges for Democrats, Republicans, and the political process itself.

  12. Educational reform and the public: Two case studies of Poland and Saskatchewan (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaproń, Danuta; Stephan, Werner

    1991-09-01

    The involvement of the public in educational reform processes in modern democratic societies primarily serves the purpose of politically legitimizing the reform agenda. This study examines the rationales implicitly or explicitly submitted to the public to explain why educational reforms in the two countries should be endorsed. Although differences in the political culture caution against a hasty comparison of the two case studies, a number of politico-economic similarities allow for a valid juxtaposition. In Poland the context of socio-political and economic renewal prompted the reformers to emphasize the human-capital model which heightened public awareness and participation in the debate surrounding the reform. Public involvement in Saskatchewan was negatively affected for mainly two reasons. First, the government evidently manipulated public input by various means and thereby appears to have predetermined the outcome. Second, the rationale for the reform, based on a free-market model, tightened the linkage between the needs of the labour market and the mandate of the schools. As a result, public interest and participation was greatly diminished.

  13. Diesel reforming for SOFC auxiliary power units

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, R. L.; Parkinson, W. J. ,; Inbody, M. A.; Tafoya, J. I.; Guidry, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    The use of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to provide auxiliary power for heavy duty trucks can increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions by reducing engine idling time. The logical fuel of choice for a truck SOFC APU is diesel fuel, as diesel is the fuel of choice for these vehicles. SOFC's that directly oxidize hydrocarbon fuels have lower power densities than do SOFC's that operate from hydrocarbon reformate, and since the SOFC is a costly component, maximizing the fuel cell power density provides benefits in reducing the overall APU system cost. Thus current SOFC APU systems require the reformation of higher hydrocarbons for the most efficient and cost effect fuel cell system. The objective of this research is to develop the technology to enable diesel reforming for SOFC truck APU applications. Diesel fuel can be reformed into a H{sub 2} and CO-rich fuel feed stream for a SOFC by autothermal reforming (ATR), a combination of catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx), and steam reforming (SR). The typical autothermal reformer is an adiabatic, heterogeneous catalytic reactor and the challenges in its design, operation and durability on diesel fuel are manifold. These challenges begin with the vaporization and mixing of diesel fuel with air and steam where fuel pyrolysis can occur and improper mixing leads to hot and cold spots, which contribute to carbon formation and incomplete fuel conversion. The exotherm of the partial oxidation reaction can generate temperatures in excess of 800 C, a temperature at which catalysts rapidly sinter, thus reducing their lifetime. The temperature rise can be reduced by the steam reforming endotherm, but this requires the addition of water along with proper design to balance the kinetic rates. Carbon formation during operation and startup can lead to catalyst deactivation and fouling of downstream components, thus reducing durability of the fuel processor. Water addition helps to reduce carbon formation, but a key issue is the source

  14. The primacy of politics: charting the governance of the Papua New Guinea health system since independence.

    PubMed

    Day, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    To chart the course of health governance in Papua New Guinea (PNG) since Independence, this article identifies two arks of public sector administration in PNG. Each was instigated by the passing of an Organic Law. The reform periods presaged by the Organic Law on Provincial Government 1976 (OLPG) and the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and Local-level Governments 1995 (OLPGLLG) have fundamentally transformed the political and administrative structures governing the country, and in particularly those relating to health. Comparing the organization of the government-operated health system during each of these reform periods not only reveals why PNG's health services have struggled to improve since Independence, but also casts light on the key drivers of fundamental reforms in PNG. Ultimately, the exercise illustrates the 'primacy of politics', and why political concerns invariably trump service delivery concerns.

  15. Reform and retreat in United States immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, G P

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of changes in US Immigration Policy that compartmentalize legal from illegal immigration. Legal immigration was not reformed in the recent past, with the exception of welfare benefit restrictions among legal immigrants who were not citizens and income requirements for sponsors of permanent immigrants. Restrictions on illegal immigration were substantial, and included patrolling the border. Some reforms of illegal immigration were narrowly defeated or defeated through the efforts of organized Christian Coalitions. Reforms of legal immigration included few organized or effective allies, but did include environmental and population control organizations with influence in the capital. After Republican control of Congress in 1994, illegal immigration bargaining was replaced by partisanship. Populist pressures came from Proposition 187 in the state of California (local costs of a failed national policy to control immigration) and Presidential candidate Patrick Buchanan. The courts generally countered populist politics and supported immigrants. At present, expansionist measures continue to be adopted. Client politics that dominated over 3 or 4 decades no longer prevail. Client politics are defined by J. Q. Wilson as confined to small groups of people who are economically supported by the larger population. Congress sets policy according to organized interests which benefit directly from large numbers of legal and illegal permanent and temporary migrants. The most prominent struggle over immigration occurred in 1996. This policy period is reviewed.

  16. Mexico`s economic reform: Energy and the Constitution

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, L.

    1993-12-31

    Oil is a fundamental component of nationhood in Mexico. The 1938 expropriation of oil resources concluded a process of internal political consolidation and thus became the most important symbol of nationalism. Mexico has been undergoing a process of economic reform that has altered the country`s economic structure and has subjected it to international competition. Oil in particular and energy in general have been left untouched. There is recognition that without an equal reform of the energy industry, the potential for success will be significantly limited. While the Constitution allows private investment in the industry--with the exception of the resource properties themselves--the Regulatory Law bans any private participation. Because of its political sensitivity, however, amending the law in order to reform the oil industry will necessitate a domestic initiative rather than foreign pressure. In this perspective, NAFTA served to slow and postpone the reform of the industry, rather than the opposite. Once NAFTA is well in place, the industry will have to face competition.

  17. Getting Politically Active

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Projects can, and do, succeed because of politics. And they can fail due to politics, as well. Politics does not have to be a dirty word, if it means working closely and openly with customers and stakeholder s; it is an essential approach that requires continuous dedication of time and attention. Project management is a people industry. Gainin g the trust of your followers will grant you more influence than any formal authority.

  18. Nuclear Politics in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    system. States with prestige are recognized by other actors as having a high 21 Nuclear Politics in Iran standing either generally or with regard to...Nuclear Politics in Iran Edited by Judith S. Yaphe MIDDLE EAST STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES 1 Center for Strategic Research Institute for National...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Politics in

  19. Astronomy and Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  20. Cosmopolitan political science.

    PubMed

    Grande, Edgar

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, the term cosmopolitism could rarely be found in modern political science literature. It was only in the 1990s that the term was rediscovered by political scientists in the critical discourse on globalization. In this article, I will explore the full potential of cosmopolitism as an analytical concept for empirical political science. I will argue that the concept of cosmopolitism should not be restricted to the analysis of global politics. Indeed, cosmopolitism has much more to offer for political scientists. Properly understood, it enables--and necessitates--a re-invention of political science in the age of globalization, comparable to the behavioural revolution in political science in the 1950s. Such a paradigmatic shift should be based on a twofold transformation of existing disciplinary boundaries: A removal of the boundary between national (and comparative) and international politics on the one hand; and a re-definition of the boundaries between empirical and normative approaches on the other. As a result, cosmopolitism may serve as a new, critical theory of politics based on the integration of hitherto separated fields and sub-fields.

  1. Envy, politics, and age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Henniger, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase "politics of envy" has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age.

  2. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... be exposed to lead by Eating food or drinking water that contains lead. Water pipes in older homes ... herbs or foods that contain lead Breathing air, drinking water, eating food, or swallowing or touching dirt that ...

  3. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Baird Jr., W. C.; Mauldin, C. H.

    1985-09-17

    A start-up procedure wherein a halogenated rhenium-containing catalyst, to improve its performance in reforming naphtha feeds, is contacted with water, added with the hydrogen and said feed. During the start-up period, preferably on initiation of the start-up period after aromatics production has begun, a naphtha feed, hydrogen and water are passed cocurrently through the several reactors of a reforming unit and reacted over the halogenated rhenium-containing catalyst. Water is generally added with the naphtha and hydrogen, preferably to the initial reactor of the series of reactors of the reforming unit, in concentration ranging from about 100 vppm of hydrogen to about 10,000 vppm of hydrogen, preferably from about 100 vppm to about 5000 vppm of hydrogen.

  4. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.

  5. The Role of Professional Knowledge in Reading Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, P. David

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the current political situation in the United States and the ways in which literacy education, particularly reading education, has been socially constructed and politically situated in the last several years. Suggests that the policies educators are currently implementing will lead to a generation of teachers who pay homage to externally…

  6. Comprehensive Solutions for Urban Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Sally

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive school reform (CSR) models build consistency throughout a district while addressing the needs of individual schools. The high-quality CSR programs offer a most effective option for urban education reform.

  7. There's "private" and then there's "private": ERISA, its impact, and options for reform.

    PubMed

    Borzi, Phyllis C

    2008-01-01

    The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), a federal law regulating private employer-sponsored employee benefit plans, was primarily designed for pension plans, but has had a profound impact on state health care reform efforts. ERISA's broad preemption language has been judicially interpreted to preclude states from most forms of regulation of employer health plans, including benefit design (except through regulation of insurance products) and incorporating employer expenditure requirements in state health reform financing. But since 1974, Congress has never seriously returned to reexamine several fundamental questions: Should employers be required to offer or contribute to employee health coverage? Should ERISA preempt state efforts to take such actions? Or should ERISA incorporate more comprehensive regulation of health plans in these areas? Although the politics of ERISA preemption have thus far blocked federal reform, while allowing state reform activity to be simultaneously curtailed, new health reform efforts may force Congress to address these questions.

  8. Japan’s Constitutional Reform Debate and the Potential for Collective Self-Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    pdf. (accessed 3 May 2011) 10 Richard J. Samuels, ―Politics, Security Policy, and Japan’s Cabinet Legislation Bureau: Who Elected These Guys, Anyway...html (accessed 3 May 2011) 11 J. Patrick Boyd and Richard J. Samuels,‖ Nine Lives?: The Politics of Constitutional Reform in Japan,” Policy Studies...Affairs, Vol 64, no. 5, (November 2010) p. 516. 25 Ibid., 517. 26 Axel Berkofsky, ―Dissecting Japan’s New Defense Guidelines, ― International

  9. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Absil, R.P.; Huss, A. Jr.; McHale, W.D.; Partridge, R.D.

    1989-06-13

    This patent describes a catalytic reforming process which comprises contacting a naphtha range feed with a low acidity extrudate comprising an intermediate and/or a large pore acidic zeolite bound with a low acidity refractory oxide under reforming conditions to provide a reaction product of increased aromatic content, the extrudate having been prepared with at least an extrusion-facilitating amount of a low acidity refractory oxide in colloidal form and containing at least one metal species selected from the platinum group metals.

  10. Public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2001-09-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agen cies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system.

  11. Public Health Law Reform

    PubMed Central

    Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2001-01-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agencies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system. PMID:11527757

  12. Public health challenges in the political economy of conflict: the case of Syria.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al

    2015-01-01

    Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides.

  13. The politics of water

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, S.

    1993-08-01

    Wars have been waged over oil and gold, but it is water that now poses the greatest potential for provoking conflict among nations-and the greatest need for new guarantees of cooperation. Athough water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Nearly 40 percent of the world's population depends on river systems shared by two or more countries, leading to political hot spots, most critically in the middle east. This article describes in detail the water problems in the middle east, starting with the Jordan River basin, the Golan Heights, and the coastal aquifer, partly polluted. On the Sinai Peninsula the Nile River is the water source for nine countries, and the Tigris-Euphrates, although still providing water in relative abundance, is prey to the failure of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey to reach water-sharing agreements. Discussion includes the possibilities of turning the win-lose situations into win-win situations by appropriate water management and the problem of lack of a clear legal framework for settling disputes.

  14. The Evolution of Chicano Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Armando

    1974-01-01

    The historical evolution of Chicano politics from the United States war with Mexico to the early seventies is analyzed in 4 stages: 1) Politics of Resistance (1846-1915); 2) Politics of Accommodation (1915-1945); 3) Politics of Social Change (1945-1965); and 4) Politics of Protest (1965-1972). (NQ)

  15. Prospects for Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore

    1992-01-01

    This editorial reviews areas of health care reform including managed health care, diagnosis-related groups, and the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for physician services. Relevance of such reforms to people with developmental disabilities is considered. Much needed insurance reform is not thought to be likely, however. (DB)

  16. Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

  17. Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been…

  18. Non-Prevailable Political Calendrical Systems in the European History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    2010-07-01

    In the history of calendrical reforms the Julian calendar that prevailed for centuries was gradually replaced by the Gregorian one from 1582 onwards. After these two calendars, some other calendrical systems were introduced in Europe, none of which prevailed beyond its limited (in time and place) political environment. In this work the following such unsuccessful calendars are reviewed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic Calendar invented by Th. Kairis and the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union.

  19. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... including some imported jewelry. What are the health effects of lead? • More commonly, lower levels of lead in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other ...

  20. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  1. America's Political Cartoon Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, William Ray

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of political cartoons in the United States from the first (Benjamin Franklin's "Unite or Die") in 1754 to the present. Discusses three requirements for effective cartoons, and identifies important cartoonists and their work. Characterizes political cartoons as one of the United States' liveliest, most enjoyable, and…

  2. Getting Your Political Bearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Being an instructional leader is important, but no one can be an instructional leader without a job. Political astuteness is key to survival in the principalship. The salient question, of course, is, How does one become politically astute? This process involves learning how to conscientiously and accurately keep a finger on the pulse of the…

  3. Educating for Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that…

  4. The Politics of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Update, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This document examines political questions that surround the issue of literacy. "City Literacy Cuts" outlines effects of the most recent budget cuts in New York City. "Families, Inequality, and Power: The Cultural Politics of Literacy" (Deborah D'Amico-Samuels) focuses on the importance of understanding the different models…

  5. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  6. Affect in electoral politics.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J; Salovey, P

    1998-01-01

    Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.

  7. The Reformation of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Louis

    The necessity for reforming public education is evidenced in part by the failures of past programs and in part by the requirements of the future. The anti-school mood of the present is forcing a more realistic evaluation of the potentiality education possesses in counteracting the disintegrative forces of family breakdown, individual deprivation,…

  8. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, G.E.

    1984-04-03

    A process wherein, in a series of reforming zones, employing one or a series of reactors, each of which contains a bed, or beds of catalyst, the catalyst in the rearward most reforming zones is constituted of supported platinum and a relatively high concentration of rhenium, and the catalyst in the forward most reforming zone is constituted of platinum, or platinum and a relatively low concentration of a promoter metal, especially rhenium. In the rearward reaction zones, at least 40 percent, and preferably from 40 percent to about 90 percent, based on the total weight of catalyst in the reactor, or reactors of the unit, is constituted of a rhenium promoted platinum catalyst, the weight ratio of rhenium:platinum of which at least about 1.5:1, and preferably 2:1, or greater. The beds of catalyst are contacted at start-of-run temperatures ranging from about 875/sup 0/ F. to about 935/sup 0/ F. with a hydrocarbon or naphtha feed, and hydrogen, at reforming conditions to produce a hydrocarbon, or naphtha product of improved octane, and the product is withdrawn.

  9. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, W.E.; Markley, G.E.

    1984-04-03

    A process wherein, in a series of reforming zones, employing one or a series of reactors, each of which contains a bed, or beds of catalyst, the catalyst in the rearward most reforming zones is constituted of supported platinum and a relatively high concentration of rhenium, and the catalyst in the forward most reforming zone is constituted of platinum, or platinum and a relatively low concentration of a promoter metal, especially rhenium. In the rearward reaction zones, at least 40 percent, and preferably from 40 percent to about 90 percent, based on the total weight of catalyst in the reactor, or reactors of the unit, is constituted of a rhenium promoted platinum catalyst, the weight ratio of rhenium: plantinum of which at least about 1.5:1, a preferably 2:1, or greater. The beds of catalyst are contacted with a hydrocarbon or naphtha feed, and hydrogen, at reforming conditions to produce a hydrocarbon, or naphtha product of improved octane, and the product is withdrawn.

  10. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the…

  11. Educational Reform in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxcy, Spencer J.; Maxcy, Doreen O.

    1993-01-01

    Although education has appealed to southern governors as a catapult to historical recognition, future governors should consider Louisiana Governor Buddy Roemer's ill-fated educational reform plan for Louisiana State University's College of Education, particularly its teacher evaluation and internship program. Public education seems a low-priority…

  12. Mastering School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goens, George A.; Clover, Sharon I. R.

    School organizations must become responsive and flexible to address rapidly changing social, economic, and demographic conditions. Reform attempts to date have not worked because they were layered on old structures and perceptions in a fragmented, piecemeal fashion. The fundamental transformation of education that is required demands a paradigm…

  13. Papers on Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Court Publishing Co., La Salle, IL.

    The following papers collected in this publication were presented for discussion at the Open Court Editorial Advisory Board Meeting in 1970. "Testing, Grades, Standards" by Jacques Barzun discusses the relationship between these three elements and the process of education and of performance evaluation. In "The Limits of Reform in Education" James…

  14. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  15. The buzz on reform.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, E A

    1994-01-01

    Mr. Bouchard bravely travels through the maze of lingo and anagrams spawned by recent attempts at healthcare reform. This comprehensive list of terminology and definitions, which provides considerable detail and analysis, will be invaluable to anyone trying to understand current trends.

  16. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  17. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  18. Computers and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ways in which computers can be used to help school reform by shifting the emphasis from information transmission to information processing. Highlights include creating learning communities that extend beyond the classroom; educationally oriented computer networks; Professional Development Schools for curriculum development; and new…

  19. Reforming Underperforming High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

  20. Examining Comprehensive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K., Ed.; Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Urban school reformers for decades have tried to improve educational outcomes for underserved and disadvantaged students, with the assistance of constantly evolving federal and state policies. In recent years, education policies have shifted from targeting individual students to developing universal standards for teaching and learning, and…

  1. Educational Reform: Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E.

    1994-01-01

    Uses Blau and Scott concept of "cui bono" to describe who has benefited from 1990 Kentucky Education Reform Act. In eyes of legislators, everyone would benefit, and the economically depressed state would prosper. As implementation of KERA progresses, it is becoming increasingly clear that mandated changes may be structural and may…

  2. Reform on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

  3. Leading Learning: Science Departments and the Chair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Jones, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we have considered the role of the chair in leading the learning necessary for a department to become effective in the teaching and learning of science from a reformed perspective. We conceptualize the phrase "leading learning" to mean the chair's constitution of influence, power, and authority to intentionally impact…

  4. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…

  5. Political Integration of Hezbollah into Lebanese Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    hold the political trump-card within Lebanon’s wobbly confessional system. Hezbollah has demonstrated, “probity, transparency, accountability, and...Distribution of Religious Groups, 1983, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/lebanon_religions_83.jpg (accessed May 20, 2009). Chandler

  6. The struggle for abortion law reform in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andrea

    2002-05-01

    In Thailand abortion is against the law except in cases of risk to a woman's health or if the pregnancy is the result of rape or other sexual crimes. This paper presents an overview of the history of the abortion debate in Thailand based upon research conducted from 1997-2001 for an ethnographic and historical study. Information was taken from media reports from 1950 in the Thai and English language press, a review of parliamentary records and interviews with 10 key informants. The debate over legal reform started in 1973. A reform bill was passed in 1981 in the House of Representatives but defeated in the Senate, primarily due to the lobbying efforts of Chamlong Srimuang, the leader of a broad-based religious coalition, who has been central in the anti-reform movement since then. The current democratically elected government in Thailand offers the best hope yet for reform, though abortion remains a politically sensitive issue, sensationalized in the press to counter reform efforts. A new advocacy network has recently been formed, including a range of women's organisations, public health advocates, academics and journalists. Current proposals from governmental and medical profession bodies may make abortions available to some women, but most, who seek abortions due to socio-economic and family planning reasons, will continue to have to find abortions by whatever means they can.

  7. Political instability and illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Campos, J E; Lien, D

    1995-01-01

    "Economic theory suggests that transnational migration results from the push-pull effect of wage differentials between host and source countries. In this paper, we argue that political instability exacerbates the migration flow, with greater instability leading to relatively larger flows. We conclude then that an optimal solution to the illegal immigration problem requires proper coordination of immigration and foreign policies by the host country. A narrow preoccupation with tougher immigration laws is wasteful and may be marginally effective." Emphasis is on the United States as a host country.

  8. Student life - Making politics matter.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Siobhan

    2014-12-02

    'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'

  9. Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

  10. Student Representation and Multiparty Politics in African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luescher-Mamashela, Thierry M.; Mugume, Taabo

    2014-01-01

    The transition from one-party rule and other forms of authoritarianism to multiparty democracy in the 1990s has had a profound impact on the organisation and role of student politics in Africa. Against the background of student involvement in African politics in the twentieth century, leading up to student participation in Africa's "second…

  11. Higher Education-Community Partnerships: The Politics of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fear, Frank; Creamer, Nancy; Pirog, Rich; Block, Daniel; Redmond, LaDonna; Dickerson, Mike; Baldwin, Sherrill; Imig, Gail

    2004-01-01

    Higher education-community partnerships can lead to fruitful rewards that are difficult to realize any other way. However, efforts to create, maintain, and sustain collaborative working relationships include inevitable tensions, the "politics of engagement." Lessons learned about the politics of engagement are presented in this paper.…

  12. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change.

  13. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation: Evidence From Germany.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach-by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour-and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.

  14. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... from lead poisoning in New Hampshire and in Alabama. Lead poisoning has also been associated with juvenile ... for decades—after it first enters the blood stream. (The same process can occur with the onset ...

  15. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Failure at school Hearing problems Kidney damage Reduced IQ Slowed body growth The symptoms of lead poisoning ... can have a permanent impact on attention and IQ. People with higher lead levels have a greater ...

  16. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

  17. Administrative reform in the Venezuelan Ministry of Education: A case analysis of the 1970's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    1984-06-01

    Democracy arrived in Venezuela in 1958, and reforming the rigid, centralized and unrepresentative institutions of government subsequently assumed a high priority. This article, based on data gathered in Venezuela several times over a twelve-year period by means of a standard field research methodology, represents a longitudinal case study of efforts through the 70's to generate administrative reform in the Ministry of Education. Specifically, the reform proposed to decentralize and regionalize the organization and management of education in order to promote regional socio-economic development. The study describes and discusses political and organizational factors which disrupted and frustrated the reform process, including: (1) lack of political continuity and maturity; (2) lack of appropriate structures within the system and of real desire on the part of ministry officials to initiate an effective delegation of powers and responsibilities; (3) lack of adequate mechanisms for gathering, processing and distributing information; and (4) lack of sufficient personnel within the ministry with the training and sustained experience to manage complex programs. As in many other countries, the ideals of the reform in Venezuela outstripped the political and human realities of the situation there. Comparative research is now needed to enable other nations to learn from this experience.

  18. Ethical and Human Rights Foundations of Health Policy: Lessons from Comprehensive Reform in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2015-12-10

    This paper discusses the use of an explicit ethical and human rights framework to guide a reform intended to provide universal and comprehensive social protection in health for all Mexicans, independently of their socio-economic status or labor market condition. This reform was designed, implemented, and evaluated by making use of what Michael Reich has identified as the three pillars of public policy: technical, political, and ethical. The use of evidence and political strategies in the design and negotiation of the Mexican health reform is briefly discussed in the first part of this paper. The second part examines the ethical component of the reform, including the guiding concept and values, as well as the specific entitlements that gave operational meaning to the right to health care that was enshrined in Mexico's 1983 Constitution. The impact of this rights-based health reform, measured through an external evaluation, is discussed in the final section. The main message of this paper is that a clear ethical framework, combined with technical excellence and political skill, can deliver major policy results.

  19. "Decentralised" Neoliberalism and/or "Masked" Re-Centralisation? The Policy to Practice Trajectory of Maltese School Reform through the Lens of Neoliberalism and Foucault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifsud, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The politics of the later part of the twentieth century have been marked by the emergence of neoliberalism, which has consequently impregnated the global policy climate with neoliberal technologies of government. It is within this political scenario of hegemonic neoliberal discourse that I explore one aspect of school reform in Malta--contrived…

  20. Education, Neoliberalism and the Consumer Citizen: After the Golden Age of Egalitarian Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I attempt to explore the implications for education policy arising from aspects of Third Way political thought and its troubled relation to neoliberalism. In particular, the implications for equality arising from Third Way reforms to secondary education are considered. The limits of contestation that mark out the centre ground of UK…

  1. International Comparison of the Influence of Educational Reform on Superintendent Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björk, Lars G.; Johansson, Olof; Bredeson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, the rise of the global economy launched a wide array of social, economic, and political changes in nations throughout the world. Heightened concern about the quality of schools launched what is arguably the most pervasive, intense, and protracted attempts at educational reform in recent history. Examinations of the…

  2. Educational Reform and Educational Research in Central-Eastern Europe: The Case of Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzea, Cesar

    This report describes difficulties in educational reform faced by countries in transition, those post-communist countries from Eastern and Central Europe that have been changing their social, economic, and political systems since 1989. Romania is the case study used for this example and is viewed in terms of four stages: (1) deconstruction, an…

  3. Postcolonial Teacher Education Reform in Namibia: Travelling of Policies and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreman, Inger Erixon; Erixon, Per-Olof; Rehn, Karl-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Long before Namibia's independence in 1990, Sweden initiated a policy dialogue with Namibia's future political leadership. This article reviews the impact of an educational reform in Namibia in the early 1990s called the Integrated Teacher Training Programme (ITTP), which was an outcome of collaboration between the South West African People's…

  4. The Vocational Education and Training System in Bulgaria. Current Situation, Challenges and Reform Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleev, Tzako; Kalandarova, Natalia; Dineva, Nedka; Panev, Georgi; Petrova, Iskra

    This report reviews the current situation of Bulgaria's vocational education and training (VET) system to identify challenges facing the system and areas needing reform. Section 1 explores the following five aspects of Bulgaria's political and socioeconomic situation: (1) demography; (2) economic developments (privatization of state enterprises,…

  5. Imaging the Frame: Media Representations of Teachers, Their Unions, NCLB, and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the political discourse surrounding NCLB, educational reform, and how that discourse shaped perceptions of public education during the Bush Administration. Examining mass media campaigns in the New York Times and Time Magazine, the article demonstrates how the media has visually and textually framed and reinforced NCLB and…

  6. A Concise Analysis of Argentina’s Post-Junta Reform of Its Major Security Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Johannesburg, South Africa: Jan Smuts House, University of the Witwatersrand , 2000), 151. 3 For more on the history of the political influence over the...2003. ———. Police Reform and Democratic Consolidation: Chile. Johannesburg, South Africa: Jan Smuts House, University of the Witwatersrand , 2000

  7. Policy-Making for Education Reform in Developing Countries: Contexts and Processes. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James H.; Cummings, William K.

    2005-01-01

    Here is the first book in a two-volume series designed to help those working, or preparing to work, as education change agents in developing countries. Each volume describes an approach to education reform that is: (1) Political and empirical; (2) A series of choices rather than a single best approach; (3) Implementation-centered; and (4)…

  8. Public and Private in South Korea's Education Reform Vocabulary: An Evolving Statist Culture of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    2004-01-01

    Statism is a political economy that prevails in many East Asian countries. This paper explores its negative role in South Korea's education reform since the restoration of civilian democracy in 1993. It takes note of South Koreans' aberrant use of the terms "public education" and "private education" and the frame of reference…

  9. The Impact of Standards-Based Reform: Applying Brantlinger's Critique of "Hierarchical Ideologies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Jessica; Ferri, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Brantlinger's [2004b. "Ideologies Discerned, Values Determined: Getting past the Hierarchies of Special Education." In "Ideology and the Politics of (in)Exclusion," edited by L. Ware, 11-31. New York: Peter Lang Publishing] critique of hierarchical ideologies lays bare the logics embedded in standards-based reform. Drawing on…

  10. Spectator Democracy: An Intersectional Analysis of Education Reform in Hamburg, Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the theoretical framework of intersectionality to analyze a partially failed school reform measure in Hamburg, Germany and the political conflict over it between 2008 and 2010. The analysis focuses on "the extent to which" and the "mechanisms by which" the interests of marginalized members of the proreform…

  11. Aiming Higher: Meeting the Challenges of Education Reform in Texas. Achieve's Benchmarking Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Texas has spent nearly 2 decades in a slow, steady push for educational reform, and it has successfully adjusted its school improvement initiatives when initial attempts proved off the mark. The Texas record in terms of student achievement has been the subject of some scholarly, and much political, debate over the last 2 years, but this evaluation…

  12. Action Research for Educational Reform: Remodelling Action Research Theories and Practices in Local Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget; Zeichner, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how action research theories and practices are remodelled in local contexts and used to support educational reform. From an analysis of 46 publications from the period 2000-2008, five "variations" in the globalized theory and practice of action research are identified: action research in times of political upheaval and…

  13. Reforming the World Bank: From Social-Liberalism to Neo-Liberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdwood, John

    2007-01-01

    Using an analytics of government perspective, it is argued that neo-liberalism as an art of government, especially its form as North American advanced liberal political reason, has shaped enterprise governance and managerial reform at the World Bank. With a focus on the World Bank as a financial banking enterprise, the article explores questions…

  14. A Comparison of Higher Education Reform in South Korea and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Joon-Young; Bessey, Donata

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we compare two recent university reform projects: the Korean Brain Korea 21 project and the German Universities Excellence Initiative. We describe and compare both projects' goals, selection processes, and preliminary outcomes. While the Korean project is characterized by a relatively high level of political intervention and can…

  15. Higher Education Reform for Quality Higher Education Management in the 21st Century: Economic, Technological, Social, and Political Forces Affecting Higher Education. Proceedings of the 1999 Six-Nation Summit (Hiroshima, Japan, September 20-21, 1999). RIHE International Seminar Reports, No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    This publication presents proceedings from a 1999 conference on higher education reform and quality that involved six countries: China, Germany, Japan, Singapore, Switzerland, and the United States. The first section, "Report of the Six-Nation Higher Education Project," presents "Summary of the Progress of the Higher Education…

  16. Power steering: The politics of utility privatization in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Sunila Sharatkumar

    In this dissertation I offer an explanation for why Indian states are undertaking economic liberalization at different rates, focusing on reforms to the electricity sector. In the period between 1991 and 2003, India's states restructured their electricity systems to vastly different degrees. The dissertation evaluates three variables that feature prominently in the literature on economic policy change: ideological predilections of governing elites, external pressures like those coming from international financial institutions, and state-society interactions. I argue that it is the last explanation, focusing on the degree to which the potential "losers" from reform dominate state politics---that most compellingly accounts for the unevenness in state-level reforms. In my work, I lay greater analytic weight on the role of rural actors than much of the existing literature on the political economy of market reforms. The primary independent variable that explains this variation in reform outcomes is the organization and political strength of societal actors in each state, particularly rural and industrial constituencies, and middle class interests. In some parts of India, the advent of Green Revolution technologies in the late 1960s meant that farmers---chiefly larger landowners---became the primary beneficiaries of extensive development subsidies, including those for electricity. During India's period of economic liberalization in the 1990s, these beneficiaries constituted the main opponents of privatization, which today threatens to change the rules of the game by allocating resources according to market logics. Given these dynamics, where farm sectors are large or well-organized, reform has not proceeded. In the absence of rural political clout, state elites elected to privatize in order to satisfy industrial and urban constituents and signal the state's openness to private capital inflows. By comparing outcomes across states within the single country of India, the

  17. The Effects of Majoring in Political Science on Political Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…

  18. Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…

  19. Human resources: the Cinderella of health sector reform in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Human resources are the most important assets of any health system, and health workforce problems have for decades limited the efficiency and quality of Latin America health systems. World Bank-led reforms aimed at increasing equity, efficiency, quality of care and user satisfaction did not attempt to resolve the human resources problems that had been identified in multiple health sector assessments. However, the two most important reform policies – decentralization and privatization – have had a negative impact on the conditions of employment and prompted opposition from organized professionals and unions. In several countries of the region, the workforce became the most important obstacle to successful reform. This article is based on fieldwork and a review of the literature. It discusses the reasons that led health workers to oppose reform; the institutional and legal constraints to implementing reform as originally designed; the mismatch between the types of personnel needed for reform and the availability of professionals; the deficiencies of the reform implementation process; and the regulatory weaknesses of the region. The discussion presents workforce strategies that the reforms could have included to achieve the intended goals, and the need to take into account the values and political realities of the countries. The authors suggest that autochthonous solutions are more likely to succeed than solutions imported from the outside. PMID:15659241

  20. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  2. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  3. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  4. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    PubMed

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine.

  5. The Politics of Weeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Hope N.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the literature that deals with the political ramifications of weeding material from academic library collections and the need to involve users and other libraries within the institution in the decision process. (14 references) (CLB)

  6. Abortion law reforms in Colombia and Nicaragua: issue networks and opportunity contexts.

    PubMed

    Reuterswärd, Camilla; Zetterberg, Pär; Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi; Molyneux, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses two instances of abortion law reform in Latin America. In 2006, after a decades-long impasse, the highly controversial issue of abortion came to dominate the political agenda when Colombia liberalized its abortion law and Nicaragua adopted a total ban on abortion. The article analyses the central actors in the reform processes, their strategies and the opportunity contexts. Drawing on Htun's (2003) framework, it examines why these processes concluded with opposing legislative outcomes. The authors argue for the need to understand the state as a non-unitary site of politics and policy, and for judicial processes to be seen as a key variable in facilitating gender policy reforms in Latin America. In addition, they argue that ‘windows of opportunity’ such as the timing of elections can be critically important in legislative change processes.

  7. The Beida Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kewen, Shu

    2004-01-01

    Beida is always linked with a sort of fervor, a sort of moral behavior. Although it is not a world-class university, its connections with China's contemporary and modern history make it a great school. The direct motive behind the reform and the mapping out of its system is the pursuit of a sort of efficiency, but it is possible that what will be…

  8. Catalytic reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

    1980-12-09

    An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

  9. 4 CFR 7.3 - Political activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a political party. (8) Political fund means any fund, organization, political action committee, or..., political party, candidate, organization, political action committee, or other entity. (9) Political party means a national political party, a state political party, and an affiliated organization. (b)...

  10. Obesity, courts, and the new politics of public health.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Rogan; Morone, James A

    2005-10-01

    Health care politics are changing. They increasingly focus not on avowedly public projects (such as building the health care infrastructure) but on regulating private behavior. Examples include tobacco, obesity, abortion, drug abuse, the right to die, and even a patient's relationship with his or her managed care organization. Regulating private behavior introduces a distinctive policy process; it alters the way we introduce (or frame) political issues and shifts many important decisions from the legislatures to the courts. In this article, we illustrate the politics of private regulation by following a dramatic case, obesity, through the political process. We describe how obesity evolved from a private matter to a political issue. We then assess how different political institutions have responded and conclude that courts will continue to take the leading role.

  11. Politics of Persuasion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conform to social and political standards of appropriateness, the ethics of persuasion, and the social sanctions given to the change agent. An analysis...of the techniques used by salesmen, police interrogators, and volunteers canvassing for political candidates helps make explicit some of these...fundamental assumptions. In the process of presenting these general analyses, extractions from police training manuals and improvised tactics used to

  12. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, W.E.; Markley, G.E.

    1984-04-03

    A process wherein, in a series of reforming zones, or reactors, each of which contains a bed, or beds of catalyst, the catalyst in the rearward most reforming zones is constituted of a high rhenium, platinum rhenium catalyst, viz., a catalyst comprising supported platinum and a relatively high concentration of rhenium relative to the platinum, and preferably the catalyst in the forwardmost reforming zone, or reactor of the series, is constituted of platinum, or platinum and a relatively low concentration of rhenium relative to the platinum. At least 30 percent, preferably from 40 percent to about 90 percent, of the rearward most reactors of the unit, or even 100 percent, based on the total weight of the catalyst in all of the reactors of the unit, contain a high rhenium, platinum rhenium catalyst, the weight ratio of rhenium:platinum being at least about 1.5:1. The beds of catalyst are contacted with a hydrocarbon or naphtha feed, and hydrogen, and the reaction continued for a period of at least 700 hours, preferably from about 700 hours to about 2750 hours, while conducting the reaction at temperatures ranging from about 850/sup 0/ F. to about 950/sup 0/ F. (E.I.T.), at pressures ranging from about 150 psig to about 350 psig, and at gas rates ranging from about 2500 SCF/B to about 4500 SCF/B.

  13. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  14. Health sector reform and reproductive health in Latin America and the Caribbean: strengthening the links.

    PubMed Central

    Langer, A.; Nigenda, G.; Catino, J.

    2000-01-01

    Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are currently reforming their national health sectors and also implementing a comprehensive approach to reproductive health care. Three regional workshops to explore how health sector reform could improve reproductive health services have revealed the inherently complex, competing, and political nature of health sector reform and reproductive health. The objectives of reproductive health care can run parallel to those of health sector reform in that both are concerned with promoting equitable access to high quality care by means of integrated approaches to primary health care, and by the involvement of the public in setting health sector priorities. However, there is a serious risk that health reforms will be driven mainly by financial and/or political considerations and not by the need to improve the quality of health services as a basic human right. With only limited changes to the health systems in many Latin American and Caribbean countries and a handful of examples of positive progress resulting from reforms, the gap between rhetoric and practice remains wide. PMID:10859860

  15. Education Reform in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-23

    several U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations.7 The JUI chief, Fazlur Rehman, was in May 2004 named as Leader of the Opposition in...Pakistan’s Islamist political parties, which are seen to be an CRS-6 17 John Lancaster and Kamran Khan , “At an Islamic School, Hints of Extremist Ties

  16. School Food Politics: The Complex Ecology of Hunger and Feeding in Schools around the World. Global Studies in Education, Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Sarah A., Ed.; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in "School Food Politics" explore the intersections of food and politics on all six of the inhabited continents of the world. Including electoral fights over universally free school meals in Korea, nutritional reforms to school dinners in England and canteens in Australia, teachers' and doctors' work on school feeding in…

  17. Political Speeches and Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Christina

    1996-01-01

    Argues that any political action is prepared, controlled and influenced by language. Notes that the study of language has become more central to academic disciplines concerned with politics. Political scientists focus on the consequences of political decisions and actions for a society, whereas linguists concentrate on the linguistic structures…

  18. Integrated reforming/aromatization process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes an integrated process for increasing the gasoline yield from a catalytic reforming process. It comprises: charging a naphtha boiling range feedstream to a catalytic reforming reaction zone under reforming conversion conditions; withdrawing a reactor effluent stream from the reforming reaction zone; separating the reactor effluent stream into a hydrogen-rich gas stream and an unstabilized reformate stream; further separating the unstabilized reformate in a fractionator into an overhead stream containing C{sub 4} - components and a bottom stream containing C{sub 6} + components; charging the fractionator overhead stream to a catalytic aromatization zone under aromatization conversion conditions; withdrawing an aromatization zone effluent stream from the aromatization zone; cooling the aromatization zone effluent stream; separating the cooled aromatization zone effluent steam into a C{sub 4} - stream and a C{sub 5} + stream; and refluxing the C{sub 5} + aromatic gasoline stream to the fractionation zone.

  19. Successful First Reforms - The Tough Ones Lie Ahead: A Strategic Assessment of Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    supplies 20-30? b of all heroin and more than 5 3% of all mqported maquana to the US market / Illegal immigratzoit is a “safety valve”: Poor economic...mcludmg improvements m education Masswe poverty and extreme mequaht) Jeopardize political reforms, especially to tenuous democratic governments...crushing, grmdmg, poverty , that , rate das Jumped by 5 2% durmg this decade of democractlc and economic reforms The rush to urbamzatlon. as peasants leave

  20. Changing Ideological-Political Orientations in Chinese Moral Education: Some Personal and Professional Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maosen, Li

    2011-01-01

    Moral education in the People's Republic of China is dominated by ideological-political orientations. However, in the last 30 years China has experienced extensive economic reform, bringing about many social changes, such as decreasing reliance on the state-owned workplace, increasing private property ownership and enhancement of the rule of law.…

  1. The Egyptian Press: An Historical View of Its Importance in Political Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John

    This report traces the development of the Egyptian press, from its origin with the arrival of the first printing press in 1789 to the present free press policies of Anwar Sadat. Because political struggle and social reform have accompanied the educational and cultural progress of Egypt, the news publications have traditionally been utilitarian.…

  2. Education Markets, the New Politics of Recognition and the Increasing Fatalism towards Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Sally; Frandji, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the complex ways in which the marketisation of education and the associated publication of performance data have contributed to the emergence of a new politics of recognition which has paradoxically served further to naturalise educational inequalities. Of all the reforms associated with subjecting education to market forces,…

  3. The Nigerian State and Global Economic Crises: Socio-Political Implications and Policy Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaopa, O. R.; Ogundari, I. O.; Akindele, S. T.; Hassan, O. M.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how economic reforms, as a reaction to the effects of the global financial crises, have intensified popular unrests and redefined the composition, interests, and socio-economic and political attitudes of Nigeria's increasingly complex social strata. We relied basically on secondary data to analyze some of the fundamental…

  4. Thinking Whimsically: Queering the Study of Educational Policy-Making and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.; Murphy, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses employing queer theory (QT) and queer legal theory (QLT) for critical policy analysis as applied to education. In doing so, the authors will highlight how both QT and QLT can empower analyses to look beyond the identity politics of a particular time period or space and toward potential reforms in curriculum, pedagogy, and…

  5. The Politics of Diversifying Basic Education Delivery: A Comparative Analysis from East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppers, Wim

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the politics and policy-making of alternative forms of basic education in the context of EFA, with an emphasis on non-formal education (NFE) for school-age children. It explores how policy-makers interpret the relevance of such alternatives, the steps that are taken to implement the reforms and factors that play a role in…

  6. School and the Future: How Teachers and Teacher Education Are Articulated in the Political Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssell, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To Govern in the name of the future is considered to be an essential part of policy-making in education. In Sweden, this is particularly evident in the political and public rhetoric used in debates on modern schooling and educational reform. However, this is not merely a national phenomenon; rather, educational governance in the name of the future…

  7. Pedagogy, Performance and Politics: Issues in the Study of Primary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, R. J.; Kyriakides, L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an essay review of Inside the Primary Classroom, 20 Years On, which reports on a 1976 study of teacher-student interaction in English elementary classrooms (the ORACLE project) and discusses the next 20 years of elementary education in England, examining curriculum reform, educational policy, educational research, and related politics.…

  8. Assembling the "Accomplished" Teacher: The Performativity and Politics of Professional Teaching Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Set within the socio-political context of standards-based education reform, this article explores the constitutive role of teaching standards in the production of the practice and identity of the "accomplished" teacher. It contrasts two idioms for thinking about and studying these standards, the representational and the performative. Utilising the…

  9. Educational Reevaluation, Political Transformation: Québec and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the history of Québec's higher education system and the reforms that have contributed to the role of education in the province. Québec's education system has repeatedly been a site for social and political transformation; most recently, reevaluation of education's role in the province has revealed a tension between…

  10. Ethics and the politics of advancing nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-04-01

    The politics of academia involve intricate human relationships that are political in nature as nurse leaders and scholars struggle to advance nursing science with complex leading-following situations. This article begins a dialogue of considering potential meanings for what it means to be political within competing interest groups in academia, and within the discipline of nursing. What is most important in the struggle for identity and what possibilities surface when potential competing interests in academia collide? The ethical tenets of humanbecoming and the leading-following model are used to illustrate issues surrounding academic integrity and possibilities for the advancement of nursing scholarship in future generations.

  11. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  12. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  13. [Health reform in the USA].

    PubMed

    Ganduglia, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The United States of America passed early this year the bill enforcing their health reform. this reform aims at achieving universal insurance, cost containment and improving quality of care. The debate around this reform has been long and unable to arrive to an agreement between the parts. Even if the expansion in the medical coverage system does not reduce to zero the current degree of inaccessibility to the health system, these achievements could be considered a very important first step. Nonetheless, chances are that this reform will continue being as polemic as the negotiations previous to its conception.

  14. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  15. Student Views of Teacher Actions in Science Classrooms Designed to Meet Current Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan; Dogan, Ozgur Kivilcan; Yager, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Science/Technology/Society (STS) as a reform effort has been active in Iowa for three decades. A program called Iowa Chautauqua has evolved over the four decades to promote K-12 STS teaching in Iowa's 300 school districts. This is a study of how teachers have become Teacher Leaders of the reforms and lead other teachers who enroll as new teachers…

  16. A New Direction for Educational Reforms in the 21st Century: Hong Kong and International Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    Many educational reforms that have focused on fragmentary improvement and remedial treatment did not lead to long-term effectiveness. This paper examines a new direction for educational reforms in Hong Kong and other international contexts. The new direction should include the following 10 tendencies: (1) toward multiple school functions from…

  17. [The political project and governance capacities].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical overview of personal and institutional governance capacities (experience, leadership and knowledge on the individual level, and organizational capital available on the institutional level) and their relationship to politics and policies in the Latin American context. Using the theoretical production of Carlos Matus regarding the act of governing, diverse dimensions of this problem are put into discussion in relation to other authors and experiences in different historical moments. Theories, methods and techniques of government are explored and the need for state reform with an internal logic is analyzed. It is concluded that there is a need to build a theory for the practice of governing/managing public organizations, and this construction requires creative actions that use theory as a toolbox.

  18. Norms in tension: democracy and efficiency in Bangladeshi health and population sector reform.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Wu, Yonghong

    2003-11-01

    Spurred on by donors, a number of developing countries are in the midst of fundamental health and population sector reform. Focused on the performance-oriented norms of efficiency and effectiveness, reformers have paid insufficient attention to the process-oriented norms of sovereignty and democracy. As a result, citizens of sovereign states have been largely excluded from the deliberative process. This paper draws on political science and public administration theory to evaluate the Bangladeshi reform experience. It does so with reference to the norms of efficiency, effectiveness, sovereignty and democracy as a means of making explicit the values that need to be considered in order to make health and population sector reform a fair process.

  19. National Health Insurance or Incremental Reform: Aim High, or at Our Feet?

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, David U.; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2008-01-01

    Single-payer national health insurance could cover the uninsured and upgrade coverage for most Americans without increasing costs; savings on insurance overhead and other bureaucracy would fully offset the costs of improved care. In contrast, proposed incremental reforms are projected to cover a fraction of the uninsured, at great cost. Moreover, even these projections are suspect; reforms of the past quarter century have not stemmed the erosion of coverage. Despite incrementalists’ claims of pragmatism, they have proven unable to shepherd meaningful reform through the political system. While national health insurance is often dismissed as ultra left by the policy community, it is dead center in public opinion. Polls have consistently shown that at least 40%, and perhaps 60%, of Americans favor such reform. PMID:18687624

  20. National Health Insurance or Incremental Reform: Aim High, or at Our Feet?

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, David U.; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2003-01-01

    Single-payer national health insurance could cover the uninsured and upgrade coverage for most Americans without increasing costs; savings on insurance overhead and other bureaucracy would fully offset the costs of improved care. In contrast, proposed incremental reforms are projected to cover a fraction of the uninsured, at great cost. Moreover, even these projections are suspect; reforms of the past quarter century have not stemmed the erosion of coverage. Despite incrementalists’ claims of pragmatism, they have proven unable to shepherd meaningful reform through the political system. While national health insurance is often dismissed as ultra left by the policy community, it is dead center in public opinion. Polls have consistently shown that at least 40%, and perhaps 60%, of Americans favor such reform. PMID:12511395