Science.gov

Sample records for politically constrained world

  1. Performance of redirected walking algorithms in a constrained virtual world.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Eric; Bachmann, Eric; Thrash, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Redirected walking algorithms imperceptibly rotate a virtual scene about users of immersive virtual environment systems in order to guide them away from tracking area boundaries. Ideally, these distortions permit users to explore large unbounded virtual worlds while walking naturally within a physically limited space. Many potential virtual worlds are composed of corridors, passageways, or aisles. Assuming users are not expected to walk through walls or other objects within the virtual world, these constrained worlds limit the directions of travel and as well as the number of opportunities to change direction. The resulting differences in user movement characteristics within the physical world have an impact on redirected walking algorithm performance. This work presents a comparison of generalized RDW algorithm performance within a constrained virtual world. In contrast to previous studies involving unconstrained virtual worlds, experimental results indicate that the steer-to-orbit keeps users in a smaller area than the steer-to-center algorithm. Moreover, in comparison to steer-to-center, steer-to-orbit is shown to reduce potential wall contacts by over 29%.

  2. Force and Accommodation in World Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    the surfaceawiderange offactors and processes which are central to international politics in general . Such elements as power configurations, interests... generalizations , often reflected in dramatic rhetoric, to develop policy . Since this rhetoric is more often than not directed at a domestic political audience, it... politics in general . In a crisis they tend to leap out at the observer. It may be too much to hope that significant "truths" about the use ofinducements

  3. Teaching About the Future of World Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, A. LeRoy

    1977-01-01

    From the literature on economic, scientific, technological, social, and political futurism an appropriate selection has been made for an undergraduate college course on the future of politics, which has twice been offered at the University of Delaware. Justification and features of the course are described. (LBH)

  4. Legitimacy and Identity in Teacher Education: A Micro-Political Struggle Constrained by Macro-Political Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimmett, Peter P.; Fleming, Rob; Trotter, Lane

    2009-01-01

    To gain a clear sense of teacher educators at work, we need to look closely at the context in which they practice. Any attempt to address the questions of what works and the nature of evidence must be situated in the macro-political context that constrains the work of teacher educators struggling for legitimacy and identity within both the…

  5. Political Compromise Makes the World Go 'Round

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Diana

    2007-01-01

    Compromise in any context is often hard to accept. It feels like a person is giving up on his or her ideals. This is especially true in dealing with politics. Legislative and congressional bills can be written with the highest of ideals in mind. By the time the bill progresses through committees and the floor debate process, it can look like a…

  6. Chaos in World Politics: A Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Manuel Alberto Martins; Filipe, José António Candeias Bonito; Coelho, Manuel F. P.; Pedro, Isabel C.

    Chaos theory results from natural scientists' findings in the area of non-linear dynamics. The importance of related models has increased in the last decades, by studying the temporal evolution of non-linear systems. In consequence, chaos is one of the concepts that most rapidly have been expanded in what research topics respects. Considering that relationships in non-linear systems are unstable, chaos theory aims to understand and to explain this kind of unpredictable aspects of nature, social life, the uncertainties, the nonlinearities, the disorders and confusion, scientifically it represents a disarray connection, but basically it involves much more than that. The existing close relationship between change and time seems essential to understand what happens in the basics of chaos theory. In fact, this theory got a crucial role in the explanation of many phenomena. The relevance of this kind of theories has been well recognized to explain social phenomena and has permitted new advances in the study of social systems. Chaos theory has also been applied, particularly in the context of politics, in this area. The goal of this chapter is to make a reflection on chaos theory - and dynamical systems such as the theories of complexity - in terms of the interpretation of political issues, considering some kind of events in the political context and also considering the macro-strategic ideas of states positioning in the international stage.

  7. Beyond a Politics of the Plural in World Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Curt

    2014-01-01

    This article explores three recent books related to World Englishes studies and considers ways they overtly and implicitly frame the politics of the field. The author also describes some of his own experiences working with graduate students that suggest a disruption of traditional dichotomies between single standard and pluralistic models of…

  8. The Policy Relevance of Models in World Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-10-01

    1971, Young, Gran B. "The Perils of Odysseus : On Constructing Theories of International Relations," World Politics Supplement on Theory and Policy in International Relations. 1971. -■--—•■■ —■■■■ -■■-’- ■--

  9. THE POLITICAL WORLD OF THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZEIGLER, HARMON

    AS A POLITICAL LEADER AND AS A COMMUNICATOR OF POLITICAL IDEAS TO STUDENTS, THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER IS INVESTIGATED IN FOUR SITUATIONS--(1) REACTING TO JOB AND ENVIRONMENT, (2) PARTICIPATING IN AN INTEREST GROUP, (3) EXPRESSING POLITICAL VALUES IN CLASS, AND (4) REACTING TO COMMUNITY SANCTIONS. THE STUDY IS BASED UPON INTERVIEWS WITH 803 OREGON…

  10. Political Tides in the Arab World. Headline Series No. 296

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muslih, Muhammad; Norton, Augustus Richard

    This booklet examines the post-Persian Gulf War Middle East and the reconfiguration of political reality. Six chapters discuss: the Arab crisis; Iraq's invasion of Kuwait; the Arab systems of government; new political alignments; windows of opportunity; and building on the Gulf victory. An annotated reading list consisting of 22 items is attached.…

  11. Designing a brave new world: eugenics, politics, and fiction.

    PubMed

    Woiak, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Aldous Huxley composed Brave New World in the context of the Depression and the eugenics movement in Britain. Today his novel is best known as satirical and predictive, but an additional interpretation emerges from Huxley's nonfiction writings in which the liberal hurmanist expressed some surprising opinions about eugenics, citizenship, and meritocracy. He felt that his role as an artist and public intellectual was to formulate an evolving outlook on urgent social, scientific, and moral issues. His brave new world can therefore be understood as a serious design for social reform, as well as a commentary about the social uses of scientific knowledge.

  12. Political Restructuring and Community Change throughout the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Pauline; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Includes "The Case of Western Europe: Integration and Change in the EEC--The Fortress and the Excluded" (Conroy); "The Case of Eastern Europe: Why Community Development Still Has to Find a Role in Hungary" (Tausz); and "The Case of the Third World: People's Self-Development (Rahman). (SK)

  13. Spatially constrained adaptive rewiring in cortical networks creates spatially modular small world architectures.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Nicholas; Trengove, Chris; Steur, Erik; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2014-12-01

    A modular small-world topology in functional and anatomical networks of the cortex is eminently suitable as an information processing architecture. This structure was shown in model studies to arise adaptively; it emerges through rewiring of network connections according to patterns of synchrony in ongoing oscillatory neural activity. However, in order to improve the applicability of such models to the cortex, spatial characteristics of cortical connectivity need to be respected, which were previously neglected. For this purpose we consider networks endowed with a metric by embedding them into a physical space. We provide an adaptive rewiring model with a spatial distance function and a corresponding spatially local rewiring bias. The spatially constrained adaptive rewiring principle is able to steer the evolving network topology to small world status, even more consistently so than without spatial constraints. Locally biased adaptive rewiring results in a spatial layout of the connectivity structure, in which topologically segregated modules correspond to spatially segregated regions, and these regions are linked by long-range connections. The principle of locally biased adaptive rewiring, thus, may explain both the topological connectivity structure and spatial distribution of connections between neuronal units in a large-scale cortical architecture.

  14. Comparing an Aesthetic and a Political Approach to Teaching World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Evelyn T.; Napier, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to examine the effects on student achievement and attitudes of an integrated approach to teaching world history (termed the aesthetic approach) by comparing it to a traditional approach (termed a political approach). Findings indicated that the aesthetic approach was a more effective means of presenting a broad range…

  15. Spatiotemporal requirements of the Hainan gibbon: Does home range constrain recovery of the world's rarest ape?

    PubMed

    Bryant, Jessica V; Zeng, Xingyuan; Hong, Xiaojiang; Chatterjee, Helen J; Turvey, Samuel T

    2017-03-01

    Conservation management requires an evidence-based approach, as uninformed decisions can signify the difference between species recovery and loss. The Hainan gibbon, the world's rarest ape, reportedly exploits the largest home range of any gibbon species, with these apparently large spatial requirements potentially limiting population recovery. However, previous home range assessments rarely reported survey methods, effort, or analytical approaches, hindering critical evaluation of estimate reliability. For extremely rare species where data collection is challenging, it also is unclear what impact such limitations have on estimating home range requirements. We re-evaluated Hainan gibbon spatial ecology using 75 hr of observations from 35 contact days over 93 field-days across dry (November 2010-February 2011) and wet (June 2011-September 2011) seasons. We calculated home range area for three social groups (N = 21 individuals) across the sampling period, seasonal estimates for one group (based on 24 days of observation; 12 days per season), and between-group home range overlap using multiple approaches (Minimum Convex Polygon, Kernel Density Estimation, Local Convex Hull, Brownian Bridge Movement Model), and assessed estimate reliability and representativeness using three approaches (Incremental Area Analysis, spatial concordance, and exclusion of expected holes). We estimated a yearly home range of 1-2 km(2) , with 1.49 km(2) closest to the median of all estimates. Although Hainan gibbon spatial requirements are relatively large for gibbons, our new estimates are smaller than previous estimates used to explain the species' limited recovery, suggesting that habitat availability may be less important in limiting population growth. We argue that other ecological, genetic, and/or anthropogenic factors are more likely to constrain Hainan gibbon recovery, and conservation attention should focus on elucidating and managing these factors.

  16. The environment as radical politics: Can ?Third World? education rise to the challenge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    1994-01-01

    The pattern of industrial development which has been adopted globally in the last two centuries by both capitalist and socialist economies has caused unprecedented damage to the physical and ecological health of our planet. This paper argues that any challenges to these systems, including educational challenges, will involve political understanding and activism. It examines the potential of educational structures in Third World regions, using the Caribbean as the main example, for implementing eco-political education. This would involve encouraging students to use ecological and social justice criteria for comparing consumerist with sustainable development approaches to rethinking and refashioning the international economy, particularly the Third World share of it. It would involve teachers and students exploring how political and economic structures could be challenged and altered to obtain a fairer quality of life for the majorities now living in poverty and an adjustment of the opulent and wasteful lifestyles of affluent minorities primarily responsible for environmental degradation. Finally, those in eco-political education would work to achieve such goals within broad movements and pressure groups in rich and poor countries.

  17. The Role of Games and Simulations to Teach Abstract Concepts of Anarchy, Cooperation, and Conflict in World Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Games and simulations are increasingly used in courses on international politics. This study explores the hypothesis that games are better than simulations (as well as only reading and lectures) in introducing students to abstract concepts integral to an understanding of world politics. The study compares a two-level Prisoner's Dilemma game…

  18. Multinational corporations, the politics of the world economy, and their effects on women's health in the developing world: a review.

    PubMed

    Hippert, Christine

    2002-12-01

    Presently, globalization and the world economy maintain power relations that hamper the economic integrity and the political autonomy of the developing world. My paper addresses specific economic conditions that perpetuate poverty and poor health. I examine multinational corporations and their effects on women's health, particularly in Mexico and parts of Asia. The advent of multinational corporate business in Mexico, Malaysia, Philippines, India, and Indonesia has led to increased poverty and human rights abuses. Women bear the brunt of this because of specific international economic arrangements and their low social status, both locally and globally. As a result, their physical, mental, and emotional health is suffering. Solutions to these health problems have been proposed on multiple levels: international top-down approaches (i.e., employing international protectionist regulatory standards, exposing multinationals who infringe on their workers' human rights), as well as local grassroots organizational campaigns (i.e., conducting informational human rights workshops for factory workers). Ultimately, the answers lie in holding corporations accountable to their laborers while developing countries maintain their comparative advantage; this is the only way women's health will improve and the developing world can entice corporate investment.

  19. Developing drugs for the developing world: an economic, legal, moral, and political dilemma.

    PubMed

    Resnik, D B

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light of economic, social, legal, political, and other conditions. How a company decides to exercise its social responsibilities to the developing world depends on (1) the prospects for a reasonable profit and (2) the prospects for a productive business environment. Developing nations can either help or hinder the pharmaceutical industry's efforts to exercise social responsibility through various policies and practices. To insure that companies can make a reasonable profit, developing nations should honor pharmaceutical product patents and adhere to international intellectual property treaties, such as the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. To insure the companies have a good business environment, developing nations should try to promote the rule of law, ethical business practices, stable currencies, reliable banking systems, free and open markets, democracy, and other conditions conducive to business. Overall, this paper advocates for reciprocity and cooperation between pharmaceutical companies and developing nations to address the problem of developing drugs for the developing world. In pursuing this cooperative approach, developing nations may use a variety of other techniques to encourage pharmaceutical companies to act responsibly, such as subsidizing pharmaceutical research, helping to design and implement research protocols, providing a guaranteed market, and

  20. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  1. International political socialization of sixth grade elementary children: What and how do Japanese and Thai children know about the world?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Jo Ann Cutler; Zandan, Peter A.

    1981-09-01

    This study investigates cognitive and affective components of Japanese and Thai children's attitudes toward international political socialization. The survey results report how children feel about people from other nations, international political institutions, and their country's involvement with the world community. An important concern of the study is the assessment of how much accurate knowledge Japanese and Thai elementary school children have about other nations. This study includes information on children's feelings about, and knowledge of such problems as warfare between nations, world government, stereotypic thinking about people not belonging to one's own culture and awareness of cross-cultural diffusion between Japan, Thailand and other nations.

  2. Climate Change: A Future of Less Water and More people - Strategies for a Water Constrained World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahai, D.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the fact that the Earth is warming is indisputable. The evidence of climate change is already all around us, with the occurence of ever more intense weather events, droughts, heat waves, floods and sea level rise. Predictions of greater calamities in the future without swift action must be taken seriously. However, while international summits have focused on means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these are largely strategies of containment, not of cure. Even if emissions were to cease today, the current effects of climate change would remain with us for millenia. This is clear from the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The world must not only tackle the causes of global warming; it must adapt to the damage already done. This need is most acute where water supply is concerned. The world already faces daunting chalenges. According to United Nations' reports, even today 1.8 million children under 5 die from water related diseases every year; 900 million people lack access to safe drinking water; and 2.6 billion go without basic sanitation. In the developing world, 90% of sewage is discharged to water bodies without adequate treatment contributing to "dead zones". Population increases will make matters worse (an addition of around 3 billion people by 2050 is expected) and climate change will compound the crisis. It is forecast that, as the Earth warms, deserts will expand and droughts will intensify causing demographic shifts even as the world's population burgeons. We are already seeing different regions react to water shortages. Many countries are pursuing seawater desalination. However, seawater desalination has numerous drawbacks; it remains the most expensive of water treatment options and the most energy intensive. Some societies may have no choice but to turn to the sea; others should look to other alternatives first. Such frontrunners could include: (1) enhanced conservation, utilizing public education programs, price

  3. Bioenergy and the importance of land use policy in a carbon-constrained world

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2010-06-01

    Policies aimed at limiting anthropogenic climate change would result in significant transformations of the energy and land-use systems. However, increasing the demand for bioenergy could have a tremendous impact on land use, and can result in land clearing and deforestation. Wise et al. (2009a,b) analyzed an idealized policy to limit the indirect land use change emissions from bioenergy. The policy, while effective, would be difficult, if not impossible, to implement in the real world. In this paper, we consider several different land use policies that deviate from this first-best, using the Joint Global Change Research Institute’s Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Specifically, these new frameworks are (1) a policy that focuses on just the above-ground or vegetative terrestrial carbon rather than the total carbon, (2) policies that focus exclusively on incentivizing and protecting forestland, and (3) policies that apply an economic penalty on the use of biomass as a proxy to limit indirect land use change emissions. For each policy, we examine its impact on land use, land-use change emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, agricultural supply, and food prices.

  4. 'Our struggles are bigger than the World Cup': civic activism, state-society relations and the socio-political legacies of the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Scarlett

    2012-06-01

    South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup saw a large number of public demonstrations, strikes and other forms of civic campaigning. World Cup activism was both preceded and followed by extensive and intensifying public unrest and industrial action that in the period before the tournament, threatened to derail the event. This paper assesses the motivations, forms and implications of the activism during South Africa's staging of the FIFA finals and interprets them against the larger context of shifting state-society relations in the country. There are two purposes to the analysis. First, to explore the underlying internal social forces that gave shape to the protests at the time, and the possible influence of the exogenous politics of mega-event social mobilization. Second, the implications and outcomes of these dynamics for longer term socio-political processes in the country are considered. The activism displayed many of the features of the politics of contestation of sport mega-events today. Importantly, however, the activism stemmed from a particular systemic dynamic and reflected changing relations in the post-apartheid political community. Therefore, while the World Cup was used as a strategic opportunity by many advocacy groups, it was one that rather fleetingly and ambivalently presented an additional platform to such groups in an otherwise on-going set of political battles. Rather than a strong case study of sport's transformative capacity, the civic campaigning during South Africa's World Cup demonstrates the way a sport mega-event can be used as a strategic entry point by civil society groups in their engagement with the state, although this can occur with greater or lesser success.

  5. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2011-01-01

    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  6. Making Citizens of the World: The Political Socialization of Youth in Formal Mass Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Fabrega, Rodrigo; Baker, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Unique cross-national data on adolescents' civic skills, knowledge, and political attitudes are used to examine the democratic processes of modern mass schooling, effects of national political systems, and patterns of youth political socialization in 27 nations. Compared to the generally weak reported effects on mathematics and reading…

  7. Baby boom. American anti-abortion politics blocks family planning funding around the world.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, S

    1998-01-01

    American anti-abortion politics is blocking family planning (FP) funding around the world. US Representative Chris Smith, a Republican of New Jersey, attempted to amend a proposal that would require health-care providers of federal workers who cover prescription drugs to also pay for prescribed contraceptives. Smith's amendment would have exempted any contraceptive that inhibits implantation. This action was defeated but clearly revealed that this anti-abortion politician's agenda is also anti-FP. The right-wing has hampered Clinton administration efforts to support reproductive rights. There is a link between FP and the survival of the planet from an environmentalist point of view that recognizes the extreme danger of the resource depletion attendant upon overpopulation. The Vatican's opposition to reproductive rights has resulted in serious restrictions on the delivery of reproductive health care in cases where public hospitals have merged with Roman Catholic health corporations. The population problem is "fixable" but efforts to do so remain deadlocked by a vocal minority of conservatives.

  8. At the Roots of The World Health Organization’s Challenges: Politics and Regionalization

    PubMed Central

    Cueto, Marcu; Brown, Theodore M.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) leadership challenges can be traced to its first decades of existence. Central to its governance and practice is regionalization: the division of its member countries into regions, each representing 1 geographical or cultural area. The particular composition of each region has varied over time—reflecting political divisions and especially decolonization. Currently, the 194 member countries belong to 6 regions: the Americas (35 countries), Europe (53 countries), the Eastern Mediterranean (21 countries), South-East Asia (11 countries), the Western Pacific (27 countries), and Africa (47 countries). The regions have considerable autonomy with their own leadership, budget, and priorities. This regional organization has been controversial since its beginnings in the first days of WHO, when representatives of the European countries believed that each country should have a direct relationship with the headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, whereas others (especially the United States) argued in favor of the regionalization plan. Over time, regional directors have inevitably challenged the WHO directors-general over their degree of autonomy, responsibilities and duties, budgets, and national composition; similar tensions have occurred within regions. This article traces the historical roots of these challenges. PMID:27715303

  9. School Food Politics: The Complex Ecology of Hunger and Feeding in Schools around the World. Global Studies in Education, Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Sarah A., Ed.; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in "School Food Politics" explore the intersections of food and politics on all six of the inhabited continents of the world. Including electoral fights over universally free school meals in Korea, nutritional reforms to school dinners in England and canteens in Australia, teachers' and doctors' work on school feeding in…

  10. Power and Identity: Tribalism in World Politics. Headline Series No. 246.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Harold R.

    This booklet examines modern foreign policy based on deep-seated complexities of historical, cultural, national, religious, and racial practices and beliefs. In examining current policy issues, 'the web of the past' creates the deeply subjective sources of political behavior shaping events and conflicts. Chapters include: (1) "The Hard and the…

  11. Contesting Public Monolingualism and Diglossia: Rethinking Political Theory and Language Policy for a Multilingual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In many language policy and political theory discussions, there is an overt skepticism, and at times outright hostility, towards the ongoing maintenance of private and, especially, public multilingualism, particularly when these include/incorporate the languages of linguistic minorities. For linguistic minority individuals, ongoing multilingualism…

  12. Appreciating the World: A Framework for Doing Socio-Political Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    38 Constructivism .......................................................................................................... 42...Making Process MMAS Masters of Military Arts and Science PMESII-PT Political, Military, Economic, Social , Information, Infrastructure, Physical...any level. A collaborative application of the three primary international relations theories (realism, liberalism, and constructivism ) provides an

  13. Thinking about Language: What Political Theorists Need to Know about Language in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricento, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Political theorists, generally non-experts in the language sciences, whose principal aim is often to advance normative theories on desirable states of affairs within liberal democratic states, tend to deal with language as a stable nominal category, as something that one "has" or "doesn't have", that can be labeled as one…

  14. Political Economy of Higher Education: Comparing South Africa to Trends in the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrivastava, Meenal; Shrivastava, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Education is one of the major linchpins of economic, social and political development of any nation. Recent evidence suggests that higher education can produce both public and private benefits. Thus, the role of the state in making education policy, and funding education is indeed critical, and cannot be left to be determined by market forces…

  15. Promoting change through political consciousness: a South African speech-language pathology response to the World Report on Disability.

    PubMed

    Kathard, Harsha; Pillay, Mershen

    2013-02-01

    In the context of the World Report on Disability, Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall (2013) question how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) change practices to benefit under-served people with communication disability. This commentary provides a South African response premised on Political Consciousness. In South Africa, a grossly unequal society, the under-served population is not only those with communication disability but also include those who are at a communication disadvantage due to disabling conditions. As a consequence of the combined effects of a severe shortage of SLPs as well as maldistribution in service provision, the under-served are mainly poor Black South Africans who are the majority population. Political Consciousness allows one to examine how selected forces at the macro-level, meso-level, and micro-level may enable or limit services to the under-served majority. At a macro-level, this study appraises policies and actions advancing and impeding service delivery. At the meso-level it is argued that hegemonic professional knowledge is limiting and an equity-driven population-based approach is advocated. At a micro-level, the Relationship of Labouring Affinities is offered as a conceptual tool for critical engagement. In conclusion, it is suggested that the speech-language pathology profession must collectively become political actors at all levels to effect change.

  16. Bridging Worlds in the Social Studies Classroom:Teachers' Practices and Latino Immigrant Youths' Civic and Political Development

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Rebecca M.; Obenchain, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prior research suggests that high school experiences shape young adult political behaviors, particularly among immigrant youth. The U.S. social studies classroom, focused on democratic citizenship education, proves an interesting socializing institution. Methods Through qualitative inquiry, we interviewed Latino immigrant young adults and their former teachers regarding their high school social studies experiences and evolving political and civic engagement. Findings indicate that armed with experience bridging the worlds of the school and home, immigrant students respond and relate to the content and pedagogy of the social studies classroom in such a way that they (1) participate in civic discourse and (2) nurture a disposition toward leadership through teachers' civic expectations of them and instructional emphasis on critical thinking skills. Social Implications The ability to engage in civic discourse and a disposition toward leadership are both necessary to foster America's democratic ideals, and to take on leadership roles during adulthood. With focused effort on the unique perspective of immigrant youth, high school social studies teachers can nurture in these students the ability to become leaders in young adulthood, broadening the potential leadership pool. Originality This study highlights how the social studies curriculum may be particularly salient to Latino immigrant youth as they transition from adolescence to young adulthood and develop their political and civic identities. PMID:25364306

  17. Collaborative Learning across Physical and Virtual Worlds: Factors Supporting and Constraining Learners in a Blended Reality Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Lee, Mark J. W.; Dalgarno, Barney

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of a pilot study investigating factors that supported and constrained collaborative learning in a blended reality environment. Pre-service teachers at an Australian university took part in a hybrid tutorial lesson involving a mixture of students who were co-located in the same face-to-face (F2F) classroom along…

  18. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  19. Education, Philosophy and Politics: The Selected Works of Michael A. Peters. World Library of Educationalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    In the World Library of Educationalists series, international experts themselves compile career-long collections of what they judge to be their finest pieces--extracts from books, key articles, salient research findings, major theoretical and/practical contributions--so the world can read them in a single manageable volume. Michael A. Peters has…

  20. Not just a man's world: women's political leadership in the American labor movement.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew W

    2014-07-01

    Although women have long played an important role in working class struggles, most leadership positions in unions have been held by men. Organized labor's recent shift towards social movement unionism has lead to a sense of optimism among those pressing for more gender equality among labor's elite. Yet scholarship on gender and power in other settings, including political institutions, social movements, and formal organizations, suggests other factors may also play a role in determining women's leadership in labor unions. The current research, based on a rich dataset of 70 local unions, provides important insight into the political careers of women. Beyond an analysis of organized labor, this research has implications for understanding the interplay of gender and power in formal organizations and social movements more broadly.

  1. World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators II. Section 1. Cross- National Aggregate Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-01-01

    University Prepared for: Advanced Research Projects Agency Yale University 1970 DISTRIBUTED BY: Kün National Technical Information Service U...WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. i 318158 THE INTERNATIONAL DATA ARCHIVE CO RESEARCH REPORT THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Department of...Political Science Ann Arbor 48104 D D C NOV 6 W >;- \\ Prepared in connection with research supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency

  2. Race and the local politics of punishment in the new world of welfare.

    PubMed

    Fording, Richard C; Soss, Joe; Schram, Sanford F

    2011-03-01

    To illuminate how race affects the usage of punitive tools in policy implementation settings, we analyze sanctions imposed for noncompliant client behavior under welfare reform. Drawing on a model of racial classification and policy choice, we test four hypotheses regarding client race, local context, and sanctioning. Based on longitudinal and cross-sectional multilevel analyses of individual-level administrative data, we find that race plays a significant role in shaping sanction implementation. Its effects, however, are highly contingent on client characteristics, local political contexts, and the degree to which state governments devolve policy control to local officials.

  3. The psychology of intelligence analysis: drivers of prediction accuracy in world politics.

    PubMed

    Mellers, Barbara; Stone, Eric; Atanasov, Pavel; Rohrbaugh, Nick; Metz, S Emlen; Ungar, Lyle; Bishop, Michael M; Horowitz, Michael; Merkle, Ed; Tetlock, Philip

    2015-03-01

    This article extends psychological methods and concepts into a domain that is as profoundly consequential as it is poorly understood: intelligence analysis. We report findings from a geopolitical forecasting tournament that assessed the accuracy of more than 150,000 forecasts of 743 participants on 199 events occurring over 2 years. Participants were above average in intelligence and political knowledge relative to the general population. Individual differences in performance emerged, and forecasting skills were surprisingly consistent over time. Key predictors were (a) dispositional variables of cognitive ability, political knowledge, and open-mindedness; (b) situational variables of training in probabilistic reasoning and participation in collaborative teams that shared information and discussed rationales (Mellers, Ungar, et al., 2014); and (c) behavioral variables of deliberation time and frequency of belief updating. We developed a profile of the best forecasters; they were better at inductive reasoning, pattern detection, cognitive flexibility, and open-mindedness. They had greater understanding of geopolitics, training in probabilistic reasoning, and opportunities to succeed in cognitively enriched team environments. Last but not least, they viewed forecasting as a skill that required deliberate practice, sustained effort, and constant monitoring of current affairs.

  4. Colliding Worlds: Practical and Political Tensions of Prekindergarten Implementation in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Lisa A.; Sipple, John W.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines how the previously distinct worlds of early childhood education (ECE) and K-12 public school education are being drawn together through the recent and rapid advances of prekindergarten programming in the United States. Tensions around teaching philosophies, teacher qualifications, and financing are presented to illustrate the…

  5. A dirty word or a dirty world?: Attribute framing, political affiliation, and query theory.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, David J; Johnson, Eric J; Weber, Elke U

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of attribute framing on choice, labeling charges for environmental costs as either an earmarked tax or an offset. Eight hundred ninety-eight Americans chose between otherwise identical products or services, where one option included a surcharge for emitted carbon dioxide. The cost framing changed preferences for self-identified Republicans and Independents, but did not affect Democrats' preferences. We explain this interaction by means of query theory and show that attribute framing can change the order in which internal queries supporting one or another option are posed. The effect of attribute labeling on query order is shown to depend on the representations of either taxes or offsets held by people with different political affiliations.

  6. Rural health efforts in the urban-dominated political economy: three Third World examples.

    PubMed

    Donahue, J M

    1989-06-01

    The theme of this paper is to demonstrate that the urban preference in governmental health delivery programs does exists in capitalist and socialist political economies and that efficient rural health programs exist in capitalist and socialist developing countries. The purpose of the article is to determine strategies to promote accessible rural health care by studying 3 examples. In the State of Kerala, India between 1956-1959, land reforms were carried out, and political parties and agrarian cooperatives involving rural people were organized. rural needs were given top priority in this capitalist economy which resulted in agrarian reform, education, and health delivery. In 1971, food production increased to 5.4 million tons. During this period, the nutritional status rose, the mortality rated declined, and the fertility rates decreased. Thus, the health status for the rural population improved. Bolivia's Montero health program was developed in 1975. This case demonstrates the urban/rural conflict in a capitalist economy with preference given to the urban side. This proposed health program resulted in the urban communities receiving greater resources compared to the rural population. This result is attributed to lack of organization within the rural population. The final case examined was Nicaragua which in 1979 was socialist. The National Unified Health System was established by the Sandinistas and had 4 priorities: revolution defense, economy, education, and health. This movement by the Sandinistas addressed rural health problems and challenged the urban medical organization. Health care workers were trained to deliver more curative and preventative services. The Popular Health Councils in Nicaragua is unique; it provides discussion regarding the urban/rural conflict. A change in the Minister of Health also indicated concern for rural health care delivery. Nicaragua's health status also improved as a result of rural organization. From the 3 cases, it was

  7. DTIC review. Volume 1, Number 1: Nuclear proliferation and deterrence in a changing political world

    SciTech Connect

    Cupp, C.M.; Lee, C.; Foster, H.; Greene, E.; Levine, P.

    1995-08-01

    This collection of selected documents from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) addresses the formidable issue of protecting the United States and its people from potential nuclear destruction. With the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and, concomitantly, the end of the Cold War, new strategies for nonproliferation and deterrence must be devised and implemented. Potential threats from countries not previously seen as a danger, the escalation of regional conflicts and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are but a few of the considerations to be addressed. The authors of the following papers propose various plans and tactics to ensure United States national security and maintain world peace.

  8. Local participation, international politics, and the environment: the World Bank and the Grenada Dove.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, J; Korsmo, F L

    2001-07-01

    The process of locating waste disposal sites in the Eastern Caribbean country of Grenada illustrates important lessons in the implementation of new international mandates to invite stakeholder participation in projects with environmental and social impacts. This case study analyzes the participatory methods and results of the World Bank-funded project in Grenada, including an unexpected shift in the policy agenda toward habitat protection for the elusive Grenada Dove, the national bird of Grenada. We conclude that the impact of new requirements for stakeholder inclusion by funding agencies such as the World Bank and Global Environmental Facility has been palpable, but mixed. As the catalysts of more participatory methods, funding agencies still must give more careful consideration to the methods by which their participatory requirements are implemented. In particular they must develop more effective knowledge of and relationships with a broader range of stakeholders than are routinely considered by existing methods, allow for and learn from unexpected contingencies, and be flexible as to project goals and methods.

  9. The World - Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know.

    PubMed

    Ausman, James I

    2013-01-01

    The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print "fiat" (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of everything

  10. The World – Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know

    PubMed Central

    Ausman, James I.

    2013-01-01

    The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print “fiat” (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of

  11. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  12. The Bosnian War Crimes Trial Simulation: Teaching Students about the Fuzziness of World Politics and International Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Kurt W.

    1999-01-01

    Explains using the Bosnian war crimes simulation to introduce international law and its political and legal ramifications in the course "Introduction to International Politics." Discusses the characteristics of the simulation, its effectiveness, and the response by students. Offers an evaluation of the exercise. (CMK)

  13. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  14. The contributions made by multinational enterprises to the economic development and political stabilization of less developed countries seen in its dependence on the world economic order.

    PubMed

    Biermann, H

    1977-12-01

    For their own advantage, developing countries should attempt to extend and not to limit liberalication directed at improving competition. Particularly, developing countries should argue that the private export of capital, which is combined with the transfer of growth-promoting technology, should be increased rather than restricted and the security of private ownership should also be increased. A scheme insuring property rights should be established, whereby the amounts contributed would be fixed according to the political stability of the country concerned. Some thoughts are presented on the basic principles of the world economy and on the way in which the world economic order should be shaped. On the basis of this plan, the world economy is understood as a system of varying developed regions. Attention is focused on the basic principle of the world economic order, suggestions for a new world economic order, the concept of a functional world economic order, starting points and goals of an economic policy orientated towards development, instruments of a national structural policy orientated by the world economy -- cooperative association and/or multinational firms, and demands made upon single economic orders and upon the system of their cooperation.

  15. Performing Tolerance and Curriculum: The Politics of Self-Congratulation, Identity Formation, and Pedagogy in World Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how it might be possible to engage in world music ethically. I examine ways that traditional engagements can be problematic in order to push towards new possibilities for encounters and engagement. I begin by considering my own experience with world music. Moving to the theoretical, I consider "world music" study…

  16. Autonomy and objectivity as political operators in the medical world: twenty years of public controversy about AIDS treatments in France.

    PubMed

    Dodier, Nicolas; Barbot, Janine

    2008-09-01

    The article is based on the controversies relating to conducting experiments and licensing AIDS treatments in France in the 1980s and 1990s. We have identified two political operators, i.e. two issues around which tensions have grown between the different generations of actors involved in these controversies: 1) the way of thinking about patient autonomy, and 2) the way in which objectivity regarding medical decisions is built. The article shows that there are several regimes of objectivity and autonomy, and that it is at the meeting point of the two dimensions that very different political forms of medicine have developed. In the case of AIDS, the article identifies four of these forms (liberal and conservative clinical traditions and therapeutic modernity--enclosed, then participative) and analyzes the dynamics of their emergence and opposition. We discuss an "objectivity/autonomy" diagram as a conceptual framework which enables us (above and beyond AIDS) to think about changes in contemporary medicine.

  17. From application to implication in medical anthropology: political, historical and narrative interpretations of the world of sickness and health.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mônica de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews some of the current writing on medical anthropology, and is guided by political orientation/implication in the choice of its study targets, its analysis and its construction of solutions for the problems investigated. Starting from the narratives of anthropologists, it goes on to show the historical and socio-political bases characteristic of the subject in their countries of origin or migration. Within a general overview of the three principal contemporary trends - critical medical anthropology, the anthropology of suffering and the anthropology of biopower - the focus is on theoretical and thematic choices to meet the demand for "politicization" of the anthropological debate in the field of health, on the basis of which an "implied" medical anthropology is advocated.

  18. Toward a political analysis of the consequences of a world climate change produced by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Schware, R.

    1980-01-01

    It was Hegel's extraordinarily deep and perceptive insight that mankind is caught up in a drama that cannot be fully understood until it has been played out. The owl of Minewa spreads its wings only with the falling of the dusk. On the more hopeful side is the fact that, although we cannot know the consequences of future interactions between climate and society, we can begin to work toward political solutions and gird ourselves for ominous trends that are now coming into view. The purpose of this paper is to identify one such trend, namely the increase of atmospheric temperatures due to increased carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) and lay some initial groundwork for political research related to climate-societal interactions.

  19. World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilinc, M.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Kurioka, K.; Wood, S.; D'Argent, N.; Martin, D.; McHugh, I.; Tapper, N.; McGuire, D.

    2009-04-01

    Natural forests store vast amounts of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Given the significance of natural forests, there is a lack of carbon accounting of primary forests that are undisturbed by human activities. One reason for this lack of interest stems from ecological orthodoxy that suggests that primary forests should be close to dynamic equilibrium, in that Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) approaches zero. However, recent results from the northern hemisphere and tropics, using eddy covariance flux towers, indicate that primary forests are a greater sink than first thought. The role of evergreen primary forests in Australian carbon balance studies remain uncertain and hence may function differently to their deciduous counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. In order to address the lack of baseline carbon accounts, an undisturbed, 300 year old Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) ecosystem, located in the Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia) was selected as a permanent study site to investigate carbon and water budgets over diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mountain Ash trees are the world's tallest angiosperms (flowering plants), and one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the biosphere, with an estimated 1900 tC ha-1. A 110 m tall micrometeorological tower that includes eddy covariance instrumentation was installed in August 2005. An independent biometric approach quantifying the annual net gain or loss of carbon was also made within close proximity to the flux tower. Analysis of NEP in 2006 suggests that the ecosystem acted as a carbon sink of 2.5 tC ha-1 yr-1. Woody and soil biomass increment for the same year was estimated to be 2.8 tC ha-1yr-1, in which nearly half of the biomass production was partitioned into the aboveground woody tissue. These results indicate that temperate primary forests act as carbon sinks, and are able to maintain their carbon sink status due to their uneven stand

  20. The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2012-03-01

    As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

  1. [Environmental Guarantees in the Constitution: a new ecological-political model for Costa Rica and the rest of the world].

    PubMed

    Quesada A, Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    In the last thirty years significant changes to protect the environment have been introduced in the judicial, administrative and social systems. Costa Rica is a well known international model in the field of sustainable development, and here I present a proposal for adding environmental gaurantees to the Costa Rican Constitution. One of the most important changes in the Costa Rican judicial system has been the introduction of an environmental amendment in the Constitution (Article 50). However, it is still fundamental to introduce a Title of Environmental Guarantees in the Constitution of Costa Rica, with these components: first, the State, the public and the private sector have the duty of defending the right to a safe environment; second, public domain over environmental issues, and third, the use of the environment should be regulated by scientific and technical knowledge. If current efforts succeed, Costa Rica will be the first country in the world to include Environmental Guarantees in its Constitution. This would be an example to other nations.

  2. An embodied biologically constrained model of foraging: from classical and operant conditioning to adaptive real-world behavior in DAC-X.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Giovanni; Santos-Pata, Diogo; Marcos, Encarni; Sánchez-Fibla, Marti; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2015-12-01

    Animals successfully forage within new environments by learning, simulating and adapting to their surroundings. The functions behind such goal-oriented behavior can be decomposed into 5 top-level objectives: 'how', 'why', 'what', 'where', 'when' (H4W). The paradigms of classical and operant conditioning describe some of the behavioral aspects found in foraging. However, it remains unclear how the organization of their underlying neural principles account for these complex behaviors. We address this problem from the perspective of the Distributed Adaptive Control theory of mind and brain (DAC) that interprets these two paradigms as expressing properties of core functional subsystems of a layered architecture. In particular, we propose DAC-X, a novel cognitive architecture that unifies the theoretical principles of DAC with biologically constrained computational models of several areas of the mammalian brain. DAC-X supports complex foraging strategies through the progressive acquisition, retention and expression of task-dependent information and associated shaping of action, from exploration to goal-oriented deliberation. We benchmark DAC-X using a robot-based hoarding task including the main perceptual and cognitive aspects of animal foraging. We show that efficient goal-oriented behavior results from the interaction of parallel learning mechanisms accounting for motor adaptation, spatial encoding and decision-making. Together, our results suggest that the H4W problem can be solved by DAC-X building on the insights from the study of classical and operant conditioning. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed biologically constrained and embodied approach towards the study of cognition and the relation of DAC-X to other cognitive architectures.

  3. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    PubMed

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War.

  4. Achieving What Political Science Is For

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isacoff, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues for a political science discipline and teaching framework predicated empirically on the study of "real-world problems" and normatively on promoting civic engagement among political science students. I argue for a rethinking of political science and political science education in view of the pragmatist thought of John…

  5. Navigating a carbon-constrained world

    SciTech Connect

    Grothen, G.E.

    2007-07-15

    Global climate change could prove to be one of the biggest challenges to the US electric power industry since the days of Thomas Edison. To cope with mandatory carbon caps, utilities will have to step up efforts to reduce demand, build or buy more renewable energy capacity, increase the efficiency of their existing fleets, and find ways to capture and sequester massive amounts of CO{sub 2} from new and old plants alike. The next 20 years are sure to be exciting, and they will require new skills to identify and manage the considerable risks involved. The article compares America's CO{sub 2} emissions profile to other nations. It then examines how the electric power sector's strategies for coping with carbon caps might differ from those of other major economic sectors, the residential and commercial, industrial and transportation sector. It then goes into more detail about clean power generation. It says that the simplest and fastest way for utilities to reduce their CO{sub 2} emissions is to replace inefficient coal-fired plants at the end of their lives by gas-fired combined cycle units. Carbon sequestration will take decades rather than years to be commercially viable. The biggest risk to the electric power sector is a lack of legislative guidance on and certainty of the technology. 8 figs.

  6. Managing in an environmentally constrained world

    SciTech Connect

    Allenby, B.R. |

    1995-09-25

    In thinking about this issue, one comes to fundamental question: Why are we concerned at all? Why have all of us gathered here, rather than simply continue to clean up what we should from the past and control our emissions for the present and the future? The answer, I think, may be hinted at by several scenarios (which, although plausible given current trends, are intended to be hypothetical).

  7. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  8. Unionised Faculty and the Political Left: Communism and the American Federation of Teachers on the Eve of the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2012-01-01

    During the contentious late 1930s and early 1940s, American education and American labour struggled with both internal and external concerns over Communist infiltration. These struggles converged on the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 30,000 K-12 and college teachers. Through its focus on leftist politics and organised college…

  9. On Political War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    34 Gregory E Treverton, Covert Action: The Limits of Intervention in the Postwar World, New York NY Basic Books, 1987, p. 13. The author is speaking of the...surveyed. only about half supported the regime in religion: 264 were set down as neutral, and 157 as definitely hostile." Mary Bateson , ed., "’A Collection...still inform Anglo-American political warfare methods. Treverton. Gregory E Covert Action: The Limits of Intervention in the Postwar World. New York

  10. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  11. Biology and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Pat

    1977-01-01

    A state representative from Oregon uses his state as example for political action regarding critical sociobiological issues having great bearing on world ecosystems: pollution, energy-resource allocation, and population density. Discusses ozone depletion, use of fluorocarbons, and the Oregon Energy Policy. Suggests methods of involving educators.…

  12. Islam and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1984-01-01

    Law is central to Islamic civilization. The classical law (the Shari'a) is the standard by which political action is measured. The history of the Shari'a and how it has influenced the world view and the cultural identity of Arab countries are examined. (RM)

  13. Politics of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Bob; Spaull, Andrew

    This book is concerned with examining how the processes involved in decision-making at the political and administrative levels have affected the school systems in Australia over the years since World War I. Schooling is distinguished from education in that schooling may well provide the individual with an introduction to an education, but it is…

  14. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  15. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  16. Political Ethnicity: A New Paradigm of Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    of political boundaries based on ethnic identity. This involves consolidating an ethnic group that has been separated artificially by state boundaries...by Lnter-group relations and activities, not isolation. Third, nationalism is an artificial construction for political purposes. Political leaders...York: Cambridge University Press, 1984); Central Intelligence Agency, The World Fact Book 1992 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1992

  17. Politics Between Economy and Culture. Introductory Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokkan, Stein

    The introductory statement to the plenary session of the Ninth World Congress of the International Political Science Association announces the first of two major themes, politics between economy and culture. This theme is described as investigating the culture-economy dialectic at all levels of politics -- global, territorial, national, community,…

  18. World Teacher Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Wilhelm

    1976-01-01

    The World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession urges involvement in political activities as a commitment by educators to promote international understanding and cooperation and to aid in the moral and political issues of environment, population, nutrition, and disarmament. (MB)

  19. The Politics of Privatization and Decentralization in Global School Reform: The Value of Equity Claims for Neoliberalism at the World Bank and in El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Cheryl

    This paper focuses on the role of the World Bank and its subsidiaries in promoting the neoliberal educational reforms of privatization and decentralization globally and in El Salvador. Neoliberalism is first defined as a sociopolitical philosophy that supports concepts such as the free market, market-driven education, and the use of a voucher…

  20. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  1. Science, politics, and health in the brave new world of pharmaceutical carcinogenic risk assessment: technical progress or cycle of regulatory capture?

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Ballinger, Rachel

    2012-10-01

    The carcinogenicity (cancer-inducing potential) of pharmaceuticals is an important risk factor for health when considering whether thousands of patients on drug trials or millions/billions of consumers in the marketplace should be exposed to a new drug. Drawing on fieldwork involving over 50 interviews and documentary research spanning 2002-2010 in Europe and the US, and on regulatory capture theory, this article investigates how the techno-regulatory standards for carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals have altered since 1998. It focuses on the replacement of long-term carcinogenicity tests in rodents (especially mice) with shorter-term tests involving genetically-engineered mice (GEM). Based on evidence regarding financial/organizational control, methodological design, and interpretation of the validation and application of these new GEM tests, it is argued that regulatory agencies permitted the drug industry to shape such validation and application in ways that prioritized commercial interests over the need to protect public health. Boundary-work enabling industry scientists to define some standards of public-health policy facilitated such capture. However, as the scientific credibility of GEM tests as tools to protect public health by screening out carcinogens became inescapably problematic, a regulatory resurgence, impelled by reputational concerns, exercised more control over industry's construction and use of the tests, The extensive problems with GEM tests as public-health protective regulatory science raises the spectre that alterations to pharmaceutical carcinogenicity-testing standards since the 1990s may have been boundary-work in which the political project of decreasing the chance that companies' products are defined as carcinogenic has masqueraded as techno-science.

  2. Science, politics, and health in the brave new world of pharmaceutical carcinogenic risk assessment: Technical progress or cycle of regulatory capture?

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, John; Ballinger, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The carcinogenicity (cancer-inducing potential) of pharmaceuticals is an important risk factor for health when considering whether thousands of patients on drug trials or millions/billions of consumers in the marketplace should be exposed to a new drug. Drawing on fieldwork involving over 50 interviews and documentary research spanning 2002–2010 in Europe and the US, and on regulatory capture theory, this article investigates how the techno-regulatory standards for carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals have altered since 1998. It focuses on the replacement of long-term carcinogenicity tests in rodents (especially mice) with shorter-term tests involving genetically-engineered mice (GEM). Based on evidence regarding financial/organizational control, methodological design, and interpretation of the validation and application of these new GEM tests, it is argued that regulatory agencies permitted the drug industry to shape such validation and application in ways that prioritized commercial interests over the need to protect public health. Boundary-work enabling industry scientists to define some standards of public-health policy facilitated such capture. However, as the scientific credibility of GEM tests as tools to protect public health by screening out carcinogens became inescapably problematic, a regulatory resurgence, impelled by reputational concerns, exercised more control over industry’s construction and use of the tests, The extensive problems with GEM tests as public-health protective regulatory science raises the spectre that alterations to pharmaceutical carcinogenicity-testing standards since the 1990s may have been boundary-work in which the political project of decreasing the chance that companies’ products are defined as carcinogenic has masqueraded as techno-science. PMID:22784375

  3. Constraining Galileon inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, Donough; Anderson, Gemma J.; Hull, Matthew; Seery, David E-mail: G.Anderson@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: D.Seery@sussex.ac.uk

    2015-02-01

    In this short paper, we present constraints on the Galileon inflationary model from the CMB bispectrum. We employ a principal-component analysis of the independent degrees of freedom constrained by data and apply this to the WMAP 9-year data to constrain the free parameters of the model. A simple Bayesian comparison establishes that support for the Galileon model from bispectrum data is at best weak.

  4. A Global Health Diagnostic for Personalized Medicine in Resource-Constrained World Settings: A Simple PCR-RFLP Method for Genotyping CYP2B6 g.15582C>T and Science and Policy Relevance for Optimal Use of Antiretroviral Drug Efavirenz.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan; Swart, Marelize; Soko, Nyarai; Wonkam, Ambroise; Huzair, Farah; Dandara, Collet

    2015-06-01

    The use of pharmacogenomics (PGx) knowledge in treatment of individual patients is becoming a common phenomenon in the developed world. However, poorly resourced countries have thus far been constrained for three main reasons. First, the cost of whole genome sequencing is still considerably high in comparison to other (non-genomics) diagnostics in the developing world where both science and social dynamics create a dynamic and fragile healthcare ecosystem. Second, studies correlating genomic differences with drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not been consistent, and more importantly, often not indexed to impact on societal end-points, beyond clinical practice. Third, ethics regulatory frames over PGx testing require improvements based on nested accountability systems and in ways that address the user community needs. Thus, CYP2B6 is a crucial enzyme in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, efavirenz and nevirapine. More than 40 genetic variants have been reported, but only a few contribute to differences in plasma EFV and NVP concentrations. The most widely reported CYP2B6 variants affecting plasma drug levels include c.516G>T, c.983T>C, and to a lesser extent, g.15582C>T, which should be considered in future PGx tests. While the first two variants are easily characterized, the g.15582C>T detection has been performed primarily by sequencing, which is costly, labor intensive, and requires access to barely available expertise in the developing world. We report here on a simple, practical PCR-RFLP method with vast potentials for use in resource-constrained world regions to detect the g.15582C>T variation among South African and Cameroonian persons. The effects of CYP2B6 g.15582C>T on plasma EFV concentration were further evaluated among HIV/AIDS patients. We report no differences in the frequency of the g.15582T variant between the South African (0.08) and Cameroonian (0.06) groups, which are significantly lower than reported in Asians (0.39) and

  5. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    The upper- right quadrant of the PW spectrum represents direct, covert actions. Covert political warfare is any action that can be attributed to a...15 3. Covert, Indirect Actions The lower- right quadrant represents covert, indirect political warfare actions. Indirect PW is conducted through an... life . From those identities, social ties and organizational forms emerge both the collective claims that people make and the means they have for making

  6. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  7. Constraining the dark fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun

    2009-10-15

    Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

  8. View on world market

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, J.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Reasons contributing to a potential growth in wind power are cited. Increased demand is expected to arise due to increased energy needs and environmental concerns. Barriers, primarily political, to the development of wind energy are assessed. Development is predicted to occur first in countries with a demand for new capacity and political decisions to protect the environment.

  9. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  10. Political bugs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  11. Political dimensions of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blewett, N

    1988-01-01

    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  12. Teaching Introduction to International Politics with Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeriano, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    This article is an overview of a comprehensive film-based course that covers basic topics appropriate for an introduction to international relations (or world politics) course. Film provides a new and novel perspective by which to view international interactions. I explore how various aspects of international politics are covered by movies with…

  13. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…

  14. ``Political'' Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  15. Comparative State Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course dealing with comparative state politics. Students learn about the way in which political scientists employ the study of American state politics as a "laboratory" for the development of scientific explanations of political phenomena. (RM)

  16. Model UN and Political Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitano, Richard

    This paper explores political engagement in an increasingly difficult and troubled world by focusing on how U.S. college students participate in the largest simulation of the United Nations (UN) organization in the United States. The purpose of the paper is to explore what is done in the National Model UN (NMUN) program, its impact on the lives…

  17. Language Politics in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  18. Reconciliation and Pedagogy. Postcolonial Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Pal, Ed.; Atkinson, Stephen, Ed.; Bishop, Peter, Ed.; Christie, Pam, Ed.; Hattam, Robert, Ed.; Matthews, Julie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Reconciliation is one of the most significant contemporary challenges in the world today. In this innovative new volume, educational academics and practitioners across a range of cultural and political contexts examine the links between reconciliation and critical pedagogy, putting forward the notion that reconciliation projects should be regarded…

  19. "The worst of both worlds": the management reform of the World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Lerer, L; Matzopoulos, R

    2001-01-01

    The governance and management of global health institutions, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), are under increasing critical scrutiny. This management case study explores the first year of transformation at the WHO under Director-General Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, focusing on the key stakeholders and the role of complexity in institutional change. This is a story about transition in a difficult, politically fraught, and management-resource-constrained environment. In the search for appropriate management paradigms, organizations such as the WHO may believe that the answers lie in harsh reengineering and the search for high-profile "success stories." Ironically, global business has moved away from such approaches and is far more focused on collaboration, empowerment, and knowledge sharing.

  20. Constrained control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the allocation of several flight controls to the generation of specified body-axis moments. The number of controls is greater than the number of moments being controlled, and the ranges of the controls are constrained to certain limits. The controls are assumed to be individually linear in their effect throughout their ranges of motion, and independent of one another in their effects. The geometries of the subset of the constrained controls and of its image in moment space are examined. A direct method of allocating these several controls is presented, that guarantees the maximum possible moment is generated within the constraints of the controls. The results are illustrated by an example problem involving three controls and two moments.

  1. Constrained noninformative priors

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-10-01

    The Jeffreys noninformative prior distribution for a single unknown parameter is the distribution corresponding to a uniform distribution in the transformed model where the unknown parameter is approximately a location parameter. To obtain a prior distribution with a specified mean but with diffusion reflecting great uncertainty, a natural generalization of the noninformative prior is the distribution corresponding to the constrained maximum entropy distribution in the transformed model. Examples are given.

  2. The Scientist's World

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Bernard D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the features of the world of science, and it compares that world briefly with that of politics and the law. It also discusses some “postmodern” trends in philosophy and sociology that have been undermining confidence in the objectivity of science and thus have contributed indirectly to public mistrust. The paper includes broader implications of interactions of government and science. PMID:10704471

  3. The new world disorder.

    PubMed

    Checa, Nicolas; Maguire, John; Barney, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    On January 1, 1995, representatives from 76 countries signed the World Trade Organization charter, which for years had been part of a temporary trade agreement. The WTO's emergence as a fully empowered supranational body seemed to reflect the triumph of what the first President Bush had described as the "new world order." That order was based on two assumptions: that a healthy economy and a sound financial system make for political stability, and that countries in business together do not fight each other. The number one priority of U.S. foreign policy was thus to encourage the former Communist countries of Europe and the developing nations in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to adopt business-friendly policies. Private capital would flow from the developed world into these countries, creating economic growth. It sounded too good to be true, and so it proved. The new world order of Bush père and his successor, Bill Clinton, has been replaced by the new world disorder of Bush fils. Under the second Bush's administration, the economic and political rationale-behind the Washington consensus of the 1990s has unraveled, forcing a radical change in our perceptions of which countries are safe for business. Negotiating this new environment will require companies to more rigorously evaluate political events and more carefully assess the links between political, economic, and financial risk factors. They'll need to be more selective about which markets to enter, and they'll need to think differently about how to position themselves in those markets. The geopolitical events of the past year, the Bush administration's global war on terror, as well as ongoing convulsions in traditional political and economic relationships must be understood and managed by corporate leaders worldwide. With careful analysis, business leaders can increase their companies' visibility and better respond to the uncertainties of the new world disorder.

  4. Postwar Developments in German Political, Social and Security Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kendall L., Ed.

    To understand developments in West Germany since World War II, one must consider numerous social, political, economic, military, and educational variables. Important among these are the decline in output orientation, increase in interpersonal political involvement, decline in value placed on politics, stress on democratic decision making,…

  5. Mapping a Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the importance of maps for instruction in both history and geography. Suggests that maps have gotten recent attention because of the rapid political changes occurring in Europe and the quincentenary of Columbus' voyage. Discusses different map projections and the importance of media and satellite display of real pictures of the world.…

  6. Political Reactance and Political Reality: A Theory of Political Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    The research investigated political and psychological reactance among adolescents. Political reactance is interpreted to include feelings of political alienation and distrust. Psychological reactance is defined as behavior by an individual in response to reduction or threatened reduction of freedom. A model was created which expanded existing…

  7. Using Twitter to Increase Political Interest in Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliendo, Stephen M.; Chod, Suzanne; Muck, William

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of using Twitter in the classroom on student political efficacy, interest, and engagement. Millennials use the virtual world to build social relationships and to obtain information. By envisioning the virtual world as a means to increase civic engagement, political science instructors can use technology to draw upon…

  8. American Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This text presents high school students with up-to-date findings of social scientists about political behavior in order to increase their political knowledge and sophistication. Case studies which describe the various political activities of typical citizens and political leaders are used throughout the work. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  9. Images of World Society: A Third World View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopal, Sarvepalli

    1982-01-01

    Discusses conditions in the Third World which prevent the development of a harmonious world society. The effects of nationalism, nuclear proliferation, racism, political and economic inequities, and social and religious conservatism on the growth of a global outlook are considered. (AM)

  10. Constraining the Europa Neutral Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard T.; Mitchell, Donald; mauk, Barry; Johnson, Robert E.; clark, george

    2016-10-01

    "Neutral tori" consist of neutral particles that usually co-orbit along with their source forming a toroidal (or partial toroidal) feature around the planet. The distribution and composition of these features can often provide important, if not unique, insight into magnetospheric particles sources, mechanisms and dynamics. However, these features can often be difficult to directly detect. One innovative method for detecting neutral tori is by observing Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) that are generally considered produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between charged and neutral particles.Mauk et al. (2003) reported the detection of a Europa neutral particle torus using ENA observations. The presence of a Europa torus has extremely large implications for upcoming missions to Jupiter as well as understanding possible activity at this moon and providing critical insight into what lies beneath the surface of this icy ocean world. However, ENAs can also be produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between two ionized particles and in that case cannot be used to infer the presence of neutral particle population. Thus, a detailed examination of all possible source interactions must be considered before one can confirm that likely original source population of these ENA images is actually a Europa neutral particle torus. For this talk, we examine the viability that the Mauk et al. (2003) observations were actually generated from a neutral torus emanating from Europa as opposed to charge particle interactions with plasma originating from Io. These results help constrain such a torus as well as Europa source processes.

  11. Our World Their World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  12. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  13. Organising, Educating... Changing the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, John

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years a constellation of social movements and organisations concerned with issues of globalisation and world poverty have exploded onto the world stage. They have mobilised demonstrations, organised mass gatherings and conferences, created e-networks and websites and become major players in international political lobbying and…

  14. Hunger: The World's Oldest Sorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith; Miller, Mark

    1985-01-01

    No human problem is older than starvation. Authorities agree that poverty and unequal distribution of resources are the basic causes of hunger. The hungry are ignored by the world because they have no political power and even less economic strength. How to build a world without hunger is discussed. (RM)

  15. Ethnography in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumar, Wesley; Madison, Nora

    2013-01-01

    This article situates the discussion of virtual ethnography within the larger political/economic changes of twenty-first century consumer capitalism and suggests that increasingly our entire social world is a virtual world and that there were very particular utopian and dystopian framings of virtual community growing out of that history. The…

  16. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.

    1999-05-11

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity is disclosed. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras. 17 figs.

  17. Politics, power, and birth.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.

  18. Power-constrained supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Peter E.

    As we approach exascale systems, power is turning from an optimization goal to a critical operating constraint. With power bounds imposed by both stakeholders and the limitations of existing infrastructure, achieving practical exascale computing will therefore rely on optimizing performance subject to a power constraint. However, this requirement should not add to the burden of application developers; optimizing the runtime environment given restricted power will primarily be the job of high-performance system software. In this dissertation, we explore this area and develop new techniques that extract maximum performance subject to a particular power constraint. These techniques include a method to find theoretical optimal performance, a runtime system that shifts power in real time to improve performance, and a node-level prediction model for selecting power-efficient operating points. We use a linear programming (LP) formulation to optimize application schedules under various power constraints, where a schedule consists of a DVFS state and number of OpenMP threads for each section of computation between consecutive message passing events. We also provide a more flexible mixed integer-linear (ILP) formulation and show that the resulting schedules closely match schedules from the LP formulation. Across four applications, we use our LP-derived upper bounds to show that current approaches trail optimal, power-constrained performance by up to 41%. This demonstrates limitations of current systems, and our LP formulation provides future optimization approaches with a quantitative optimization target. We also introduce Conductor, a run-time system that intelligently distributes available power to nodes and cores to improve performance. The key techniques used are configuration space exploration and adaptive power balancing. Configuration exploration dynamically selects the optimal thread concurrency level and DVFS state subject to a hardware-enforced power bound

  19. Constrained Vapor Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Plawsky, J.; Wayner, P. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The nonisothermal Constrained Vapor Bubble, CVB, is being studied to enhance the understanding of passive systems controlled by interfacial phenomena. The study is multifaceted: 1) it is a basic scientific study in interfacial phenomena, fluid physics and thermodynamics; 2) it is a basic study in thermal transport; and 3) it is a study of a heat exchanger. The research is synergistic in that CVB research requires a microgravity environment and the space program needs thermal control systems like the CVB. Ground based studies are being done as a precursor to flight experiment. The results demonstrate that experimental techniques for the direct measurement of the fundamental operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and interfacial curvature fields) have been developed. Fluid flow and change-of-phase heat transfer are a function of the temperature field and the vapor bubble shape, which can be measured using an Image Analyzing Interferometer. The CVB for a microgravity environment, has various thin film regions that are of both basic and applied interest. Generically, a CVB is formed by underfilling an evacuated enclosure with a liquid. Classification depends on shape and Bond number. The specific CVB discussed herein was formed in a fused silica cell with inside dimensions of 3x3x40 mm and, therefore, can be viewed as a large version of a micro heat pipe. Since the dimensions are relatively large for a passive system, most of the liquid flow occurs under a small capillary pressure difference. Therefore, we can classify the discussed system as a low capillary pressure system. The studies discussed herein were done in a 1-g environment (Bond Number = 3.6) to obtain experience to design a microgravity experiment for a future NASA flight where low capillary pressure systems should prove more useful. The flight experiment is tentatively scheduled for the year 2000. The SCR was passed on September 16, 1997. The RDR is tentatively scheduled for October, 1998.

  20. Constraining Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamse, Augusta

    2010-12-01

    Future advances in cosmology will depend on the next generation of cosmological observations and how they shape our theoretical understanding of the universe. Current theoretical ideas, however, have an important role to play in guiding the design of such observational programs. The work presented in this thesis concerns the intersection of observation and theory, particularly as it relates to advancing our understanding of the accelerated expansion of the universe (or the dark energy). Chapters 2 - 4 make use of the simulated data sets developed by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) for a number of cosmological observations currently in the experimental pipeline. We use these forecast data in the analysis of four quintessence models of dark energy: the PNGB, Exponential, Albrecht-Skordis and Inverse Power Law (IPL) models. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques we examine the ability of each simulated data set to constrain the parameter space of these models. We examine the potential of the data for differentiating time-varying models from a pure cosmological constant. Additionally, we introduce an abstract parameter space to facilitate comparison between models and investigate the ability of future data to distinguish between these quintessence models. In Chapter 5 we present work towards understanding the effects of systematic errors associated with photometric redshift estimates. Due to the need to sample a vast number of deep and faint galaxies, photometric redshifts will be used in a wide range of future cosmological observations including gravitational weak lensing, baryon accoustic oscillations and type 1A supernovae observations. The uncertainty in the redshift distributions of galaxies has a significant potential impact on the cosmological parameter values inferred from such observations. We introduce a method for parameterizing uncertainties in modeling assumptions affecting photometric redshift calculations and for propagating these

  1. The Case for Hydrogen in a Carbon Constrained World

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G D; Aceves, S M

    2005-02-18

    Unlike other fuels, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) can be generated and consumed without generating carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This creates both significant engineering challenges and unsurpassed ecological advantages for H{sub 2} as a fuel, while enabling an inexhaustible (closed) global fuel cycle based on the cleanest, most abundant, natural, and elementary substances: H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. If generated using light, heat, and/or electrical energy from solar, wind, fission, or (future) fusion power sources, H{sub 2} becomes a versatile, storable, and universal carbonless energy carrier, a necessary element for future global energy system(s) aimed at being free of air and water pollution, CO{sub 2}, and other greenhouse gases. The case for hydrogen rests fundamentally on the need to eliminate pollution and stabilize Earth's atmosphere and climate system.

  2. Militarism and world health.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, C W

    1992-04-01

    Militarism is a rapidly growing factor in that complex network of social, political and economic causes of ill health among the world's poor. This complex of causes is driving a spiral of class inequality, political instability, and military repression in many less developed nations. These nations share a uniform security doctrine, which has major health impacts. Here five impacts are noted: diversion of resources, suppression of dissent, military classism, environment damage, and crime and terrorism. The demand stimulated by the recent Persian Gulf War for expensive, high-technology weapons may deepen Third World debt and fuel the cycle of poverty, ill health, social unrest, and military oppression. International health workers need to take account of the causes and effects of militarism in their studies of health problems. Their work could be aided by organizations that promote disarmament and environment preservation.

  3. People, power and timber: the politics of community-based forest management.

    PubMed

    Pulhin, Juan M; Dressler, Wolfram H

    2009-10-01

    The potential of devolved conservation to empower people, reduce poverty and protect forest resources has yet to be realized in much of the developing world. This is particularly evident in the Philippines where the central state paradoxically recentralizes political power through devolution at the policy, program and project level in forest management. We investigate how centralized state power emanates through devolved networks to affect the success of local timber utilization involving community-based forest management (CBFM) on Mindanao Island, the southern Philippines. By examining broader shifts from centralized to devolved forest management, results suggest that centralized political power continues to control and adversely affect local uses of timber through CBFM. We discuss how in the process of state authorities recentralizing devolved rights and responsibility over timber management, community-based logging operations were threatened but sustained by members relying on community-based structures and their own capabilities. The conclusion asserts that broader state processes of devolving power over timber management remains constrained by political motives and interests and so largely fails to fulfill the objectives of community-based forest management.

  4. Between Two Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnikoff, Eugene B.

    Lynton Keith Caldwell can fairly be considered the dean of American political scientists concerned with environmental issues. He has published many books on various aspects of environmental politics and policy and has had an influential role in the development of environmental legislation in the United States. This most recent book is different from his others, however, for it presents a philosophical and personal summary of the extent of the environmental crisis he perceives to be facing the world, and what he believes is required to avoid the plight he sees as near at hand. Lynton Keith Caldwel can fairly be considered the dean of American political scientists concerned with environmental issues. He has published many books on various aspects of environmental politics and policy and has had an influential role in the development of environmental legislation in the United States. This most recent book is different from his others, however, for it presents a philosophical and personal summary of the extent of the environmental crisis he perceives to be facing the world, and what he believes is required to avoid the plight he sees as near at hand.Writing in the style of an extended essay or memoir, Caldwell takes the reader gradually through his deeply troubled analysis of how we came to the present situation. In his view, “modern society has reached a point in time and circumstance when its customary behaviors can no longer be continued. New ways of relating to the Earth have become necessary, and so the world is passing through a historical discontinuity.” He proceeds in a deceptively calm manner, avoiding inflammatory language, to present a radical view of what he believes is necessary to bring about a different world that “must be created if civilization, and perhaps humanity, are to survive.”

  5. Collective Action Situated in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett, Bridget M.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in the history of collective action, the offline world has experienced a virtually organized and enacted union strike. While this was the first publicly noticed political action in a virtual world, others have been going on for several years now. As virtual worlds continue to grow in popularity, this type of protest of action…

  6. Population and the World Bank.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program.

  7. The USGS World Energy Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The world has recently experienced rapid change to market-driven economies and increasing reliance on petroleum supplies from areas of political instability. The interplay of unprecedented growth of the global population, increasing worldwide energy demand, and political instability in two major petroleum exporting regions (the former Soviet Union and the Middle East) requires that the United States maintains a current, reliable, objective assessment of the world's energy resources. The need is compounded by the environmental implications of rapid increases in coal use in the Far East and international pressure on consumption of fossil fuels.

  8. Corporate Power and Social Policy: The Political Economy of the Transnational Tobacco Companies

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on published tobacco document research and related sources, this article applies Farnsworth and Holden's conceptual framework for the analysis of corporate power and corporate involvement in social policy (2006) to the transnational tobacco companies (TTCs). An assessment is made of TTCs' structural power, the impact upon their structural position of tobacco control (TC) policies, and their use of agency power. The analysis suggests that, as a result of the growth of TC policies from the 1950s onwards, TTCs have had to rely on political agency to pursue their interests and attempt to reassert their structural position. The collapse of the Eastern bloc and the liberalisation of East Asian economies presented new structural opportunities for TTCs in the 1980s and 1990s, but the development of globally coordinated TC policies facilitated by the World Health Organisation's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has the potential to constrain these. PMID:20228951

  9. Political Systems, Public Schools, and Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaNoue, George R.; Adler, Norman

    This paper, prepared for the Center for Research and Education in American Liberties Conference in 1968, argues that education is the foundation upon which democratic politics stands because of the transmittal by schools of the skills and values necessary for our political system to operate. The objective of the paper is to show the relationship…

  10. Adolescent Rebellion and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 352 Dutch secondary school students reveals that adolescents with high-level education who endorse adolescent rebellion have a more distinctly left-wing profile--in both their political party preferences and their political views--than those with low-level education, who more often ratified political intolerance. (BJV)

  11. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  12. Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political…

  13. Political Education in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Mate

    1989-01-01

    The contradictions of political education in East European socialist countries based on the Hungarian experience are explored in this paper. Divided into three parts, the first part gives a brief sketch of institutionalized political education, while the second concerns the crisis of Hungary's political education emerging in the 1980s. In the…

  14. Political Education in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  15. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  16. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.

  17. It's complicated: Facebook users' political participation in the 2008 election.

    PubMed

    Vitak, Jessica; Zube, Paul; Smock, Andrew; Carr, Caleb T; Ellison, Nicole; Lampe, Cliff

    2011-03-01

    In the 2008 U.S. presidential election, social network sites such as Facebook allowed users to share their political beliefs, support specific candidates, and interact with others on political issues. But do political activities on Facebook affect political participation among young voters, a group traditionally perceived as apathetic in regard to civic engagement? Or do these activities represent another example of feel-good participation that has little real-world impact, a concept often referred to as "slacktivism"? Results from a survey of undergraduate students (N = 683) at a large public university in the Midwestern United States conducted in the month prior to the election found that students tend to engage in lightweight political participation both on Facebook and in other venues. Furthermore, two OLS regressions found that political activity on Facebook (e.g., posting a politically oriented status update, becoming a "fan" of a candidate) is a significant predictor of other forms of political participation (e.g., volunteering for an organizing, signing a paper or online petition), and that a number of factors--including intensity of Facebook use and the political activity users see their friends performing on the site--predict political activity on Facebook. Students' perceptions regarding the appropriateness of political activity on Facebook, as well as the specific kinds of political activities they engaged in and witnessed within the site, were also explored.

  18. The Effect of Political Stability on Public Education Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nir, Adam E.; Kafle, Bhojraj Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary analysis to evaluate the implications of political stability for educational quality, evident in the survival rate measure. Design/methodology/approach: Secondary analyses were conducted for data drawn from the Political Risk Service Report, the World Bank Report, the United Nations…

  19. Health Promotion Education Politics and Schooling: The Greek Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifanti, Amalia A.; Argyriou, Andreas A.; Kalofonos, Haralabos P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the politics of health promotion as a continual process of public health globally and locally. Our main objective in this study is to present the health promotion education initiatives taken by the World Health Organization (WHO) at an international level and also to examine the politics of health promotion in Greece,…

  20. Wizarding in the Classroom: Teaching Harry Potter and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deets, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes teaching a course called Harry Potter and Politics. Focusing on aspects of political culture, the class tackled themes of identity, institutional behavior, and globalization. Teaching Harry Potter has several benefits. Students are both familiar with the wizarding world and yet have enough distance to examine it…

  1. Instilling Upper-Graders with Social and Political Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smirnova, N. I.

    1973-01-01

    The formation of a communist world view of social awareness is a process which takes place in the prometheus'' society, an afterschool organization where political studies and regular studies are combined. (KM)

  2. Mastering the art of politics.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Mary Ann

    2008-09-01

    As a long-term political relationship matures, the nurse's scope of influence with the legislator generally grows and mutual respect ensues. In the best relationships, legislators seek the opinion of nurses on health care questions and ask them to share their expertise at informal meetings or through formal testimony at a policy committee hearing. When possible, backing friendly legislators from either party during their re-election bids places nurses in a proactive rather than a reactive relationship with legislative policymakers. Alliances-are further developed when nursing organizations endorse legislators who have taken pro-nursing stances on important issues. Nurses or nursing groups that take the initial step toward involvement in the political process are the ones who will influence the future of nursing and health care policy. Visionary nurses throughout the past century helped establish nursing as a professional discipline. They were risk takers with a dream and acted for the betterment of nursing. We should still heed the advice of one of these prominent visionaries, Florence Nightingale, who said: The progressive world is necessarily divided into two classes--those who take the best of what there is and enjoy it--those who wish for something better and try to create it. Without these two classes, the world would be badly off. They are the very conditions of progress, both the one and the other. Were there none who were discontented with what they have, the world would never reach anything better (Nightingale, 1860/1979, p. 29). You need to seize the moment, be risk-takers, become politically-savvy nurses and make a difference in the profession of nursing and, more importantly, the lives of the patients who are entrusted to your care!

  3. The Political Novels of Peter Abrahams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunghesan, Kolawole

    1973-01-01

    Abrahams' theme is the attempt of black men to regain their manhood and self-respect, which alone can help them to achieve true freedom in a world dominated by white men: how this is to be done is the subject of three novels, using three different political situations. (Author/JM)

  4. Language Policy, Politics, and Diversity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Terrence G.; Garcia, David R.; Danzig, Arnold B.; Stigler, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    "Review of Research in Education: Vol. 38, Language Policy, Politics, and Diversity in Education" explores the role of educational language policies in promoting education as a human right. There are an estimated nearly 7,000 living languages in the world. Yet, despite the extent of language diversity, only a small number of the…

  5. The Pragmatics of Minority Politics in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blommaert, Jan; Verschueren, Jef

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of newspaper reports, political policy papers and social science investigations, uncovers a coherent world of beliefs concerning minority-majority relations. These beliefs, centered around stable but vague notions of culture, nation, state, democracy, and human rights, reveal a society profoundly troubled by the idea of diversity,…

  6. Humanitarian Politics. Headline Series No. 304.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minear, Larry; Weiss, Thomas G.

    This booklet examines the issue of humanitarian aid in times of crises and how the political and military conditions that generate the need for humanitarian action have changed in the post-cold-war era. There are different faces of civil war, changes in international assistance, and complex emergencies that demand new world responses to help those…

  7. Simulating History to Understand International Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Kimberly; Baranowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To understand world politics, one must appreciate the context in which international systems develop and operate. Pedagogy studies demonstrate that the more active students are in their learning, the more they learn. As such, using computer simulations can complement and enhance classroom instruction. CIVILIZATION is a computer simulation game…

  8. "Holocaust": Its Meaning for Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeveld, Willem

    1981-01-01

    Based on audience research in European countries, this article suggests that television miniseries "Holocaust" was not successful in teaching about the fate of Jews in Germany during World War II. Major problems with the series include that it personalized problems and gave no insight into economic and political forces at work during the…

  9. On medicine and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451

  10. Putting politics first.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  11. Polite Theories Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Dejan; Barrett, Clark

    The classic method of Nelson and Oppen for combining decision procedures requires the theories to be stably-infinite. Unfortunately, some important theories do not fall into this category (e.g. the theory of bit-vectors). To remedy this problem, previous work introduced the notion of polite theories. Polite theories can be combined with any other theory using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen approach. In this paper we revisit the notion of polite theories, fixing a subtle flaw in the original definition. We give a new combination theorem which specifies the degree to which politeness is preserved when combining polite theories. We also give conditions under which politeness is preserved when instantiating theories by identifying two sorts. These results lead to a more general variant of the theorem for combining multiple polite theories.

  12. Optimization of retinotopy constrained source estimation constrained by prior

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    Studying how the timing and amplitude of visual evoked responses (VERs) vary between visual areas is important for understanding visual processing but is complicated by difficulties in reliably estimating VERs in individual visual areas using non-invasive brain measurements. Retinotopy constrained source estimation (RCSE) addresses this challenge by using multiple, retinotopically-mapped stimulus locations to simultaneously constrain estimates of VERs in visual areas V1, V2, and V3, taking advantage of the spatial precision of fMRI retinotopy and the temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). Nonlinear optimization of dipole locations, guided by a group-constrained RCSE solution as a prior, improved the robustness of RCSE. This approach facilitated the analysis of differences in timing and amplitude of VERs between V1, V2, and V3, elicited by stimuli with varying luminance contrast in a sample of eight adult humans. The V1 peak response was 37% larger than that of V2 and 74% larger than that of V3, and also ~10–20 msec earlier. Normalized contrast response functions were nearly identical for the three areas. Results without dipole optimization, or with other nonlinear methods not constrained by prior estimates were similar but suffered from greater between-subject variability. The increased reliability of estimates offered by this approach may be particularly valuable when using a smaller number of stimulus locations, enabling a greater variety of stimulus and task manipulations. PMID:23868690

  13. The politics of researching global health politics

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  14. The politics of water

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, S.

    1993-08-01

    Wars have been waged over oil and gold, but it is water that now poses the greatest potential for provoking conflict among nations-and the greatest need for new guarantees of cooperation. Athough water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Nearly 40 percent of the world's population depends on river systems shared by two or more countries, leading to political hot spots, most critically in the middle east. This article describes in detail the water problems in the middle east, starting with the Jordan River basin, the Golan Heights, and the coastal aquifer, partly polluted. On the Sinai Peninsula the Nile River is the water source for nine countries, and the Tigris-Euphrates, although still providing water in relative abundance, is prey to the failure of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey to reach water-sharing agreements. Discussion includes the possibilities of turning the win-lose situations into win-win situations by appropriate water management and the problem of lack of a clear legal framework for settling disputes.

  15. Does Big Business Rule America? Critical Commentaries on Charles E. Lindblom's "Politics and Markets."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, Robert, Ed.

    This volume pulls together commentaries on Charles E. Lindblom's book entitled "Politics and Markets: The World's Political-Economic Systems" (1977) which expounds the thesis that big business dominates American culture and politics and prevents the introduction of central planning in place of a market-oriented economy. Following an introduction,…

  16. "Ladlad" and Parrhesiastic Pedagogy: Unfurling LGBT Politics and Education in the Global South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the political and educational activism of "Ladlad," the first lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) political party in the Philippines and the only existing LGBT political party in the world. Founded in 2003, "Ladlad" fielded candidates for the 2010 national election in the Philippines, amidst…

  17. Getting Politically Active

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Projects can, and do, succeed because of politics. And they can fail due to politics, as well. Politics does not have to be a dirty word, if it means working closely and openly with customers and stakeholder s; it is an essential approach that requires continuous dedication of time and attention. Project management is a people industry. Gainin g the trust of your followers will grant you more influence than any formal authority.

  18. Nuclear Politics in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    system. States with prestige are recognized by other actors as having a high 21 Nuclear Politics in Iran standing either generally or with regard to...Nuclear Politics in Iran Edited by Judith S. Yaphe MIDDLE EAST STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES 1 Center for Strategic Research Institute for National...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Politics in

  19. Astronomy and Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  20. Cosmopolitan political science.

    PubMed

    Grande, Edgar

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, the term cosmopolitism could rarely be found in modern political science literature. It was only in the 1990s that the term was rediscovered by political scientists in the critical discourse on globalization. In this article, I will explore the full potential of cosmopolitism as an analytical concept for empirical political science. I will argue that the concept of cosmopolitism should not be restricted to the analysis of global politics. Indeed, cosmopolitism has much more to offer for political scientists. Properly understood, it enables--and necessitates--a re-invention of political science in the age of globalization, comparable to the behavioural revolution in political science in the 1950s. Such a paradigmatic shift should be based on a twofold transformation of existing disciplinary boundaries: A removal of the boundary between national (and comparative) and international politics on the one hand; and a re-definition of the boundaries between empirical and normative approaches on the other. As a result, cosmopolitism may serve as a new, critical theory of politics based on the integration of hitherto separated fields and sub-fields.

  1. Envy, politics, and age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Henniger, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase "politics of envy" has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age.

  2. COBS: COnstrained B-Splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Pin T.; Maechler, Martin

    2015-05-01

    COBS (COnstrained B-Splines), written in R, creates constrained regression smoothing splines via linear programming and sparse matrices. The method has two important features: the number and location of knots for the spline fit are established using the likelihood-based Akaike Information Criterion (rather than a heuristic procedure); and fits can be made for quantiles (e.g. 25% and 75% as well as the usual 50%) in the response variable, which is valuable when the scatter is asymmetrical or non-Gaussian. This code is useful for, for example, estimating cluster ages when there is a wide spread in stellar ages at a chosen absorption, as a standard regression line does not give an effective measure of this relationship.

  3. Political Science in "New Social Studies" Curricula: State of the Art -- 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mary Jane

    This paper examines trends in social science and political education since World War II; discusses some of the fundamental directions established by the new social studies curricula; and evaluates the political science component of material produced by the curriculum development projects of the 1960's. Since World War II, the study of government…

  4. The Evolution of Chicano Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Armando

    1974-01-01

    The historical evolution of Chicano politics from the United States war with Mexico to the early seventies is analyzed in 4 stages: 1) Politics of Resistance (1846-1915); 2) Politics of Accommodation (1915-1945); 3) Politics of Social Change (1945-1965); and 4) Politics of Protest (1965-1972). (NQ)

  5. Facebook's Spiral of Silence and Participation: The Role of Political Expression on Facebook and Partisan Strength in Political Participation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mihee

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated how Facebook's spiral of silence influences political participation. For doing so, this study focused on the roles of politically expressive activities on Facebook and individuals' levels of partisan strength. An online survey (N = 277) was conducted with Facebook users. Results showed that a perceived hostile opinion climate on Facebook was negatively associated with political expression on Facebook, which, in turn, was positively related with political participation. This indirect relationship was conditioned by the degree of Facebook users' partisan strength. Those with weak or moderate levels of partisan strength were less likely to express their minority views, which led to decrease their political participation in the real world. Such indirect relationship was not the case for those with high levels of partisan strength. Theoretical and political implications of these findings were discussed.

  6. America's Political Cartoon Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, William Ray

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of political cartoons in the United States from the first (Benjamin Franklin's "Unite or Die") in 1754 to the present. Discusses three requirements for effective cartoons, and identifies important cartoonists and their work. Characterizes political cartoons as one of the United States' liveliest, most enjoyable, and…

  7. Getting Your Political Bearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Being an instructional leader is important, but no one can be an instructional leader without a job. Political astuteness is key to survival in the principalship. The salient question, of course, is, How does one become politically astute? This process involves learning how to conscientiously and accurately keep a finger on the pulse of the…

  8. Educating for Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that…

  9. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  10. The Politics of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Update, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This document examines political questions that surround the issue of literacy. "City Literacy Cuts" outlines effects of the most recent budget cuts in New York City. "Families, Inequality, and Power: The Cultural Politics of Literacy" (Deborah D'Amico-Samuels) focuses on the importance of understanding the different models…

  11. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  12. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  13. Affect in electoral politics.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J; Salovey, P

    1998-01-01

    Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.

  14. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…

  15. Political Integration of Hezbollah into Lebanese Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    hold the political trump-card within Lebanon’s wobbly confessional system. Hezbollah has demonstrated, “probity, transparency, accountability, and...Distribution of Religious Groups, 1983, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/lebanon_religions_83.jpg (accessed May 20, 2009). Chandler

  16. Student life - Making politics matter.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Siobhan

    2014-12-02

    'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'

  17. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance.

  18. Christian bioethics and the Church's political worship.

    PubMed

    Song, Robert

    2005-12-01

    Christian bioethics springs from the worship that is the response of the Church to the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Such worship is distinctively political in nature, in that it acknowledges Christ as Lord. Because it is a political worship, it can recognize no other lords and no other prior claims on its allegiance: these include the claims of an allegedly universal ethics and politics determined from outside the Church. However the Church is called not just to be a contrast society, but also to witness to the freeing of the world from salvific pretensions in order that it may embrace its proper temporality. The implications of this for the distinctiveness of Christian bioethics are brought out in three movements: first, the Church's itself learning how it is to conceive bioethics; second, the Church's role in unmasking the idols of secular bioethics; and third, the Church's witnessing to the freeing of medicine from idolatrous aspirations.

  19. Global Systems Science: A New World View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneider, Cary; Golden, Richard; Barrett, Katharine

    1999-01-01

    Global systems science is a new field of study about the interactions between Earth's natural systems and human activities. The people who study global systems science draw on methods and theories of many different fields from chemistry and biology to economics and politics-in order to predict how today's actions are likely to affect the world of tomorrow - our world and our children's world.

  20. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation: Evidence From Germany.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach-by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour-and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.

  1. Method of constrained global optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, Eric Lewin; Williams, Timothy J.; Ratner, Edward R.; Dowla, Farid; Wooten, Frederick

    1994-04-01

    We present a new method for optimization: constrained global optimization (CGO). CGO iteratively uses a Glauber spin flip probability and the Metropolis algorithm. The spin flip probability allows changing only the values of variables contributing excessively to the function to be minimized. We illustrate CGO with two problems-Thomson's problem of finding the minimum-energy configuration of unit charges on a spherical surface, and a problem of assigning offices-for which CGO finds better minima than other methods. We think CGO will apply to a wide class of optimization problems.

  2. Constraining walking and custodial technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads T.; Sannino, Francesco

    2008-05-01

    We show how to constrain the physical spectrum of walking technicolor models via precision measurements and modified Weinberg sum rules. We also study models possessing a custodial symmetry for the S parameter at the effective Lagrangian level - custodial technicolor - and argue that these models cannot emerge from walking-type dynamics. We suggest that it is possible to have a very light spin-one axial (vector) boson. However, in the walking dynamics the associated vector boson is heavy while it is degenerate with the axial in custodial technicolor.

  3. Constraining relativistic viscous hydrodynamical evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Mauricio; Strickland, Michael

    2009-04-15

    We show that by requiring positivity of the longitudinal pressure it is possible to constrain the initial conditions one can use in second-order viscous hydrodynamical simulations of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We demonstrate this explicitly for (0+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics and discuss how the constraint extends to higher dimensions. Additionally, we present an analytic approximation to the solution of (0+1)-dimensional second-order viscous hydrodynamical evolution equations appropriate to describe the evolution of matter in an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision.

  4. World lines.

    PubMed

    Waser, Jürgen; Fuchs, Raphael; Ribicić, Hrvoje; Schindler, Benjamin; Blöschl, Günther; Gröller, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas, decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting, the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation, visualization and computational steering into a single unified system that is capable of dealing with the extended solution space. World Lines represent simulation runs as causally connected tracks that share a common time axis. This setup enables users to interfere and add new information quickly. A World Line is introduced as a visual combination of user events and their effects in order to present a possible future. To quickly find the most attractive outcome, we suggest World Lines as the governing component in a system of multiple linked views and a simulation component. World Lines employ linking and brushing to enable comparative visual analysis of multiple simulations in linked views. Analysis results can be mapped to various visual variables that World Lines provide in order to highlight the most compelling solutions. To demonstrate this technique we present a flooding scenario and show the usefulness of the integrated approach to support informed decision making.

  5. Superhabitable worlds.

    PubMed

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  6. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world’s nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

  7. Politics of Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burko, D.

    2012-12-01

    In a 2010 catalog introduction for my exhibition titled: POLITICS OF SNOW, Eileen Claussen, President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change wrote the following: "Climate change has been taken over by politics…We are awash in talking points, briefing papers, scientific studies, and communiqués from national governments… Diane Burko's paintings remind us that all these words can often obscure or even obstruct our view of what is truly happening …..There is only so much you can do with words. People need to see that the world is changing before our eyes. When we look at Diane's images of the effects of climate change, we connect to something much deeper and more profound (and more moving) than the latest political pitch from one side or another in this debate…These paintings also connect us to something else. Even as Diane documents how things are changing, she also reminds us of the stunning beauty of nature - and, in turn, the urgency of doing everything in our power to protect it." The creation of this body of work was made possible because of the collaboration of many glacial geologists and scientists who continually share their visual data with me. Since 2006 I've been gathering repeats from people like Bruce Molnia (USGS) and Tad Pfeffer of Alaskan glaciers, from Daniel Fagre (USGS) of Glacier National Park and Lonnie Thompson and Jason Box (Ohio University's Byrd Polar Center) about Kilimanjaro, Qori Kalis and Petermann glaciers as well as from photographer David Breashears on the disappearing Himalayan glaciers. In my practice, I acknowledge the photographers, or archive agencies, such as USGS, NASA or Snow and Ice Center, in the title and all printed material. As a landscape painter and photographer my intent is to not reproduce those images but rather use them as inspiration. At first I used the documentary evidence in sets of diptychs or triptychs. Since 2010 I have incorporated geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and

  8. The Effects of Majoring in Political Science on Political Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…

  9. Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…

  10. From the World-Systems Perspective to Institutional World History: Culture and Economy in Global Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Lauren

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes critical attacks on Immanuel Wallerstein's World Systems approach to history and offers new critical evaluations. Wallerstein argued that an emerging capitalist world economy dominated politics and history from the 16th century to the present. Defines two new approaches, institutional analysis and post colonial cultural theory, that…

  11. Nuclear Policy and World Order: Why Denuclearization. World Order Models Project. Occasional Paper Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Richard A.

    The monograph examines the relationship of nuclear power to world order. The major purpose of the document is to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action for a just and peaceful world order. The document is presented in five chapters. Chapter I stresses the need for a system of global security to counteract dangers brought…

  12. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    PubMed

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine.

  13. The Politics of Weeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Hope N.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the literature that deals with the political ramifications of weeding material from academic library collections and the need to involve users and other libraries within the institution in the decision process. (14 references) (CLB)

  14. 4 CFR 7.3 - Political activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a political party. (8) Political fund means any fund, organization, political action committee, or..., political party, candidate, organization, political action committee, or other entity. (9) Political party means a national political party, a state political party, and an affiliated organization. (b)...

  15. Politics of Persuasion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conform to social and political standards of appropriateness, the ethics of persuasion, and the social sanctions given to the change agent. An analysis...of the techniques used by salesmen, police interrogators, and volunteers canvassing for political candidates helps make explicit some of these...fundamental assumptions. In the process of presenting these general analyses, extractions from police training manuals and improvised tactics used to

  16. Pairwise constrained concept factorization for data representation.

    PubMed

    He, Yangcheng; Lu, Hongtao; Huang, Lei; Xie, Saining

    2014-04-01

    Concept factorization (CF) is a variant of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). In CF, each concept is represented by a linear combination of data points, and each data point is represented by a linear combination of concepts. More specifically, each concept is represented by more than one data point with different weights, and each data point carries various weights called membership to represent their degrees belonging to that concept. However, CF is actually an unsupervised method without making use of prior information of the data. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised concept factorization method, called Pairwise Constrained Concept Factorization (PCCF), which incorporates pairwise constraints into the CF framework. We expect that data points which have pairwise must-link constraints should have the same class label as much as possible, while data points with pairwise cannot-link constraints will have different class labels as much as possible. Due to the incorporation of the pairwise constraints, the learning quality of the CF has been significantly enhanced. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed novel method in comparison to the state-of-the-art algorithms on several real world applications.

  17. Seismic microzonation in Latin America and the Caribbean: social, cultural, economic and political aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    The lack of success, not to say failure, of seismic microzonation projects in the Latin America and Caribbean nations-and for that matter elsewhere in the world-should not be attributed to the lack of technical and scientific expertise of our engineers and scientists as there exists in our continent sufficient knowledge and information about the techniques and procedures that have been successfully used elsewhere in the world in the implementation of seismic microzonation projects. The main constrains to the implementation of seismic microzonation projects in Latin America and the Caribbean are of an economic, social, political, and cultural aspects rather than the purely scientific and engineering aspects. Another very important factor contributing to this lack of success has been the apparent failure of the scientific and technical community to convince decision makers (both official and private) that the sound implementation of seismic microzonation projects are a valid instrument to mitigate the negative effects that earthquakes have on the population, on the physical infrastructure and on the environment. An attempt will be made in this paper to analyze these "non technical" aspects and try to arrive at some conclusions as well as to some possible lines of action for the successful implementation of seismic microzonation projects in the seismic risk prone Latin American and Caribbean nations.

  18. The Handwriting Is on the Wall. A World Development Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This anthology of writings on world development examines the widening gap between the rich and the poor of the world. Development is understood to mean the struggle to realize a just and humane life for everyone. The thoughts of third world economists and political leaders as well as those of European and North American observers are included. The…

  19. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  20. Political Speeches and Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Christina

    1996-01-01

    Argues that any political action is prepared, controlled and influenced by language. Notes that the study of language has become more central to academic disciplines concerned with politics. Political scientists focus on the consequences of political decisions and actions for a society, whereas linguists concentrate on the linguistic structures…

  1. Formal language constrained path problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  2. Exploring constrained quantum control landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Katharine W.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2012-10-01

    The broad success of optimally controlling quantum systems with external fields has been attributed to the favorable topology of the underlying control landscape, where the landscape is the physical observable as a function of the controls. The control landscape can be shown to contain no suboptimal trapping extrema upon satisfaction of reasonable physical assumptions, but this topological analysis does not hold when significant constraints are placed on the control resources. This work employs simulations to explore the topology and features of the control landscape for pure-state population transfer with a constrained class of control fields. The fields are parameterized in terms of a set of uniformly spaced spectral frequencies, with the associated phases acting as the controls. This restricted family of fields provides a simple illustration for assessing the impact of constraints upon seeking optimal control. Optimization results reveal that the minimum number of phase controls necessary to assure a high yield in the target state has a special dependence on the number of accessible energy levels in the quantum system, revealed from an analysis of the first- and second-order variation of the yield with respect to the controls. When an insufficient number of controls and/or a weak control fluence are employed, trapping extrema and saddle points are observed on the landscape. When the control resources are sufficiently flexible, solutions producing the globally maximal yield are found to form connected "level sets" of continuously variable control fields that preserve the yield. These optimal yield level sets are found to shrink to isolated points on the top of the landscape as the control field fluence is decreased, and further reduction of the fluence turns these points into suboptimal trapping extrema on the landscape. Although constrained control fields can come in many forms beyond the cases explored here, the behavior found in this paper is illustrative of

  3. Social Networking Sites and Cyberdemocracy: A New Model of Dialogic Interactivity and Political Moblization in the Case of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Heasun

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to test whether dialogic interactions via SNSs can help revive political participation and help citizens to become involved in real-world politics. In a Tocquevillian sense, this study assumes a positive relationship between virtual associational life and political participation and therefore argues that SNSs…

  4. Gene worlds.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Stefan; Shostak, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from a critical sociology of knowledge perspective, we situate the production of genetic information within relevant political, financial, and professional contexts. We consider as well the broad range of social conditions that render genetic knowledge salient in clinical settings and for population health. This sociological analysis of genetic knowledge highlights how genetic knowledge flourishes and shapes social environments and how in turn environments select for particular forms of genetic knowledge. We examine the role of the laboratory, regulatory state, and social movements in the production of genetic knowledge and the clinic, family, and population health as critical sites where genetic knowledge becomes actionable.

  5. Mapping the online communication patterns of political conversations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Benito, R. M.; Losada, J. C.

    2014-11-01

    The structure of the social networks in which individuals are embedded influences their political choices and therefore their voting behavior. Nowadays, social media represent a new channel for individuals to communicate, what together with the availability of the data, makes it possible to analyze the online social network resulting from political conversations. Here, by taking advantage of the recently developed techniques to analyze complex systems, we map the communication patterns resulting from Spanish political conversations. We identify the different existing communities, building networks of communities, and finding that users cluster themselves in politically homogeneous networks. We found that while most of the collective attention was monopolized by politicians, traditional media accounts were still the preferred sources from which to propagate information. Finally, we propose methods to analyze the use of different languages, finding a clear trend from sympathizers of several political parties to overuse or infra-use each language. We conclude that, on the light of a social media analysis perspective, the political conversation is constrained by both ideology and language.

  6. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment.

  7. Murder, political resources, and women's political success.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David; Paxton, Pamela M; Jackson, Aubrey L; Malone, Chad A

    2013-03-01

    This analysis tests overlooked sociological hypotheses about women's presence in the state legislatures and the House of Representatives. Stereotypes about women suggest that shifts in social conditions affect these political outcomes by making such stereotypes more or less salient. Findings indicate that beliefs about female competencies-such as women's purported unwillingness to endorse violent solutions-should reduce support for female candidates when increases in violent crime create demands for increasingly severe punishments. Since women also are typecast as being more protective of vulnerable populations than males, states with larger minority populations should have additional women in both legislatures. Pooled time-series models based on 1127 state-years show that fewer women were present in the state legislatures or in state delegations to the House after increases in the murder rates. States with larger minority populations, however, had more women in these two legislative bodies. Our results support claims that under researched social conditions produce political climates that either benefit or harm women who seek these offices.

  8. Classroom Activities for the Progressive Era and the World War I Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Randy

    1986-01-01

    Provides discussion questions, activities, and projects to be used with EJ515083, "The Progressive Era and the World War I Draft." Includes three political cartoons and two World War I-era songs of opposing viewpoints. (JDH)

  9. Astronomy and political theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

  10. Political participation of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p < .001) of political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p < .001). Resources (time/money/civic skills) significantly contributed to political participation (p < .001). Less than half (40%) felt they could impact local decisions, and fewer (32%) felt they could impact state or national government decisions. Most respondents (80%) indicated their nursing courses lacked political content and did not prepare them for political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.

  11. Order-constrained linear optimization.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Joe W; Dougherty, Michael R; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Thomas, Rick P

    2017-02-27

    Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties. In this paper, we develop an order-constrained linear least-squares (OCLO) optimization algorithm that maximizes the linear least-squares fit to the data conditional on maximizing the ordinal fit based on Kendall's τ. The algorithm builds on the maximum rank correlation estimator (Han, 1987, Journal of Econometrics, 35, 303) and the general monotone model (Dougherty & Thomas, 2012, Psychological Review, 119, 321). Analyses of simulated data indicate that when modelling data that adhere to the assumptions of ordinary least squares, OCLO shows minimal bias, little increase in variance, and almost no loss in out-of-sample predictive accuracy. In contrast, under conditions in which data include a small number of extreme scores (fat-tailed distributions), OCLO shows less bias and variance, and substantially better out-of-sample predictive accuracy, even when the outliers are removed. We show that the advantages of OCLO over ordinary least squares in predicting new observations hold across a variety of scenarios in which researchers must decide to retain or eliminate extreme scores when fitting data.

  12. Constraining QGP properties with CHIMERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garishvili, Irakli; Abelev, Betty; Cheng, Michael; Glenn, Andrew; Soltz, Ron

    2011-10-01

    Understanding essential properties of strongly interacting matter is arguably the most important goal of the relativistic heavy-ion programs both at RHIC and the LHC. In particular, constraining observables such as ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s, initial temperature, Tinit, and energy density is of critical importance. For this purpose we have developed CHIMERA, Comprehensive Heavy Ion Model Reporting and Evaluation Algorithm. CHIMERA is designed to facilitate global statistical comparison of results from our multi-stage hydrodynamics/hadron cascade model of heavy ion collisions to the key soft observables (HBT, elliptic flow, spectra) measured at RHIC and the LHC. Within this framework the data representing multiple different measurements from different experiments are compiled into single format. One of the unique features of CHIMERA is, that in addition to taking into account statistical errors, it also treats different types of systematic uncertainties. The hydrodynamics/hadron cascade model used in the framework incorporates different initial state conditions, pre-equilibrium flow, the UVH2+1 viscous hydro model, Cooper-Frye freezeout, and the UrQMD hadronic cascade model. The sensitivity of the observables to the equation of state (EoS) is explored using several EoS's in the hydrodynamic evolution. The latest results from CHIMERA, including data from the LHC, will be presented.

  13. BICEP2 constrains composite inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channuie, Phongpichit

    2014-07-01

    In light of BICEP2, we re-examine single field inflationary models in which the inflation is a composite state stemming from various four-dimensional strongly coupled theories. We study in the Einstein frame a set of cosmological parameters, the primordial spectral index ns and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, predicted by such models. We confront the predicted results with the joint Planck data, and with the recent BICEP2 data. We constrain the number of e-foldings for composite models of inflation in order to obtain a successful inflation. We find that the minimal composite inflationary model is fully consistent with the Planck data. However it is in tension with the recent BICEP2 data. The observables predicted by the glueball inflationary model can be consistent with both Planck and BICEP2 contours if a suitable number of e-foldings are chosen. Surprisingly, the super Yang-Mills inflationary prediction is significantly consistent with the Planck and BICEP2 observations.

  14. Gyrification from constrained cortical expansion

    PubMed Central

    Tallinen, Tuomas; Chung, Jun Young; Biggins, John S.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-01-01

    The exterior of the mammalian brain—the cerebral cortex—has a conserved layered structure whose thickness varies little across species. However, selection pressures over evolutionary time scales have led to cortices that have a large surface area to volume ratio in some organisms, with the result that the brain is strongly convoluted into sulci and gyri. Here we show that the gyrification can arise as a nonlinear consequence of a simple mechanical instability driven by tangential expansion of the gray matter constrained by the white matter. A physical mimic of the process using a layered swelling gel captures the essence of the mechanism, and numerical simulations of the brain treated as a soft solid lead to the formation of cusped sulci and smooth gyri similar to those in the brain. The resulting gyrification patterns are a function of relative cortical expansion and relative thickness (compared with brain size), and are consistent with observations of a wide range of brains, ranging from smooth to highly convoluted. Furthermore, this dependence on two simple geometric parameters that characterize the brain also allows us to qualitatively explain how variations in these parameters lead to anatomical anomalies in such situations as polymicrogyria, pachygyria, and lissencephalia. PMID:25136099

  15. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  16. The importance of workforce surveillance, research evidence and political advocacy in the context of international migration of dentists.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, M; Brennan, D S; Spencer, A J; Watkins, K; Short, S D

    2015-03-01

    The international migration of dentists is an issue of pressing significance that poses several complex policy challenges. Policy-making is mainly constrained by the lack of workforce surveillance, research evidence and political advocacy - all three are required to work together, yet with different purposes. We first discuss the inconsistencies in migrant dentist surveillance in major country-level governmental systems (immigration departments, dentist registration authorities and workforce agencies). We argue that the limitations in surveillance collections affect independent research and in turn scholarly contributions to dental workforce policy. Differences in country-level surveillance collections also hinder valid cross-country comparisons on migrant dentist data, impeding global policy efforts. Due to these limitations, advocacy, or the political process to influence health policy, suffers, but is integral to future challenges on dentist migration. Country-level advocacy is best targeted at improving migrant dentist surveillance systems. Research interest can be invigorated through targeted funding allocations for migration research and by improving the availability of dentist surveillance data for research purposes. At the global level, the WHOs global code of practice for international recruitment of health personnel (a crucial advocacy tool) needs to be strengthened. Global organisations such as the FDI World Dental Federation have an important role to play in advocating for improved migrant dentist workforce surveillance and research evidence, especially in low- and middle-income countries.

  17. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    PubMed

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War.

  18. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    PubMed Central

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear “piles,” soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments—both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy—in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  19. The Mexican American Political Conference Urges Participation in National Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelo, Cosme Juan, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Participants of the second semiannual meeting of the Arizona Mexican American Political Conference, held in Tucson on September 24, 1977, discussed the Mexican American influence and involvement in local, state, and national politics. (NQ)

  20. World coal outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Calarco, V.J. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    The contribution of coal to world energy needs, particularly in the western world, may appear to be an engima, given the size of known reserves and the economic, social, and political difficulties that were created by the oil events of 1973 to 74. The increased emphasis on coal brought into sharp focus the conflict between energy and environmental policies. The 1974 oil price increases overcame the inherently higher costs of transporting, storing and burning coal. This economic advantage was substantially moderated by the added costs associated with using it in a manner consistent with environmental legislation and regulations. The net effect was an erosion of the initial high interest in coal. In 1979, the renewed instability and dramatic price increases in world oil markets produced a major change in the social and economic attractiveness of coal. Society is now reexamining the trade-offs it is willing to accept between the environment and economic activity. It is more important, however, that the price increases in 1979 and expectations for continued instability in world oil markets have made the environmentally acceptable use of coal affordable. Over the long term, environmental issues aside, the cost advantage for coal is expected to widen, as oil and natural gas prices escalate at rates greater than those anticipated for coal. It is possible that the gap between coal and the alternatives will be smaller as the emphasis on further environmental improvements accelerates in response to increased coal use. The overall relative advantage is expected to remain with coal, however, thus leading to its increased replacement of oil or natural gas. Further supporting the outlook for the increased consumption of coal is the growing level of concern surrounding the nuclear option for electric power generation.

  1. World Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a report that deals with several topics from different parts of the world. A system for creating more meaningful maps, the recycling of organic wastes in agriculture in China, and producing pigs and poultry without pollution problems are among the topics presented. (HM)

  2. Our World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling, Ed.

    Authored by individuals from five Nordic countries, this book focuses on questions about the child's right to live in and learn about an ecologically sustainable world. The first five chapters are theoretical in character, while the final six chapters are derived from work done by early childhood teachers together with children. The goal of the…

  3. Constrained Peptides as Miniature Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hang

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent developments of protein engineering using both covalent and noncovalent bonds to constrain peptides, forcing them into designed protein secondary structures. These constrained peptides subsequently can be used as peptidomimetics for biological functions such as regulations of protein-protein interactions. PMID:25969758

  4. Alternative World Scenarios for Strategic Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-20

    budgetary investments in social and welfare programs than in programs for defense or for foreign economic and military aid. For the most part, U.S. and other...World. This scenario describes a productive economic world where U.S. political leadership favors social and welfare investments over those of...directed toward internal economic and social development programs which began in the late 1980s. Although its international trade and economic investment

  5. 9 CFR 354.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity...

  6. [Population pressure: a factor of political destabilization].

    PubMed

    Tallon, F

    1993-04-01

    Political stability throughout the world appears to be greater in countries with slowly growing populations than in those with rapid growth. Population is not the only influence on political stability, however. The relationship between political stability and development is strong. The rich countries with the slowest growth are the most stable, while poor developing countries with rapid growth suffer from chronic instability. Demographic pressure and density are not the same thing and must be distinguished. A fragile environment like that of the Sahel will experience demographic pressure despite low density. Japan has a greater population density than Rwanda and little cultivable land, but the population has a high standard of living. demographic pressure is not comparable in Japan and Rwanda because Japan has slow population growth and stable democratic political institutions. The rate of growth seems to be a more important element in destabilization than density. Rapid growth creates enormous political tensions especially when profound ethnic divisions exist, and it complicates problems of government by encouraging rapid urbanization. The unbalanced age structures resulting from rapid growth hinder the satisfaction of employment, educational, and health care needs for the ever-increasing masses of young people. 49% of Rwanda's population is under 15 and 66% is under 25. Rwanda is already densely populated, with around 300 inhabitants/sq km, and its population is projected to double in 20 years. 95% of the population is dependent on agriculture, but by 1988 the average landholding per family was only 1.25 hectares and 58% of families did not grown sufficient food for household needs. Further reduction in the size of holdings or a growing landless population will have multiple consequences. Urban migration will inevitably increase, bringing with it all the problems so evident in other poor countries where the process is more advanced than in Rwanda. Chaotic

  7. Counselors, Not Political Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapela, Victor J.

    1974-01-01

    This article centers around the relationship of counselors to the social order and political system of this country. The author questions the basic premise that social alienation is a natural outcome of the American system. A response by Harold J. Adams follows. (Author)

  8. Imaging and Political Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    This document looks at advertising and political commercials in radio. When placing an advertisement, in any media in general and radio in particular, one takes into consideration qualitative and quantitative data: how many people are listening, and who they are, and what level of education they have attained. Listeners have extremely well…

  9. Librarians as Political Activists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manheimer, Ethel

    1981-01-01

    Argues that librarians should become politically involved in order to support their library systems. The work of public librarians in Berkeley to get a special tax referendum passed is described, as well as the experiences of school librarians in Contra Costa County in organizing to protect their program. (BK)

  10. The Politics of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, David; Jones, Jeffery M.

    2005-01-01

    After decades of debate inside the educational community, literacy policy has recently moved to the larger stage of national politics. Prior to 1997 no federal bill had specifically addressed child literacy as an issue. But in the 2000 presidential campaign, George W. Bush regularly touted his record on literacy, and he and his wife Laura, a…

  11. Conscience and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    The meaning and understanding of conscience in political thought are examined. The problem of distinguishing apparent and real conscience and private and public judgment is illustrated by contrasting the acts of conscience of Socrates and Thomas More with the rejection of private judgment against the state in Hobbes and Locke. (RM)

  12. The politics of insight

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  13. Learning Linguistic Politeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byon, Andrew Sangpil

    2004-01-01

    American KFL (Korean as a foreign language) students' communicative success depends to a large extent on their ability to express interpersonal meanings with target-language resources. However, information regarding how KFL students acquire, or fail to learn linguistic politeness through classroom learning is scarce. The nature of this study is…

  14. Manual on Political Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schakel, Minnekus

    This guide offers teachers and senior high school students the simple facts of how he can make a difference in the operation of the two-party system in the United States at the precinct level. It also attempts to show that students, teachers, the school curriculum, and our American political structure definitely need large numbers of high school…

  15. Political Communication Yearbook 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Keith R., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on current scholarship in the evolving field of political communication, this publication is organized in three sections. Part 1, "Current Perspectives on the Spiral of Silence," features essays by Charles T. Salmon and F. Gerald Kline, Klaus Merten, Carroll J. Glynn and Jack M. McLeod, and a response by the theory's original…

  16. JPRS Report, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    leadership, while rejecting the former peremptory bureaucratic style of operation and administration. It is necessary also to refrain completely... maternity leaves and child care leaves, longer vacations, financed by centralized funds and enterprise funds, for mothers of large families and single...shortcomings, a radically modified style of party leader- ship, and better methods of exerting ideological and political influence on economic and social

  17. Politics and Professional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Stanley; Nevitte, Neil; Lichter, S. Robert

    2005-01-01

    Apparently, the department of agriculture is the last bastion for ideological pluralism in the modern American academy. Almost everywhere else, according to research by Stanley Rothman et al., a monolithic liberal orthodoxy holds sway, rewarding its own and conferring career disadvantage upon scholars deemed politically inconvenient. As his…

  18. Lifelong Learning and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Penelope L.

    1979-01-01

    States that community colleges are in a good position to be centers of lifelong education and that adult educators must engage in politics in order to promote learning opportunities for adults. Suggests legislative, administrative, judicial, and electoral strategies for adult educators to use in influencing policymakers to support lifelong…

  19. Practical Politics. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Dept. of State, Columbus.

    The 12 lessons on practical politics have been designed to help high school classroom teachers in Ohio develop and implement educational programs on citizen participation and, specifically, on voting. Objectives are to familiarize students with Ohio voting and registration laws and procedures, to introduce them to voting equipment, to acquaint…

  20. Politics of aviation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  1. Prejudice and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Charles P.; Felknor, Bruce L.

    This monograph, written in 1960, examines the part prejudice played in politics throughout our national history. Part I of the monograph discusses "The Colonial Era." The immigrants that populated the new nation brought with them varied cultural heritages and different religious faiths. Soon the colonial pattern of religious prejudice reflected…

  2. Unexplored Dimensions of 'Political' in the Politics of Education Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.; Wirt, Fred

    Recent analyses of the linkages between policy analysis and politics suggests that contemporary focus on the first had been poorly attenuated to the theoretical needs of the second. This paper specifies the kinds of research in educational politics that should ensue if the politics-of-education field is to become less oriented to specific policies…

  3. Clean Air Now: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    The fourth unit to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course focuses on a specific, controversial, political issue. Using a documentary approach, this unit analyzes the concept of political change by examining the changes in Riverside, California, as that community confronts the issue of smog. The unit is divided into…

  4. Practicing Politics: Female Political Scientists as Candidates for Elective Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…

  5. Teaching Real-World Political Economy: Simulating a WTO Negotiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steagall, Jeffrey W.; Jares, Timothy E.; Gallo, Andres

    2012-01-01

    "If free trade is a no-brainer, why isn't trade free?" Students often express such sentiments at the conclusion of a typical international trade course, during which they have learned that free trade is optimal, but that countries continue to restrict trade substantially. This article describes a simulation of a round of trade…

  6. Mass Media and Political Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewellen, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Research reviews and statistical analysis of a specific study suggest that the mass media play a direct role in the political socialization of adolescents insofar as overt political behavior is concerned. (Author/AV)

  7. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.


Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  8. The cultural politics of eating in Shenzhen.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, construction in Shenzhen symbolized both the transformation of Chinese socialism and the concomitant integration of Chinese society into global capitalist networks. This article tells the story of Shenzhen from the perspective of this first generation of immigrants, the so-called Old Shenzheners, who use nostalgia about food to define, debate, and ultimately retreat from conversations about what Shenzhen culture was and what it ought to be. Their food nostalgia is part of a larger cultural tradition of Chinese alimentary politics and has allowed Shenzheners to indigenize capitalist globalization to make the city their own. Old Shenzheners' food nostalgia represents an important moment in the Chinese transition to a post socialist political economy, redefining what it means to be both Chinese and global in a post–cold war world order.

  9. Youth Activists, Youth Councils, and Constrained Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Jessica K.; Gordon, Hava R.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a critical examination of a common form of adult attempts to promote civic engagement among young people, namely, youth advisory councils. While youth councils have been widely celebrated as an effective way to integrate young people into political processes, little research has explored why some politically active youth…

  10. Non-Effective National Territory: A Characteristic of Third World States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Bob J.

    In an effort to improve understanding and to provide better solutions to the world's political problems, this paper examines national territory or states in terms of their functional processes and their spatial structures. Examples from Third World states are provided. The author first presents a model of political territory. It has a boundary…

  11. Re-Framing the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, August

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation studies and describes how technical standards, protocols, and application programming interfaces (APIs) shape the aesthetic, functional, and affective nature of our most dominant mode of online communication, the World Wide Web (WWW). I examine the politically charged and contentious battle over browser…

  12. Teaching About World Hunger. No. 5419.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    This secondary-level resource unit surveys hunger and malnutrition in developing countries and the interdependent factors affecting world food supplies. The main part of the unit is divided into four sections which examine the historical and geographical, economic and political, health and nutritional, and environmental and ecological factors…

  13. World Hunger: Ten Myths. Fourth Edition, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappe, Frances Moore; Collins, Joseph

    Although there are a number of complex political, economic, and ecological issues at the root of world hunger, a number of myths have been perpetuated to explain why hunger exists. One myth says that people are hungry because of scarcity; in fact, hunger exists in the face of plenty. The earth is producing more than enough to nourish every human…

  14. CONFINTEA V from the World Polity Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schemmann, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes the fact that lifelong learning has become a global formula as its starting point and analyses the political documents and activities resulting from the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA V) from a world polity perspective. It examines the extent to which lifelong learning can be seen as a norm within…

  15. Bringing a Global Perspective to World Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyach, Robert B.; And Others

    Nine units of study to help high school social studies teachers introduce a global perspective are contained in this booklet. Stressing interactions among regions economically, politically, and socially, the lessons are intended to help teachers reinforce basic skills and introduce new images of the world. Each lesson contains the following…

  16. European Education in a World Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jose Luis Garcia

    1992-01-01

    Discusses problems facing European education as the world continues to become more interconnected through politics, communication, and economics. Stresses the need to maintain national values without regressing to nationalism. Examines teacher training, history instruction, and television as areas where divisions can be lessened. Warns against…

  17. World History as an Advanced Academic Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadney, T. E.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses world history as an academic field at the University of Manitoba (Canada). Advocates developing programs with a specifically global approach. Argues research and publishing are necessary to win academic recognition and funding. Suggests faculty recruitment remain politically sensitive and proceed gradually. (CH)

  18. A Model of Political Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    A Model of Political Violence Michael W. Fowler1 Abstract: Insurgencies continue to proliferate around the globe. While U.S. political and...groups do not rebel. This study proposes a model to explain the intrastate political violence of insurgency. While primarily focused upon insurgency...the model can be used for all types of political violence . This study presents a model that uses a holistic approach to the study of violence

  19. Political institutions and their historical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Mikael; Lundberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, political scientists define political institutions deductively. This approach may prevent from discovery of existing institutions beyond the definitions. Here, a principal component analysis was used for an inductive extraction of dimensions in Polity IV data on the political institutions of all nations in the world the last two centuries. Three dimensions of institutions were revealed: core institutions of democracy, oligarchy, and despotism. We show that, historically and on a world scale, the dominance of the core institutions of despotism has first been replaced by a dominance of the core institutions of oligarchy, which in turn is now being followed by an increasing dominance by the core institutions of democracy. Nations do not take steps from despotic, to oligarchic and then to democratic institutions, however. Rather, nations hosting the core democracy institutions have succeeded in historically avoiding both the core institutions of despotism and those of oligarchy. On the other hand, some nations have not been influenced by any of these dimensions, while new institutional combinations are increasingly influencing others. We show that the extracted institutional dimensions do not correspond to the Polity scores for autocracy, "anocracy" and democracy, suggesting that changes in regime types occur at one level, while institutional dynamics work on another. Political regime types in that sense seem "canalized", i.e., underlying institutional architectures can and do vary, but to a considerable extent independently of regime types and their transitions. The inductive approach adds to the deductive regime type studies in that it produces results in line with modern studies of cultural evolution and memetic institutionalism in which institutions are the units of observation, not the nations that acts as host for them.

  20. Building cancer nursing skills in a resource-constrained government hospital.

    PubMed

    Strother, R M; Fitch, Margaret; Kamau, Peter; Beattie, Kathy; Boudreau, Angela; Busakhalla, N; Loehrer, P J

    2012-09-01

    Cancer is a rising cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-constrained settings. Few places in the developing world have cancer care experts and infrastructure for caring for cancer patients; therefore, it is imperative to develop this infrastructure and expertise. A critical component of cancer care, rarely addressed in the published literature, is cancer nursing. This report describes an effort to develop cancer nursing subspecialty knowledge and skills in support of a growing resource-constrained comprehensive cancer care program in Western Kenya. This report highlights the context of cancer care delivery in a resource-constrained setting, and describes one targeted intervention to further develop the skill set and knowledge of cancer care providers, as part of collaboration between developed world academic institutions and a medical school and governmental hospital in Western Kenya. Based on observations of current practice, practice setting, and resource limitations, a pragmatic curriculum for cancer care nursing was developed and implemented.

  1. Ethnicity and Nonelectoral Political Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrinkle, Robert D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes data from the Latino National Political Survey to examine whether nonelectoral political participation by Latino subgroups (Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans) can be explained on the basis of culture, socioeconomic status, or mobilization (political activism). Mobilization offered the strongest explanation for…

  2. The Rebirth of Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Richard G.; Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that research on political socialization began in the late 1950s and died a premature death in the 1970s. Discusses the field's origins and downfall, and predicts a rebirth in a new and sustainable form. Outlines changes in secondary school political science education and political socialization research in other nations. (CFR)

  3. The Politics of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

  4. Democratizing the world health organization.

    PubMed

    van de Pas, R; van Schaik, L G

    2014-02-01

    A progressive erosion of the democratic space appears as one of the emerging challenges in global health today. Such delimitation of the political interplay has a particularly evident impact on the unique public interest function of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper aims to identify some obstacles for a truly democratic functioning of the UN specialized agency for health. The development of civil society's engagement with the WHO, including in the current reform proposals, is described. The paper also analyses how today's financing of the WHO--primarily through multi-bi financing mechanisms--risks to choke the agency's role in global health. Democratizing the public debate on global health, and therefore the role of the WHO, requires a debate on its future role and engagement at the country level. This desirable process can only be linked to national debates on public health, and the re-definition of health as a primary political and societal concern.

  5. A demographic-economic explanation of political stability: Mauritius as a microcosm.

    PubMed

    Lempert, D

    1987-06-01

    "This paper examines current models of economic and political development--social modernization theory, political and economic characteristics of stable regimes, and cross country analysis of political stability--and tests them on the Indian Ocean Island of Mauritius. The analysis continues with a causal explanation for political stability in Mauritius' recent history, derived from an examination of economic policies and demographic patterns. Political change in Mauritius over the past sixty years seems to be explained best by a model for political stability which integrates specific economic and demographic factors. The model, applicable to development in other third world nations, revises Malthus' conclusion that population and economic conditions move in an oscillatory relationship and replaces it with a more comprehensive theory, suggesting that political stability is a function of both economic development and a repeating cyclical relationship between economics and population."

  6. The Importance, Content and Teaching of the Political Geography Course in Social Studies Undergraduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocal, Tulay

    2016-01-01

    Today, big countries and other countries inside their axes have entered power wars in regions where underground and aboveground sources are important. One of the characteristics of countries where these power wars take place is them not being able to understand the current world politics and elements of political geography. These countries cannot…

  7. The Politics of Public Education in Black Chicago, 1910-1941

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homel, Michael W.

    1976-01-01

    Notes that between 1910 and 1941 some changes occurred in the politics of black education in Chicago. The early reliance on the city's white elite faded in the wake of the mass migration during and after World War I and the larger black population gradually earned the black community political rewards which could influence school affairs.…

  8. Cold War and the Politics of Comparative Education: The Case of Divided Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Theodor

    This paper deals with the political role and the political self-definition of researchers in the field of comparative education in East and West Germany in the post World War II period. The study addresses some of the general assumptions made about comparative education bridging the gap between cultures but asserts that none of these assumptions…

  9. The political reference point: How geography shapes political identity

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Matthew; Tullett, Alexa M.; Mensch, Zachary; Hart, William; Gottlieb, Sara

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that how individuals identify on the political spectrum–whether liberal, conservative, or moderate–has a universal meaning when it comes to policy stances and voting behavior. But, does political identity mean the same thing from place to place? Using data collected from across the U.S. we find that even when people share the same political identity, those in “bluer” locations are more likely to support left-leaning policies and vote for Democratic candidates than those in “redder” locations. Because the meaning of political identity is inconsistent across locations, individuals who share the same political identity sometimes espouse opposing policy stances. Meanwhile, those with opposing identities sometimes endorse identical policy stances. Such findings suggest that researchers, campaigners, and pollsters must use caution when extrapolating policy preferences and voting behavior from political identity, and that animosity toward the other end of the political spectrum is sometimes misplaced. PMID:28207906

  10. The political reference point: How geography shapes political identity.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Matthew; Tullett, Alexa M; Mensch, Zachary; Hart, William; Gottlieb, Sara

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that how individuals identify on the political spectrum-whether liberal, conservative, or moderate-has a universal meaning when it comes to policy stances and voting behavior. But, does political identity mean the same thing from place to place? Using data collected from across the U.S. we find that even when people share the same political identity, those in "bluer" locations are more likely to support left-leaning policies and vote for Democratic candidates than those in "redder" locations. Because the meaning of political identity is inconsistent across locations, individuals who share the same political identity sometimes espouse opposing policy stances. Meanwhile, those with opposing identities sometimes endorse identical policy stances. Such findings suggest that researchers, campaigners, and pollsters must use caution when extrapolating policy preferences and voting behavior from political identity, and that animosity toward the other end of the political spectrum is sometimes misplaced.

  11. Income inequality, distributive fairness and political trust in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zmerli, Sonja; Castillo, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    In the wake of rising levels of income inequality during the past two decades, widespread concerns emerged about the social and political consequences of the widening gap between the poor and the rich that can be observed in many established democracies. Several empirical studies substantiate the link between macro-level income inequality and political attitudes and behavior, pointing at its broad and negative implications for political equality. Accordingly, these implications are expected to be accentuated in contexts of high inequality, as is the case in Latin America. Despite these general concerns about the consequences of income inequality, few studies have accounted for the importance of individual perceptions of distributive fairness in regard to trust in political institutions. Even less is known about the extent to which distributive fairness perceptions co-vary with objective indicators of inequality. Moreover, the research in this area has traditionally focused on OECD countries, which have lower indexes of inequality than the rest of the world. This study aims at filling this gap by focusing on the relevance of distributive fairness perceptions and macro-level inequality for political trust and on how these two levels interact in Latin American countries. The analyses are based on the Latinobarometer survey 2011, which consists of 18 countries. Multilevel estimations suggest that both dimensions of inequality are negatively associated with political trust but that higher levels of macro-level inequality attenuate rather than increase the strength of the negative association between distributive fairness perceptions and political trust.

  12. Popular Imagination and Identity Politics: Reading the Future in "Star Trek: The Next Generation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Brian L.; Aoki, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the television series "Star Trek: The Next Generation." Theorizes the relationship between collective visions of the future and the identity politics of the present. Argues that "The Next Generation" invites audiences to participate in a shared sense of the future that constrains human agency and (re)produces the…

  13. Business, Political & Academic Perspectives on Higher Education Accountability Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, Grady; Hall, Kimberely

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of the emergence of accountability expectations for higher education in the United States and throughout the world is abundant; it is in national reports, conference themes, mandated assessments, accreditation guidelines, and government statues and regulations. Yet some research establishes that business, political, and academic…

  14. Beyond the Chalkboard: Multimedia Sources for Instruction in Political Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Carl J.; McKenzie, Joe Mac

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the wealth of opportunity provided by electronic media applicable to political science instruction. Reviews CD-ROM text supplements, tutorial packages, and databases. Briefly summarizes online sources and websites including the CIA World Factbook, Congressional Quarterly, United Nations gopher, and Supreme Court rulings. (MJP)

  15. Notes on Political Philosophy and Contemporary International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the post World War II development of the discipline of international relations, stating that it helped reinvigorate interest in the tradition of political philosophy. Examines shortcomings, such as its division into realist and idealist camps, and discusses the works and ideologies of people such as Morgenthau, Aron, and Beitz. (GEA)

  16. Youth's Political Views and Their Experience of September 11, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Lonnie, R.; Quinones, Omar; Davila, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Three surveys were given to 90 college-aged youth: (1) to examine their experience of and reactions to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001; (2) to evaluate Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms following the event; and (3) to assess the youth's general political views. These youth living in New York City were…

  17. Stealing Innocence: Youth, Corporate Power, and the Politics of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    This book looks at the way corporate cultures is encroaching on children's lives. It explores three myths prevalent in society: (1) that the triumph of democracy is equal to the triumph of the market; (2) that children are unaffected by power and politics; and (3) that teaching and learning are no longer linked to improving the world. The book…

  18. Bigger Shield: Alliance, Politics, and Military Change in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Technology, 4. 20 See Edward L. Katzenbach Jr., The Horse Cavalry in the Twentieth Century as quoted in Farrell and Terriff, The Sources of Military Change...World Politics, edited by John Gerard Ruggie. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Katzenstein, Peter J., and Nobuo Okawara. Japan’s National

  19. From Cognitive Capability to Social Reform? Shifting Perceptions of Learning in Immersive Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2008-01-01

    Learning in immersive virtual worlds (simulations and virtual worlds such as Second Life) could become a central learning approach in many curricula, but the socio-political impact of virtual world learning on higher education remains under-researched. Much of the recent research into learning in immersive virtual worlds centres around games and…

  20. Observing Political Systems: Political Systems, Unit One. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Patrick, John J.

    This first of three units of "Comparing Political Experiences", a first-semester course, provides 18 activities which introduce 12th-grade students to political system concepts that they will work with in-depth in succeeding units. The activities and readings, divided into seven sections, stress the development of political knowledge,…

  1. constrainedKriging: An R-package for customary, constrained and covariance-matching constrained point or block kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Christoph; Papritz, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    The article describes the R-package constrainedKriging, a tool for spatial prediction problems that involve change of support. The package provides software for spatial interpolation by constrained (CK), covariance-matching constrained (CMCK), and customary universal (UK) kriging. CK and CMCK yield approximately unbiased predictions of nonlinear functionals of target quantities under change of support and are therefore an attractive alternative to conditional Gaussian simulations. The constrainedKriging package computes CK, CMCK, and UK predictions for points or blocks of arbitrary shape from data observed at points in a two-dimensional survey domain. Predictions are computed for a random process model that involves a nonstationary mean function (modeled by a linear regression) and a weakly stationary, isotropic covariance function (or variogram). CK, CMCK, and UK require the point-block and block-block averages of the covariance function if the prediction targets are blocks. The constrainedKriging package uses numerically efficient approximations to compute these averages. The article contains, apart from a brief summary of CK and CMCK, a detailed description of the algorithm used to compute the point-block and block-block covariances, and it describes the functionality of the software in detail. The practical use of the package is illustrated by a comparison of universal and constrained lognormal block kriging for the Meuse Bank heavy metal data set.

  2. Compositionally Constraining Elysium Lava Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunatillake, S.; Button, N. E.; Skok, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Chemical provinces of Mars defined recently [1-3] became possible with the maps of elemental mass fractions generated with Mars Odyssey Gamma and Neutron Spectrometer (GS) data [4,5]. These provide a unique perspective by representing compositional signatures distinctive of the regolith vertically at decimeter depths and laterally at hundreds of kilometer scale. Some provinces overlap compellingly with regions highlighted by other remote sensing observations, such as the Mars Radar Stealth area [3]. The spatial convergence of mutually independent data with the consequent highlight of a region provides a unique opportunity of insight not possible with a single type of remote sensing observation. Among such provinces, previous work [3] highlighted Elysium lava flows as a promising candidate on the basis of convergence with mapped geologic units identifying Elysium's lava fields generally, and Amazonian-aged lava flows specifically. The South Eastern lava flows of Elysium Mons, dating to the recent Amazonian epoch, overlap compellingly with a chemical province of K and Th depletion relative to the Martian midlatitudes. We characterize the composition, geology, and geomorphology of the SE Elysium province to constrain the confluence of geologic and alteration processes that may have contributed to its evolution. We compare this with the North Western lava fields, extending the discussion on chemical products from the thermal evolution of Martian volcanism as discussed by Baratoux et al. [6]. The chemical province, by regional proximity to Cerberus Fossae, may also reflect the influence of recently identified buried flood channels [7] in the vicinity of Orcus Patera. Despite the compelling chemical signature from γ spectra, fine grained unconsolidated sediment hampers regional VNTIR (Visible, Near, and Thermal Infrared) spectral analysis. But some observations near scarps and fresh craters allow a view of small scale mineral content. The judicious synthesis of

  3. Constrained density functional for noncollinear magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Pui-Wai; Dudarev, S. L.

    2015-02-01

    Energies of arbitrary small- and large-angle noncollinear excited magnetic configurations are computed using a highly accurate constrained density functional theory approach. Numerical convergence and accuracy are controlled by the choice of Lagrange multipliers λI entering the constraining conditions. The penalty part Ep of the constrained energy functional at its minimum is shown to be inversely proportional to λI, enabling a simple, robust, and accurate iterative procedure to be followed to find a convergent solution. The method is implemented as a part of ab initio vasp package, and applied to the investigation of noncollinear B2-like and <001 > double-layer antiferromagnetic configurations of bcc iron, Fe2 dimer, and amorphous iron. Forces acting on atoms depend on the orientations of magnetic moments, and the proposed approach enables constrained self-consistent noncollinear magnetic and structural relaxation of large atomic systems to be carried out.

  4. Active constrained clustering by examining spectral Eigenvectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; Xu, Qianjun

    2005-01-01

    This work focuses on the active selection of pairwise constraints for spectral clustering. We develop and analyze a technique for Active Constrained Clustering by Examining Spectral eigenvectorS (ACCESS) derived from a similarity matrix.

  5. On the Constrained Attitude Control Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Kim, Yoonsoo; Mesbahi, Mehran; Singh, Gurkipal

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider various classes of constrained attitude control (CAC) problem in single and multiple spacecraft settings. After categorizing attitude constraints into four distinct types, we provide an overview of the existing approaches to this problem. We then proceed to further expand on a recent algorithmic approach to the CAC problem. The paper concludes with an example demonstrating the viability of the proposed algorithm for a multiple spacecraft constrained attitude reconfiguration scenario.

  6. Third World Film: The Particular and the Global.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Examines the kind of knowledge humanities courses produce and their role within the global flow of capital and political spheres of influence, noting the western bias to most of what is taught. Describes a proposed undergraduate course on third world film that would bring third world perspectives to the forefront, expose prevailing western biases,…

  7. Planning for a Probability: The Almost-Workless World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macarov, David

    1985-01-01

    The author projects some possible future scenarios concerning the world of work and discusses their economic, political, and attitudinal implications. He states that since the consequences of an almost-workless world would be profound, affecting all the values and structures of contemporary society, planning for such an eventuality is urgent. (CT)

  8. Is the political animal politically ignorant? Applying evolutionary psychology to the study of political attitudes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2012-12-20

    As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.

  9. Personalizing politics: a congruency model of political preference.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2004-10-01

    Modern politics become personalized as individual characteristics of voters and candidates assume greater importance in political discourse. Although personalities of candidates capture center stage and become the focus of voters' preferences, individual characteristics of voters, such as their traits and values, become decisive for political choice. The authors' findings reveal that people vote for candidates whose personality traits are in accordance with the ideology of their preferred political party. They also select politicians whose traits match their own traits. Moreover, voters' traits match their own values. The authors outline a congruency model of political preference that highlights the interacting congruencies among voters' self-reported traits and values, voters' perceptions of leaders' personalities, politicians' self-reported traits, and programs of favored political coalitions.

  10. Shell worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  11. The Intersection of Science and Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Elias

    2016-03-01

    Politics and science often seem at odds. However, important political issues like climate change, cybersecurity, and space exploration require the input of both communities. To create the best possible policies, there must be a dialogue between politicians and scientists. SPS and John Mather gave me the opportunity to be part of this dialogue. Through the Mather Policy Internship, I worked for the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, which has jurisdiction over telecom, health care, energy supply, and other technical areas. I worked with the technology and communications subcommittee, conducting research on cybersecurity, spectrum auctions, and the internet of things. It is clear that even the commercial side of science would benefit from the help of the science community. My background gave me an edge over the other interns; I didn't need to learn what it meant for there to be signals of different wavelength. Most importantly, I learned what it will take to pursue a career in science policy. For the number of physics undergrads who do not wish to pursue a pure physics career, science policy is a strong option. Scientists bring a rigorous, fact-based approach that might benefit the political world as a whole. Thanks to SPS, AIP, and the John and Jane Mather Foundation for Science and the Arts.

  12. A world in balance.

    PubMed

    Westing, A H

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to define the scope of global population growth within the uncompromising everyday realities of technology, economies, and politics and to demonstrate the intimate between the human population problem and the increasing problem of Nature's destruction. It is hoped that the human species will come to its sense in time to create an adequate standard of living of all of its members in peace and environmental balance. The number of people the world can support is considered in terms of 1) the provision for a standard of living adequate for everyone's health and wellbeing, 2) consideration for wildlife and nature, and 3) reliance on existing levels of technology and politics. Standards of living are suggested for the affluent and the austere. The focus on the discussion is on standards of living, global carrying capacity, the imperatives of population control and respect for nature, humans versus wildlife, and the need for a universal declaration of respect for nature. Carrying capacity is determined by total land area, cultivated land area, forest land area, cereals (grain), and wood. Use per capita of each of the 5 essentials is determined for the affluent or austere standard of living. An affluent standard means that world population would be limited to 2 billion, which is 50% of the current population. An austere standard of living means a limit of 3 billion, or 33% less than the existing population. The unfortunate reality is that today's total population of 4.5 billion is increasing at an annual rate of 1.9% and is not expected to level off until it has increased 3 times. This population growth occurs at the expense of wildlife. Of the total terrestrial animal biomass, humans constitute 4% and domestic livestock 15%, which, in 40 years, will reach a combined 40% and lead to more species extinction. One species of bird or mammal will become extinct for each increase of 220 million people, which happens every 3 years. The solution is

  13. Incentives to Exclude: The Political Economy Constraining School Fee Abolition in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrum, Lee E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the South African Department of Education extended tuition fee abolition to schools serving the poorest 60% of students, increased from 40% in 2007. This policy intends to increase access to and longevity in school for the poorest households by removing fees as a barrier and replacing private revenue with increased state funds. Despite…

  14. Online Education: The Impact of Economics and Politics on Teachers' Situationally Constrained Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rhianan E.

    2012-01-01

    Online education has been increasing at an astounding rate, and advocates contend this trend will transform schooling as we know it. The current research has been centered on the student outcomes in online education. However, this myopic focus on outcomes underestimates the broader systemic factors that may be driving the implementation and…

  15. Words Apart, Worlds Apart: Peritexts from Islamized Translations of World Classics in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansu-Yetkiner, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the political polarization between Republicans and Islamists in Turkey as reflected in the peritexts of recent translations of world children's literature. This is reflected in terms of van Dijk's notions of an us vs them binarism, where a positive in-group is opposed to a negative out-group representation. In this way, the…

  16. A politics of health glossary

    PubMed Central

    Bambra, C; Fox, D; Scott‐Samuel, A

    2007-01-01

    This glossary reflects a (re‐)emerging awareness within public health of the political dimension of health and health inequalities, and it also attempts to define some of the key concepts from the political science literature in a way that will be of use in future public health analyses. Examples from different domains (healthcare and population health) are provided to highlight how political concepts pervade health. PMID:17568046

  17. Constrained Least Absolute Deviation Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that least absolute deviation (LAD) criterion or L1-norm used for estimation of parameters is characterized by robustness, i.e., the estimated parameters are totally resistant (insensitive) to large changes in the sampled data. This is an extremely useful feature, especially, when the sampled data are known to be contaminated by occasionally occurring outliers or by spiky noise. In our previous works, we have proposed the least absolute deviation neural network (LADNN) to solve unconstrained LAD problems. The theoretical proofs and numerical simulations have shown that the LADNN is Lyapunov-stable and it can globally converge to the exact solution to a given unconstrained LAD problem. We have also demonstrated its excellent application value in time-delay estimation. More generally, a practical LAD application problem may contain some linear constraints, such as a set of equalities and/or inequalities, which is called constrained LAD problem, whereas the unconstrained LAD can be considered as a special form of the constrained LAD. In this paper, we present a new neural network called constrained least absolute deviation neural network (CLADNN) to solve general constrained LAD problems. Theoretical proofs and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed CLADNN is Lyapunov stable and globally converges to the exact solution to a given constrained LAD problem, independent of initial values. The numerical simulations have also illustrated that the proposed CLADNN can be used to robustly estimate parameters for nonlinear curve fitting, which is extensively used in signal and image processing. PMID:18269958

  18. Scientists need political literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  19. The Politics of Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Fran

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information and teaching suggestions about endangered species for social studies teachers. Discusses political processes, economics, current events, and ethics. Lists resource information. (DC)

  20. Understanding generations: political economy and culture in an ageing society.

    PubMed

    Vincent, John A

    2005-12-01

    Sociological understanding of generations can be enhanced by avoiding defining them rigidly as chronological cohorts but rather linking people's accounts of their generational experience with an historically informed political economy. It then becomes possible, for example, to understand the complexity of generational politics. This paper uses data on the 'War Generation' taken from the Exeter Politics of Old Age project to link an empirically based political economy of generational inequality with a cultural sociology of generations. The 'War Generation' recognizes itself and is referred to by others in terms of a common identity. It is also an historical generation; its values, attitudes and, above all, sense of national solidarity and mutual obligation were forged in the direct experience of war. But it is also divided by divergent economic interests in property and pension rights based on the historical experience of the life course by successive groups and this segmentation can be observed in political action. The political culture of the War Generation manifests both continuity and change. Understanding these dynamics requires listening to people constructing their worlds, understanding their full range of historical experiences, and analysing the conditions for their conflicts and their cohesion.

  1. Foreword: Public health, public policy, politics and policing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Reducing harm from drug use lies at the intersection of public health, public policy, politics and policing. In an ideal world, evidence of public health gains achievable through new approaches or technologies should inform public policy, should help shape political agendas in support of policy change, which should translate into law and regulations – and then to their application. The goal of this transformative process should be to yield the highest attainable health benefits to vulnerable individuals and communities and to society as a whole. PMID:22769027

  2. State Political Process Change and Educational Interest Group Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Robert E.

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of changes in New York State political and legislative processes on the political behavior and strategies of education interest groups in seeking State policy change for education. Historical methods were utilized in examining the problem. As interest groups seek their objectives, they…

  3. Busing in Boston: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    Unit two to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course focuses on a specific controversial political issue: court-ordered busing in Boston. A documentary approach represents the core of instruction in this 12th-grade unit. This approach avoids lengthy narratives of a theoretical approach and yet is more in-depth than…

  4. Mentoring Nurses in Political Skill to Navigate Organizational Politics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the correlations between mentoring functions and political skill development among nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or doctorate of nursing practice (DNP) degree. Background. The healthcare system is in flux; future generations of Ph.D. and DNP nurse leaders will be required to demonstrate political acumen. Political skill to navigate organizational politics has had limited research within nursing. Methods. A cross-sectional research design using a web-based survey of 222 nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP. This study utilized two validated tools to measure mentoring functions and political skill. Results. The response rate was 52% (n = 115) of which 86 were Ph.D. and 29 were DNPs. An informal mentoring relationship was described by 62% of the respondents and formal mentoring by 35% of the protégés; only 25% (n = 74) established a mentoring contract. Mentoring score showed significance for total political skill and moderate effect on the networking ability. The mentoring functions of advocacy, career development facilitation, learning facilitation, and friendship were found to correlate significantly with total political skill scores. Conclusions. This study established a benefit for nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP from mentoring to support political skill development. PMID:27777798

  5. Aggregating Political Dimensions: Of the Feasibility of Political Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanin, Francisco Gutierrez; Buitrago, Diana; Gonzalez, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Political indicators are widely used in academic writing and decision making, but remain controversial. This paper discusses the problems related to the aggregation functions they use. Almost always, political indicators are aggregated by weighted averages or summations. The use of such functions is based on untenable assumptions (existence of…

  6. Millennials Talk Politics: A Study of College Student Political Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesa, Abby; Orlowski, Alexander P.; Levine, Peter; Both, Deborah; Kirby, Emily Hoban; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    In 1993, The Charles F. Kettering Foundation published "College Students Talk Politics," a national study conducted by the Harwood Group and based on focus groups on ten American campuses. The study found, among other things, that students considered politics "irrelevant" to their lives and saw little purpose in ever actively participating in the…

  7. Personalizing Politics: A Congruency Model of Political Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    Modern politics become personalized as individual characteristics of voters and candidates assume greater importance in political discourse. Although personalities of candidates capture center stage and become the focus of voters' preferences, individual characteristics of voters, such as their traits and values, become decisive for political…

  8. Mentoring Nurses in Political Skill to Navigate Organizational Politics.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, Wanda; Byrne, Mary W

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the correlations between mentoring functions and political skill development among nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or doctorate of nursing practice (DNP) degree. Background. The healthcare system is in flux; future generations of Ph.D. and DNP nurse leaders will be required to demonstrate political acumen. Political skill to navigate organizational politics has had limited research within nursing. Methods. A cross-sectional research design using a web-based survey of 222 nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP. This study utilized two validated tools to measure mentoring functions and political skill. Results. The response rate was 52% (n = 115) of which 86 were Ph.D. and 29 were DNPs. An informal mentoring relationship was described by 62% of the respondents and formal mentoring by 35% of the protégés; only 25% (n = 74) established a mentoring contract. Mentoring score showed significance for total political skill and moderate effect on the networking ability. The mentoring functions of advocacy, career development facilitation, learning facilitation, and friendship were found to correlate significantly with total political skill scores. Conclusions. This study established a benefit for nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP from mentoring to support political skill development.

  9. Youth, Life, and Politics: Examining the Everyday in Comparative Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortuoste, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…

  10. Constrained low-rank gamut completion for robust illumination estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianshen; Yuan, Jiazheng; Liu, Hongzhe

    2017-02-01

    Illumination estimation is an important component of color constancy and automatic white balancing. According to recent survey and evaluation work, the supervised methods with a learning phase are competitive for illumination estimation. However, the robustness and performance of any supervised algorithm suffer from an incomplete gamut in training image sets because of limited reflectance surfaces in a scene. In order to address this problem, we present a constrained low-rank gamut completion algorithm, which can replenish gamut from limited surfaces in an image, for robust illumination estimation. In the proposed algorithm, we first discuss why the gamut completion is actually a low-rank matrix completion problem. Then a constrained low-rank matrix completion framework is proposed by adding illumination similarities among the training images as an additional constraint. An optimization algorithm is also given out by extending the augmented Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the completed gamut based on the proposed algorithm is fed into the support vector regression (SVR)-based illumination estimation method to evaluate the effect of gamut completion. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world image sets show that the proposed gamut completion model not only can effectively improve the performance of the original SVR method but is also robust to the surface insufficiency in training samples.

  11. Security-constrained unit commitment with flexible operating modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo

    The electricity industry throughout the world, which has long been dominated by vertically integrated utilities, is facing enormous challenges. To enhance the competition in electricity industry, vertically integrated utilities are evolving into a distributed and competitive industry in which market forces drive the price of electricity and possibly reduce the net cost of supplying electrical loads through increased competition. To excel in the competition, generation companies (GENCOs) will acquire additional generating units with flexible operating capability which allows a timely response to the continuous changes in power system conditions. This dissertation considers the short-term scheduling of generating units with flexible modes of operation in security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC). Among the units considered in this study are combined cycle units, fuel switching/blending units, photovoltaic/battery system, pumped-storage units, and cascaded hydro units. The proposed security-constrained unit commitment solution will include a detailed model of transmission system which could impact the short-term scheduling of units with flexible operation modes.

  12. Political dynamics determined by interactions between political leaders and voters.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Bier, Asmeret; Backus, George A.; Hills, Richard Guy

    2010-03-01

    The political dynamics associated with an election are typically a function of the interplay between political leaders and voters, as well as endogenous and exogenous factors that impact the perceptions and goals of the electorate. This paper describes an effort by Sandia National Laboratories to model the attitudes and behaviors of various political groups along with that population's primary influencers, such as government leaders. To accomplish this, Sandia National Laboratories is creating a hybrid system dynamics-cognitive model to simulate systems- and individual-level political dynamics in a hypothetical society. The model is based on well-established psychological theory, applied to both individuals and groups within the modeled society. Confidence management processes are being incorporated into the model design process to increase the utility of the tool and assess its performance. This project will enhance understanding of how political dynamics are determined in democratic society.

  13. Search for passing-through-walls neutrons constrains hidden braneworlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, Michaël; Pignol, Guillaume; Lamblin, Jacob; Pinon, Jonhathan; Méplan, Olivier; Terwagne, Guy; Debarsy, Paul-Louis; Petit, Fabrice; Nesvizhevsky, Valery V.

    2016-07-01

    In many theoretical frameworks our visible world is a 3-brane, embedded in a multidimensional bulk, possibly coexisting with hidden braneworlds. Some works have also shown that matter swapping between braneworlds can occur. Here we report the results of an experiment - at the Institut Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) - designed to detect thermal neutron swapping to and from another braneworld, thus constraining the probability p2 of such an event. The limit, p < 4.6 ×10-10 at 95% C.L., is 4 orders of magnitude better than the previous bound based on the disappearance of stored ultracold neutrons. In the simplest braneworld scenario, for two parallel Planck-scale branes separated by a distance d, we conclude that d > 87 in Planck length units.

  14. Political commitment for vulnerable populations during donor transition.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Whiteside, Alan; Bennett, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The responsibilities for the programmatic, technical and financial support of health programmes are increasingly being passed from external donors to governments. Programmes for family planning, human immunodeficiency virus, immunization, malaria and tuberculosis have already faced such donor transition, which is a difficult and often political process. Wherever programmes and services aimed at vulnerable populations are primarily supported by donors, the post-transition future is uncertain. Overreliance on donor support is often a reflection of limited domestic political commitment. Limited commitment, which is frequently expressed as the persecution of vulnerable groups, poses a risk to individuals as well as to the effectiveness and sustainability of health programmes. We argue that, for reasons linked to human rights, the social contract and the cost-effectiveness of health promotion, prevention and treatment programmes, it is critical that governments sustain health services for vulnerable populations during and after donor transition. Although civil society organizations could help by engaging with government stakeholders, pushing to change social norms and supporting mechanisms that demand accountability, they may be constrained by economic, political and social factors. Vulnerable populations need to be actively involved in the planning and implementation of donor transition - to ensure that their voice and needs are taken into account and to establish a platform that improves visibility and accountability. As transitions spread across all aspects of global health, transparent conversations about the building and sustainment of political commitment for health services for vulnerable populations become a critical human rights issue.

  15. Political commitment for vulnerable populations during donor transition

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Alan; Bennett, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The responsibilities for the programmatic, technical and financial support of health programmes are increasingly being passed from external donors to governments. Programmes for family planning, human immunodeficiency virus, immunization, malaria and tuberculosis have already faced such donor transition, which is a difficult and often political process. Wherever programmes and services aimed at vulnerable populations are primarily supported by donors, the post-transition future is uncertain. Overreliance on donor support is often a reflection of limited domestic political commitment. Limited commitment, which is frequently expressed as the persecution of vulnerable groups, poses a risk to individuals as well as to the effectiveness and sustainability of health programmes. We argue that, for reasons linked to human rights, the social contract and the cost–effectiveness of health promotion, prevention and treatment programmes, it is critical that governments sustain health services for vulnerable populations during and after donor transition. Although civil society organizations could help by engaging with government stakeholders, pushing to change social norms and supporting mechanisms that demand accountability, they may be constrained by economic, political and social factors. Vulnerable populations need to be actively involved in the planning and implementation of donor transition – to ensure that their voice and needs are taken into account and to establish a platform that improves visibility and accountability. As transitions spread across all aspects of global health, transparent conversations about the building and sustainment of political commitment for health services for vulnerable populations become a critical human rights issue. PMID:28250512

  16. Pattern Search Algorithms for Bound Constrained Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    We present a convergence theory for pattern search methods for solving bound constrained nonlinear programs. The analysis relies on the abstract structure of pattern search methods and an understanding of how the pattern interacts with the bound constraints. This analysis makes it possible to develop pattern search methods for bound constrained problems while only slightly restricting the flexibility present in pattern search methods for unconstrained problems. We prove global convergence despite the fact that pattern search methods do not have explicit information concerning the gradient and its projection onto the feasible region and consequently are unable to enforce explicitly a notion of sufficient feasible decrease.

  17. Pattern Search Methods for Linearly Constrained Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia

    1998-01-01

    We extend pattern search methods to linearly constrained minimization. We develop a general class of feasible point pattern search algorithms and prove global convergence to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point. As in the case of unconstrained minimization, pattern search methods for linearly constrained problems accomplish this without explicit recourse to the gradient or the directional derivative. Key to the analysis of the algorithms is the way in which the local search patterns conform to the geometry of the boundary of the feasible region.

  18. Spacecraft inertia estimation via constrained least squares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keim, Jason A.; Acikmese, Behcet A.; Shields, Joel F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new formulation for spacecraft inertia estimation from test data. Specifically, the inertia estimation problem is formulated as a constrained least squares minimization problem with explicit bounds on the inertia matrix incorporated as LMIs [linear matrix inequalities). The resulting minimization problem is a semidefinite optimization that can be solved efficiently with guaranteed convergence to the global optimum by readily available algorithms. This method is applied to data collected from a robotic testbed consisting of a freely rotating body. The results show that the constrained least squares approach produces more accurate estimates of the inertia matrix than standard unconstrained least squares estimation methods.

  19. Institutionalizing Political and Civic Engagement on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adam H.

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental design, I examine the impact of a political engagement program on students, looking at traditional measures of internal efficacy, as well as other areas of political engagement including levels of political knowledge, the development of political skills, and interest in media coverage of politics.

  20. Detecting Community Structure by Using a Constrained Label Propagation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ratnavelu, Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Community structure is considered one of the most interesting features in complex networks. Many real-world complex systems exhibit community structure, where individuals with similar properties form a community. The identification of communities in a network is important for understanding the structure of said network, in a specific perspective. Thus, community detection in complex networks gained immense interest over the last decade. A lot of community detection methods were proposed, and one of them is the label propagation algorithm (LPA). The simplicity and time efficiency of the LPA make it a popular community detection method. However, the LPA suffers from instability detection due to randomness that is induced in the algorithm. The focus of this paper is to improve the stability and accuracy of the LPA, while retaining its simplicity. Our proposed algorithm will first detect the main communities in a network by using the number of mutual neighbouring nodes. Subsequently, nodes are added into communities by using a constrained LPA. Those constraints are then gradually relaxed until all nodes are assigned into groups. In order to refine the quality of the detected communities, nodes in communities can be switched to another community or removed from their current communities at various stages of the algorithm. We evaluated our algorithm on three types of benchmark networks, namely the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi (LFR), Relaxed Caveman (RC) and Girvan-Newman (GN) benchmarks. We also apply the present algorithm to some real-world networks of various sizes. The current results show some promising potential, of the proposed algorithm, in terms of detecting communities accurately. Furthermore, our constrained LPA has a robustness and stability that are significantly better than the simple LPA as it is able to yield deterministic results. PMID:27176470

  1. A World View Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Timothy; And Others

    1984-01-01

    An overview of topics discussed at the World View '84 conference, sponsored by the World Future Society, is provided. Topics include technology, the economy, the Third World, the environment, world order, and outer space. (RM)

  2. Technologist's political impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Scientists and engineers have always improved living standards, but have also generated harmful side-effects which are becoming increasingly threatening. The author cites case histories which include (1) the overloading beyond safe design limits of highways and bridges, (2) the damage to forests and aquatic life from acid rain and irrigated-field runoff, and (3) the failure of certain engineering projects because of regulatory, legislative, or political failures and the lack of participation by scientists and engineers in decision making. Scientists and engineers would serve the public better if they would organize to pursue active leadership roles and if legislators were required to seek their participation and counsel. Scientists and engineers should bear ethical accountability for their professional activity. 9 references.

  3. The politics of earthquake prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    This book gives an account of the politics, scientific and public, generated from the Brady-Spence prediction of a massive earthquake to take place within several years in central Peru. Though the disaster did not happen, this examination of the events serves to highlight American scientific processes and the results of scientific interaction with the media and political bureaucracy.

  4. Political Geography and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Phillip E.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent theoretical advances in political geography, particularly those that stress the political conflict behind the production of space. Discusses how this has impacted the study of environmental phenomena such as hazards, human-land relationships, development, and international environmental governance. Suggests ways that political…

  5. Political Kitsch and Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.

    This paper explores "political kitsch," a propaganda that incorporates familiar and easily understood art forms to shape the direction of public policy. Kitsch differs from art in that it is a powerful political construction designed to colonize the receiver's consciousness. It reassures and comforts the receiver through the exploitation…

  6. Informed Questions Paper: Philippine Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Encyclopedia Britannica Online . "Philippines." Janet Matthew Information Service. Quest Economics Database. 2002. "Philippines: Arroyo...Guia. "Philippine Political System." ii "Philippines." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . iii Gabriella Montinolo, "Parties and Accountability in the...34 STRATFOR Report. Apr 4, 2002. xi "Philippines." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . xii Luie Tito F. Guia. "Philippine Political System"

  7. The Politics of Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  8. The Sixth "P"--Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Invitational theory presents the concept of invitations as related to five factors: people, places, policies, programs, and processes (Purkey & Schmidt, 1990). In this article, the author proposes the addition of a sixth "P," politics. The assumption is that without addressing the political aspect of schools and school systems,…

  9. Evaluation as a Political Endeavor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Millard

    The politics of the behavioral modification approach to educational evaluation are examined in this position paper. In recent years the science of behavior modification has become an established political doctrine in professional education. Behavioral objectives, behavior change, performance criteria, and competency-based instruction are just a…

  10. The Politics of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Political pressure against higher education is nothing new but, as in the broader public square, the discourse seems to have reached a new level of invective, particularly since 9/11. Much has been written about allegations against the academy for its systemic left-leaning political bias in teaching and for protecting, under the banner of academic…

  11. Critical Thinking about Political Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckowski, Jean A.; Lopach, James J.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that political commentary is excellent pedagogical raw material to help secondary students develop critical thinking. Outlines a lesson plan based on comparing the political commentaries of Rush Limbaugh and Will Rogers. Includes suggested evaluation activities, a list of annotated resources, and excerpts from the writings or statements of…

  12. Hiroshima as Politics and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin, Martin J.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the objections raised to the Enola Gay exhibit are rooted in Cold War politics. Maintains that this historical myopia exemplifies the need for challenging historical inquiry. Characterizes opposition to the exhibit as largely political and discusses demands made to censor exhibit material. (MJP)

  13. Sociobiology, Neurobiology and Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elliott

    Political science and its subfields cannot ignore the work being done in two areas of the life sciences: sociobiology and neurobiology. Current theories of political socialization which suggest that society molds the child will be increasingly affected by sociobiological theory which posits that children operate as independent actors in the…

  14. Politics, Doctrine, and the Airman

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    1921 and General Mitchell’s First Provisional Brigade sunk the Ostfriesland with 2,000-pound bombs. 8 Politically , the success of Mitchell’s bombing......FROM - TO) xx-xx-1998 to xx-xx-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Politics , Doctrine, and the Airman Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. The Politics of Latino Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, David L., Ed.; Meier, Kenneth J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Education is one of the most important public policy issues facing Latinos in the United States today, but the political dynamics behind Latino school achievement and failure are often misunderstood--and at times, overlooked altogether. In twelve revealing essays, "The Politics of Latino Education" brings together 23 accomplished and…

  16. Creativity, Religiosity, and Political Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zysberg, Leehu; Schenk, Tal

    2013-01-01

    Although theoretically proposed in the literature, the direct associations between political attitudes, religion, and creativity have been scarcely explored. A convenience sample of 123 adults working in Israel filled out questionnaires assessing political-social attitudes, religiosity, and background factors (e.g., age, gender, education, and…

  17. Organizational Political Tactics in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Bahareh Azizi; Abbaszadeh, Mir Mohammad Seiied; Hassani, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The present research aimed to promote understanding of political tactics in organizations. Political behavior in nowadays-complex conditions is a process that the conflicts, contrasts and differences among interested groups are resolved. It means dialogue, attention to different goals in organizations, regarding the interest of different groups,…

  18. Women, Politics, Elections, and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Gerald R.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the historical development of women's legal and political status in the United States, focusing on suffrage, the three "waves" of women's movements, and access to elected office. Discusses three impediments of electing women candidates to public office: (1) solidarity; (2) political culture; and (3) the impact of the single-member…

  19. Hobbes, Liberalism, and Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquith, Stephen L.

    The connection between liberal political philosophy and political education is discussed with particular emphasis on the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. The purpose of the essay is to explain how liberal citizens become committed to a distinctively liberal conception of the common good. Part 1 discusses Hobbes' theory that rationally determining…

  20. The Ideology of Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiden, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article in "Academic Questions" political scientists Robert Maranto and Matthew C. Woessner have suggested a program to reform their discipline and enhance its social utility. They encourage researchers to engage with consequential social issues and educate the public, while admonishing political scientists to resist partisan advocacy…

  1. Switzerland: Economy, Language and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhard, Marianne

    An overview of the economic policy, political structure, and four official languages of Switzerland is presented. The following topics are discussed: (1) economic expansion without natural resources, (2) linguistic diversity, (3) Swiss-German, and (4) politics and governmental organization. (PMP)

  2. The Politics of Data Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many contemporary education reformers present themselves as reformers who, armed with data and evidence, are locked in battle against politics, the weapon of choice for entrenched defenders of the status quo. Although studies of school reform increasingly recognize that politics is inevitably intertwined with reform efforts,…

  3. Libraries in the Political Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosa, Marta L.

    An attempt is made to document some of the developments which affected the political role of German librarianship as seen through the involvements, activities, and correspondence of one of its leaders, George Leyh, during and after the Hitler era. The interconnections of Leyh's behavior, inner conflicts, and actions and the political and…

  4. Explaining the Expansion of Feminist Ideas: Cultural Diffusion or Political Struggle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the expansion of feminist ideas as both a conceptual and a political issue. It focuses on two major theories of social change, world culture theory (WCT) and world system analysis (WSA), comparing and contrasting how they frame gender as a factor shaping society, how they account for the diffusion of feminist ideas and how…

  5. Political Education and Social Reconstructionism: Contextualizing the Philosophy of Sri Aurobindo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    The modernist era of world history has been defined as the age of internationalism. Conversely, globalization is an academic concept that is used to define postmodern world history. Globalization is theoretically framed from varied perspectives. Most specifically it is analyzed as political, social, and economic phenomena but also within the…

  6. The politics of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  7. Confronting world hunger.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, B

    1983-01-01

    In 1980, per capita food supplies were less than adequate in 53 developing countries. More than half of these were the predominantly rural, low income countries of South Asia, China, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Finding the proper balance between satisfying immediate human needs and building political and economic systems in which individuals can in the future acquire the means to satisfy their own requirements is the central issue facing those in the fight against world hunger. At the international level, developed countries have responded to world hunger by raising the minimum level of food aid provided when supplies are scarce and by creating a financing facility for cereal imports. The food and agriculture sector is receiving a highe priority than before in the allocation of international development assistance, and more attention is being given to the effects of both general food subsidies and targeted nutrition programs on future agricultural output. At the national level, over 40 developing countries have requested assistance from the World Food Council for the preparation of food sector strategies. Although such measures are important, they do not directly address local problems and individual needs. For example, dietary intake tends to be lower in urban than in rural households in Latin America at the same level of income. These urban groups require health and nutrition interventions that simultaneously address their immediate need for food, clean water, and health care and their more longterm need for employment. Longterm economic development that provides adequate income to all segments of the population is the best means to combat hunger, and income security also reduces incentives for large family size. The contribution of the international community should remain the transfer of resources and the provision of technical assistance. At the individual level, the need for targeted food distribution programs continues. Greater benefit can be obtained from

  8. Brane-World Cosmology and Varying G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarilla, Leonardo; Vucetich, Héctor

    We consider a brane-world cosmological model coupled to a bulk scalar field. Since the brane tension turns out to be proportional to Newton's coupling G, in such a model a time variation of G naturally occurs. By resorting to available bounds on the variation of G, the parameters of the model are constrained. The constraints coming from nucleosynthesis and CMB result to be the severest ones.

  9. Political liberalism and religious claims

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either ‘liberal’ or ‘fundamentalist’ and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation. PMID:28344375

  10. Facebook, Political Narrative, and Political Change: A Case Study of Palestinian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenderes, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing…

  11. A Model for Optimal Constrained Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Reese, Lynda M.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a model for constrained computerized adaptive testing in which the information in the test at the trait level (theta) estimate is maximized subject to the number of possible constraints on the content of the test. Test assembly relies on a linear-programming approach. Illustrates the approach through simulation with items from the Law…

  12. Rhythmic Grouping Biases Constrain Infant Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Jessica F.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic stress and sequential statistical cues to word boundaries interact during speech segmentation in infancy. However, little is known about how the different acoustic components of stress constrain statistical learning. The current studies were designed to investigate whether intensity and duration each function independently as cues to…

  13. Constrained Subjective Assessment of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saliu, Sokol

    2005-01-01

    Student learning is a complex incremental cognitive process; assessment needs to parallel this, reporting the results in similar terms. Application of fuzzy sets and logic to the criterion-referenced assessment of student learning is considered here. The constrained qualitative assessment (CQA) system was designed, and then applied in assessing a…

  14. Teaching Political Science with Chillers and Thrillers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuse, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses using popular detective and espionage fiction in courses related to area politics, international relations, political terrorism, socialization, and bureaucratic politics. Suggests several novels and ways in which they may be integrated into courses. (KC)

  15. Why Should We Have Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velthuis, Ruud

    2002-01-01

    Political education prepares citizens for political, social, economic, and cultural participation. Democratic citizenship is learned formally, nonformally, and informally. A thematic and problem-oriented approach to political education should highlight the various roles of citizens. (SK)

  16. Production and the welfare state: the political context of reforms.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1991-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the political context of reforms in the production process and in the welfare state. The theories of legitimation and Fordism are criticized for considering the capitalist class the main force behind the reforms. The working class and the process of class struggle are primarily responsible for changes in production and for the establishment of the welfare state. The author then shows that the changes in production and in the state that occurred after World War II were a response to political events triggered by labor's rebellions and capital's need to respond to those rebellions. Post-Fordism and the political practice that derives from it are criticized for their hasty dismissal of class and class practices by the dominated forces in society. The article ends by offering an alternative strategy for change.

  17. Higher Education and the Practice of Democratic Politics: A Political Education Reader. Kettering Political Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murchland, Bernard, Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on political education for democratic citizenship in higher education developed out of meetings over 5 years of a small group of faculty, administrators and students who gathered to discuss the way academia was educating young people for political responsibility. Following a foreword and an introduction by…

  18. The Politics of Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the school shootings in Newtown, Connecticut this past December, people experienced the world around them as less safe--understandably so. In response to such a tragic event, there is a degree of fear instilled in all people that for many was at its peak in the New Year as they prepared to send their children back to school.…

  19. Strategic Minerals in the New World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-30

    mineral scarcity does not exist; for an Neconomic price any product will be available in the world market. The domestic mining industry and those...shipping, and domestic mining industry efforts to establish subsidies for U.S. mineral production, using foreign flag hulls to import the minerals and...seeking to prevent further mining Industry damage; and those who saw the strategic minerals debate as but another politically incorrect effort to

  20. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the

  1. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching International Law: Using the Tools of the Law School Classroom in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zartner, Dana

    2009-01-01

    As the world has grown more interconnected, many political science programs have added courses on international law, international organizations, the laws of war and peace, international human rights, and comparative judicial politics. While in many cases these are relatively new offerings within international studies, all of these subjects have…

  2. The politics of professional ethics.

    PubMed

    Brecher, Bob

    2010-04-01

    In order to illustrate how terms of reference themselves, such as those announced by 'professional ethics', delimit and distort moral consideration I start with an extended discussion of how Just War Theory operates to do this; and go on to discuss 'the power of naming' with reference to the British attack on Iraq. Having thus situated my approach to the politics of professional ethics in a broader political context I offer a critique of 'professional' ethics in terms of what is left out of the moral picture and how in particular political considerations are sidelined. Finally I argue that 'codes' of professional ethics are especially insidious.

  3. Politics in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    aspect o£ its uniqueness was the open debate between President Truman and General MacArthur con- cernin9 the war’s military and political objectives...NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEG~ POLITICS IN THE KOREAN WAR Course II Essay LTC Paul N. DunnlClass of 1994 COURSE II SEMINAR...to 00-00-1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Politics in the Korean War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  4. Politics of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  5. Human rights and the politics of risk and blame: lessons from the international reproductive health movement.

    PubMed

    Freedman, L P

    1997-01-01

    Recent debates about the "politicization" of public health obscure the ways in which epidemiological concepts of risk are routinely used in the legal and political systems to apportion blame and responsibility for poor health. This article uses the example of reproductive health and rights to argue that new understandings of the connection between socioeconomic conditions and poor health will only generate change when they are reframed into political claims and pressed by social movements. In this connection, human rights language, principles, and practice hold great potential for the US reproductive rights movement, which has sometimes been constrained by the narrow scope of court rulings.

  6. Politics Can Limit Policy Opportunism in Fiscal Institutions: Evidence from Official General Fund Revenue Forecasts in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, George A.; Lewis, David E.; Douglas, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Governments make policy decisions in the same areas in quite different institutions. Some assign policymaking responsibility to institutions designed to be insulated from myopic partisan and electoral pressures and others do not. In this study, we claim that differences in political context and institutional design constrain the policy choices…

  7. Cosmopolitics: towards a new articulation of politics, science and critique.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiro

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores how Ulrich Beck's world-risk-society theory (WRST) and Bruno Latour's Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be combined to advance a theory of cosmopolitics. On the one hand, WRST helps to examine 'cosmopolitan politics', how actors try to inject cosmopolitanism into existing political practices and institutions anchored in the logic of nationalism. On the other hand, ANT sheds light on 'cosmological politics', how scientists participate in the construction of reality as a reference point for political struggles. By combining the WRST and ANT perspectives, it becomes possible to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of cosmopolitics that takes into account both political and ontological dimensions. The proposed synthesis of WRST and ANT also calls for a renewal of critical theory by making social scientists aware of their performative involvement in cosmopolitics. This renewal prompts social scientists to explore how they can pragmatically support certain ideals of cosmopolitics through continuous dialogues with their objects of study, actors who inhabit different nations and different cosmoses.

  8. Compass and gyroscope: Integrating science and politics for the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.N.

    1993-06-01

    Using the Columbia River Basin in the Pacific Northwest as a case study, Kai Lee describes the concept and practice of adaptive management, as he examines the successes and failures of past and present management experiences. Throughout the book, the author delves deeply into the theoretical framework behind the real-world experience, exploring how theories of science, politics, and cognitive psychology can be integrated into environmental management plans to increase their effectiveness.

  9. Can Russia Reform? Economic, Political, and Military Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    leading to national and social degra- dation with potentially dramatic consequences for the country. But this growing awareness has not yet pro- duced...of the authorities (under the condition that they do not meddle in politics) and Russia’s relative openness to the outside world lead to apathy...undermines itself with empty liberal rhetoric will hardly be sustainable either. It does not lead to the lib- eral opening. Quite the contrary: this

  10. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Arjen

    2017-03-01

    With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB) by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT's IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  11. Constraining the Braneworld with Gravitational Wave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWilliams, Sean T.

    2011-01-01

    Some braneworld models may have observable consequences that, if detected, would validate a requisite element of string theory. In the infinite Randall-Sundrum model (RS2), the AdS radius of curvature, L, of the extra dimension supports a single bound state of the massless graviton on the brane, thereby reproducing Newtonian gravity in the weak-field limit. However, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, it has been suggested that one possible consequence of RS2 is an enormous increase in Hawking radiation emitted by black holes. We utilize this possibility to derive two novel methods for constraining L via gravitational wave measurements. We show that the EMRI event rate detected by LISA can constrain L at the approximately 1 micron level for optimal cases, while the observation of a single galactic black hole binary with LISA results in an optimal constraint of L less than or equal to 5 microns.

  12. Constraining SUSY GUTs and Inflation with Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Rocher, Jonathan

    2006-11-03

    In the framework of Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), the universe undergoes a cascade of symmetry breakings, during which topological defects can be formed. We address the question of the probability of cosmic string formation after a phase of hybrid inflation within a large number of models of SUSY GUTs in agreement with particle and cosmological data. We show that cosmic strings are extremely generic and should be used to relate cosmology and high energy physics. This conclusion is employed together with the WMAP CMB data to strongly constrain SUSY hybrid inflation models. F-term and D-term inflation are studied in the SUSY and minimal SUGRA framework. They are both found to agree with data but suffer from fine tuning of their superpotential coupling ({lambda} (less-or-similar sign) 3 x 10-5 or less). Mass scales of inflation are also constrained to be less than M < or approx. 3 x 1015 GeV.

  13. CONSTRAINED SPECTRAL CLUSTERING FOR IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Sourati, Jamshid; Brooks, Dana H.; Dy, Jennifer G.; Erdogmus, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Constrained spectral clustering with affinity propagation in its original form is not practical for large scale problems like image segmentation. In this paper we employ novelty selection sub-sampling strategy, besides using efficient numerical eigen-decomposition methods to make this algorithm work efficiently for images. In addition, entropy-based active learning is also employed to select the queries posed to the user more wisely in an interactive image segmentation framework. We evaluate the algorithm on general and medical images to show that the segmentation results will improve using constrained clustering even if one works with a subset of pixels. Furthermore, this happens more efficiently when pixels to be labeled are selected actively. PMID:24466500

  14. The totally constrained model: three quantization approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Olmedo, Javier

    2014-08-01

    We provide a detailed comparison of the different approaches available for the quantization of a totally constrained system with a constraint algebra generating the non-compact group. In particular, we consider three schemes: the Refined Algebraic Quantization, the Master Constraint Programme and the Uniform Discretizations approach. For the latter, we provide a quantum description where we identify semiclassical sectors of the kinematical Hilbert space. We study the quantum dynamics of the system in order to show that it is compatible with the classical continuum evolution. Among these quantization approaches, the Uniform Discretizations provides the simpler description in agreement with the classical theory of this particular model, and it is expected to give new insights about the quantum dynamics of more realistic totally constrained models such as canonical general relativity.

  15. Digital map of the state (political) boundaries of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watermolen, John

    1997-01-01

    This data set represents the state (political) boundaries of Mexico. The Digitial Chart of the World data set had incomplete state boundaries, which was the reason to create this coverage. It was digitized from a 1992 CIA map at a scale of 1:3 million. The coast line came from the Digital Chart of the world at a scale of 1:1 million. The state names were labeled from the map and an attribute to help fill the states was added. The labeling process was done manually.

  16. Constraining neutrino decays with CMBR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannestad, Steen

    1998-07-01

    The decay of massive neutrinos to final states containing only invisible particles is poorly constrained experimentally. In this letter we describe the constraints that can be put on neutrino mass and lifetime using CMBR measurements. We find that very tight lifetime limits on neutrinos in the mass range 10 eV - 100 keV can be derived using CMBR data from upcoming satellite measurements.

  17. Constraining Neutron Star Matter with Quantum Chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Fraga, Eduardo S.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount—or even presence—of quark matter inside the stars.

  18. Synthesis of constrained analogues of tryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Negrato, Marco; Abbiati, Giorgio; Dell’Acqua, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Summary A Lewis acid-catalysed diastereoselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of vinylindoles and methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate, leading to methyl 3-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-3-carboxylate derivatives, is described. Treatment of the obtained cycloadducts under hydrolytic conditions results in the preparation of a small library of compounds bearing the free amino acid function at C-3 and pertaining to the class of constrained tryptophan analogues. PMID:26664620

  19. Teaching Comparative Politics: Beyond Preliminaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starrels, John

    1978-01-01

    Recommends that college teachers of comparative European politics attempt to broaden the geographic scope of the subject matter, integrate fact and theory, and make the course interesting and relevant to undergraduate students. (Author/DB)

  20. Science communication as political communication

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  1. The Politics of Teaching Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Sean

    1991-01-01

    Considers the literary achievement of William Shakespeare and specifically why he continues to hold such an honored and sanctified position in the literary canon. Proposes a theoretically informed, politically aware pedagogy by which Shakespeare might be more usefully taught. (HB)

  2. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-02-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch’s account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have political aims, and further suggests that political forces alone cannot explain this view’s rise to dominance during the Cold War, since political forces cannot explain why a philosophy of science with liberal democratic, anti-communist aims did not flourish. The paper then argues that if professionalization is understood in the right way, it might point toward an explanation of the apolitical stance of Cold War philosophy of science.

  3. Science communication as political communication.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  4. CONSTRAINING SOURCE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS WITH GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, D.; Dawson, W. A.

    2012-09-10

    We introduce a new method for constraining the redshift distribution of a set of galaxies, using weak gravitational lensing shear. Instead of using observed shears and redshifts to constrain cosmological parameters, we ask how well the shears around clusters can constrain the redshifts, assuming fixed cosmological parameters. This provides a check on photometric redshifts, independent of source spectral energy distribution properties and therefore free of confounding factors such as misidentification of spectral breaks. We find that {approx}40 massive ({sigma}{sub v} = 1200 km s{sup -1}) cluster lenses are sufficient to determine the fraction of sources in each of six coarse redshift bins to {approx}11%, given weak (20%) priors on the masses of the highest-redshift lenses, tight (5%) priors on the masses of the lowest-redshift lenses, and only modest (20%-50%) priors on calibration and evolution effects. Additional massive lenses drive down uncertainties as N{sub lens}{sup -1/2}, but the improvement slows as one is forced to use lenses further down the mass function. Future large surveys contain enough clusters to reach 1% precision in the bin fractions if the tight lens-mass priors can be maintained for large samples of lenses. In practice this will be difficult to achieve, but the method may be valuable as a complement to other more precise methods because it is based on different physics and therefore has different systematic errors.

  5. An English language interface for constrained domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Brenda J.

    1989-01-01

    The Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) Jargon Interpreter (MJI) demonstrates an English language interface for a constrained domain. A constrained domain is defined as one with a small and well delineated set of actions and objects. The set of actions chosen for the MJI is from the domain of MSOCC Applications Executive (MAE) Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) directives and contains directives for signing a cathode ray tube (CRT) on or off, calling up or clearing a display page, starting or stopping a procedure, and controlling history recording. The set of objects chosen consists of CRTs, display pages, STOL procedures, and history files. Translation from English sentences to STOL directives is done in two phases. In the first phase, an augmented transition net (ATN) parser and dictionary are used for determining grammatically correct parsings of input sentences. In the second phase, grammatically typed sentences are submitted to a forward-chaining rule-based system for interpretation and translation into equivalent MAE STOL directives. Tests of the MJI show that it is able to translate individual clearly stated sentences into the subset of directives selected for the prototype. This approach to an English language interface may be used for similarly constrained situations by modifying the MJI's dictionary and rules to reflect the change of domain.

  6. Constrained inversion of seismo-volcanic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, Luciano; D'Auria, Luca; Giudicepietro, Flora; Martini, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The inversion of seismo-volcanic events is performed to retrieve the source geometry and to determine volumetric budgets of the source. Such observations have shown to be an important tool for the seismological monitoring of volcanoes. We developed a novel technique for the non-linear constrained inversion of low frequency seismo-volcanic events. Unconstrained linear inversion methods work well when a dense network of broadband seismometers is available. We propose a new constrained inversion technique, which has shown to be efficient also in a reduced network configuration and a low signal-noise ratio. The waveform inversion is performed in the frequency domain, constraining the source mechanism during the event to vary only in its magnitude. The eigenvectors orientation and the eigenvalue ratio are kept constant. This significantly reduces the number of parameters to invert, making the procedure more stable. The method has been tested over a synthetic dataset, reproducing realistic very-long-period (VLP) signals Stromboli volcano. We have applied the method to a VLP dataset recorded on Stromboli volcano and to low-frequency earthquakes recorded on Mt.Vesuvius.

  7. Constrained and joint inversion on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetsch, J.; Jordi, C.; Rieckh, V.; Guenther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.

    2015-12-01

    Unstructured meshes allow for inclusion of arbitrary surface topography, complex acquisition geometry and undulating geological interfaces in the inversion of geophysical data. This flexibility opens new opportunities for coupling different geophysical and hydrological data sets in constrained and joint inversions. For example, incorporating geological interfaces that have been derived from high-resolution geophysical data (e.g., ground penetrating radar) can add geological constraints to inversions of electrical resistivity data. These constraints can be critical for a hydrogeological interpretation of the inversion results. For time-lapse inversions of geophysical data, constraints can be derived from hydrological point measurements in boreholes, but it is difficult to include these hard constraints in the inversion of electrical resistivity monitoring data. Especially mesh density and the regularization footprint around the hydrological point measurements are important for an improved inversion compared to the unconstrained case. With the help of synthetic and field examples, we analyze how regularization and coupling operators should be chosen for time-lapse inversions constrained by point measurements and for joint inversions of geophysical data in order to take full advantage of the flexibility of unstructured meshes. For the case of constraining to point measurements, it is important to choose a regularization operator that extends beyond the neighboring cells and the uncertainty in the point measurements needs to be accounted for. For joint inversion, the choice of the regularization depends on the expected subsurface heterogeneity and the cell size of the parameter mesh.

  8. Constraining the mass of the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Sorce, Jenny G.; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    The mass of the Local Group (LG) is a crucial parameter for galaxy formation theories. However, its observational determination is challenging - its mass budget is dominated by dark matter that cannot be directly observed. To meet this end, the posterior distributions of the LG and its massive constituents have been constructed by means of constrained and random cosmological simulations. Two priors are assumed - the Λ cold dark matter model that is used to set up the simulations, and an LG model that encodes the observational knowledge of the LG and is used to select LG-like objects from the simulations. The constrained simulations are designed to reproduce the local cosmography as it is imprinted on to the Cosmicflows-2 data base of velocities. Several prescriptions are used to define the LG model, focusing in particular on different recent estimates of the tangential velocity of M31. It is found that (a) different vtan choices affect the peak mass values up to a factor of 2, and change mass ratios of MM31 to MMW by up to 20 per cent; (b) constrained simulations yield more sharply peaked posterior distributions compared with the random ones; (c) LG mass estimates are found to be smaller than those found using the timing argument; (d) preferred Milky Way masses lie in the range of (0.6-0.8) × 1012 M⊙; whereas (e) MM31 is found to vary between (1.0-2.0) × 1012 M⊙, with a strong dependence on the vtan values used.

  9. Constrained Implants in Total Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Drosos, Georgios I; Ververidis, Athanasios; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2015-05-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is a successful procedure for pain relief and functional restoration in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The number of TKRs is increasing, and this has led to an increase in revision surgeries. The key to long-term success in both primary and revision TKR is stability, as well as adequate and stable fixation between components and underlying bone. In the vast majority of primary TKRs and in some revision cases, a posterior cruciate retaining or a posterior cruciate substituting device can be used. In some primary cases with severe deformity or ligamentous instability and in most of the revision cases, a more constrained implant is required. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature concerning the use of condylar constrained knee (CCK) and rotating hinge (RH) implants in primary and revision cases focusing on the indications and results. According to this review, although excellent and very good results have been reported, there are limitations of the existing literature concerning the indications for the use of constrained implants, the absence of long-term results, and the limited comparative studies.

  10. A programme of mental health for political refugees: dealing with the invisible pain of political exile.

    PubMed

    Barudy, J

    1989-01-01

    Political persecution, state terrorism, torture, political assassinations, kidnapping and forced exile have become common occurrences in many parts of the world. Several researchers have tried to determine the impact of these situations on the mental health of those affected. At the same time, different types of aid programmes have been developed to prevent and treat the effects of violence on mental health. In this article we present clinical materials collected for 10 years by the Latin American Collective of Psychosocial Work [Colectivo Latinamericano de Trabajo Psicosocial (Colat)], a medical-psychosocial assistance programme for political refugees. The programme was under the academic supervision of the Catholic Universities of Leuven (KUL, ULC), Belgium. The concept of identity is the central theme of a model which tries to understand and explain the suffering of exiles. We try to identify and expose the mechanisms of political violence that have traumatized an individual's self-esteem and disordered his familial and social bonds. In the second part of this article, the central ideas which support the medical-psychosocial practice of the programme are presented. This programme seeks to heal the damage caused by repression and exile through the active participation of those affected. Only in a context of communal action is it possible to develop a therapy to promote an individual recovery. It is in this sense that the strategic goal of the programme is to permit elaboration of the suffering at an individual, familial and group level, and to facilitate group dynamics which can trigger the potential of the exiles to transform the conditions of violence that originated and maintain their pain.

  11. The KGB in Kremlin Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Politics and government-I 982- 2. Soviet Union- Politics and govermnent- 1953 -1982. 3. Soviet Union. Komnitet gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti-History. 1...secret police in 1953 ; and N. R. Mironov, one of the Ukrainian party apparatchik whom Khrushchev had infiltrated into the upper reaches of the secret...Purge, this was a particularly grim reminder. "Zhukov had been a candidate member of the Presidium since June 1953 . This pro- motion was also a first

  12. Academic Mobility in a Changing World: Regional and Global Trends. Higher Education Policy 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Peggy, Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains papers on regional and global trends that affect the political factors which are changing the context within which academic mobility occurs: (1) "Introduction" (by Peggy Blumenthal and others); (2) "Political Dimensions of Regionalism in a Changing World" (David Leyton-Brown); (3) "Economic Dimensions…

  13. The Indigenous World, 1995-96 = El Mundo Indigena, 1995-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Marianne, Comp.

    This annual publication examines political, legal, social, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world during 1995-96. Part I highlights news events and ongoing situations in specific countries, including threats to indigenous territories, human rights violations, political victories, developments at the United Nations,…

  14. Health care politics and policy: the business of medicine: a course for physician leaders.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Theodore Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article is a condensed and edited version of a speech delivered to the business of medicine: A Course for Physician Leaders symposium presented by Yale-New Haven Hospital and the Medical Directors Leadership Council at Yale University in November 2012 and drawn from Politics, Health, and Health Care: Selected Essays by Theodore R. Marmor and Rudolf Klein [1]. It faithfully reflects the major argument delivered, but it does not include the typical range of citations in a journal article. The material presented here reflects more than 40 years of teaching a course variously described as Political Analysis and Management, Policy and Political Analysis, and The Politics of Policy. The aim of all of these efforts is to inform audiences about the necessity of understanding political conflict in any arena, not least of which is the complex and costly world of medical care.

  15. Plow, town, and gown: the politics of family practice in 1960s America.

    PubMed

    Tobbell, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    In the 1960s, general practitioners organized themselves into a state-based nationwide political movement that lobbied state legislators and state-funded medical schools to create departments of family practice. They framed their calls in the context of the national shortages of primary care physicians by arguing that those medical schools that received state funding had an obligation to the state to train sufficient numbers of primary care physicians to ensure the health care needs of the state's residents would be met. As this article reveals, two defining features of this activism were rural politics and the politics of town and gown. The history of family practice thus introduces a new dimension to the familiar dyad of town and gown relations: the plow-rural physicians who brought to the medical politics of the post-World War II United States a distinctive and powerful set of political, social, and economic interests.

  16. Politeness Principle in Cross-Culture Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yongliang

    2008-01-01

    As we all know, different people hold different views about politeness. To be polite, Leech thinks you should follow "Politeness Principle" while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' "Face Wants". Sometimes what the Chinese people considered to be polite may not be true according to western culture. In order to…

  17. Recent Changes in Undergraduate Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Mary Lou

    1977-01-01

    Cites the results of a study which compared political science course offerings at various years to determine political changes. Results show that there are more courses being offered; a larger number of courses involve comparative politics; and there is more effort to respond to the employment needs of future political science graduates. (JR)

  18. POLITICS OF UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT IN SOCIAL CHANGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAMPBELL, ALAN K.

    THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE UNIVERSITY'S ROLE IN SOCIAL CHANGE FROM THE POLITICAL VIEWPOINT. BY EXAMINING OUR POLITICAL SYSTEM AS IT RELATED TO UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT, HE INDICATES THE POLITICAL RAMIFICATIONS OF SUCH INVOLVEMENT AND SHOWS THE KIND OF INVOLVEMENT THAT IS POLITICALLY POSSIBLE. HE PINPOINTS THE DIFFICULTIES CIVIC ADMINISTRATORS AND…

  19. Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

  20. ["Living with the bomb" - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's path from physics to politics].

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker spanned a spectrum from physics to politics, with philosophy in-between. This chapter surveys the most controversial part of his career, including his work on nuclear weapons and participation in cultural propaganda during the Second World War, his subsequent active political engagement during the postwar Federal German Republic, in particular the role of nuclear weapons, and his participation in myths surrounding Hitler's Bomb".

  1. Governance and health in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-01-25

    Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups.

  2. World reconstruction in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Raymond M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to articulate how we, as psychotherapists, can transform the worlds of our clients. In part one of the article, the concept of "world," the dynamics of how worlds operate, and the clinically relevant notions of "problematic worlds" and "impossible worlds" are explicated. In part two, therapeutic recommendations for helping clients to reconstruct their worlds are presented, with special emphasis on problems of grief post-traumatic stress disorder, and the experience of meaninglessness.

  3. The politics of psycholinguistics.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cole, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This article narrates the history of the interdisciplinary field of psycholinguistics from its modern organization in the 1950s to its application and influence in the field of reading instruction. Beginning as a combination of structural linguistics, behaviorist psychology, and information theory, the field was revolutionized by the collaboration of the psychologist George Miller and the linguist Noam Chomsky. This transformation was, at root, the adoption of the view that humans should be best understood as creative users of language and the rejection of behaviorist or machine models. Under their influence the field came to treat humans as creative, nonmechanical learners and users of language who, like scientists, hypothesize in order to understand and even perceive the world. This vision of language as a nondeterministic process shaped the field of reading instruction by providing the central model to advocates of the whole-language pedagogical method.

  4. Political risk insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, C. )

    1993-11-01

    As international project development continues to expand, the insurance risks faced require more careful planning and consideration. Successful risk management and insurance needs for non-US projects demand careful thought and planning. Understanding the options available and the various pitfalls to avoid can be beneficial to project development. The concept of a successful implementation of a non-recourse, asset-based financing for an independent power producer in the electricity generation-starved areas of the world creates many opportunities. Developers, investment bankers, attorneys and equipment suppliers are positioning their companies in this emerging market. In the last year, opportunities have expanded around the world. In response, much time, effort and money have been consumed in developing projects. Insurance, often overlooked until the later phases of project development, has caused problems for a number of projects -- some of them insurmountable. On a macro basis, the project's broker will need to answer certain questions. For example, are the risks the same as they would be for project development in the United States or United Kingdom Are the underwriting philosophies of insurance companies the same Can insurance be purchased on the same term and conditions as usual, leading to successful project financing conclusions Without any question, the risks are greater, underwriters' philosophies are different, the terms and conditions offered by local markets will be significantly different and the procurement of insurance is much different from in the United States. The developer who can deal with governmental and special interest considerations, which often force the profile of insurance programs to become much more complicated, cumbersome and costly, will have an advantage.

  5. Political Theory as Autonomous and Non-Autonomous Enterprises: Teaching Political Concepts at the College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doody, John; Green, Justin

    The ambivalent relationship between political theory understood as a sub-discipline within political science and political theory as an interdisciplinary theoretical activity with a long-standing historical tradition has been well documented. The schism between political theory and political science is seen by some as a recent tragedy within…

  6. Political attitudes bias the mental representation of a presidential candidate's face.

    PubMed

    Young, Alison I; Ratner, Kyle G; Fazio, Russell H

    2014-02-01

    Using a technique known as reverse-correlation image classification, we demonstrated that the face of Mitt Romney as represented in people's minds varies as a function of their attitudes toward Mitt Romney. Our findings provide evidence that attitudes bias how people see something as concrete and well learned as the face of a political candidate during an election. Practically, our findings imply that citizens may not merely interpret political information about a candidate to fit their opinion, but also may construct a political world in which they literally see candidates differently.

  7. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  9. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made...

  17. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  2. HCV management in resource-constrained countries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seng Gee

    2017-02-21

    With the arrival of all-oral directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy with high cure rates, the promise of hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication is within closer reach. The availability of generic DAAs has improved access to countries with constrained resources. However, therapy is only one component of the HCV care continuum, which is the framework for HCV management from identifying patients to cure. The large number of undiagnosed HCV cases is the biggest concern, and strategies to address this are needed, as risk factor screening is suboptimal, detecting <20% of known cases. Improvements in HCV confirmation through either reflex HCV RNA screening or ideally a sensitive point of care test are needed. HCV notification (e.g., Australia) may improve diagnosis (proportion of HCV diagnosed is 75%) and may lead to benefits by increasing linkage to care, therapy and cure. Evaluations for cirrhosis using non-invasive markers are best done with a biological panel, but they are only moderately accurate. In resource-constrained settings, only generic HCV medications are available, and a combination of sofosbuvir, ribavirin, ledipasvir or daclatasvir provides sufficient efficacy for all genotypes, but this is likely to be replaced with pangenetypic regimens such as sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and glecaprevir/pibrentaasvir. In conclusion, HCV management in resource-constrained settings is challenging on multiple fronts because of the lack of infrastructure, facilities, trained manpower and equipment. However, it is still possible to make a significant impact towards HCV eradication through a concerted effort by individuals and national organisations with domain expertise in this area.

  3. The politics of population.

    PubMed

    1994-09-07

    Whatever succeeds or fails to materialize at the UN Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, most of the peoples of the Earth are represented in one room where their common future is being charted. That is a staggering achievement after the chaotic and fragmented history of the human race up to this point. It is less a development willed by foresighted leaders than an inevitable response to the shrinkage of the planet due to population growth and resource depletion--plus the advent of instantaneous worldwide communication. Some of the alliances, disputes and side issues are momentous. There are governments dedicated to policies of controlling population, such as Egypt and the Philippines, in conflict with their own religious authorities. The Catholic Church finds itself in lock-step with the Islamic theologians opposing birth control and condemning abortion, raising the possibility of a previously unthinkable ecumenical breakthrough to add to the Vatican's dialogues with Protestant Christians and with Jews. There is President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt who wanted to host the conference to show off the stability of his country and regime, only to demonstrate the opposite as extremists threatened the same terror against delegates they have inflicted on tourists. Some Islamic regimes stayed away. There is the ultimate Western feminism and environmentalism expressed by Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland of Norway. And an astounding expression of women's rights to control such matters as childbearing, expressed by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan, braving the wrath of clerics in her own country to attend, combined with a forceful denunciation of abortion startling to many of her Western admirers. The seriousness of the US effort, led by Vice President Al Gore, to pass a meaningful document that will frame policy for world organizations, contrasts with the previous indifference of the predecessor Reagan and Bush administrations to the issue. The effort

  4. Feature and Pose Constrained Visual Aided Inertial Navigation for Computationally Constrained Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian; Hudson, Nicolas; Tweddle, Brent; Brockers, Roland; Matthies, Larry

    2011-01-01

    A Feature and Pose Constrained Extended Kalman Filter (FPC-EKF) is developed for highly dynamic computationally constrained micro aerial vehicles. Vehicle localization is achieved using only a low performance inertial measurement unit and a single camera. The FPC-EKF framework augments the vehicle's state with both previous vehicle poses and critical environmental features, including vertical edges. This filter framework efficiently incorporates measurements from hundreds of opportunistic visual features to constrain the motion estimate, while allowing navigating and sustained tracking with respect to a few persistent features. In addition, vertical features in the environment are opportunistically used to provide global attitude references. Accurate pose estimation is demonstrated on a sequence including fast traversing, where visual features enter and exit the field-of-view quickly, as well as hover and ingress maneuvers where drift free navigation is achieved with respect to the environment.

  5. Constrained inflaton due to a complex scalar

    SciTech Connect

    Budhi, Romy H. S.; Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro

    2015-09-14

    We reexamine inflation due to a constrained inflaton in the model of a complex scalar. Inflaton evolves along a spiral-like valley of special scalar potential in the scalar field space just like single field inflation. Sub-Planckian inflaton can induce sufficient e-foldings because of a long slow-roll path. In a special limit, the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio has equivalent expressions to the inflation with monomial potential φ{sup n}. The favorable values for them could be obtained by varying parameters in the potential. This model could be embedded in a certain radiative neutrino mass model.

  6. Constraining nucleon high momentum in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Gao-Chan

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies at Jefferson Lab show that there are a certain proportion of nucleons in nuclei have momenta greater than the so-called nuclear Fermi momentum pF. Based on the transport model of nucleus-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies, nucleon high momentum caused by the neutron-proton short-range correlations in nuclei is constrained by comparing with π and photon experimental data and considering some uncertainties. The high momentum cutoff value pmax ≤ 2pF is obtained.

  7. Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems

    SciTech Connect

    Belhadi, Z.; Menas, F.; Bérard, A.; Mohrbach, H.

    2014-12-15

    The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way.

  8. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chandre, C.

    2015-10-15

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.

  9. Whatever happened to medical politics?

    PubMed

    Emmerich, Nathan

    2011-10-01

    This paper argues the case for coming to see 'medical politics' as a topic or subject within medical education. First, its absence is noted from the wide array of paramedical subjects (medical ethics, history of medicine, the medical humanities, etc) currently given attention in both the medical education literature and in specific curricula. Second the author suggests that 'the political' is implicitly recognisable in the historical roots of medical ethics education, specifically in certain of the London Medical Group's activities, and also that the medical profession, or indeed any profession, cannot be understood as an apolitical form of social organisation either in its institutional or scientific (epistemic) forms. Some brief suggestions for introductory and advanced topics in medical politics are discussed and the degree to which medical politics ought to be taken seriously and delivered as part of medical education is considered. Ultimately the author concludes that medical politics might be considered a useful subject within medical education, but it is perhaps best understood as a perspective or approach that can contribute to the development of a more expansive perspective within the extant paramedical subjects.

  10. Political model of social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Acemoglu, Daron; Egorov, Georgy; Sonin, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Almost all democratic societies evolved socially and politically out of authoritarian and nondemocratic regimes. These changes not only altered the allocation of economic resources in society but also the structure of political power. In this paper, we develop a framework for studying the dynamics of political and social change. The society consists of agents that care about current and future social arrangements and economic allocations; allocation of political power determines who has the capacity to implement changes in economic allocations and future allocations of power. The set of available social rules and allocations at any point in time is stochastic. We show that political and social change may happen without any stochastic shocks or as a result of a shock destabilizing an otherwise stable social arrangement. Crucially, the process of social change is contingent (and history-dependent): the timing and sequence of stochastic events determine the long-run equilibrium social arrangements. For example, the extent of democratization may depend on how early uncertainty about the set of feasible reforms in the future is resolved. PMID:22198760

  11. Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?

    PubMed Central

    Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

    2006-01-01

    Background It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions – like education and income – affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Discussion Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Summary Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health – such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future. PMID:16737549

  12. Indonesia's road to universal health coverage: a political journey.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Elizabeth; Olivier Kok, Maarten; Nugroho, Kharisma

    2016-09-06

    In 2013 Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous country, declared that it would provide affordable health care for all its citizens within seven years. This crystallised an ambition first enshrined in law over five decades earlier, but never previously realised. This paper explores Indonesia's journey towards universal health coverage (UHC) from independence to the launch of a comprehensive health insurance scheme in January 2014. We find that Indonesia's path has been determined largely by domestic political concerns - different groups obtained access to healthcare as their socio-political importance grew.A major inflection point occurred following the Asian financial crisis of 1997. To stave off social unrest, the government provided health coverage for the poor for the first time, creating a path dependency that influenced later policy choices. The end of this programme coincided with decentralisation, leading to experimentation with several different models of health provision at the local level. When direct elections for local leaders were introduced in 2005, popular health schemes led to success at the polls. UHC became an electoral asset, moving up the political agenda. It also became contested, with national policy-makers appropriating health insurance programmes that were first developed locally, and taking credit for them.The Indonesian experience underlines the value of policy experimentation, and of a close understanding of the contextual and political factors that drive successful UHC models at the local level. Specific drivers of success and failure should be taken into account when scaling UHC to the national level. In the Indonesian example, UHC became possible when the interests of politically and economically influential groups were either satisfied or neutralised. While technical considerations took a back seat to political priorities in developing the structures for health coverage nationally, they will have to be addressed going forward to

  13. Transcendental Political Systems and the Gravity Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Connor

    2012-01-01

    This summer I have been working on an Army Deep Futures Model project named Themis. Themis is a JPL based modeling framework that anticipates possible future states for the world within the next 25 years. The goal of this framework is to determine the likelihood that the US Army will need to intervene on behalf of the US strategic interests. Key elements that are modeled within this tool include the world structure and major decisions that are made by key actors. Each actor makes decisions based on their goals and within the constraints of the structure of the system in which they are located. In my research I have focused primarily on the effects of structures upon the decision-making processes of the actors within them. This research is a natural extension of my major program at Georgetown University, where I am studying the International Political Economy and the structures that make it up. My basic goal for this summer project was to be a helpful asset to the Themis modeling team, with any research done or processes learned constituting a bonus.

  14. The Development of Politics in Extraterrestrial Colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivier, D. J.

    The existence of feudal or totalitarian interplanetary empires has been a favourite theme in Science Fiction. Although the vast distances between the stars make the emergence of an interstellar empire impossible without the creation of a faster than light drive, this is not necessarily true for the other worlds within our solar system. Environmental constraints on the off-world colonies themselves, and repressive, hierarchical and feudalistic social and commercial institutions and customs inherited from the parent cultures on Earth and a tradition of military rule descending from the foundation of these colonies may all work to bring about a new feudal or totalitarian social order on humanity's extraterrestrial colonies. There are encouraging signs that this may not be the case, however. Already the debate over the projected colonisation of Mars is a factor influencing present controversies over repressive institutions and customs. Nevertheless, those wishing for a free, democratic, and politically, socially and technologically innovative and vigorous human society spreading throughout the solar system should not become complacent.

  15. Verifying disarmament: scientific, technological and political challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph R

    2011-01-25

    There is growing interest in, and hopes for, nuclear disarmament in governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) around the world. If a nuclear-weapon-free world is to be achievable, verification and compliance will be critical. VerifYing disarmament would have unprecedented scientific, technological and political challenges. Verification would have to address warheads, components, materials, testing, facilities, delivery capabilities, virtual capabilities from existing or shutdown nuclear weapon and existing nuclear energy programs and material and weapon production and related capabilities. Moreover, it would likely have far more stringent requirements. The verification of dismantlement or elimination of nuclear warheads and components is widely recognized as the most pressing problem. There has been considerable research and development done in the United States and elsewhere on warhead and dismantlement transparency and verification since the early 1990s. However, we do not today know how to verifY low numbers or zero. We need to develop the needed verification tools and systems approaches that would allow us to meet this complex set of challenges. There is a real opportunity to explore verification options and, given any realistic time frame for disarmament, there is considerable scope to invest resources at the national and international levels to undertake research, development and demonstrations in an effort to address the anticipated and perhaps unanticipated verification challenges of disarmament now andfor the next decades. Cooperative approaches have the greatest possibility for success.

  16. Political myths and totalitarianism: an anthropological analysis of their causal interrelationship.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa; Maldini, Pero

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the key political, anthropological and socio-cultural functions of political myths in the appearance and functioning of totalitarian regimes. A special emphasis is put on structural elements of the myth (mythemes) and the mythic content (narratives) in the processes of artificial construction of a new society (community) based on the myth-inspired ideological postulates. The paper argues that the establishment of totalitarianism marked a certain anthropological devolution. This devolution, in turn, proceeds through the deconstruction of civil society as an organic social sphere and the artificial construction of a new political community based on ideological postulates and political myths. In support of this assertion, it is first shown how the mythical narratives--transformed into political concepts and programs--were the basis of (re)interpretation of the world, society and individual, and essentially determined the nature and functioning of the totalitarian regimes. Then, the specific political myths are analyzed and compared, as well as their content and origin, and particularly their dual function. It in turn is analyzed in the framework of the classical society-community dichotomy, where the (civil) society is founded socio-politically on the social contract, and the (political) community socio-anthropologically on political myth. In a situation of identity and legitimacy crisis, anomie and the weakening of social cohesion--the characteristic conditions of the great economic and political crisis of the early twentieth century that enabled the emergence of totalitarianism--society as a contracting community does not work. A strong need for meaning (at the individual and societal level) affects the citizens' susceptibility to (political) concepts of (re)constitution of (political) community with which they can identify. Right there, totalitarian movements use the cohesive power of the political myth that replaces the rationally based

  17. The World Oil Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Christopher T.

    1976-01-01

    America's domestic petroleum industry and the international industry have been dominated by seven major firms. Although production costs decreased, sale prices soared with developing political-corporate interrelationships. (MR)

  18. The politics of disaster - Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bommer, J

    1985-12-01

    The occurrence of natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes, are, in themselves, beyond oar control. However, careful preparation before such events, and the correct management of the problem once it occurs, can both lead to major redaction of the suffering involved. Disaster preparation and emergency planning are both inextricably linked to politics and economics, both on a national and an international scale. Disasters themselves raise a number of issues of a political or economic nature, and die response to a natural disaster both in the short and the long term is largely determined by the political relations within a country, and between that country and the international community. This paper examines these issues by taking the examples of the earthquake of Managua, Nicaragua in 1972 and the flooding that occurred in Nicaragua in 1982. These two natural disasters occurred under different administrations in Nicaragua, and tills allows some interesting comparisons.

  19. World Population: The Present and Future Crisis. Headline Series 251.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T.

    This booklet focuses on demographic change during the 1980s and 1990s, with special emphasis on the social and political pressures of accelerated demographic growth. It is intended for use in classrooms, community discussion groups, and seminars. Two world population trends are designated as most likely to dominate the demographic picture in the…

  20. Food for the World's Hungry. Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 511.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Maxwell S.

    A review of the food crisis is concisely presented in this brief brochure. It is one of a series to educate the American public on vital economic and social problems. The background of the world food shortage and its causal factors are discussed. Suggestions for overcoming the crisis, such as political changes, land reform, public services,…

  1. Teaching World History through Symbolic Figures: Zhou Enlai, an Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorantas, Raymond

    Use of symbolic figures in the college level world history course can provide a vehicle for studying social organization, political movements, and economic institutions of a given period. For example, Zhou Enlai, an activist and leader throughout much of the 20th century, symbolizes the major themes and forces of this era: change,…

  2. A World 2010: A Decline of Superpower Influence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-10

    among nations, although some % industrial countries will still rely on traditional embargoes and protectionism . Information to accelerate economic...Within the new order of nations, regional increases of international trade can be * expected to include embargoes, trade wars, and protectionism . New... isolationism ; it is thoroughly enmeshed in world activities politically, sociologically, economically, and especially scientifically and technologically

  3. Higher Education and World War II. IHE Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    The January 1994 issue of "The Annals" of the American Academy of Political and Social Science provides an overview of thought and discussion concerning the role of colleges and universities during World War II and in the postwar era. Edited by T. R. McConnell and Malcolm Willey, the issue contained articles by educators, most of whom became more…

  4. France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.

    PubMed

    Roussel, L; Thery, I

    1988-09-01

    Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.

  5. Teen Girls' Resistance and the Disappearing Social in "Ghost World."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines "Ghost World," a Hollywood film about youth, friendship, alienation, and survival, critically investigating how popular representations of youth signal a particular crisis of the social through a discourse of privatization, which fails to locate youth and problems they face within the related geographies of the social and political. The…

  6. Constraining the braking indices of magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Z. F.; Li, X.-D.; Wang, N.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, P.; Peng, Q. H.; Du, Y. J.

    2016-02-01

    Because of the lack of long-term pulsed emission in quiescence and the strong timing noise, it is impossible to directly measure the braking index n of a magnetar. Based on the estimated ages of their potentially associated supernova remnants (SNRs), we estimate the values of the mean braking indices of eight magnetars with SNRs, and find that they cluster in the range of 1-42. Five magnetars have smaller mean braking indices of 1 < n < 3, and we interpret them within a combination of magneto-dipole radiation and wind-aided braking. The larger mean braking indices of n > 3 for the other three magnetars are attributed to the decay of external braking torque, which might be caused by magnetic field decay. We estimate the possible wind luminosities for the magnetars with 1 < n < 3, and the dipolar magnetic field decay rates for the magnetars with n > 3, within the updated magneto-thermal evolution models. Although the constrained range of the magnetars' braking indices is tentative, as a result of the uncertainties in the SNR ages due to distance uncertainties and the unknown conditions of the expanding shells, our method provides an effective way to constrain the magnetars' braking indices if the measurements of the SNR ages are reliable, which can be improved by future observations.

  7. Regular Language Constrained Sequence Alignment Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherov, Gregory; Pinhas, Tamar; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    Imposing constraints in the form of a finite automaton or a regular expression is an effective way to incorporate additional a priori knowledge into sequence alignment procedures. With this motivation, Arslan [1] introduced the Regular Language Constrained Sequence Alignment Problem and proposed an O(n 2 t 4) time and O(n 2 t 2) space algorithm for solving it, where n is the length of the input strings and t is the number of states in the non-deterministic automaton, which is given as input. Chung et al. [2] proposed a faster O(n 2 t 3) time algorithm for the same problem. In this paper, we further speed up the algorithms for Regular Language Constrained Sequence Alignment by reducing their worst case time complexity bound to O(n 2 t 3/logt). This is done by establishing an optimal bound on the size of Straight-Line Programs solving the maxima computation subproblem of the basic dynamic programming algorithm. We also study another solution based on a Steiner Tree computation. While it does not improve the run time complexity in the worst case, our simulations show that both approaches are efficient in practice, especially when the input automata are dense.

  8. Constraining the halo mass function with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Tiago; Marra, Valerio; Quartin, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The abundances of dark matter haloes in the universe are described by the halo mass function (HMF). It enters most cosmological analyses and parametrizes how the linear growth of primordial perturbations is connected to these abundances. Interestingly, this connection can be made approximately cosmology independent. This made it possible to map in detail its near-universal behaviour through large-scale simulations. However, such simulations may suffer from systematic effects, especially if baryonic physics is included. In this paper, we ask how well observations can constrain directly the HMF. The observables we consider are galaxy cluster number counts, galaxy cluster power spectrum and lensing of Type Ia supernovae. Our results show that Dark Energy Survey is capable of putting the first meaningful constraints on the HMF, while both Euclid and J-PAS (Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerated Universe Astrophysical Survey) can give stronger constraints, comparable to the ones from state-of-the-art simulations. We also find that an independent measurement of cluster masses is even more important for measuring the HMF than for constraining the cosmological parameters, and can vastly improve the determination of the HMF. Measuring the HMF could thus be used to cross-check simulations and their implementation of baryon physics. It could even, if deviations cannot be accounted for, hint at new physics.

  9. Constraining the Mass of A Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemenenkoff, Nicholas; Rines, Kenneth J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2017-01-01

    Accurate cluster masses are critical for understanding dark matter and for using clusters to constrain cosmological parameters. We use the observed surface number density profile and velocity dispersion profile of galaxies in the Coma cluster to constrain its mass profile via Jeans analysis. In particular, we evaluate the robustness of the mass estimate M_200 by using different parametric forms for the distribution of mass and galaxies as well as different models of the orbital anisotropy parameter β (r) . Allowing for variation between the scale radii of the mass profile and the galaxy profile (i.e. relaxing the assumption that galaxies trace mass) does not significantly change the estimate of M 200 . We use a Bayesian approach to construct probability distribution functions of M 200, scale radius, and beta via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. We apply this approach to ensemble clusters stacked by either their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals or X-ray luminosities to measure the scaling relations of dynamical mass estimates with these mass proxies. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that the apparent deficit of SZ clusters (compared to predictions based on observations of the microwave background) can be explained by a bias of ˜ 60% in the normalization of the scaling relation between SZ signal and mass.

  10. Physically constrained maximum likelihood mode filtering.

    PubMed

    Papp, Joseph C; Preisig, James C; Morozov, Andrey K

    2010-04-01

    Mode filtering is most commonly implemented using the sampled mode shapes or pseudoinverse algorithms. Buck et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 1813-1824 (1998)] placed these techniques in the context of a broader maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework. However, the MAP algorithm requires that the signal and noise statistics be known a priori. Adaptive array processing algorithms are candidates for improving performance without the need for a priori signal and noise statistics. A variant of the physically constrained, maximum likelihood (PCML) algorithm [A. L. Kraay and A. B. Baggeroer, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 55, 4048-4063 (2007)] is developed for mode filtering that achieves the same performance as the MAP mode filter yet does not need a priori knowledge of the signal and noise statistics. The central innovation of this adaptive mode filter is that the received signal's sample covariance matrix, as estimated by the algorithm, is constrained to be that which can be physically realized given a modal propagation model and an appropriate noise model. Shallow water simulation results are presented showing the benefit of using the PCML method in adaptive mode filtering.

  11. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path

    PubMed Central

    Babaeian, Amir; Bayestehtashk, Alireza; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering. PMID:26375819

  12. Constraining torsion with Gravity Probe B

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Yi; Guth, Alan H.; Cabi, Serkan; Tegmark, Max

    2007-11-15

    It is well-entrenched folklore that all torsion gravity theories predict observationally negligible torsion in the solar system, since torsion (if it exists) couples only to the intrinsic spin of elementary particles, not to rotational angular momentum. We argue that this assumption has a logical loophole which can and should be tested experimentally, and consider nonstandard torsion theories in which torsion can be generated by macroscopic rotating objects. In the spirit of action=reaction, if a rotating mass like a planet can generate torsion, then a gyroscope would be expected to feel torsion. An experiment with a gyroscope (without nuclear spin) such as Gravity Probe B (GPB) can test theories where this is the case. Using symmetry arguments, we show that to lowest order, any torsion field around a uniformly rotating spherical mass is determined by seven dimensionless parameters. These parameters effectively generalize the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism and provide a concrete framework for further testing Einstein's general theory of relativity (GR). We construct a parametrized Lagrangian that includes both standard torsion-free GR and Hayashi-Shirafuji maximal torsion gravity as special cases. We demonstrate that classic solar system tests rule out the latter and constrain two observable parameters. We show that Gravity Probe B is an ideal experiment for further constraining nonstandard torsion theories, and work out the most general torsion-induced precession of its gyroscope in terms of our torsion parameters.

  13. Fossil resource and energy security dynamics in conventional and carbon-constrained worlds

    SciTech Connect

    McCollum, David; Bauer, Nico; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kitous, Alban; Riahi, Keywan

    2014-04-01

    Fossil resource endowments and the future development of fossil fuel prices are important factors that will critically influence the nature and direction of the global energy system. In this paper we analyze a multi-model ensemble of long-term energy and emissions scenarios that were developed within the framework of the EMF27 integrated assessment model inter-comparison exercise. The diverse nature of these models highlights large uncertainties in the likely development of fossil resource (coal, oil, and natural gas) consumption, trade, and prices over the course of the twenty-first century and under different climate policy frameworks. We explore and explain some of the differences across scenarios and models and compare the scenario results with fossil resource estimates from the literature. A robust finding across the suite of IAMs is that the cumulative fossil fuel consumption foreseen by the models is well within the bounds of estimated recoverable reserves and resources. Hence, fossil resource constraints are, in and of themselves, unlikely to limit future GHG emissions. Our analysis also shows that climate mitigation policies could lead to a major reallocation of financial flows between regions, in terms of expenditures on fossil fuels and carbon, and can help to alleviate near-term energy security concerns via the reductions in oil imports and increases in energy system diversity they will help to motivate.

  14. Analysis of market penetration of renewable energy alternatives under uncertain and carbon constrained world

    EPA Science Inventory

    Future energy prices and supply, availability and costs can have a significant impact on how fast and cost effectively we could abate carbon emissions. Two-staged decision making methods embedded in U.S. EPA's MARKAL modeling system will be utilized to find the most robust mitig...

  15. The maxillary sinus in three genera of new world monkeys: factors that constrain secondary pneumatization.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy D; Rossie, James B; Cooper, Gregory M; Carmody, Kelly A; Schmieg, Robin M; Bonar, Christopher J; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2010-01-01

    The air filled cavities of paranasal sinuses are thought by some to appear opportunistically in spatial "gaps" within the craniofacial complex. Anthropoid primates provide excellent natural experiments for testing this model, since not all species possess a full complement of paranasal sinuses. In this study, two genera of monkeys (Saguinus and Cebuella) which form maxillary sinuses (MS) as adults were compared to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.), in which a MS does not form. Using microCT and histomorphometric methods, the spatial position of paranasal spaces was assessed and size of the adjacent dental sacs was measured. In Saguinus, secondary pneumatization is underway perinatally, and the sinus extends alongside deciduous premolars (dp). The MS overlaps all permanent molars in the adult. In Saimiri, the homologous space (maxillary recess) extends no farther posterior than the first deciduous premolar at birth and extends no farther than the last premolar in the adult. Differences in dental size and position may account for this finding. For example, Saimiri has significantly larger relative dp volumes, and enlarged orbits, which encroach on the internasal space to a greater degree when compared to Saguinus. These factors limit space for posterior expansion of the maxillary recess. These findings support the hypothesis that secondary pneumatization is a novel, opportunistic growth mechanism that removes "unneeded" bone. Moreover, paranasal spaces occur in association with semiautonomous skeletal elements that border more than one functional matrix, and the spatial dynamics of these units can act as a constraint on pneumatic expansion of paranasal spaces.

  16. The politics of hospital payment.

    PubMed

    Feder, J; Spitz, B

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes the politics of hospital payment over the last decade. The authors explain how provider interests and judgments became a standard for appropriate hospital payment: the impact of that standard on hospital costs; and the political obstacles to imposing an alternative standard and controlling hospital costs. The authors draw lessons from this experience, here and in other countries, to propose an alternative approach to hospital payment that would allow policymakers, accountable to the public, to make explicit choices about the level and nature of hospital expenditures.

  17. Managing the world's forests.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Rowe, R

    1992-06-01

    Forests play a vital role in balancing natural systems: the stabilization of global climate and the management of water and land. 30% of the earth's total land area is forested. 66% of the tropical moist forests are in Latin America and the remainder in Africa and Asia. 75% of tropical dry forests are in Africa. Temperate forests are primarily in developed countries. Deforestation and misuse of forests occurs primarily in developing countries at significant social, economic, and environmental costs. Losses have occurred in fuelwood, fodder, timber, forest products, biological diversity, habitats, genetic materials for food and medicine. The World Bank's evolving role in forestry is briefly described. Agreement has not been reached among people or nations about the most appropriate means to balance conservation and development goals. The challenge is to stabilize existing forests and increase forest planting. The causes of forest degradation must be understood. Direct causes include agricultural encroachment, cattle ranching, fuelwood gathering, commercial logging, and infrastructure development. These direct causes are driven by economic, social, and political forces: market and policy failures, population growth, and poverty. The market failures include: 1) the lack of clearly defined property rights on forest resources for now and the future, 2) the conflict between individual and societal needs, 3) the difficulty in placing a value on nonmarket environmental services and joint products, and 4) the separation between private and social costs. The solution is action at the local, national, and global levels. Countries must establish forest policy. The existing government incentives which promote deforestation must be changed. For example, concession policy and royalty systems must be corrected; explicit and implicit export subsidies on timber and forest products must be stopped. Private incentives must be established to promote planting of trees, practicing

  18. World Foods. Can the World Feed Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Wanda; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains resources to facilitate the study of the world food situation in home economics classes. It provides terms, historical elements of famine, and the effects of hunger and dietary deficiency on humans. Brief overviews of the basic factors influencing the world food situation and some of the proposed measures to solve the…

  19. World population beyond six billion.

    PubMed

    Gelbard, A; Haub, C; Kent, M M

    1999-03-01

    This world report reviews population growth pre-1900, population change during 1900-50 and 1950-2000, causes and effects of population change and projections to 2050. World population grew from 2 billion in 1900 to almost 6 billion in 2000. Population showed more rapid growth in the 17th and 18th centuries. Better hygiene and public sanitation in the 19th century led to expanded life expectancies and quicker growth, primarily in developed countries. Demographic transition in the 19th and 20th centuries was the result of shifts from high to low mortality and fertility. The pace of change varies with culture, level of economic development, and other factors. Not all countries follow the same path of change. The reproductive revolution in the mid-20th century and modern contraception led to greater individual control of fertility and the potential for rapid fertility decline. Political and cultural barriers that limit access affect the pace of decline. Population change is also affected by migration. Migration has the largest effect on the distribution of population. Bongaarts explains differences in fertility by the proportion in unions, contraceptive prevalence, infertility, and abortion. Educational status has a strong impact on adoption of family planning. Poverty is associated with multiple risks. In 2050, population could reach 10.7 billion or remain low at 7.3 billion.

  20. Political Attitudes, Political Activity, and Communication: A Typal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, L. Erwin; Jarvis, Dennis

    Persuasive mass communication is believed to be more likely to reinforce existing opinions than to change them. This study set out to test this hypothesis in the political area by doing the following: isolating attitudinal patterns in a sample of voters; determining if characteristics of the questionnaire statements were systematically related to…

  1. The new urban politics as a politics of carbon control.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Andrew E G; Gibbs, David; While, Aidan

    2011-01-01

    The new urban politics (NUP) literature has helped to draw attention to a new generation of entrepreneurial urban regimes involved in the competition to attract investment to cities. Interurban competition often had negative environmental consequences for the urban living place. Yet knowledge of the environment was not very central to understanding the NUP. Entrepreneurial urban regimes today are struggling to deal with climate change and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon reduction strategies could have profound implications for interurban competition and the politics of urban development. This paper explores the rise of a distinctive low-carbon urban polity—carbon control—and examines its potential ramifications for a new environmental politics of urban development (NEPUD). The NEPUD signals the growing centrality of carbon control in discourses, strategies and struggles around urban development. Using examples from cities in the US and Europe, the paper examines how these new environmental policy considerations are being mainstreamed in urban development politics. Alongside competitiveness, the management of carbon emissions represents a new yet at the same time contestable mode of calculation in urban governance.

  2. Inhabiting Latino Politics: How Colleges Shape Students' Political Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Daisy Verduzco

    2015-01-01

    To comply with ideals of multiculturalism and diversity, postsecondary institutions incorporate Latino students into distinct campus cultures. These cultures influence how students interact with one another, the university community at large, and communities outside of campus, ultimately shaping how students inhabit Latino politics. Drawing on…

  3. European Security in an Evolving World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-18

    political efforts to assert additional influence over the UN and other Bretton Woods ’ era elements of the international political order, as well as...While global trends are driving many of the European trends, the                                                        61 “The  Bretton   Woods  system...name from the site of the  1944 conference that created the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, the  Bretton   Woods   system was history’s

  4. Freud's 'Lamarckism' and the politics of racial science.

    PubMed

    Slavet, Eliza

    2008-01-01

    This article re-contextualizes Sigmund Freud's interest in the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics in terms of the socio-political connotations of Lamarckism and Darwinism in the 1930s and 1950s. Many scholars have speculated as to why Freud continued to insist on a supposedly outmoded theory of evolution in the 1930s even as he was aware that it was no longer tenable. While Freud's initial interest in the inheritance of phylogenetic memory was not necessarily politically motivated, his refusal to abandon this theory in the 1930s must be understood in terms of wider debates, especially regarding the position of the Jewish people in Germany and Austria. Freud became uneasy about the inheritance of memory not because it was scientifically disproven, but because it had become politically charged and suspiciously regarded by the Nazis as Bolshevik and Jewish. Where Freud seemed to use the idea of inherited memory as a way of universalizing his theory beyond the individual cultural milieu of his mostly Jewish patients, such a notion of universal science itself became politically charged and identified as particularly Jewish. The vexed and speculative interpretations of Freud's Lamarckism are situated as part of a larger post-War cultural reaction against Communism on the one hand (particularly in the 1950s when Lamarckism was associated with the failures of Lysenko), and on the other hand, against any scientific concepts of race in the wake of World War II.

  5. Could the Pliocene constrain the equilibrium climate sensitivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, J. C.; Annan, J. D.

    2016-08-01

    The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP) is the most recent interval in which atmospheric carbon dioxide was substantially higher than in modern pre-industrial times. It is, therefore, a potentially valuable target for testing the ability of climate models to simulate climates warmer than the pre-industrial state. The recent Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) presented boundary conditions for the mPWP and a protocol for climate model experiments. Here we analyse results from the PlioMIP and, for the first time, discuss the potential for this interval to usefully constrain the equilibrium climate sensitivity. We observe a correlation in the ensemble between their tropical temperature anomalies at the mPWP and their equilibrium sensitivities. If the real world is assumed to also obey this relationship, then the reconstructed tropical temperature anomaly at the mPWP can in principle generate a constraint on the true sensitivity. Directly applying this methodology using available data yields a range for the equilibrium sensitivity of 1.9-3.7 °C, but there are considerable additional uncertainties surrounding the analysis which are not included in this estimate. We consider the extent to which these uncertainties may be better quantified and perhaps lessened in the next few years.

  6. Computing 2D constrained delaunay triangulation using the GPU.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng

    2013-05-01

    We propose the first graphics processing unit (GPU) solution to compute the 2D constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) of a planar straight line graph (PSLG) consisting of points and edges. There are many existing CPU algorithms to solve the CDT problem in computational geometry, yet there has been no prior approach to solve this problem efficiently using the parallel computing power of the GPU. For the special case of the CDT problem where the PSLG consists of just points, which is simply the normal Delaunay triangulation (DT) problem, a hybrid approach using the GPU together with the CPU to partially speed up the computation has already been presented in the literature. Our work, on the other hand, accelerates the entire computation on the GPU. Our implementation using the CUDA programming model on NVIDIA GPUs is numerically robust, and runs up to an order of magnitude faster than the best sequential implementations on the CPU. This result is reflected in our experiment with both randomly generated PSLGs and real-world GIS data having millions of points and edges.

  7. Constraining explosive volcanism: subjective choices during estimates of eruption magnitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klawonn, Malin; Houghton, Bruce F.; Swanson, Don; Fagents, Sarah A.; Wessel, Paul; Wolfe, Cecily J.

    2014-01-01

    When estimating the magnitude of explosive eruptions from their deposits, individuals make three sets of critical choices with respect to input data: the spacing of sampling sites, the selection of contour intervals to constrain the field measurements, and the hand contouring of thickness/isomass data, respectively. Volcanologists make subjective calls, as there are no accepted published protocols and few accounts of how these choices will impact estimates of eruption magnitude. Here, for the first time, we took a set of unpublished thickness measurements from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki pyroclastic fall deposit and asked 101 volcanologists worldwide to hand contour the data. First, there were surprisingly consistent volume estimates across maps with three different sampling densities. Second, the variability in volume calculations imparted by individuals’ choices of contours is also surprisingly low and lies between s = 5 and 8 %. Third, volume estimation is insensitive to the extent to which different individuals “smooth” the raw data in constructing contour lines. Finally, large uncertainty is associated with the construction of the thinnest isopachs, which is likely to underestimate the actual trend of deposit thinning. The net result is that researchers can have considerable confidence in using volume or dispersal data from multiple authors and different deposits for comparative studies. These insights should help volcanologists around the world to optimize design and execution of field-based studies to characterize accurately the volume of pyroclastic deposits.

  8. Solving the horizontal conflation problem with a constrained Delaunay triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, Hugo; Ohori, Ken Arroyo

    2017-01-01

    Datasets produced by different countries or organisations are seldom properly aligned and contain several discrepancies (e.g., gaps and overlaps). This problem has been so far almost exclusively tackled by snapping vertices based on a user-defined threshold. However, as we argue in this paper, this leads to invalid geometries, is error-prone, and leaves several discrepancies along the boundaries. We propose a novel algorithm to align the boundaries of adjacent datasets. It is based on a constrained Delaunay triangulation to identify and eliminate the discrepancies, and the alignment is performed without moving vertices with a snapping operator. This allows us to guarantee that the datasets have been properly conflated and that the polygons are geometrically valid. We present our algorithm, our implementation (based on the stable and fast triangulator in CGAL), and we show how it can be used it practice with different experiments with real-world datasets. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach is highly efficient and that it yields better results than snapping-based methods.

  9. The Struggle for a Just World Order: An Agenda of Inquiry and Praxis for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendlovitz, Saul H.

    One in a series of working papers commissioned by the World Order Models Project, this essay suggests directions for thought and action relevant to the evolving struggle for a just world order. The first and most important need is to combine a struggle theory of history with traditional world order inquiry, visioning, and politics. We must blend…

  10. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on a contested area of shared governance, intercollegiate athletics. The researchers consider how faculty perceptions of organizational politics shape their orientations toward collaborative decision-making in this domain. The results provide insights into ways social cognitions about campus-level decision-making affect faculty…

  11. Psychological Perspectives on Political Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Matthew L.; Seyle, D. Conor

    2007-01-01

    Presents a reply by the authors to comments by Sullivan and Webster. Both of these comments help to place our article on the red states versus blue states metaphor (Seyle & Newman) into a broader context. In particular, both comments make valuable points about the potential for collaboration between psychology, political science, and political…

  12. Developing Political Tolerance. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia G.

    Political tolerance is the willingness to extend basic rights and civil liberties to persons and groups whose viewpoints differ from one's own. It is a central tenet of a liberal democracy. The individual rights and freedoms that U.S. citizens value encourage a wide array of ideas and beliefs, some of which may offend segments of the population.…

  13. "Free Speech" and "Political Correctness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    "Free speech" and "political correctness" are best seen not as opposing principles, but as part of a spectrum. Rather than attempting to establish some absolute principles, this essay identifies four trends that impact on this debate: (1) there are, and always have been, legitimate debates about the--absolute--beneficence of…

  14. Exposure to Political Diversity Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    The Internet gives individuals more choice in political news and information sources and more tools to filter out disagreeable information. Citing the preference described by selective exposure theory--that people see and attend to information that supports their beliefs and avoid counter-attitudinal information--observers warn that people may use…

  15. The Politics of School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Although bureaucratic decentralization lies at the heart of educational restructuring, many state-level reform strategies adopted since 1983 perpetuate the regulatory orientation of school improvement. This article assesses the restructuring movement, exemplified by the Coalition of Essential Schools, and the overall politics of American…

  16. Cross Cultural Varieties of Politeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper…

  17. Political Trends Affecting Nonmetropolitan America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachtigal, Paul M.

    There are two stories about political trends affecting nonmetropolitan America. The old story, which is the story of declining rural population and declining rural influence on public policy formation, has its roots in early deliberations about governance in this country. Jefferson's republicanism focused on direct citizen involvement in decision…

  18. Political Trends Affecting Nonmetropolitan America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachtigal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    Early political struggles over principles of governance culminated in our "commercially competitive civil society" in which numbers equate with power, resulting in disempowerment of rural people, decreasing rural influence on public policy, and consequent irrelevant education in rural communities. Education can provide the basis for a…

  19. Developing States: Politics and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies the developing nations of the Pacific Rim to be the Philippines, Indonesia, and 21 small states such as Fiji and Papua, New Guinea. Discusses the political and economic factors which both hinder and aid the governments of these nations. Contends that the region's tremendous potential is unrealized because of economic underdevelopment…

  20. American Political Leaders. American Biographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard L.

    The men and women profiled in this book spring from diverse backgrounds. Each was elected or appointed to his or her position, and all have wielded political leadership in ways that have had a profound impact on the lives of their fellow citizens. The book highlights the lives and achievements of 250+ individuals with the qualities to have become…

  1. Teaching and Practicing Transformational Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abalos, David T.

    This conference paper asserts that there are four faces to the stories of people's lives: (1) a personal face; (2) a political face; (3) a historical face; and (4) a sacred face. The study explains how each of these faces interacts in society and is used to analyze and to teach multicultural literary works as archetypal stories from the…

  2. The Political Meaning of Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingle, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Quality as a political goal for public higher education is discussed, and its fuller acceptance at the state over the federal level is noted. Federal policy is driven by values associated with access, need, and equity. State leaders are using a rhetoric of quality and excellence, incentives for high achievement, rigor, and merit. One reason the…

  3. The Politics of Primary Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Ken

    1979-01-01

    The author is concerned with politics in a wider sense--providing children with an individual and collective sense of identity in time and space, giving them opportunities for the exploration of shared experience, making them aware of the responsibilities and privileges of community. (Editor)

  4. Politics Is Also "Child's Play"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Diana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I discuss children's habitually underestimated agency capabilities in school life, including their potential as political subjects. Here, I present a description and analysis of an episode that took place in 2004, at a primary school located in a working class neighbourhood of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. On this occasion, a…

  5. The Caltech Political Military Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, E. S.; And Others

    The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

  6. The Politics of Management Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Stewart R., Ed.; Palmer, Gill, Ed.

    This book recognizes the political nature of management knowledge, as a discourse produced from, and reproducing, power processes within and between organizations. Critical examinations of certain current management theories--lean production, excellence, entrepreneurship--are examples of relations of power that intermingle with relations of…

  7. Political Bias in Undergraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Thomas; Colby, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Leaders at every university agree that educating students in the practice of open-minded inquiry is a key component of undergraduate education, but creating a classroom and wider campus climate that is truly open to multiple perspectives on hot-button political issues is extremely difficult to accomplish. This is true whether the majority opinion…

  8. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…

  9. Complicated Politics to the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    People dislike the Common Core for several different reasons, and so it is important to disaggregate the sources of opposition and to assess and then to dispel some of the myths that have built up around it. It also is important to understand the unusual political alliances that have emerged in opposition to Common Core implementation and how they…

  10. The Politics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Roy

    1974-01-01

    All educational levels have been attacked by politicians and haunted by suspicion, and adult education has drawn more than its share. Interest groups have had a large effect on adult education. The construction of a theoretical model of the politics of adult education is suggested. (DS)

  11. Teaching Political Analysis: A Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edlefson, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A framework using concepts from systems theory, theories of power, and the garbage can model of decision-making was developed for the purpose of teaching aspiring school administrators to analyze situations using a political lens. The framework is demonstrated in an analysis of the process that led to Ohio's establishing a school facilities…

  12. Political Correctness and American Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Peter F.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that today's political correctness atmosphere is a throwback to attempts made by the Nazis and Stalinists to force society into conformity. Academia, it is claimed, is being forced to conform to gain control of the institution of higher education. It is predicted that this effort will fail. (GR)

  13. The Politics of American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Turning his distinctive analytical lens to the politics of American education, the author looks at contemporary educational policy issues from theoretical, practical, and historical perspectives. This comprehensive overview documents and explains who influences educational policy and how, bringing to life the realities of schooling in the 21st…

  14. Generational Approaches to Political Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Neal E.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluates two models of generational political research: the lineage model in which generations are defined in terms of biological succession within family units, and the cohort model, in which generations are defined in terms of the common and unique life experiences (and socialization) of individuals born and raised in a particular time period.…

  15. The Politics of Excellence. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack L.

    The contemporary interest in the pursuit of excellence in education is derived from a long tradition of efforts to provide special schooling defined as excellent. In the current movement, excellence, though ambiguously defined and political in nature, denotes a necessary separation among people and in its subtle trappings of class, contains…

  16. Political Issues in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, James J. Gallagher proposes that understanding the political issues and the debate surrounding the education of gifted students is based on the recognition that education policy (including rules, regulations, financial allocations, etc.) reflects social policy. Hence, society prioritizes needs so that the most important of these…

  17. The Politics of Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, David

    1982-01-01

    Reviews legislation and labor policies which have discriminated historically against Blacks as a class and explains how Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was intended to redress such generalized discrimination. Discusses political and economic factors that jeopardize already insufficient efforts to enforce equal employment opportunities…

  18. Military Influence in Russian Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    sindrom 41-go." Novoe vremya, No. 8 (February volunteers over conscripts, and the Navy 1991); Maj. Gen. V.G. Strekozov, "Zakony ob oborone i statuse...for the military was 35 per of servicemen had such "backward" cent ( down from 44 per cent in political view•.iii One tends to agree December, 1989

  19. Empty Signifiers, Education and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    The paper assumes that education is part of the process of discursive construction of society. The theoretical framework on which this argument is based includes Ernesto Laclau's theory of the "ontological impossibility and political necessity of society", and the role discourse and empty signifiers play in the establishment of political…

  20. Librarians, Politics, and the ERA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Kay Ann

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the Equal Rights Amendment issue within the American Library Association (ALA) and state library associations, noting key actions regarding the amendment taken by ALA and outlining the political activities of several women librarians in Missouri, Florida, North Carolina, and Illinois. (EJS)