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Sample records for pollen specific iga

  1. Identification of two highly specific pollen promoters using transcriptomic data.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Strale, Daniela; León, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    The mature pollen grain displays a highly specialized function in angiosperms. Accordingly, the male gametophyte development involves many specific biological activities, making it a complex and unique process in plants. In order to accomplish this, during pollen development, a massive transcriptomic remodeling takes place, indicating the switch from a sporophytic to a gametophytic program and involving the expression of many pollen specific genes. Using microarray databases we selected genes showing pollen-specific accumulation of their mRNAs and confirmed this through RT-PCR. We selected five genes (POLLEN SPECIFIC GENE1-5) to investigate the pollen specificity of their expression. Transcriptional fusions between the putative promoters of these genes and the uidA reporter gene in Arabidopsis confirmed the pollen specific expression for at least two of these genes. The expression of the cytotoxin Barnase controlled by these promoters generated pollen specific ablation and male sterility. Through the selection of pollen specific genes from public datasets, we were able to identify promoter regions that confer pollen expression. The use of the cytotoxin Barnase allowed us to demonstrate its expression is exclusively limited to the pollen. These new promoters provide a powerful tool for the expression of genes exclusively in pollen.

  2. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Conclusion Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

  3. A pollen-specific RALF from tomato that regulates pollen tube elongation.

    PubMed

    Covey, Paul A; Subbaiah, Chalivendra C; Parsons, Ronald L; Pearce, Gregory; Lay, Fung T; Anderson, Marilyn A; Ryan, Clarence A; Bedinger, Patricia A

    2010-06-01

    Rapid Alkalinization Factors (RALFs) are plant peptides that rapidly increase the pH of plant suspension cell culture medium and inhibit root growth. A pollen-specific tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RALF (SlPRALF) has been identified. The SlPRALF gene encodes a preproprotein that appears to be processed and released from the pollen tube as an active peptide. A synthetic SlPRALF peptide based on the putative active peptide did not affect pollen hydration or viability but inhibited the elongation of normal pollen tubes in an in vitro growth system. Inhibitory effects of SlPRALF were detectable at concentrations as low as 10 nm, and complete inhibition was observed at 1 mum peptide. At least 10-fold higher levels of alkSlPRALF, which lacks disulfide bonds, were required to see similar effects. A greater effect of peptide was observed in low-pH-buffered medium. Inhibition of pollen tube elongation was reversible if peptide was removed within 15 min of exposure. Addition of 100 nm SlPRALF to actively growing pollen tubes inhibited further elongation until tubes were 40 to 60 mum in length, after which pollen tubes became resistant to the peptide. The onset of resistance correlated with the timing of the exit of the male germ unit from the pollen grain into the tube. Thus, exogenous SlPRALF acts as a negative regulator of pollen tube elongation within a specific developmental window.

  4. Pollen loads and specificity of native pollinators of lowbush blueberry.

    PubMed

    Moisan-Deserres, J; Girard, M; Chagnon, M; Fournier, V

    2014-06-01

    The reproduction of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is closely tied to insect pollination, owing to self-incompatibility. Many species are known to have greater pollination efficiency than the introduced Apis mellifera L., commonly used for commercial purposes. In this study, we measured the pollen loads of several antophilous insect species, mostly Apoidea and Syrphidae, present in four lowbush blueberry fields in Lac-St-Jean, Québec. To measure pollen loads and species specificity toward V. angustifolium, we net-collected 627 specimens of pollinators, retrieved their pollen loads, identified pollen taxa, and counted pollen grains. We found that the sizes of pollen loads were highly variable among species, ranging from a few hundred to more than 118,000 pollen grains per individual. Bombus and Andrena species in particular carried large amounts of Vaccinium pollen and thus may have greater pollination efficiency. Also, two species (Andrena bradleyi Viereck and Andrena carolina Viereck) showed nearly monolectic behavior toward lowbush blueberry. Finally, we identified alternative forage plants visited by native pollinators, notably species of Acer, Rubus, Ilex mucronata, Ledum groenlandicum, and Taraxacum. Protecting these flowering plants should be part of management practices to maintain healthy pollinator communities in a lowbush blueberry agroecosystem.

  5. Rotavirus vaccination and infection induce VP6-specific IgA responses.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Suvi; Blazevic, Vesna; Malm, Maria; Vesikari, Timo

    2017-02-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in young children, but RVGE has drastically been reduced with the introduction of live oral RV vaccines into childhood immunization program in many countries. Serum IgA antibody is a marker of clinical protection against severe RVGE after RV infection and vaccination. This study investigated VP6-specificity of anti-RV IgA antibody levels in Finnish children aged 6-23 months before and after introduction of RotaTeq® into national immunization program. Although RV inner capsid protein VP6 is considered as antigenic target in clinical and seroepidemiological studies, at present VP6 protein is not commonly employed as a primary ELISA-antigen. Thus, sera from 20 unvaccinated and 19 vaccinated children were examined in ELISA with recombinant VP6 (rVP6) protein, and the VP6-specific responses were compared to responses observed with human RV Wa and bovine RV WC3 cell culture antigens. Moreover, fecal antibodies were tested with rVP6 and Wa cell culture antigen. Equal levels of serum anti-RV IgA antibodies were detected by the three antigens. Fecal IgA titers against rVP6 and Wa antigen showed a correlation with the corresponding serum levels. The results suggest that the IgA response measured by virus-capture ELISA is mainly directed to VP6 protein, supporting the usage of rVP6 in detection of anti-RV IgA antibodies. Natural RV infections and vaccinations induced similar levels of serum VP6-specific IgA antibodies. Serum IgA antibodies after RotaTeq® vaccination showed sustained levels up to two years of age in line with long term protection. J. Med. Virol. 89:239-245, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Specific immunotherapy for common grass pollen allergies: pertinence of a five grass pollen vaccine.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Hrabina, Maud; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Jaeger, Siegfried; Frati, Franco; Bordas, Véronique; Peltre, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Patients throughout Europe are concomitantly exposed to multiple pollens from distinct Pooideae species. Given the overlap in pollination calendars and similar grain morphology, it is not possible to identify which grass species are present in the environment from pollen counts. Furthermore, neither serum IgE reactivity nor skin prick testing allow the identification of which grass species are involved in patient sensitisation. Due to their high level of amino acid sequence homology (e.g., >90% for group 1, 55-80% for group 5), significant cross-immunogenicity is observed between allergens from Pooideae pollens. Nevertheless, pollen allergens also contain species-specific T or B cell epitopes, and substantial quantitative differences exist in allergen (e.g., groups 1 and 5) composition between pollens from distinct grass species. In this context, a mixture of pollens from common and well-characterised Pooideae such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis is suitable for immunotherapy purposes because (1) it has been validated, both in terms of safety and efficacy, by established clinical practice; (2) it reflects natural exposure and sensitisation conditions; (3) it ensures a consistent and well-balanced composition of critical allergens, thus extending the repertoire of T and B cell epitopes present in the vaccine.

  7. Cell-specific analysis of the tomato pollen proteome from pollen mother cell to mature pollen provides evidence for developmental priming.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Palak; Ischebeck, Till; Egelhofer, Volker; Lichtscheidl, Irene; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2013-11-01

    Tomato is a globally important crop grown and consumed worldwide. Its reproductive activity is highly sensitive to environmental fluctuations, for instance temperature and drought. Here, pollen development is one of the most decisive processes. The present study aims for the identification of cell-specific proteins during pollen developmental stages of tomato. We have setup a protocol for stage-specific pollen isolation including microsporocytes (pollen mother cells), tetrads, microspores, polarized microspores, and mature pollen. Proteins were extracted using phenol and prefractionated using SDS-PAGE followed by protein digestion, peptide extraction, and desalting. Identification and quantification of proteins were performed using nanoHPLC coupled to LTQ-Orbitrap-MS. In total, 1821 proteins were identified. Most of these proteins were classified based on their homology and designated functions of orthologs. Cluster and principal components analysis revealed stage-specific proteins and demonstrated that pollen development of tomato is a highly controlled sequential process at the proteome level. Intermediate stages such as tetrad and polarized microspore are clearly distinguished by different functionality compared to other stages. From the predicted functions, energy-related proteins are increased during the later stages of development, which indicates that pollen germination depends upon presynthesized proteins in mature pollen. In contrast, heat stress-related proteins are highly abundant in very early developmental stages, suggesting a dominant role in stress protection. Taken together, the data provide a first cell-specific protein reference set for tomato pollen development from pollen mother cells to the mature pollen and give evidence for developmentally controlled processes that might help to prepare the cells for specific developmental programs and environmental stresses.

  8. BALB/c and C57BL/6 Mice Differ in Polyreactive IgA Abundance, which Impacts the Generation of Antigen-Specific IgA and Microbiota Diversity.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Floris; Zagato, Elena; Mazzini, Elisa; Fosso, Bruno; Manzari, Caterina; El Aidy, Sahar; Chiavelli, Andrea; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Sethi, Maya K; Pabst, Oliver; Marzano, Marinella; Moretti, Silvia; Romani, Luigina; Penna, Giuseppe; Pesole, Graziano; Rescigno, Maria

    2015-09-15

    The interrelationship between IgAs and microbiota diversity is still unclear. Here we show that BALB/c mice had higher abundance and diversity of IgAs than C57BL/6 mice and that this correlated with increased microbiota diversity. We show that polyreactive IgAs mediated the entrance of non-invasive bacteria to Peyer's patches, independently of CX3CR1(+) phagocytes. This allowed the induction of bacteria-specific IgA and the establishment of a positive feedback loop of IgA production. Cohousing of mice or fecal transplantation had little or no influence on IgA production and had only partial impact on microbiota composition. Germ-free BALB/c, but not C57BL/6, mice already had polyreactive IgAs that influenced microbiota diversity and selection after colonization. Together, these data suggest that genetic predisposition to produce polyreactive IgAs has a strong impact on the generation of antigen-specific IgAs and the selection and maintenance of microbiota diversity.

  9. Bacteroides gingivalis-specific serum IgG and IgA subclass antibodies in periodontal diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, T; Kusumoto, Y; Hamada, S; McGhee, J R; Kiyono, H

    1990-01-01

    The level of serum IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies including IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA1 and IgA2 subclass-specific antibodies to Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) gingivalis fimbriae and to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analysed in patients with different forms of periodontal disease (PD) and control subjects by ELISA. Among PD subjects, sera obtained from adult periodontitis (AP), rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) and gingivitis contained high titres of fimbriae-specific IgG antibodies (7500-15,000 ELISA units) followed by IgA (90-700 units) and IgM (30-90 units). In contrast, sera from localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) subjects exhibited much lower titres of fimbriae-specific IgG (89 +/- 11 units), IgA (31 +/- 5 units) and IgM (17 +/- 3 units) antibodies. A similar response pattern was also seen in sera from normal subjects aged 35-41 years who practice normal oral hygiene, while sera of younger adults (aged 18-24) with superior hygiene did not have any antigen-specific antibodies. Analysis of IgG subclass anti-fimbriae responses revealed that the major response was IgG3 followed by IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 in AP, RPP and gingivitis. Although lower, a similar pattern of IgG subclass titre was seen in LJP and normal subjects aged 35-41 years. When IgA subclass responses were measured in AP and RPP, higher titres of the fimbriae-specific response were noted with IgA1 when compared with IgA2. However, lower but approximately equal levels of fimbriae-specific IgA1 and IgA2 titres were seen in other PD groups. When anti-B. gingivalis LPS-specific responses were measured, the sera of AP patients contained high levels of IgG antibodies (2265 +/- 224 units) followed by IgA (411 +/- 90 units) and IgM (214 +/- 56 units). Further, IgG anti-LPS responses were mainly IgG2 followed by IgG4, IgG3 and IgG1. For IgA subclass responses, higher titres of anti-LPS-specific antibodies were noted in IgA2 subclass over IgA1. These results showed that higher anti-B. gingivalis antibody

  10. A novel approach of preventing Japanese cedar pollen dispersal that is the cause of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) using pollen-specific fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Yuuri; Akiba, Mitsuteru; Ichihara, Yu; Masuya, Hayato; Takahata, Yoshihiro; Suda, Tomohisa; Yada, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Shigehiro; Kubono, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, Japanese cedar pollen dispersal is one of the major causes of pollinosis. Sydowia japonica is an ascomycetous fungus that grows exclusively on the male strobili of Japanese cedar, suggesting a possible mechanism for controlling pollen dispersal. To evaluate this possibility, eleven isolates of S. japonica were collected from around Japan and used as an inoculum to male strobili of Japanese cedar. The treatment demonstrated that the fungus infected only the pollen and prevented pollen dispersal. The fungus did not cause any additional symptoms to other parts of Japanese cedar, such as needles, stems, and buds. All S. japonica isolates collected around Japan could serve to control pollen dispersal. Periodic observation of the fungal pathogenesis with stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope showed that hyphal fragments and conidia of S. japonica germinated on the surface of male strobili, and the germ tube entered pollen sacs through opening microsporophylls. Within the pollen sacs, the hyphae penetrated pollen gradually, such that all pollen was infected by the fungus by approximately one month before the pollen dispersal season. The infected pollen was destroyed due to the fungal infection and was never released. Our data suggests a novel approach of preventing pollen dispersal using pollen-specific fungal infection.

  11. Variable Region Identical IgA and IgE to Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Polysaccharide Manifest Specificity Differences*

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Nakouzi, Antonio; Pohl, Mary Ann; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years several groups have shown that isotype switching from IgM to IgG to IgA can affect the affinity and specificity of antibodies sharing identical variable (V) regions. However, whether the same applies to IgE is unknown. In this study we compared the fine specificity of V region-identical IgE and IgA to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide and found that these differed in specificity from each other. The IgE and IgA paratopes were probed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with 15N-labeled peptide mimetics of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen (Ag). IgE was found to cleave the peptide at a much faster rate than V region-identical IgG subclasses and IgA, consistent with an altered paratope. Both IgE and IgA were opsonic for C. neoformans and protected against infection in mice. In summary, V-region expression in the context of the ϵ constant (C) region results in specificity changes that are greater than observed for comparable IgG subclasses. These results raise the possibility that expression of certain V regions in the context of α and ϵ C regions affects their function and contributes to the special properties of those isotypes. PMID:25778397

  12. Specific probiotics in enhancing maturation of IgA responses in formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Rautava, Samuli; Arvilommi, Heikki; Isolauri, Erika

    2006-08-01

    The first months of life represent a critical period for the maturation of the infant's immune system and, thus, a window of opportunity for measures to reduce the risk of disease. We hypothesized that specific probiotics might promote mucosal immunologic maturation in formula-fed infants. The numbers of cow's milk-specific and total IgA-secreting cells were measured at 3, 7, and 12 mo of age in a double-blind placebo-controlled study of 72 infants with early artificial feeding. The infants consumed infant formula supplemented with specific probiotics (Lactobacillus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12) or placebo during the first year of life. Further analyses of the serum concentrations of the IgA-inducing cytokine TGF-beta2 and the soluble innate microbial receptor sCD14 were conducted. The numbers of cow's milk-specific IgA secreting cells were significantly higher in infants receiving probiotics compared with those receiving placebo (p = 0.045, ANOVA for repeated measures). At 12 mo of age, the serum concentrations of sCD14 were 1479 pg/mL [95% confidence interval (CI) 1373-1592] in infants receiving probiotics and 1291 pg/mL (95% CI 1152-1445) in infants receiving placebo (p = 0.046). Administration of the probiotics Lactobacillus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 at the time of introduction of cow's milk in the infant's diet results in cow's milk-specific IgA antibody responsiveness that may be the result of increased production of sCD14.

  13. Diagnostics of and Specific Hyposensitization to Pollen Rhinopathy (Hay Fever),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Patients (120 in all) were studied for precise diagnosis of pollen rhinopathy. Among them aggravated allergic heredity was revealed in 63% of cases; a positive allergological anamnesis was noted in 55% of cases.

  14. IKKβ in intestinal epithelial cells regulates allergen-specific IgA and allergic inflammation at distant mucosal sites.

    PubMed

    Bonnegarde-Bernard, A; Jee, J; Fial, M J; Aeffner, F; Cormet-Boyaka, E; Davis, I C; Lin, M; Tomé, D; Karin, M; Sun, Y; Boyaka, P N

    2014-03-01

    Regulation of allergic responses by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) remains poorly understood. Using a model of oral allergen sensitization in the presence of cholera toxin as adjuvant and mice with cell-specific deletion of inhibitor-κB kinase (IKKβ) in IECs (IKKβ(ΔIEC)), we addressed the contribution of IECs to allergic sensitization to ingested antigens and allergic manifestations at distant mucosal site of the airways. Cholera toxin induced higher pro-inflammatory responses and altered the profile of the gut microbiota in IKKβ(ΔIEC) mice. Antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses were unaltered in IKKβ(ΔIEC) mice, but their IgA antibodies (Abs), T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 responses were enhanced. Upon nasal antigen challenge, these mice developed lower levels of allergic lung inflammation, which correlated with higher levels of IgA Abs in the airways. The IKKβ(ΔIEC) mice also recruited a higher number of gut-sensitized T cells in the airways after nasal antigen challenge and developed airway hyper-responsiveness, which were suppressed by treatment with anti-interleukin-17A. Fecal microbiota transplant during allergic sensitization reduced Th17 responses in IKKβ(ΔIEC) mice, but did not affect IgA Ab responses. In summary, we show that IKKβ in IECs shapes the gut microbiota and immune responses to ingested antigens and influences allergic responses in the airways via regulation of IgA Ab responses.

  15. Env-Specific IgA from Viremic HIV-Infected Subjects Compromises Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, María Julia; Ghiglione, Yanina; Falivene, Juliana; Laufer, Natalia; Holgado, María Pía; Socías, María Eugenia; Cahn, Pedro; Sued, Omar; Giavedoni, Luis; Salomón, Horacio; Gherardi, María Magdalena; Rodríguez, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Elucidating the factors that modulate HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) will help in understanding its role in HIV immunity. The aim of this study was to determine whether IgA could modify the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infection, abrogating its protective role. Plasma samples from 20 HIV-positive (HIV+) subjects enrolled during primary HIV infection (PHI), 10 chronically infected subjects (chronic), and 7 elite controllers (EC) were used. ADCC was determined by using a fluorometric ADCC assay, before and after removal of plasma IgA. Data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. ADCC was documented in 80% of PHI enrollment samples and in 100% of PHI 12-month, chronic, and EC samples; it peaked after acute infection, reached a plateau in chronic infection, and decreased after initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Significant associations between ADCC and disease progression were found only after removal of plasma IgA from 12-month PHI samples: the magnitude of ADCC not only increased after IgA removal but also correlated with CD4+ T-cell preservation. This work provides evidence that gp120-specific IgA was capable of modifying ADCC responses during natural HIV infection for the first time and adds to similar evidence provided in other settings. Furthermore, it underscores the complexity of the ADCC phenomenon and will help in an understanding of its underlying mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Although the induction of ADCC-mediating antibodies in HIV-infected subjects has been extensively documented, the association of these antibodies with protection from disease progression is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that plasma IgA is a factor capable of modifying the magnitude of IgG-mediated ADCC in HIV infection, mitigating its beneficial effect. These results help in understanding why previous studies failed to demonstrate correlations between ADCC and disease progression, and they also contribute to the notion that an

  16. Pollen-Specific Aquaporins NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 Are Required for Pollen Development and Pollination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, Juliana Andrea Pérez; Bienert, Gerd Patrick; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Yaneff, Agustín; Barberini, María Laura; Mecchia, Martín Alejandro; Amodeo, Gabriela; Soto, Gabriela Cynthia; Muschietti, Jorge Prometeo

    2016-05-01

    In flowers with dry stigmas, pollen development, pollination, and pollen tube growth require spatial and temporal regulation of water and nutrient transport. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive processes, we characterized NIP4;1 and NIP4;2, two pollen-specific aquaporins of Arabidopsis thaliana. NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 are paralogs found exclusively in the angiosperm lineage. Although they have 84% amino acid identity, they displayed different expression patterns. NIP4;1 has low expression levels in mature pollen, while NIP4;2 expression peaks during pollen tube growth. Additionally, NIP4;1pro:GUS flowers showed GUS activity in mature pollen and pollen tubes, whereas NIP4;2pro:GUS flowers only in pollen tubes. Single T-DNA mutants and double artificial microRNA knockdowns had fewer seeds per silique and reduced pollen germination and pollen tube length. Transport assays in oocytes showed NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 function as water and nonionic channels. We also found that NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 C termini are phosphorylated by a pollen-specific CPK that modifies their water permeability. Survival assays in yeast indicated that NIP4;1 also transports ammonia, urea, boric acid, and H2O2 Thus, we propose that aquaporins NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 are exclusive components of the reproductive apparatus of angiosperms with partially redundant roles in pollen development and pollination.

  17. [A three year survey of the practical application of pollen monitoring in specific allergen immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Myszkowska, Dorota; Stobiecki, Marcin; Dyga, Wojciech; Majewska, Renata; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy should be modified according to sensitivity of the patient and the time interval between injections and seasonal allergen exposition. The aim of the study was to check the effectiveness of the multinomial logistic regression models predicting the pollen concentration during the pollen season in the immunotherapy trial in patients treated with grass and birch allergens. The study was performed in Krakow in 2011-2013. Models were validated for 2012 and 2013. The effectiveness of the total correct predictions slightly differed depending on the time series, in case of birch pollen the similar percentage of correct predictions was found in both study year, while in case of grass pollen, the predictions were more correct in 2012. A group of patients treated with grass and birch allergens filled in the diary cards during the pollen season. After the 2011 season 14 diary cards were analysed, while 18 and 19, in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Because of manifested symptoms, the injection dose was reduced during the season in 12 patients in 2011, in 9 patients in 2012 and in 6 patients in 2013. No visits were delayed because of medical indications. In some cases patients got the injection in time of the high pollen occurrence (2 cases, in 2011 and 2012). In 2013 in 10/17 patients the high pollen exposure was avoided thanks the information from pollen monitoring, in opposite to 1 and 8 patients in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Patients used antihistaminic drugs on request. The regional pollen monitoring data and satisfied co-operation with patients makes the possibility of closer control of the injection doses administration during immunotherapy in the pollen season.

  18. Cloning and characterisation of a putative pollen-specific polygalacturonase gene (CpPG1) differentially regulated during pollen development in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Carvajal, F; Garrido, D; Jamilena, M; Rosales, R

    2014-03-01

    Studies in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. spp. pepo) pollen have been limited to the viability and morphology of the mature pollen grain. The enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) is involved in pollen development and pollination in many species. In this work, we study anther and pollen development of C. pepo and present the cloning and characterisation of a putative PG CpPG1 (Accession no. HQ232488) from pollen cDNA in C. pepo. The predicted protein for CpPG1 has 416 amino acids, with a high homology to other pollen PGs, such as P22 from Oenothera organensis (76%) and PGA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (73%). CpPG1 belongs to clade C, which comprises PGs expressed in pollen, and presents a 34 amino acid signal peptide for secretion towards the cell wall. DNA-blot analysis revealed that there are at least another two genes that code for PGs in C. pepo. The spatial and temporal accumulation of CpPG1 was studied by semi-quantitative- and qRT-PCR. In addition, mRNA was detected only in anthers, pollen and the rudimentary anthers of bisexual flowers (only present in some zucchini cultivars under certain environmental conditions that trigger anther development in the third whorl of female flowers). However, no expression was detected in cotyledons, stem or fruit. Furthermore, CpPG1 mRNA was accumulated throughout anther development, with the highest expression found in mature pollen. Similarly, exo-PG activity increased from immature anther stages to mature anthers and mature pollen. Overall, these data support the pollen specificity of this gene and suggest an involvement of CpPG1 in pollen development in C. pepo.

  19. Taxa of the Nasal Microbiome Are Associated with Influenza-Specific IgA Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Salk, Hannah M.; Simon, Whitney L.; Lambert, Nathaniel D.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Grill, Diane E.; Kabat, Brian F.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has demonstrated varying levels of efficacy against seasonal influenza; however, LAIV may be used as a tool to measure interactions between the human microbiome and a live, replicating virus. To increase our knowledge of this interaction, we measured changes to the nasal microbiome in subjects who received LAIV to determine if associations between influenza-specific IgA production and the nasal microbiome exist after immunization with a live virus vaccine. The anterior nares of 47 healthy subjects were swabbed pre- (Day 0) and post- (Days 7 and 28) LAIV administration, and nasal washes were conducted on Days 0 and 28. We performed next-generation sequencing on amplified 16s rRNA genes and measured mucosal influenza-specific IgA titers via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A significant increase in alpha diversity was identified (Observed, CHAO, and ACE) between Days 7 vs 0 (p-values = 0.017, 0.005, 0.005, respectively) and between Days 28 vs 0 (p-values = 0.054, 0.030, 0.050, respectively). Several significant associations between the presence of different microbial species, including Lactobacillus helveticus, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus infantis, Veillonella dispar, and Bacteroides ovatus, and influenza-specific H1 and H3 IgA antibody response were demonstrated. These data suggest that LAIV alters the nasal microbiome, allowing several less-abundant OTUs to establish a community niche. Additionally, specific alterations in the nasal microbiome are significantly associated with variations in influenza-specific IgA antibody production and could be clinically relevant. PMID:27643883

  20. Involvement of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants-specific IgE in pollen allergy testing

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Yuma; Kawada, Michitsugu; Takato, Yoshiki; Shinagawa, Kiyomi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Saito, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Specific IgE antibodies against the low-molecular-weight carbohydrate antigen that does not bridge IgE molecules on mast cells are not associated with clinical symptoms. Cross reactivity can be determined in allergen-specific IgE detection assays when the carbohydrate structures between pollen allergens and plant derived food allergens are similar; in such cases, false positive results for grain or legume allergens can be reported for pollen allergic patients who are not sensitized to those allergens. This phenomenon arises owing to the presence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of CCD interference on the results for pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies in the general adult population and to perform CCD inhibition tests evaluating the involvement of CCD on samples positive to pollen allergens. Methods Serum samples from 322 subjects were tested for IgE antibodies to pollens and CCD. The research subjects were given questionnaires about pollen allergic symptoms to help assess the presence of allergies. Allergen IgE antibodies for Japanese cedar, Japanese cypress, orchard grass, ragweed, MUXF, bromelain, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and ascorbate oxidase (ASOD) were analyzed. Results It was observed that among individuals who tested positive to any of the pollen allergens, the positive ratio of CCD-specific IgE antibody was the highest for HRP (13.5%–50.0%). The results from the inhibition tests revealed that CCD was marginally present. Although IgE antibodies for cedar pollen did not react with CCD, IgE antibodies for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed might be detected by the presence of CCD. Conclusion The results of the inhibition tests revealed the obvious presence of CCD suggesting its involvement. Considering these findings, careful evaluation of patient IgE results should be performed for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed. PMID:28154803

  1. Region-specific sensitivity of anemophilous pollen deposition to temperature and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Donders, Timme H; Hagemans, Kimberley; Dekker, Stefan C; de Weger, Letty A; de Klerk, Pim; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values), and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1), as well as in the growing season (T), are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [P<0.05[ and 0.58 [P<0.0001]; TJuli-1 rs between 0.32 [P<0.05[ and 0.56 [P<0.0001]) in the annual pollen influx of wind-pollinated plants. Total annual pollen prediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (P<0.0001). The effect of precipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural archives reflect

  2. Region-Specific Sensitivity of Anemophilous Pollen Deposition to Temperature and Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Donders, Timme H.; Hagemans, Kimberley; Dekker, Stefan C.; de Weger, Letty A.; de Klerk, Pim; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values), and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1), as well as in the growing season (T), are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [P<0.05[ and 0.58 [P<0.0001]; TJuli-1 rs between 0.32 [P<0.05[ and 0.56 [P<0.0001]) in the annual pollen influx of wind-pollinated plants. Total annual pollen prediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (P<0.0001). The effect of precipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural archives reflect

  3. Characterization and functional analysis of a pollen-specific gene st901 in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Qian; Ao, Guangming; Yu, Jingjuan

    2006-07-01

    A pollen-specific gene, sb401, which was isolated from a cDNA library of in vitro geminated pollen of the diploid potato species Solanum berthaultii, belongs to the class of genes expressed late during pollen development. Using sb401 as a probe, a pollen-specific gene st901 was isolated from the genomic library of a potato species Solanum tuberosum cv. Desiree. Sequencing and RT-PCR analysis showed that the st901 genomic gene is 2,889 bp long, contains three exons and two introns, and encodes a putative polypeptide of 217 residues. The predicted protein sequence contains four imperfect repeated motifs of V-V-E-K-K-N/E-E; the core sequence of the repeats (K-K-N/E-E) resembles a microtubule-binding domain of the microtubule-associated protein MAP1B from mouse. The examination of a promoter-reporter construct in transgenic potato plants revealed that the st901 is expressed exclusively in mature pollen grains, which is consistent with the results of Northern blot and RT-PCR. For analysis of the function of st901, transgenic plants harboring antisense copies of st901 cDNA driven by a native st901 promoter were generated. Suppression of st901 gene in potato resulted in aberrant pollen at maturation and pollen viability of transgenic plants ranged from 4.4 to 14.8%, while that of control plants were more than 90%. These results strongly suggest that st901 has an essential role in pollen development.

  4. A pollen-specific novel calmodulin-binding protein with tetratricopeptide repeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safadi, F.; Reddy, V. S.; Reddy, A. S.

    2000-01-01

    Calcium is essential for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. A large body of information has established a link between elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) at the pollen tube tip and its growth. Since the action of Ca(2+) is primarily mediated by Ca(2+)-binding proteins such as calmodulin (CaM), identification of CaM-binding proteins in pollen should provide insights into the mechanisms by which Ca(2+) regulates pollen germination and tube growth. In this study, a CaM-binding protein from maize pollen (maize pollen calmodulin-binding protein, MPCBP) was isolated in a protein-protein interaction-based screening using (35)S-labeled CaM as a probe. MPCBP has a molecular mass of about 72 kDa and contains three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) suggesting that it is a member of the TPR family of proteins. MPCBP protein shares a high sequence identity with two hypothetical TPR-containing proteins from Arabidopsis. Using gel overlay assays and CaM-Sepharose binding, we show that the bacterially expressed MPCBP binds to bovine CaM and three CaM isoforms from Arabidopsis in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. To map the CaM-binding domain several truncated versions of the MPCBP were expressed in bacteria and tested for their ability to bind CaM. Based on these studies, the CaM-binding domain was mapped to an 18-amino acid stretch between the first and second TPR regions. Gel and fluorescence shift assays performed with CaM and a CaM-binding synthetic peptide further confirmed MPCBP binding to CaM. Western, Northern, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis have shown that MPCBP expression is specific to pollen. MPCBP was detected in both soluble and microsomal proteins. Immunoblots showed the presence of MPCBP in mature and germinating pollen. Pollen-specific expression of MPCBP, its CaM-binding properties, and the presence of TPR motifs suggest a role for this protein in Ca(2+)-regulated events during pollen germination and growth.

  5. [Determination of the specificity of seric IgA produced in response to antigens of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in murine leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguilar, Mary Carmen; Hernández, Oskarina; Maizo de Segnini, Zulay; Rojas, Carmen Haydee; Díaz, Silverio; Alarcón, Maritza; Goncalves, Loredana

    2011-09-01

    In experimental leishmaniasis, the role of antibodies is not entirely clear, as some authors consider that these proteins are not involved in protection against infection. However, histopathological studies in human and experimental leishmaniasis lesions, show plasma cell infiltrates positive for IgA and secretion of IgM, IgG and IgA could mediate the formation of immune complexes with parasite antigens or self components, favoring necrosis leading to the elimination of the parasite. In this study, we determined if the serum IgA in the murine model has specific reactivity against antigens of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana of diagnostic utility. To do this, we used mice either susceptible or resistant to cutaneous leishmaniasis, and demonstrated by indirect ELISA that serum IgA is elevated in susceptible mice compared with that produced by resistant mice. Although other studies in murine models show that the serum IgG from mice infected with L. (L) mexicana present cross reactivity with unrelated parasite antigens derived from Trypanosoma cruzi, the analysis of the specificity of IgA by antigens of L. (L) mexicana and T. cruzi, by Western Blot, showed that the IgA serum of mice infected with T. cruzi reacts too with antigens of L. (L) mexicana. These findings suggest that IgA may be useful for the clinical management and prognosis of the disease.

  6. Glycoproteins are species-specific markers and major IgE reactants in grass pollens.

    PubMed

    Manduzio, Hélène; Fitchette, Anne-Catherine; Hrabina, Maud; Chabre, Henri; Batard, Thierry; Nony, Emmanuel; Faye, Loïc; Moingeon, Philippe; Gomord, Véronique

    2012-02-01

    Grass pollen allergic patients are concomitantly exposed and sensitized to pollens from multiple Pooideae (i.e. common grass) species. As such, they are currently desensitized by allergen-specific immunotherapy using extracts made from mixes of pollens from Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis. Herein, we demonstrate that species-specific glycoprotein patterns are documented by 1D and 2D electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis, which can be used as an identity test for such pollens. Most allergens are glycoproteins bearing complex N-glycans encompassing β1,2 xylose and α1,3 fucose glycoepitopes. Glycoepitope destruction using periodate oxidation has no impact on seric IgE reactivity in 75% atopic patients (n = 24). The latter have thus no significant IgE responses to carbohydrate-containing epitopes. In contrast, periodate treatment strongly impairs IgE recognition of glycoallergens in 25% of patients tested, demonstrating the presence of carbohydrate-specific IgE in those patients. While the clinical impact of carbohydrate-specific IgE is still a matter of controversy, the presence of these IgE in the serum of many allergic patients illustrates the need for cross-reacting carbohydrate epitope-free recombinant allergens to develop relevant diagnostic tests. These data also support the pertinence of mixing multiple grass pollens to desensitize atopic patients, with the aim to broaden the repertoire of glycoepitopes in the vaccine, thus mimicking natural exposure conditions.

  7. A novel mucosal vaccine targeting Peyer's patch M cells induces protective antigen-specific IgA responses.

    PubMed

    Shima, Hideaki; Watanabe, Takashi; Fukuda, Shinji; Fukuoka, Shin-Ichi; Ohara, Osamu; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Mucosal vaccines can induce mucosal immunity, including antigen-specific secretory IgA production, to protect from invasion by pathogens and to neutralize toxins at mucosal surfaces. We established an effective antigen-delivering fusion protein, anti-GP2-SA, as a mucosal vaccine. The anti-GP2-SA consists of streptavidin (SA) fused to the antigen-binding fragment region from a mAb against glycoprotein 2 (GP2), an antigen-uptake receptor specifically expressed on M cells. Anti-GP2-SA targets antigen-sampling M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium covering Peyer's patches. Immunofluorescence showed that anti-GP2-SA specifically bound to M cells. Orally administered biotinylated ovalbumin peptide (bOVA) conjugated with anti-GP2-SA more efficiently induced OVA-specific fecal IgA secretion compared with bOVA alone or bOVA conjugated with SA. Furthermore, mice immunized by oral administration of the biotinylated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) lysate conjugated with anti-GP2-SA were significantly better protected from subsequent infection by virulent S. Typhimurium than mice treated with the bacterial lysate alone or conjugated with SA. These results suggest that anti-GP2-SA-based M-cell-targeting vaccines are a novel strategy for inducing efficient mucosal immunity.

  8. Frequent Use of the IgA Isotype in Human B Cells Encoding Potent Norovirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies That Block HBGA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Crowe, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis and cause local outbreaks of illness, especially in confined situations. Despite being identified four decades ago, the correlates of protection against norovirus gastroenteritis are still being elucidated. Recent studies have shown an association of protection with NoV-specific serum histo-blood group antigen-blocking antibody and with serum IgA in patients vaccinated with NoV VLPs. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of human monoclonal IgG and IgA antibodies against a GI.I NoV, Norwalk virus (NV). A higher proportion of the IgA antibodies blocked NV VLP binding to glycans than did IgG antibodies. We generated isotype-switched variants of IgG and IgA antibodies to study the effects of the constant domain on blocking and binding activities. The IgA form of antibodies appears to be more potent than the IgG form in blocking norovirus binding to histo-blood group antigens. These studies suggest a unique role for IgA antibodies in protection from NoV infections by blocking attachment to cell receptors. PMID:27355511

  9. Tolerance induction after specific immunotherapy with pollen allergoids adjuvanted by monophosphoryl lipid A in children.

    PubMed

    Rosewich, M; Schulze, J; Eickmeier, O; Telles, T; Rose, M A; Schubert, R; Zielen, S

    2010-06-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a well-established and clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases. A pollen allergoid formulated with the T helper type 1 (Th1)-inducing adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) facilitates short-term SIT. Little is known about mechanisms of tolerance induction in this setting. In a prospective study, 34 patients allergic to grass pollen (25 male, nine female, median age 10.2 years) received a total of 44 SIT courses (20 in the first, 24 in the second) with MPL-adjuvanted pollen allergoids. Immunogenicity was measured by levels of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG(grass)) and IgG4(grass) by antibody blocking properties on basophil activation, and by induction of CD4(+), CD25(+) and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3(+)) regulatory T cells (T(reg)). Specific IgG and IgG4 levels increased only slightly in the first year of SIT. In the second year these changes reached significance (P < 0.0001). In keeping with these findings, we were able to show an increase of T(reg) cells and a decreased release of leukotrienes after the second year of treatment. In the first year of treatment we found little evidence for immunological changes. A significant antibody induction was seen only after the second course of SIT. Short-course immunotherapy with pollen allergoids formulated with the Th1-inducing adjuvant MPL needs at least two courses to establish tolerance.

  10. Interactions in the pollen-specific receptor-like kinases-containing signaling network.

    PubMed

    Löcke, Susanne; Fricke, Inka; Mucha, Elena; Humpert, Marie-Luise; Berken, Antje

    2010-12-01

    The pollen-specific receptor-like kinases (PRKs) from Solanum lycopersicum, LePRK1 and LePRK2, are believed to be involved in the regulation of pollen germination and pollen tube growth. They appear to be part of a multimeric complex in which the transmembranic LePRKs presumably have a key position in transducing exogenous signals through the plasma membrane. Here, we focused on extra- and intracellular interactions involving the LePRKs. We show in yeast two-hybrid experiments a cross-interaction of putative PRK-ligands, the oligomerization of LePRK2 and a direct contact of LePRKs to activated Rho proteins of plants (ROPs). Moreover, we observed that pollen-specific RopGEFs, which catalyze ROP activation and may be regulated by PRK interaction, are active in vitro while autoinhibition seems to occur in vivo. We suggest that activation of RopGEFs as a checkpoint in PRK signal transduction is a more complex event including further components in planta. Our findings point to some new aspects in PRK-mediated signal transduction implying a LePRK2 complex with different signaling activity and a further direct control of LePRKs by activated ROP.

  11. IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kar Neng; Tang, Sydney C W; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Novak, Jan; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Fogo, Agnes B; Glassock, Richard J

    2016-02-11

    Globally, IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis that can progress to renal failure. The exact pathogenesis of IgAN is not well defined, but current biochemical and genetic data implicate overproduction of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1. These aberrant immunoglobulins are characterized by galactose deficiency of some hinge-region O-linked glycans. However, aberrant glycosylation alone is insufficient to induce renal injury: the participation of glycan-specific IgA and IgG autoantibodies that recognize the undergalactosylated IgA1 molecule is required. Glomerular deposits of immune complexes containing undergalactosylated IgA1 activate mesangial cells, leading to the local overproduction of cytokines, chemokines and complement. Emerging data indicate that mesangial-derived mediators that are released following mesangial deposition of IgA1 lead to podocyte and tubulointerstitial injury via humoral crosstalk. Patients can present with a range of signs and symptoms, from asymptomatic microscopic haematuria to macroscopic haematuria. The clinical progression varies, with 30-40% of patients reaching end-stage renal disease 20-30 years after the first clinical presentation. Currently, no IgAN-specific therapies are available and patients are managed with the aim of controlling blood pressure and maintaining renal function. However, new therapeutic approaches are being developed, building upon our ever-improving understanding of disease pathogenesis.

  12. Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection by Detection of Specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA Antibodies in Serum and Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Balmaseda, Angel; Guzmán, María G.; Hammond, Samantha; Robleto, Guillermo; Flores, Carolina; Téllez, Yolanda; Videa, Elsa; Saborio, Saira; Pérez, Leonel; Sandoval, Erick; Rodriguez, Yoryelin; Harris, Eva

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate alternative approaches to the serological diagnosis of dengue virus (DEN) infection, the detection of DEN-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA antibodies in serum and saliva specimens was assessed in 147 patients with symptoms of DEN infection seen at the Ministry of Health in Nicaragua. Seventy-two serum samples were determined to be positive for anti-DEN antibodies by IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the routine diagnostic procedure. Serum and saliva specimens were obtained from 50 healthy adults as additional controls. IgM was detected in the saliva of 65 of the 72 serum IgM-positive cases, 6 of the 75 serum IgM-negative cases, and none of the control group, resulting in a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 92.0% and demonstrating that salivary IgM is a useful diagnostic marker for DEN infection. Detection of IgA in serum may be another feasible alternative for the diagnosis of DEN infection, with serum IgA found in 68 (94.4%) of the IgM-positive cases. In contrast, detection of IgA in saliva was not found to be a useful tool for DEN diagnosis in the present study. Further studies of the kinetics of antibody detection in another set of 151 paired acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples showed that DEN-specific IgA antibodies were detected in more acute-phase samples than were IgM antibodies. Thus, we conclude that DEN-specific IgA in serum is a potential diagnostic target. Furthermore, given that saliva is a readily obtainable, noninvasive specimen, detection of DEN-specific salivary IgM should be considered a useful, cheaper diagnostic modality with similar sensitivity and specificity to IgM detection in serum. PMID:12626461

  13. Mutants of the major ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p 5, with reduced IgE-binding capacity: candidates for grass pollen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Ines; De Weerd, Nicole; Bhalla, Prem L; Niederberger, Verena; Sperr, W R; Valent, Peter; Kahlert, Helga; Fiebig, Helmut; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Ebner, Christof; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Singh, Mohan B

    2002-01-01

    More than 400 million individuals are sensitized to grass pollen allergens. Group 5 allergens represent the most potent grass pollen allergens recognized by more than 80 % of grass pollen allergic patients. The aim of our study was to reduce the allergenic activity of group 5 allergens for specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Based on B- and T-cell epitope mapping studies and on sequence comparison of group 5 allergens from different grasses, point mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in highly conserved sequence domains of Lol p 5, the group 5 allergen from ryegrass. We obtained Lol p 5 mutants with low IgE-binding capacity and reduced allergenic activity as determined by basophil histamine release and by skin prick testing in allergic patients. Circular dichroism analysis showed that these mutants exhibited an overall structural fold similar to the recombinant Lol p 5 wild-type allergen. In addition, Lol p 5 mutants retained the ability to induce proliferation of group 5 allergen-specific T cell lines and clones. Our results demonstrate that a few point mutations in the Lol p 5 sequence yield mutants with reduced allergenic activity that represent potential vaccine candidates for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy.

  14. A nematode immunomodulator suppresses grass pollen-specific allergic responses by controlling excessive Th2 inflammation.

    PubMed

    Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Steinfelder, Svenja; Kühl, Anja A; Drozdenko, Gennadiy; Lucius, Richard; Worm, Margitta; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hartmann, Susanne

    2013-03-01

    Helminth parasites modulate the immune system by complex mechanisms to ensure persistence in the host. Released immunomodulatory parasite components lead to a beneficial environment for the parasite by targeting different host cells and in parallel to a modulation of unrelated inflammatory responses in the host, such as allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the potent helminth immunomodulator, filarial cystatin, in a murine model of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity induced by a clinically relevant aeroallergen (timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen) and on the function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from timothy grass pollen allergic patients. BALB/c mice were systemically sensitised with a recombinant major allergen of timothy grass pollen (rPhl p 5b) and then challenged with timothy grass pollen extract (GPE) via the airways. Filarial cystatin was applied i.p. during the sensitisation phase. Airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine challenges, inflammation of airways, inflammatory cell recruitment, cytokine production and lung histopathology were investigated. In a translational approach, PBMCs from allergic subjects and healthy controls were treated in vitro with cystatin prior to stimulation with GPE. Administration of filarial cystatin suppressed rPhl p 5b-induced allergen-specific Th2-responses and airway inflammation, inhibited local recruitment of eosinophils, reduced levels of allergen-specific IgE and down-regulated IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Ex vivo restimulation with cystatin of spleen cells from cystatin-treated mice induced the production of IL-10, while cystatin inhibited allergen-specific IL-5 and IL-13 levels. Human PBMCs from timothy grass pollen allergic patients displayed a shift towards a Th1 response after treatment with cystatin. These results show that filarial cystatin ameliorates allergic inflammation and disease in a clinically relevant model of allergy. This data

  15. Ultrashort-specific immunotherapy successfully treats seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis to grass pollen.

    PubMed

    DuBuske, Lawrence M; Frew, Anthony J; Horak, Friedrich; Keith, Paul K; Corrigan, Christopher J; Aberer, Werner; Holdich, Tom; von Weikersthal-Drachenberg, Karl J Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy is a well-established treatment for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis; conventional regimens are lengthy, however, reducing convenience and cost-effectiveness. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of an ultrashort course (four doses) of the immunotherapy Grass Modified Allergen Tyrosine Adsorbate (Allergy Therapeutics, Worthing, U.K.) monophosphoryl lipid A (MATA MPL). Subjects were randomized to receive four injections of either Grass MATA MPL (n = 514; 300-2000 standardized units/injection) or placebo (n = 514) before the grass pollen season. They used electronic diaries to record allergy symptoms and medication use during the pollen season. The primary end point was the difference between the mean combined symptom and medication scores in the Grass MATA MPL and placebo groups during the 4 local peak pollen weeks. The injection course was completed by 95.3 and 97.7% of the Grass MATA MPL and placebo groups, respectively, and was well tolerated. Grass MATA MPL treatment afforded a 13.4% benefit over placebo in the 4 peak pollen weeks (p = 0.0038). The benefit in subjects with 28 complete diary entries during the 4 peak pollen weeks was 26.9% (p = 0.0031). Significant benefits over placebo were observed in subjects with severe symptoms (17.1%; p = 0.0023), in those who had a history of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis for up to 35 years (up to 37.2%; p = 0.0059) and at sites with a higher burden of disease (38.3%; p < 0.0001). The ultrashort course of Grass MATA MPL was well tolerated and provided a significant benefit over placebo in relieving allergy symptoms.

  16. Pollen-expressed transcription factor 2 encodes a novel plant-specific TFIIB-related protein that is required for pollen germination and embryogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qian-Kun; Liang, Yan; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Dou, Xiao-Ying; Gao, Shu-Chen; Chen, Li-Qun; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Ye, De

    2013-07-01

    Pollen germination and embryogenesis are important to sexual plant reproduction. The processes require a large number of genes to be expressed. Transcription of eukaryotic nuclear genes is accomplished by three conserved RNA polymerases acting in association with a set of auxiliary general transcription factors (GTFs), including B-type GTFs. The roles of B-type GTFs in plant reproduction remain poorly understood. Here we report functional characterization of a novel plant-specific TFIIB-related gene PTF2 in Arabidopsis. Mutation in PTF2 caused failure of pollen germination. Pollen-rescue revealed that the mutation also disrupted embryogenesis and resulted in seed abortion. PTF2 is expressed prolifically in developing pollen and the other tissues with active cell division and differentiation, including embryo and shoot apical meristem. The PTF2 protein shares a lower amino acid sequence similarity with other known TFIIB and TFIIB-related proteins in Arabidopsis. It can interact with TATA-box binding protein 2 (TBP2) and bind to the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) as the other known TFIIB and TFIIB-related proteins do. In addition, PTF2 can form a homodimer and interact with the subunits of RNA polymerases (RNAPs), implying that it may be involved in the RNAPs transcription. These results suggest that PTF2 plays crucial roles in pollen germination and embryogenesis in Arabidopsis, possibly by regulating gene expression through interaction with TBP2 and the subunits of RNAPs.

  17. IgA nephropathy enigma.

    PubMed

    Mestecky, Jiri; Novak, Jan; Moldoveanu, Zina; Raska, Milan

    2016-11-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the leading cause of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. The disease is characterized by the presence of IgA-containing immune complexes in the circulation and in mesangial deposits with ensuing glomerular injury. Although in humans there are two IgA subclasses, only IgA1 molecules are involved. The exclusivity of participation of IgA1 in IgAN prompted extensive structural and immunological studies of the unique hinge region (HR) of IgA1, which is absent in otherwise highly homologous IgA2. HR of IgA1 with altered O-glycans serves as an antigen recognized by autoantibodies specific for aberrant HR glycans leading to the generation of nephritogenic immune complexes. However, there are several unresolved questions concerning the phylogenetic origin of human IgA1 HR, the structural basis of its antigenicity, the origin of antibodies specific for HR with altered glycan moieties, the regulatory defects in IgA1 glycosylation pathways, and the potential approaches applicable to the disease-specific interventions in the formation of nephritogenic immune complexes. This review focuses on the gaps in our knowledge of molecular and cellular events that are involved in the immunopathogenesis of IgAN.

  18. Specific immunotherapy with mugwort pollen allergoid reduce bradykinin release into the nasal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Grzanka, Alicja; Jawor, Barbara; Czecior, Eugeniusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A pathomechanism of allergic rhinitis is complex. A neurogenic mechanism seems to play a significant role in this phenomenon. Aim The evaluation of influence of specific immunotherapy of mugwort pollen allergic patients on the bradykinin concentration in the nasal lavage fluid. Material and methods The study included 22 seasonal allergic rhinitis patients. Thirty persons with monovalent allergy to mugwort pollen, confirmed with skin prick tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, underwent a 3-year-long allergen immunotherapy with the mugwort extract (Allergovit, Allergopharma, Germany). The control group was composed of 9 persons with polyvalent sensitivity to pollen, who were treated with pharmacotherapy. Before the allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) and in subsequent years before the pollen seasons, a provocation allergen test with the mugwort extract was performed, together with collection of nasal fluids, where bradykinin concentration was determined according to Proud method. Results There were similar levels of bradykinin in both groups at baseline prior to therapy (AIT group: 584.0 ±87.2 vs. controls 606.3 ±106.5 pg/ml) and changes after allergen challenge 1112.4 ±334.8 vs. 1013.3 ±305.9 pg/ml as well. The bradykinin concentration in nasal lavage fluid after mugwort challenge in 1 year was lower in the AIT group (824.1 ±184.2 pg/ml vs. 1000.4 ±411.5 pg/l; p < 005) with a further significant decrease after the 2nd and 3rd year of specific immunotherapy. Significant reduction of symptoms and medications use was observed in hyposensitized patients. Conclusions A decreased level of bradykinin as a result of AIT suggests that some of the symptomatic benefits of AIT may be related to the reduced release of bradykinin into nasal secretions. These values correlate with clinical improvement within the course of treatment. PMID:27605897

  19. Specific serum IgG, but not IgA, antibody against purified Opisthorchis viverrini antigen associated with hepatobiliary disease and cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinlaor, Porntip; Pongsamart, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Sangka, Arunnee; Srilunchang, Thitima; Mairiang, Eimorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2012-03-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini infection induces hepatobiliary disease (HBD)-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) via a chronic inflammatory immune response. Here, we evaluated specific IgG and IgA antibodies against different fractions of O. viverrini antigen in residents from an endemic community in Northeast Thailand with varying hepatobiliary abnormalities. Crude somatic O. viverrini antigen was purified into three fractions (viz., P1, P2 and P3) by gel infiltration chromatography and these served as antigens for detection of fluke-specific IgG and IgA antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results revealed fluke-specific IgG and IgA antibody levels-against these antigens from subjects with O. viverrini-positive HBD-higher than in subjects with O. viverrini-negative HBD. Interestingly, the rank of fluke-specific IgG (and not IgA) antibody levels against crude extract and P1 antigens was CCA>severe HBD>mild HBD>healthy individuals. Purified antigens reduced cross-reactivity with other parasites compared to the crude antigen. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that HBD status was significantly associated with the liver fluke-specific IgG antibody against purified antigens. These results suggest that purified O. viverrini-antigen improves serodiagnosis for the evaluation of opisthorchiasis-associated HBD, and may be useful in the screening of opisthorchiasis in subjects at risk of developing CCA.

  20. Transgene excision in pollen using a codon optimized serine resolvase CinH-RS2 site-specific recombination system.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong S; Abercrombie, Laura L; Eda, Shigetoshi; Blanvillain, Robert; Thomson, James G; Ow, David W; Stewart, C N

    2011-04-01

    Transgene escape, a major environmental and regulatory concern in transgenic crop cultivation, could be alleviated by removing transgenes from pollen, the most frequent vector for transgene flow. A transgene excision vector containing a codon optimized serine resolvase CinH recombinase (CinH) and its recognition sites RS2 were constructed and transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). CinH recombinase recognized 119 bp of nucleic acid sequences, RS2, in pollen and excised the transgene flanked by the RS2 sites. In this system, the pollen-specific LAT52 promoter from tomato was employed to control the expression of CinH recombinase. Loss of expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene under the control of the LAT59 promoter from tomato was used as an indicator of transgene excision. Efficiency of transgene excision from pollen was determined by flow cytometry (FCM)-based pollen screening. While a transgenic event in the absence of CinH recombinase contained about 70% of GFP-synthesizing pollen, three single-copy transgene events contained less than 1% of GFP-synthesizing pollen based on 30,000 pollen grains analyzed per event. This suggests that CinH-RS2 recombination system could be effectively utilized for transgene biocontainment.

  1. Roles of pollen-specific boron efflux transporter, OsBOR4, in the rice fertilization process.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Saito, Akihiro; Kajikawa, Masataka; Kasai, Koji; Sato, Yutaka; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Toru

    2013-12-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana BOR1 was the first boron (B) transporter identified in living systems. There are four AtBOR1-like genes, OsBOR1, 2, 3 and 4, present in the rice genome. We characterized the activity, expression and physiological function of OsBOR4. OsBOR4 is an active efflux transporter of B. Quantitative PCR analysis and OsBOR4 promoter-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion revealed that OsBOR4 was both highly and specifically expressed in pollen. We obtained five Tos17 insertion mutants of osbor4. The pollen grains were viable and development of floral organs was normal in the homozygous osbor4 mutants. We observed that in all Tos17 insertion lines tested, the frequency of osbor4 homozygous plants was lower than expected in the progeny of self-fertilized heterozygous plants. These results establish that OsBOR4 is essential for normal reproductive processes. Pollen from osbor4 homozygous plants elongated fewer tubes on wild-type stigmas, and tube elongation of mutant pollen was less efficient compared with the wild-type pollen, suggesting reduced competence of osbor4 mutant pollen. The reduced competence of mutant pollen was further supported by the crosses of independent Tos17-inserted alleles of OsBOR4. Our results suggest that OsBOR4, a boron efflux transporter, is required for normal pollen germination and/or tube elongation.

  2. The pollen-specific R-SNARE/longin PiVAMP726 mediates fusion of endo- and exocytic compartments in pollen tube tip growth.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; McCubbin, Andrew G

    2012-05-01

    The growing pollen tube apex is dedicated to balancing exo- and endocytic processes to form a rapidly extending tube. As perturbation of either tends to cause a morphological phenotype, this system provides tractable model for studying these processes. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7s (VAMP7s) are members of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) family that mediate cognate membrane fusion but their role in pollen tube growth has not been investigated. This manuscript identifies PiVAMP726 of Petunia inflata as a pollen-specific VAMP7 that localizes to the inverted cone of transport vesicles at the pollen tube tip. The endocytic marker FM4-64 was found to colocalize with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-PiVAMP726, which is consistent with PiVAMP726 containing an amino-acid motif implicated in endosomal localization, At high overexpression levels, YFP- PiVAMP726 inhibited growth and caused the formation of novel membrane compartments within the pollen tube tip. Functional dissection of PiVAMP726 implicated the N-terminal longin domain in negative regulation of the SNARE activity, but not localization of PiVAMP726. Expression of the constitutively active C-terminal SNARE domain alone, in pollen tubes, generated similar phenotypes to the full-length protein, but the truncated domain was more potent than the wild-type protein at both inhibiting growth and forming the novel membrane compartments. Both endo- and exocytic markers localized to these compartments in addition to YFP-PiVAMP726, leading to the speculation that PiVAMP726 might be involved in the recycling of endocytic vesicles in tip growth.

  3. Loss of pollen-specific phospholipase NOT LIKE DAD triggers gynogenesis in maize.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Laurine M; Khaled, Abdelsabour; Laffaire, Jean-Baptiste; Chaignon, Sandrine; Gendrot, Ghislaine; Laplaige, Jérôme; Bergès, Hélène; Beydon, Genséric; Bayle, Vincent; Barret, Pierre; Comadran, Jordi; Martinant, Jean-Pierre; Rogowsky, Peter M; Widiez, Thomas

    2017-03-15

    Gynogenesis is an asexual mode of reproduction common to animals and plants, in which stimuli from the sperm cell trigger the development of the unfertilized egg cell into a haploid embryo. Fine mapping restricted a major maize QTL (quantitative trait locus) responsible for the aptitude of inducer lines to trigger gynogenesis to a zone containing a single gene NOT LIKE DAD (NLD) coding for a patatin-like phospholipase A. In all surveyed inducer lines, NLD carries a 4-bp insertion leading to a predicted truncated protein. This frameshift mutation is responsible for haploid induction because complementation with wild-type NLD abolishes the haploid induction capacity. Activity of the NLD promoter is restricted to mature pollen and pollen tube. The translational NLD::citrine fusion protein likely localizes to the sperm cell plasma membrane. In Arabidopsis roots, the truncated protein is no longer localized to the plasma membrane, contrary to the wild-type NLD protein. In conclusion, an intact pollen-specific phospholipase is required for successful sexual reproduction and its targeted disruption may allow establishing powerful haploid breeding tools in numerous crops.

  4. Defective immunoglobulin A (IgA) glycosylation and IgA deposits in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kolka, Ragnhildur; Valdimarsson, Helgi; Bodvarsson, Magnus; Hardarson, Sverrir; Jonsson, Thorbjorn

    2013-09-01

    Defective glycosylation and immune complex (IC) formation may be of primary importance in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether defective IgA1 glycosylation might support renal deposition of IgA and disease activity. IgA was isolated from the serum of 44 IgAN patients and 46 controls and glycosylation analysed by ELISA using glycan-specific lectins. IgA was measured by immunodiffusion and immune complexes by ELISA. IgA subclasses in IC deposits in kidney glomeruli were identified by immunohistochemical methods. A significant increase in N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in terminal position (p = 0.02) observed in some of the IgAN patients, became more pronounced when sialic acid was removed from IgA1, indicating enhanced expression of α-2,6-sialyltransferase in patients compared with controls (p < 0.0001). Patients with defective galactosylation had lower serum IgA than other IgAN patients (p = 0.003). IgAN patients with both IgA1 and IgA2 glomerular deposits (21.7%) had increased GalNAc in terminal position (p = 0.003). Taken together, our results show that increased IgA glycosylation in IgAN associates with low levels of IgA, concomitant IgA1 and IgA2 glomerular deposits and poor clinical outcome.

  5. The Arabidopsis FLAKY POLLEN1 gene encodes a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase required for development of tapetum-specific organelles and fertility of pollen grains.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Sumie; Nishimori, Yuka; Yamada, Miho; Saito, Hiroko; Suzuki, Toshiya; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Miyake, Hiroshi; Okada, Kiyotaka; Nakamura, Kenzo

    2010-06-01

    The pollen coat is a surface component of pollen grains required for fertilization. To study how the pollen coat is produced, we identified and characterized a recessive and conditional male-sterile Arabidopsis mutant, flaky pollen1-1 (fkp1-1), whose pollen grains lack functional pollen coats. FKP1 is a single-copy gene in the Arabidopsis genome and encodes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMG-CoA synthase), an enzyme of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway involved in biosynthesis of isoprenoids such as sterols. We found that fkp1-1 possesses a T-DNA insertion 550 bp upstream of the initiation codon. RT-PCR and promoter analyses revealed that fkp1-1 results in knockdown of FKP1 predominantly in tapetum. Electron microscopy showed that the mutation affected the development of tapetum-specific lipid-containing organelles (elaioplast and tapetosome), causing the deficient formation of fkp1-1 pollen coats. These results suggest that both elaioplasts, which accumulate vast amount of sterol esters, and tapetosomes, which are unique oil-accumulating structures, require the MVA pathway for development. Null alleles of fkp1 were male-gametophyte lethal upon pollen tube elongation, whereas female gametophytes were normal. These results show that the MVA pathway is essential, at least in tapetal cells and pollen grains, for the development of tapetum-specific organelles and the fertility of pollen grains.

  6. A Protein Allergen Microarray Detects Specific IgE to Pollen Surface, Cytoplasmic, and Commercial Allergen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vigh-Conrad, Katinka A.; Conrad, Donald F.; Preuss, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    Background Current diagnostics for allergies, such as skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests, do not allow for inexpensive, high-throughput screening of patients. Additionally, extracts used in these methods are made from washed pollen that lacks pollen surface materials that may contain allergens. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to develop a high-throughput assay to rapidly measure allergen-specific IgE in sera and to explore the relative allergenicity of different pollen fractions (i.e. surface, cytoplasmic, commercial extracts). To do this, we generated a protein microarray containing surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial extracts from 22 pollen species, commercial extracts from nine non-pollen allergens, and five recombinant allergenic proteins. Pollen surface and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by extraction into organic solvents and aqueous buffers, respectively. Arrays were incubated with <25 uL of serum from 176 individuals and bound IgE was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, providing a high-throughput measurement of IgE. We demonstrated that the allergen microarray is a reproducible method to measure allergen-specific IgE in small amounts of sera. Using this tool, we demonstrated that specific IgE clusters according to the phylogeny of the allergen source. We also showed that the pollen surface, which has been largely overlooked in the past, contained potent allergens. Although, as a class, cytoplasmic fractions obtained by our pulverization/precipitation method were comparable to commercial extracts, many individual allergens showed significant differences. Conclusions/Significance These results support the hypothesis that protein microarray technology is a useful tool for both research and in the clinic. It could provide a more efficient and less painful alternative to traditionally used skin prick tests, making it economically feasible to compare allergen sensitivity of different populations, monitor individual responses over time

  7. Functional characterization of the pollen-specific SBgLR promoter from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Lang, Zhihong; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jingjuan; Ao, Guangming; Zhao, Qian

    2008-01-01

    SBgLR (Solanum tuberosum genomic lysine-rich) gene was isolated from a potato genomic library using SB401 (S. berthaultii 401) cDNA as probe. RT-PCR analysis of SBgLR gene expression profile and microscopic analysis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in tobacco plants transformed with SBgLR promoter-GFP reporters indicate that SBgLR is a pollen-specific gene. A series of 5'deletions of SBgLR promoter were fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and stably introduced into tobacco plants. Histochemical and quantitative assays of GUS expression in transgenic plants allowed us to localize an enhancer of SBgLR promoter to the region -345 to -269 relative to the translation start site. This 76 bp (-345 to -269) fragment enhanced GUS expression in leaves, stems and roots when fused to -90/+6 CaMV 35S minimal promoter. Deletion analysis showed that a cis-element, which can repress gene expression in root hairs, was located in the region -345 to -311. Further study indicated that the -269 to -9 region was sufficient to confer pollen-specific expression of GFP when fused to CaMV 35S enhancer.

  8. IgA Structure Variations Associate with Immune Stimulations and IgA Mesangial Deposition.

    PubMed

    Oruc, Zeliha; Oblet, Christelle; Boumediene, Ahmed; Druilhe, Anne; Pascal, Virginie; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Cuvillier, Armelle; El Hamel, Chahrazed; Lecardeur, Sandrine; Leanderson, Tomas; Morelle, Willy; Demengeot, Jocelyne; Aldigier, Jean-Claude; Cogné, Michel

    2016-09-01

    IgA1 mesangial deposition is the hallmark of IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein purpura, the onset of which often follows infections. Deposited IgA has been reported as polymeric, J chain associated, and often, hypogalactosylated but with no information concerning the influence of the IgA repertoire or the link between immune stimuli and IgA structure. We explored these issues in the α1KI mouse model, which produces polyclonal human IgA1 prone to mesangial deposition. Compared with mice challenged by a conventional environment, mice in a specific pathogen-free environment had less IgA deposition. However, serum IgA of specific pathogen-free mice showed more galactosylation and much lower polymerization. Notably, wild-type, α1KI, and even J chain-deficient mice showed increased polymeric serum IgA on exposure to pathogens. Strict germfree conditions delayed but did not completely prevent deposition; mice housed in these conditions had very low serum IgA levels and produced essentially monomeric IgA. Finally, comparing monoclonal IgA1 that had different variable regions and mesangial deposition patterns indicated that, independently of glycosylation and polymerization, deposition might also depend on IgA carrying specific variable domains. Together with IgA quantities and constant region post-translational modifications, repertoire changes during immune responses might, thus, modulate IgA propensity to deposition. These IgA features are not associated with circulating immune complexes and C3 deposition and are more pertinent to an initial IgA deposition step preceding overt clinical symptoms in patients.

  9. Specific allergen immunotherapy attenuates allergic airway inflammation in a rat model of Alstonia scholaris pollen induced airway allergy.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ankur; Moitra, Saibal; Hazra, Iman; Mondal, Somnath; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Bhattacharya, Debanjan; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grains are well established to be an important cause of respiratory allergy. Current pharmacologic therapies for allergic asthma do not cure the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only treatment method which re-directs the immune system away from allergic response leading to a long lasting effect. The mechanism by which immunotherapy achieves this goal is an area of active research world-wide. The present experimental study was designed to develop an experimental model of allergic lung inflammation based on a relevant human allergen, Alstonia scholaris pollen, and to establish the immunological and cellular features of specific allergen immunotherapy using this same pollen extract. Our results revealed that Alstonia scholaris pollen sensitization and challenge causes eosinophilic airway inflammation with mucin hypersecretion. This is associated with increased total IgE, increased expression of FcɛRI on lung mast cells and increased levels of IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 as confirmed by ELISA, in-situ immunofluorescence and FACS assay. Allergen specific immunotherapy reduced airway inflammation and also decreased total IgE level, FcɛRI expression, IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 levels. It was further noted that the reduction of these levels was more by intra-nasal route than by intra-peritoneal route. Thus we present a novel animal model of Alstonia scholaris pollen allergic disease and specific allergen immunotherapy which will pave the way towards the development of better treatment modalities.

  10. Detection of systemic and mucosal HPV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in adolescent girls one and two years after HPV vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Mollers, Madelief; Schepp, Rutger M.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; de Melker, Hester E.; Berbers, Guy A.M.; van der Klis, Fiona R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The bivalent HPV16/18 vaccine induces high antibody concentrations in serum while data about antibody responses in the cervix are limited. In this study, we investigated pre- and post-vaccination antibody responses against seven high-risk HPV types by detection of IgG and IgA HPV-specific antibodies in cervical secretion samples (CVS) and serum. From an HPV vaccine monitoring study CVS and serum samples were available (pre-vaccination (n = 297), one year (n = 211) and two years (n = 141) post-dose-one vaccination) from girls aged 14–16 y. The girls were vaccinated with the bivalent HPV vaccine at months 0, 1 and 6. CVS was self-sampled using a tampon. Samples were tested for HPV-specific antibodies (HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58) by a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay. Post-vaccination, IgG and IgA antibody levels for HPV16/18 were detectable in CVS and amounted to 2% and 1% of the IgG and IgA antibody levels observed in serum, respectively. The antibody levels remained constant between one and two years after vaccination. The correlation between CVS and serum was similar for IgG and IgA vaccine-derived antibody levels for HPV16 (rs = 0.58, rs = 0.54) and HPV18 (rs = 0.50, rs = 0.55). Vaccine-derived IgG antibody levels against cross-reactive HPV types in CVS and in serum were highest for HPV45. No IgA cross-reactive antibody responses could be detected in CVS. Post-vaccination, HPV16/18 IgG and IgA antibodies are not only detectable in serum but also in CVS. The correlation of HPV16/18 IgG antibody levels between serum and CVS suggests that vaccine induced HPV antibodies transudate and/or exudate from the systemic circulation to the cervical mucosa to provide protection against HPV infections. PMID:23149693

  11. Detection of systemic and mucosal HPV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in adolescent girls one and two years after HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Mollers, Madelief; Schepp, Rutger M; Meijer, Chris J L M; de Melker, Hester E; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Klis, Fiona R M

    2013-02-01

    The bivalent HPV16/18 vaccine induces high antibody concentrations in serum while data about antibody responses in the cervix are limited. In this study, we investigated pre- and post-vaccination antibody responses against seven high-risk HPV types by detection of IgG and IgA HPV-specific antibodies in cervical secretion samples (CVS) and serum. From an HPV vaccine monitoring study CVS and serum samples were available (pre-vaccination (n = 297), one year (n = 211) and two years (n = 141) post-dose-one vaccination) from girls aged 14-16 y. The girls were vaccinated with the bivalent HPV vaccine at months 0, 1 and 6. CVS was self-sampled using a tampon. Samples were tested for HPV-specific antibodies (HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58) by a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay. Post-vaccination, IgG and IgA antibody levels for HPV16/18 were detectable in CVS and amounted to 2% and 1% of the IgG and IgA antibody levels observed in serum, respectively. The antibody levels remained constant between one and two years after vaccination. The correlation between CVS and serum was similar for IgG and IgA vaccine-derived antibody levels for HPV16 (rs = 0.58, rs = 0.54) and HPV18 (rs = 0.50, rs = 0.55). Vaccine-derived IgG antibody levels against cross-reactive HPV types in CVS and in serum were highest for HPV45. No IgA cross-reactive antibody responses could be detected in CVS. Post-vaccination, HPV16/18 IgG and IgA antibodies are not only detectable in serum but also in CVS. The correlation of HPV16/18 IgG antibody levels between serum and CVS suggests that vaccine induced HPV antibodies transudate and/or exudate from the systemic circulation to the cervical mucosa to provide protection against HPV infections.

  12. Polymeric IgA rheumatoid factor in idiopathic IgA mesangial nephropathy (Berger's disease).

    PubMed

    Sinico, R A; Fornasieri, A; Oreni, N; Benuzzi, S; D'Amico, G

    1986-07-15

    A specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect IgA rheumatoid factor (RF) in sera from 88 patients with IgA nephropathy (IgA GN), a disease characterized by abnormalities of IgA production. Significantly higher levels of IgA antiglobulins were demonstrated in IgA GN patients than in normal healthy controls and patients with other forms of chronic primary glomerulonephritis (mean +/- SEM 28.4 +/- 6.6 vs 6.0 +/- 0.4 and 8.3 +/- 1.2 micrograms/ml respectively; p less than 0.002). Interestingly, in contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, IgA RF activity was not associated with IgM antiglobulins. Analysis of sera fractionated by gel chromatography at acid pH revealed that anti-IgG activity resided predominantly in the polymeric fractions of IgA as confirmed by the ability to bind "free" secretory component. Several findings in patients with IgA GN suggest that the IgA deposited in the glomeruli is polymeric, and levels of circulating macromolecular IgA are increased. Our findings confirm a general perturbation of IgA metabolism in this disease. Although the polymeric nature of the IgA RF is suggestive of a mucosal origin, additional evidence is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  13. IgG2 deficiency in a healthy blood donor. Concomitant lack of IgG2, IgA and IgE immunoglobulins and specific anti-carbohydrate antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, L; Smith, C I

    1983-01-01

    Lack of serum IgG2, IgA and IgE was found in a healthy male adult blood donor. No secretory IgA could be demonstrated. In vitro activation of lymphocytes did not induce IgA secreting cells although no class specific suppressor cells could be found. Normal or slightly subnormal titres to a variety of bacterial and viral antigens were demonstrated whereas anti-carbohydrate antibodies (anti-teichoic acid, anti-dextran and anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide) were virtually absent. Isoagglutinins and heteroagglutinins were present in somewhat lower concentrations than normal. PMID:6189654

  14. A distinct mechanism regulating a pollen-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rop in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rop/Rac small GTPases are central to diverse developmental and cellular activities in plants, playing an especially important Role in polar growth of pollen tubes. Although it is established that a class of plant-specific RopGEFs promotes the activity of Rop/Rac through the catalytic PRONE (Plant-sp...

  15. A distinct mechanism regulating a pollen-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rop in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rop/Rac small GTPases are central to diverse developmental and cellular activities in plants, playing an especially important role in polar growth of pollen tubes. Although it is established that a class of plant-specific RopGEFs promotes the activity of Rop/Rac through the catalytic PRONE (Plant sp...

  16. STIL, a peculiar molecule from styles, specifically dephosphorylates the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2 and stimulates pollen tube growth in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: LePRK1 and LePRK2 are two pollen receptor kinases localized to the plasma membrane, where they are present in a high molecular weight complex (LePRK complex). LePRK2 is phosphorylated in mature and germinated pollen, but is dephosphorylated when pollen membranes are incubated with tomato...

  17. Down-Regulating CsHT1, a Cucumber Pollen-Specific Hexose Transporter, Inhibits Pollen Germination, Tube Growth, and Seed Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jintao; Wang, Zhenyu; Yao, Fengzhen; Gao, Lihong; Ma, Si; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2015-01-01

    Efficient sugar transport is needed to support the high metabolic activity of pollen tubes as they grow through the pistil. Failure of transport results in male sterility. Although sucrose transporters have been shown to play a role in pollen tube development, the role of hexoses and hexose transporters is not as well established. The pollen of some species can grow in vitro on hexose as well as on sucrose, but knockouts of individual hexose transporters have not been shown to impair fertilization, possibly due to transporter redundancy. Here, the functions of CsHT1, a hexose transporter from cucumber (Cucumis sativus), are studied using a combination of heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), histochemical and immunohistochemical localization, and reverse genetics. The results indicate that CsHT1 is a plasma membrane-localized hexose transporter with high affinity for glucose, exclusively transcribed in pollen development and expressed both at the levels of transcription and translation during pollen grain germination and pollen tube growth. Overexpression of CsHT1 in cucumber pollen results in a higher pollen germination ratio and longer pollen tube growth than wild-type pollen in glucose- or galactose-containing medium. By contrast, antisense suppression of CsHT1 leads to inhibition of pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in the same medium and results in a decrease of seed number per fruit and seed size when antisense transgenic pollen is used to fertilize wild-type or transgenic cucumber plants. The important role of CsHT1 in pollen germination, pollen tube growth, and seed development is discussed. PMID:25888616

  18. Down-Regulating CsHT1, a Cucumber Pollen-Specific Hexose Transporter, Inhibits Pollen Germination, Tube Growth, and Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jintao; Wang, Zhenyu; Yao, Fengzhen; Gao, Lihong; Ma, Si; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2015-06-01

    Efficient sugar transport is needed to support the high metabolic activity of pollen tubes as they grow through the pistil. Failure of transport results in male sterility. Although sucrose transporters have been shown to play a role in pollen tube development, the role of hexoses and hexose transporters is not as well established. The pollen of some species can grow in vitro on hexose as well as on sucrose, but knockouts of individual hexose transporters have not been shown to impair fertilization, possibly due to transporter redundancy. Here, the functions of CsHT1, a hexose transporter from cucumber (Cucumis sativus), are studied using a combination of heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), histochemical and immunohistochemical localization, and reverse genetics. The results indicate that CsHT1 is a plasma membrane-localized hexose transporter with high affinity for glucose, exclusively transcribed in pollen development and expressed both at the levels of transcription and translation during pollen grain germination and pollen tube growth. Overexpression of CsHT1 in cucumber pollen results in a higher pollen germination ratio and longer pollen tube growth than wild-type pollen in glucose- or galactose-containing medium. By contrast, antisense suppression of CsHT1 leads to inhibition of pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in the same medium and results in a decrease of seed number per fruit and seed size when antisense transgenic pollen is used to fertilize wild-type or transgenic cucumber plants. The important role of CsHT1 in pollen germination, pollen tube growth, and seed development is discussed.

  19. Vegetative and sperm cell-specific aquaporins of Arabidopsis highlight the vacuolar equipment of pollen and contribute to plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wudick, Michael M; Luu, Doan-Trung; Tournaire-Roux, Colette; Sakamoto, Wataru; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    The water and nutrient status of pollen is crucial to plant reproduction. Pollen grains of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain a large vegetative cell and two smaller sperm cells. Pollen grains express AtTIP1;3 and AtTIP5;1, two members of the Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein subfamily of aquaporins. To address the spatial and temporal expression pattern of the two homologs, C-terminal fusions of AtTIP1;3 and AtTIP5;1 with green fluorescent protein and mCherry, respectively, were expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis under the control of their native promoter. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that AtTIP1;3 and AtTIP5;1 are specific for the vacuoles of the vegetative and sperm cells, respectively. The tonoplast localization of AtTIP5;1 was established by reference to fluorescent protein markers for the mitochondria and vacuoles of sperm and vegetative cells and is at variance with the claim that AtTIP5;1 is localized in vegetative cell mitochondria. AtTIP1;3-green fluorescent protein and AtTIP5;1-mCherry showed concomitant expression, from first pollen mitosis up to pollen tube penetration in the ovule, thereby revealing the dynamics of vacuole morphology in maturating and germinating pollen. Transfer DNA insertion mutants for either AtTIP1;3 or AtTIP5;1 showed no apparent growth phenotype and had no significant defect in male transmission of the mutated alleles. By contrast, a double knockout displayed an abnormal rate of barren siliques, this phenotype being more pronounced under limited water or nutrient supply. The overall data indicate that vacuoles of vegetative and sperm cells functionally interact and contribute to male fertility in adverse environmental conditions.

  20. Specific IgA and metalloproteinase activity in bronchial secretions from stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients colonized by Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Haemophilus influenzae is the most common colonizing bacteria of the bronchial tree in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and positive cultures for this potentially pathogenic microorganism (PPM) has been associated with local inflammation changes that may influence the relationships between H. influenzae and the bronchial mucosa. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of stable COPD patients enrolled in the Phenotype and Course of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (PAC-COPD) Study, focusing on bronchial colonization by H. influenzae, was performed. Specific IgA against the PPM was measured by optical density, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) using ELISA in sputum samples. Levels in patients colonized by H. influenzae and non-colonized patients were compared. Results Sputum supernatant for the measurement of specific IgA against H. influenzae was available from 54 stable COPD patients, who showed levels of specific IgA significantly lower in colonized (n=21) than in non-colonized patients (n=33) (15 [4-37] versus 31 [10-75], p=0.033, Mann-Whitney U test). Proenzyme MMP-9 was measured in 44 patients, and it was higher in colonized (n=12, 1903 [1488-6699] ng/ml) than in non-colonized patients (n=32, 639 [373-972] ng/ml) (p<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Active form of MMP-9 was also higher in colonized (126 [25-277] ng/ml) than in non-colonized patients (39 [14-68] ng/ml) (p=0.021, Mann-Whitney U test), and the molar ratio between proenzyme MMP-9 and TIMP-1 was above 1 (2.1 [0.1-12.5]) in colonized patients, significantly higher than the ratio found in non-colonized patients (0.2 [0.08-0.5]) (p=0.030, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusions Clinically stable COPD patients colonized by H. influenzae had lower levels of specific IgA against the microorganism and higher values of the active form of MMP-9 in their sputum supernatant than non-colonized patients. Bronchial colonization by H. influenzae may

  1. The clinical significance of IgA rheumatoid factor in idiopathic IgA mesangial nephropathy (Berger's disease).

    PubMed

    Sinico, R A; Fornasieri, A; Maldifassi, P; Colasanti, G; D'Amico, G

    1988-10-01

    IgA rheumatoid factor, IgA and IgG immune complexes were measured in 119 patients with IgA nephropathy. IgA rheumatoid factor was detected in 62/119 (52%) patients and in 92/265 (35%) serum samples. There was a good correlation (p less than 0.001) between the presence of IgA rheumatoid factor and the presence as well as levels of IgG immune complexes, but not between levels of IgA rheumatoid factor and other clinical or immunological parameters. However, higher levels of serum IgA were found in the subgroup of patients with constantly positive IgA rheumatoid factor. Using aggregated human IgG, we could not demonstrate antiglobulin activity in renal biopsy specimens from 36 patients. These results suggest that IgA rheumatoid factor does not play a primary role in renal damage in IgA nephropathy, but could simply reflect a response to IgG immune complexes in a disorder characterized by abnormalities of IgA production. Nevertheless, the presence of circulating IgA rheumatoid factor in a substantial proportion of patients, especially in those with features of polyclonal IgA activation, provides additional evidence for a general perturbation of IgA metabolism in this disease and could represent an antigen-specific system with which to study regulation of IgA synthesis.

  2. Deficit, but Not Nondeficit, Schizophrenia Is Characterized by Mucosa-Associated Activation of the Tryptophan Catabolite (TRYCAT) Pathway with Highly Specific Increases in IgA Responses Directed to Picolinic, Xanthurenic, and Quinolinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Carvalho, André F; Geffard, Michel; Ormstad, Heidi; Anderson, George; Maes, Michael

    2017-02-08

    Evidence suggests that activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, no previous study examined whether TRYCAT pathway activation is associated with deficit schizophrenia. We measured IgA responses to TRYCATs, namely quinolinic acid, picolinic acid, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, and anthranilic acid and 3-OH-kynurenine, in 40 healthy controls and in schizophrenic patients with (n = 40) and without (n = 40) deficit, defined according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS). Primary deficit schizophrenia is accompanied by an activated TRYCAT pathway as compared to controls and nondeficit schizophrenia. Participants with deficit schizophrenia show increased IgA responses to xanthurenic acid, picolinic acid, and quinolinic acid and relatively lowered IgA responses to kynurenic and anthranilic acids, as compared to patients with nondeficit schizophrenia. Both schizophrenia subgroups show increased IgA responses to 3-OH-kynurenine as compared to controls. The IgA responses to noxious TRYCATs, namely xanthurenic acid, picolinic acid, quinolinic acid, and 3-OH-kynurenine, but not protective TRYCATS, namely anthranilic acid and kunyrenic acid, are significantly higher in deficit schizophrenia than in controls. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are significantly and positively associated with increased IgA responses directed against picolinic acid and inversely with anthranilic acid, whereas no significant associations between positive symptoms and IgA responses to TRYCATs were found. In conclusion, primary deficit schizophrenia is characterized by TRYCAT pathway activation and differs from nondeficit schizophrenia by a highly specific TRYCAT pattern suggesting increased excitotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and neurotoxicity, as well as inflammation and oxidative stress. The specific alterations in IgA responses to TRYCATs provide further insight for the biological delineation of deficit

  3. Antigen-specific Treg regulate Th17-mediated lung neutrophilic inflammation, B cell recruitment and polymeric IgA and IgM levels in the airways

    PubMed Central

    Jaffar, Zeina; Ferrini, Maria E.; Girtsman, Teri A.; Roberts, Kevan

    2010-01-01

    Summary Th17 cells play key roles in mediating autoimmunity, inflammation and mucosal host defense against pathogens. To determine whether naturally occurring Treg (nTreg) limit Th17-mediated pulmonary inflammation, OVA-specific CD4+ Th17 cells and expanded CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ nTreg were cotransferred into BALB/c mice that were then exposed to OVA aerosols. Th17 cells, when transferred alone, accumulated in the lungs and posterior mediastinal LN and evoked a pronounced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and neutrophilic inflammation, characterized by B cell recruitment and elevated IgA and IgM levels. Cotransfer of antigen-specific nTreg markedly reduced the Th17-induced pulmonary inflammation and associated neutrophilia, B cell influx and polymeric Ig levels in the airways, but did not inhibit AHR. Moreover, the regulation appeared restricted to the site of mucosal inflammation, since transfer of nTreg did not affect the Th17 response developing in the lung draining LN, as evidenced by unaltered levels of IL-17 production and low numbers of Foxp3+ Treg. Our findings suggest a crucial role for Th17 cells in mediating airway B cell influx and IgA response and demonstrate that antigen-specific nTreg suppress Th17-mediated lung inflammation. These results provide new insights into how Th17 responses are limited and may facilitate development of novel approaches for controlling Th17-induced inflammation. PMID:19830731

  4. Class XI Myosins Move Specific Organelles in Pollen Tubes and Are Required for Normal Fertility and Pollen Tube Growth in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Stephanie L.; Buchanan, Matthew L.; Glass, Jeremiah D.; McClain, Tarah F.; Park, Eunsook; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tube growth is an essential aspect of plant reproduction because it is the mechanism through which nonmotile sperm cells are delivered to ovules, thus allowing fertilization to occur. A pollen tube is a single cell that only grows at the tip, and this tip growth has been shown to depend on actin filaments. It is generally assumed that myosin-driven movements along these actin filaments are required to sustain the high growth rates of pollen tubes. We tested this conjecture by examining seed set, pollen fitness, and pollen tube growth for knockout mutants of five of the six myosin XI genes expressed in pollen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Single mutants had little or no reduction in overall fertility, whereas double mutants of highly similar pollen myosins had greater defects in pollen tube growth. In particular, myo11c1 myo11c2 pollen tubes grew more slowly than wild-type pollen tubes, which resulted in reduced fitness compared with the wild type and a drastic reduction in seed set. Golgi stack and peroxisome movements were also significantly reduced, and actin filaments were less organized in myo11c1 myo11c2 pollen tubes. Interestingly, the movement of yellow fluorescent protein-RabA4d-labeled vesicles and their accumulation at pollen tube tips were not affected in the myo11c1 myo11c2 double mutant, demonstrating functional specialization among myosin isoforms. We conclude that class XI myosins are required for organelle motility, actin organization, and optimal growth of pollen tubes. PMID:26358416

  5. Characterization and Functional Analysis of the Potato Pollen-Specific Microtubule-Associated Protein SBgLR in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Qi, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Jingjuan

    2013-01-01

    Microtubule-associated proteins play a crucial role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics, and are very important for plant cell and organ development. SBgLR is a potato pollen-specific protein, with five imperfect V-V-E-K-K-N/E-E repetitive motifs that are responsible for microtubule binding activity. In present study, SBgLR showed typical microtubule-associated protein characteristics; it bound tubulin and microtubules, and colocalized with microtubules in vitro. We also found that SBgLR could form oligomers, and that both the SBgLR monomers and oligomers bundle microtubules in vitro. Constitutive expression of SBgLR in tobacco caused curving and right-handed twisting root growth, abnormal directional cell expansion and cell layer arrangement, and pollen abortion. Immunofluorescence staining assays revealed that microtubule organization is altered in root epidermal cells in SBgLR-overexpressing lines. These suggest that SBgLR functions as a microtubule-associated protein in pollen development. Our results indicate that normal organization of MTs may be crucial for pollen development. PMID:23536914

  6. Loss of pollen-S function in two self-compatible selections of Prunus avium is associated with deletion/mutation of an S haplotype-specific F-box gene.

    PubMed

    Sonneveld, Tineke; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Vaughan, Simon P; Robbins, Timothy P

    2005-01-01

    Recently, an S haplotype-specific F-box (SFB) gene has been proposed as a candidate for the pollen-S specificity gene of RNase-mediated gametophytic self-incompatibility in Prunus (Rosaceae). We have examined two pollen-part mutant haplotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium). Both were found to retain the S-RNase, which determines stylar specificity, but one (S3' in JI 2434) has a deletion including the haplotype-specific SFB gene, and the other (S4' in JI 2420) has a frame-shift mutation of the haplotype-specific SFB gene, causing amino acid substitutions and premature termination of the protein. The loss or significant alteration of this highly polymorphic gene and the concomitant loss of pollen self-incompatibility function provides compelling evidence that the SFB gene encodes the pollen specificity component of self-incompatibility in Prunus. These loss-of-function mutations are inconsistent with SFB being the inactivator of non-self S-RNases and indicate the presence of a general inactivation mechanism, with SFB conferring specificity by protecting self S-RNases from inactivation.

  7. Human fibroblast-derived molecules as antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for coeliac disease-specific IgA.

    PubMed

    Marttinen, A; Sulkanen, S; Mäki, M

    1997-02-01

    We have recently shown that cultured human fibroblasts synthesize and secrete protein molecules that bind to IgA-class anti-reticulin and anti-endomysium antibodies but not to anti-gliadin antibodies in coeliac disease patient sera. In the present report, we describe a reproducible method for purification of these antigen molecules from fibroblast culture medium. Using reversed-phase chromatography as the final purification step, four different protein molecules reacting with coeliac disease patient sera IgA were obtained. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for coeliac disease-specific IgA, a mixture of 0.5 microgram of the four reversed-phase-separated molecules was used as antigen. The optical density values in ELISA of the sera from newly diagnosed coeliac disease patients (n = 34) were 0.740-3.400 (mean 1.830) and in control patients (n = 66) 0.090-0.850 (mean 0.320). Using an arbitrary cut-off level of 0.700, the sensitivity of the present autoantibody test was 100%, specificity 91% and positive predictive value 85%. Our identified autoantigens may generate the production of the classical tissue antibodies, known as anti-reticulin and anti-endomysium antibodies, and may be used as antigen in an immunoassay for the antibodies.

  8. Pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kar Neng

    2012-03-20

    Since its first description in 1968, IgA nephropathy has remained the most common form of idiopathic glomerulonephritis leading to chronic kidney disease in developed countries. The exact pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy is still not well defined. Current data implicate an important genetic factor, especially in promoting the overproduction of an aberrant form of IgA1. The immunochemical aberrancy of IgA nephropathy is characterized by the undergalactosylation of O-glycans in the hinge region of IgA1. However, such aberrant glycosylation alone does not cause renal injury. The next stage of disease development requires the formation of glycan-specific IgG and IgA antibodies that recognize the undergalactosylated IgA1 molecule. These antibodies often have reactivity against antigens from extrinsic microorganisms and might arise from recurrent mucosal infection. B cells that respond to mucosal infections, particularly tonsillitis, might produce the nephritogenic IgA1 molecule. With increased immune-complex formation and decreased clearance owing to reduced uptake by the liver, IgA1 binds to the glomerular mesangium via an as yet unidentified receptor. Glomerular IgA1 deposits trigger the local production of cytokines and growth factors, leading to the activation of mesangial cells and the complement system. Emerging data suggest that mesangial-derived mediators following glomerular deposition of IgA1 lead to podocyte and tubulointerstitial injury via mesangio-podocytic-tubular crosstalk. This Review summarizes the latest findings in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy.

  9. Quantitative immunohistochemical assessment of IgA, IgM, IgG and antigen-specific immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells in pig small intestinal lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Bianco, C; Felice, V; Panarese, S; Marrocco, R; Ostanello, F; Brunetti, B; Muscatello, L V; Leotti, G; Vila, T; Joisel, F; Sarli, G

    2014-08-15

    Intestinal immune response plays an important defensive role for pathogens, particularly for those transmitted by the oro-faecal route or for foecal shedding modulation. This work examined three parts of intestine from twelve gilts experimentally infected with PCV2-spiked semen, six vaccinated (V group) and six unvaccinated (NV group) against PCV2, 29 and 53 days post infection (DPI). An immunohistochemical investigation for IgA-, IgG- and IgM-antibody bearing plasma cells (PCs) was run on intestinal samples coupled with a sandwich immunohistochemical method to reveal anti-PCV2 antibody-secreting PCs. Plasma cell density was compared in the two groups of animals at 29 and 53 DPI. The IgA, IgG and IgM PC density did not differ between groups but displayed an increase from the upper (villus) to the lower part of the crypts while a decreasing trend in PC density was identified from duodenum to ileum. In the NV group, no increase in anti-PCV2 PC density was demonstrable in the two sampling moment: the amounts of lamina propria PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs remained constant, 10.55 ± 4.24 and 10.06 ± 5.01 at 29 DPI and 53 DPI, respectively. In the V group a significant increase in PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs was observed over time. The amounts of PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs increased from 9.37 ± 13.36 at 29 DPI to 18.76 ± 15.83 at 53 DPI. The data on IgA, IgM and IgG PC counts can be considered reference values in a population of adult pigs. The sandwich method can be proposed as a technique able to identify specific antibody-secreting PCs in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. A practical application of the sandwich method is the demonstration of a "booster-like" response of the lamina propria in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated animals. After virus challenge, vaccination induced an increase in the number of PCs containing specific anti-PCV2 antibodies at the level of intestinal mucosa.

  10. Pollen- and anther-specific chi promoters from petunia: tandem promoter regulation of the chiA gene.

    PubMed Central

    van Tunen, A J; Mur, L A; Brouns, G S; Rienstra, J D; Koes, R E; Mol, J N

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the spatial and temporal activities of chalcone flavanone isomerase (chi) A and B gene promoters from petunia. To study the tandem promoter regulation of chiA, various chiA promoter fragments were fused with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Analysis of transgenic plants containing these chimeric genes provided definitive proof that the chiA coding region is regulated by two distinct promoters (designated PA1 and PA2). We also showed that both promoters can function independently and that the chiA PA1 promoter is expressed in limb (epidermal and parenchyma cells), tube (inner epidermal and parenchyma cells), seed (seed coat, endosperm, and embryo), sepal, leaf, and stem. The use of chiA and chiB promoters in the regulation of anther- and pollen-specific gene expression has been studied. By analyzing transgenic plants containing chimeric genes consisting of chiA and B promoter fragments and the GUS reporter gene, we were able to identify a 0.44-kilobase chiA PA2 promoter fragment that drives pollen-specific gene expression and a 1.75-kilobase chiB PB promoter fragment that confers anther-specific (pollen and tapetum cells) expression to the GUS gene. PMID:2152165

  11. IgA nephropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease. Causes IgA is a protein, called an antibody , that helps the body fight infections. IgA nephropathy occurs when too much of this protein is deposited in the kidneys. IgA builds up inside the small blood vessels of the kidney. Structures in the kidney called glomeruli become inflamed and ...

  12. Characterization of a putative pollen-specific arabinogalactan protein gene, BcMF8, from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Cao, Jia-Shu; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Ye, Yi-Qun

    2008-12-01

    The BcMF8 (Brassica campestris male fertility 8) gene, possessing the features of 'classical' arabinogalactan protein (AGP) was isolated from Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, Makino syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. This gene was highly abundant in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile A/B line ('ZUBajh97-01A/B') in B. campestris. Expression patterns analysis suggested BcMF8 was a pollen-specific gene, whose transcript started to be expressed at the uninucleate stage and maintained throughout to the pollen at pollination stage. BcMF8 is highly homologous to the known pollen-specific AGP genes Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 from B. napus. Isolation and multiple alignment of the homologs of BcMF8 gene in the family Cruciferae indicated that BcMF8 was highly conserved in this family, which reflect the conservation in biological function and importance of this putative AGP gene in plant development. Similarity analysis also demonstrated Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 may originate from different genomes.

  13. Evaluation of risk and diagnostic value of quantitative assays for anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgE, and IgM and analytical study of specific IgG in immunodeficient patients.

    PubMed Central

    Pinon, J M; Foudrinier, F; Mougeot, G; Marx, C; Aubert, D; Toupance, O; Niel, G; Danis, M; Camerlynck, P; Remy, G

    1995-01-01

    To determine their prognostic and diagnostic values for toxoplasmosis in immunodepressed subjects, we assayed immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgE antibodies by means of immunocapture (IC) tests, with revelation done by using a suspension of T. gondii (ICT). We also carried out a simultaneous analytical study of IgG antibodies on cellulose acetate membranes by using the comparative immunological profile method and an enzyme-linked immunofiltration assay (ELIFA). A total of 1,238 samples (serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and aqueous humor from 318 patients) were tested. IgA and IgE antibodies were detected in all heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients with clinical manifestations of toxoplasmosis; IgA was detected in the aqueous humor of a patient with chorioretinitis. In patients with AIDS-related toxoplasmosis, including the cerebral form, IgA and IgE antibodies or a significant modification of ELIFA IgG values were observed in 38, 19, and 25% of patients, respectively. IgM was detected by ICT only in 12% of patients and aided the diagnosis in 1 of 71 patients. IC tests for specific IgA and IgE alone and combined with ELIFA were positive in 39 and 46% of patients who developed clinical toxoplasmosis, respectively. In a serial study of 16 patients in whom at least one of these three tests was positive, a significant immunological signal sometimes preceded clinical onset by 1, 6, and even 17 months. Similarly, in a group of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with evidence of previous exposure to T. gondii but no clinical manifestations, IgA, IgE, and IgA and/or IgE antibodies were detected in only 11, 4, and 12% of patients, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7790453

  14. STIL, a peculiar molecule from styles, specifically dephosphorylates the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2 and stimulates pollen tube growth in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background LePRK1 and LePRK2 are two pollen receptor kinases localized to the plasma membrane, where they are present in a high molecular weight complex (LePRK complex). LePRK2 is phosphorylated in mature and germinated pollen, but is dephosphorylated when pollen membranes are incubated with tomato or tobacco style extracts. Results Here we show that LePRK2 dephosphorylation is mediated by a heat-, acid-, base-, DTT- and protease-resistant component from tobacco styles. Using LePRK2 phosphorylation as a tracking assay for purification, style exudates were subjected to chloroform extraction, anionic exchange, and C18 reverse-phase chromatography columns. We finally obtained a single ~3,550 Da compound (as determined by UV-MALDI-TOF MS) that we named STIL (for Style Interactor for LePRKs). STIL increased pollen tube lengths of in vitro germinated pollen in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion We propose that the LePRK complex perceives STIL, resulting in LePRK2 dephosphorylation and an increase in pollen tube growth. PMID:20175921

  15. Induction of Bronchial Tolerance After 1 Cycle of Monophosphoryl-A-Adjuvanted Specific Immunotherapy in Children With Grass Pollen Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Girod, Katharina; Zielen, Stefan; Schubert, Ralf; Schulze, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (SCIT) is a well-established and clinically effective method to treat allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and asthma. It remains unclear how soon after initiation of an ultra-short course of grass pollen immunotherapy adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)-specific bronchial tolerance can be induced. Methods In a prospective study of 69 children double-sensitized to birch and grass pollens (51 males, average age 11.1 years), development of bronchial tolerance after 1 cycle of SCIT for grass was evaluated. In all the patients, the bronchial allergen provocation test (BAP) was performed before and after treatment. According to the results of the first BAP, the patients were divided into 2 groups: those showing a negative BAP with a decrease in FEV1 of <20% (seasonal allergic rhinitis [SAR] group, n=47); and those showing a positive BAP with a decrease in FEV1 of ≥20% (SAR with allergic asthma [SAR and Asthma] group, n=22). All the patients received MPL-adjuvanted, ultra-short course immunotherapy for birch, but only those with a positive BAP to grass received MPL-SCIT for grass. Results After the pollen season, the BAP in the SAR group remained unchanged, while it was improved in the SAR and Asthma group (decrease in FEV1 of 28.8% vs 12.5%, P<0.01). The IgG4 levels increased after SCIT (median before SCIT 0.34 to 11.4 after SCIT), whereas the total and specific IgE levels remained unchanged. Conclusions After 1 cycle of MPL-SCIT, specific bronchial tolerance may be significantly induced, whereas in patients without SCIT, bronchial hyperactivity may remain unchanged. PMID:26922936

  16. Detection of parasite-specific IgG and IgA in paired serum and saliva samples for diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis in northern Paraná state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bosqui, Larissa R; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia R; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do Rosário F; Custodio, Luiz Antonio; de Menezes, Maria Cláudia N D; Murad, Valter A; de Paula, Fabiana M; Pavanelli, Wander R; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Costa, Idessania N

    2015-10-01

    Human strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis that can be fatal, especially in immunosuppressed patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate parasite-specific IgG and IgA levels using S. venezuelensis third-stage (L3) infective larvae alkaline extract as a heterologous antigen by ELISA in paired serum and saliva samples with improved sensitivity and specificity. Individuals from northern Paraná state, Brazil were divided into three groups: 30 patients copropositive for S. stercoralis (Group I); 30 clinically healthy individuals (Group II); and 30 patients copropositive for other parasites (Group III). The area under ROC curve (AUC), an overall index of diagnostic accuracy, and Kappa index were calculated. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Kruskal-Wallis test. Probability (p) values of <0.05 were regarded as significant. In Group I, IgG was detected in 96.7% serum and in 6.7% saliva samples. IgG was not detected in Group II. In Group III, cross-reactivity was observed for serum IgG in 26.7% and in 6.7% for saliva samples. In Group I, IgA was detected in 76.7% serum and 56.7% saliva samples. In Group II, 3.3% were positive for IgA in serum, whereas IgA was not detected in any saliva samples. Group III showed 6.7% serum and 26.7% saliva-positive samples. The sensitivity values for detection of IgG and IgA in serum samples were 96.7% and 76.7%, respectively. In saliva samples, the sensitivity values for detection of IgG and IgA were 6.7% and 56.7%, respectively. The specificity value was 100% for the detection of IgG in serum and for detection of IgG and IgA in saliva, and 96.7% for detection of IgA in serum samples. The proper choice of immunological diagnosis to supplement parasitological methods is essential to estimate the true prevalence of the parasite, and will permit analysis of population immune response profiles, particularly in northern Paraná state, where there are no previous

  17. Salivary IgA against sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP) in the study of horizontally transmitted toxoplasmosis via T. gondii oocysts in endemic settings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was investigated in endemic settings in Brazil, and calculated by measuring antibodies in two ELISA systems: 1) IgG and IgM from sera tested by commercial conventional ELISA, and 2) IgA, from saliva, and IgG from sera samples tested against a sporozoite-specific prote...

  18. Do IgA antigliadin and IgA antiendomysium antibodies show there is latent coeliac disease in primary IgA nephropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Sategna-Guidetti, C; Ferfoglia, G; Bruno, M; Pulitano, R; Roccatello, D; Amore, A; Coppo, R

    1992-01-01

    The finding in primary IgA nephropathy of increased levels of IgA to food antigens and particularly to gliadin prompted the hypothesis that a subgroup of these patients may have latent coeliac disease. The observation that gliadin may experimentally induce IgA mesangial deposits supported this hypothesis. We evaluated specific immunological markers of coeliac disease (antiendomysium antibodies) which parallel histological changes of gluten sensitive enteropathy, and an IgA immunofluorescent test for antigliadin antibodies in 18 patients with IgA nephropathy, in 56 untreated coeliac disease patients, in 254 controls (58 healthy and 196 disease controls). Antiendomysium antibodies were positive in 89.28% of coeliac patients, but negative in all IgA nephropathies and controls. IgA immunofluorescent test for antigliadin antibodies, negative in all IgA nephropathy patients, was positive in 76.78% of coeliac patients and in 4.91% of controls. ELISA IgA antigliadin antibodies were negative in controls, but positive in 22.22% of IgA nephropathy patients and in 60.71% of coeliac patients. Our data would suggest that in most patients with IgA nephropathy there is no evidence of latent coeliac disease. PMID:1582590

  19. [Birch pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Lavaud, F; Fore, M; Fontaine, J-F; Pérotin, J M; de Blay, F

    2014-02-01

    In the North-East of France, birch is the main tree responsible of spring pollen allergy. However, the epidemiology of sensitization to birch pollen remains unclear. Monosensitization to birch pollen seems rare because of the frequency of cross-reactions with other pollens of the same botanical family via the major allergen Bet v 1. Around one third of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis due to birch pollen are also asthmatics and a half suffer from a food allergy, essentially an oral syndrome due to rosaceae fruits eaten raw. The molecular allergens of birch pollen are well-known and have been cloned. They are available for use in in vitro diagnostic tests and also in clinical trials of specific immunotherapy.

  20. Cloning and expression of Ole e I, the major allergen from olive tree pollen. Polymorphism analysis and tissue specificity.

    PubMed

    Villalba, M; Batanero, E; Monsalve, R I; González de la Peña, M A; Lahoz, C; Rodríguez, R

    1994-05-27

    Ole e I, the major allergen from the olive tree (Olea europaea), is one of the main causes of allergy in Mediterranean countries and some areas of North America. The cloning and sequencing of several cDNAs coding for the olive allergen have been achieved. cDNA has been synthesized from total pollen RNA and amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide sequence data demonstrate the existence of microheterogeneities in at least 37 positions out of the 145 amino acids of Ole e I, thus explaining the high degree of polymorphism exhibited by the natural protein. One of the sequenced cDNAs encoding a full-length isoform was inserted into the plasmid vector pGEX-2T and overexpressed. The recombinant Ole e I has been produced in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase of Schistosoma japonicum. This chimeric protein was purified by affinity chromatography on a glutathione-Sepharose 4B column and digested with thrombin to release the recombinant allergen. Both the fusion protein and the recombinant Ole e I were recognized in Western blot analysis by rabbit polyclonal and mouse monoclonal antisera raised against native Ole e I as well as by the IgE of olive pollen-sensitive human sera. This indicates that the recombinant production of individual isoforms may be useful for the improvement of reagents to be used in diagnosis and therapy of IgE-mediated disorders. In addition, Ole e I mRNA has been observed to be pollen-specific as shown in a Northern blot analysis.

  1. Pollen-Specific Activation of Arabidopsis Retrogenes Is Associated with Global Transcriptional Reprogramming[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsamad, Ahmed; Pecinka, Ales

    2014-01-01

    Duplications allow for gene functional diversification and accelerate genome evolution. Occasionally, the transposon amplification machinery reverse transcribes the mRNA of a gene, integrates it into the genome, and forms an RNA-duplicated copy: the retrogene. Although retrogenes have been found in plants, their biology and evolution are poorly understood. Here, we identified 251 (216 novel) retrogenes in Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding to 1% of protein-coding genes. Arabidopsis retrogenes are derived from ubiquitously transcribed parents and reside in gene-rich chromosomal regions. Approximately 25% of retrogenes are cotranscribed with their parents and 3% with head-to-head oriented neighbors. This suggests transcription by novel promoters for 72% of Arabidopsis retrogenes. Many retrogenes reach their transcription maximum in pollen, the tissue analogous to animal spermatocytes, where upregulation of retrogenes has been found previously. This implies an evolutionarily conserved mechanism leading to this transcription pattern of RNA-duplicated genes. During transcriptional repression, retrogenes are depleted of permissive chromatin marks without an obvious enrichment for repressive modifications. However, this pattern is common to many other pollen-transcribed genes independent of their evolutionary origin. Hence, retroposition plays a role in plant genome evolution, and the developmental transcription pattern of retrogenes suggests an analogous regulation of RNA-duplicated genes in plants and animals. PMID:25118244

  2. Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses in IgA nephropathy patients after mucosal immunization, as part of a polymeric IgA response.

    PubMed

    Eijgenraam, J W; Oortwijn, B D; Kamerling, S W A; de Fijter, J W; van den Wall Bake, A W L; Daha, M R; van Kooten, C

    2008-05-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), although generated at mucosal surfaces, is also found in low concentrations in the circulation. Recently, SIgA was demonstrated in mesangial deposits of patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), suggesting a role in the pathogenesis. This finding is in line with the belief that high molecular weight (HMW) immunoglobulin A (IgA) is deposited in the kidney. However, there is little information on the size distribution of antigen-specific IgA in circulation upon mucosal challenge. In this study we measured antigen-specific IgA, including SIgA, in serum following challenge of IgAN patients and controls via intranasal vaccination with a neoantigen, cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). We size-fractionated serum and nasal washes to study the size distribution of total IgA, SIgA and CTB-specific IgA. Finally, we compared the size distribution of antigen-specific IgA after mucosal immunization with the distribution upon systemic immunization. A significant induction of antigen-specific SIgA was detectable in serum of both patients with IgAN and controls after mucosal immunization with CTB. Independent of the route of immunization, in both groups the antigen-specific IgA response was predominantly in the polymeric IgA fractions. This is in contrast to total IgA levels in serum that are predominantly monomeric. We conclude that mucosal challenge results in antigen-specific SIgA in the circulation, and that the antigen-specific IgA response in both IgAN patients and in controls is of predominantly HMW in nature. No differences between IgAN patients and controls were detected, suggesting that the size distribution of antigen-specific IgA in the circulation is not disturbed specifically in IgAN patients.

  3. Independence Day for IgA.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Andrew J; McCoy, Kathy D

    2015-09-15

    IgA is induced through T-cell-dependent and -independent pathways. In this issue, Bunker et al. (2015) now show that the T-cell-independent pathway is sufficient to coat most small intestinal microbes specifically, and Fransen et al. (2015) find that IgA coating promotes uptake of microbes into Peyer's patches and drives further induction in a positive-feedback loop.

  4. A meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of dengue virus-specific IgA antibody-based tests for detection of dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Alagarasu, K; Walimbe, A M; Jadhav, S M; Deoshatwar, A R

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA)-based tests have been evaluated in different studies for their utility in diagnosing dengue infections. In most of the studies, the results were inconclusive because of a small sample size. Hence, a meta-analysis involving nine studies with 2096 samples was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of IgA-based tests in diagnosing dengue infections. The analysis was conducted using Meta-Disc software. The results revealed that IgA-based tests had an overall sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of 73·9%, 95·2%, 66·7, 22·0 and 0·25, respectively. Significant heterogeneity was observed between the studies. The type of test, infection status and day of sample collection influenced the diagnostic accuracy. The IgA-based diagnostic tests showed a greater accuracy when the samples were collected 4 days after onset of symptoms and for secondary infections. The results suggested that IgA-based tests had a moderate level of accuracy and are diagnostic of the disease. However, negative results cannot be used alone for dengue diagnosis. More prospective studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of combinations of antigen-based tests with either IgA or IgM are needed and might be useful for suggesting the best strategy for dengue diagnosis.

  5. LAP5 and LAP6 Encode Anther-Specific Proteins with Similarity to Chalcone Synthase Essential for Pollen Exine Development in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dobritsa, Anna A.; Lei, Zhentian; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Huhman, David V.; Preuss, Daphne; Sumner, Lloyd W.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen grains of land plants have evolved remarkably strong outer walls referred to as exine that protect pollen and interact with female stigma cells. Exine is composed of sporopollenin, and while the composition and synthesis of this biopolymer are not well understood, both fatty acids and phenolics are likely components. Here, we describe mutations in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) LESS ADHESIVE POLLEN (LAP5) and LAP6 that affect exine development. Mutation of either gene results in abnormal exine patterning, whereas pollen of double mutants lacked exine deposition and subsequently collapsed, causing male sterility. LAP5 and LAP6 encode anther-specific proteins with homology to chalcone synthase, a key flavonoid biosynthesis enzyme. lap5 and lap6 mutations reduced the accumulation of flavonoid precursors and flavonoids in developing anthers, suggesting a role in the synthesis of phenolic constituents of sporopollenin. Our in vitro functional analysis of LAP5 and LAP6 using 4-coumaroyl-coenzyme A yielded bis-noryangonin (a commonly reported derailment product of chalcone synthase), while similar in vitro analyses using fatty acyl-coenzyme A as the substrate yielded medium-chain alkyl pyrones. Thus, in vitro assays indicate that LAP5 and LAP6 are multifunctional enzymes and may play a role in both the synthesis of pollen fatty acids and phenolics found in exine. Finally, the genetic interaction between LAP5 and an anther gene involved in fatty acid hydroxylation (CYP703A2) demonstrated that they act synergistically in exine production. PMID:20442277

  6. [IgA nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Basta-Jovanović, Gordana

    2004-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is glomerular disease first described in 1968 by Berger, named after him Morbus Berger. The disease is characterized by the presence of IgA dominant or codominant immunoglobulin deposits in glomerular mesangium which can be demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Clinical manifestations of IgA nephropathy in the majority of cases is hematuria which can be macro or microscopic, isolated or combined with proteinuria which can be of nephrotic range. In some cases nephrotic syndrome can be the first clinical presentation. In 10% renal insufficiency can be present at the onset of the disease. By light microscopy IgA can manifest any of the histologic phenotypes of immune complex mediated proliferative glomerulonephritis. According to light microscopy findings a classification system have been used to categorize the histologic patterns of IgA nephropathy. Glomerular changes in IgA nephropathy are proliferative and can be focal or diffuse accompanied by crescentic formation in many cases. Immune deposits seen by electron microscopy appear as electron dense deposits most numerous in mesangium.

  7. [Berger's disease or primary IgA nephropathy in children].

    PubMed

    Renoult, E; Cochat, P; Jonon, B; Kessler, M

    1989-01-01

    Primary IgA mesangial nephropathy was first described in adults by Berger, and has been increasingly recognized in children. IgA nephropathy is a frequent type of glomerulonephritis in 3 to 15 year-old children in France. Clinical features and outcome have been defined and the progression to renal failure is possible. The pathogeny of IgA nephropathy remains unclear and is under multifactorial control and, at present, no satisfactory specific treatment is available.

  8. Natural infection of baboons by Entamoeba histolytica elicits anti- gal-lectin heavy subunit IgA and IgG antibodies with shared epitope specificity to that of humans.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed D; Wolf, Roman F; White, Gary L; Kosanke, Stanley D; Carey, David W; Verweij, Jaco J; El-Dessouky, Yasser M M; Zhang, Mie-Jie; Ravdin, Jonathan I

    2013-12-01

    Non-human primates, such as baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis), are natural hosts for Entamoeba species; infections can be asymptomatic or result in invasive lethal disease. It was sought to determine whether following natural infection by Entamoeba. histolytica, baboon anti-amebic antibodies recognized native Gallectin, a recombinant portion of the lectin heavy subunit (designated LC3) and specific heavy subunit epitopes; we compared the specificity of anti-amebic antibodies from baboons to that of humans following asymptomatic E. histolytica infection or cure of amebic liver abscess (ALA). Female baboons (n=54), aged one to three years of age and living in captivity were screened for infection by real time PCR. E. histolytica infection was found in 37 baboons and was associated with serum anti-LC3 IgG (73%) and anti-LC3 IgA (46%) or intestinal anti-Gal-Lectin IgA antibody responses (49%), p<0.021 for each compared to that observed with baboons having an E. dispar infection (n=10) or uninfected baboons (n=7). The ELISA OD reading for anti-LC3 or anti-lectin antibodies correlated strongly with the presence of a PCR CT value indicative of E. histolytica infection. In humans with asymptomatic E. histolytica infection or those recently cured of ALA, 63% and 57% had serum anti- LC3 IgA and 65% and 57% had serum anti-LC3 IgG antibodies respectively. Epitope- specific synthetic peptides were used as capture antigens in ELISA; for baboons that possessed anti-LC3 and anti-lectin antibodies, 74% had anti-peptide IgG or IgA antibodies, compared to 86% of asymptomatic humans and 92% of ALA subjects(P>0.05).

  9. Identification and Evolution of Functional Alleles of the Previously Described Pollen Specific Myrosinase Pseudogene AtTGG6 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lili; Han, Bingying; Tan, Deguan; Wang, Meng; Ding, Mei; Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-02-22

    Myrosinases are β-thioglucoside glucohydrolases and serve as defense mechanisms against insect pests and pathogens by producing toxic compounds. AtTGG6 in Arabidopsis thaliana was previously reported to be a myrosinase pseudogene but specifically expressed in pollen. However, we found that AlTGG6, an ortholog to AtTGG6 in A. lyrata (an outcrossing relative of A. thaliana) was functional, suggesting that functional AtTGG6 alleles may still exist in A. thaliana. AtTGG6 alleles in 29 A. thaliana ecotypes were cloned and sequenced. Results indicate that ten alleles were functional and encoded Myr II type myrosinase of 512 amino acids, and myrosinase activity was confirmed by overexpressing AtTGG6 in Pichia pastoris. However, the 19 other ecotypes had disabled alleles with highly polymorphic frame-shift mutations and diversified sequences. Thirteen frame-shift mutation types were identified, which occurred independently many times in the evolutionary history within a few thousand years. The functional allele was expressed specifically in pollen similar to the disabled alleles but at a higher expression level, suggesting its role in defense of pollen against insect pests such as pollen beetles. However, the defense function may have become less critical after A. thaliana evolved to self-fertilization, and thus resulted in loss of function in most ecotypes.

  10. Identification and Evolution of Functional Alleles of the Previously Described Pollen Specific Myrosinase Pseudogene AtTGG6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lili; Han, Bingying; Tan, Deguan; Wang, Meng; Ding, Mei; Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    Myrosinases are β-thioglucoside glucohydrolases and serve as defense mechanisms against insect pests and pathogens by producing toxic compounds. AtTGG6 in Arabidopsis thaliana was previously reported to be a myrosinase pseudogene but specifically expressed in pollen. However, we found that AlTGG6, an ortholog to AtTGG6 in A. lyrata (an outcrossing relative of A. thaliana) was functional, suggesting that functional AtTGG6 alleles may still exist in A. thaliana. AtTGG6 alleles in 29 A. thaliana ecotypes were cloned and sequenced. Results indicate that ten alleles were functional and encoded Myr II type myrosinase of 512 amino acids, and myrosinase activity was confirmed by overexpressing AtTGG6 in Pichia pastoris. However, the 19 other ecotypes had disabled alleles with highly polymorphic frame-shift mutations and diversified sequences. Thirteen frame-shift mutation types were identified, which occurred independently many times in the evolutionary history within a few thousand years. The functional allele was expressed specifically in pollen similar to the disabled alleles but at a higher expression level, suggesting its role in defense of pollen against insect pests such as pollen beetles. However, the defense function may have become less critical after A. thaliana evolved to self-fertilization, and thus resulted in loss of function in most ecotypes. PMID:26907263

  11. Limited contribution of mucosal IgA to Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific neutralizing antibody response and virus envelope evolution in breast milk of SIV-infected, lactating rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Permar, Sallie R; Wilks, Andrew B; Ehlinger, Elizabeth P; Kang, Helen H; Mahlokozera, Tatenda; Coffey, Rory T; Carville, Angela; Letvin, Norman L; Seaman, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    Breast milk transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains an important mode of infant HIV acquisition. Interestingly, the majority of infants remain uninfected during prolonged virus exposure via breastfeeding, raising the possibility that immune components in milk prevent mucosal virus transmission. HIV-specific antibody responses are detectable in the milk of HIV-infected women and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected monkeys; however, the role of these humoral responses in virus neutralization and local virus quasispecies evolution has not been characterized. In this study, four lactating rhesus monkeys were inoculated with SIVmac251 and monitored for SIV envelope-specific humoral responses and virus evolution in milk and plasma throughout infection. While the kinetics and breadth of the SIV-specific IgG and IgA responses in milk were similar to those in plasma, the magnitude of the milk responses was considerably lower than that of the plasma responses. Furthermore, a neutralizing antibody response against the inoculation virus was not detected in milk samples at 1 year after infection, despite a measurable autologous neutralizing antibody response in plasma samples obtained from three of four monkeys. Interestingly, while IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin in milk, the milk SIV envelope-specific IgA response was lower in magnitude and demonstrated more limited neutralizing capacity against a T-cell line-adapted SIV compared to those of the milk IgG response. Finally, amino acid mutations in the envelope gene product of SIV variants in milk and plasma samples occurred in similar numbers and at similar positions, indicating that the humoral immune pressure in milk does not drive distinct virus evolution in the breast milk compartment.

  12. Survival of memory T cells specific for Japanese cypress pollen allergen is maintained by cross-stimulation of putative pectate lyases from other plants.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Takagi, S; Suzuki, M; Ito, H; Murakami, S; Ohta, N

    2001-05-01

    In view of recent studies on the mechanisms of the survival of peripheral memory T cells, we tested the biologic role of pectate lyase, a pectin-degrading enzyme, as the cross-reactive antigen required for the recurring survival signals for human T cells specific for Cha o 1, a pollen allergen molecule of the Japanese cypress. We determined a 16-mer epitope peptide for the T-cell clone, and prepared synthetic oligopeptides of homologous regions in putative pectate lyase of other plants. Of these homologous peptides, ZePel (Zinnia elegans), ban 17 (banana), and Amb a 1.1 (short ragweed) induced strong proliferative responses of the Cha o 1-specific T-cell clone in vitro. In addition, suboptimal doses of peptide homologs derived from banana and short ragweed enhanced the survival potency of this T-cell clone without detectable proliferative responses to the peptides. When there was no antigen stimulation, the T-cell clone decreased in viable cell number and lost antigen-specific proliferation activity on day 6 during in vitro incubation. On the other hand, T-cell clones incubated with these survival-inducing peptides maintained proliferative activity to Cha o 1 even on day 9. Serum derived from the donor patient did not contain detectable levels of IgE specific to banana or short ragweed by CAP-RAST. These results show that human T cells specific for pollen allergen seem to use cross-reactive pectate lyase peptides to deliver survival signals even in the absence of pollen allergen, and memory T cells maintained in such a manner might be functioning at the onset of allergic pollinosis, although pollen allergens are seasonal.

  13. Characterization of mutants of a highly cross-reactive calcium-binding protein from Brassica pollen for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Garmatiuk, Tetiana; Swoboda, Ines; Twardosz-Kropfmüller, Anna; Dall'antonia, Fabio; Keller, Walter; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L; Okada, Takashi; Toriyama, Kinya; Weber, Milena; Ghannadan, Minoo; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Blatt, Katharina; Valent, Peter; Klein, Brigitte; Niederberger, Verena; Curin, Mirela; Balic, Nadja; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    The major turnip (Brassica rapa) pollen allergen, belongs to a family of calcium-binding proteins (i.e., two EF-hand proteins), which occur as highly cross-reactive allergens in pollen of weeds, grasses and trees. In this study, the IgE binding capacity and allergenic activity of three recombinant allergen variants containing mutations in their calcium-binding sites were analyzed in sensitized patients with the aim to identify the most suitable hypoallergenic molecule for specific immunotherapy. Analysis of the wildtype allergen and the mutants regarding IgE reactivity and activation of basophils in allergic patients indicated that the allergen derivative mutated in both calcium-binding domains had the lowest allergenic activity. Gel filtration and circular dichroism experiments showed that both, the wildtype and the double mutant, occurred as dimers in solution and assumed alpha-helical fold, respectively. However, both fold and thermal stability were considerably reduced in the double mutant. The use of bioinformatic tools for evaluation of the solvent accessibility and charge distribution suggested that the reduced IgE reactivity and different structural properties of the double mutant may be due to a loss of negatively charged amino acids on the surface. Interestingly, immunization of rabbits showed that only the double mutant but not the wildtype allergen induced IgG antibodies which recognized the allergen and blocked binding of allergic patients IgE. Due to the extensive structural similarity and cross-reactivity between calcium-binding pollen allergens the hypoallergenic double mutant may be useful not only for immunotherapy of turnip pollen allergy, but also for the treatment of allergies to other two EF-hand pollen allergens.

  14. ELISA detection of specific functional antibodies in human serum to Escherichia coli, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria-tetanus toxoids: normal values for IgG, IgA, and IgM.

    PubMed

    Moen, R C; Oemichen, S L; Kiggens, A J; Hong, R

    1986-01-01

    An inexpensive, easily performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure specific IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies to the common antigens Escherichia coli, diphtheria-tetanus toxoid, and tetanus toxoid. Normal values were established. Classical antibody deficiency disease states were confirmed and delineated by these assays. Additionally, several instances were discovered when functional antibody levels were abnormal when the serum immunoglobulin levels were normal. The use of ELISA assays for antibodies to common antigens provides a useful technique to measure and monitor isotype responses of the humoral immune system.

  15. Screening of blood donors for IgA deficiency: a study of the donor population of south-west England.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, P D; Tandy, N P; Anstee, D J

    1977-01-01

    Altogether 29 745 English blood donors were screened for IgA deficiency by double diffusion analysis; 57 had apparent absence of IgA, a frequency of 1:522. Further examination by the more sensitive haemagglutination inhibition assay revealed 34 samples having no detectable IgA, a frequency of 1:875. All donors negative by double diffusion analysis were tested for the presence of antibodies to IgA. Six class specific anti IgA antibodies and four anti IgA antibodies of limited specificity were detected. Three of these had the specificity anti alpha2 and one anti A2m(2). The 34 IgA deficient donors detected provide a source of IgA deficient blood for transfusion to patients with anti IgA antibodies. PMID:304071

  16. Electrostatic potentials of the S-locus F-box proteins contribute to the pollen S specificity in self-incompatibility in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhui; Zhang, Yue; Song, Yanzhai; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Jiangbo; Li, Qun; Zhang, Dongfen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2017-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a self/non-self discrimination system found widely in angiosperms and, in many species, is controlled by a single polymorphic S-locus. In the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, the S-locus encodes a single S-RNase and a cluster of S-locus F-box (SLF) proteins to control the pistil and pollen expression of SI, respectively. Previous studies have shown that their cytosolic interactions determine their recognition specificity, but the physical force between their interactions remains unclear. In this study, we show that the electrostatic potentials of SLF contribute to the pollen S specificity through a physical mechanism of 'like charges repel and unlike charges attract' between SLFs and S-RNases in Petunia hybrida. Strikingly, the alteration of a single C-terminal amino acid of SLF reversed its surface electrostatic potentials and subsequently the pollen S specificity. Collectively, our results reveal that the electrostatic potentials act as a major physical force between cytosolic SLFs and S-RNases, providing a mechanistic insight into the self/non-self discrimination between cytosolic proteins in angiosperms.

  17. The Kinetics of Glomerular Deposition of Nephritogenic IgA

    PubMed Central

    Yamaji, Kenji; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Satake, Kenji; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Novak, Jan; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Whether IgA nephropathy is attributable to mesangial IgA is unclear as there is no correlation between intensity of deposits and extent of glomerular injury and no clear mechanism explaining how these mesangial deposits induce hematuria and subsequent proteinuria. This hinders the development of a specific therapy. Thus, precise events during deposition still remain clinical challenge to clarify. Since no study assessed induction of IgA nephropathy by nephritogenic IgA, we analyzed sequential events involving nephritogenic IgA from IgA nephropathy-prone mice by real-time imaging systems. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed that serum IgA from susceptible mice had strong affinity to mesangial, subepithelial, and subendothelial lesions, with effacement/actin aggregation in podocytes and arcade formation in endothelial cells. The deposits disappeared 24-h after single IgA injection. The data were supported by a fluorescence molecular tomography system and real-time and 3D in vivo imaging. In vivo imaging showed that IgA from the susceptible mice began depositing along the glomerular capillary from 1 min and accumulated until 2-h on the first stick in a focal and segmental manner. The findings indicate that glomerular IgA depositions in IgAN may be expressed under the balance between deposition and clearance. Since nephritogenic IgA showed mesangial as well as focal and segmental deposition along the capillary with acute cellular activation, all glomerular cellular elements are a plausible target for injury such as hematuria. PMID:25409466

  18. Comparative analysis of influenza A(H3N2) virus hemagglutinin specific IgG subclass and IgA responses in children and adults after influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Alessandro; Tete, Sarah M; Mohn, Kristin G-I; Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Gianchecchi, Elena; Montomoli, Emanuele; Brokstad, Karl A; Cox, Rebecca J

    2017-01-03

    Two different influenza vaccines are generally used in many countries; trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3) and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3). Studies comparing the antibody response to IIV3 and LAIV3 commonly investigate the seroprotective response by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. However, there is limited data regarding comparative analysis of IgG subclass and IgA responses induced by LAIV3 and IIV3. Fifteen children <5years received 2 doses of LAIV3 while 14 children aged 10-17years received one dose. In addition, 15 adults were vaccinated with either intranasal LAIV3 or intramuscular IIV3. We analyzed the H3N2 humoral responses by HI assay and the hemagglutinin (HA) specific IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgA1 responses by ELISA. Furthermore, we investigated the avidity of induced IgG antibodies. Pre-existing seroprotective HI antibodies were present in adults (73%) previously vaccinated with IIV3. Vaccination resulted in a significant increase in HI titers in all groups, except LAIV3 vaccinated adults. Furthermore, a negative correlation between age and HI titers in LAIV3 vaccinated subjects was observed post-vaccination. LAIV3 in children and IIV3 in adults induced HA-specific IgG1, low IgG3 but no IgG2 or IgG4. Moreover, significant IgA1 responses were only induced in children. Interestingly, IIV3 and LAIV3 induced IgG antibodies with comparable and significantly augmented avidity post-vaccination in children and adults. Our results suggest that age and/or exposure history play a significant role in determining the antibody response. Clinical trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01003288 and NCT01866540.

  19. A flavonoid 3-O-glucoside:2″-O-glucosyltransferase responsible for terminal modification of pollen-specific flavonols in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Sugawara, Satoko; Tohge, Takayuki; Ito, Takuya; Koyanagi, Misuzu; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Saito, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    Flavonol 3-O-diglucosides with a 1→2 inter-glycosidic linkage are representative pollen-specific flavonols that are widely distributed in plants, but their biosynthetic genes and physiological roles are not well understood. Flavonoid analysis of four Arabidopsis floral organs (pistils, stamens, petals and calyxes) and flowers of wild-type and male sterility 1 (ms1) mutants, which are defective in normal development of pollen and tapetum, showed that kaempferol/quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosides accumulated in Arabidopsis pollen. Microarray data using wild-type and ms1 mutants, gene expression patterns in various organs, and phylogenetic analysis of UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) suggest that UGT79B6 (At5g54010) is a key modification enzyme for determining pollen-specific flavonol structure. Kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-glucosyl-(1→2)-glucosides were absent from two independent ugt79b6 knockout mutants. Transgenic ugt79b6 mutant lines transformed with the genomic UGT79B6 gene had the same flavonoid profile as wild-type plants. Recombinant UGT79B6 protein converted kaempferol 3-O-glucoside to kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1→2)-glucoside. UGT79B6 recognized 3-O-glucosylated/galactosylated anthocyanins/flavonols but not 3,5- or 3,7-diglycosylated flavonoids, and prefers UDP-glucose, indicating that UGT79B6 encodes flavonoid 3-O-glucoside:2″-O-glucosyltransferase. A UGT79B6-GUS fusion showed that UGT79B6 was localized in tapetum cells and microspores of developing anthers. PMID:24916675

  20. A B Cell Epitope Peptide Derived from the Major Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 1 Boosts Allergen-Specific Secondary Antibody Responses without Allergen-Specific T Cell Help

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Meena; Freidl, Raphaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Baranyi, Ulrike; Wekerle, Thomas; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    More than 40% of allergic patients suffer from grass pollen allergy. Phl p 1, the major timothy grass pollen allergen, belongs to the cross-reactive group 1 grass pollen allergens that are thought to initiate allergic sensitization to grass pollen. Repeated allergen encounter boosts allergen-specific IgE production and enhances clinical sensitivity in patients. To investigate immunological mechanisms underlying the boosting of allergen-specific secondary IgE Ab responses and the allergen epitopes involved, a murine model for Phl p 1 was established. A B cell epitope–derived peptide of Phl p 1 devoid of allergen-specific T cell epitopes, as recognized by BALB/c mice, was fused to an allergen-unrelated carrier in the form of a recombinant fusion protein and used for sensitization. This fusion protein allowed the induction of allergen-specific IgE Ab responses without allergen-specific T cell help. Allergen-specific Ab responses were subsequently boosted with molecules containing the B cell epitope–derived peptide without carrier or linked to other allergen-unrelated carriers. Oligomeric peptide bound to a carrier different from that which had been used for sensitization boosted allergen-specific secondary IgE responses without a detectable allergen-specific T cell response. Our results indicate that allergen-specific secondary IgE Ab responses can be boosted by repetitive B cell epitopes without allergen-specific T cell help by cross-linking of the B cell epitope receptor. This finding has important implications for the design of new allergy vaccines. PMID:28093528

  1. A B Cell Epitope Peptide Derived from the Major Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 1 Boosts Allergen-Specific Secondary Antibody Responses without Allergen-Specific T Cell Help.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Meena; Freidl, Raphaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Baranyi, Ulrike; Wekerle, Thomas; Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, Birgit

    2017-02-15

    More than 40% of allergic patients suffer from grass pollen allergy. Phl p 1, the major timothy grass pollen allergen, belongs to the cross-reactive group 1 grass pollen allergens that are thought to initiate allergic sensitization to grass pollen. Repeated allergen encounter boosts allergen-specific IgE production and enhances clinical sensitivity in patients. To investigate immunological mechanisms underlying the boosting of allergen-specific secondary IgE Ab responses and the allergen epitopes involved, a murine model for Phl p 1 was established. A B cell epitope-derived peptide of Phl p 1 devoid of allergen-specific T cell epitopes, as recognized by BALB/c mice, was fused to an allergen-unrelated carrier in the form of a recombinant fusion protein and used for sensitization. This fusion protein allowed the induction of allergen-specific IgE Ab responses without allergen-specific T cell help. Allergen-specific Ab responses were subsequently boosted with molecules containing the B cell epitope-derived peptide without carrier or linked to other allergen-unrelated carriers. Oligomeric peptide bound to a carrier different from that which had been used for sensitization boosted allergen-specific secondary IgE responses without a detectable allergen-specific T cell response. Our results indicate that allergen-specific secondary IgE Ab responses can be boosted by repetitive B cell epitopes without allergen-specific T cell help by cross-linking of the B cell epitope receptor. This finding has important implications for the design of new allergy vaccines.

  2. Biomarkers in IgA nephropathy: relationship to pathogenetic hits

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Margaret Colleen; Moldoveanu, Zina; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Berthoux, Francois; Julian, Bruce A; Sanders, John T; Renfrow, Matthew B; Novak, Jan; Wyatt, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction IgA nephropathy, the most prevalent glomerular disease in the world, requires a renal biopsy for diagnosis. Reliable biomarkers are needed for the non-invasive diagnosis of this disease and to more fully delineate its natural history and risk for progression. Areas covered In this review, the authors examine serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) and glycan-specific IgG and IgA autoantibodies that are integral to pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. They also explore biomarkers related to alternative and lectin pathways of complement activation and serum and urinary peptide biomarkers detected by mass spectrometric methods. The literature search included review of all publications having IgA nephropathy in the title that were cited in PubMed and Scopus over the past 10 years and a non-systematic review of abstracts published for the annual meetings of the American Society of Nephrology and the International Symposia on IgA Nephropathy. Expert opinion Serum Gd-IgA1 level and glycan-specific autoantibody levels are prime candidates to become diagnostic biomarkers for IgA nephropathy because of their central role in the earliest stages of disease pathogenesis. Assays for serum levels of complement proteins C3 and factor H are readily available in clinical practice and deserve continued study, either alone or in tandem with total serum IgA or serum Gd-IgA1 levels, as prognostic biomarkers for patients with IgA nephropathy. Urinary peptidomic data are also reviewed because this approach can successfully differentiate patients with IgA nephropathy from healthy controls and from patients with other forms of renal disease. PMID:24175678

  3. Native bee diversity and pollen foraging specificity in cultivated highbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum) in Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Zachary; Ginsberg, Howard; Alm, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A. carolina Viereck (90%), and Colletes validus Cresson (87%). The largest mean total pollen grain loads were carried by B. griseocollis (549,844), B. impatiens (389,558), X. virginica (233,500), and B. bimaculatus (193,132). Xylocopa virginica was the fourth and fifth most commonly collected bee species in 2014 and 2015, respectively. They exhibit nectar robbing and females carried relatively low blueberry pollen loads (mean 33%). Overall, we found 10 species of bees to be the primary pollinators of blueberries in Rhode Island.

  4. Native Bee Diversity and Pollen Foraging Specificity in Cultivated Highbush Blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum) in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Scott, Zachary; Ginsberg, Howard S; Alm, Steven R

    2016-12-01

    We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A. carolina Viereck (90%), and Colletes validus Cresson (87%). The largest mean total pollen grain loads were carried by B. griseocollis (549,844), B. impatiens (389,558), X. virginica (233,500), and B. bimaculatus (193,132). Xylocopa virginica was the fourth and fifth most commonly collected bee species in 2014 and 2015, respectively. They exhibit nectar robbing and females carried relatively low blueberry pollen loads (mean 33%). Overall, we found 10 species of bees to be the primary pollinators of blueberries in Rhode Island.

  5. Native Bee Diversity and Pollen Foraging Specificity in Cultivated Highbush Blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum) in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Scott, Zachary; Ginsberg, Howard S; Alm, Steven R

    2016-10-15

    We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A. carolina Viereck (90%), and Colletes validus Cresson (87%). The largest mean total pollen grain loads were carried by B. griseocollis (549,844), B. impatiens (389,558), X. virginica (233,500), and B. bimaculatus (193,132). Xylocopa virginica was the fourth and fifth most commonly collected bee species in 2014 and 2015, respectively. They exhibit nectar robbing and females carried relatively low blueberry pollen loads (mean 33%). Overall, we found 10 species of bees to be the primary pollinators of blueberries in Rhode Island.

  6. Serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels in children with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mengjie; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Rong, Liping; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lizhi; Qiu, Zeting; Mo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is an immunopathologic diagnosis based on a renal biopsy, it is characterized by deposits of IgA-containing immune complexes in the mesangium. Adults with IgAN have a galactose-deficient IgA1 in the circulation and glomerular deposition. There are few studies on the glycosylation of serum IgA1 in children with IgAN. To measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in pediatric patients with IgAN, 72 biopsy-proven IgAN children were divided into 3 groups based on the clinical features: isolated hematuria group (24 patients), hematuria and proteinuria group (22 patients), and nephritic syndrome group (26 patients). They were also divided into 3 groups according to pathologic grading: grade I + II group (25 patients), grade III group (33 patients) and grade IV + V group (14 patients). 30 healthy children were recruited as a control group. We used vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in all groups and controls. Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in children with IgAN were higher than controls (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 among the different clinical and pathologic grading groups. The values of the area under the curve for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels were 0.976 (95% CI, 0.953-1.000). The cutoff point for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels was 0.125, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 83.3%, with a positive predictive value of 92.6% and a negative predictive value of 73.5% (P < 0.01). Children with IgAN presented serum galactose-deficient IgA1, which has shown no relationship with the clinical manifestations and pathologic grading of the disease. Detection of serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels by vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a certain clinical value in diagnosis of children with IgAN.

  7. Patients with IgA nephropathy have increased serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels.

    PubMed

    Moldoveanu, Z; Wyatt, R J; Lee, J Y; Tomana, M; Julian, B A; Mestecky, J; Huang, W-Q; Anreddy, S R; Hall, S; Hastings, M C; Lau, K K; Cook, W J; Novak, J

    2007-06-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is the most prevalent form of glomerulonephritis worldwide. A renal biopsy is required for an accurate diagnosis, as no convenient biomarker is currently available. We developed a serological test based upon the observation that this nephropathy is characterized by undergalactosylated IgA1 in the circulation and in mesangial immune deposits. In the absence of galactose, the terminal saccharide of O-linked chains in the hinge region of IgA1 is terminal or sialylated N-acetylgalactosamine. A lectin from Helix aspersa, recognizing N-acetylgalactosamine, was used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that measures galactose-deficient IgA1 in serum. The median serum lectin-binding IgA1 level was significantly higher for 153 Caucasian adult patients with IgA nephropathy without progression to end-stage renal disease as compared with that for 150 healthy Caucasian adult controls. As the lectin-binding IgA1 levels for the controls were not normally distributed, the 90th percentile was used for determination of significant elevation. Using a value of 1076 U/ml as the upper limit of normal, 117 of the 153 patients with IgA nephropathy had an elevated serum lectin-binding IgA1 level. The sensitivity as a diagnostic test was 76.5%, with specificity 94%; the positive predictive value was 88.6% and the negative predictive value was 78.9%. We conclude that this lectin-binding assay may have potential as a noninvasive diagnostic test for IgA nephropathy.

  8. Pollen aquaporins: What are they there for?

    PubMed

    Pérez Di Giorgio, Juliana Andrea; Barberini, María Laura; Amodeo, Gabriela; Muschietti, Jorge Prometeo

    2016-09-01

    In order to provide more insight into the function of aquaporins during pollination, we characterized NIP4;1 and NIP4;2, 2 pollen-specific aquaporins of Arabidopsis thaliana. NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 displayed high amino acid identity. RT-PCR and GUS promoter analysis showed that they have different expression patterns. NIP4;1 is expressed at low levels in mature pollen, while NIP4;2 is highly expressed only during pollen tube growth. Single T-DNA nip4;1 and nip4;2 mutants and double amiRNA nip4;1 nip4;2 knockdowns showed reduced male fertility due to deficient pollen germination and pollen tube length. Functional assays in oocytes showed that NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 transport water and nonionic solutes. Here, the participation of the different pollen aquaporins in pollen hydration and pollen tube growth is discussed.

  9. IgA Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jennifer C; Haas, Mark; Reich, Heather N

    2017-02-03

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a leading cause of CKD and renal failure. Recent international collaborative efforts have led to important discoveries that have improved our understanding of some of the key steps involved in the immunopathogenesis of IgAN. Furthermore, establishment of multicenter networks has contributed to rigorous design and execution of clinical trials that have provided important insights regarding immunotherapy in IgAN. In this article, we review emerging developments in clinical and translational IgAN research and describe how these novel findings will influence future strategies to improve the outcome of patients with IgAN.

  10. Expression of IgA Proteases by Haemophilus influenzae in the Respiratory Tract of Adults With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Kirkham, Charmaine; Jones, Megan M.; Sethi, Sanjay; Kong, Yong; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Immunoglobulin (Ig)A proteases of Haemophilus influenzae are highly specific endopeptidases that cleave the hinge region of human IgA1 and also mediate invasion and trafficking in human respiratory epithelial cells, facilitating persistence of H. influenzae. Little is known about the expression of IgA proteases in clinical settings of H. influenzae infection. Methods. We identified and characterized IgA protease genes in H. influenzae and studied their expression and proteolytic specificity, in vitro and in vivo in 169 independent strains of H. influenzae collected longitudinally over 10 years from adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results. The H. influenzae pangenome has 2 alleles of IgA protease genes; all strains have igaA, and 40% of strains have igaB. Each allele has 2 variants with differing proteolytic specificities for human IgA1. A total of 88% of 169 strains express IgA protease activity. Expression of the 4 forms of IgA protease varies among strains. Based on the presence of IgA1 fragments in sputum samples, each of the different forms of IgA protease is selectively expressed in the human airways during infection. Conclusions. Four variants of IgA proteases are variably expressed by H. influenzae during infection of the human airways. PMID:25995193

  11. Interleukin (IL)-21 promotes intestinal IgA response to microbiota.

    PubMed

    Cao, A T; Yao, S; Gong, B; Nurieva, R I; Elson, C O; Cong, Y

    2015-09-01

    Commensal microbiota-specific T helper type 17 (Th17) cells are enriched in the intestines, which can convert into T follicular helper (Tfh) in Peyer's patches, and are crucial for production of intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) against microbiota; however, the role of Th17 and Tfh cytokines in regulating the mucosal IgA response to enteric microbiota is still not completely known. In this study, we found that intestinal IgA was impaired in mice deficient in interleukin (IL)-17 or IL-21 signaling. IL-21, but not IL-17, is able to augment B-cell differentiation to IgA(+) cells as mediated by transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and accelerate IgA class switch recombination (CSR). IL-21 and retinoic acid (RA) induce IgA(+) B-cell development and IgA production and drives autocrine TGFβ1 production to initiate IgA CSR. Repletion of T-cell-deficient TCRβxδ(-/-) mice with Th17 cells specific for commensal bacterial antigen increased the levels of IgA(+) B cells and IgA production in the intestine, which was blocked by neutralizing IL-21. Thus IL-21 functions to strongly augment IgA production under intestinal environment. Furthermore, IL-21 promotes intestinal B-cell homing through α4β7 expression, alone or with TGFβ and RA. Together, IL-21 from microbiota-specific Th17 and/or Tfh cells contributes to robust intestinal IgA levels by enhancing IgA(+) CSR, IgA production and B-cell trafficking into the intestine.

  12. The Gastrointestinal Frontier: IgA and Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Blutt, Sarah E.; Conner, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of diseases that kill ~2.2 million people worldwide each year. IgA is one of the major immune effector products present in the gastrointestinal tract yet its importance in protection against gastrointestinal viral infections has been difficult to prove. In part this has been due to a lack of small and large animal models in which pathogenesis of and immunity to gastrointestinal viral infections is similar to that in humans. Much of what we have learned about the role of IgA in the intestinal immune response has been obtained from experimental animal models of rotavirus infection. Rotavirus-specific intestinal IgA appears to be one of the principle effectors of long term protection against rotavirus infection. Thus, there has been a focus on understanding the immunological pathways through which this virus-specific IgA is induced during infection. In addition, the experimental animal models of rotavirus infection provide excellent systems in which new areas of research on viral-specific intestinal IgA including the long term maintenance of viral-specific IgA. PMID:24348474

  13. Proteomics of pollen development and germination.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shaojun; Wang, Tai; Yan, Xiufeng; Chen, Sixue

    2007-12-01

    In higher plants, pollen grains represent the vestiges of a highly reduced male gametophyte generation. After germination, the pollen tube delivers the sperm cells by tip-growing to the embryo sac for fertilization. Besides the intrinsic importance for sexual reproduction, pollen development and germination serve as an attractive system to address important questions related to cell division, cell differentiation, polar growth, cell-cell interaction, and cell fate. Recently, pollen functional specification has been well-studied using multidisciplinary approaches. Here, we review recent advances in proteomics of pollen development and germination.

  14. Cross-reactivity to olive tree pollen and orchard grass pollen in patients with pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, S; Nakada, M; Nishizaki, K; Kawarai, Y; Nishioka, K; Hino, H

    1997-06-01

    We studied 92 patients with allergic rhinitis in Syodoshima, Japan, during the pollen season between April and June to evaluate the cross-reactivity to different antigens, including pollen from the olive tree (Olea europaea) and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata). Olive tree pollen was present in the atmosphere for 23 days, from May 19 to June 12, 1994. Specific IgE antibodies for olive tree pollen antigen were present in 21 (26.9%) of the 78 patients with allergic rhinitis. Nine (24.3%) of the 37 patients with allergic rhinitis exhibited positive skin reactivity to an extract of olive tree pollen. Fifteen (88.2%) of the 17 patients who had IgE reactivity in their sera to olive tree pollen antigen demonstrated allergic reactions to an extract of olive tree pollen. Specific IgE antibodies for orchard grass pollen antigen were present in 43 (48.3%) of the 89 patients with allergic rhinitis and 20 (95.2%) of the 21 patients who had IgE reactivity in their sera to olive tree pollen antigen. The inhibition test using the CAP System revealed that the reactivity of the IgE antibody specific for olive tree pollen antigen was inhibited dose-dependently by an extract of orchard grass pollen. These findings show that there is a reaction in some patients with grass (Gramineae) pollinosis that might be induced by olive tree pollen.

  15. Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Print A A A What's in this article? ... Questions en español Análisis de sangre: inmunoglobulina A (IgA) What It Is An IgA test measures the ...

  16. [Identification of cattail pollen (puhuang), pine pollen (songhuafen) and its adulterants by ITS2 sequence].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Xi; Sun, Wei; Ren, Wei-Chao; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Song, Ming; Mu, Ze-Jing; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2014-06-01

    DNA barcoding method was conducted for the authentication of pollen materials due to difficulty of discriminating pollen materials bearing morphological similarity. In this study, a specific focus was to identify cattail pollen (Puhuang) and pine pollen (Songhuafen) samples from their adulterants which are frequently mixed-together. Regions of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) from 60 samples were sequenced, and new primers for cattail pollen were designed according to the sequence information. The results from the NJ trees showed that the species of pine pollen, Puhuang and their adulterants can be classified as obvious monophyly. Therefore, we propose to adapt DNA barcoding methodology to accurately distinguish cattail pollen, pine pollen and their adulterant materials. It is a great help for drug regulatory agency to supervise the quality of medicinal materials.

  17. RNA-sequencing analysis reveals abundant developmental stage-specific and immunity-related genes in the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus.

    PubMed

    Vogel, H; Badapanda, C; Knorr, E; Vilcinskas, A

    2014-02-01

    The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) is a major pest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and other cruciferous crops in Europe. Pesticide-resistant pollen beetle populations are emerging, increasing the economic impact of this species. We isolated total RNA from the larval and adult stages, the latter either naïve or immunized by injection with bacteria and yeast. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was carried out to establish a comprehensive transcriptome catalogue and to screen for developmental stage-specific and immunity-related transcripts. We assembled the transcriptome de novo by combining sequence tags from all developmental stages and treatments. Gene expression data based on normalized read counts revealed several functional gene categories that were differentially expressed between larvae and adults, particularly genes associated with digestion and detoxification that were induced in larvae, and genes associated with reproduction and environmental signalling that were induced in adults. We also identified many genes associated with microbe recognition, immunity-related signalling and defence effectors, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes. Digital gene expression analysis revealed significant differences in the profile of AMPs expressed in larvae, naïve adults and immune-challenged adults, providing insight into the steady-state differences between developmental stages and the complex transcriptional remodelling that occurs following the induction of immunity. Our data provide insight into the adaptive mechanisms used by phytophagous insects and could lead to the development of more effective control strategies for insect pests.

  18. [Comparative study on the assay for IgE antibodies specific for Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen between AlaSTAT and CAP-RAST].

    PubMed

    Nohara, O; Imai, T; Saneyoshi, K; Endo, T; Nagakura, H; Ono, M; Moriyama, H

    1996-06-01

    Titers of IgE antibody specific for the pollen of Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa) were determined by AlaSTAT and CAP-RAST in 221 patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. IgE antibody to C. obtusa tested positive by CAP-RAST at a higher rate (80.5%) than by AlaSTAT (52.6%). The results obtained from the two assays were compared with those from intradermal skin test. CAP-RAST had a higher sensitivity than that of AlaSTAT. Because the two methods showed no differences in the determination of IgE antibody specific for Cryptomeria japonica, the above differences between AlaSTAT and CAP-RAST are surmised to be ascribable to the differences of C. obtusa antigen used in the both assays.

  19. Pollen Aquaporins: The Solute Factor.

    PubMed

    Pérez Di Giorgio, Juliana A; Soto, Gabriela C; Muschietti, Jorge P; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the biophysical properties and presumed physiological role of aquaporins (AQPs) have been expanded to specialized cells where water and solute exchange are crucial traits. Complex but unique processes such as stomatal movement or pollen hydration and germination have been addressed not only by identifying the specific AQP involved but also by studying how these proteins integrate and coordinate cellular activities and functions. In this review, we referred specifically to pollen-specific AQPs and analyzed what has been assumed in terms of transport properties and what has been found in terms of their physiological role. Unlike that in many other cells, the AQP machinery in mature pollen lacks plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, which are extensively studied for their high water capacity exchange. Instead, a variety of TIPs and NIPs are expressed in pollen. These findings have altered the initial understanding of AQPs and water exchange to consider specific and diverse solutes that might be critical to sustaining pollen's success. The spatial and temporal distribution of the pollen AQPs also reflects a regulatory mechanism that allowing a properly adjusting water and solute exchange.

  20. Galactose-Deficient IgA1 as a Candidate Urinary Polypeptide Marker of IgA Nephropathy?

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Allegri, Landino; Suzuki, Yusuke; Hall, Stacy; Moldoveanu, Zina; Wyatt, Robert J; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    In patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), circulatory IgA1 and IgA1 in mesangial deposits contain elevated amounts of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1). We hypothesized that a fraction of Gd-IgA1 from the glomerular deposits and/or circulation may be excreted into the urine and thus represent a disease-specific biomarker. Levels of urinary IgA and Gd-IgA1 were determined in 207 patients with IgAN, 205 patients with other renal diseases, and 57 healthy controls, recruited in USA, Japan, and Italy. Urinary IgA was similarly elevated in patients with IgAN and renal-disease controls compared with healthy controls. However, urinary Gd-IgA1 levels were higher in patients with IgAN (IgAN, 28.0 ± 17.9; disease controls, 20.6 ± 17.4 units/mg urinary creatinine; P < 0.0001). Lectin western blotting data confirmed these results. In IgAN patients, levels of urinary Gd-IgA1 correlated with proteinuria (P < 0.001). When we purified IgA from serum and urine of an IgAN patient, the relative proportion of Gd-IgA1 to total IgA1 was higher in the urine compared with serum, suggesting selective excretion of Gd-IgA1 in IgAN. In summary, urinary excretion of Gd-IgA1 was elevated in patients with IgAN and the urinary Gd-IgA1 levels correlated with proteinuria. Urinary Gd-IgA1 may thus represent a disease-specific biomarker of IgAN.

  1. Galactose-Deficient IgA1 as a Candidate Urinary Polypeptide Marker of IgA Nephropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Allegri, Landino; Hall, Stacy; Wyatt, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), circulatory IgA1 and IgA1 in mesangial deposits contain elevated amounts of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1). We hypothesized that a fraction of Gd-IgA1 from the glomerular deposits and/or circulation may be excreted into the urine and thus represent a disease-specific biomarker. Levels of urinary IgA and Gd-IgA1 were determined in 207 patients with IgAN, 205 patients with other renal diseases, and 57 healthy controls, recruited in USA, Japan, and Italy. Urinary IgA was similarly elevated in patients with IgAN and renal-disease controls compared with healthy controls. However, urinary Gd-IgA1 levels were higher in patients with IgAN (IgAN, 28.0 ± 17.9; disease controls, 20.6 ± 17.4 units/mg urinary creatinine; P < 0.0001). Lectin western blotting data confirmed these results. In IgAN patients, levels of urinary Gd-IgA1 correlated with proteinuria (P < 0.001). When we purified IgA from serum and urine of an IgAN patient, the relative proportion of Gd-IgA1 to total IgA1 was higher in the urine compared with serum, suggesting selective excretion of Gd-IgA1 in IgAN. In summary, urinary excretion of Gd-IgA1 was elevated in patients with IgAN and the urinary Gd-IgA1 levels correlated with proteinuria. Urinary Gd-IgA1 may thus represent a disease-specific biomarker of IgAN. PMID:27647947

  2. The tetraspanin CD37 protects against glomerular IgA deposition and renal pathology.

    PubMed

    Rops, Angelique L; Figdor, Carl G; van der Schaaf, Alie; Tamboer, Wim P; Bakker, Marinka A; Berden, Jo H; Dijkman, Henry B P M; Steenbergen, Eric J; van der Vlag, Johan; van Spriel, Annemiek B

    2010-05-01

    The tetraspanin protein CD37 is a leukocyte-specific transmembrane protein that is highly expressed on B cells. CD37-deficient (CD37(-/-)) mice exhibit a 15-fold increased level of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in serum and elevated numbers of IgA+ plasma cells in lymphoid organs. Here, we report that CD37(-/-) mice spontaneously develop renal pathology with characteristics of human IgA nephropathy. In young naïve CD37(-/-) mice, mild IgA deposition in glomeruli was observed. However, CD37(-/-) mice developed high titers of IgA immune complexes in serum during aging, which was associated with increased glomerular IgA deposition. Severe mesangial proliferation, fibrosis, and hyalinosis were apparent in aged CD37(-/-) mice, whereas albuminuria was mild. To further evaluate the role of CD37 in glomerular disease, we induced anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in mice. CD37(-/-) mice developed higher IgA serum levels and glomerular deposits of anti-GBM IgA compared with wild-type mice. Importantly, glomerular macrophage and neutrophil influx was significantly higher in CD37(-/-) mice during both the heterologous and autologous phase of anti-GBM nephritis. Taken together, tetraspanin CD37 controls the formation of IgA-containing immune complexes and glomerular IgA deposition, which induces influx of inflammatory myeloid cells. Therefore, CD37 may protect against the development of IgA nephropathy.

  3. Coxsackievirus B1-based antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA with broad specificity for enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Swanink, C M; Veenstra, L; Poort, Y A; Kaan, J A; Galama, J M

    1993-01-01

    An antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with coxsackievirus B1 as the antigen was evaluated for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies and showed broad specificity for enteroviruses. In total, 116 serum or cerebrospinal fluid samples from 62 patients were tested by ELISA and the complement fixation test (CFT). Additionally, 15 serum samples that contained poliovirus-specific IgM antibody were tested. Serum samples from 200 healthy blood donors were used for standardization of the assays. The sensitivity of the ELISA varied with time of serum sampling, with a relatively low sensitivity when serum was collected within 3 days after the onset of symptoms (23%; 5 of 22) but good sensitivity when serum was collected later (83%; 20 of 24). The sensitivity was better than that of the CFT. The ELISAs were broadly reactive as concluded from typing of virus isolates that were simultaneously obtained. The assay did, furthermore, detect antibody against poliovirus type 3. Sera that contained rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, or cardiolipin antibody (by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test) did not react in this ELISA. Nonspecific reactivity did occur, however, in cases of infectious mononucleosis and in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The enterovirus-specific ELISA is found to be simple to perform, more sensitive than the CFT, and far less laborious than the neutralization test. PMID:8308117

  4. Gametophytic Pollen Tube Guidance: Attractant Peptides, Gametic Controls, and Receptors.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Pollen tube guidance in flowering plants is a unique and critical process for successful sexual reproduction. The pollen tube that grows from pollen, which is the male gametophyte, precisely navigates to the embryo sac, which is the female gametophyte, within the pistil. Recent advances have clarified the molecular framework of gametophytic pollen tube guidance. Multiple species-specific attractant peptides are secreted from synergid cells, the proper development and function of which are regulated by female gametes. Multiple receptor-like kinases on the pollen tube tip are involved in sensing species-specific attractant peptides. In this Update article, recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism of gametophytic pollen tube guidance is reviewed, including attraction by synergid cells, control of pollen tube guidance by female gametes, and directional growth of the pollen tube by directional cue sensing. Future directions in the study of pollen tube guidance also are discussed.

  5. [A monoclonal antibody against ragweed pollen cross-reacting with yellow dock pollen].

    PubMed

    Shen, H D; Chang, L Y; Gong, Y J; Chang, H N; Han, S H

    1985-11-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies with different specificity against the major allergenic components of ragweed pollen, we analyzed their cross-reactivity with two tree pollens, two grass pollens and five other weed pollens which are common in Taiwan by the immunoblot method. It was found that besides reacting with AgE and AgK of the ragweed pollen, the monoclonal antibody 48-5 also reacted with antigens of yellow dock pollen with molecular weights of 40K, 38K, 24K, and 21K. In a preliminary study, sera of two patients containing IgE antibodies to ragweed pollen antigens also reacted to the 40K component of the yellow dock pollen. Furthermore, from the results of allergenic skin testings on 109 patients with bronchial asthma, we found that of 22 patients who had a positive reaction to a crude extract of ragweed pollen, 18(81.8%) also reacted to the crude extract of yellow dock pollen. In conclusion, our results suggest that there exists a common allergenic determinant between pollens of ragweed and yellow dock. It may play an important role in the expression of the sensitivity of patients to these two kinds of pollens.

  6. New Insights into the Pathogenesis of IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Jan; Rizk, Dana; Takahashi, Kazuo; Zhang, XianWen; Bian, Qi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yoshimi; Reily, Colin; Lai, Ling-Yun; Hao, Chuanming; Novak, Lea; Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Julian, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Background IgA nephropathy, a frequent cause of end-stage renal disease, is an autoimmune disease wherein immune complexes consisting of IgA1 with galactose-deficient O-glycans (autoantigen) and anti-glycan autoantibodies deposit in glomeruli and induce renal injury. Multiple genetic loci associated with disease risk have been identified. The prevalence of risk alleles varies geographically: it is the highest in eastern Asia and northern Europe, lower in other parts of Europe and North America, and the lowest in Africa. IgA nephropathy is diagnosed by the pathological assessment of a renal biopsy specimen. Currently, therapy is not disease targeted but rather focused on maintaining control of blood pressure and proteinuria, ideally with suppression of angiotensin II. Possible additional approaches differ between countries. Disease-specific therapy as well as new tools for the diagnosis, prognosis, and assessment of responses to therapy are needed. Summary Glycosylation pathways associated with aberrant O-glycosylation of IgA1 and, thus, production of autoantigen, have been identified. Furthermore, unique characteristics of the autoantibodies in IgA nephropathy have been uncovered. Many of these biochemical features are shared by patients with IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis, suggesting that the two diseases may represent opposite ends of a spectrum of a disease process. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of pathogenic IgA1-containing immune complexes will enable the development of disease-specific therapies as well as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Key Message IgA nephropathy is an autoimmune disease caused by the glomerular deposition of nephritogenic circulating immune complexes consisting of galactose-deficient IgA1 (autoantigen) bound by anti-glycan autoantibodies. A better understanding of the multi-step process of the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy and the genetic and environmental contributing

  7. Scarcity of autoreactive human blood IgA+ memory B cells

    PubMed Central

    Prigent, Julie; Lorin, Valérie; Kök, Ayrin; Hieu, Thierry; Bourgeau, Salomé

    2016-01-01

    Class‐switched memory B cells are key components of the “reactive” humoral immunity, which ensures a fast and massive secretion of high‐affinity antigen‐specific antibodies upon antigenic challenge. In humans, IgA class‐switched (IgA+) memory B cells and IgA antibodies are abundant in the blood. Although circulating IgA+ memory B cells and their corresponding secreted immunoglobulins likely possess major protective and/or regulatory immune roles, little is known about their specificity and function. Here, we show that IgA+ and IgG+ memory B‐cell antibodies cloned from the same healthy humans share common immunoglobulin gene features. IgA and IgG memory antibodies have comparable lack of reactivity to vaccines, common mucosa‐tropic viruses and commensal bacteria. However, the IgA+ memory B‐cell compartment contains fewer polyreactive clones and importantly, only rare self‐reactive clones compared to IgG+ memory B cells. Self‐reactivity of IgAs is acquired following B‐cell affinity maturation but not antibody class switching. Together, our data suggest the existence of different regulatory mechanisms for removing autoreactive clones from the IgG+ and IgA+ memory B‐cell repertoires, and/or different maturation pathways potentially reflecting the distinct nature and localization of the cognate antigens recognized by individual B‐cell populations. PMID:27469325

  8. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of "polluen," some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed.

  9. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. PMID:26819967

  10. Simultaneous allergy to vine pollen and grape.

    PubMed

    Mur, P; Feo Brito, F; Bartolomé, B; Galindo, P A; Gómez, E; Borja, J; Alonso, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old female student suffering from seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis with sensitization to pollens from vine and also from grass, olive, and Chenopodiaceae plants who had recently developed episodes of itching, maculopapular rash, and facial angioedema after eating grapes. Testing revealed positive reactions to vine pollen and grapes, and specific IgE were found for both allergens. Immunoblotting and inhibition assays revealed cross-reactivity between the allergenic structures of vine pollen and grape fruit and also among botanically unrelated pollens.

  11. Pollen Aquaporins: The Solute Factor

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Di Giorgio, Juliana A.; Soto, Gabriela C.; Muschietti, Jorge P.; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the biophysical properties and presumed physiological role of aquaporins (AQPs) have been expanded to specialized cells where water and solute exchange are crucial traits. Complex but unique processes such as stomatal movement or pollen hydration and germination have been addressed not only by identifying the specific AQP involved but also by studying how these proteins integrate and coordinate cellular activities and functions. In this review, we referred specifically to pollen-specific AQPs and analyzed what has been assumed in terms of transport properties and what has been found in terms of their physiological role. Unlike that in many other cells, the AQP machinery in mature pollen lacks plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, which are extensively studied for their high water capacity exchange. Instead, a variety of TIPs and NIPs are expressed in pollen. These findings have altered the initial understanding of AQPs and water exchange to consider specific and diverse solutes that might be critical to sustaining pollen’s success. The spatial and temporal distribution of the pollen AQPs also reflects a regulatory mechanism that allowing a properly adjusting water and solute exchange. PMID:27881985

  12. Tennis, incidence of URTI and salivary IgA.

    PubMed

    Novas, A M P; Rowbottom, D G; Jenkins, D G

    2003-04-01

    Tennis played at an elite level requires intensive training characterized by repeated bouts of brief intermittent high intensity exercise over relatively long periods of time (1 - 3 h or more). Competition can place additional stress on players. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal association between specific components of tennis training and competition, the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), and salivary IgA, in a cohort of seventeen elite female tennis players. Timed, whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after selected 1-h training sessions at 2 weekly intervals, over 12 weeks. Salivary IgA concentration was measured by ELISA and IgA secretion rate calculated (microg IgA x ml -1 x ml saliva x min -1). Players reported URTI symptoms and recorded training and competition in daily logs. Data analysis showed that higher incidence of URTI was significantly associated with increased training duration and load, and competition level, on a weekly basis. Salivary IgA secretion rate (S-IgA) dropped significantly after 1 hour of tennis play. Over the 12-week period, pre-exercise salivary IgA concentration and secretion rate were directly associated with the amount of training undertaken during the previous day and week (p < 0.05). However, the decline in S-IgA after 1 h of intense tennis play was also positively related to the duration and load of training undertaken during the previous day and week (p < 0.05). Although exercise-induced suppression of salivary IgA may be a risk factor, it could not accurately predict the occurrence of URTI in this cohort of athletes.

  13. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination.

  14. Default in plasma and intestinal IgA responses during acute infection by simian immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Conflicting results regarding changes in mucosal IgA production or in the proportions of IgA plasma cells in the small and large intestines during HIV-infection have been previously reported. Except in individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but yet remaining uninfected, HIV-specific IgAs are frequently absent in mucosal secretions from HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about the organization and functionality of mucosal B-cell follicles in acute HIV/SIV infection during which a T-dependent IgA response should have been initiated. In the present study, we evaluated changes in B-cell and T-cell subsets as well as the extent of apoptosis and class-specific plasma cells in Peyer’s Patches, isolated lymphoid follicles, and lamina propria. Plasma levels of IgA, BAFF and APRIL were also determined. Results Plasma IgA level was reduced by 46% by 28 days post infection (dpi), and no IgA plasma cells were found within germinal centers of Peyer’s Patches and isolated lymphoid follicles. This lack of a T-dependent IgA response occurs although germinal centers remained functional with no sign of follicular damage, while a prolonged survival of follicular CD4+ T-cells and normal generation of IgG plasma cells is observed. Whereas the average plasma BAFF level was increased by 4.5-fold and total plasma cells were 1.7 to 1.9-fold more numerous in the lamina propria, the relative proportion of IgA plasma cells in this effector site was reduced by 19% (duodemun) to 35% (ileum) at 28 dpi. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that SIV is unable to initiate a T-dependent IgA response during the acute phase of infection and favors the production of IgG (ileum) or IgM (duodenum) plasma cells at the expense of IgA plasma cells. Therefore, an early and generalized default in IgA production takes place during the acute of phase of HIV/SIV infection, which might impair not only the virus-specific antibody response but also IgA responses to other pathogens and

  15. IgA deficiency in wolves.

    PubMed

    Frankowiack, Marcel; Hellman, Lars; Zhao, Yaofeng; Arnemo, Jon M; Lin, Miaoli; Tengvall, Katarina; Møller, Torsten; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hammarström, Lennart

    2013-06-01

    Low mean concentrations of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and an increased frequency of overt IgA deficiency (IgAD) in certain dog breeds raises the question whether it is a breeding-enriched phenomenon or a legacy from the dog's ancestor, the gray wolf (Canis lupus). The IgA concentration in 99 serum samples from 58 free-ranging and 13 captive Scandinavian wolves, was therefore measured by capture ELISA. The concentrations were markedly lower in the wolf serum samples than in the dog controls. Potential differences in the IgA molecule between dogs and wolves were addressed by sequencing the wolf IgA heavy chain constant region encoding gene (IGHA). Complete amino acid sequence homology was found. Detection of wolf and dog IgA was ascertained by showing identity using double immunodiffusion. We suggest that the vast majority of wolves, the ancestor of the dog, are IgA deficient.

  16. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  17. Cryptosporidium parvum in calves: kinetics and immunoblot analysis of specific serum and local antibody responses (immunoglobulin A [IgA], IgG, and IgM) after natural and experimental infections.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, J E; Villacorta, I; Vanopdenbosch, E; Vandergheynst, D; Naciri, M; Ares-Mazás, E; Yvoré, P

    1992-01-01

    Fecal and serum anti-Cryptosporidium parvum immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after experimental and natural infection of calves with C. parvum. Although all experimentally infected calves showed high levels of colostral antibodies in the feces, they acquired C. parvum infection. Three of five animals died. Calves which acquired natural infection showed only diarrhea. Levels of colostral coproantibodies dropped quickly. Experimental infection was followed by a rise in local anti-C. parvum IgM levels from day 5 postinfection (p.i.). IgM peaked at day 14 p.i. and then disappeared quickly. Anti-C. parvum IgA levels rose between days 7 and 14 p.i. and decreased slowly. Rising levels of coproantibodies coincided with falling oocyst output. Fecal anti-C. parvum IgG levels rose slightly during oocyst output, and IgG disappeared 3 weeks p.i. Similar kinetics were established in naturally infected calves. Although fecal anti-C. parvum IgA levels declined slowly, reinfections were established 5, 7, and 14 weeks after the primary contact. Serum anti-C. parvum IgG levels rose during maximal oocyst excretion, whereas serum anti-C. parvum IgA levels peaked later than did local IgA levels. Challenge reinfection of naturally infected calves at day 112 was not followed by clinical signs or oocyst output or by a secondary antibody response. Sequential Western immunoblotting with fecal extracts revealed up to 32 different parasite antigens. Convalescent-phase sera recognized up to 23 antigens. Fecal IgA reacted intensely with antigens with relative molecular weights (M(r)) of approximately 11,000 and 15,000. These antigens were not recognized by convalescent-phase serum IgG. Both local IgA and serum IgG also showed strong reactions with 23,000- and 44,000-M(r) antigens and with several antigens of between 66,200 and 200,000 M(r). Most bands remained detectable for at least 16 weeks p.i. Images PMID:1587597

  18. Neutrophils negatively regulate induction of mucosal IgA responses after sublingual immunization.

    PubMed

    Jee, J; Bonnegarde-Bernard, A; Duverger, A; Iwakura, Y; Cormet-Boyaka, E; Martin, T L; Steiner, H E; Bachman, R C; Boyaka, P N

    2015-07-01

    Induction of mucosal immunoglobulin-A (IgA) capable of providing a first line of defense against bacterial and viral pathogens remains a major goal of needle-free vaccines given via mucosal routes. Innate immune cells are known to play a central role in induction of IgA responses by mucosal vaccines, but the relative contribution of myeloid cell subsets to these responses has not firmly been established. Using an in vivo model of sublingual vaccination with Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (EdTx) as adjuvant, we examined the role of myeloid cell subsets for mucosal secretory IgA responses. Sublingual immunization of wild-type mice resulted in a transient increase of neutrophils in sublingual tissues and cervical lymph nodes. These mice later developed Ag-specific serum IgG responses, but not serum or mucosal IgA. Interestingly, EdTx failed to increase neutrophils in sublingual tissues and cervical lymph nodes of IKKβ(ΔMye) mice, and these mice developed IgA responses. Partial depletion of neutrophils before immunization of wild-type mice allowed the development of both mucosal and serum IgA responses. Finally, co-culture of B cells with neutrophils from either wild-type or IKKβ(ΔMye) mice suppressed secretion of IgA, but not IgM or IgG. These results identify a new role for neutrophils as negative regulators of IgA responses.

  19. Visualization of plastids in pollen grains: involvement of FtsZ1 in pollen plastid division.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lay Yin; Nagata, Noriko; Matsushima, Ryo; Chen, Yuling; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2009-04-01

    Visualizing organelles in living cells is a powerful method to analyze their intrinsic mechanisms. Easy observation of chlorophyll facilitates the study of the underlying mechanisms in chloroplasts, but not in other plastid types. Here, we constructed a transgenic plant enabling visualization of plastids in pollen grains. Combination of a plastid-targeted fluorescent protein with a pollen-specific promoter allowed us to observe the precise number, size and morphology of plastids in pollen grains of the wild type and the ftsZ1 mutant, whose responsible gene plays a central role in chloroplast division. The transgenic material presented in this work is useful for studying the division mechanism of pollen plastids.

  20. [The epidemiology of pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Caillaud, D

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis can be established through surveys performed in a sample of the general population. These surveys are based on a questionnaire, which could lead to an overestimate of prevalence rates, and on measurements of specific IgE, which need to be interpreted in the light of the responses to the questionnaire. Such surveys are few in France and need to be updated. Risk factors for seasonal allergic rhinitis are genetic, epigenetic and environmental. Relationships between exposure to pollen and health can be documented through ecological and panel surveys. Panel surveys may give information on threshold levels and dose-response relationships. In addition to pollen exposure, global warming and air pollutants act as cofactors. Monitoring of both pollen exposure and its health effects should be encouraged and strengthened.

  1. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine.

  2. Phosphoproteomics Profiling of Tobacco Mature Pollen and Pollen Activated in vitro *

    PubMed Central

    Fíla, Jan; Radau, Sonja; Matros, Andrea; Hartmann, Anja; Scholz, Uwe; Feciková, Jana; Mock, Hans-Peter; Čapková, Věra; Zahedi, René Peiman; Honys, David

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco mature pollen has extremely desiccated cytoplasm, and is metabolically quiescent. Upon re-hydration it becomes metabolically active and that results in later emergence of rapidly growing pollen tube. These changes in cytoplasm hydration and metabolic activity are accompanied by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we subjected mature pollen, 5-min-activated pollen, and 30-min-activated pollen to TCA/acetone protein extraction, trypsin digestion and phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide. The enriched fraction was subjected to nLC-MS/MS. We identified 471 phosphopeptides that carried 432 phosphorylation sites, position of which was exactly matched by mass spectrometry. These 471 phosphopeptides were assigned to 301 phosphoproteins, because some proteins carried more phosphorylation sites. Of the 13 functional groups, the majority of proteins were put into these categories: transcription, protein synthesis, protein destination and storage, and signal transduction. Many proteins were of unknown function, reflecting the fact that male gametophyte contains many specific proteins that have not been fully functionally annotated. The quantitative data highlighted the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during pollen activation; the identified phosphopeptides were divided into seven groups based on the regulatory trends. The major group comprised mature pollen-specific phosphopeptides that were dephosphorylated during pollen activation. Several phosphopeptides representing the same phosphoprotein had different regulation, which pinpointed the complexity of protein phosphorylation and its clear functional context. Collectively, we showed the first phosphoproteomics data on activated pollen where the position of phosphorylation sites was clearly demonstrated and regulatory kinetics was resolved. PMID:26792808

  3. Phosphoproteomics Profiling of Tobacco Mature Pollen and Pollen Activated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fíla, Jan; Radau, Sonja; Matros, Andrea; Hartmann, Anja; Scholz, Uwe; Feciková, Jana; Mock, Hans-Peter; Čapková, Věra; Zahedi, René Peiman; Honys, David

    2016-04-01

    Tobacco mature pollen has extremely desiccated cytoplasm, and is metabolically quiescent. Upon re-hydration it becomes metabolically active and that results in later emergence of rapidly growing pollen tube. These changes in cytoplasm hydration and metabolic activity are accompanied by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we subjected mature pollen, 5-min-activated pollen, and 30-min-activated pollen to TCA/acetone protein extraction, trypsin digestion and phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide. The enriched fraction was subjected to nLC-MS/MS. We identified 471 phosphopeptides that carried 432 phosphorylation sites, position of which was exactly matched by mass spectrometry. These 471 phosphopeptides were assigned to 301 phosphoproteins, because some proteins carried more phosphorylation sites. Of the 13 functional groups, the majority of proteins were put into these categories: transcription, protein synthesis, protein destination and storage, and signal transduction. Many proteins were of unknown function, reflecting the fact that male gametophyte contains many specific proteins that have not been fully functionally annotated. The quantitative data highlighted the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during pollen activation; the identified phosphopeptides were divided into seven groups based on the regulatory trends. The major group comprised mature pollen-specific phosphopeptides that were dephosphorylated during pollen activation. Several phosphopeptides representing the same phosphoprotein had different regulation, which pinpointed the complexity of protein phosphorylation and its clear functional context. Collectively, we showed the first phosphoproteomics data on activated pollen where the position of phosphorylation sites was clearly demonstrated and regulatory kinetics was resolved.

  4. Pollen tube guidance by attractant molecules: LUREs.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Satohiro; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in flowering plants requires pollen-tube guidance, which is thought to be mediated by chemoattractants derived from target ovules. To date, however, no convincing evidence has been reported of a particular molecule being the true attractant. Emerging data indicate that two synergid cells, which are on either side of the egg cell, emit a diffusible, species-specific signal to attract the pollen tube at the last step of pollen-tube guidance. Recently, it was demonstrated that LUREs (LURE1 and LURE2), cysteine-rich polypeptides secreted from the synergid cell, are the key molecules in pollen-tube guidance. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of pollen-tube guidance, with special focus on gametophytic guidance and the attractants.

  5. IgA1 dominant subclass of latent IgA mesangial deposition in donated kidney

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Kazumasa; Nishimura, Kenji; Kishikawa, Hidefumi; Ichikawa, Yasuji

    2016-01-01

    Background In the pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), the IgA1 subclass is more important than the IgA2 subclass. In healthy men, the prevalence of mesangial IgA deposition has been previously investigated. However, it remains unknown whether the presence of urinary abnormalities depends on the subclass of IgA deposition. Materials and methods We researched the subclasses of IgA (IgA1 and IgA2) by the direct immunofluorescence (IF) staining method using specimens in which we identified the deposition of IgA through zero-hour renal transplant biopsies from donors without urinary abnormalities. The samples of the zero-hour biopsies were collected from 46 cases of living renal transplant patients at Nishinomiya Hospital, Hyogo Prefecture, from January 2011 to December 2013. Results In seven of the 46 cases (15%), IgA deposition and C3 in mesangium were confirmed. All seven cases showed IgA1 predominant mesangial deposition on IF. The results of the histological evaluations for all seven cases were Oxford Classification M0.S0.E0.T0. Conclusion This study showed similar patterns of latent mesangial IgA deposition according to IgA subclass and frequency of C3 deposition as IgAN. Latent mesangial IgA deposition may require some, as yet undefined factors, to become clinically apparent as IgAN. PMID:27942230

  6. Pollen tube development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark A; Kost, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tubes grow rapidly in a strictly polarized manner as they transport male reproductive cells through female flower tissues to bring about fertilization. Vegetative pollen tube cells are an excellent model system to investigate processes underlying directional cell expansion. In this chapter, we describe materials and methods required for (1) the identification of novel factors essential for polarized cell growth through the isolation and analysis of Arabidopsis mutants with defects in pollen tube growth and (2) the detailed functional characterization of pollen tube proteins based on transient transformation and microscopic analysis of cultured tobacco pollen tubes.

  7. The Tetraspanin CD37 Protects Against Glomerular IgA Deposition and Renal Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Rops, Angelique L.; Figdor, Carl G.; van der Schaaf, Alie; Tamboer, Wim P.; Bakker, Marinka A.; Berden, Jo H.; Dijkman, Henry B.P.M.; Steenbergen, Eric J.; van der Vlag, Johan; van Spriel, Annemiek B.

    2010-01-01

    The tetraspanin protein CD37 is a leukocyte-specific transmembrane protein that is highly expressed on B cells. CD37-deficient (CD37−/−) mice exhibit a 15-fold increased level of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in serum and elevated numbers of IgA+ plasma cells in lymphoid organs. Here, we report that CD37−/− mice spontaneously develop renal pathology with characteristics of human IgA nephropathy. In young naïve CD37−/− mice, mild IgA deposition in glomeruli was observed. However, CD37−/− mice developed high titers of IgA immune complexes in serum during aging, which was associated with increased glomerular IgA deposition. Severe mesangial proliferation, fibrosis, and hyalinosis were apparent in aged CD37−/− mice, whereas albuminuria was mild. To further evaluate the role of CD37 in glomerular disease, we induced anti–glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in mice. CD37−/− mice developed higher IgA serum levels and glomerular deposits of anti-GBM IgA compared with wild-type mice. Importantly, glomerular macrophage and neutrophil influx was significantly higher in CD37−/− mice during both the heterologous and autologous phase of anti-GBM nephritis. Taken together, tetraspanin CD37 controls the formation of IgA-containing immune complexes and glomerular IgA deposition, which induces influx of inflammatory myeloid cells. Therefore, CD37 may protect against the development of IgA nephropathy. PMID:20348240

  8. Structural basis for the specific recognition of the major antigenic peptide from the Japanese cedar pollen allergen Cry j 1 by HLA-DP5.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Seisuke; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Satta, Yoko; Ohsawa, Noboru; Uchikubo-Kamo, Tomomi; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Ikeda, Mariko; Terada, Takaho; Yamamoto, Ken; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-08-26

    The major allergen, Cry j 1, was isolated from Japanese cedar Cryptomeria japonica (Cry j) pollen and was shown to react with immunoglobulin E antibodies in the sera from pollinosis patients. We previously reported that the frequency of HLA-DP5 was significantly higher in pollinosis patients and the immunodominant peptides from Cry j 1 bound to HLA-DP5 to activate Th2 cells. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the HLA-DP5 heterodimer in complex with a Cry j 1-derived nine-residue peptide, at 2.4Å resolution. The peptide-binding groove recognizes the minimal peptide with 10 hydrogen bonds, including those between the negatively charged P1 pocket and the Lys side chain at the first position in the peptide sequence. We confirmed that HLA-DP5 exhibits the same Cry j 1-binding mode in solution, through pull-down experiments using structure-based mutations of Cry j 1. We also identified the characteristic residues of HLA-DP5 that are responsible for the distinct properties of the groove, by comparing the structure of HLA-DP5 and the previously reported structures of HLA-DP2 in complexes with pDRA of the self-antigen. The comparison revealed that the HLA-DP5·pCry j 1 complex forms several hydrogen bond/salt bridge networks between the receptor and the antigen that were not observed in the HLA-DP2·pDRA complex. Evolutionary considerations have led us to conclude that HLA-DP5 and HLA-DP2 represent two major groups of the HLA-DP family, in which the properties of the P1 and P4 pockets have evolved and acquired the present ranges of epitope peptide-binding specificities.

  9. Serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 level is not correlated with glomerular IgA deposition based upon heterogeneity in the composition of immune complexes in IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients may deposit more preferentially in glomeruli than heavily-O-glycosylated IgA1, the relationship between the glomerular IgA deposition level and the O-glycan profiles of serum IgA1 remains obscure. Methods Serum total under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels were quantified in 32 IgAN patients by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with Helix aspersa (HAA) lectin. Serum under-O-glycosylated polymeric IgA1 (pIgA1) was selectively measured by an original method using mouse Fcα/μ receptor (mFcα/μR) transfectant and flow cytometry (pIgA1 trap). The percentage area of IgA deposition in the whole glomeruli (Area-IgA) was quantified by image analysis on the immunofluorescence of biopsy specimens. Correlations were assessed between the Area-IgA and data from HAA-ELISA or pIgA1 trap. The relationships between clinical parameters and data from HAA-ELISA or pIgA1 trap were analyzed by data mining approach. Results While the under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels in IgAN patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls when measured (p < 0.05), there was no significant difference in under-O-glycosylated pIgA1. There was neither a correlation observed between the data from HAA-ELISA and pIgA1 trap (r2 = 0.09) in the IgAN patients (r2 = 0.005) nor was there a linear correlation between Area-IgA and data from HAA-ELISA or the pIgA1 trap (r2 = 0.005, 0.03, respectively). Contour plots of clinical parameters versus data from HAA-ELISA and the pIgA1 trap revealed that patients with a high score in each clinical parameter concentrated in specific areas, showing that patients with specific O-glycan profiles of IgA1 have similar clinical parameters. A decision tree analysis suggested that dominant immune complexes in glomeruli were consisted of: 1) IgA1-IgG and complements, 2) pIgA1 and complements, and 3) monomeric IgA1-IgA or aggregated monomeric IgA1. Conclusions

  10. The Origin and Activities of IgA1-Containing Immune Complexes in IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Knoppova, Barbora; Reily, Colin; Maillard, Nicolas; Rizk, Dana V.; Moldoveanu, Zina; Mestecky, Jiri; Raska, Milan; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan

    2016-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis, frequently leading to end-stage renal disease, as there is no disease-specific therapy. IgAN is diagnosed from pathological assessment of a renal biopsy specimen based on predominant or codominant IgA-containing immunodeposits, usually with complement C3 co-deposits and with variable presence of IgG and/or IgM. The IgA in these renal deposits is galactose-deficient IgA1, with less than a full complement of galactose residues on the O-glycans in the hinge region of the heavy chains. Research from the past decade led to the definition of IgAN as an autoimmune disease with a multi-hit pathogenetic process with contributing genetic and environmental components. In this process, circulating galactose-deficient IgA1 (autoantigen) is bound by antiglycan IgG or IgA (autoantibodies) to form immune complexes. Some of these circulating complexes deposit in glomeruli, and thereby activate mesangial cells and induce renal injury through cellular proliferation and overproduction of extracellular matrix components and cytokines/chemokines. Glycosylation pathways associated with production of the autoantigen and the unique characteristics of the corresponding autoantibodies in patients with IgAN have been uncovered. Complement likely plays a significant role in the formation and the nephritogenic activities of these complexes. Complement activation is mediated through the alternative and lectin pathways and probably occurs systemically on IgA1-containing circulating immune complexes as well as locally in glomeruli. Incidence of IgAN varies greatly by geographical location; the disease is rare in central Africa but accounts for up to 40% of native-kidney biopsies in eastern Asia. Some of this variation may be explained by genetically determined influences on the pathogenesis of the disease. Genome-wide association studies to date have identified several loci associated with IgAN. Some of these loci are associated

  11. Biomarkers and targeted new therapies for IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Rosanna

    2017-05-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has variable clinical presentation and outcome. There is a need to identify children who have the potential to progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Biomarkers related to the pathogenetic process of IgAN can detect risk factors and identify targets for new therapies. Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) is a specific biomarker of IgAN and could be the first treatment target. In experimental mice, reduction of IgA1 deposits and hematuria was observed after treatment with a bacterial protease that selectively cleaves human IgA1. Glycan-targeted drugs that may act to neutralize Gd-IgA1 inhibit abnormal enzymatic glycosylation of IgA1 or deplete cells producing Gd-IgA1. The autoimmune response to Gd-IgA1 produces autoantibodies that are sensitive and specific biomarkers of IgAN development and progression and suggests the possible benefits of anti-B cell therapies directed against CD20, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), or B cell receptor, and also proteasome inhibitors. The activation of complement in IgAN offers new biomarkers and the rationale for using complement inhibitors, including eculizumab. Renal pathological features represent sensitive biomarkers of added value over clinical data and may drive steroid therapy in selected cases. Finally, the hypothesis of the involvement of intestinal mucosal immunity in the pathogenesis of IgAN suggests the possibility of avoiding the systemic effect of steroid. Enteric budesonide targeting Peyer's patches at the ileocecal junction is an interesting option that has provided some preliminary favorable results in IgAN. In conclusion, the identification of new biomarkers is a promising area for therapies targeting IgAN in patients at risk of progression.

  12. Vancomycin-associated linear IgA disease mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Amanda Regio; de Moura, Luis Henrique Barbizan; Pinheiro, Jhonatan Rafael Siqueira; Pasin, Victor Pavan; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Porro, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Linear IgA dermatosis is a rare subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease characterized by linear deposition of IgA along the basement membrane zone. In the last three decades, many different drugs have been associated with the drug-induced form of the disease, especially vancomycin. We report a case of vancomycin-induced linear IgA disease mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis. The aim of this work is to emphasize the need to include this differential diagnosis in cases of epidermal detachment and to review the literature on the subject and this specific clinical presentation. PMID:28300888

  13. Chicken IgY Fc Linked to Bordetella avium ompA and Taishan Pinus massoniana Pollen Polysaccharide Adjuvant Enhances Macrophage Function and Specific Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Huang, He; Zhou, Jianbo; Hu, Liping; Lian, Ailing; Zhu, Lijun; Ma, Ningning; Yang, Pingping; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    Fc-fusion technologies, in which immunoglobulin Fc is genetically fused to an antigenic protein, have been developed to confer antibody-like properties to proteins and peptides. Mammalian IgG Fc fusion exhibits improved antigen-induced immune responses by providing aggregates with high avidity for the IgG Fc receptor and salvaging the antigenic portion from endosomal degradation. However, whether the linked chicken IgY Fc fragment shares similar characteristics to mammalian IgG Fc remains unclear. In this study, we linked the chicken IgY Fc gene to the outer membrane protein A (ompA) of Bordetella avium through overlapping PCR. The fusion gene was cloned into the pPIC9 plasmid to construct the recombinant Pichia pastoris transformant expressing the ompA–Fc fusion protein. The effects of the linked Fc on macrophage vitality, activity, efficiency of antigen processing, and immune responses induced by the fused ompA were investigated. Furthermore, the effect of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), an immunomodulator, on chicken macrophage activation was evaluated. TPPPS was also used as an adjuvant to investigate its immunomodulatory effect on immunoresponses induced by the fused ompA–Fc in chickens. The pinocytosis, phagocytosis, secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α, and MHC-II molecular expression of the macrophages treated with the fused ompA–Fc were significantly higher than those of the macrophages treated with ompA alone. The addition of TPPPS to the fused ompA–Fc further enhanced macrophage functions. The fused ompA–Fc elicited higher antigen-specific immune responses and protective efficacy compared with ompA alone. Moreover, the fused ompA–Fc conferred higher serum antibody titers, serum IL-2 and IL-4 concentrations, CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts, lymphocyte transformation rate, and protection rate compared with ompA alone. Notably, the prepared TPPPS adjuvant ompA–Fc vaccines induced high immune responses and protection

  14. [Clinical symptoms in IgA deficiency].

    PubMed

    De Oliveira-Serra, Flavio Augusto; Mosca, Tainá; Santos de Menezes, Maria da Conceição; Carvalho-Neves Forte, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: La deficiencia de inmunoglobulina A (IgA) es la inmunodeficiencia primaria más frecuente. El diagnóstico oportuno y el seguimiento clínico pueden mejorar la calidad de vida de los portadores. Para ello, deben estudiarse y entenderse las manifestaciones clínicas de este trastorno. Objetivo: Determinar las manifestaciones clínicas de la deficiencia de IgA. Métodos: Estudio transversal, retrospectivo, exploratorio, realizado mediante análisis de expedientes de 39 pacientes con deficiencia de IgA. Resultados: De los pacientes analizados, 10 fueron diagnosticados con deficiencia total de IgA y 29 con deficiencia parcial. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron rinoconjuntivitis y asma alérgicas. En los pacientes con deficiencia total de IgA, además de las enfermedades alérgicas se observó un mayor número de cuadros infecciosos de rinosinusitis, amigdalitis y conjuntivitis (p < 0.05). Conclusión: En el presente estudio, las principales manifestaciones clínicas de la deficiencia de IgA fueron los cuadros alérgicos de rinoconjuntivitis y el asma; además, los pacientes portadores de deficiencia total de IgA presentaron aumento significativo de cuadros infecciosos de rinosinusitis, amigdalitis y conjuntivitis, comparados con los pacientes con deficiencia parcial de IgA.

  15. Human IgA inhibits adherence of Acanthamoeba polyphaga to epithelial cells and contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Oliver-Aguillón, Gabriela; Vega-Pérez, Luz M; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Hernández-Martínez, Dolores; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Rodríguez-Monroy, Marco A; Rivera-Aguilar, Víctor; González-Robles, Arturo

    2004-09-01

    Specific anti-Acanthamoeba IgA antibodies have been detected in the serum and tears of patients and healthy individuals. However, the role of human secretory IgA antibodies in inhibiting the adherence of Acanthamoeba had not been previously investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to purify secretory IgA from human colostrum and analyze its effect on the adherence of Acanthamoeba trophozoites to contact lenses and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. IgA antibodies to Acanthamoeba polyphaga in colostrum of healthy women as well as in saliva and serum of healthy subjects were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot analysis. In serum, saliva, and colostrum, we detected IgA antibodies that recognized several antigens of A. polyphaga. In addition, colostrum and IgA antibodies purified from it inhibited adherence of A. polyphaga trophozoites to contact lenses and MDCK cells. These results suggest that IgA antibodies may participate in the resistance to the amoebic infection, probably by inhibiting the adherence of the trophozoites to contact lenses and corneal epithelial cells.

  16. Influence of Pollen Nutrition on Honey Bee Health: Do Pollen Quality and Diversity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Salignon, Marion; Le Conte, Yves; Belzunces, Luc P.; Decourtye, Axel; Kretzschmar, André; Suchail, Séverine; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Alaux, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen) necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens) and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet) on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level), and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification), phenoloxidase (immunity) and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism)). We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context) of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health. PMID:23940803

  17. Development of Animal Models of Human IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Novak, Jan; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. IgAN is characterized by the mesangial accumulation of immune complexes containing IgA1, usually with co-deposits of complement C3 and variable IgG and/or IgM. Although more than 40 years have passed since IgAN was first described, the mechanisms underlying the disease development are not fully understood. Small-animal experimental models of IgAN can be very helpful in studies of IgAN, but development of these models has been hindered by the fact that only humans and hominoid primates have IgA1 subclass. Thus, multiple models have been developed, that may be helpful in studies of some specific aspects of IgAN. These models include a spontaneous animal model of IgAN, the ddY mouse first reported in 1985. These mice show mild proteinuria without hematuria, and glomerular IgA deposits, with a highly variable incidence and degree of glomerular injury, due to the heterogeneous genetic background. To obtain a murine line consistently developing IgAN, we intercrossed an earlyonset group of ddY mice, in which the development of IgAN includes mesangial IgA deposits and glomerular injury. After selective intercrossing for >20 generations, we established a novel 100% early-onset grouped ddY murine model. All grouped ddY mice develop proteinuria within eight weeks of age. The grouped ddY mouse model can be a useful tool for analysis of multiple aspects of the pathogenesis of IgAN and may aid in assessment of some approaches for the treatment of IgAN. PMID:25722731

  18. Transglutaminase is essential for IgA nephropathy development acting through IgA receptors.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Laureline; Papista, Christina; Maciel, Thiago T; Biarnes-Pelicot, Martine; Tissandie, Emilie; Wang, Pamela H M; Tamouza, Houda; Jamin, Agnès; Bex-Coudrat, Julie; Gestin, Aurelie; Boumediene, Ahmed; Arcos-Fajardo, Michelle; England, Patrick; Pillebout, Evangéline; Walker, Francine; Daugas, Eric; Vrtosvnik, François; Flamant, Martin; Benhamou, Marc; Cogné, Michel; Moura, Ivan C; Monteiro, Renato C

    2012-04-09

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common cause of renal failure worldwide. Treatment is limited because of a complex pathogenesis, including unknown factors favoring IgA1 deposition in the glomerular mesangium. IgA receptor abnormalities are implicated, including circulating IgA-soluble CD89 (sCD89) complexes and overexpression of the mesangial IgA1 receptor, TfR1 (transferrin receptor 1). Herein, we show that although mice expressing both human IgA1 and CD89 displayed circulating and mesangial deposits of IgA1-sCD89 complexes resulting in kidney inflammation, hematuria, and proteinuria, mice expressing IgA1 only displayed endocapillary IgA1 deposition but neither mesangial injury nor kidney dysfunction. sCD89 injection into IgA1-expressing mouse recipients induced mesangial IgA1 deposits. sCD89 was also detected in patient and mouse mesangium. IgA1 deposition involved a direct binding of sCD89 to mesangial TfR1 resulting in TfR1 up-regulation. sCD89-TfR1 interaction induced mesangial surface expression of TGase2 (transglutaminase 2), which in turn up-regulated TfR1 expression. In the absence of TGase2, IgA1-sCD89 deposits were dramatically impaired. These data reveal a cooperation between IgA1, sCD89, TfR1, and TGase2 on mesangial cells needed for disease development. They demonstrate that TGase2 is responsible for a pathogenic amplification loop facilitating IgA1-sCD89 deposition and mesangial cell activation, thus identifying TGase2 as a target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.

  19. [Regional and extra-local pollen in tundra pollen samples].

    PubMed

    Vasil'chuk, A K

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of pollen spectra formation in the tundra zone of Eurasia were considered. Changes in total pollen concentration were traced in subfossil pollen samples of the tundra zone. The data on subfossil pollen spectra were used to evaluate the proportion between local and regional plus extra-local components of tundra pollen samples as well as the changes in concentration of pollen of Scots and Siberian stone pines as well as of tree and shrub birches. The diameter of dwarf birch pollen was determined in different tundra subzones of Western Siberia. The role of extra-local and regional pollen was considered for all vegetation subzones of tundra.

  20. Dating Fossil Pollen: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Describes a hands-on simulation in which students determine the age of "fossil" pollen samples based on the pollen types present when examined microscopically. Provides instructions for the preparation of pollen slides. (MDH)

  1. Gametophytic Pollen Tube Guidance: Attractant Peptides, Gametic Controls, and Receptors1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Pollen tube guidance in flowering plants is a unique and critical process for successful sexual reproduction. The pollen tube that grows from pollen, which is the male gametophyte, precisely navigates to the embryo sac, which is the female gametophyte, within the pistil. Recent advances have clarified the molecular framework of gametophytic pollen tube guidance. Multiple species-specific attractant peptides are secreted from synergid cells, the proper development and function of which are regulated by female gametes. Multiple receptor-like kinases on the pollen tube tip are involved in sensing species-specific attractant peptides. In this Update article, recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism of gametophytic pollen tube guidance is reviewed, including attraction by synergid cells, control of pollen tube guidance by female gametes, and directional growth of the pollen tube by directional cue sensing. Future directions in the study of pollen tube guidance also are discussed. PMID:27920159

  2. Isolated lymphoid follicles are not IgA inductive sites for recombinant Salmonella

    SciTech Connect

    Hashizume, Tomomi; Momoi, Fumiki; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Hosono, Akira; Kataoka, Kosuke; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Kweon, Mi-Na; Yamamoto, Masafumi . E-mail: yamamoto.masafumi@nihon-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-24

    In this study, we investigated whether isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) play a role in the regulation of intestinal IgA antibody (Ab) responses. The transfer of wild type (WT) bone marrow (BM) to lymphotoxin-{alpha}-deficient (LT{alpha}{sup -/-}) mice resulted in the formation of mature ILF containing T cells, B cells, and FDC clusters in the absence of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Although the ILF restored total IgA Abs in the intestine, antigen (Ag)-specific IgA responses were not induced after oral immunization with recombinant Salmonella expressing fragment C of tetanus toxin. Moreover, Ag-specific cell proliferation was not detected in the ILF. Interestingly, no IgA anti-LPS Abs were detected in the fecal extracts of LT{alpha}{sup -/-} mice reconstituted with WT BM. On the basis of these findings, ILF can be presumed to play a role in the production of IgA Abs, but lymphoid nodules are not inductive sites for the regulation of Ag-specific intestinal IgA responses to recombinant Salmonella.

  3. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 is involved in Arabidopsis pollen grain germination.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Christelle; Bouton, Sophie; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Fabrice, Tohnyui Ndinyanka; Mareck, Alain; Guénin, Stéphanie; Fournet, Françoise; Ringli, Christoph; Pelloux, Jérôme; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    Germination of pollen grains is a crucial step in plant reproduction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the role of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 (PME48), an enzyme implicated in the remodeling of pectins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pollen. A combination of functional genomics, gene expression, in vivo and in vitro pollen germination, immunolabeling, and biochemical analyses was used on wild-type and Atpme48 mutant plants. We showed that AtPME48 is specifically expressed in the male gametophyte and is the second most expressed PME in dry and imbibed pollen grains. Pollen grains from homozygous mutant lines displayed a significant delay in imbibition and germination in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, numerous pollen grains showed two tips emerging instead of one in the wild type. Immunolabeling and Fourier transform infrared analyses showed that the degree of methylesterification of the homogalacturonan was higher in pme48-/- pollen grains. In contrast, the PME activity was lower in pme48-/-, partly due to a reduction of PME48 activity revealed by zymogram. Interestingly, the wild-type phenotype was restored in pme48-/- with the optimum germination medium supplemented with 2.5 mm calcium chloride, suggesting that in the wild-type pollen, the weakly methylesterified homogalacturonan is a source of Ca(2+) necessary for pollen germination. Although pollen-specific PMEs are traditionally associated with pollen tube elongation, this study provides strong evidence that PME48 impacts the mechanical properties of the intine wall during maturation of the pollen grain, which, in turn, influences pollen grain germination.

  4. Reverse enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies against SAG1-related sequence, SAG2A, and p97 antigens from Toxoplasma gondii to detect specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies in human sera.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando R; Silva, Deise A O; Cunha-Júnior, Jair P; Souza, Maria A; Oliveira, Taísa C; Béla, Samantha R; Faria, Gabriele G; Lopes, Carolina S; Mineo, José R

    2008-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in reverse enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in 175 serum samples from patients at different stages of T. gondii infection, as defined by both serological and clinical criteria, as follows: recent (n = 45), transient (n = 40), and chronic (n = 55) infection as well as seronegative subjects (n = 35). The results were compared with those obtained by indirect ELISA using soluble Toxoplasma total antigen (STAg). Our data demonstrated that MAb A3A4 recognizes a conformational epitope in SAG1-related-sequence (SRS) antigens, while A4D12 and 1B8 recognize linear epitopes defined as SAG2A surface antigen and p97 cytoplasmatic antigen, respectively. Reverse ELISA for IgG with A3A4 or A4D12 MAbs was highly correlated with indirect ELISA for anti-STAg IgG, whereas only A4D12 reverse ELISA showed high correlation with indirect ELISA for IgM and IgA isotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first report analyzing the performance of a reverse ELISA for simultaneous detection of IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes active toward native SAG2A, SRS, and p97 molecules from STAg, using a panel of human sera from patients with recent and chronic toxoplasmosis. Thus, reverse ELISA based on the capture of native SAG2A and SRS antigens of STAg by MAbs could be an additional approach for strengthening the helpfulness of serological tests assessing the stage of infection, particularly in combination with highly sensitive and specific assays that are frequently used nowadays for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy or congenital infection in newborns.

  5. Intestinal IgA as a modulator of the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Okai, Shinsaku; Usui, Fumihito; Ohta, Misa; Mori, Hiroshi; Kurokawa, Ken; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kato, Tamotsu; Miyauchi, Eiji; Ohno, Hiroshi; Shinkura, Reiko

    2017-04-06

    Accumulating evidence suggests that dysbiosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as extra-intestinal disorders. As a modulator of the intestinal microbiota, we isolated a mouse monoclonal IgA antibody (clone W27) with high affinities for multiple commensal bacteria, but not for beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus casei (L. casei). Via specific recognition of an epitope in serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), a bacterial metabolic enzyme, W27 IgA selectively inhibited the in vitro growth of bound bacteria, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), while having no effect on unbound beneficial bacteria such as L. casei. By modulating the gut microbiota in vivo, oral administration of W27 IgA effectively prevented development of colitis in several mouse models. Here we discuss how intestinal IgA modulates the gut microbiota through recognition of SHMT.

  6. Estimates of common ragweed pollen emission and dispersion over Europe using RegCM-pollen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Solmon, F.; Vautard, R.; Hamaoui-Laguel, L.; Torma, Cs. Zs.; Giorgi, F.

    2015-11-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic and invasive plant in Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007; Burbach et al., 2009). To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5. In the online model environment where climate is integrated with dispersion and vegetation production, pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions. A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period 2000-2010. To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to ragweed density distribution on pollen emission, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe. The model can explain 68.6, 39.2, and 34.3 % of the observed variance in starting, central, and ending dates of the pollen season with associated root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 4.7, 3.9, and 7.0 days, respectively. The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0.69. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger. From these simulations health risks associated common ragweed pollen spread are then evaluated through calculation of exposure time above health

  7. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some trees Some grasses Weeds Ragweed Watch the Weather and the Season The amount of pollen in the air can affect whether you or your child has hay fever and asthma symptoms. On hot, dry, windy days, more pollen is in the air. ...

  8. Lack of Serologic Evidence to Link IgA Nephropathy with Celiac Disease or Immune Reactivity to Gluten

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Sina; Canetta, Pietro A.; Taylor, Annette K.; Arguelles-Grande, Carolina; Snyder, Holly; Green, Peter H.; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Alaedini, Armin

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Mucosal infections and food antigens, including wheat gluten, have been proposed as potential contributing environmental factors. Increased immune reactivity to gluten and/or association with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by ingestion of gluten, have been reported in IgA nephropathy. However, studies are inconsistent about this association. We aimed to evaluate the proposed link between IgA nephropathy and celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten by conducting a comprehensive analysis of associated serologic markers in cohorts of well-characterized patients and controls. Study participants included patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (n = 99), unaffected controls of similar age, gender, and race (n = 96), and patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease (n = 30). All serum specimens were tested for IgG and IgA antibodies to native gliadin and deamidated gliadin, as well as IgA antibody to transglutaminase 2 (TG2). Anti-TG2 antibody-positive nephropathy patients and unaffected controls were subsequently tested for IgA anti-endomysial antibody and genotyped for celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. In comparison to unaffected controls, there was not a statistically significant increase in IgA or IgG antibody reactivity to gliadin in individuals with IgA nephropathy. In addition, the levels of celiac disease-specific serologic markers, i.e., antibodies to deamidated gliadin and TG2, did not differ between IgA nephropathy patients and unaffected controls. Results of the additional anti-endomysial antibody testing and HLA genotyping were corroborative. The data from this case-control study do not reveal any evidence to suggest a significant role for celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten in IgA nephropathy. PMID:24732864

  9. A novel pollen tube growth assay utilizing a transmitting tract-ablated Nicotiana tabacum style.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Carrie A; Clasen, Benjamin M; Anderson, Neil O; Smith, Alan G

    2012-03-01

    Sexual plant reproduction requires multiple pollen-pistil interactions from the stigma (pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination) to the ovary (fertilization). Understanding the factors that regulate pollen tube growth is critical to understanding the processes essential to sexual reproduction. Many pollen tube growth assays (PTGAs) have shorter and slower pollen tube growth when compared to pollen tube growth through the style. The identification and study of factors that regulate pollen tube growth have been impeded by a lack of an efficient and reproducible PTGA. The objective of this research is to develop a robust assay for Nicotiana tabacum pollen tube growth in an environment that supports sustained and normal growth yet is amenable to testing the effects of specific factors. In this paper, we introduce a novel PTGA, which uses pistils from N. tabacum that lack a mature transmitting tract (TT) due to tissue-specific ablation. The TT-ablated style supports normal pollen tube growth and the hollow structure of the style allows modification of the growth environment by direct injection of test material. This PTGA is robust and allows for rapid and accurate measurement of pollen tube length and pollen tube morphology, supporting pollen tube growth from 20 to 35°C and at pH ranging from 4.8 to 7.6. Use of the ablated style for a PTGA is a novel method for the culture of pollen tubes with sustained growth in vivo while permitting the application of treatments to the growing pollen tubes.

  10. Bias to pollen odors is affected by early exposure and foraging experience.

    PubMed

    Arenas, A; Farina, W M

    2014-07-01

    In many pollinating insects, foraging preferences are adjusted on the basis of floral cues learned at the foraging site. In addition, olfactory experiences gained at early adult stages might also help them to initially choose food sources. To understand pollen search behavior of honeybees, we studied how responses elicited by pollen-based odors are biased in foraging-age workers according to (i) their genetic predisposition to collect pollen, (ii) pollen related information gained during foraging and (iii) different experiences with pollen gained at early adult ages. Bees returning to the hive carrying pollen loads, were strongly biased to unfamiliar pollen bouquets when tested in a food choice device against pure odors. Moreover, pollen foragers' orientation response was specific to the odors emitted by the pollen type they were carrying on their baskets, which suggests that foragers retrieve pollen odor information to recognize rewarding flowers outside the hive. We observed that attraction to pollen odor was mediated by the exposure to a pollen diet during the first week of life. We did not observe the same attraction in foraging-age bees early exposed to an artificial diet that did not contain pollen. Contrary to the specific response observed to cues acquired during foraging, early exposure to single-pollen diets did not bias orientation response towards a specific pollen odor in foraging-age bees (i.e. bees chose equally between the exposed and the novel monofloral pollen odors). Our results show that pollen exposure at early ages together with olfactory experiences gained in a foraging context are both relevant to bias honeybees' pollen search behavior.

  11. Inhibition of in Vitro Pollen Tube Growth by Isolated S-Glycoproteins of Nicotiana alata.

    PubMed Central

    Jahnen, W.; Lush, W. M.; Clarke, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    Pollen from three S-genotypes of Nicotiana alata was grown in vitro in the presence of S-glycoproteins isolated from styles of the same three genotypes. Pollen germination was not affected by the presence of the S-glycoproteins, but pollen tube growth of all genotypes was inhibited. S2 pollen was preferentially inhibited by the S2-glycoprotein and S3 pollen by the S3-glycoprotein. The S6-glycoprotein preferentially inhibited growth of both S2 and S6 pollen over S3 pollen. Heat treatment dramatically increased the inhibitory activity of the S-glycoproteins as inhibitors both of pollen germination and tube growth; after heat treatment, S-allele specificity of pollen tube inhibition was not detected. PMID:12359898

  12. Production and Characterization of a Set of Mouse-Human Chimeric Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Subclass and IgA Monoclonal Antibodies with Identical Variable Regions Specific for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Serogroup O6 Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Michael J.; Gerçeker, A. Alev; Reff, Mitchell E.; Pier, Gerald B.

    1998-01-01

    The heavy- and light-chain variable regions from a murine monoclonal antibody that recognize Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroup O6 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to generate a series of chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibodies with identical variable regions. The murine variable-region gene segments were cloned into an immunoglobulin (Ig) cDNA expression vector that contained the human kappa light-chain and IgG1 constant regions. The IgG1 heavy-chain constant region was then replaced with the human IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, or IgA1 heavy-chain constant region. The five different expression vectors were transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells for antibody production. The chimeric antibodies exhibited immunoreactivity and affinity similar to that of the parental murine IgG antibody toward whole cells of a serogroup O6 strain. In vitro complement deposition assays demonstrated that the chimeric IgG4 and IgA antibodies did not mediate the deposition of complement component C3 onto the surface of either purified LPS or whole bacteria. The chimeric IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies were similar in their ability to deposit C3 onto the surface of both bacteria and LPS, while IgG2 antibody was more effective at depositing C3 onto the surface of bacteria than onto purified LPS. The pattern of opsonophagocytic activity of the chimeric monoclonal antibodies was similar to that of complement deposition onto bacterial cells in that the chimeric IgG1 and IgG3 had the highest opsonic activity. Although IgG2 deposited more C3 onto the bacterial surface than did IgG4 or IgA, all three of these isotypes had low opsonic activity against the serogroup O6 target strain. This series of related antibodies will help reveal functional differences in efficacy among protective antibodies to P. aeruginosa and will be critical for defining the optimal formulation of either a vaccine for active immunization or a polyclonal intravenous IgG or monoclonal antibody cocktail for passive immunotherapy. PMID

  13. Genomic expression profiling of mature soybean (Glycine max) pollen

    PubMed Central

    Haerizadeh, Farzad; Wong, Chui E; Bhalla, Prem L; Gresshoff, Peter M; Singh, Mohan B

    2009-01-01

    Background Pollen, the male partner in the reproduction of flowering plants, comprises either two or three cells at maturity. The current knowledge of the pollen transcriptome is limited to the model plant systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa which have tri-cellular pollen grains at maturity. Comparative studies on pollen of other genera, particularly crop plants, are needed to understand the pollen gene networks that are subject to functional and evolutionary conservation. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip® to perform transcriptional profiling on mature bi-cellular soybean pollen. Results Compared to the sporophyte transcriptome, the soybean pollen transcriptome revealed a restricted and unique repertoire of genes, with a significantly greater proportion of specifically expressed genes than is found in the sporophyte tissue. Comparative analysis shows that, among the 37,500 soybean transcripts addressed in this study, 10,299 transcripts (27.46%) are expressed in pollen. Of the pollen-expressed sequences, about 9,489 (92.13%) are also expressed in sporophytic tissues, and 810 (7.87%) are selectively expressed in pollen. Overall, the soybean pollen transcriptome shows an enrichment of transcription factors (mostly zinc finger family proteins), signal recognition receptors, transporters, heat shock-related proteins and members of the ubiquitin proteasome proteolytic pathway. Conclusion This is the first report of a soybean pollen transcriptional profile. These data extend our current knowledge regarding regulatory pathways that govern the gene regulation and development of pollen. A comparison between transcription factors up-regulated in soybean and those in Arabidopsis revealed some divergence in the numbers and kinds of regulatory proteins expressed in both species. PMID:19265555

  14. Ash pollen allergy: reliable detection of sensitization on the basis of IgE to Ole e 1.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Konrad; Probst, Elisabeth; Seifert, Burkhardt; Regenass, Stephan; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    Background: Alongside hazel, alder and birch pollen allergies, ash pollen allergy is a relevant cause of hay fever during spring in the European region. For some considerable time, ash pollen allergy was not routinely investigated and its clinical relevance may well have been underestimated, particularly since ash and birch tree pollination times are largely the same. Ash pollen extracts are not yet well standardized and diagnosis is therefore sometimes unreliable. Olive pollen, on the other hand, is strongly cross-reactive with ash pollen and is apparently better standardized. Therefore, the main allergen of olive pollen, Ole e 1, has been postulated as a reliable alternative for the detection of ash pollen sensitization. Methods: To determine to what extent specific IgE against Ole e 1 in patients with ash pollen allergy is relevant, we included 183 subjects with ash pollen allergy displaying typical symptoms in March/April and positive skin prick test specific IgE against Ole e 1 (t224) and ash pollen (t25) and various birch allergens (Bet v 1, Bet v 2/v 4) in a retrospective study. Results: A significant correlation was seen between specific IgE against Ole e 1 and ash pollen, but also to a slightly lesser extent between IgE against Ole e 1 and skin prick test with ash pollen, the latter being even higher than IgE and skin prick test both with ash pollen. No relevant correlation was found with birch pollen allergens, demonstrating the very limited cross-reactivity between ash and birch pollen. Conclusion: It appears appropriate to determine specific IgE against Ole e 1 instead of IgE against ash pollen to detect persons with ash pollen allergy. Our findings may also support the idea of using possibly better standardized or more widely available olive pollen extracts instead of ash pollen extract for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  15. Neutralizing antibodies in mucosal secretions: IgG or IgA?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Rashada; Mestecky, Jiri

    2007-11-01

    The mucosal immune response to HIV weighs in heavily on the battle against it, as the majority of infections occur via the mucosal route. The antibody response in the mucosae, specifically the genital tract, is characterized by binding and, in some studies, neutralizing HIV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies. Ample evidence, however, points to discrepancies and difficulties in the detection of HIV-specific IgA in HIV-positive subjects, and an even more pronounced divide surfaces in studies done with individuals exposed to HIV, but uninfected. Reports in the literature detail HIV-specific (in some cases, neutralizing) IgA antibodies, in the absence of specific IgG, in the serum and mucosal secretions of virus-exposed, seronegative subjects; this has given rise to speculation that HIV-specific IgA provides a protective immune response to the virus in high-risk individuals who remain seronegative. Contradictory results, however, describe the absence of both IgA and IgG HIV antibodies in the mucosal secretions of similar cohorts. Considering the importance of the antibody response to ascertaining the correlates of HIV immunity, as well as on vaccine research and development, this review addresses the relevant studies and their implications.

  16. Cell-Cell Interactions during pollen tube guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Daphne Preuss

    2009-03-31

    The long-term goal of this research is to identify the signaling molecules that mediate plant cell-cell interactions during pollination. The immediate goals of this project are to perform genetic and molecular analysis of pollen tube guidance. Specifically, we proposed to: 1. Characterize the pistil components that direct pollen tube navigation using the Arabidopsis thaliana in vitro pollen tube guidance system 2. Identify pistil signals that direct pollen tube guidance by a) using microarrays to profile gene expression in developing pistils, and b) employing proteomics and metabolomics to isolate pollen tube guidance signals. 3. Explore the genetic basis of natural variation in guidance signals, comparing the in vitro interactions between pollen and pistils from A. thaliana and its close relatives.

  17. Reevaluation of pollen quantitation by an automatic pollen counter.

    PubMed

    Muradil, Mutarifu; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Yonekura, Syuji; Chazono, Hideaki; Hisamitsu, Minako; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Takahashi, Yukie; Yokota, Kunihiko; Okumura, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Accurate and detailed pollen monitoring is useful for selection of medication and for allergen avoidance in patients with allergic rhinitis. Burkard and Durham pollen samplers are commonly used, but are labor and time intensive. In contrast, automatic pollen counters allow simple real-time pollen counting; however, these instruments have difficulty in distinguishing pollen from small nonpollen airborne particles. Misidentification and underestimation rates for an automatic pollen counter were examined to improve the accuracy of the pollen count. The characteristics of the automatic pollen counter were determined in a chamber study with exposure to cedar pollens or soil grains. The cedar pollen counts were monitored in 2006 and 2007, and compared with those from a Durham sampler. The pollen counts from the automatic counter showed a good correlation (r > 0.7) with those from the Durham sampler when pollen dispersal was high, but a poor correlation (r < 0.5) when pollen dispersal was low. The new correction method, which took into account the misidentification and underestimation, improved this correlation to r > 0.7 during the pollen season. The accuracy of automatic pollen counting can be improved using a correction to include rates of underestimation and misidentification in a particular geographical area.

  18. Oxidative stress in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Coppo, R; Camilla, R; Amore, A; Peruzzi, L

    2010-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by mesangial deposits of IgA1, likely due to accumulation of IgA immune complexes. The activation of intracellular signaling mostly results in oxidative stress, as detected in mesangial cells cultured with aberrantly glycosylated IgA or IgA aggregates and in renal biopsies of patients with IgAN. Signs of altered oxidation/antioxidation balance have been detected in sera and/or in erythrocytes of patients with IgAN, including increased levels of lipoperoxide or malondialdehyde and reduced activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, increased levels of a marker of oxidative stress, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), have been reported to be significantly associated with proteinuria and disease progression in patients with IgAN. AOPPs are often carried by albumin and can in turn enhance the oxidative stress in the circulation. Recent research suggests that the nephrotoxicity of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in IgAN is enhanced in the presence of systemic signs of oxidative stress, and it is tempting to hypothesize that the level of the oxidative milieu conditions the different expression and progression of IgAN.

  19. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Rituximab in IgA Nephropathy with Proteinuria and Renal Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lafayette, Richard A; Canetta, Pietro A; Rovin, Brad H; Appel, Gerald B; Novak, Jan; Nath, Karl A; Sethi, Sanjeev; Tumlin, James A; Mehta, Kshama; Hogan, Marie; Erickson, Stephen; Julian, Bruce A; Leung, Nelson; Enders, Felicity T; Brown, Rhubell; Knoppova, Barbora; Hall, Stacy; Fervenza, Fernando C

    2017-04-01

    IgA nephropathy frequently leads to progressive CKD. Although interest surrounds use of immunosuppressive agents added to standard therapy, several recent studies have questioned efficacy of these agents. Depleting antibody-producing B cells potentially offers a new therapy. In this open label, multicenter study conducted over 1-year follow-up, we randomized 34 adult patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy and proteinuria >1 g/d, maintained on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with well controlled BP and eGFR<90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), to receive standard therapy or rituximab with standard therapy. Primary outcome measures included change in proteinuria and change in eGFR. Median baseline serum creatinine level (range) was 1.4 (0.8-2.4) mg/dl, and proteinuria was 2.1 (0.6-5.3) g/d. Treatment with rituximab depleted B cells and was well tolerated. eGFR did not change in either group. Rituximab did not alter the level of proteinuria compared with that at baseline or in the control group; three patients in each group had ≥50% reduction in level of proteinuria. Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 or antibodies against galactose-deficient IgA1 did not change. In this trial, rituximab therapy did not significantly improve renal function or proteinuria assessed over 1 year. Although rituximab effectively depleted B cells, it failed to reduce serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 and antigalactose-deficient IgA1 antibodies. Lack of efficacy of rituximab, at least at this stage and severity of IgA nephropathy, may reflect a failure of rituximab to reduce levels of specific antibodies assigned salient pathogenetic roles in IgA nephropathy.

  20. The habitat, double life, citizenship, and forgetfulness of IgA.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Andrew J; Geuking, Markus B; Slack, Emma; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; McCoy, Kathy D

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the main secretory immunoglobulin of mucous membranes and is powerfully induced by the presence of commensal microbes in the intestine. B cells undergo class switch recombination to IgA in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, particularly mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and Peyer's patches, through both T-dependent and T-independent pathways. IgA B cells primed in the mucosa traffic from the intestinal lymphoid structures, initially through the lymphatics and then join the bloodstream, to home back to the intestinal mucosa as IgA-secreting plasma cells. Once induced, anti-bacterial IgA can be extremely long-lived but is replaced if there is induction of additional IgA specificities by other microbes. The mucosal immune system is anatomically separated from the systemic immune system by the MLNs, which act as a firewall to prevent penetration of live intestinal bacteria to systemic sites. Dendritic cells sample intestinal bacteria and induce B cells to switch to IgA. In contrast, intestinal macrophages are adept at killing extracellular bacteria and are able to clear bacteria that have crossed the mucus and epithelial barriers. There is both a continuum between innate and adaptive immune mechanisms and compartmentalization of the mucosal immune system from systemic immunity that function to preserve host microbial mutualism.

  1. [Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europea in patients with pollen allergy in Zadar County, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Skitarelić, Natasa; Mazzi, Antun; Skitarelić, Neven; Misulić, Josko; Vuletić, Ana

    2010-06-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most common respiratory allergens in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea in pollen allergic patients in the County of Zadar. The study included 671 patients with pollen allergy; 61 % were male and 39 % female. 53.5 % were children aged from 4 to 14 years and 46.5 % adolescents and adults from 15 to 59 years. We took their case history, clinically examined them, and tested using the skin prick test and enzymo-immunologic UniCAP test for specific IgE antibodies. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test. Hypersensitivity to Olea europea pollen was confirmed in 8.8 % patients with pollen allergy. Among them, the most prevalent symptom was rhinitis (58 %). Most hypersensitive patients were urban residents. Only 3 % patients lived on an island. Judging by available data, our findings show the lowest hypersensitivity to olive pollen in the Mediterranean. A comparison with our two earlier studies did not show any fluctuation in this kind of hypersensitivity.

  2. Vibration Induces BAFF Overexpression and Aberrant O-Glycosylation of IgA1 in Cultured Human Tonsillar Mononuclear Cells in IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Muyao; Liu, Chan; Yan, Wenzhe; Peng, Xiaofei; He, Liyu; Liu, Hong; Liu, Fuyou

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of in vitro vibratory stimulation of human tonsillar mononuclear cells (TMCs). Methods. Fourteen IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients with chronic tonsillitis (CT) and 12 CT patients with no renal pathology were enrolled. Group A TMCs were collected after 24 hours of culture and used to determine baseline levels. TMCs in groups B, C, D, E, and F were exposed to vibratory stimulation (60 Hz) for 0 (as the control group), 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes, respectively. Results. Baseline concentrations of B-cell-activation factor (BAFF) and IgA1, BAFF mRNA expression, and aberrant O-glycosylation IgA1 level were higher in the IgAN group as compared to that in the CT group, and all increased after vibratory stimulation. Baseline mRNA expressions of core β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) and core β1,3GalT-specific molecular chaperone (Cosmc) were lower in the IgAN group; the levels decreased further after vibratory stimulation. Conclusion. In patients with IgAN, vibratory stimulation of TMCs appears to induce IgA1 secretion through activation of BAFF release and to aberrant O-glycosylation IgA1 by suppressing C1GALT1 and Cosmc expression. In vitro vibratory stimulation of human TMCs mimics the vibratory simulation of palatine tonsils produced by vocal cords during phonation. PMID:27672662

  3. A DNA Barcoding Approach to Characterize Pollen Collected by Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Ilaria; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Sandionigi, Anna; Barbuto, Michela; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno), characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella) at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands. PMID:25296114

  4. A DNA barcoding approach to characterize pollen collected by honeybees.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Andrea; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bruni, Ilaria; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Sandionigi, Anna; Barbuto, Michela; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno), characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella) at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands.

  5. Stable isotope analyses of palaeo-pollen records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, D.; Loader, N.

    2002-12-01

    Pollen stratigraphy is one of the most widely used tools for studying climate and vegetation dynamics over global and multi-millennial scales. Since the isotopic compositions of photosynthates that are used to form the pollen structure reflect environmental conditions during the time of pollen formation, the stable carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions (δ13C, δ18O and δ{}D) of the pollen grains may reflect this environmental information. Although there are many preliminary tests and methodological problems to overcome before we can fully utilise palaeo-pollen records, it is the general goal of our research to use pollen isotope records together with conventional palynological analyses to provide additional, independent spatial and temporal palaeo-environmental information and to provide new data on terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, including the timing of environmental changes, phase relationships of vegetation responses and regional and temporal variations in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O and δ{}D. These isotopic records will facilitate in the modelling of palaeo-environments. By separating and analysing different pollen species, including C3 and C4, we also aim to assess species-specific climatic responses. We present results describing some recent investigations concerning the nature of the isotopic signal contained within pollen, the methodological developments we have made to measure the pollen isotopic composition and the future challenges that must be overcome before this potentially powerful quantitative terrestrial palaeo-archive can be fully and correctly utilised.

  6. Overexpression of the tomato pollen receptor kinase LePRK1 rewires pollen tube growth to a blebbling mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tubular growth of a pollen tube cell is crucial for the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. LePRK1 is a pollen-specific and plasma membrane–localized receptor-like kinase from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). LePRK1 interacts with another receptor, LePRK2, and with KINASE PARTNER PROTEIN (KPP...

  7. Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Giampiero; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In pollen tubes, cytoskeleton proteins are involved in many aspects of pollen germination and growth, from the transport of sperm cells to the asymmetrical distribution of organelles to the deposition of cell wall material. These activities are based on the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Changes to both actin filaments and microtubules are triggered by specific proteins, resulting in different organization levels suitable for the different functions of the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are enzymes ubiquitous in all plant organs and cell compartments. They catalyze the post-translational conjugation of polyamines to different protein targets, such as the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are suggested to have a general role in the interaction between pollen tubes and the extracellular matrix during fertilization and a specific role during the self-incompatibility response. In such processes, the activity of transglutaminases is enhanced, leading to the formation of cross-linked products (including aggregates of tubulin and actin). Consequently, transglutaminases are suggested to act as regulators of cytoskeleton dynamics. The distribution of transglutaminases in pollen tubes is affected by both membrane dynamics and the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are also secreted in the extracellular matrix, where they may take part in the assembly and/or strengthening of the pollen tube cell wall. PMID:27137368

  8. Expression of green fluorescent protein in pollen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and its utility for assessing pollen movement in the field.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong S; Halfhill, Matthew D; Hudson, Laura C; Millwood, Reginald J; Stewart, C Neal

    2006-10-01

    Transgene movement via pollen is an important component of gene flow from transgenic plants. Here, we present proof-of-concept studies that demonstrate the monitoring of short distant movement of pollen expressing a genetically encoded fluorescent tag in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Westar). Transgenic oilseed rape plants were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method with the pBINDC1 construct containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant, mGFP5-ER, under the control of the pollen-specific LAT59 promoter from tomato. Transgenic pollen was differentiated from non-transgenic pollen in vivo by a unique spectral signature, and was shown to be an effective tool to monitor pollen movement in the greenhouse and field. GFP-tagged pollen also served as a practical marker to determine the zygosity of plants. In a greenhouse pollen flow study, more pollen was captured at closer distances from the source plant plot with consistent wind generated by a fan. Under field conditions, GFP transgenic pollen grains were detected up to a distance of 15 m, the farthest distance from source plants assayed. GFP-tagged pollen was easily distinguishable from non-transgenic pollen using an epifluorescence microscope.

  9. [IgA nephropathy in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Marinaki, M; Benini, D; Fasoli, E; Fanos, V

    2003-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is a primitive cronic idiopatic glomerulonephritis, characterized by diffuse depositis of IgA in the glomeruler mesangium. Familial cases are also descripted. IgA nephropaty is more frequent in males and in white rase. In Italy it's the most frequently recognized glomerulonephritis in renal biopsia (20%), especially in patients with dismorfic micro or macroematuria and nephrotic proteinuria. Clinical presentation is often in association with respiratory tract or gastrointestinal disorders. The most relevant pathogenetic hypothesis suggest an IgA abnormal glycosilation, with mesangial IgA aggregation, increased mesangial reactivity and release of inflammatory mediators and fibrotic agents. Treatment is considered in rapidly progressing forms. At the present, there is no treatment of proven value in all patients, althoug interesting results have been published with prednison, ACE-inhibitors or fish-oil in decresing renal deterioration rate. Natural history varies in different series. Renal survival at 10 years is 85% in Italy, 94% in France, 97% in the USA. Poor prognostic factor are heavy proteinuria and hypertension. However a wide inter-individual variability is observed.

  10. Studies of genetic transformation of higher plants using irradiated pollen

    SciTech Connect

    Chyi, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pandey has reported extensively on an unusual genetic phenomenon he called egg transformation. When compatible pollen was treated wth genetically lethal dosage of ..gamma..-radiation (100,000 rad), and used as mentor pollen to overcome selfincompatibility of several Nicotiana species, some genetic characters were found to be transferred from the radiation killed pollen to nonhybrid progeny. Observed transformants were fertile, cytogenetically normal, and had maternal phenotypes except for those specific traits transferred from the donors. Heavily irradiated pollen was believed to discharge its radiation-fragmented DNA (chromatin) into the embryo sac and bring about the transformation of the egg. The frequency of gene transfer was reported to be over 50%, and happened for all three characters Pandey studied - self incompatible specificities, flower color, and pollen color. Plant species studied were tomato, pea, apple, rapeseed, and Nicotiana species, including various stocks from Dr. Pandey. Treatments included pollinations with soley irradiated donor pollen, with a mixture of irradiated donor and normal self pollen, with a mixture of normal donor and self pollen, and double pollinations with irradiated donor pollen and normal self pollen, using different time intervals to separate the two pollinations. A total of 6210 pollinations were made, and 17,522 seedlings representing 87,750 potential transformational events were screened. In no case was an unambiguous transformant recovered. This research was unable to confirm or expand upon the findings of Dr. Pandey, or elucidate the mechanisms underlying such phenomena. Alternative explanations for Pandey's data were postulated. This approach to gene transfer by using irradiated pollen appears to be of little practical use to plant breeders.

  11. Efficient generation of human IgA monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lorin, Valérie; Mouquet, Hugo

    2015-07-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody isotype produced in humans. IgA antibodies primarily ensure immune protection of mucosal surfaces against invading pathogens, but also circulate and are present in large quantities in blood. IgAs are heterogeneous at a molecular level, with two IgA subtypes and the capacity to form multimers by interacting with the joining (J) chain. Here, we have developed an efficient strategy to rapidly generate human IgA1 and IgA2 monoclonal antibodies in their monomeric and dimeric forms. Recombinant monomeric and dimeric IgA1/IgA2 counterparts of a prototypical IgG1 monoclonal antibody, 10-1074, targeting the HIV-1 envelope protein, were produced in large amounts after expression cloning and transient transfection of 293-F cells. 10-1074 IgAs were FPLC-purified using a novel affinity-based resin engrafted with anti-IgA chimeric Fabs, followed by a monomers/multimers separation using size exclusion-based FPLC. ELISA binding experiments confirmed that the artificial IgA class switching of 10-1074 did not alter its antigen recognition. In summary, our technical approach allows the very efficient production of various forms of purified recombinant human IgA molecules, which are precious tools in dissecting IgA B-cell responses in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and studying the biology, function and therapeutic potential of IgAs.

  12. Molecular changes during pollen germination can be monitored by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Franziska; Panne, Ulrich; Kneipp, Janina

    2010-08-01

    The processes associated with pollen germination were studied in vitro for two tree species, Salix caprea and Fraxinus excelsior under different nutrient conditions. The results provide evidence of changes in chemical composition of the pollen grains during germination. From the comparison of spectra of the pollen grain body and the growing pollen tube, it can be concluded that there are major chemical differences between these two morphological units. Comparison of germinated and ungerminated pollen grains reveals alterations in the metabolism. Composition of the germinating pollen grain and its morphological units depends on the plant species, but also on the nutrient conditions. The results suggest species-specific utilization of metabolite storage, and potential alterations of the pollen outer coat. Furthermore, discharge of molecules into the nutrient medium may depend on the nutrient conditions in the germination experiments. This has implications for further experiments on dynamic processes in pollen and related plant materials.

  13. IgA glomerulonephritis (Berger's disease): evidence of high serum levels of polymeric IgA.

    PubMed

    Trascasa, M L; Egido, J; Sancho, J; Hernando, L

    1980-11-01

    Eleven out of 15 patients with IgA mesangial glomerulonephritis (Berger's disease) had an increased proportion of serum IgA in 9-21S fractions on 5-40% sucrose density-gradient ultracentrifugation; the heavier fractions decreased at acid pH. Serum IgA purified by starch electrophoresis was subjected to reduction-alkylation yielding fragments of lower molecular weight. J chain was detected on urea alkaline polyacrylamide electrophoresis and the high-molecular weight IgA bound the human secretory component. In six patients treated with phenytoin for 1 year there was a decrease in polymeric IgA and an increase in monomeric IgA adopting a pattern similar to that of the controls. Our results show the presence of a large amount of true IgA polymers, partially as immune complexes, in the serum of patients with Berger's disease. These data together with their normalization after phenytoin treatment may open a new pathogenic and therapeutic approach to this entity.

  14. IgA pemphigus showing IgA antibodies to desmoglein 1 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, Salama; Bouchouicha, Sana; Khaled, Aida; Laadher, Lilia; Sellami, Maryem Kallel; Zeglaoui, Faten

    2016-01-01

    Background IgA pemphigus is a rare autoimmune vesiculo-pustular skin disease. Only approximately 70 cases have been reported to date. We report a case of IgA pemphigus with IgA antibodies to desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) and desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). Case report We report the case of an 60-year-old man with intraepidermal neutrophilic IgA pemphigus with IgA antibodies to Dsg1 and Dsg3. Histologic examination revealed subcorneal neutrophilic pustules with few acantholytic cells. The disease was not effectively controlled by conventional therapeutic regimens (colchicine, dapsone). Systemic treatment with isotretinoin 25 mg/d and prednisone 20 mg/d achieved only a slight effect after six months. Conclusions Our case confirmed the recalcitrant nature of IgA pemphigus in response to distinct therapies, indicating that further research focusing on therapeutic approaches for this type of pemphigus is needed. Physicians should keep IgA pemphigus in mind when approaching patients with bullous eruption. PMID:27867744

  15. IgA1 proteases of Haemophilus influenzae: cloning and characterization in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Bricker, J; Mulks, M H; Plaut, A G; Moxon, E R; Wright, A

    1983-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is one of several bacterial pathogens known to release IgA1 proteases into the extracellular environment. Each H. influenzae isolate produces one of at least three distinct types of these enzymes that differ in the specific peptide bond they cleave in the hinge region of human IgA1. We have isolated the gene specifying type 1 IgA1 protease from a total genomic library of H. influenzae, subcloned it into plasmid vectors, and introduced these vectors into Escherichia coli K-12. The enzyme synthesized by E. coli was active and had the same specificity as that of the H. influenzae donor. Unlike that of the donor, E. coli protease activity accumulated in the periplasm rather than being transported extracellularly. The position of the protease gene in H. influenzae DNA and its direction of transcription was approximated by deletion mapping. Tn5 insertions, and examination of the polypeptides synthesized by minicells. A 1-kilobase probe excised from the IgA1 protease gene hybridized with DNA restriction fragments of all H. influenzae serogroups but not with DNA of a nonpathogenic H. parainfluenzae species known to be IgA1 protease negative. Images PMID:6341996

  16. Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus kunkeei YB38 improves murine influenza pneumonia by enhancing IgA production.

    PubMed

    Asama, Takashi; Uematsu, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Noritada; Tatefuji, Tomoki; Hashimoto, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Influenza is one of the important respiratory tract infections that require special attention for maintaining health and hygiene. The removal of influenza virus (IFV) by secretory IgA produced by the respiratory epithelium has been reported to be a critical host defense mechanism. Therefore, we isolated Lactobacillus kunkeei YB38 (YB38), the promoter of the salivary IgA secretion in humans, from honeybee pollen and studied the effect of heat-killed YB38 treatment for preventing IFV infection in a mouse model. Female BALB/c mice received YB38 orally for 21 consecutive days and were then inoculated nasally with IFV. The YB38-treated group with a daily dose of 100 mg/kg showed an increased survival rate after IFV infection relative to the control. IgA secretion in the respiratory epithelium in the YB38-treated group (100 mg/kg) was significantly increased after 6 days of infection, while IL-6 production in the same respiratory site and the number of cells infiltrating into alveoli were significantly decreased. Moreover, lung tissue damage that appeared after IFV infection was reduced. These results suggested that the YB38 dose induced early and local IgA secretion at the infection site, inhibited persistent IFV infection, and prevented the infiltration of inflammatory immune cells or production of excessive IL-6, resulting in less damage to lung tissues.

  17. Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus kunkeei YB38 improves murine influenza pneumonia by enhancing IgA production

    PubMed Central

    ASAMA, Takashi; UEMATSU, Takayuki; KOBAYASHI, Noritada; TATEFUJI, Tomoki; HASHIMOTO, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is one of the important respiratory tract infections that require special attention for maintaining health and hygiene. The removal of influenza virus (IFV) by secretory IgA produced by the respiratory epithelium has been reported to be a critical host defense mechanism. Therefore, we isolated Lactobacillus kunkeei YB38 (YB38), the promoter of the salivary IgA secretion in humans, from honeybee pollen and studied the effect of heat-killed YB38 treatment for preventing IFV infection in a mouse model. Female BALB/c mice received YB38 orally for 21 consecutive days and were then inoculated nasally with IFV. The YB38-treated group with a daily dose of 100 mg/kg showed an increased survival rate after IFV infection relative to the control. IgA secretion in the respiratory epithelium in the YB38-treated group (100 mg/kg) was significantly increased after 6 days of infection, while IL-6 production in the same respiratory site and the number of cells infiltrating into alveoli were significantly decreased. Moreover, lung tissue damage that appeared after IFV infection was reduced. These results suggested that the YB38 dose induced early and local IgA secretion at the infection site, inhibited persistent IFV infection, and prevented the infiltration of inflammatory immune cells or production of excessive IL-6, resulting in less damage to lung tissues. PMID:28243545

  18. Pollen Viability and Pollen Tube Attrition in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The content of mature seed in a cranberry fruit increases with stigmatic pollen load. On average, however, only two seeds result for every tetrad of pollen deposited. What then is the fate of the two remaining pollen grains fused in each tetrad? Germination in vitro revealed that most of the grains ...

  19. [Linear IgA bullous dermatosis].

    PubMed

    Lorette, Gérard; Georgesco, Gabriella

    2010-10-01

    The linear IgA bullous dermatosis can have various aspects involving erythema and bullous lesions. It is a rare disease. Two peaks of frequency are noticed in children before puberty and in adults around 60 years of age. The histological and immunological characterisation is infraepidermal bullous lesions and linear deposits of IgA along the dermoepidermal basement membrane. There are some targets antigens. There is often a medical condition that seems to trigger. The link with drugs in particular with vancomycin was established. The mainstay of treatment is dapsone generally associated with steroids.

  20. [Allergenic pollens in Spain].

    PubMed

    Subiza Garrido-Lestache, J

    2004-01-01

    Allergenic pollens that cause rhinoconjuctivitis and/or asthma are those from trees or plants that pollinate through the air (anemophilic pollination) and not through insects (entomophilic pollination). Although pollen grains would seem to be too large to easily reach the intrapulmonary airways, the relationship between pollen counts and the presence of asthmatic symptoms is only too evident. This is probably because the allergens inducing seasonal asthma are not only found within pollen grains but also outside the grains in particles of less than 10 mm that are freely found in the atmosphere. The most important pollens producing pollinosis in Spain are those from cypress trees from January-March, birch trees in April (macizo galaico), Platanus hispanica (March-April), grasses and olive trees from April-June, Parietaria from April-July and Chenopodium and/or Salsola from July-September. By geographical areas, the main cause of pollinosis are grasses in the center and north of the peninsula, olive trees in the south (Jaén, Sevilla, Granada, Córdoba) and Parietaria in the Mediterranean coast (Barcelona, Murcia, Valencia).

  1. Antisense-mediated silencing of a gene encoding a major ryegrass pollen allergen.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, P L; Swoboda, I; Singh, M B

    1999-09-28

    Type 1 allergic reactions, such as hay fever and allergic asthma, triggered by grass pollen allergens are a global health problem that affects approximately 20% of the population in cool, temperate climates. Ryegrass is the dominant source of allergens because of its prodigious production of airborne pollen. Lol p 5 is the major allergenic protein of ryegrass pollen, judging from the fact that almost all of the individuals allergic to grass pollen show presence of serum IgE antibodies against this protein. Moreover, nearly two-thirds of the IgE reactivity of ryegrass pollen has been attributed to this protein. Therefore, it can be expected that down-regulation of Lol p 5 production can significantly reduce the allergic potential of ryegrass pollen. Here, we report down-regulation of Lol p 5 with an antisense construct targeted to the Lol p 5 gene in ryegrass. The expression of antisense RNA was regulated by a pollen-specific promoter. Immunoblot analysis of proteins with allergen-specific antibodies did not detect Lol p 5 in the transgenic pollen. The transgenic pollen showed remarkably reduced allergenicity as reflected by low IgE-binding capacity of pollen extract as compared with that of control pollen. The transgenic ryegrass plants in which Lol p 5 gene expression is perturbed showed normal fertile pollen development, indicating that genetic engineering of hypoallergenic grass plants is possible.

  2. Genetic and biochemical analysis of gonococcal IgA1 protease: cloning in Escherichia coli and construction of mutants of gonococci that fail to produce the activity.

    PubMed Central

    Koomey, J M; Gill, R E; Falkow, S

    1982-01-01

    The biological significance of bacterial extracellular proteases that specifically cleave human IgA1 is unknown. We have prepared a gene bank of gonococcal chromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli K-12 using a cosmid cloning system. Among these clones, we have identified and characterized an E. coli strain that elaborates an extracellular endopeptidase that is indistinguishable from gonococcal IgA1 protease in its substrate specificity and action on human IgA1. Analysis of recombinant plasmids and examination of plasmid-specific peptides in minicells have shown that the IgA1 protease activity in E. coli is associated with expression of a Mr 140,000 peptide. We have isolated IgA1 protease-deficient mutants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by reintroduction of physically defined deletions of the cloned gene into the gonococcal chromosome by transformation. Images PMID:6818556

  3. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    PubMed Central

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  4. Nephrotic syndrome is a rare manifestation of IGA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Alshomar, Ahmad A

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is a rare presentation of IgA nephropathy. The degree of proteinuria in IgA nephropathy predicts poor prognosis. We herein report a teenager with IGA nephropathy, the nephrotic syndrome and segmental glomerular scars who after developing complications from high dose corticosteroid therapy was successfully treated with tacrolimus and low dose prednisone. PMID:27610069

  5. Cloning and structural analysis of two highly divergent IgA isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2 from the duck billed platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Vernersson, M; Belov, K; Aveskogh, M; Hellman, L

    2010-01-01

    To trace the emergence of modern IgA isotypes during vertebrate evolution we have studied the immunoglobulin repertoire of a model monotreme, the platypus. Two highly divergent IgA-like isotypes (IgA1 and IgA2) were identified and their primary structures were determined from full-length cDNAs. A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgA from various animal species showed that the two platypus IgA isotypes form a branch clearly separated from their eutherian (placental) counterparts. However, they still conform to the general structure of eutherian IgA, with a hinge region and three constant domains. This indicates that the deletion of the second domain and the formation of a hinge region in IgA did occur very early during mammalian evolution, more than 166 million years ago. The two IgA isotypes in platypus differ in primary structure and appear to have arisen from a very early gene duplication, possibly preceding the metatherian eutherian split. Interestingly, one of these isotypes, IgA1, appears to be expressed in only the platypus, but is present in the echidna based on Southern blot analysis. The platypus may require a more effective mucosal immunity, with two highly divergent IgA forms, than the terrestrial echidna, due to its lifestyle, where it is exposed to pathogens both on land and in the water.

  6. Sporophytic control of pollen tube growth and guidance in maize

    PubMed Central

    Lausser, Andreas; Kliwer, Irina; Srilunchang, Kanok-orn; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tube germination, growth, and guidance (progamic phase) culminating in sperm discharge is a multi-stage process including complex interactions between the male gametophyte as well as sporophytic tissues and the female gametophyte (embryo sac), respectively. Inter- and intra-specific crossing barriers in maize and Tripsacum have been studied and a precise description of progamic pollen tube development in maize is reported here. It was found that pollen germination and initial tube growth are rather unspecific, but an early, first crossing barrier was detected before arrival at the transmitting tract. Pollination of maize silks with Tripsacum pollen and incompatible pollination of Ga1s/Ga1s-maize silks with ga1-maize pollen revealed another two incompatibility barriers, namely transmitting tract mistargeting and insufficient growth support. Attraction and growth support by the transmitting tract seem to play key roles for progamic pollen tube growth. After leaving transmitting tracts, pollen tubes have to navigate across the ovule in the ovular cavity. Pollination of an embryo sac-less maize RNAi-line allowed the role of the female gametophyte for pollen tube guidance to be determined in maize. It was found that female gametophyte controlled guidance is restricted to a small region around the micropyle, approximately 50–100 μm in diameter. This area is comparable to the area of influence of previously described ZmEA1-based short-range female gametophyte signalling. In conclusion, the progamic phase is almost completely under sporophytic control in maize. PMID:19926683

  7. Selective deficiency of IgA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Possible Complications Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis , systemic lupus erythematosus , and celiac sprue may develop. People with IgA ... More Autoimmune disorders Autosomal dominant Respiratory Rheumatoid arthritis Systemic lupus erythematosus Review Date 3/20/2016 Updated by: Stuart ...

  8. IgA Antibodies in Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, K. L.; Skjeldal, O.

    2006-01-01

    The level of IgA antibodies to gluten and gliadin proteins found in grains and to casein found in milk, as well as the level of IgG to gluten and gliadin, have been examined in 23 girls with Rett syndrome and 53 controls. Highly statistically significant increases were found for the Rett population compared to the controls. The reason for this…

  9. Levels and complexity of IgA antibody against oral bacteria in samples of human colostrum.

    PubMed

    Petrechen, L N; Zago, F H; Sesso, M L T; Bertoldo, B B; Silva, C B; Azevedo, K P; de Lima Pereira, S A; Geraldo-Martins, V R; Ferriani, V P L; Nogueira, R D

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans (SM) have three main virulence antigens: glucan binding protein B (gbpB), glucosyltransferase (Gtf) and antigens I/II (Ag I/II) envolved in the capacity of those bacteria to adhere and accumulate in the dental biofilm. Also, the glycosyltransferases 153 kDa of Streptococcus gordonii (SGO) and 170kDa of Streptococcus sanguinis (SSA) were important antigens associated with the accumulation of those bacterias. Streptococcus mitis (SMI) present IgA1 protease of 202 kDa. We investigated the specificity and levels IgA against those antigens of virulence in samples of human colostrum. This study involved 77 samples of colostrum that were analyzed for levels of immunoglobulian A, M and G by Elisa. The specificity of IgA against extracts of SM and initials colonizators (SSA, SMI, SGO) were analyzed by the Western blot. The mean concentration of IgA was 2850.2 (±2567.2) mg/100 mL followed by IgM and IgG (respectively 321.8±90.3 and 88.3±51.5), statistically different (p<0.05). Results showed that the majority of samples had detectable levels of IgA antibodies to extracts of bacteria antigens and theirs virulence antigens. To SM, the GbpB was significantly lower detected than others antigens of SM (p<0.05). High complexities of response to Ags were identified in the samples. There were no significant differences in the mean number of IgA-reactive Ags between the antigens (p>0.4). So, the breast milk from first hours after birth presented significant levels of IgA specific against important virulence of antigens those oral streptococci, which can disrupt the installation and accumulation process of these microorganisms in the oral cavity.

  10. Do we need to measure total serum IgA to exclude IgA deficiency in coeliac disease?

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, D; Saas, M; Turk, A; Goble, M; Kerr, D

    2006-01-01

    Background Screening for IgA deficiency in patients with coeliac disease is essential because of the increased incidence of IgA deficiency associated with the disease, which usually relies on the estimation of IgA levels in each case. Aim To devise a method of excluding IgA deficiency without measuring total serum IgA in each case. Materials and methods The optical density readings on enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of 608 routine samples received for tissue transglutaminase (TTG) antibody testing for coeliac disease were compared with their total IgA concentrations. Dilution experiments were also carried out to ensure linear relationships between optical density on ELISA and IgA concentrations and to compare the sensitivities for TTG and endomysium antibodies in TTG‐positive samples. Results and discussion A clear relationship was shown between total IgA concentration and TTG optical density readings by ELISA. To ensure a positive TTG result if antibodies are present, it was possible to recommend an optical density level above which all samples have sufficient IgA. Samples with optical density <0.05 should be investigated further by estimating total IgA and, if low, samples should be subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy testing for IgA and IgG endomysium antibodies. Conclusions An easier, more cost‐effective and practical way of excluding IgA deficiency in the investigation on coeliac disease is reported. PMID:16489174

  11. IgA production in the large intestine is modulated by a different mechanism than in the small intestine: Bacteroides acidifaciens promotes IgA production in the large intestine by inducing germinal center formation and increasing the number of IgA+ B cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagibashi, Tsutomu; Hosono, Akira; Oyama, Akihito; Tsuda, Masato; Suzuki, Ami; Hachimura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Momose, Yoshika; Itoh, Kikuji; Hirayama, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Kyoko; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that intestinal commensal bacteria induce immunoglobulin (Ig) A production by promoting the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues in the small intestine. However, the precise mechanism whereby these bacteria modulate IgA production in the large intestine, which harbors the majority of intestinal commensals, is poorly understood. In addition, it is not known which commensal bacteria induce IgA production in the small intestine and which induce production in the large intestine. To address these issues, we generated gnotobiotic mice mono-associated with different murine commensal bacteria by inoculating germ-free (GF) mice with Lactobacillus johnsonii or Bacteroides acidifaciens. In GF mice, IgA production was barely detectable in the small intestine and was not detected in the large intestine. Interestingly, total IgA secretion in the large intestinal mucosa of B. acidifaciens mono-associated (BA) mice was significantly greater than that of GF and L. johnsonii mono-associated (LJ) mice. However, there was no difference in total IgA production in the small intestine of GF, LJ and BA mice. In addition, in the large intestine of BA mice, the expression of IgA(+) cells and germinal center formation were more remarkable than in GF and LJ mice. Furthermore, B. acidifaciens-specific IgA was detected in the large intestine of BA mice. These results suggest that the production of IgA in the large intestine may be modulated by a different mechanism than that in the small intestine, and that B. acidifaciens is one of the predominant bacteria responsible for promoting IgA production in the large intestine.

  12. Emerging pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte; Batanero, Eva; Palomares, Oscar; Salamanca, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Numerous pollen allergens have been reported over the last few years. Most of them belong to well-known families of proteins but some others constitute the first member of new allergenic families. Some of the factors that can contribute to the detection and identification of new pollen allergens are: a) advances in the technology tools for molecular analysis; and b) the deep knowledge of many allergenic sources. The combination of these factors has provided vast information on the olive pollen allergogram and the identification of minor allergens that become major ones for a significant population. The close taxonomical relationship between olive tree and ash -both Oleaceae- has permitted to identify Fra e 1 (the Ole e 1-like allergen) in ash pollen and to detect the presence of protein homologues of Ole e 3 and Ole e 6. In the other hand, extensive areas of south Europe are suffering an increasing desertification. As a consequence of this, new botanical species are spontaneously growing in these areas or being used in greening ground programs: Chenopodium album and Salsola kali are some examples recently recognized as allergenic woods. The identification of the complete panel of allergens from the hypersensitizing sources might help to develop more accurate diagnosis, and efficient and safer therapy tools for Type-I allergic diseases.

  13. Transition from a botanical to a molecular classification in tree pollen allergy: implications for diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Mothes, Nadine; Horak, Friedrich; Valenta, Rudolf

    2004-12-01

    Tree pollens are among the most important allergen sources. Allergic cross-reactivity to pollens of trees from various plant orders has so far been classified according to botanical relationships. In this context, cross-reactivities to pollens of trees of the Fagales order (birch, alder, hazel, hornbeam, oak, chestnut), fruits and vegetables, between pollens of the Scrophulariales (olive, ash, plantain, privet, lilac) and pollens of the Coniferales (cedar, cypress, pine) are well established. The application of molecular biology methods for allergen characterization has revealed the molecular nature of many important tree pollen allergens. We review the spectrum of tree pollen allergens and propose a classification of tree pollen and related allergies based on major allergen molecules instead of botanical relationships among the allergenic sources. This molecular classification suggests the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1 as a marker for Fagales pollen and related plant food allergies, the major olive pollen allergen, Ole e 1, as a possible marker for Scrophulariales pollen allergy and the cedar allergens, Cry j 1 and Cry j 2, as potential markers for allergy to Coniferales pollens. We exemplify for Fagales pollen allergy and Bet v 1 that major marker allergens are diagnostic tools to determine the disease-eliciting allergen source. Information obtained by diagnostic testing with marker allergens will be important for the appropriate selection of patients for allergen-specific forms of therapy.

  14. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin-Qi; Liu, Chang Zhen; Li, Dan Dan; Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Pollen-stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen-stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen-stigma interactions during pollination.

  15. Role of IgA receptors in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Sebastian M; Papista, Christina; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Berthelot, Laureline; Monteiro, Renato C

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) or Berger's disease is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world and one of the first causes of end-stage renal failure. IgAN is characterized by the accumulation of immune complexes containing polymeric IgA1 in mesangial areas. The pathogenesis of this disease involves the deposition of polymeric and hypogalactosylated IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in the mesangium. Quantitative and structural changes of Gd-IgA1 play a key role in the development of the disease due to functional abnormalities of two IgA receptors: the FcαRI (CD89) expressed by blood myeloid cells and the transferrin receptor (CD71) on mesangial cells. Abnormal Gd-IgA1 induces release of soluble CD89, which participates in the formation of circulating IgA1 complexes. These complexes are trapped by CD71 that is overexpressed on mesangial cells in IgAN patients together with the crosslinking enzyme transglutaminase 2 allowing pathogenic IgA complex formation in situ and mesangial cell activation. A humanized mouse model expressing IgA1 and CD89 develops IgAN in a similar manner as patients. In this model, a food antigen, the gliadin, was shown to be crucial for circulating IgA1 complex formation and deposition, which could be prevented by a gluten-free diet. Identification of these new partners opens new therapeutic prospects for IgAN treatment.

  16. Large Eddy Simulation of Pollen Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B.

    2007-11-01

    The development of genetically modified crops and questions about cross-pollination and contamination of natural plant populations enhanced the importance of understanding wind dispersion of airborne pollen. The main objective of this work is to simulate the dispersal of pollen grains in the atmospheric surface layer using large eddy simulation. Pollen concentrations are simulated by an advection-diffusion equation including gravitational settling. Of great importance is the specification of the bottom boundary conditions characterizing the pollen source over the canopy and the deposition process everywhere else. The velocity field is discretized using a pseudospectral approach. However the application of the same discretization scheme to the pollen equation generates unphysical solutions (i.e. negative concentrations). The finite-volume bounded scheme SMART is used for the pollen equation. A conservative interpolation scheme to determine the velocity field on the finite volume surfaces was developed. The implementation is validated against field experiments of point source and area field releases of pollen.

  17. Serum IgA levels induced by rotavirus natural infection, but not following immunization with the RRV-TV vaccine (Rotashield), correlate with protection.

    PubMed

    González, Rosabel; Franco, Manuel; Sarmiento, Luis; Romero, Milagros; Schael, Irene Pérez

    2005-08-01

    To directly compare serum rotavirus specific IgA as a marker of protection in children vaccinated with the RRV-TV (Rotashield) vaccine and in naturally infected children, we studied pre-existing rotavirus IgA antibodies by ELISA assays in these groups of children within the first 5 days after the onset of a diarrhea episode, due or not to rotavirus. In immunized children, rotavirus IgA titers were similar between infected and non-RV infected children. In non-immunized children, the proportion with rotavirus IgA titers was significantly greater in non-RV infected children (58%) than in infected children (31%). Additionally, a titer >/=1:800 was associated with 68% protection. Thus, in this study serum rotavirus IgA showed a good correlation with protection in children pre-exposed to natural infection but not in those immunized with the RRV-TV vaccine.

  18. Serum IgA to Epstein-Barr virus Early Antigen-Diffuse identifies Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Shane C.; Shedd, Duane; Mueller, Nancy E.; Chang, Ellen T.; Miller, George; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

    2013-01-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is associated with immune dysregulation. Immune impairment often results in aberrant immune responses and lytic reactivation of ubiquitous Herpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in mucosal tissues. Accordingly, the specificity of IgA to EBV early-lytic antigens, which are important for reactivation, was evaluated to determine Hodgkin's lymphoma-specific sero-reactive patterns. Sera from 42 previously described patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared to sera from 17 patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), another EBV-related condition that often presents in a similar manner; and to sera from 15 healthy EBV-seropositive subjects. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that like IM sera, most Hodgkin's lymphoma sera contained IgA that labeled cells expressing EBV early-lytic antigens whereas healthy EBV-seropositive sera did not. Further evaluation to distinguish Hodgkin's lymphoma from IM showed that IgA in most Hodgkin's lymphoma, irrespective of the presence of EBV in primary tumors, detected only modified forms of EBV lytic Early Antigen-Diffuse (EA-D) while IM sera detected the un-modified form as well, further supporting the presence of immune dysregulation in Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. This IgA pattern distinguished Hodgkin's lymphoma from IM sera with a sensitivity of 92.9%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 85%. Our findings lay the groundwork for additional scientific and clinical investigation, particularly into the potential for developing Hodgkin's lymphoma -associated diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:24122847

  19. Serum IgA to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen-diffuse identifies Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Shane C; Shedd, Duane; Mueller, Nancy E; Chang, Ellen T; Miller, George; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

    2014-09-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is associated with immune dysregulation. Immune impairment often results in aberrant immune responses and lytic reactivation of ubiquitous Herpesviruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in mucosal tissues. Accordingly, the specificity of IgA to EBV early lytic antigens, which are important for reactivation, was evaluated to determine Hodgkin's lymphoma-specific sero-reactive patterns. Sera from 42 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared to sera from 17 patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), another EBV-related condition that often presents in a similar manner; and to sera from 15 healthy EBV-seropositive subjects. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that like IM sera, most Hodgkin's lymphoma sera contained IgA that labeled cells expressing EBV early lytic antigens whereas healthy EBV-seropositive sera did not. Further evaluation to distinguish Hodgkin's lymphoma from IM showed that IgA in most Hodgkin's lymphoma, irrespective of the presence of EBV in primary tumors, detected only modified forms of EBV lytic Early Antigen-Diffuse (EA-D) while IM sera detected the un-modified form as well, further supporting the presence of immune dysregulation in Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. This IgA pattern distinguished Hodgkin's lymphoma from IM sera with a sensitivity of 92.9%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 85%. Our findings lay the groundwork for additional scientific and clinical investigation, particularly into the potential for developing Hodgkin's lymphoma-associated diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.

  20. Tonsillectomy and IgA nephritis.

    PubMed

    Ponticelli, Claudio

    2012-07-01

    IgA nephritis (IgAN) is an autoimmune disease characterized by deposits of IgA in the glomerular mesangium. Clinically, the disease may be punctuated by episodes of macroscopic haematuria often associated with pharingotonsillitis or may be oligosyntomatic with microscopic haematuria and mild proteinuria. The natural course of IgAN may be indolent and benign; however, some 30-50% of patients may progress to end-stage renal disease when follow-up is extended to ≥20 years. In patients with IgAN, circulating IgA1 molecules have an aberrant structure of O-glycans in the hinge region, which is characterized by abbreviated glycans composed of N-acetylgalactosamine, with or without sialic acid. These aberrant IgA1 trigger the production of autoantibodies, with formation of immune complexes that deposit in the mesangium causing inflammation and production of extracellular matrix. A number of experimental and clinical data outlined a possible pathogenetic role of tonsillitis. As a consequence, tonsillectomy has been frequently performed in Japan. Observational studies, made in patients with normal renal function and mild proteinuria, reported that tonsillectomy could reduce the episodes of macrohaematuria as well as the entity of microhaematuria and proteinuria. However, the available studies had short-term follow-up and could not asses the role of tonsillectomy in protecting from renal function deterioration. In a longitudinal retrospective study, Isseki et al. compared the outcome of tonsillectomized patients with IgAN with that of IgAN patients who did not receive tonsillectomy. Tonsillectomized patients had a higher number of remissions and a better slope of glomerular filtration rate in comparison with controls. These data are interesting and suggest that tonsillectomy may prevent renal dysfunction in patients with IgAN and normal renal function. However, the retrospective nature of the study and the presence of some confounding factors require further investigations

  1. The Nonplanar Secretory IgA2 and Near Planar Secretory IgA1 Solution Structures Rationalize Their Different Mucosal Immune Responses*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Alexandra; Almogren, Adel; Furtado, Patricia B.; Kerr, Michael A.; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Secretory IgA (SIgA) is the most prevalent human antibody and is central to mucosal immunity. It exists as two subclasses, SIgA1 and SIgA2, where SIgA2 has a shorter hinge joining the Fab and Fc regions. Both forms of SIgA are predominantly dimeric and contain an additional protein called the secretory component (SC) that is attached during the secretory process and is believed to protect SIgA in harsh mucosal conditions. Here we locate the five SC domains relative to dimeric IgA2 within SIgA2 using constrained scattering modeling. The x-ray and sedimentation parameters showed that SIgA2 has an extended solution structure. The constrained modeling of SIgA2 was initiated using two IgA2 monomers that were positioned according to our best fit solution structure for dimeric IgA1. SC was best located along the convex edge of the Fc-Fc region. The best fit models showed that SIgA2 is significantly nonplanar in its structure, in distinction to our previous near planar SIgA1 structure. Both the shorter IgA2 hinges and the presence of SC appear to displace the four Fab regions out of the Fc plane in SIgA2. This may explain the noncovalent binding of SC in some SIgA2 molecules. This nonplanar structure is predicted to result in specific immune properties for SIgA2 and SIgA1. It may explain differences observed between the SIgA1 and SIgA2 subclasses in terms of their interactions with antigens, susceptibility to proteases, effects on receptors, and distribution in different tissues. The different structures account for the prevalence of both forms in mucosal secretions. PMID:19109255

  2. IgA and IgG antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody engagement of Fc receptor genetic variants influences granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Kelley, James M; Monach, Paul A; Ji, Chuanyi; Zhou, Yebin; Wu, Jianming; Tanaka, Sumiaki; Mahr, Alfred D; Johnson, Sharleen; McAlear, Carol; Cuthbertson, David; Carette, Simon; Davis, John C; Dellaripa, Paul F; Hoffman, Gary S; Khalidi, Nader; Langford, Carol A; Seo, Phillip; St Clair, E William; Specks, Ulrich; Stone, John H; Spiera, Robert F; Ytterberg, Steven R; Merkel, Peter A; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Kimberly, Robert P

    2011-12-20

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) is a rare autoimmune neutrophil-mediated vasculitis that can cause renal disease and mucosal manifestations. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are present in many patients, vary in level over time, and induce neutrophil activation through engagement with Fc receptors (FcRs). Given roles for FcRs in ANCA-mediated neutrophil activation and IgA antibodies in mucosal immunity, we hypothesized that FcR genetics and previously unappreciated IgA ANCA affect clinical presentation. We assembled a total of 673 patients and 413 controls from two multicenter cohorts, performed ELISA and immunofluorescence assays to determine IgA and IgG ANCA positivity, and used Illumina, TaqMan, or Pyrosequencing to genotype eight haplotype-tagging SNPs in the IgA FcR (FCAR) and to determine NA1/NA2 genotype of FCGR3B, the most prevalent neutrophil IgG FcR. We evaluated neutrophil activation by measuring degranulation marker CD11b with flow cytometry or neutrophil extracellcular trap formation with confocal microscopy. Functional polymorphisms in FCGR3B and FCAR differed between patient groups stratified by renal involvement. IgA ANCA were found in ∼30% of patients and were less common in patients with severe renal disease. Neutrophil stimulation by IgA or IgG ANCA led to degranulation and neutrophil extracellcular trap formation in a FcR allele-specific manner (IgA:FCAR P = 0.008; IgG:FCGR3B P = 0.003). When stimulated with IgA and IgG ANCA together, IgG ANCA induced neutrophil activation was reduced (P = 0.0001). FcR genotypes, IgA ANCA, and IgG ANCA are potential prognostic and therapeutic targets for understanding the pathogenesis and presentation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's).

  3. Lectin-based analysis of fucose and sialic acid expressions on human amniotic IgA during normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, Magdalena; Augustyniak, Daria; Hirnle, Lidia; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2013-08-01

    The sugar moiety of IgA is known to provide a link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Terminally located glycotopes on IgA are potential ligands engaged in the interactions which may modulate the biological activities of IgA. In the present work the expressions of Maackia amurensis (MAA), Sambucus nigra (SNA), Lens culinaris (LCA), Tetragonolobus purpureus (LTA), and Ulex europaeus (UEA) reactive glycotopes on maternal plasma and amniotic IgA were evaluated in relation to the progression of a normal human pregnancy, from the 2nd trimester, throughout the 3rd trimester, perinatal period, post-date pregnancy and delivery, by lectin-IgA-ELISA, using specific biotinylated lectins. The amniotic and maternal plasma IgA concentrations and a degree of SNA and LCA reactivity of maternal plasma IgA were almost unaltered during the normal pregnancy. The amniotic IgA from the 2nd trimester was decorated by MAA-, SNA-reactive and LCA-, LTA-, and UEA-reactive glycotopes. At the turn of the 2nd and 3rd trimesters the expression of MAA-, SNA-, LTA-, and UEA-reactive glycotopes, except for LCA-reactive, increased and remained almost at unaltered levels throughout the perinatal period and delivery. However, in the post-date pregnancy the expression of LCA-, LTA-, and UEA-reactive and SNA-reactive glycotopes were significantly higher. The unique fucosylated and sialylated glycovariants of amniotic IgA associated with the progression of the normal pregnancy may illustrate a general importance of carbohydrate-lectin receptor interactions in the control and modulation of biological events to ensuring homeostasis during pregnancy, protection and well-being of fetus.

  4. Characterization of pollen and bacterial community composition in brood provisions of a small carpenter bee.

    PubMed

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Rehan, Sandra M

    2016-05-01

    Many insects obtain gut microbes from their diet, but how a mother's foraging patterns influence the microbes found in her offspring's food remains an open question. To address this gap, we studied a bee that forages for pollen from multiple species of plants and may therefore acquire diverse bacteria from different plants. We tested the hypothesis that pollen diversity correlates with bacterial diversity by simultaneously characterizing these two communities in bee brood provisions for the first time. We used deep sequencing of the plant RBCL gene and the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize pollen and bacterial diversity. We then tested for associations between pollen and bacterial species richness and community composition, as well as co-occurrence of specific bacteria and pollen types. We found that both pollen and bacterial communities were extremely diverse, indicating that mother bees visit a wide variety of flowers for pollen and nectar and subsequently bring a diversity of microbes back into their nests. Pollen and bacterial species richness and community composition, however, were not correlated. Certain pollen types significantly co-occurred with the most proportionally abundant bacteria, indicating that the plants these pollen types came from may serve as reservoirs for these bacteria. Even so, the overall diversity of these communities appears to mask these associations at a broader scale. Further study of these pollen and bacteria associations will be important for understanding the complicated relationship between bacteria and wild bees.

  5. Concentric Ring Method for generating pollen maps. Quercus as case study.

    PubMed

    Oteros, Jose; Valencia, Rosa Mª; Del Río, Sara; Vega, Ana Mª; García-Mozo, Herminia; Galán, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Pablo; Mandrioli, Paolo; Fernández-González, Delia

    2017-01-15

    Mapping pollen concentrations is of great interest to study the health impact and ecological implications or for forestry or agronomical purposes. A deep knowledge about factors affecting airborne pollen is essential for predicting and understanding its dynamics. The present work sought to predict annual Quercus pollen over the Castilla and León region (Central and Northern Spain). Also to understand the relationship between airborne pollen and landscape. Records of Quercus and Quercus pyrenaica pollen types were collected at 13 monitoring sites over a period of 8years. They were analyzed together with land use data applying the Concentric Ring Method (CRM), a technique that we developed to study the relationship between airborne particle concentrations and emission sources in the region. The maximum correlation between the Quercus pollen and forms of vegetation was determined by shrubland and "dehesa" areas. For the specific Qi pyrenaica model (Q. pyrenaica pollen and Q. pyrenaica forest distribution), the maximum influence of emission sources on airborne pollen was observed at 14km from the pollen trap location with some positive correlations up to a distance of 43km. Apart from meteorological behavior, the local features of the region can explain pollen dispersion patterns. The method that we develop here proved to be a powerful tool for multi-source pollen mapping based on land use.

  6. IgA nephropathy complicating diabetic glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Orfila, C; Lepert, J C; Modesto, A; Pipy, B; Suc, J M

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective study was done on 66 diabetic patients who had renal biopsies performed during 1979-1994. This review shows 10 patients who presented IgA nephropathy associated with diabetic nephropathy. Six patients had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 4 patients non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All patients presented with proteinuria and 7 had hematuria. Four patients presented with renal impairment. Histologic evaluation disclosed the presence of thickened glomerular basement membranes and increased mesangial matrix in all cases, associated with nodular sclerosis in 8 cases. By immunofluorescence, diffuse mesangial IgA deposits were observed in all cases. The high incidence of the coexistence of IgA nephropathy and diabetes seems not merely coincidental. Structural and/or functional abnormalities of the glomerular basement membranes might facilitate the development of immune complex glomerular diseases. In patients with diabetes, the appearance of urinary abnormalities and/or deterioration in renal function altered the clinical history of diabetic nephropathy. The disorders are clinically suggestive of the presence of nondiabetic renal disease and raised the possibility of another pathogenetic mechanism.

  7. Pathology of IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ian S D

    2014-08-01

    IgA nephropathy is defined by the presence of IgA-dominant or co-dominant immune deposits within glomeruli. Biopsy specimens meeting these diagnostic criteria have a range of histological changes that are reflected in the variable clinical course of IgA nephropathy. The impact of histology on outcomes in IgA nephropathy has been clarified in a number of large retrospective clinicopathological studies. These studies have consistently demonstrated that the stage of disease at presentation, as indicated by the extent of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy in the biopsy, is the strongest histological predictor of renal survival. The effect of active proliferative lesions on the disease course is less clear cut, owing in part to considerable treatment bias in most published retrospective studies. There is evidence that endocapillary hypercellularity and cellular crescents are responsive to immunosuppressive therapy, but this observation requires confirmation in prospective randomized controlled trials. Future challenges include improving the reproducibility of histological scoring, particularly for the presence and extent of endocapillary lesions, and to improve prognostic modelling by combining histological data with clinical variables and biomarker data.

  8. Molecular Ice Nucleation Activity of Birch Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgitsch, Laura; Bichler, Magdalena; Häusler, Thomas; Weiss, Victor U.; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation plays a major part in ecosystem and climate. Due to the triggering of ice cloud formation it influences the radiation balance of the earth, but also on the ground it can be found to be important in many processes of nature. So far the process of heterogeneous ice nucleation is not fully understood and many questions remain to be answered. Biological ice nucleation is hereby from great interest, because it shows the highest freezing temperatures. Several bacteria and fungi act as ice nuclei. A famous example is Pseudomonas syringae, a bacterium in commercial use (Snomax®), which increases the freezing from homogeneous freezing temperatures of approx. -40° C (for small volumes as in cloud droplets) to temperatures up to -2° C. In 2001 it was found that birch pollen can trigger ice nucleation (Diehl et al. 2001; Diehl et al. 2002). For a long time it was believed that this is due to macroscopic features of the pollen surface. Recent findings of Bernhard Pummer (2012) show a different picture. The ice nuclei are not attached on the pollen surface directly, but on surface material which can be easily washed off. This shows that not only the surface morphology, but also specific molecules or molecular structures are responsible for the ice nucleation activity of birch pollen. With various analytic methods we work on elucidating the structure of these molecules as well as the mechanism with which they trigger ice nucleation. To solve this we use various instrumental analytic techniques like Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS), and Gas-phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analysis (GEMMA). Also standard techniques like various chromatographic separation techniques and solvent extraction are in use. We state here that this feature might be due to the aggregation of small molecules, with agglomerates showing a specific surface structure. Our results

  9. Circulating human CD27-IgA+ memory-B cells recognize bacteria with polyreactive immunoglobulins1

    PubMed Central

    Berkowska, Magdalena A.; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; de Ridder, Dick; Ng, Yen Shing; van Dongen, Jacques J.M.; Meffre, Eric; van Zelm, Menno C.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of immunoglobulin (Ig)A production occurs in mucosal tissue following T-cell dependent and T-cell independent antigen responses. To study the nature of each of these responses, we analyzed the gene expression and Ig reactivity profiles of T-cell dependent CD27+IgA+ and T-cell independent CD27−IgA+ circulating memory-B cells. Gene expression profiles of IgA+ subsets were highly similar to each other and to IgG+ memory-B-cell subsets with typical upregulation of activation markers and downregulation of inhibitory receptors. However, we identified the mucosa-associated CCR9 and RUNX2 genes to be specifically upregulated in CD27−IgA+ B cells. We also found that CD27−IgA+ B cells expressed antibodies with distinct Ig repertoire and reactivity than those from CD27+IgA+ B cells. Indeed, antibodies from CD27−IgA+ B cells were weakly mutated, often utilized Igλ chain and were enriched in polyreactive clones recognizing various bacterial species. Hence, T-cell independent IgA responses are likely involved in the maintenance of gut homeostasis through the production of polyreactive mutated IgA antibodies with crossreactive anti-commensal reactivity. PMID:26150533

  10. Pollen tube growth and guidance: roles of small, secreted proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Keun; Lord, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollination is a crucial step in angiosperm (flowering plant) reproduction. Highly orchestrated pollen–pistil interactions and signalling events enable plant species to avoid inbreeding and outcrossing as a species-specific barrier. In compatible pollination, pollen tubes carrying two sperm cells grow through the pistil transmitting tract and are precisely guided to the ovules, discharging the sperm cells to the embryo sac for fertilization. Scope In Lilium longiflorum pollination, growing pollen tubes utilize two critical mechanisms, adhesion and chemotropism, for directional growth to the ovules. Among several molecular factors discovered in the past decade, two small, secreted cysteine-rich proteins have been shown to play major roles in pollen tube adhesion and reorientation bioassays: stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA, approx. 9·3 kDa) and chemocyanin (approx. 9·8 kDa). SCA, a lipid transfer protein (LTP) secreted from the stylar transmitting tract epidermis, functions in lily pollen tube tip growth as well as in forming the adhesive pectin matrix at the growing pollen tube wall back from the tip. Lily chemocyanin is a plantacyanin family member and acts as a directional cue for reorienting pollen tubes. Recent consecutive studies revealed that Arabidopsis thaliana homologues for SCA and chemocyanin play pivotal roles in tip polarity and directionality of pollen tube growth, respectively. This review outlines the biological roles of various secreted proteins in angiosperm pollination, focusing on plant LTPs and chemocyanin. PMID:21307038

  11. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Heat and pH stability studies and experiments with organic solvents show that the A-antigens discussed in the preceding paper (Augustin, 1959c) are much more labile than the I- (`inner ring') antigens. Breakdown products and/or aggregates are produced which no longer precipitate with antisera to the original extracts, but act as inhibitors. Solutions of pollen allergens, on the other hand, are found to withstand even autoclaving for 15 min. at 20 atm. and vigorous boiling over the naked flame of a bunsen burner. None of the carbohydrates tested has a demonstrable effect on skin reactivity which is, however, destroyed by crystalline pepsin, crystalline trypsin, a crystalline mould protease and a tissue protease (a partially purified extract from rabbit spleen). It follows that the bulk of the allergens—if not all—are proteins. The relation of skin reactivity, immuno-electrophoretic patterns, carbohydrate and protein reactions to the selective destruction of the pollen antigens is investigated. Pollen components prove to have a somewhat wider range of electrophoretic mobilities than serum proteins and are probably as complicated a mixture. The most and least highly negatively charged components are without skin reactivity in allergic subjects. The skin reactive allergens appear to have the mobilities of α- and β-globulins. Not all the hay fever subjects react equally to all the components, and Cocksfoot and Timothy activity patterns vary in different subjects. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:13795119

  12. Murine bone marrow IgA responses to orally administered sheep erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alley, C D; Kiyono, H; McGhee, J R

    1986-06-15

    Specific immunization protocols have been established for the induction of murine bone marrow IgA responses to the T cell-dependent (TD) antigen sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Systemic immunization, either i.p. or i.v., followed by a second injection, induced splenic IgM and IgG responses and a bone marrow IgM response. No significant IgA responses were observed in either lymphoid tissue compartment. Oral immunization with SRBC by gastric intubation for 2 days, followed 1 wk later by an i.p. injection of SRBC resulted in a splenic IgA plaque-forming cell (PFC) response, but did not elicit a bone marrow IgA response. Repeated daily gastric intubation of SRBC to C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice led to the previously reported pattern of systemic unresponsiveness in C3H/HeN mice and good anamnestic type IgM, IgG, and IgA splenic anti-SRBC PFC responses in the C3H/HeJ strain upon parenteral challenge. Oral administration of SRBC for 14 days to C3H/HeN mice, followed by systemic SRBC challenge, resulted in diminished splenic PFC responses of all isotypes, whereas gastric intubation of SRBC for 28 days led to complete systemic unresponsiveness to antigen in C3H/HeN mice. Interestingly, the repeated oral administration of SRBC resulted in significant bone marrow IgA PFC responses upon i.p. challenge in both C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mouse strains. The bone marrow IgA responses were clearly dependent upon chronic oral exposure to SRBC, because gastric intubation with SRBC for 2 consecutive days/wk for 10 wk also induced bone marrow and splenic IgA anti-SRBC PFC responses in C3H/HeN mice. These results suggest that memory B cells reside in the bone marrow of orally immunized mice and can yield anamnestic-type responses to challenge with the inducing antigen. The memory cells may arise in the Peyer's patches of the gut and migrate to the bone marrow. The possibility that the bone marrow is a component of the common mucosal immune system in mammals is suggested by this study.

  13. Mesangial IgA deposits indicate pathogenesis of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aifeng; Wang, Yongping; Wang, Guobao; Zhou, Zhanmei; Xun, Zhang; Tan, Xiaohui

    2012-05-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is characterized by crescentic glomerulonephritis with immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies to the non-collagenous (NC1) domain of α3(IV) collagen presenting along the GBM. The patient clinically manifests with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) with pulmonary hemorrhage (Goodpasture syndrome). In rare cases, other immunocomplexes of IgA or IgM are involved, but their specificities have not been determined. We report a rare case of a 31-year-old female who was diagnosed as having anti-GBM disease with extensive IgA deposits in the mesangium. This patient presented heavy hematuria, proteinuria with increasing creatinine, but no lung hemorrhage. Renal biopsy showed crescentic glomerulonephritis (type Ⅰ) with strong IgA (3+) as lump and branch shape. Therapies with pulse methylprednisolone, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide administration were less effective. This case is different from the present type Ⅰ crescentic glomerulonephritis and the specificity of IgA deposits may implicate the pathogenesis of anti-GBM disease.

  14. VANGUARD1 encodes a pectin methylesterase that enhances pollen tube growth in the Arabidopsis style and transmitting tract.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lixi; Yang, Shu-Lan; Xie, Li-Fen; Puah, Ching San; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Yang, Wei-Cai; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Ye, De

    2005-02-01

    In flowering plants, penetration of the pollen tube through stigma, style, and transmitting tract is essential for delivery of sperm nuclei to the egg cells embedded deeply within female tissues. Despite its importance in plant reproduction, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate the navigation of the pollen tube through the stigma, style, and transmitting tract. Here, we report the identification and characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene, VANGUARD1 (VGD1) that encodes a pectin methylesterase (PME)-homologous protein of 595 amino acids and is required for enhancing the growth of pollen tubes in the style and transmitting tract tissues. VGD1 was expressed specifically in pollen grain and the pollen tube. The VGD1 protein was distributed throughout the pollen grain and pollen tube, including the plasma membrane and cell wall. Functional interruption of VGD1 reduced PME activity in the pollen to 82% of the wild type and greatly retarded the growth of the pollen tube in the style and transmitting tract, resulting in a significant reduction of male fertility. In addition, the vgd1 pollen tubes were unstable and burst more frequently when germinated and grown on in vitro culture medium, compared with wild-type pollen tubes. Our study suggests that the VGD1 product is required for growth of the pollen tube, possibly via modifying the cell wall and enhancing the interaction of the pollen tube with the female style and transmitting tract tissues.

  15. [Allergy, pollen and the environment].

    PubMed

    Terán, Luis Manuel; Haselbarth-López, Michelle Marie Margarete; Quiroz-García, David Leonor

    2009-01-01

    Allergic respiratory diseases such asthma and allergic rhinitis are a health problem throughout the world. In Mexico City, pollens are an important cause of allergic respiratory disease. Both, the geographic location- and the vegetation surrounding this City favor the distribution of pollens leading to respiratory disease in susceptible patients. Aerobiological studies have shown that during the mild dry winter there is a large amount of pollens in the environment with tree pollens being the most abundant of all. The most frequent tree pollens found in Mexico City include Fraxinus, Cupressaseae, Alnus, Liquidambar, Callistemon, Pinus, and Casuarina. In contrast, grass- and weed pollens predominate during the summer (rainy season) including Compositae, Cheno-Am, Ambrosia and Gramineae. An additional health problem in Mexico City is the air pollution that exerts a direct effect on individuals. This in turn increases pollen allergenicity by disrupting them leading to the release of their particles which then penetrate the human airways causing disease. Thus, the polluted environment along with global warming which is also known to increase pollen quantities by inducing longer pollen seasons may represent a health risk to Mexico City inhabitants.

  16. Proteomics identification of differentially expressed proteins associated with pollen germination and tube growth reveals characteristics of germinated Oryza sativa pollen.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shaojun; Chen, Taotao; Chong, Kang; Xue, Yongbiao; Liu, Siqi; Wang, Tai

    2007-02-01

    Mature pollen from most plant species is metabolically quiescent; however, after pollination, it germinates quickly and gives rise to a pollen tube to transport sperms into the embryo sac. Because methods for collecting a large amount of in vitro germinated pollen grains for transcriptomics and proteomics studies from model plants of Arabidopsis and rice are not available, molecular information about the germination developmental process is lacking. Here we describe a method for obtaining a large quantity of in vitro germinating rice pollen for proteomics study. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of approximately 2300 protein spots revealed 186 that were differentially expressed in mature and germinated pollen. Most showed a changed level of expression, and only 66 appeared to be specific to developmental stages. Furthermore 160 differentially expressed protein spots were identified on mass spectrometry to match 120 diverse protein species. These proteins involve different cellular and metabolic processes with obvious functional skew toward wall metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, cytoskeleton dynamics, and carbohydrate/energy metabolism. Wall metabolism-related proteins are prominently featured in the differentially expressed proteins and the pollen proteome as compared with rice sporophytic proteomes. Our study also revealed multiple isoforms and differential expression patterns between isoforms of a protein. These results provide novel insights into pollen function specialization.

  17. Elevation of Pollen Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number by WHIRLY2: Altered Respiration and Pollen Tube Growth in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qiang; Guo, Liang; Shen, Zhao-Rui; Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the copy number of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be much lower than the number of mitochondria. The biological significance and regulatory mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here, using the pollen vegetative cell, we examined the role of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mtDNA-binding protein WHIRLY2 (AtWHY2). AtWHY2 decreases during pollen development, in parallel with the rapid degradation of mtDNA; to examine the importance of this decrease, we used the pollen vegetative cell-specific promoter Lat52 to express AtWHY2. The transgenic plants (LWHY2) had very high mtDNA levels in pollen, more than 10 times more than in the wild type (ecotype Columbia-0). LWHY2 plants were fertile, morphologically normal, and set seeds; however, reciprocal crosses with heterozygous plants showed reduced transmission of LWHY2-1 through the male and slower growth of LWHY2-1 pollen tubes. We found that LWHY2-1 pollen had significantly more reactive oxygen species and less ATP compared with the wild type, indicating an effect on mitochondrial respiration. These findings reveal that AtWHY2 affects mtDNA copy number in pollen and suggest that low mtDNA copy numbers might be the normal means by which plant cells maintain mitochondrial genetic information. PMID:26195569

  18. On the simulation of allergenic pollen exposition and its atmospheric transport on regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernath, Christian; Klein, Christian; Hoffmann, Peter; Gayler, Sebastian; Priesack, Eckart

    2013-04-01

    In Germany approximately 30% of the population is vulnerable to pollinosis (hay fever). Exposure to allergenic pollen affects vulnerable persons recurring seasonally, but depending on the individual susceptibility to individual pollen species. To prevent the suffering the patients usually use preventive drugs and rely on the current pollen forecast. However, recently used pollen forecast models mainly consider temperature sums to predict pollen exposition by different plant species. The models often fail to describe the impact of regionally variable environmental conditions on plant growth which depends on the soil characteristics that affect the water and nutrient availability. Furthermore, water and nutrient availability may significantly affect the pollen yield and its allergenic potential. Thus, the improvement of the simulations of the exposition of allergenic pollen by plants and atmospheric pollen loads on the regional scale could improve the preventive medication of vulnerable persons. We propose a new soil-plant-atmosphere model system that allows a dynamic ressource aquisition for the plant biomass growth to account for the allergenic potential of exposed pollen and the subsequent pollen transport in the atmosphere. Therefore, to simulate pollen exposure the land surface model Expert-N (soil-plant-system model) was coupled to the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF). Expert-N uses site specific physical soil properties to simulate the nutrient and water transport, and the carbon and nitrogen turnover, as well as the interactions between plant and soil. The allergenic potential of pollen yield is simulated using a new C- and N-allocation model which accounts for the production of carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs). These CBSCs are involved in the determination of the allergenic potential of pollen. The WRF model is used to predict the weather conditions for plant growth. Depending on the weather conditions pollen exposed by the plants is then

  19. A Multiscale Vibrational Spectroscopic Approach for Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Bağcıoğlu, Murat; Zimmermann, Boris; Kohler, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Background Analysis of pollen grains reveals valuable information on biology, ecology, forensics, climate change, insect migration, food sources and aeroallergens. Vibrational (infrared and Raman) spectroscopies offer chemical characterization of pollen via identifiable spectral features without any sample pretreatment. We have compared the level of chemical information that can be obtained by different multiscale vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Methodology Pollen from 15 different species of Pinales (conifers) were measured by seven infrared and Raman methodologies. In order to obtain infrared spectra, both reflectance and transmission measurements were performed on ground and intact pollen grains (bulk measurements), in addition, infrared spectra were obtained by microspectroscopy of multigrain and single pollen grain measurements. For Raman microspectroscopy measurements, spectra were obtained from the same pollen grains by focusing two different substructures of pollen grain. The spectral data from the seven methodologies were integrated into one data model by the Consensus Principal Component Analysis, in order to obtain the relations between the molecular signatures traced by different techniques. Results The vibrational spectroscopy enabled biochemical characterization of pollen and detection of phylogenetic variation. The spectral differences were clearly connected to specific chemical constituents, such as lipids, carbohydrates, carotenoids and sporopollenins. The extensive differences between pollen of Cedrus and the rest of Pinaceae family were unambiguously connected with molecular composition of sporopollenins in pollen grain wall, while pollen of Picea has apparently higher concentration of carotenoids than the rest of the family. It is shown that vibrational methodologies have great potential for systematic collection of data on ecosystems and that the obtained phylogenetic variation can be well explained by the biochemical composition of

  20. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks.

    PubMed

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward.

  1. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P.; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward. PMID:26633170

  2. Floral traits mediate the vulnerability of aloes to pollen theft and inefficient pollination by bees

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Harder, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Pollen-collecting bees are among the most important pollinators globally, but are also the most common pollen thieves and can significantly reduce plant reproduction. The pollination efficiency of pollen collectors depends on the frequency of their visits to female(-phase) flowers, contact with stigmas and deposition of pollen of sufficient quantity and quality to fertilize ovules. Here we investigate the relative importance of these components, and the hypothesis that floral and inflorescence characteristics mediate the pollination role of pollen collection by bees. Methods For ten Aloe species that differ extensively in floral and inflorescence traits, we experimentally excluded potential bird pollinators to quantify the contributions of insect visitors to pollen removal, pollen deposition and seed production. We measured corolla width and depth to determine nectar accessibility, and the phenology of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity to quantify herkogamy and dichogamy. Further, we compiled all published bird-exclusion studies of aloes, and compared insect pollination success with floral morphology. Key Results Species varied from exclusively insect pollinated, to exclusively bird pollinated but subject to extensive pollen theft by insects. Nectar inaccessibility and strong dichogamy inhibited pollination by pollen-collecting bees by discouraging visits to female-phase (i.e. pollenless) flowers. For species with large inflorescences of pollen-rich flowers, pollen collectors successfully deposited pollen, but of such low quality (probably self-pollen) that they made almost no contribution to seed set. Indeed, considering all published bird-exclusion studies (17 species in total), insect pollination efficiency varied significantly with floral shape. Conclusions Species-specific floral and inflorescence characteristics, especially nectar accessibility and dichogamy, control the efficiency of pollen-collecting bees as pollinators of aloes

  3. Oral manifestations caused by the linear IgA disease.

    PubMed

    Eguia del Valle, Asier; Aguirre Urízar, José Manuel; Martínez Sahuquillo, Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Linear IgA deposit related disease or Linear IgA disease (LAD) is a chronic, uncommon and autoimmunological mucocutaneous disease, characterised by linear IgA deposits along the basement membrane zone. In mainly cases, moreover cutaneous lesions, there are oral mucosal and other mucosal lesions. There are also, some cases published of Linear IgA disease limited to oral mucosa. The known of this disease is important for the establishment of a correct differential diagnosis in cases of blistering mucocutaneous diseases. In this paper, we analyze the most important features of this disease, attending specially to the oral manifestations.

  4. Use of novel pollen species by specialist and generalist solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Williams, Neal M

    2003-01-01

    If trade-offs between flexibility to use a range of host species and efficiency on a limited set underlie the evolution of diet breadth, one resulting prediction is that specialists ought to be more restricted than generalists in their ability to use novel resource species. I used foraging tests and feeding trials to compare the ability of a generalist and a specialist solitary mason bee species to collect and develop on two pollen species that are not normally used in natural populations (novel pollens). Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a generalist pollen feeder; O. californica, is more specialized. Adults of the specialist were more limited in use of novel hosts, but only in some contexts. Both bee species refused to collect one novel pollen. The specialist accepted a second novel pollen only when it was presented along with its normal pollen, whereas the generalist collected novel pollen whether presented alone or with normal pollen. Surprisingly, larvae of the specialist were more flexible than were generalists. The specialist grew well on mixtures of normal and novel pollen species, in some cases better than on its normal host alone. Larvae of the generalist grew more poorly on all diets containing novel pollens than on their normal host. Data on these two species of bees suggest that specialization by itself need not reduce flexibility on novel hosts. The findings also provide information about mechanisms of specialization in bees. Similar to some folivores, specific cues of the pollen host and the bee's interpretation of these contribute, along with foraging economics, to pollen choice by adults. The ability of the larvae to cope with specific components of one pollen species need not interfere with its ability to use others.

  5. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 Is Involved in Arabidopsis Pollen Grain Germination1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Leroux, Christelle; Bouton, Sophie; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Fabrice, Tohnyui Ndinyanka; Mareck, Alain; Guénin, Stéphanie; Fournet, Françoise; Ringli, Christoph; Pelloux, Jérôme; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Germination of pollen grains is a crucial step in plant reproduction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the role of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 (PME48), an enzyme implicated in the remodeling of pectins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pollen. A combination of functional genomics, gene expression, in vivo and in vitro pollen germination, immunolabeling, and biochemical analyses was used on wild-type and Atpme48 mutant plants. We showed that AtPME48 is specifically expressed in the male gametophyte and is the second most expressed PME in dry and imbibed pollen grains. Pollen grains from homozygous mutant lines displayed a significant delay in imbibition and germination in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, numerous pollen grains showed two tips emerging instead of one in the wild type. Immunolabeling and Fourier transform infrared analyses showed that the degree of methylesterification of the homogalacturonan was higher in pme48−/− pollen grains. In contrast, the PME activity was lower in pme48−/−, partly due to a reduction of PME48 activity revealed by zymogram. Interestingly, the wild-type phenotype was restored in pme48−/− with the optimum germination medium supplemented with 2.5 mm calcium chloride, suggesting that in the wild-type pollen, the weakly methylesterified homogalacturonan is a source of Ca2+ necessary for pollen germination. Although pollen-specific PMEs are traditionally associated with pollen tube elongation, this study provides strong evidence that PME48 impacts the mechanical properties of the intine wall during maturation of the pollen grain, which, in turn, influences pollen grain germination. PMID:25524442

  6. Inflammation in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Rauen, Thomas; Floege, Jürgen

    2017-03-14

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequently occurring primary glomerulonephritis in Caucasian and Asian populations. Nonetheless, therapeutic recommendations are based on weak evidence, large controlled trials are scarce and, in particular, the additional value of immunosuppression beyond comprehensive supportive measures is not well-established. The use of immunosuppressants is supported by experimental insights into IgAN pathogenesis that suggest an autoimmune component in disease development. The so-called "multi-hit" theory comprises multiple steps, starting with defective glycosylation of IgA subclass IgA1 that results in overproduction of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1), occurrence of anti-Gd-IgA1 autoantibodies, and mesangial deposition of nephritogenic immune complexes. This eventually results in an increased mesangial cell proliferation, inflammatory responses, and complement activation. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several susceptibility genes, many of which support the "multi-hit" concept. In light of these discoveries, it is astonishing that the vast majority of adult IgAN patients obviously do not need and/or benefit from immunosuppressive therapies in the first place. In fact, a number of supportive measures are highly effective in reducing the risk for disease progression in many patients. These measures need to be optimized before immunosuppression should be considered at all. In this review we focus on the underlying pathogenetic cornerstones and the central question of whether systemic inflammation in adult IgAN patients should be treated. Treatment options in children with IgAN are also discussed.

  7. Control of pollen-mediated gene flow in transgenic trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunsheng; Norris-Caneda, Kim H; Rottmann, William H; Gulledge, Jon E; Chang, Shujun; Kwan, Brian Yow-Hui; Thomas, Anita M; Mandel, Lydia C; Kothera, Ronald T; Victor, Aditi D; Pearson, Leslie; Hinchee, Maud A W

    2012-08-01

    Pollen elimination provides an effective containment method to reduce direct gene flow from transgenic trees to their wild relatives. Until now, only limited success has been achieved in controlling pollen production in trees. A pine (Pinus radiata) male cone-specific promoter, PrMC2, was used to drive modified barnase coding sequences (barnaseH102E, barnaseK27A, and barnaseE73G) in order to determine their effectiveness in pollen ablation. The expression cassette PrMC2-barnaseH102E was found to efficiently ablate pollen in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), pine, and Eucalyptus (spp.). Large-scale and multiple-year field tests demonstrated that complete prevention of pollen production was achieved in greater than 95% of independently transformed lines of pine and Eucalyptus (spp.) that contained the PrMC2-barnaseH102E expression cassette. A complete pollen control phenotype was achieved in transgenic lines and expressed stably over multiple years, multiple test locations, and when the PrMC2-barnaseH102E cassette was flanked by different genes. The PrMC2-barnaseH102E transgenic pine and Eucalyptus (spp.) trees grew similarly to control trees in all observed attributes except the pollenless phenotype. The ability to achieve the complete control of pollen production in field-grown trees is likely the result of a unique combination of three factors: the male cone/anther specificity of the PrMC2 promoter, the reduced RNase activity of barnaseH102E, and unique features associated with a polyploid tapetum. The field performance of the PrMC2-barnaseH102E in representative angiosperm and gymnosperm trees indicates that this gene can be used to mitigate pollen-mediated gene flow associated with large-scale deployment of transgenic trees.

  8. [Cypress pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Penel, V; Hugues, B; Poncet, P

    2013-12-01

    Cypress belongs to the Cupressaceae family, which includes 140 species with non-deciduous foliage. The most important genera in allergic diseases are Cupressus sempervirens or Green cypress, Cupressus arizonica or Blue cypress, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus communis and Thuya. Because J. oxycedrus pollinates in October, C. sempervirens in January and February, C. arizonica in February and March, J. communis in April, the symptomatic period is long-lasting. Because of global warming, the pollination period is tending to last longer and Cupressaceae species are becoming established further the north. In Mediterranean countries, cypress is by far the most important pollinating species, accounting for half of the total pollination. The major allergens belong to group 1. The other allergens from cypress and Juniper share 75 to 97 % structural homology with group 1 major allergens. The prevalence of cypress allergy in the general population ranges from 5 % to 13 %, according to exposure to the pollen. Among outpatients consulting an allergist, between 9 and 35 %, according to different studies, are sensitized to cypress pollen. Repeated cross-sectional studies performed at different time intervals have demonstrated a threefold increase in the percentage of cypress allergy. Risk factors include a genetic predisposition and/or a strong exposure to pollen, but air pollutants could play a synergistic role. The study of the natural history of cypress allergy allows the identification of a subgroup of patients who have no personal or family history of atopy, whose disease began later in life, with low total IgE and often monosensitization to cypress pollen. In these patients, the disease is allergic than rather atopic. In the clinical picture, rhinitis is the most prevalent symptom but conjunctivitis the most disabling. A cross-reactivity between cypress and peach allergy has been demonstrated. The pharmacological treatment of cypress allergy is not different from

  9. Aberrant IgA1 Glycosylation in IgA Nephropathy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenhai; Liu, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Galactose-deficient IgA1 was evaluated in patients with IgA nephropathy(IgAN) and controls in order to determine the predictive value of galactose-deficient IgA1 in cases of IgA nephropathy. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, CNKI, CBM disc, and VIP database were searched to identify eligible studies that evaluated a difference in aberrant IgA1 glycosylation in IgAN patients compared with controls. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of galactose-deficient IgA1(Gd-IgA1) levels in different groups. Results A total of 22 studies (n = 1657) met inclusion criteria. The mean Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) score was 7.2 and ranged from 6 to 8. The standard mean difference(SMD) in the meta-analysis of 20 studies of the level of Gd-IgA1 in the serum and/or supernatant of cultured cells was higher in the IgAN group compared with healthy controls as well as in those with other renal diseases (SMD = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.18–2.34, P<0.00001; SMD = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.05–2.04, P = 0.04). The data synthesis suggested that IgAN patients had similar levels of serum Gd-IgA1, with no significant differences, compared with first-degree relatives and Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) patients (MD = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.00–0.08, P = 0.05; MD = -46.03, 95% CI = -217.70–125.64, P = 0.60). In addition, the combined MD of 5 studies indicated that there were no significant differences in Gd-IgA1 levels among patients with varying severities of IgAN (MD = 0.02, 95% CI = -0.02–0.05, P = 0.28). Conclusions The pooled evidence suggests that the level of Gd-IgA1 in the serum or supernatant of cultured cells from peripheral blood or tonsils may be a useful biomarker for predicting IgA nephropathy, though the level of Gd-IgA1 was not significantly associated with disease severity. PMID:27870872

  10. It is a matter of timing: asynchrony during pollen development and its consequences on pollen performance in angiosperms-a review.

    PubMed

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Nepi, Massimo; Pacini, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    Functional pollen is needed to successfully complete fertilization. Pollen is formed inside the anthers following a specific sequence of developmental stages, from microsporocyte meiosis to pollen release, that concerns microsporocytes/microspores and anther wall tissues. The processes involved may not be synchronous within a flower, an anther, and even a microsporangium. Asynchrony has been barely analyzed, and its biological consequences have not been yet assessed. In this review, different processes of pollen development and lifetime, stressing on the possible consequences of their differential timing on pollen performance, are summarized. Development is usually synchronized until microsporocyte meiosis I (occasionally until meiosis II). Afterwards, a period of mostly asynchronous events extends up to anther opening as regards: (1) meiosis II (sometimes); (2) microspore vacuolization and later reduction of vacuoles; (3) amylogenesis, amylolysis, and carbohydrate inter-conversion; (4) the first haploid mitosis; and (5) intine formation. Asynchrony would promote metabolic differences among developing microspores and therefore physiologically heterogeneous pollen grains within a single microsporangium. Asynchrony would increase the effect of competition for resources during development and pollen tube growth and also for water during (re)hydration on the stigma. The differences generated by developmental asynchronies may have an adaptive role since more efficient pollen grains would be selected with regard to homeostasis, desiccation tolerance, resilience, speed of (re)hydration, and germination. The performance of each pollen grain which landed onto the stigma will be the result of a series of selective steps determined by its development, physiological state at maturity, and successive environmental constrains.

  11. Systemic administration of an HIV 1 broadly neutralizing dimeric IgA yields mucosal secretory IgA and virus neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Genevieve G.; Amos, Joshua D.; Liebl, Brooke E.; Himes, Jonathan; Boakye-Agyeman, Felix; Beck, Krista; Michaels, Anthony J.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Haynes, Barton F.; Reimann, Keith A.; Permar, Sallie R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mucosal distribution and neutralization potency of rhesus recombinant versions of the HIV-specific, broadly neutralizing antibody b12 (RhB12) following intravenous administration to lactating rhesus monkeys. IgG and dimeric IgA (dIgA) administration resulted in high plasma concentrations of bnAb, but the monomeric IgA (mIgA) was rapidly cleared from the systemic compartment. Interestingly differences in the distribution of the RhB12 isoform were observed between the mucosal compartments. The peak concentration of RhB12 IgG was higher than dIgA in saliva, rectal and vaginal secretions, but the bnAb concentration in milk was one to two logs higher after dIgA administration than with IgG or mIgA infusion. Neutralization was observed in plasma of all animals, but only those infused with RhB12 dIgA showed moderate levels of virus neutralization in milk. Remarkably, virus-specific secretory IgA was detected in mucosal compartments following dIgA administration. The high milk RhB12 dIgA concentration suggests that passive immunization with dIgA could be more effective than IgG to inhibit virus in breast milk. PMID:27072605

  12. Multilevel ensemble model for prediction of IgA and IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Divya; Rana, Prashant Singh

    2017-04-01

    Identification of antigen for inducing specific class of antibody is prime objective in peptide based vaccine designs, immunodiagnosis, and antibody productions. It's urge to introduce a reliable system with high accuracy and efficiency for prediction. In the present study, a novel multilevel ensemble model is developed for prediction of antibodies IgG and IgA. Epitope length is important in training the model and it is efficient to use variable length of epitopes. In this ensemble approach, seven different machine learning models are combined to predict variable length of epitopes (4 to 50). The proposed model of IgG specific epitopes achieves 94.43% of accuracy and IgA specific epitopes achieves 97.56% of accuracy with repeated 10-fold cross validation. The proposed model is compared with the existing system i.e. IgPred model and outcome of proposed model is improved.

  13. Detection of airborne allergen (Pla a 1) in relation to Platanus pollen in Córdoba, South Spain.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Purificación; Galán, Carmen; Torres, Carmen; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Córdoba is one of the Spanish cities with the highest records of plane tree pollen grains in the air. Clinical studies have identified Platanus as a major cause of pollinosis. This fact provokes an important public health problem during early spring when these trees bloom. The objective of the study is to evaluate the correlation between airborne pollen counts and Pla a 1 aeroallergen concentrations in Córdoba, to elucidate if airborne pollen can be an accurate measure that helps to explain the prevalence of allergenic symptoms. Pollen sampling was performed during 2011-2012 using a Hirst-type sampler. Daily average concentration of pollen grains (pollen grains/m 3 ) was obtained following the methodology proposed by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone was used for the aeroallergen quantification. Allergenic particles were measured by ELISA using specific antibodies Pla a 1. The trend of Platanus pollen was characterized by a marked seasonality, reaching high concentrations in a short period of time. Airborne pollen and aeroallergen follow similar trends. The overlapping profile between both variables during both years shows that pollen and Pla a 1 are significantly correlated. The highest significant correlation coefficients were obtained during 2011 and for the post peak. Although some studies have found notable divergence between pollen and allergen concentrations in the air, in the case of Platanus in Córdoba, similar aerobiological dynamics between pollen and Pla a 1 have been found. Allergenic activity was found only during the plane tree pollen season, showing a close relationship with daily pollen concentrations. The obtained pollen potency was similar for both years of study. The results suggest that the allergenic response in sensitive patients to plane tree pollen coincide with the presence and magnitude of airborne pollen.

  14. Separation of Two Distinct O-Glycoforms of Human IgA1 by Serial Lectin Chromatography Followed by Mass Spectrometry O-Glycan Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, S; Ju, T

    2017-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), which carries four to six mucin-type O-glycans (O-glycans) on its hinge region (HR), is the most abundant O-glycoprotein in plasma or serum. While normal O-glycans from hematopoietic-originated cells are core 1-based complex structures, many reports showed that the IgA1 from patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) carries undergalactosylated or truncated O-glycans such as the Tn antigen and its sialylated version the SialylTn (STn) antigen on the HR. Yet, there is still a debate whether Tn/STn on the HR of IgA1 is specific to the IgA1 from patients with IgAN since these antigens have also been seen in serum IgA1 of healthy individuals. An additional question is whether the O-glycans at all sites on the two HRs of one IgA1 molecule are homogeneous (either all normal or all Tn/STn) or heterogeneous (both normal and Tn/STn O-glycans). To address these questions, we conducted a systematic study on the O-glycans of plasma IgA1 from both IgAN patients and healthy controls using serial HPA and PNA lectin chromatography followed by western blotting and further analysis of O-glycans from HPA-bound and PNA-bound IgA1 fractions by mass spectrometry. Unexpectedly, we found that a variable minor fraction of IgA1 from both IgAN patients and healthy controls had Tn/STn antigens, and that the O-glycoprotein IgA1 molecules from most samples had only two distinct O-glycoforms: one major glycoform with homogeneous normal core 1-based O-glycans and one minor glycoform with homogeneous Tn/STn antigens. These results raised a serious question about the role of Tn/STn antigens on IgA1 in pathogenesis of IgAN, and there is a demand for a practical methodology that any laboratory can utilize to analyze the O-glycans of IgA1. Herein, we describe the methodology we developed in more detail. The method could also be applied to the analysis of any other O-glycosylated proteins.

  15. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens are shown to remain associated with protein material and a yellow pigment during paper chromatography and during dialyses and ultrafiltrations of various types. Dialysable* allergens comprise only a fraction of 1 per cent of the total activity and the amount of activity extractable by diethylene glycol (DEG) and similar solvents is of the same order. Besides the allergens, the DEG and aqueous extracts contain large amounts of inositol, glucose and fructose, also some yellow pigments and phosphates. Larger amounts of free and combined amino acids are found in the aqueous than in the DEG extracts, but the reverse is true for sucrose. In addition the DEG extracts contain a yellow glucoside different from the dactylen of the aqueous extracts, a glucosan and an arabinose-galactose-pigment complex, only the latter being associated with any activity. The spontaneous release of the crystalline dactylen from originally clear aqueous pollen extracts is found not to be caused by enzymes. The washed crystals are found to be chromatographically and electrophoretically homogeneous and devoid of allergenic activity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:13640676

  16. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    PubMed

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Banic, Ivana; Anzic, Srdjan Ante

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients' and their family's quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic), and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems) is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success.

  17. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    PubMed Central

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Banic, Ivana; Anzic, Srdjan Ante

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients’ and their family’s quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic), and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems) is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success. PMID:28243068

  18. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  19. Origin and Functional Prediction of Pollen Allergens in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Miaolin; Xu, Jie; Ren, Kang; Searle, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have long been a major pandemic health problem for human. However, the evolutionary events and biological function of pollen allergens in plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the genome-wide prediction of pollen allergens and their biological function in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the monocotyledonous model plant rice (Oryza sativa). In total, 145 and 107 pollen allergens were predicted from rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. These pollen allergens are putatively involved in stress responses and metabolic processes such as cell wall metabolism during pollen development. Interestingly, these putative pollen allergen genes were derived from large gene families and became diversified during evolution. Sequence analysis across 25 plant species from green alga to angiosperms suggest that about 40% of putative pollen allergenic proteins existed in both lower and higher plants, while other allergens emerged during evolution. Although a high proportion of gene duplication has been observed among allergen-coding genes, our data show that these genes might have undergone purifying selection during evolution. We also observed that epitopes of an allergen might have a biological function, as revealed by comprehensive analysis of two known allergens, expansin and profilin. This implies a crucial role of conserved amino acid residues in both in planta biological function and allergenicity. Finally, a model explaining how pollen allergens were generated and maintained in plants is proposed. Prediction and systematic analysis of pollen allergens in model plants suggest that pollen allergens were evolved by gene duplication and then functional specification. This study provides insight into the phylogenetic and evolutionary scenario of pollen allergens that will be helpful to future characterization and epitope screening of pollen allergens. PMID:27436829

  20. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis following influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Alberta-Wszolek, Lauren; Mousette, Alyse M; Mahalingam, Meera; Levin, Nikki A

    2009-11-15

    Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis (LABD) is an immune-mediated subepidermal vesiculobullous eruption characterized by linear deposits of IgA at the basement membrane zone. Most cases are idiopathic but medications, infections, and malignancies have also been reported to induce LABD. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who developed LABD shortly after receiving an influenza vaccination.

  1. Predictors of prognosis in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2012-10-01

    IgA nephropathy (nephropathy with mesangial IgA and IgG deposits, so-called Berger's disease) is the most common primary chronic glomerulonephritis worldwide, and was first described in 1968. Histopathologically, IgA nephropathy is characterized by expansion of the glomerular mesangial matrix with mesangial cell proliferation and/or mononuclear cell infiltration. Glomeruli typically contain generalized-diffuse granular mesangial deposits of IgA (mainly IgA1), IgG and C3. This disease, therefore, is considered to be an immune-complex-mediated glomerulonephritis although the antigenic agents are still obscure. Clinically, patients with IgA nephropathy show microscopic and macroscopic hematuria and/or proteinuria. Although the clinical course is generally gradual in patients with IgA nephropathy, progression to renal hypertension, renal anemia, and end-stage kidney disease is not as rare as originally thought. Since pathogenesis and radical treatment for IgA nephropathy are still not established, it is necessary to study them using various clinical findings.

  2. Glyco-engineering for the production of recombinant IgA1 with distinct mucin-type O-glycans in plants.

    PubMed

    Dicker, Martina; Maresch, Daniel; Strasser, Richard

    2016-11-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common autoimmune disease that is characterized by formation and deposition of IgA1-containing immune complexes frequently leading to end-stage kidney disease. The IgA1 in these immune complexes carries aberrantly glycosylated O-glycans. In circulating IgA1 these galactose-deficient mucin-type O-glycans are bound by autoantibodies and thus, contribute to immune complex formation and pathogenesis. Even though the disease is associated with the overproduction of aberrant O-glycans on IgA1, specific structure-function-studies of mucin-type O-glycans are limited. Compared to other expression hosts, plants offer the opportunity for de novo synthesis of O-glycans on recombinant glycoproteins as they are lacking the mammalian O-glycosylation pathway. Recently, we demonstrated that Nicotiana benthamiana are suitable for the generation of distinct O-glycans on recombinant IgA1. Here, we expand our engineering repertoire by in planta generation of galactose-deficient and α2,6-sialylated O-glycans which are the prevailing glycans detected on IgA1 from patients with IgAN.

  3. A LGG-derived protein promotes IgA production through up-regulation of APRIL expression in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Liping; Moore, Daniel J; Shen, Xi; Peek, Richard M.; Acra, Sari A; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao; Polk, D Brent; Yan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived protein, transactivates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells, leading to amelioration of intestinal injury and inflammation. To elucidate mechanisms by which p40 regulates mucosal immunity to prevent inflammation, this study aimed to determine the effects and mechanisms of p40 on regulation of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) expression in intestinal epithelial cells for promoting IgA production. p40 up-regulated April gene expression and protein production in mouse small intestine epithelial (MSIE) cells, which were inhibited by blocking EGFR expression and kinase activity. Enteroids from Egfrfl/fl , but not Egfrfl/fl-Vil-Cre mice with EGFR specifically deleted in intestinal epithelial cells, exhibited increased April gene expression by p40 treatment. p40-conditioned media from MSIE cells increased B cell class switching to IgA+ cells and IgA production, which was suppressed by APRIL receptor neutralizing antibodies. Treatment of B cells with p40 did not show any effects on IgA production. p40 treatment increased April gene expression and protein production in small intestinal epithelial cells, fecal IgA levels, IgA+B220+, IgA+CD19+, and IgA+ plasma cells in lamina propria of Egfrfl/fl, but not Egfrfl/fl-Vil-Cre mice. Thus, p40 up-regulates EGFR-dependent APRIL production in intestinal epithelial cells, which may contribute to promoting IgA production. PMID:27353252

  4. GWAS for serum galactose-deficient IgA1 implicates critical genes of the O-glycosylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Li, Yifu; Moldoveanu, Zina; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Reily, Colin; Hou, Ping; Xie, Jingyuan; Mladkova, Nikol; Prakash, Sindhuri; Fischman, Clara; Shapiro, Samantha; LeDesma, Robert A; Bradbury, Drew; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Eitner, Frank; Rauen, Thomas; Maillard, Nicolas; Berthoux, Francois; Floege, Jürgen; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Scolari, Francesco; Wyatt, Robert J; Julian, Bruce A; Gharavi, Ali G; Novak, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Aberrant O-glycosylation of serum immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) represents a heritable pathogenic defect in IgA nephropathy, the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide, but specific genetic factors involved in its determination are not known. We performed a quantitative GWAS for serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in 2,633 subjects of European and East Asian ancestry and discovered two genome-wide significant loci, in C1GALT1 (rs13226913, P = 3.2 x 10-11) and C1GALT1C1 (rs5910940, P = 2.7 x 10-8). These genes encode molecular partners essential for enzymatic O-glycosylation of IgA1. We demonstrated that these two loci explain approximately 7% of variability in circulating Gd-IgA1 in Europeans, but only 2% in East Asians. Notably, the Gd-IgA1-increasing allele of rs13226913 is common in Europeans, but rare in East Asians. Moreover, rs13226913 represents a strong cis-eQTL for C1GALT1 that encodes the key enzyme responsible for the transfer of galactose to O-linked glycans on IgA1. By in vitro siRNA knock-down studies, we confirmed that mRNA levels of both C1GALT1 and C1GALT1C1 determine the rate of secretion of Gd-IgA1 in IgA1-producing cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the genetic regulation of O-glycosylation and are relevant not only to IgA nephropathy, but also to other complex traits associated with O-glycosylation defects, including inflammatory bowel disease, hematologic disease, and cancer.

  5. Transient Glyco-Engineering to Produce Recombinant IgA1 with Defined N- and O-Glycans in Plants.

    PubMed

    Dicker, Martina; Tschofen, Marc; Maresch, Daniel; König, Julia; Juarez, Paloma; Orzaez, Diego; Altmann, Friedrich; Steinkellner, Herta; Strasser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The production of therapeutic antibodies to combat pathogens and treat diseases, such as cancer is of great interest for the biotechnology industry. The recent development of plant-based expression systems has demonstrated that plants are well-suited for the production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies with defined glycosylation. Compared to immunoglobulin G (IgG), less effort has been undertaken to express immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is the most prevalent antibody class at mucosal sites and a promising candidate for novel recombinant biopharmaceuticals with enhanced anti-tumor activity. Here, we transiently expressed recombinant human IgA1 against the VP8* rotavirus antigen in glyco-engineered ΔXT/FT Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Mass spectrometric analysis of IgA1 glycopeptides revealed the presence of complex biantennary N-glycans with terminal N-acetylglucosamine present on the N-glycosylation site of the CH2 domain in the IgA1 alpha chain. Analysis of the peptide carrying nine potential O-glycosylation sites in the IgA1 alpha chain hinge region showed the presence of plant-specific modifications including hydroxyproline formation and the attachment of pentoses. By co-expression of enzymes required for initiation and elongation of human O-glycosylation it was possible to generate disialylated mucin-type core 1 O-glycans on plant-produced IgA1. Our data demonstrate that ΔXT/FT N. benthamiana plants can be engineered toward the production of recombinant IgA1 with defined human-type N- and O-linked glycans.

  6. Transient Glyco-Engineering to Produce Recombinant IgA1 with Defined N- and O-Glycans in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dicker, Martina; Tschofen, Marc; Maresch, Daniel; König, Julia; Juarez, Paloma; Orzaez, Diego; Altmann, Friedrich; Steinkellner, Herta; Strasser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The production of therapeutic antibodies to combat pathogens and treat diseases, such as cancer is of great interest for the biotechnology industry. The recent development of plant-based expression systems has demonstrated that plants are well-suited for the production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies with defined glycosylation. Compared to immunoglobulin G (IgG), less effort has been undertaken to express immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is the most prevalent antibody class at mucosal sites and a promising candidate for novel recombinant biopharmaceuticals with enhanced anti-tumor activity. Here, we transiently expressed recombinant human IgA1 against the VP8* rotavirus antigen in glyco-engineered ΔXT/FT Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Mass spectrometric analysis of IgA1 glycopeptides revealed the presence of complex biantennary N-glycans with terminal N-acetylglucosamine present on the N-glycosylation site of the CH2 domain in the IgA1 alpha chain. Analysis of the peptide carrying nine potential O-glycosylation sites in the IgA1 alpha chain hinge region showed the presence of plant-specific modifications including hydroxyproline formation and the attachment of pentoses. By co-expression of enzymes required for initiation and elongation of human O-glycosylation it was possible to generate disialylated mucin-type core 1 O-glycans on plant-produced IgA1. Our data demonstrate that ΔXT/FT N. benthamiana plants can be engineered toward the production of recombinant IgA1 with defined human-type N- and O-linked glycans. PMID:26858738

  7. GWAS for serum galactose-deficient IgA1 implicates critical genes of the O-glycosylation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Moldoveanu, Zina; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Reily, Colin; Hou, Ping; Xie, Jingyuan; Mladkova, Nikol; Prakash, Sindhuri; Fischman, Clara; Shapiro, Samantha; Bradbury, Drew; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Eitner, Frank; Rauen, Thomas; Maillard, Nicolas; Floege, Jürgen; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Scolari, Francesco; Wyatt, Robert J.; Julian, Bruce A.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Novak, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant O-glycosylation of serum immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) represents a heritable pathogenic defect in IgA nephropathy, the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide, but specific genetic factors involved in its determination are not known. We performed a quantitative GWAS for serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in 2,633 subjects of European and East Asian ancestry and discovered two genome-wide significant loci, in C1GALT1 (rs13226913, P = 3.2 x 10−11) and C1GALT1C1 (rs5910940, P = 2.7 x 10−8). These genes encode molecular partners essential for enzymatic O-glycosylation of IgA1. We demonstrated that these two loci explain approximately 7% of variability in circulating Gd-IgA1 in Europeans, but only 2% in East Asians. Notably, the Gd-IgA1-increasing allele of rs13226913 is common in Europeans, but rare in East Asians. Moreover, rs13226913 represents a strong cis-eQTL for C1GALT1 that encodes the key enzyme responsible for the transfer of galactose to O-linked glycans on IgA1. By in vitro siRNA knock-down studies, we confirmed that mRNA levels of both C1GALT1 and C1GALT1C1 determine the rate of secretion of Gd-IgA1 in IgA1-producing cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the genetic regulation of O-glycosylation and are relevant not only to IgA nephropathy, but also to other complex traits associated with O-glycosylation defects, including inflammatory bowel disease, hematologic disease, and cancer. PMID:28187132

  8. An LGG-derived protein promotes IgA production through upregulation of APRIL expression in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Liu, L; Moore, D J; Shen, X; Peek, R M; Acra, S A; Li, H; Ren, X; Polk, D B; Yan, F

    2017-03-01

    p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived protein, transactivates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells, leading to amelioration of intestinal injury and inflammation. To elucidate mechanisms by which p40 regulates mucosal immunity to prevent inflammation, this study aimed to determine the effects and mechanisms of p40 on regulation of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) expression in intestinal epithelial cells for promoting immunoglobulin A (IgA) production. p40 upregulated April gene expression and protein production in mouse small intestine epithelial (MSIE) cells, which were inhibited by blocking EGFR expression and kinase activity. Enteroids from Egfr(fl/fl), but not Egfr(fl/fl)-Vil-Cre mice with EGFR specifically deleted in intestinal epithelial cells, exhibited increased April gene expression by p40 treatment. p40-conditioned media from MSIE cells increased B-cell class switching to IgA(+) cells and IgA production, which was suppressed by APRIL receptor-neutralizing antibodies. Treatment of B cells with p40 did not show any effects on IgA production. p40 treatment increased April gene expression and protein production in small intestinal epithelial cells, fecal IgA levels, IgA(+)B220(+), IgA(+)CD19(+), and IgA(+) plasma cells in lamina propria of Egfr(fl/fl), but not of Egfr(fl/fl)-Vil-Cre, mice. Thus p40 upregulates EGFR-dependent APRIL production in intestinal epithelial cells, which may contribute to promoting IgA production.

  9. [Glomerulonephritis with IgA mesangial deposits].

    PubMed

    Pillebout, Evangéline; Nochy, Dominique

    2010-11-01

    IgA nephropathy is the primitive glomerulonephritis the most frequently encountered worldwide. In about one case out of three, it is responsible for the progression from progressive renal failure to end-stage renal failure. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease which is mediated by immune complexes remain unclear. The presentation, clinical progression and optical microscope aspect of the renal biopsy may widely vary, making any histological classification very difficult. Most therapeutic studies include the patients only on clinical criteria of severity. The only consensual management is that of patients with a nephropathy and mild glomerular lesions and a nephritic syndrome, or with an extracapillar glomerulonephritis and a rapidly progressive renal failure; corticoids are indicated in former cases while corticoids must be combined with immunosuppressive agents in the latter ones. Corticotherapy may be considered in patients with a proteinuria higher than 1g/day without renal failure. In any patient with primitive IgA nephropathy, the overall management used for chronic glomerulopathy must be initiated, including, in case of arterial hypertension or proteinuria, the renin-angiotensin system blockade.

  10. The clinical course of IgA nephropathy after kidney transplantation and its management.

    PubMed

    Lionaki, Sophia; Panagiotellis, Konstantinos; Melexopoulou, Christine; Boletis, John N

    2017-02-02

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) A nephropathy is one of the most common primary glomerulonephritides worldwide causing end stage renal disease in up to 20-40% of affected patients, nearly two decades post diagnosis. Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with renal failure, secondary to glomerular diseases. However, IgA nephropathy has a strong tendency to recur in the graft, and although initially thought to be a benign condition, several reports of graft loss, due to recurrent IgA nephropathy, there have been over the last three decades. Overall graft survival has been significantly improved in kidney transplantation, as a result of reduced incidence of acute rejection, as more potent and more specific immunosuppressive agents are now available in clinical practice. Thus, the rates of IgA nephropathy and other glomerulonephritides recurrence are expected to increase, since graft survival has been improved. However, the reported incidence of IgA nephropathy recurrence in the graft varies substantially across centers, as a consequence of different levels of interest, diverse biopsy policies and differing durations of follow up, of the published studies. Notably, recurrence rates of patients receiving graft biopsies by clinical indication only, ranges from 13% to 50% with graft loss being between 1.3% and 16%. The aim of this review is to underline important pathogenetic insights of IgA nephropathy, describe the clinical course of the disease after kidney transplantation, with emphasis on the incidence of recurrence and the associated risk factors, and finally provide all available options for its management in transplant recipients.

  11. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MAIZE POLLEN TRANSCRIPTOME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollen is a primary vehicle for transgene flow from engineered plants to their non-transgenic, native or weedy relatives. Hence, gene flow will be affected by pollen fitness (e.g., how well a particular pollen grain can outcompete other pollen present on the stigma and complete ...

  13. Pollen preference for Psychotria sp. is not learned in the passion flower butterfly, Heliconius erato.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Heliconius butterflies are known to maximize fitness by feeding on pollen from Gurania sp. and Psiguria sp. (Cucurbitales: Curcurbitaceae), and Psychotria sp. (Gentianales: Rubiaceae). This specialization involves specific physical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations including efficient search strategies in the forest to locate pollen host plants, pollen removal, and pollen external digestion. Reducing pollen host plant search time is crucial to out-compete other flower visitors and to reduce exposure to predators. One way in which this can be achieved is by using chemical cues to learn from experienced foragers in roosting aggregations. Similar strategies have been documented in bumblebees, where inexperienced individuals learn floral odors from experienced foragers. Behavioral experiments using plants preferred by Heliconius erato suggest that pollen preference in H. erato is an innate trait and consequently learning of chemical cues at roosting aggregations is unlikely.

  14. City scale pollen concentration variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.

  15. Exposures influencing total IgA level in colostrum.

    PubMed

    Munblit, D; Sheth, S; Abrol, P; Treneva, M; Peroni, D G; Chow, L-Y; Boner, A L; Pampura, A; Warner, J O; Boyle, R J

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a predominant immunoglobulin present in human breast milk and is known to play an important role in infant gut immunity maturation. Breast milk composition varies between populations, but the environmental and maternal factors responsible for these variations are still unclear. We examined the relationship between different exposures and levels of IgA in colostrum. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposures analysed influence levels of IgA in colostrum. The present study used 294 colostrum samples from the MecMilk International cohort, collected from women residing in London, Moscow and Verona. Samples were analysed in automated Abbott Architect Analyser. We found an inverse correlation between time postpartum and colostrum total IgA level (r=-0.49, P<0.001). Adjusting for maternal parity, smoking, fresh fruit and fish consumption and allergen sensitization, multiple regression model showed that IgA levels were influenced by colostrum collection time (P<0.0001) and country of collection (P<0.01). Mode of delivery influence did not appear to be significant in univariate comparisons, once adjusted for the above maternal characteristics it showed a significant influence on total IgA (P=0.01). We conclude that the concentration of IgA in colostrum drops rapidly after birth and future studies should always consider this factor in analysis. IgA concentration varied significantly between countries, with the highest level detected in Moscow and lowest in Verona. Mode of delivery effect should be confirmed on larger cohorts. Further work is needed to determine ways to correct for IgA decline over time in colostrum, and to find the cause of variations in IgA levels between the countries.

  16. Proteomic profiling of birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen extracts from different origins.

    PubMed

    Erler, Anja; Hawranek, Thomas; Krückemeier, Leif; Asam, Claudia; Egger, Matthias; Ferreira, Fátima; Briza, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Pollen of the European white birch is a major source of spring pollinosis in Europe. Pollen-allergy diagnosis and treatment by specific immunotherapy commonly rely on extracts of natural origin. To gain insight into the protein content and its variability, we evaluated the profile of allergenic and non-allergenic proteins in extracts of pollen from different origins by MS-based proteomics. Aqueous extracts prepared from commercially available Swedish birch pollen, pollen collected from Austrian trees and a commercial skin prick extract were analyzed by 1-DE, 2-DE, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, resulting in a complete inventory of extractable, disease-relevant pollen proteins. A main focus of this study was on the isoform distribution of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen. Using a combination of intact mass determination and peptide sequencing, five isoforms (a, b, d, f and j) were unequivocally identified in Swedish and Austrian birch pollen extracts, while the skin prick extract contained only isoforms a, b and d. Using the same methods as for Bet v 1, divergencies in the sequence of birch profilin (Bet v 2), a plant panallergen, were solved. The molecular characterization of pollen extracts is relevant for standardization and development of new reagents for specific immunotherapy.

  17. Pollen feeding in the butterfly Heliconius charitonia: isotopic evidence for essential amino acid transfer from pollen to eggs.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Diane M; Boggs, Carol L; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2003-12-22

    Heliconius and Laparus butterflies exhibit a unique pollen-collecting behaviour that enhances lifespan and fecundity. The specific nutritional contribution of pollen, however, had not been previously demonstrated. We used stable isotope variation to trace the carbon flow into eggs from corn pollen provided experimentally to ovipositing female Heliconius charitonia, and to evaluate the use of isotopically contrasting nectar sugars in egg amino acids. The delta(13)C of individual amino acids from pollen, larval host plant and the eggs from experimental butterflies was measured with gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS), to evaluate amino acid transfer. The delta(13)C of egg essential amino acids indicated a transfer of essential amino acids from pollen to butterfly eggs. However, the delta(13)C of non-essential amino acids reflected the isotopic composition of the artificial nectar, indicating that H. charitonia synthesizes non-essential amino acids from dietary sugars. This, to our knowledge, is the first direct demonstration of amino acid transfer from pollen to butterfly eggs, and suggests that essential amino acids in particular are a key resource for extending lifespan and fecundity in Heliconius butterflies.

  18. SEC8, a subunit of the putative Arabidopsis exocyst complex, facilitates pollen germination and competitive pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Cole, Rex A; Synek, Lukás; Zarsky, Viktor; Fowler, John E

    2005-08-01

    The exocyst, a complex of eight proteins, contributes to the morphogenesis of polarized cells in a broad range of eukaryotes. In these organisms, the exocyst appears to facilitate vesicle docking at the plasma membrane during exocytosis. Although we had identified orthologs for each of the eight exocyst components in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), no function has been demonstrated for any of them in plants. The gene encoding one exocyst component ortholog, AtSEC8, is expressed in pollen and vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis. Genetic studies utilizing an allelic series of six independent T-DNA mutations reveal a role for SEC8 in male gametophyte function. Three T-DNA insertions in SEC8 cause an absolute, male-specific transmission defect that can be complemented by expression of SEC8 from the LAT52 pollen promoter. Microscopic analysis shows no obvious abnormalities in the microgametogenesis of the SEC8 mutants, and the mutant pollen grains appear to respond to the signals that initiate germination. However, in vivo assays indicate that these mutant pollen grains are unable to germinate a pollen tube. The other three T-DNA insertions are associated with a partial transmission defect, such that the mutant allele is transmitted through the pollen at a reduced frequency. The partial transmission defect is only evident when mutant gametophytes must compete with wild-type gametophytes, and arises in part from a reduced pollen tube growth rate. These data support the hypothesis that one function of the putative plant exocyst is to facilitate the initiation and maintenance of the polarized growth of pollen tubes.

  19. SEC8, a Subunit of the Putative Arabidopsis Exocyst Complex, Facilitates Pollen Germination and Competitive Pollen Tube Growth1[w

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Rex A.; Synek, Lukás; Zarsky, Viktor; Fowler, John E.

    2005-01-01

    The exocyst, a complex of eight proteins, contributes to the morphogenesis of polarized cells in a broad range of eukaryotes. In these organisms, the exocyst appears to facilitate vesicle docking at the plasma membrane during exocytosis. Although we had identified orthologs for each of the eight exocyst components in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), no function has been demonstrated for any of them in plants. The gene encoding one exocyst component ortholog, AtSEC8, is expressed in pollen and vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis. Genetic studies utilizing an allelic series of six independent T-DNA mutations reveal a role for SEC8 in male gametophyte function. Three T-DNA insertions in SEC8 cause an absolute, male-specific transmission defect that can be complemented by expression of SEC8 from the LAT52 pollen promoter. Microscopic analysis shows no obvious abnormalities in the microgametogenesis of the SEC8 mutants, and the mutant pollen grains appear to respond to the signals that initiate germination. However, in vivo assays indicate that these mutant pollen grains are unable to germinate a pollen tube. The other three T-DNA insertions are associated with a partial transmission defect, such that the mutant allele is transmitted through the pollen at a reduced frequency. The partial transmission defect is only evident when mutant gametophytes must compete with wild-type gametophytes, and arises in part from a reduced pollen tube growth rate. These data support the hypothesis that one function of the putative plant exocyst is to facilitate the initiation and maintenance of the polarized growth of pollen tubes. PMID:16040664

  20. Anti-DNA IgA autoantibodies are spontaneously generated in mouse Peyer's patches.

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, M; Inoue, Y; Ametani, A; Fujiwara, J; Tsuji, N M; Kurisaki, J; Azuma, N; Kanno, C

    1998-01-01

    IgA antibodies in the mucosal immune system are produced specifically to environmental antigens such as virus and bacteria, and possibly to some food components, which will provide a potential luminal antigen, DNA. To study the immune response to DNA in the gut, we established B-cell hybridomas producing IgA monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from Peyer's patches (PP) of non-immunized, non-autoimmune, specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice, and examined their specificity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Three mAb out of 18 bound strongly to self, bacterial and synthetic DNA, with Kd of about 10-7 m. One of the three mAb also reacted with the histone component and another reacted with some mouse food component. The VH genes of these three mAb have not previously been reported to have anti-DNA specificity, and carry putative somatically mutated sites favouring DNA binding in CDR. The features resemble those of anti-DNA antibodies found in human and murine models of systemic lupus erythmatosus (SLE), and are indicative of an antigen-driven selection process. Our findings suggest that even in normal healthy animals, anti-DNA antibodies of IgA isotype can be produced in certain peripheral environments such as in PP by spontaneous antigenic stimulation. PMID:9824476

  1. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Pollen–stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen–stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen–stigma interactions during pollination. PMID:27472382

  2. IgA glomerulonephritis. Mesangial IgA deposition without systemic signs (Berger's disease).

    PubMed

    Nagy, J; Brasch, H; Süle, T; Hámori, A; Deák, G; Ambrus, M

    1979-01-01

    Renal biopsy specimens from 204 patients with glomerulonephritis or nephrotic syndrome have been studied. In ten of the patients not suffering from acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus or Schönlein-Henoch syndrome, diffuse, selective mesangial IgA deposition was observed. Clinically, persistent microscopic haematuria, mild proteinuria and, except in one patient, normal renal function were found. Light microscopically the histological picture was dominated by a diffuse or focal increase in volume of the mesangial matrix, and mild mesangial cell proliferation. Exceptionally, there was also crescent formation. Immunofluorescence revealed large IgA, IgG and C3 deposits, as well as small IgM and fibrinogen deposits in the mesangial glomeruli. The authors' assumption that immunocomplexes containing a secretory component might be implicated in the pathomechanism of Berger's disease, could not be proved.

  3. A study of oak-pollen production and phenology in northern California: prediction of annual variation in pollen counts based on geographic and meterologic factors.

    PubMed

    Fairley, D; Batchelder, G L

    1986-08-01

    To assess the characteristics of oak-pollen production and dispersal, 9 years of weekly volumetric air sampling, with modified swing-shield rotoslide pollen samplers, were obtained in San Francisco and San Jose, Calif. The Mediterranean climate of coastal California supports 9 million acres of oaks of nine different species. The major pollen contributors in the two sampling areas are coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Neé) and valley oak (Quercus lobata neé). Sampling data indicate that grains may be wind transported at least 16 km (10 miles). A strong correlation exists between pollen capture and total rainfall a full year before pollen release. The correlation is statistically significant, based on a Spearman rank test. A positive regression line slope demonstrates that the greater the precipitation, the stronger the stimulus for pollen production. The median count can be predicted within a factor of two with high probability a full year before release. During most seasons, the peak pollen collection from coast live oak and valley oak occurs in early April. A second peak production period, in mid-May, represents the conglomerate of other oak-pollen types. However, there are major yearly differences in the relative amounts of pollen released during these two periods. Consequently, individual oak pollinosis may depend as much on variable production by the major species as on the total quantity of airborne oak pollen. These data will help clinicians predict and prepare for the intensity of the oak-pollen season and explain seasonal variations in clinical symptoms from year to year. The question of cross-reacting and specific allergens among oak species can be answered by RAST-inhibition studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Mutations in Two Putative Phosphorylation Motifs in the Tomato Pollen Receptor Kinase LePRK2 Show Antagonistic Effects on Pollen Tube Length*

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Tamara; Mazzella, Agustina; Barberini, María Laura; Wengier, Diego; Motillo, Viviana; Parisi, Gustavo; Muschietti, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The tip-growing pollen tube is a useful model for studying polarized cell growth in plants. We previously characterized LePRK2, a pollen-specific receptor-like kinase from tomato (1). Here, we showed that LePRK2 is present as multiple phosphorylated isoforms in mature pollen membranes. Using comparative sequence analysis and phosphorylation site prediction programs, we identified two putative phosphorylation motifs in the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane (JM) domain. Site-directed mutagenesis in these motifs, followed by transient overexpression in tobacco pollen, showed that both motifs have opposite effects in regulating pollen tube length. Relative to LePRK2-eGFP pollen tubes, alanine substitutions in residues of motif I, Ser277/Ser279/Ser282, resulted in longer pollen tubes, but alanine substitutions in motif II, Ser304/Ser307/Thr308, resulted in shorter tubes. In contrast, phosphomimicking aspartic substitutions at these residues gave reciprocal results, that is, shorter tubes with mutations in motif I and longer tubes with mutations in motif II. We conclude that the length of pollen tubes can be negatively and positively regulated by phosphorylation of residues in motif I and II respectively. We also showed that LePRK2-eGFP significantly decreased pollen tube length and increased pollen tube tip width, relative to eGFP tubes. The kinase activity of LePRK2 was relevant for this phenotype because tubes that expressed a mutation in a lysine essential for kinase activity showed the same length and width as the eGFP control. Taken together, these results suggest that LePRK2 may have a central role in pollen tube growth through regulation of its own phosphorylation status. PMID:21131355

  5. Seasonal variation of birch and grass pollen loads and allergen release at two sites in the German Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Lüpke, Marvin; Laube, Julia; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Menzel, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Less vegetated mountainous areas may provide better conditions for allergy sufferers. However, atmospheric transport can result in medically relevant pollen loads in such regions. The majority of investigations has focused on the pollen load, expressed as daily averages of pollen per cubic meter of air (pollen grains/m³); however, the severity of allergic symptoms is also determined by the actual allergen content of this pollen, its pollen potency, which may differ between high and low altitudes. We analysed airborne birch and grass pollen concentrations along with allergen content (birch: Bet v 1, grass: Phl p 5) at two different altitudes (734 and 2650 m a.s.l.) in the Zugspitze region (2009-2010). Back-trajectories were calculated for the high altitude site and for specific days with abrupt increases in pollen potency. We observed several days with medically relevant pollen concentrations at the highest site. In addition, a few days with pollen were not associated with allergens and vice versa. The calculated seasonal mean allergen release per pollen grain was 1.8-3.3 pg Bet v 1 and 5.7 pg Phl p 5 in the valley and 1.1-3.7 pg Bet v 1 and 0.7-1.5 pg Phl p 5 at the high altitude site. Back-trajectories revealed that high pollen potency at the higher site was generally associated with south-westerly to south-easterly (birch), or northerly (grass) wind directions. By investigating days with sudden increases in pollen potency, however, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions on long- or short-range transport. Our findings suggest that people allergic to pollen might suffer less at higher altitudes and further indicate that a risk assessment relying on the actual concentration of airborne pollen does not necessarily reflect the actual allergy exposure of individuals.

  6. Pollen aroma fingerprint of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes characterized by different pollen colors.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Fambrini, Marco; Doveri, Silvia; Leonardi, Michele; Pugliesi, Claudio; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Samples of fresh pollen grains, collected from capitula in full bloom from two genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized by a different color, i.e., white-cream (WC) and orange (O), were analyzed by the HS-SPME (headspacesolid phase microextraction)/GC/MS technique. This study defined for the first time the fingerprint of the sunflower pollen, separated from the disc flowers, to define its contribution to the inflorescence aroma. In the GC/MS fingerprints of the WC and O genotypes, 61 and 62 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (34% in O vs. 28% in WC) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (37% in O vs. 31% in WC) were ubiquitous in all samples analyzed and represented the main chemical classes. α-Pinene (21% in O vs. 20% in WC) and sabinene (11% in O vs. 6% in WC) were the dominant volatiles, but also a full range of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives gave a decisive contribution to the aroma composition (10% in O vs. 12% in WC). In addition, dendrolasin (3% in O vs. 4% in WC) and some minor constituents such as (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.4% in O vs. 0.1% in WC) were pointed out not only for their contribution to the pollen scent, but also for their well-known role in the plant ecological relationships. Having evaluated two pollen morphs with different carotenoid-based colors, the study sought to highlight also the presence of some volatile precursors or derivatives of these pigments in the aroma. However, the pollen aroma of the two selected genotypes made a specific chemical contribution to the sunflower inflorescence scent without any influence on carotenoid derivatives.

  7. Inherited forms of IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Simplex and multiplex families with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) have been reported from several ethnic backgrounds, providing the strongest evidence of a role for genetic factors in pathogenesis of IgAN. From a phenotypic point of view, familial and sporadic IgAN cannot be differentiated, and the main clinical and histological features are similar. Traditionally, the case-control study design was employed to identify associations between particular candidate genes, for example, HLA antigens the uteroglobin gene and IgAN, giving conflicting results. Recently, a different approach, using linkage analysis, was undertaken by geneticists at Yale University. A 10-cM genome-wide screen was performed in 30 multiplex IgAN pedigrees, and one locus was mapped (IGAN-1) on chromosome 6q22-23. Future study will be focused on the identification of the gene underlying IGAN-1. This will enable us to understand the molecular pathogenetic basis of IgAN.

  8. The Unexplored Roles of Human Serum IgA

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Ka Wai

    2014-01-01

    The roles of human serum IgA, in contrast to that of mucosal IgA, are relatively unexplored. Previous studies have shown that IgA mediates either pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in innate immune cells. Serum IgA has been shown to interact with many proteins and glycoproteins of which the functions and mechanisms are not fully characterized. Here, we present fresh perspectives into the roles of serum IgA, describing novel IgA–protein interactions, the importance of its glycosylation status in normal functions, and the plausible role of IgA as a driver and regulator of autoimmune diseases/immune overactivation. Other potential roles, including the regulation of cytokines, effector cell function, and homeostasis, are considered in view of the maintenance of immune function. We anticipate future research to uncover new anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory roles of human serum IgA in immune functions and dysfunctions, with implications on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PMID:25188736

  9. [Glomerular IgA deposits in an autopsy study].

    PubMed

    Suganuma, T

    1994-07-01

    One hundred kidneys from 100 non-selected autopsy cases without any overt renal disease were examined by immunofluorescence to reveal the incidences and features of cases with clinically latent glomerular IgA deposits. Glomerular IgA deposits were found in 10 cases (10.0%), consisting of 4 with liver cirrhosis and 6 with other diseases. IgA deposition was observed in 4 of 13 cirrhotic patients (30.8%), 3 of 15 patients with gastrointestinal carcinoma (20.0%), one of 11 patients with cardiovascular disease (9.1%), one of 3 patients with fulminant hepatitis (33.3%), and one of 21 patients with broncho-pulmonary disease (4.8%). Light microscopy showed minor glomerular abnormalities in all non-cirrhotic cases with IgA deposits except in one case. By contrast, variable significant glomerular lesions were found in the cirrhotic cases with IgA deposits, for example mesangial proliferation and circumferential mesangial inter-position. Excluding 13 cases with liver cirrhosis, the results of urinalysis at the time of admission were available for the study in 55 of 87 cases. Forty-four of 55 cases showed normal urinalysis. Glomerular IgA deposition was found in 4 cases (9.1%) of 44 with normal urinalysis. It may be said that IgA deposition without clinical evidence of nephropathy occurred even in a normal population with an incidence of about 10%.

  10. Does insect netting affect the containment of airborne pollen from (GM-) plants in greenhouses?

    PubMed

    van Hengstum, Thomas; Hooftman, Danny A P; den Nijs, Hans C M; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2012-09-01

    Greenhouses are a well-accepted containment strategy to grow and study genetically modified plants (GM) before release into the environment. Various containment levels are requested by national regulations to minimize GM pollen escape. We tested the amount of pollen escaping from a standard greenhouse, which can be used for EU containment classes 1 and 2. More specifically, we investigated the hypothesis whether pollen escape could be minimized by insect-proof netting in front of the roof windows, since the turbulent airflow around the mesh wiring could avoid pollen from escaping. We studied the pollen flow out of greenhouses with and without insect netting of two non-transgenic crops, Ryegrass (Loliummultiflorum) and Corn (Zea Mays). Pollen flow was assessed with Rotorod(®) pollen samplers positioned inside and outside the greenhouse' roof windows. A significant proportion of airborne pollen inside the greenhouse leaves through roof windows. Moreover, the lighter pollen of Lolium escaped more readily than the heavier pollen of Maize. In contrast to our expectations, we did not identify any reduction in pollen flow with insect netting in front of open windows, even under induced airflow conditions. We conclude that insect netting, often present by default in greenhouses, is not effective in preventing pollen escape from greenhouses of wind-pollinated plants for containment classes 1 or 2. Further research would be needed to investigate whether other alternative strategies, including biotic ones, are more effective. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10453-011-9237-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  11. Molecular analysis confirms the long-distance transport of Juniperus ashei pollen

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Rashmi Prava; Buchheim, Mark Alan; Anderson, James; Levetin, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Although considered rare, airborne pollen can be deposited far from its place of origin under a confluence of favorable conditions. Temporally anomalous records of Cupressacean pollen collected from January air samples in London, Ontario, Canada have been cited as a new case of long-distance transport. Data on pollination season implicated Juniperus ashei (mountain cedar), with populations in central Texas and south central Oklahoma, as the nearest source of the Cupressacean pollen in the Canadian air samples. This finding is of special significance given the allergenicity of mountain cedar pollen. While microscopy is used extensively to identify particles in the air spora, pollen from all members of the Cupressaceae, including Juniperus, are morphologically indistinguishable. Consequently, we implemented a molecular approach to characterize Juniperus pollen using PCR in order to test the long-distance transport hypothesis. Our PCR results using species-specific primers confirmed that the anomalous Cupressacean pollen collected in Canada was from J. ashei. Forward trajectory analysis from source areas in Texas and the Arbuckle Mountains in Oklahoma and backward trajectory analysis from the destination area near London, Ontario were completed using models implemented in HYSPLIT4 (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory). Results from these trajectory analyses strongly supported the conclusion that the J. ashei pollen detected in Canada had its origins in Texas or Oklahoma. The results from the molecular findings are significant as they provide a new method to confirm the long-distance transport of pollen that bears allergenic importance. PMID:28273170

  12. Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Timerman, David; Greene, David F; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D

    2014-12-06

    In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind-stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems.

  13. Antioxidant activity of four color fractions of bee pollen from Mérida, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Elizabeth M; Vit, Patricia; Rivas, Efraín; Sciortino, Rosa; Sosa, Angel; Tejada, Daniel; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J

    2012-12-01

    Bee pollen has been reported to show antioxidant and radical scavenging activities; contributing to anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties. Venezuelan honeybee pollen has been little studied, but is consumed because its properties are known from other countries reports. On the basis of these reports, water, ethanol and methanol soluble fractions were prepared from dried bee-pollen commercially available and produced by La Montaña farm (Mérida, Venezuela). These fractions were evaluated for their functional properties, specifically, polyphenol content and total antioxidant activity. Pollen samples were separated by color in four fractions: yellow, brown, orange and ochre. Polyphenol content ranged between 396.7 to 1286.7 gallic acid equivalents GAE/100 g pollen; it was highest in pollen homogenates obtained with ethanol, followed by those obtained with methanol and water. The antioxidant activity ranged from 0.50 to 1.84 micromoles Trolox equivalents TEAC/100 g for water and ethanol homogenates respectively. The results presented in this work suggest that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent antioxidant activity, comparable to human plasma, probably due to total polyphenol content of bee pollen. This is important because the bee pollen would be beneficial not only as a dietary supplement but also as a functional food.

  14. Self-compatibility of 'Katy' apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is associated with pollen-part mutations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Gu, Chao; Du, Yu-Hu; Wu, Hua-Qing; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Liu, Ning; Lu, Juan; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2011-03-01

    Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars originated in China display a typical S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). 'Katy', a natural self-compatible cultivar belonging to the European ecotype group, was used as a useful material for breeding new cultivars with high frequency of self-compatibility by hybridizing with Chinese native cultivars. In this work, the pollen-S genes (S-haplotype-specific F-box gene, or SFB gene) of 'Katy' were first identified as SFB₁ and SFB (8), and the S-genotype was determined as S₁ S₈. Genetic analysis of 'Katy' progenies under controlled pollination revealed that the stylar S₁-RNase and S₈-RNase have a normal function in rejecting wild-type pollen with the same S-haplotype, while the pollen grains carrying either the SFB₁ or the SFB₈ gene are both able to overcome the incompatibility barrier. However, the observed segregation ratios of the S-genotype did not fit the expected ratios under the assumption that the pollen-part mutations are linked to the S-locus. Moreover, alterations in the SFB₁ and SFB₈ genes and pollen-S duplications were not detected. These results indicated that the breakdown of SI in 'Katy' occurred in pollen, and other factors not linked to the S-locus, which caused a loss of pollen S-activity. These findings support a hypothesis that modifying factors other than the S-locus are required for GSI in apricot.

  15. Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Timerman, David; Greene, David F.; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D.

    2014-01-01

    In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind–stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems. PMID:25297315

  16. Serum and salivary IgE, IgA, and IgG4 antibodies to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and its major allergens, Der p1 and Der p2, in allergic and nonallergic children.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Diego O; Silva, Deise A O; Fernandes, Jorge F C; Queirós, Meimei G J; Chiba, Hamilton F; Ynoue, Leandro H; Resende, Rafael O; Pena, Janethe D O; Sung, Sun-Sang J; Segundo, Gesmar R S; Taketomi, Ernesto A

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a public health problem with high prevalence worldwide. We evaluated levels of specific IgE, IgA, and IgG4 antibodies to the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) house dust mite and to its major allergens (Der p1 and Der p2) in serum and saliva samples from allergic and nonallergic children. A total of 86 children were analyzed, from which 72 had AR and 14 were nonallergic healthy children. Serum IgE and serum/salivary IgG4 levels to Dpt, Der p1, and Der p2 were higher in allergic children whereas serum/salivary IgA levels to all allergens were higher in nonallergic children. IgE levels positively correlated with IgG4 and IgA to all allergens in allergic children, while IgA levels negatively correlated with IgG4 to Dpt and Der p1 in nonallergic children. In conclusion, mite-specific IgA antibodies predominate in the serum and saliva of nonallergic children whereas mite-specific IgE and IgG4 are prevalent in allergic children. The presence of specific IgA appears to have a key role for the healthy immune response to mucosal allergens. Also, specific IgA measurements in serum and/or saliva may be useful for monitoring activation of tolerance-inducing mechanisms during allergen specific immunotherapeutic procedures, especially sublingual immunotherapy.

  17. SUN anchors pollen WIP–WIT complexes at the vegetative nuclear envelope and is necessary for pollen tube targeting and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao; Groves, Norman Reid; Meier, Iris

    2015-01-01

    LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complexes play an essential role in nuclear migration by connecting the nucleus to the cytoskeleton and/or motor proteins. Plant LINC complexes have recently been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, with the inner nuclear membrane SUN and outer nuclear membrane WIP proteins comprising the first identified complex. A recent study identified a nuclear movement defect in Arabidopsis pollen vegetative nuclei linked to the outer nuclear envelope WIP and WIT proteins. However, the role that SUN proteins may play in pollen nuclear migration has yet to be addressed. To explore this question, a SUN2 lumenal domain that was targeted to the ER specifically in pollen was over-expressed. It is shown that the ER-targeted SUN2 lumenal domain was able to displace WIP and WIT proteins from the pollen vegetative nuclear envelope. Expression of this dominant-negative transgene led to impaired VN mobility, impaired pollen tube guidance, and defective pollen tube reception. The observed pollen defects are similar to phenotypes observed in a wip1-1 wip2-1 wip3-1 wit1-1 wit2-1 mutant. It is also shown that these defects were dependent on the KASH-binding function of the SUN2 lumenal domain. These data support a model where LINC complexes formed by SUN, WIP, and WIT at the VNE are responsible for VN migration and suggest an important function of SUN, WIP, and WIT in pollen tube guidance and reception. PMID:26409047

  18. Arabidopsis JINGUBANG Is a Negative Regulator of Pollen Germination That Prevents Pollination in Moist Environments[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fei; Zhu, Qiao-Yun; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of pollen germination and pollen tube growth has been revealed in detail during the last decade, while the mechanism that suspends pollen grains in a dormant state is largely unclear. Here, we identified the JINGUBANG (JGB) gene by screening pollen-specific genes for those that are unnecessary for pollen germination. We showed that the pollen of the jgb loss-of-function mutant exhibited hyperactive germination in sucrose-only medium and inside the anther, while this phenotype was rescued by the transgenic expression of JGB in jgb plants. JGB contains seven WD40 repeats and is highly conserved in flowering plants. Overexpression of JGB inhibits pollen germination. These results indicate that JGB is a novel negative regulator of pollen germination. In addition, we found that jasmonic acid (JA) abundance was significantly elevated in jgb pollen, while exogenous application of methyl jasmonate rescued the inhibition of pollen germination in plants overexpressing JGB. Based on the molecular features of JGB and on the finding that it interacts with a known JA biosynthesis-related transcription factor, TCP4, we propose that JGB, together with TCP4, forms a regulatory complex that controls pollen JA synthesis, ensuring pollination in moist environments. PMID:27468890

  19. Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Sandra N; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year.

  20. Pollen Forecast and Dispersion Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Monica; Di Giuseppe, Fabio; Medaglia, Carlo Maria; Travaglini, Alessandro; Tocci, Raffaella; Brighetti, M. Antonia; Petitta, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is monitoring, mapping and forecast of pollen distribution for the city of Rome using in-situ measurements of 10 species of common allergenic pollens and measurements of PM10. The production of daily concentration maps, associated to a mobile phone app, are innovative compared to existing dedicated services to people who suffer from respiratory allergies. The dispersal pollen is one of the most well-known causes of allergic disease that is manifested by disorders of the respiratory functions. Allergies are the third leading cause of chronic disease and it is estimated that tens millions of people in Italy suffer from it. Recent works reveal that during the last few years there was a progressive increase of affected subjects, especially in urban areas. This situation may depend: on the ability to transport of pollutants, on the ability to react between pollutants and pollen and from a combination of other irritants, existing in densely populated and polluted urban areas. The methodology used to produce maps is based on in-situ measurements time series relative to 2012, obtained from networks of air quality and pollen stations in the metropolitan area of Rome. The monitoring station aerobiological of University of Rome "Tor Vergata" is located at the Department of Biology. The instrument used to pollen monitoring is a volumetric sampler type Hirst (Hirst 1952), Model 2000 VPPS Lanzoni; the data acquisition is carried out as reported in Standard UNI 11008:2004 - "Qualità dell'aria - Metodo di campionamento e conteggio dei granuli pollinici e delle spore fungine aerodisperse" - the protocol that describes the procedure for measuring of the concentration of pollen grains and fungal spores dispersed into the atmosphere, and reported in the "Manuale di gestione e qualità della R.I.M.A" (Travaglini et. al. 2009). All 10 allergenic pollen are monitored since 1996. At Tor Vergata university is also operating a meteorological station (SP2000, CAE

  1. Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Carla; Iglesias, Antonio; Feás, Xesus; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the primordial of humanity, pollen has been considered a good source of nutrients and energy. Its promising healing properties have also been referred to. The present study aimed to characterize, for the first time, eight commercial pollens from Portugal and Spain available on the market studying the legislation on labeling, pollinic origin, physicochemical and microbiological analyses and identification of yeasts. Eleven botanical families were found amongst the samples. The most abundant family and the most dominant pollen was Cistaceae. The moisture content, ash, aw, pH, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and energy were analyzed and the specific parameters were within the specifications required by some countries with legislation regarding these parameters. Microbiologically commercial pollen showed acceptable safety for the commercial quality and hygiene. All samples showed negative results for toxigenic species. The microorganisms studied were aerobic mesophiles, yeasts and moulds, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and sulfite-reducing Clostridium. During the work, six yeasts species were isolated from pollen, with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa being the most abundant, as it was present in four samples. PMID:23109845

  2. Anti-Leishmania IgA in urine samples from dogs with clinical leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Todolí, Felicitat; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Ojeda, Ana; Quintana, Josefina; Lloret, Albert; Roura, Xavier; Alberola, Jordi; Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí

    2009-01-22

    Recently, anti-Leishmania IgG has been detected in urine samples from Leishmania-infected dogs and its concentrations have been correlated with impairment of renal function. The presence and relationship with other anti-Leishmania Ig isotypes in urine have not yet been investigated. The current study analyzed the concentrations of anti-Leishmania IgA and IgG in sera (Ig-S) and urine (Ig-U) samples by ELISA in 64 untreated dogs with clinical leishmaniasis. All 64 serum samples tested were positive for anti-Leishmania IgG. Fifty of them (78.1%) were also positive for anti-Leishmania IgA. The results showed the presence of anti-Leishmania IgA-U in 38% of the 50 dogs that were positive for specific IgA-S. Thirty-eight of the 64 dogs positive for Leishmania-specific IgG-S (59.4%) were also positive for Leishmania-specific IgG in urine (IgG-U). The concentrations of anti-Leishmania IgA-U were significantly correlated with urine protein/creatinine (uP/C) ratio (rho=0.542; P<0.001) and with serum biochemical parameters, such as gamma-globulins, urea and creatinine. Goldmann-Witmer coefficient (C value) indicated that detection of specific IgA in urine samples from dogs with leishmaniasis might not only be due to impairment of filtration of the glomerular barrier but also be due to local production of this isotype, which might reflect a local immunological response to the presence of the parasite in the genitourinary tract. Anti-Leishmania IgG-U concentrations were highly correlated with uP/C ratio (rho=0.779; P<0.001) and C value did not support in any case local production of this isotype. IgG isotype might be a more suitable and specific tool to evaluate renal damage due to the lower IgA-U sensitivity and correlation coefficients and evidence of IgA local production. However, dogs found positive for both Ig isotypes in urine presented significantly higher specific IgG-U concentrations and higher uP/C ratios than dogs found positive only for IgG-U, thus suggesting that

  3. High IgE sensitization to maize and rice pollen in the highlands of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ramavovololona; Sénéchal, Hélène; Andrianarisoa, Ange; Rakotoarimanana, Vololona; Godfrin, Dominique; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maize and rice are two crops constituting the main food supply in many under-developed and developing countries. Despite the large area devoted to the culture, the sensitization to the pollen from these plants is reported to be low and often considered as an occupational allergy. Methods Sixty five Malagasy pollen allergic patients were clinically and immunochemically investigated with regard to maize and rice pollen allergens. Pollen extracts were electrophoretically separated in 1 and 2 dimensions and IgE and IgG reactivities detected upon immunoblotting. Results When exploring the sensitization profile of Malagasy allergic patients to maize and rice pollen, it appears that a high proportion of these patients consulting during grass pollinating season were sensitized to both pollen as revealed by skin prick testing (62 vs. 59%) and IgE immunoblotting (85 vs. 40%). Several clinically relevant allergens were recognized by patients’ serum IgE in maize and rice pollen extracts. Conclusion The high levels of maize and rice pollen sensitization should be related, in this tropical region, to a specific environmental exposure including i) a proximity of the population to the allergenic sources and ii) a putative exacerbating effect of a highly polluted urban atmosphere on pollen allergenicity. Cross-reactivities between wild and cultivated grasses and also between rice and maize pollen are involved as well as some specific maize sensitizations. The presence of dense urban and peri-urban agriculture, in various African regions and worldwide, could be a high environmental risk factor for people sensitive to maize pollen. PMID:25870739

  4. Analysis of IgE binding proteins of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pollen and cross-reactivity with predominant tree pollens.

    PubMed

    Dhyani, Anamika; Arora, Naveen; Gaur, Shailendra N; Jain, Vikram K; Sridhara, Susheela; Singh, Bhanu P

    2006-01-01

    Pollen from the mesquite tree, Prosopis juliflora, is an important source of respiratory allergy in tropical countries. Our aim was to partially characterize the IgE binding proteins of P. juliflora pollen extract and study cross-reactivity with prevalent tree pollen allergens. Intradermal tests with P. juliflora and five other tree pollen extracts were performed on respiratory allergy patients from Bikaner (arid) and Delhi (semi arid). Prosopis extract elicited positive skin reactions in 71/220 of the patients. Sera were collected from 38 of these 71 patients and all demonstrated elevated specific IgE to P. juliflora. Immunoblotting with pooled patients' sera demonstrated 16 IgE binding components, with components of 24, 26, 29, 31, 35, 52, 58, 66 and 95 kDa recognized by more than 80% of individual patients' sera. P. juliflora extract is allergenically potent requiring 73 ng of self-protein for 50% inhibition of IgE binding in ELISA inhibition. Cross-inhibition assays showed close relationship among P. juliflora, Ailanthus excelsa, Cassia siamea and Salvadora persica. IgE binding components of 14, 41, 52 and 66 kDa were shared allergens whereas 26 and 29 kDa were specific to P. juliflora. The findings suggest that purification of cross-reactive allergens will be helpful for diagnosis and immunotherapy of tree pollen allergic patients.

  5. ANCA-associated crescentic glomerulonephritis with mesangial IgA deposits.

    PubMed

    Haas, M; Jafri, J; Bartosh, S M; Karp, S L; Adler, S G; Meehan, S M

    2000-10-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) are commonly associated with a necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) that is pauci-immune, with few or no glomerular immune complex deposits detectable by immunofluorescence (IF) or electron microscopy (EM). Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy may also be manifest as a crescentic GN, but it is characterized by mesangial immune complex deposits containing IgA and is rarely associated with myeloperoxidase (MPO)- or proteinase 3 (PR3)-specific ANCA when an enzyme immunoassay is used to detect these antibodies. This report describes six patients with severe crescentic GN with mesangial IgA deposits by IF and mesangial electron-dense deposits by EM in patients with positive ANCA serological test results (four patients, anti-PR3; one patient, anti-MPO; one patient, anti-PR3 and anti-MPO). Patients presented with acute or progressive renal insufficiency, hematuria, proteinuria (nephrotic range in two patients), and hypertension. Three patients had evidence of systemic vasculitis: two patients at initial presentation and one patient later in the clinical course. Renal biopsy specimens showed crescents in greater than 50% of glomeruli in all cases, but only mild, focal and segmental mesangial and endocapillary hypercellularity, more typical of ANCA-associated crescentic GN than of crescentic IgA nephropathy without associated ANCA. Semiquantitative analysis of mesangial and endocapillary cellularity performed on renal biopsy slides from these six patients and from eight ANCA-negative patients with IgA nephropathy and crescents in greater than 50% of glomeruli showed significantly greater hypercellularity in the ANCA-negative cases. Three of five ANCA-positive patients for whom follow-up clinical data were available showed improved renal function after treatment with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids and have not developed end-stage renal disease 17, 20, and 25 months postbiopsy. The remaining two patients were

  6. Canine IgA nephropathy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Akira; Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Kohyama, Moeko; Yamato, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) A nephropathy is a rare form of canine glomerular disease. This report describes a case of canine IgA nephropathy showing characteristics typical of human IgA nephropathy. An 8-year-old, spayed female Miniature Dachshund showed persistent severe proteinuria without azotemia. She was receiving long-term glucocorticoid therapy due to chronic gastritis and an intra-abdominal suture granuloma. A renal biopsy demonstrated mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with predominantly mesangial IgA deposition and electron-dense deposits in the paramesangium. These findings closely resembled those of human IgA nephropathy. Glucocorticoid treatment was discontinued, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril was administrated as an antiproteinuric agent. The proteinuria subsequently went into remission, and the patient has maintained good condition without recurrence.

  7. Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

    2014-05-01

    The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-β) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells.

  8. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis with IgA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Morr, H; Behr, J

    2004-12-22

    Up to now only 3 cases of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) with IgA deficiency have been published worldwide. We had the opportunity to detect two additional cases which will be presented here. Summarizing all cases IgA deficiency is a risk factor for a severe course of the disease and an increased susceptibility to acquire allergic alveolitis by low dose antigen exposure.

  9. [Maternal serum IgA in intrauterine fetal growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Briese, V; Straube, W

    1983-01-01

    The problem was to prove the significance of IgA estimations in maternal serum samples with regard to the diagnosis and the monitoring of intrauterine fetal growth retardation. IgA was estimated in serum samples from two groups of patients. The first was formed from 62 serum samples of 14 primi- and multiparae delivered from new-borns with a birth weight below the 10th centile. The second was the control group. 82 serum samples from 18 gravidae were available. The IgA estimations were carried out by means of single radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini and co-workers. The IgA values of the two groups were different considering that linear regression model was used; negative correlation between IgA and pregnancy weeks in group with retarded new-borns (y = -151,78 X + 7579,8; r = -0,39) and positive correlation of these parameters in control group (y = 73,59 X -429,38; r = 0,26). It could be that IgA is an additional parameter within placental function tests of the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.

  10. Personalized symptoms forecasting for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis sufferers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voukantsis, D.; Berger, U.; Tzima, F.; Karatzas, K.; Jaeger, S.; Bergmann, K. C.

    2015-07-01

    Hay fever is a pollen-induced allergic reaction that strongly affects the overall quality of life of many individuals. The disorder may vary in severity and symptoms depending on patient-specific factors such as genetic disposition, individual threshold of pollen concentration levels, medication, former immunotherapy, and others. Thus, information services that improve the quality of life of hay fever sufferers must address the needs of each individual separately. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of information services that offer personalized pollen-induced symptoms forecasts. The backbone of these services consists of data of allergic symptoms reported by the users of the Personal Hay Fever Diary system and pollen concentration levels (European Aeroallergen Network) in several sampling sites. Data were analyzed using computational intelligence methods, resulting in highly customizable forecasting models that offer personalized warnings to users of the Patient Hay Fever Diary system. The overall system performance for the pilot area (Vienna and Lower Austria) reached a correlation coefficient of r = 0.71 ± 0.17 (average ± standard deviation) in a sample of 219 users with major contribution to the Pollen Hay Fever Diary system and an overall performance of r = 0.66 ± 0.18 in a second sample of 393 users, with minor contribution to the system. These findings provide an example of combining data from different sources using advanced data engineering in order to develop innovative e-health services with the capacity to provide more direct and personalized information to allergic rhinitis sufferers.

  11. Pollen assemblages as paleoenvironmental proxies in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willard, D.A.; Weimer, L.M.; Riegel, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of 170 pollen assemblages from surface samples in eight vegetation types in the Florida Everglades indicates that these wetland sub-environments are distinguishable from the pollen record and that they are useful proxies for hydrologic and edaphic parameters. Vegetation types sampled include sawgrass marshes, cattail marshes, sloughs with floating aquatics, wet prairies, brackish marshes, tree islands, cypress swamps, and mangrove forests. The distribution of these vegetation types is controlled by specific environmental parameters, such as hydrologic regime, nutrient availability, disturbance level, substrate type, and salinity; ecotones between vegetation types may be sharp. Using R-mode cluster analysis of pollen data, we identified diagnostic species groupings; Q-mode cluster analysis was used to differentiate pollen signatures of each vegetation type. Cluster analysis and the modern analog technique were applied to interpret vegetational and environmental trends over the last two millennia at a site in Water Conservation Area 3A. The results show that close modern analogs exist for assemblages in the core and indicate past hydrologic changes at the site, correlated with both climatic and land-use changes. The ability to differentiate marshes with different hydrologic and edaphic requirements using the pollen record facilitates assessment of relative impacts of climatic and anthropogenic changes on this wetland ecosystem on smaller spatial and temporal scales than previously were possible. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Value of Isolated IgA anti-β2GPI Positivity in the Diagnosis of the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Vijaya; Willis, Rohan; Romay-Penabad, Zurina; Ruiz-Limón, Patricia; Martínez-Martínez, Laura A.; Jatwani, Shraddha; Jajoria, Praveen; Seif, Alan; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Papalardo, Elizabeth; Liu, Jigna; Vilá, Luis M.; McGwin, Gerald; McNearney, Terry A.; Maganti, Rashmi; Sunkureddi, Prashanth; Parekh, Trisha; Tarantino, Michael; Akhter, Ehtisham; Fang, Hong; Gonzalez, Emilio B.; Binder, Walter R.; Norman, Gary L.; Shums, Zakera; Teodorescu, Marius; Reveille, John D.; Petri, Michelle; Pierangeli, Silvia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prevalence of isolated IgA anti-β2Glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) positivity and the association of these antibodies, and a subgroup that bind specifically to domain IV/V of β2GPI, with clinical manifestations of the Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) in three patients groups. The pathogenicity of IgA anti-β2GPI was also evaluated in a mouse model of thrombosis. Methods Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) from a multiethnic, multicenter cohort (LUpus in MInorities, NAture versus nurture [LUMINA]) (n=558), patients with SLE from the Hopkins Lupus Cohort (n=215), and serum samples referred to the Antiphospholipid Standardization Laboratory (APLS) (n=5,098) were evaluated. IgA anti-β2GPI titers and binding to domain IV/V of β2GPI were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD1 mice were inoculated with purified IgA anti- β2GPI antibodies, and surgical procedures and ELISAs were performed to evaluate thrombus development and tissue factor (TF) activity. Results A total of 198 patients were found to be positive for IgA anti-β2GPI isotype, and 57 patients were positive exclusively for IgA anti-β2GPI antibodies. Of these, 13 of 23 patients (56.5%) in the LUMINA cohort, 17 of 17 patients (100%) in the Hopkins cohort, and 10 of 17 patients (58.9%) referred to APLS had at least one APS-related clinical manifestation. Fifty-four percent of all the IgA anti-β2GPI positive serum samples reacted with domain IV/V of anti-β2GPI, and 77% of those had clinical features of APS. Isolated IgA anti-β2GPI positivity was associated with an increased risk for arterial thrombosis (p<0.001), venous thrombosis (p=0.015) and all thrombosis (p<0.001). The association between isolated IgA anti-β2GPI and arterial thrombosis (p=0.0003) and all thrombosis (p=0.0003) remained significant after adjusting for other risk factors for thrombosis. In vivo mouse studies demonstrated that IgA anti-β2GPI antibodies induced significantly larger

  13. Release of Bet v 1 from birch pollen from 5 European countries. Results from the HIALINE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Thibaudon, Michel; Smith, Matt; Kennedy, Roy; Rantio-Lehtimäki, Auli; Albertini, Roberto; Reese, Gerald; Weber, Bernhard; Galan, Carmen; Brandao, Rui; Antunes, Celia M.; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe; Celenk, Sevcan; Grewling, Łukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Sauliene, Ingrida; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Sarioglu, Hakan; Ueffing, Marius; Behrendt, Heidrun; Prank, Marje; Sofiev, Mikhail; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Hialine Working Group

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to allergens is pivotal in determining sensitization and allergic symptoms in individuals. Pollen grain counts in ambient air have traditionally been assessed to estimate airborne allergen exposure. However, the exact allergen content of ambient air is unknown. We therefore monitored atmospheric concentrations of birch pollen grains and the matched major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 simultaneously across Europe within the EU-funded project HIALINE (Health Impacts of Airborne Allergen Information Network). Pollen count was assessed with Hirst type pollen traps at 10 l min-1 at sites in France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Finland. Allergen concentrations in ambient air were sampled at 800 l min-1 with a Chemvol® high-volume cascade impactor equipped with stages PM > 10 μm, 10 μm > PM > 2.5 μm, and in Germany also 2.5 μm > PM > 0.12 μm. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was determined with an allergen specific ELISA. Bet v 1 isoform patterns were analyzed by 2D-SDS-PAGE blots and mass spectrometric identification. Basophil activation was tested in an FcɛR1-humanized rat basophil cell line passively sensitized with serum of a birch pollen symptomatic patient. Compared to 10 previous years, 2009 was a representative birch pollen season for all stations. About 90% of the allergen was found in the PM > 10 μm fraction at all stations. Bet v 1 isoforms pattern did not vary substantially neither during ripening of pollen nor between different geographical locations. The average European allergen release from birch pollen was 3.2 pg Bet v 1/pollen and did not vary much between the European countries. However, in all countries a >10-fold difference in daily allergen release per pollen was measured which could be explained by long-range transport of pollen with a deviating allergen release. Basophil activation by ambient air extracts correlated better with airborne allergen than with pollen concentration. Although Bet v 1 is a mixture of different

  14. Release of Bet v 1 from birch pollen from 5 European countries. Results from the HIALINE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The HIALINE working Group; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Thibaudon, Michel; Smith, Matt; Kennedy, Roy; Rantio-Lehtimäki, Auli; Albertini, Roberto; Reese, Gerald; Weber, Bernhard; Galan, Carmen; Brandao, Rui; Antunes, Celia M.; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe; Celenk, Sevcan; Grewling, Łukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Sauliene, Ingrida; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Sarioglu, Hakan; Ueffing, Marius; Behrendt, Heidrun; Prank, Marje; Sofiev, Mikhail; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to allergens is pivotal in determining sensitization and allergic symptoms in individuals. Pollen grain counts in ambient air have traditionally been assessed to estimate airborne allergen exposure. However, the exact allergen content of ambient air is unknown. We therefore monitored atmospheric concentrations of birch pollen grains and the matched major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 simultaneously across Europe within the EU-funded project HIALINE (Health Impacts of Airborne Allergen Information Network).Pollen count was assessed with Hirst type pollen traps at 10 l min-1 at sites in France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Finland. Allergen concentrations in ambient air were sampled at 800 l min-1 with a Chemvol® high-volume cascade impactor equipped with stages PM > 10 μm, 10 μm > PM > 2.5 μm, and in Germany also 2.5 μm > PM > 0.12 μm. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was determined with an allergen specific ELISA. Bet v 1 isoform patterns were analyzed by 2D-SDS-PAGE blots and mass spectrometric identification. Basophil activation was tested in an FcɛR1-humanized rat basophil cell line passively sensitized with serum of a birch pollen symptomatic patient.Compared to 10 previous years, 2009 was a representative birch pollen season for all stations. About 90% of the allergen was found in the PM > 10 μm fraction at all stations. Bet v 1 isoforms pattern did not vary substantially neither during ripening of pollen nor between different geographical locations. The average European allergen release from birch pollen was 3.2 pg Bet v 1/pollen and did not vary much between the European countries. However, in all countries a >10-fold difference in daily allergen release per pollen was measured which could be explained by long-range transport of pollen with a deviating allergen release. Basophil activation by ambient air extracts correlated better with airborne allergen than with pollen concentration.Although Bet v 1 is a mixture of different

  15. [Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europea in patients with pollen allergy in the area of Zadar and Dubrovnik].

    PubMed

    Skitarelić, Natasa; Sindik, Niksa; Skitarelić, Neven; Mazzi, Antun; Vuletić, Ana; Misulić, Josko

    2004-01-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of inhalant allergy in countries around the Mediterranean sea. Due to the lack of information on hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea from Croatian coast, the aim of this investigation was to establish the frequency of hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea in pollen allergic patients in Zadar and Dubrovnik. Also, we compared two areas of Dalmatia regarding the number of patients and expression of allergy to the Olea europea. A total of 810 patients, children and adults, with pollen allergy were examined in both areas, Zadar and Dubrovnik. In the area of Zadar we examined 546 participants and in the area of Dubrovnik 264 participants. The patients were assessed by anamnestic data, clinical examination, measurement of pulmonary function (adults and children older than 7 years), skin prick test and enzymo-immunologic UniCAP test for measurements of specific IgE antibodies. For statistical analysis we used chi square test. Hypersensitivity to the allergy of Olea europea occurred in 66/810 (8.15%) assessed participants with pollen allergy. The comparison between the two areas didn't show any statistical difference in the number of affected participants with hypersensitivity to the Olea europea. Also, we didn't show any statistical difference in comparison of skin prick tests, immunologic measurements of specific IgE antibodies, or clinical manifestations between participants in the two investigated areas. The most prevalent clinical manifestation was rhinitis registered in 39/66 (59%) patients with hypersensitivity to the olive pollen. The majority of patients with hypersensitivity to olive pollen 51/66 (77%) live in towns. Only 3/66 (4%) participants live on an island. Rhinitis was the most prevalent clinical manifestation in our patients with hypersensitivity to allergen of Olea europea. Hypersensitivity to olive pollen was higher in participants who lived in towns. The hypersensitivity to Olea

  16. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of measuring IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies to mycobacterial A60 antigen in active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ben-selma, Walid; Harizi, Hedi; Marzouk, Manel; Ben Kahla, Imen; Ben Lazreg, Foued; Ferjeni, Asma; Boukadida, Jalel

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of detection of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM antibodies raised against the mycobacterial A60 antigen for the diagnosis and discrimination of active tuberculosis (TB) from other pulmonary diseases. Three commercially available ELISA kits (IgA, IgG, and IgM) (ANDA Biologicals, Strasbourg, France) were evaluated simultaneously in 246 serum samples from 3 groups of patients: group I, 171 patients with active TB (128 pulmonary TB and 43 extrapulmonary TB); group II, 73 patients with pulmonary non-TB diseases; and group III, 2 leprosies patients. The sensitivities of tests ranged from 31.3% (IgA) to 94% (IgG) in pulmonary TB patients and from 21% (IgA) to 84% (IgG) in extrapulmonary TB patients. The specificities of assays varied from 92% (IgG) to 96% (IgA) in the pulmonary non-TB group. Combination of IgG with IgA and/or IgM does not improve its sensitivity. Clinical use of the A60-based serodiagnostic IgG assay is of great value for the rapid diagnosis and discrimination between active TB and pulmonary non-TB diseases. Moreover, this test could be used to increase diagnostic accuracy, especially for smear-negative TB cases, which are difficult to diagnose.

  17. Microbiota regulate the ability of lung dendritic cells to induce IgA class-switch recombination and generate protective gastrointestinal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ruane, Darren; Chorny, Alejo; Lee, Haekyung; Faith, Jeremiah; Pandey, Gaurav; Shan, Meimei; Simchoni, Noa; Rahman, Adeeb; Garg, Aakash; Weinstein, Erica G.; Oropallo, Michael; Gaylord, Michelle; Ungaro, Ryan; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Alexandropoulos, Konstantina; Mucida, Daniel; Merad, Miriam; Cerutti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Protective immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses to oral antigens are usually orchestrated by gut dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we show that lung CD103+ and CD24+CD11b+ DCs induced IgA class-switch recombination (CSR) by activating B cells through T cell–dependent or –independent pathways. Compared with lung DCs (LDC), lung CD64+ macrophages had decreased expression of B cell activation genes and induced significantly less IgA production. Microbial stimuli, acting through Toll-like receptors, induced transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production by LDCs and exerted a profound influence on LDC-mediated IgA CSR. After intranasal immunization with inactive cholera toxin (CT), LDCs stimulated retinoic acid–dependent up-regulation of α4β7 and CCR9 gut-homing receptors on local IgA-expressing B cells. Migration of these B cells to the gut resulted in IgA-mediated protection against an oral challenge with active CT. However, in germ-free mice, the levels of LDC-induced, CT–specific IgA in the gut are significantly reduced. Herein, we demonstrate an unexpected role of the microbiota in modulating the protective efficacy of intranasal vaccination through their effect on the IgA class-switching function of LDCs. PMID:26712806

  18. Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feder, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. The performance of selected pollen populations can then be used to bioassay ozone in ambient air by introducing the air sample into a growth chamber where ozone-sensitive pollen in growing. Year-round pollen producion can be achieved in the greenhouse. Harvested pollen can be tested, packaged, and transported to user facilities without loss of vigor. Pollen populations are inexpensive to produce, respond reliably, and are simple to use as a bioassay for air quality.

  19. National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: April 12, 2017 Location: San Antonio ( ... Service can automatically email you daily pollen and mold reports. Click here sign up! Return to Map ...

  20. Purification and characterisation of immunoglobulins from the Australian black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) using anti-fab affinity chromatography reveals the low abundance of IgA.

    PubMed

    Wynne, James W; Di Rubbo, Antonio; Shiell, Brian J; Beddome, Gary; Cowled, Christopher; Peck, Grantley R; Huang, Jing; Grimley, Samantha L; Baker, Michelle L; Michalski, Wojtek P

    2013-01-01

    There is now an overwhelming body of evidence that implicates bats in the dissemination of a long list of emerging and re-emerging viral agents, often causing illnesses or death in both animals and humans. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding the immunological mechanisms by which bats coexist with highly pathogenic viruses. Immunoglobulins are major components of the adaptive immune system. Early studies found bats may have quantitatively lower antibody responses to model antigens compared to conventional laboratory animals. To further understand the antibody response of bats, the present study purified and characterised the major immunoglobulin classes from healthy black flying foxes, Pteropus alecto. We employed a novel strategy, where IgG was initially purified and used to generate anti-Fab specific antibodies. Immobilised anti-Fab specific antibodies were then used to capture other immunoglobulins from IgG depleted serum. While high quantities of IgM were successfully isolated from serum, IgA was not. Only trace quantities of IgA were detected in the serum by mass spectrometry. Immobilised ligands specific to IgA (Jacalin, Peptide M and staphylococcal superantigen-like protein) also failed to capture P. alecto IgA from serum. IgM was the second most abundant serum antibody after IgG. A survey of mucosal secretions found IgG was the dominant antibody class rather than IgA. Our study demonstrates healthy P. alecto bats have markedly less serum IgA than expected. Higher quantities of IgG in mucosal secretions may be compensation for this low abundance or lack of IgA. Knowledge and reagents developed within this study can be used in the future to examine class-specific antibody response within this important viral host.

  1. Purification and Characterisation of Immunoglobulins from the Australian Black Flying Fox (Pteropus alecto) Using Anti-Fab Affinity Chromatography Reveals the Low Abundance of IgA

    PubMed Central

    Shiell, Brian J.; Beddome, Gary; Cowled, Christopher; Peck, Grantley R.; Huang, Jing; Grimley, Samantha L.; Baker, Michelle L.; Michalski, Wojtek P.

    2013-01-01

    There is now an overwhelming body of evidence that implicates bats in the dissemination of a long list of emerging and re-emerging viral agents, often causing illnesses or death in both animals and humans. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding the immunological mechanisms by which bats coexist with highly pathogenic viruses. Immunoglobulins are major components of the adaptive immune system. Early studies found bats may have quantitatively lower antibody responses to model antigens compared to conventional laboratory animals. To further understand the antibody response of bats, the present study purified and characterised the major immunoglobulin classes from healthy black flying foxes, Pteropus alecto. We employed a novel strategy, where IgG was initially purified and used to generate anti-Fab specific antibodies. Immobilised anti-Fab specific antibodies were then used to capture other immunoglobulins from IgG depleted serum. While high quantities of IgM were successfully isolated from serum, IgA was not. Only trace quantities of IgA were detected in the serum by mass spectrometry. Immobilised ligands specific to IgA (Jacalin, Peptide M and staphylococcal superantigen-like protein) also failed to capture P. alecto IgA from serum. IgM was the second most abundant serum antibody after IgG. A survey of mucosal secretions found IgG was the dominant antibody class rather than IgA. Our study demonstrates healthy P. alecto bats have markedly less serum IgA than expected. Higher quantities of IgG in mucosal secretions may be compensation for this low abundance or lack of IgA. Knowledge and reagents developed within this study can be used in the future to examine class-specific antibody response within this important viral host. PMID:23308125

  2. Optimization of conditions for germination of cold-stored Arabidopsis thaliana pollen.

    PubMed

    Bou Daher, Firas; Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2009-03-01

    One of the rare weak points of the model plant Arabidopsis is the technical problem associated with the germination of its male gametophyte and the generation of the pollen tube in vitro. Arabidopsis pollen being tricellular has a notoriously low in vitro germination compared to species with bicellular pollen. This drawback strongly affects the reproducibility of experiments based on this cellular system. Together with the fact that pollen collection from this species is tedious, these are obstacles for the standard use of Arabidopsis pollen for experiments that require high numbers of pollen tubes and for which the percentage of germination needs to be highly reproducible. The possibility of freeze-storing pollen after bulk collection is a potential way to solve these problems, but necessitates methods that ensure continued viability and reproducible capacity to germinate. Our objective was the optimization of germination conditions for Arabidopsis pollen that had been freeze-stored. We optimized the concentrations of various media components conventionally used for in vitro pollen germination. We found that in general 4 mM calcium, 1.62 mM boric acid, 1 mM potassium, 1 mM magnesium, 18% sucrose at pH 7 and a temperature of 22.5 degrees C are required for optimal pollen germination. However, different experimental setups may deviate in their requirements from this general protocol. We suggest how to optimally use these optimized methods for different practical experiments ranging from morphological observations of pollen tubes in optical and electron microscopy to their bulk use for molecular and biochemical analyses or for experimental setups for which a specific medium stiffness is critical.

  3. Immunoblot analysis of IgA antibodies to Naegleria fowleri in human saliva and serum.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Aguilar, V; Hernández-Martínez, D; Rojas-Hernández, S; Oliver-Aguillón, G; Tsutsumi, V; Herrera-González, N; Campos-Rodríguez, R

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody response to Naegleria fowleri (Nf) in individuals living in a parasite endemic area. Saliva and serum samples were obtained from both healthy subjects and patients suffering from a respiratory illness (chronic bronchitis or rhinitis) and were analyzed by immunoblot assay. SIgA from the patients' samples recognized more intensely a greater number of Nf proteins than did SIgA from the healthy control group. The proteins more frequently recognized were those with a molecular weight of 171, 107, 102, 62, 50, 46, and 10 kDa. Some IgA antibodies recognized proteins from Nf and Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) of similar molecular weight. These results suggest that some of those antibodies could have been elicited by a previous intestinal infection with Eh. Through the common mucosal immune system the IgA B-cells activated by Eh antigens can be disseminated to all the mucosae, including the nasal mucosa. SIgA antibodies recognizing Nf proteins, induced either by specific immunization or by cross-reaction, could participate in the resistance to the infection, probably by inhibiting the adherence of Nf trophozoites to the nasal mucosa.

  4. Utilization of pollen to examine insect foraging and movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outer wall of a pollen grain is called the exine and protects the genetic material located inside the grain from desiccation and radiation. It is made up largely of a complex molecule called sporopollenin, which is durable and does not easily decay. The exine also exhibits specific patterns wh...

  5. The pollen organelle membrane proteome reveals highly spatial-temporal dynamics during germination and tube growth of lily pollen.

    PubMed

    Pertl, Heidi; Schulze, Waltraud X; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2009-11-01

    As a first step in understanding the membrane-related dynamics during pollen grain germination and subsequent tube growth, the changes in protein abundance of membrane and membrane-associated proteins of 5 different membrane/organelle fractions were studied at physiologically important stages (0, 10, 30, 60, and 240 min) of Lilium longiflorum pollen in vitro culture. Proteins of each fraction and time point were identified by 'shot-gun' proteomics (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of more than 270 identified proteins revealed an increase in the abundance of proteins involved in cytoskeleton, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, as well as ion transport before pollen grain germination (10-30 min), whereas proteins involved in membrane/protein trafficking, signal transduction, stress response and protein biosynthesis decreased in abundance during this time. Proteins of amino acids and lipids/steroids metabolism, proteolysis, transcription, cell wall biosynthesis as well as nutrient transport showed a time-independent abundance profile. These spatiotemporal patterns were confirmed by immunodetection of specific proteins of the cellular processes membrane/protein trafficking and ion transport. Our results reveal major protein rearrangements at endomembranes and the plasma membrane before and as the pollen grains start tube growth. The spatiotemporal protein abundance changes correlate with the underlying developmental and physiological processes of the germinating pollen grain.

  6. Functional networks of aging markers in the glomeruli of IgA nephropathy: a new therapeutic opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Liang, Ludan; Qin, Jing; Lu, Yingying; Li, Bingjue; Wang, Yucheng; Lin, Chuan; Zhou, Qin; Feng, Shi; Yip, Shun H.; Xu, Feng; Lai, EnYin; Wang, Junwen; Chen, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    IgA nephropathy(IgAN) is the most common primary glomerular disease in China. Primary infections always occur before IgAN. However, the pathology of IgAN is still unclear. Previously we found that LL37, a protein secreted by senescent cells, was specific for the progression of IgAN, and also played a role in the neutrophil function. So we hypothesized that the infiltration of neutrophils, inflammation factors, and aging markers, which were modulated by functional networks, induced the immune response and renal injury. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq) can be used to study the whole transcriptome and detect splicing variants that are expressed in a specific cell type or tissue. We separate glomerulus from the renal biopsy tissues. After RNA extraction, the sequences were analyzed with Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500. 381 genes with differential expression between the IgAN patients and the healthy controls were identified. Only PLAU, JUN, and FOS were related to DNA damage, telomere dysfunction-induced aging markers, neutrophil function and IgA nephropathy. The networks showed the possibility of these genes being connected. We conclude that DNA damage and telomere dysfunction could play important roles in IgA nephropathy. In addition, neutrophils are also important factors in this disease. The networks of these markers showed the mechanism pathways that are involved in the duration of the occurrence and progression of IgA nephropathy and might be a new therapeutic opportunity for disease treatment. PMID:27127888

  7. Histological analysis of pollen-pistil interactions in sour passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    PubMed

    Madureira, Hérika Chagas; Pereira, Telma Nair Santana; Da Cunha, Maura; Klein, Denise Espellet

    2012-08-01

    The success of sexual plant reproduction is directly influenced by specific interactions between the pollen and pistil. Light, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to evaluate the steps of pollination in sour passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims). In the compatible interaction, pollen tubes grow through stigma projections towards the ovary. The pollen grain surface was found to be spheroidal and to consist of heteroreticulate exine with six colpi. Furthermore, analysis in vivo of pollen-pistil interactions indicated that stigmas of flowers 24 hours before anthesis are unable to discriminate compatible (genetically unrelated) and incompatible (genetically related) pollen grains. Taken together, these results provide insight into the cellular mechanisms underlying pollination in passion fruit plants.

  8. Long-term monitoring of airborne pollen in Alaska and the Yukon: Possible implications for global change

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.

    1992-03-01

    Airborne pollen and spores have been sampled since 1978 in Fairbanks and 1982 Anchorage and other Alaska-Yukon locations for medical and ecological purposes. Comparative analyses of pre- and post-1986 data subsets reveal that after 1986 (1) pollen is in the air earlier, (2) the multiyear average of degree-days promoting pollen onset is little changed while (3) annual variation in degree-days at onset is greater, (4) pollen and spore annual productions are considerably higher, and (5) there is more year-to-year variation in pollen production. These changes probably reflect directional changes in certain weather variables, and there is some indication that they are of global change significance, i.e., related to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Correlations with pollen data suggest that weather variables of high influence are temperatures during specific periods following pollen dispersal in the preceding year and the average temperature in April of the current year. Annual variations in pollen dispersal might be roughly linked to the 11 year sunspot cycle through air temperature mediators. Weather in 1990, apparent pollen production cycles under endogenous control, and the impending sunspot maximum portend a very severe pollen season in 199 existing but unfunded sampling projects.

  9. Apomixis does not affect visitation to flowers of Melastomataceae, but pollen sterility does.

    PubMed

    Maia, F R; Varassin, I G; Goldenberg, R

    2016-01-01

    Apomixis is an asexual seed reproduction mechanism thorough which embryos are originated from material tissues inside the ovules, without precedent fertilisation. It allows plants to colonise new habitats, even in places where flower visitors are scarce or where plants are isolate. Apomixis seems to be related to pollen sterility and, in species with flowers that offer pollen as a reward for pollinators, the amount or quality of the pollen offered by these species may influence the amount of the visits and specific composition of the visitors. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied breeding systems of 16 species of Melastomataceae and their flower visitors, evaluating composition and abundance of the visits to apomictic and sexual species. Apomictic plants with no viable pollen or with pollen with low viability did not receive visits from pollinators, and consequently probably produce strictly apomictic fruits. On the other hand, apomictic and sexual plants with high pollen viability do receive visits; in this case, apomictic plants may produce fruits and seeds through both sexual and apomictic methods. The species composition of insects visiting Melastomataceae with high pollen viability was similar, regardless of whether the plants were apomictic or not. It seems that pollen viability levels are important to determine visits to the flowers irrespective of breeding system.

  10. Guidance in vitro of the pollen tube to the naked embryo sac of torenia fournieri

    PubMed Central

    Higashiyama, T; Kuroiwa, H; Kawano, S; Kuroiwa, T

    1998-01-01

    The precise guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac is critical to the successful sexual reproduction of flowering plants. We demonstrate here the guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac in vitro by using the naked embryo sac of Torenia fournieri, which protrudes from the micropyle of the ovule. We developed a medium for culture of both the ovule and the pollen tube of T. fournieri and cocultivated them in a thin layer of solid medium. Although pollen tubes that had germinated in vitro passed naked embryo sacs, some pollen tubes that grew semi-in vitro through a cut style arrived precisely at the site of entry into the embryo sac, namely, the filiform apparatus of the synergids. When pollen tubes were unable to enter the embryo sac, they continuously grew toward the same filiform apparatus, forming narrow coils. Pollen tubes selectively arrived at complete, unfertilized embryo sacs but did not arrive at those of heat-treated ovules or those with disrupted synergids. These results convincingly demonstrate that pollen tubes are specifically attracted to the region of the filiform apparatus of living synergids in vitro. PMID:9836742

  11. Secretory COPII Protein SEC31B Is Required for Pollen Wall Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bingchun; Shi, Haidan; Wang, Wanlei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Hui; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yinghui; Yang, Meidi; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The pollen wall protects pollen grains from abiotic and biotic stresses. During pollen wall development, tapetal cells play a vital role by secreting proteins, signals, and pollen wall material to ensure microspore development. But the regulatory mechanism underlying the secretory pathway of the tapetum is largely unknown. Here, we characterize the essential role of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) COPII protein SECRETORY31B (SEC31B) in pollen wall development and the secretory activity of tapetal cells. The sporophyte-controlled atsec31b mutant exhibits severe pollen and seed abortion. Transmission electron microscopy observation indicates that pollen exine formation in the atsec31b mutant is disrupted significantly. AtSEC31B is a functional COPII protein revealed by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit site localization, interaction with AtSEC13A, and retarded ER-Golgi protein trafficking in the atsec31b mutant. A genetic tapetum-specific rescue assay indicates that AtSEC31B functions primarily in the tapetum. Moreover, deletion of AtSEC31B interrupted the formation of the ER-derived tapetosome and altered the location of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER9 protein in the tapetum. Therefore, this work demonstrates that AtSEC31B plays a vital role in pollen wall development by regulating the secretory pathway of the tapetal cells. PMID:27634427

  12. Sulfinylated azadecalins act as functional mimics of a pollen germination stimulant in Arabidopsis pistils.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuan; Wysocki, Ronald J; Somogyi, Arpad; Feinstein, Yelena; Franco, Jessica Y; Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Dunatunga, Damayanthi; Levy, Clara; Smith, Steven; Simpson, Robert; Gang, David; Johnson, Mark A; Palanivelu, Ravishankar

    2011-12-01

    Polarized cell elongation is triggered by small molecule cues during development of diverse organisms. During plant reproduction, pollen interactions with the stigma result in the polar outgrowth of a pollen tube, which delivers sperm cells to the female gametophyte to effect double fertilization. In many plants, pistils stimulate pollen germination. However, in Arabidopsis, the effect of pistils on pollen germination and the pistil factors that stimulate pollen germination remain poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that stigma, style, and ovules in Arabidopsis pistils stimulate pollen germination. We isolated an Arabidopsis pistil extract fraction that stimulates Arabidopsis pollen germination, and employed ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization (ESI), Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) and MS/MS techniques to accurately determine the mass (202.126 Da) of a compound that is specifically present in this pistil extract fraction. Using the molecular formula (C10H19NOS) and tandem mass spectral fragmentation patterns of the m/z (mass to charge ratio) 202.126 ion, we postulated chemical structures, devised protocols, synthesized N-methanesulfinyl 1- and 2-azadecalins that are close structural mimics of the m/z 202.126 ion, and showed that they are sufficient to stimulate Arabidopsis pollen germination in vitro (30 μm stimulated approximately 50% germination) and elicit accession-specific response. Although N-methanesulfinyl 2-azadecalin stimulated pollen germination in three species of Lineage I of Brassicaceae, it did not induce a germination response in Sisymbrium irio (Lineage II of Brassicaceae) and tobacco, indicating that activity of the compound is not random. Our results show that Arabidopsis pistils promote germination by producing azadecalin-like molecules to ensure rapid fertilization by the appropriate pollen.

  13. Development and characterization of a recombinant, hypoallergenic, peptide-based vaccine for grass pollen allergy

    PubMed Central

    Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Weber, Milena; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Neubauer, Angela; Huber, Hans; Henning, Rainer; Stegfellner, Gottfried; Maderegger, Bernhard; Hauer, Martina; Stolz, Frank; Niederberger, Verena; Marth, Katharina; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Weiss, Richard; Thalhamer, Josef; Blatt, Katharina; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Grass pollen is one of the most important sources of respiratory allergies worldwide. Objective This study describes the development of a grass pollen allergy vaccine based on recombinant hypoallergenic derivatives of the major timothy grass pollen allergens Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 by using a peptide-carrier approach. Methods Fusion proteins consisting of nonallergenic peptides from the 4 major timothy grass pollen allergens and the PreS protein from hepatitis B virus as a carrier were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by means of chromatography. Recombinant PreS fusion proteins were tested for allergenic activity and T-cell activation by means of IgE serology, basophil activation testing, T-cell proliferation assays, and xMAP Luminex technology in patients with grass pollen allergy. Rabbits were immunized with PreS fusion proteins to characterize their immunogenicity. Results Ten hypoallergenic PreS fusion proteins were constructed, expressed, and purified. According to immunogenicity and induction of allergen-specific blocking IgG antibodies, 4 hypoallergenic fusion proteins (BM321, BM322, BM325, and BM326) representing Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 were included as components in the vaccine termed BM32. BM321, BM322, BM325, and BM326 showed almost completely abolished allergenic activity and induced significantly reduced T-cell proliferation and release of proinflammatory cytokines in patients' PBMCs compared with grass pollen allergens. On immunization, they induced allergen-specific IgG antibodies, which inhibited patients' IgE binding to all 4 major allergens of grass pollen, as well as allergen-induced basophil activation. Conclusion A recombinant hypoallergenic grass pollen allergy vaccine (BM32) consisting of 4 recombinant PreS-fused grass pollen allergen peptides was developed for safe immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:25441634

  14. Large Eddy Simulation and Field Experiments of Pollen Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamecki, M.; Meneveau, C.; Parlange, M. B.; van Hout, R.

    2006-12-01

    Dispersion of airborne pollen by the wind has been a subject of interest for botanists and allergists for a long time. More recently, the development of genetically modified crops and questions about cross-pollination and subsequent contamination of natural plant populations has brought even more interest to this field. A critical question is how far from the source field pollen grains will be advected. Clearly the answer depends on the aerodynamic properties of the pollen, geometrical properties of the field, topography, local vegetation, wind conditions, atmospheric stability, etc. As a consequence, field experiments are well suited to provide some information on pollen transport mechanisms but are limited to specific field and weather conditions. Numerical simulations do not have this drawback and can be a useful tool to study pollen dispersal in a variety of configurations. It is well known that the dispersion of particles in turbulent fields is strongly affected by the large scale coherent structures. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is a technique that allows us to study the typical distances reached by pollen grains and, at the same time, resolve the larger coherent structures present in the atmospheric boundary layer. The main objective of this work is to simulate the dispersal of pollen grains in the atmospheric surface layer using LES. Pollen concentrations are simulated by an advection-diffusion equation including gravitational settling. Of extreme importance is the specification of the bottom boundary conditions characterizing the pollen source over the canopy and the deposition process everywhere else. In both cases we make use of the theoretical profile for suspended particles derived by Kind (1992). Field experiments were performed to study the applicability of the theoretical profile to pollen grains and the results are encouraging. Airborne concentrations as well as ground deposition from the simulations are compared to experimental data to validate the

  15. Salivary production of IgA and IgG to human herpes virus 8 latent and lytic antigens by patients in whom Kaposi's sarcoma has regressed.

    PubMed

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Legoff, Jerome; Piketty, Christophe; Hocini, Hakim; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Inoue, Naoki; Scully, Crispian M; Porter, Stephen R; Teo, Chong-Gee; Belec, Laurent

    2004-01-23

    IgG and IgA antibodies with specificities to a latent and a lytic antigen of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) were detectable in the saliva and serum of eight patients whose Kaposi's sarcoma had regressed, seven of whom were HIV-1 infected. The measurement of antibody-specific activity and secretion rate, and the detection of secretory IgA all indicate anti-HHV-8 antibody activity in saliva. The specific humoral responses possibly influence mucosal replication of HHV-8, and in turn, that of HIV.

  16. The Novel Plant Protein INAPERTURATE POLLEN1 Marks Distinct Cellular Domains and Controls Formation of Apertures in the Arabidopsis Pollen Exine[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dobritsa, Anna A.; Coerper, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Pollen grains protect the sperm cells inside them with the help of the unique cell wall, the exine, which exhibits enormous morphological variation across plant taxa, assembling into intricate and diverse species-specific patterns. How this complex extracellular structure is faithfully deposited at precise sites and acquires precise shape within a species is not understood. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the novel Arabidopsis thaliana gene INAPERTURATE POLLEN1 (INP1), which is specifically involved in formation of the pollen surface apertures, which arise by restriction of exine deposition at specific sites. Loss of INP1 leads to the loss of all three apertures in Arabidopsis pollen, and INP1 protein exhibits a unique tripartite localization in developing pollen, indicative of its direct involvement in specification of aperture positions. We also show that aperture length appears to be sensitive to INP1 dosage and INP1 misexpression can affect global exine patterning. Phenotypes of some inp1 mutants indicate that Arabidopsis apertures are initiated at three nonrandom positions around the pollen equator. The identification of INP1 opens up new avenues for studies of how formation of distinct cellular domains results in the production of different extracellular morphologies. PMID:23136373

  17. BURSTING POLLEN is required to organize the pollen germination plaque and pollen tube tip in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hoedemaekers, Karin; Derksen, Jan; Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Oh, Sung-Aeong; Twell, David; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Pollen germination may occur via the so-called germination pores or directly through the pollen wall at the site of contact with the stigma. In this study, we addressed what processes take place during pollen hydration (i.e. before tube emergence), in a species with extra-poral pollen germination, Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA mutant population was screened by segregation distortion analysis. Histological and electron microscopy techniques were applied to examine the wild-type and mutant phenotypes. Within 1 h of the start of pollen hydration, an intine-like structure consisting of cellulose, callose and at least partly de-esterified pectin was formed at the pollen wall. Subsequently, this 'germination plaque' gradually extended and opened up to provide passage for the cytoplasm into the emerging pollen tube. BURSTING POLLEN (BUP) was identified as a gene essential for the correct organization of this plaque and the tip of the pollen tube. BUP encodes a novel Golgi-located glycosyltransferase related to the glycosyltransferase 4 (GT4) subfamily which is conserved throughout the plant kingdom. Extra-poral pollen germination involves the development of a germination plaque and BUP defines the correct plastic-elastic properties of this plaque and the pollen tube tip by affecting pectin synthesis or delivery.

  18. An ABC transporter, OsABCG26, is required for anther cuticle and pollen exine formation and pollen-pistil interactions in rice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Yan, Wei; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Wang, Na; Lu, Qiqing; Yao, Nan; Yang, Guangzhe; Xia, Jixing; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-12-01

    Wax, cutin and sporopollenin are essential components for the formation of the anther cuticle and the pollen exine, respectively. Their lipid precursors are synthesized by secretory tapetal cells and transported to the anther and microspore surface for deposition. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of the anther cuticle and pollen exine are poorly understood in rice. Here, we characterized a rice male sterile mutant osabcg26. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis revealed a point mutation in the gene encoding an ATP binding cassette transporter G26 (OsABCG26). OsABCG26 was specifically expressed in the anther and pistil. Cytological analysis revealed defects in tapetal cells, lipidic Ubisch bodies, pollen exine, and anther cuticle in the osabcg26 mutant. Expression of some key genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport, such as UDT1, WDA1, CYP704B2, OsABCG15, OsC4 and OsC6, was significantly altered in osabcg26 anther, possibly due to a disturbance in the homeostasis of anther lipid metabolism and transport. Additionally, wild-type pollen tubes showed a growth defect in osabcg26 pistils, leading to low seed setting in osabcg26 cross-pollinated with the wild-type pollen. These results indicated that OsABCG26 plays an important role in anther cuticle and pollen exine formation and pollen-pistil interactions in rice.

  19. Effects of Nasal Corticosteroids on Boosts of Systemic Allergen-Specific IgE Production Induced by Nasal Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Cornelia; Lupinek, Christian; Ristl, Robin; Lemell, Patrick; Horak, Friedrich; Zieglmayer, Petra; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergen exposure via the respiratory tract and in particular via the nasal mucosa boosts systemic allergen-specific IgE production. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) represent a first line treatment of allergic rhinitis but their effects on this boost of allergen-specific IgE production are unclear. Aim Here we aimed to determine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether therapeutic doses of an INCS preparation, i.e., nasal fluticasone propionate, have effects on boosts of allergen-specific IgE following nasal allergen exposure. Methods Subjects (n = 48) suffering from grass and birch pollen allergy were treated with daily fluticasone propionate or placebo nasal spray for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment, subjects underwent nasal provocation with either birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 or grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Bet v 1 and Phl p 5-specific IgE, IgG1–4, IgM and IgA levels were measured in serum samples obtained at the time of provocation and one, two, four, six and eight weeks thereafter. Results Nasal allergen provocation induced a median increase to 141.1% of serum IgE levels to allergens used for provocation but not to control allergens 4 weeks after provocation. There were no significant differences regarding the boosts of allergen-specific IgE between INCS- and placebo-treated subjects. Conclusion In conclusion, the application of fluticasone propionate had no significant effects on the boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production following nasal allergen exposure. Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT00755066 PMID:25705889

  20. [Genetics of mesangial IgA nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Delbarba, Elisa; Pedroni, Bruno; Dallera, Nadia; Izzi, Claudia; Scolari, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis, with a variable prevalence depending on the geographic area of examination. Marked differences in disease prevalence has suggested that genetics could play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease, indicating the existence of susceptibility genes detected with different frequencies in geographically separated populations. Moreover, familial forms of IgAN have been reported worldwide, in sibling pairs, families and extended pedigrees belonging to geographically isolated populations. In this article we describe recent discoveries in genetic studies on IgAN. If candidate-gene association studies require first survey on the pathogenesis of the disease, since the candidate loci are selected on the basis of information gathered from traditional biology, the linkage analysis consist in an alternative approach. Several susceptibility loci have been identified in pedigrees segregating for IgAN, but not the causative mutations of the disease. Further progress in the field of knowledge about the genetics of IgAN has recently been obtained by the application of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in large cohorts of cases and controls of IgAN. GWAS have identified multiple susceptibility loci coding for genes involved in critical mechanisms for the development of IgAN and, accordingly, have shed new light on the biology of the disease, revealing unknown pathogenic pathways. The close connection between IgAN and many autoimmune diseases has been demonstrated. Moreover, these studies have made the correlation of genetic risk score of developing IgAN with the geo-epidemiological aspect of the disease possible. The goal of the integrated genomic approach will be to discover new potential therapeutic targets.

  1. Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems.

    PubMed Central

    Feder, W A

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. Tube growth rates in the presence of a range of ozone dosages, of pollen populations exhibiting differing ozone sensitivity can be measured and different growth rates can be correlated with ozone dosages. The performance of selected pollen populations can then be used to bioassay ozone in ambient air by introducing the air sample into a growth chamber where ozone-sensitive pollen in growing. Petunia and tobacco pollen are especially useful because they store well at ordinary freezer temperatures and do not require special preparation prior to storage. Modified Brewbacker's growth medium is suitable for growth of both these pollen types. Four useful cultivars are Bel W-3, ozone-sensitive and Bel B, ozone-tolerant tobacco, and White Bountiful, ozone-sensitive and Blue Lagoon, ozone-tolerant petunia. Observations can be made directly by using a TV scanner, or by time lapse or interval photography. Year-round pollen production can be achieved in the greenhouse. Harvested pollen can be tested, packaged, and transported to user facilities without loss of vigor. Pollen populations are inexpensive to produce, respond reliably, and are simple to use as a bioassay for air quality. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:7460876

  2. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Özlem; Öztürk, Selma; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF) specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1. PMID:27529243

  3. Cytochemical localization of some hydrolases in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D

    1982-01-01

    Some hydrolases are localized cytochemically in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait. The function of different enzymes is discussed in relation to pollen tubes morphogenesis. Activity of most of the enzymes was confined to colpus region, pollen wall and general cytoplasm of pollen and pollen tube. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes like acid monophosphoesterase and lipase and was nil in the exine of both germinated and ungerminated pollen, whereas intense reaction for esterase was observed in exine. Enzyme activity increased after germination which suggest the hydrolysis of stored metabolites and synthesis of proteins and other metabolites for the active growth of pollen tube. Intense reaction for enzymes like alkaline phosphomonoesterase, ATP-ase, 5-nucleotidase etc. at the tip region of pollen tube suggest their role in physiological processes associated with exchange of materials through intercellular transport during tube wall polysaccharide biogenesis.

  4. Pollen resistance to water in 80 angiosperm species: flower structures protect rain-susceptible pollen.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yun-Yun; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2009-08-01

    Flowers exhibit adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic factors. It remains unclear whether pollen susceptibility to rain damage plays a role in the evolution of floral form. We investigated flower performance in rain and compared pollen longevity in dry conditions, pure water and solutions with different sucrose concentrations in 80 flowering species from 46 families with diverse floral shapes and pollination modes. A pollen viability test showed that pollen longevity in all studied species was greatly reduced by wetting. We found that pollen of species with complete protection by flower structures was susceptible to water damage and a high proportion of resistant pollen occurred in unprotected species. Flowers whose structures expose pollen to rain may also reduce rain damage through temporal patterns of pollen presentation. This prediction was supported by our direct measurement of pollen presentation duration on rainy days. Our observations showed that variation in pollen performance in water was associated with differences in floral forms. Water-resistant pollen and extended pollen presentation duration were favored by selection via rain contact in species in which pollen was not protected from rain. These findings support the functional hypothesis that flower structures protect susceptible pollen from rain, demonstrating that rain acts as a force shaping floral form.

  5. ELISA analysis of IgA subclass antibodies to dietary antigens. Elevated IgA1 antibodies in children with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Kemp, M; Husby, S; Larsen, M L; Svehag, S E

    1988-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays for the quantitation of IgA1 and IgA2 antibodies to dietary antigens were developed. Serum IgA1 antibodies to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were detectable in 2/30 healthy adults, in 3/26 healthy children, and at high levels in 8/11 children with coeliac disease, without relation to gluten exposure. IgA1 antibodies to ovalbumin (OA) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) at high titers were seen in one coeliac child but were otherwise low or absent. IgA2 antibodies to BSA were detectable in 28/48 healthy subjects and in 8/11 coeliac children. IgA2 antibodies to OA and BLG were measurable in a few samples from each group. IgA1 antibodies to the gluten component glycgli were found at low levels in 15/56 normal sera, and anti-glycgli antibodies of the IgA2 subclass in 14/48 sera from healthy persons, also at low levels. IgA1 anti-glycgli antibodies were measurable in 5/11 sera from CD patients on a gluten-free diet. Elevated levels of IgA1 anti-glycgli antibodies were detected in all sera from CD patients challenged with gluten, except in 1 patient with a markedly reduced serum IgA level. In contrast, the IgA2 anti-glycgli antibody levels were unaffected. Thus, increased levels of IgA antibodies to dietary protein antigens in childhood coeliac disease were observed only within the IgA1 isotype.

  6. Characterization of a pollen-preferential gene OSIAGP from rice (Oryza sativa L. subspecies indica) coding for an arabinogalactan protein homologue, and analysis of its promoter activity during pollen development and pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Anand, Saurabh; Tyagi, Akhilesh K

    2010-06-01

    During differential screening of inflorescence-specific cDNA libraries from Oryza sativa indica, an arabinogalactan protein (OSIAGP) cDNA (586 bp) expressing preferentially in the inflorescence has been isolated. It encodes an arabinogalactan protein of 59 amino acids (6.4 kDa) with a transmembrane domain and a secretory domain at the N terminus. The protein shows homology with AGP23 from Arabidopsis, and its homologue in japonica rice is located on chromosome 6. OSIAGP transcripts also accumulate in shoots and roots of rice seedling grown in the dark, but light represses expression of the gene. Analysis of a genomic clone of OSIAGP revealed that its promoter contains several pollen-specificity and light-regulatory elements. The promoter confers pollen-preferential activity on gus, starting from the release of microspores to anther dehiscence in transgenic tobacco, and is also active during pollen tube growth. Analysis of pollen preferential activity of the promoter in the transgenic rice system revealed that even the approximately 300 bp fragment has activity in pollen and the anther wall and further deletion down to approximately 100 bp completely abolishes this activity, which is consistent with in-silico analysis of the promoter. Arabinogalactan proteins have been shown to be involved in the cell elongation process. The homology of OSIAGP with AGP23 and the fact that seedling growth in the dark and pollen tube growth are events based on cell elongation strengthen the possibility of OSIAGP performing a similar function.

  7. Pollen selection under acid rain stress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate whether acid rain stress induces pollen selection in nature, three different approaches were used, based on the assumption that the response of pollen grains to acid rain is controlled by an acid sensitive gene product. Germination of pollen from homozygous and heterozygous individuals under acid rain stress was examined to detect any differences in rate of germination between populations of homogeneous and heterogeneous pollen grains. In vitro and in vivo bulked segregant analysis using RAPDs was used to search for differences in DNA constitution between the survivors of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed pollen populations in vitro and between the progenies of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed populations during pollination, respectively. No evidence for the pollen selection under acid rain stress was obtained in any of the test systems. Inhibition of protein synthesis using cycloheximide led to significant reduction of tube elongation at 4 hr and had no effect on pollen germination at any time interval tested. Total proteins extracted from control and acid rain stressed pollen grain populations exhibited no differences. The reduction of corn pollen germination in vitro under acid rain stress was mainly due to pollen rupture. The present data indicates the reduction of pollen germination and tube growth under acid rain stress may be a physiological response rather than a genetic response. A simple, nontoxic, and effective method to separate germinated from ungerminated pollen grains has been developed using pollen from corn (Zea mays, L. cv. Pioneer 3747). The separated germinated pollen grains retained viability and continued tube growth when placed in culture medium.

  8. Pollen-Stigma Adhesion in Kale Is Not Dependent on the Self-(In)Compatibility Genotype.

    PubMed Central

    Luu, D. T.; Heizmann, P.; Dumas, C.

    1997-01-01

    The adhesion of pollen on the stigmas of flowering plants is a critical step for the success of reproduction in angiosperms, long considered to present some specificity in terms of self-incompatibility. We carried out quantitative measurements of the pollen-stigma adhesion (expressed in Newtons) in kale (Brassica oleracea), using the flotation force of Archimedes exerted by dense sucrose solutions (50%, w/v) to release pollen grains fixed on the surface of stigmas. We demonstrate that pollen adhesion varies with the genotypes of the plants used as partners, but increases with time in all cases for about 30 to 60 min after pollination. There is no correlation with the self- or cross-status of the pollinations, nor with the self-compatible or -incompatible genotypes of the parents. Only late events of pollination, after the germination or arrest of the pollen tube, depend on compatibility type. Biochemical and physiological dissection of pollen-stigma adhesion points to major components of this interaction: among male components, the pollen coating, eliminated by delipidation (or modified by mutation in the case of the cer mutants of the related species Arabidopsis thaliana), plays a major role in adhesion; the genetic background of the pollen parent is also of some importance. On the female side, the developmental stage of the stigma and the protein constituents of the stigmatic pellicle are critical for pollen capture. The SLG and SLR1 proteins are not involved in the initial stages of pollen adhesion on the stigma but one or both may be involved in the later stages. PMID:12223868

  9. Identification of aqueous pollen extracts using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and pattern recognition methods.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Stephan; Merk, Virginia; Kneipp, Janina

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous pollen extracts of varying taxonomic relations were analyzed with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by using gold nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions as SERS substrate. This enables a selective vibrational characterization of the pollen water soluble fraction (mostly cellular components) devoid of the spectral contributions from the insoluble sporopollenin outer layer. The spectra of the pollen extracts are species-specific, and the chemical fingerprints can be exploited to achieve a classification that can distinguish between different species of the same genus. In the simple experimental procedure, several thousands of spectra per species are generated. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), it is demonstrated that analysis of the intrinsic biochemical information of the pollen cells in the SERS data enables the identification of pollen from different plant species at high accuracy. The ANN extracts the taxonomically-relevant information from the data in spite of high intra-species spectral variation caused by signal fluctuations and preparation specifics. The results show that SERS can be used for the reliable characterization and identification of pollen samples. They have implications for improved investigation of pollen physiology and for allergy warning.

  10. [IgA nephropathy (Berger's disease) in children].

    PubMed

    Velásquez-Jones, L; Sánchez-Aguilar, J R; Ramòn-Garcia, G; Rosado-Tun, M A; Romero-Navarro, B; Gómez-Chico, R; Muñoz-Arizpe, R

    1992-12-01

    IgA nephropathy, also called Berger's disease, is characterized by recurrent gross hematuria or persistent microscopic hematuria, together with mesangial glomerular deposits of IgA found in the renal biopsy. Seven children with IgA nephropathy were studied. Most of them presented initially with recurrent macroscopic hematuria and low or moderate-grade proteinuria, without hypertension or renal function impairment. Only one patient presented with a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Four patients did not receive any treatment; one of them is in remission, one has improved and two remain with moderate proteinuria and hematuria. One patient with significant proteinuria improved after prednisone and azathioprine treatment. The patient with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis improved his renal function after oral prednisone and intravenous boluses of methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide.

  11. [Linear IgA bullous dermatosis of childhood: case report].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Baraona, Francisco; Andino, Romina; Carrasco, Juan Eduardo; Arriagada, Camila; Guerrero, Silvia

    2014-04-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis is a rare acquired autoinmune vesiculobullous disease characterized by linear IgA deposit on the dermo-epidermal basement membrane observed with direct inmunofluorescence. The characteristic lesions are vesicles and tense serous bullae, which most often are grouped giving a "cluster of jewels" appearance. Differential diagnosis must be established with other autoimmune dermatosis, such as dermatitis herpetiformis and bullous pemphigoid. Dapsone is the first line therapy, with excellent response in a short period. This is a benign disease that tends to wax and wane in severity until it disappears spontaneously. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl presenting with bullous lesions, being diagnosed a linear IgA bullous dermatosis, with excellent response to dapsone in less than 2 weeks.

  12. Tomato pistil factor STIG1 promotes in vivo pollen tube growth by binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and the extracellular domain of the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The speed of pollen tube growth is a major determinant of reproductive success in flowering plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) STIGMA-SPECIFIC PROTEIN1 (STIG1), a small Cys-rich protein from the pistil, was previously identified as a binding partner of the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2 and shown ...

  13. Human IgA and IgG F(ab')2 that bind to staphylococcal protein A belong to the VHIII subgroup.

    PubMed

    Sasso, E H; Silverman, G J; Mannik, M

    1991-09-15

    Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) is a bacterial membrane protein that possesses, in addition to its Fc gamma-binding activity, a distinct specificity for the Fab region of some IgM, IgA, IgG, and IgE. The Fab site that binds to SPA has been localized to the V region of the Ig H chain. In a previous study of human monoclonal and polyclonal IgM, we demonstrated that binding to SPA was highly restricted to molecules of the VHIII subgroup, and that nearly all VHIII IgM were able to bind SPA. The present study examines the VH composition of SPA-binding and SPA-nonbinding fractions of purified human polyclonal IgA, and IgG F(ab')2 fragments. We found that 22% of the IgA and 15% of the IgG F(ab')2 bound to SPA-agarose. Analysis with VH subgroup-specific antisera indicated that the SPA-binding fraction of IgA was dominated by the VHIII subgroup, and the SPA-binding fraction of IgG F(ab')2 contained only VHIII molecules. Furthermore, substantial portions of the total VHIII protein in IgA and in IgG F(ab')2 bound to SPA. We conclude that Fab binding to SPA is both restricted to and highly prevalent among human VHIII molecules, regardless of Ig class. These results suggest that protein A is an Ig superantigen.

  14. Actin depolymerizing factors ADF7 and ADF10 play distinct roles during pollen development and pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Daher, Firas Bou; Geitmann, Anja

    2012-07-01

    An important player in actin remodeling is the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) which increases actin filament treadmilling rates. Previously, we had prepared fluorescent protein fusions of two Arabidopsis pollen specific ADFs, ADF7 and ADF10. These had enabled us to determine the temporal expression patterns and subcellular localization of these proteins during male gametophyte development. Here we generated stable transformants containing both chimeric genes allowing for simultaneous imaging and direct comparison. One of the striking differences between the two proteins was the localization profile in the growing pollen tube apex. Whereas ADF10 was associated with the filamentous actin array forming the subapical actin fringe, ADF7 was present in the same cytoplasmic region, but in diffuse form. This suggests that ADF7 is involved in the high actin turnover that is likely to occur in the fringe by continuously and efficiently depolymerizing filamentous actin and supplying monomeric actin to the advancing end of the fringe. The possibility to visualize both of these pollen-specific ADFs simultaneously opens avenues for future research into the regulatory function of actin binding proteins in pollen.

  15. [Comparative serum and secretory IgA studies in recurrent bronchial infections (preliminary note)].

    PubMed

    Russu, R; Popescu, C

    1976-01-01

    In a group of 84 patients with recidivating bronchial infections IgA were evaluated with the aid of radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini. In all the patients IgA were determined from expectoration extractions and in 50 of them serum IgA were also determined. In 38 cases the determinations were simultaneous. Concentration of S IgA was low in most of the cases (65%). These results are probably influenced by the technical difficulties raised by detaching the connections existing between S IgA and mucus fibrils from the bronchial secretion. The results obtained in the dosage of serum IgA are comparable with those mentioned in the current literature. No correlations were possible between S IgA and serum IgA and there proteins can be considered as independent.

  16. The genetics and immunobiology of IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Novak, Jan

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) represents the leading cause of kidney failure among East Asian populations and the most frequent form of primary glomerulonephritis among Europeans. Patients with IgAN develop characteristic IgA1-containing immune complexes that deposit in the glomerular mesangium, producing progressive kidney injury. Recent studies define IgAN as an autoimmune trait of complex architecture with a strong genetic determination. This Review summarizes new insights into the role of the O-glycosylation pathway, anti-glycan immune response, mucosal immunity, antigen processing and presentation, and the alternative complement pathway in the pathogenesis of IgAN. PMID:24892706

  17. Generalized linear IgA dermatosis with palmar involvement.

    PubMed

    Norris, Ivy N; Haeberle, M Tye; Callen, Jeffrey P; Malone, Janine C

    2015-09-17

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a sub-epidermal blistering disorder characterized by deposition of IgA along the basement membrane zone (BMZ) as detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. The diagnosis is made by clinicopathologic correlation with immunofluorescence confirmation. Differentiation from other bullous dermatoses is important because therapeutic measures differ. Prompt initiation of the appropriate therapies can have a major impact on outcomes. We present three cases with prominent palmar involvement to alert the clinician of this potential physical exam finding and to consider LABD in the right context.

  18. [Linear IgA bullous dermatosis of children].

    PubMed

    Pierchalla, A; Bruch-Gerharz, D; Homey, B; Reifenberger, J

    2011-04-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis is an acquired autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease, characterized by linear IgA deposits at the basement membrane zone. Described in both children and adults, it occurs as tense pruritic vesicles and bullae in a "cluster of jewels" configuration with central crusting on an inflammatory elevated base. It is typically located on the face, anogenital region and trunk. Whilst the adult manifestations can be chronic, in children a spontaneous remission has often been reported. Our patient showed a spontaneous remission after 8 weeks of symptomatic topic treatment with methylprednisolone and oral cetirizine dihydrochloride.

  19. Elevated Levels of Plasma IgA Autoantibodies against Oxidized LDL Found in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy but Not in Nonproliferative Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Savolainen, Markku J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study investigated the association of autoantibodies binding to oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods. Plasma from 229 types 1 and 2 patients with DR including diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was analysed with ELISA-based assay to determine IgA, IgG, and IgM autoantibody levels binding to oxLDL. The controls were 106 diabetic patients without retinopathy (NoDR) and 139 nondiabetic controls (C). Results. PDR group had significantly higher IgA autoantibody levels than DME or NoDR: mean 94.9 (SD 54.7) for PDR, 75.5 (41.8) for DME (p = 0.001), and 76.1 (48.2) for NoDR (p = 0.008). There were no differences in IgG, IgM, or IgA that would be specific for DR or for DME. Type 2 diabetic patients had higher levels of IgA autoantibodies than type 1 diabetic patients (86.0 and 65.5, resp., p = 0.004) and the highest levels in IgA were found in type 2 diabetic patients with PDR (119.1, p > 0.001). Conclusions. IgA autoantibodies were increased in PDR, especially in type 2 diabetes. The high levels of IgA in PDR, and especially in type 2 PDR patients, reflect the inflammatory process and enlighten the role of oxLDL and its autoantibodies in PDR. PMID:28090539

  20. Tree pollen spectra and pollen allergy risk in the Osijek-Baranja County.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Magdalena; Valek, Marina; Šušić, Zdenka; Santo, Vera; Brdarić, Dario

    2013-01-01

    The forests of north-eastern Croatia, as well as various plants and trees in the parks and streets of the Osijek-Baranja County, produce large amounts of pollen during the pollen season, which can cause allergy symptoms in pollen sensitive individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the most frequent types of pollen in this area and estimate possible health risks, especially the risk of allergy. In 2009 and 2010, the staff of the Health Ecology Department of the Osijek Public Health Institute monitored tree pollen concentrations in four cities from the Osijek - Baranja County (Osijek, Našice, Đakovo and Beli Manastir) using a Burkard volumetric instrument. The results were affected by weather conditions. Windy and sunny days facilitated the transfer of pollen, whereas during rainy days, the concentration of pollen grains decreased. High pollen concentrations of Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Betulaceae, Salicaceae and Aceraceae could be the cause for symptoms of pollen allergy. In 2009, conifers, birch and poplar pollen were dominant at all monitoring stations with 5000 pollen grains (PG), 3188 PG and 3113 PG respectively. The highest number of pollen grains was recorded at measuring site Osijek. The variations in airborne pollen concentration between pollen seasons were recorded at all monitoring stations. The most obvious variations were recorded at measuring site Osijek. The usual pollination period lasts two to three months, which means that most pollen grains remain present from February to early June. However, the Cupressaceae / Taxaceae pollination periods last the longest and their pollen grains remain present until the end of summer. The risk of allergy was determined at four monitored measuring stations and the obtained data confirmed that the largest number of days with a high health risk was at the Đakovo measuring station for a species of birch. The research information aims to help allergologists and individuals allergic to plant pollen develop

  1. Towards a "crime pollen calendar" - pollen analysis on corpses throughout one year.

    PubMed

    Montali, Elisa; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Trevisan Grandi, Giuliana; Accorsi, Carla Alberta

    2006-11-22

    A palynological study was carried out on 28 corpses brought in one year (June 2003-May 2004) to the morgue of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Parma (Northern Italy). This preliminary research focuses on the date of death, which was known for all corpses examined. Pollen sampling and analyses were made with the first aim of comparing the pollen grains found on corpses with those diffused in the atmosphere in the region in the same season as the known date of death. Eyebrows, hair-line near the forehead, facial skin and nasal cavities were sampled. Most of the corpses had trapped pollen grains, with the exception of two December corpses. All pollen grains were found with cytoplasm and in a good state of preservation. In this way, a series of reference data was collected for the area where the deaths occurred, and we examined whether pollen grains on corpses could be an index of the season of death. To verify this hypothesis, the pollen analyses were compared with data reported in the airborne pollen calendars of Parma and the region around. Pollen calendars record pollen types and their concentrations in the air, month by month. The quantity of pollen recorded on corpses did not prove to be directly related to the quantity of pollen in the air. But qualitatively, many pollen types which are seasonal markers were found on corpses. Main corpse/air discrepancies were also observed due to the great influence that the local environmental conditions of the death scene have in determining the pollen trapped by a corpse. Qualitative plus quantitative pollen data from corpses appeared helpful in indicating the season of death. A preliminary sketch of a "crime pollen calendar" in a synthetic graphic form was made by grouping the corpse pollen records into three main seasons: A, winter/spring; B, spring/summer; C, summer/autumn. Trends match the general seasonal trend of pollen types in the air.

  2. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen.

    PubMed

    Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20) and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55). With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices) was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators). Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3)). What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress.

  3. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20) and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55). With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices) was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators). Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3)). What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress. PMID:26910418

  4. Profiling microRNA expression in Arabidopsis pollen using microRNA array and real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Carrie; Shuai, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~22-nt small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of specific target genes in many eukaryotes. In higher plants, miRNAs are involved in developmental processes and stress responses. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants relies on pollen, the male gametophyte, to deliver sperm cells to fertilize the egg cell hidden in the embryo sac. Studies indicated that post-transcriptional processes are important for regulating gene expression during pollen function. However, we still have very limited knowledge on the involved gene regulatory mechanisms. Especially, the function of miRNAs in pollen remains unknown. Results Using miRCURY LNA array technology, we have profiled the expression of 70 known miRNAs (representing 121 miRBase IDs) in Arabidopsis mature pollen, and compared the expression of these miRNAs in pollen and young inflorescence. Thirty-seven probes on the array were identified using RNAs isolated from mature pollen, 26 of which showed significant differences in expression between mature pollen and inflorescence. Real-time PCR based on TaqMan miRNA assays confirmed the expression of 22 miRNAs in mature pollen, and identified 8 additional miRNAs that were expressed at low level in mature pollen. However, the expression of 11 miRNA that were identified on the array could not be confirmed by the Taqman miRNA assays. Analyses of transcriptome data for some miRNA target genes indicated that miRNAs are functional in pollen. Conclusion In summary, our results showed that some known miRNAs were expressed in Arabidopsis mature pollen, with most of them being low abundant. The results can be utilized in future research to study post-transcriptional gene regulation in pollen function. PMID:19591667

  5. Pollen Raman spectra database: application to the identification of airborne pollen.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A; Ribeiro, H; Fernández-González, M; Aira, M J; Abreu, I

    2014-02-01

    Raman microspectroscopy allows a non-destructive identification of airborne particles. However, the identification of particles such as pollen is hindered by the absence of a spectral library. Although reference spectra of pollen have been published before, they have always been limited to a certain number of species. In this work, Raman spectra of 34 pollen types are presented and were used to build a pollen spectra primary library. Afterward, the applicability of this database for detecting and identifying pollen in airborne samples was tested. Airborne pollen samples collected during April, May and August were compared with blank pollen spectra by means of Hit Quality Index. Although a much larger library would be required, our results showed that all first hits correspond to the same blank pollen species of the questioned sample from the air. This possibility is an innovative idea and a promising line of investigation for future RAMAN technology development in the area of aerobiology.

  6. Ragweed pollen production and dispersion modelling within a regional climate system, calibration and application over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Solmon, Fabien; Vautard, Robert; Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Zsolt Torma, Csaba; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-05-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic and invasive plant in Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hay fever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007; Burbach et al., 2009). To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5. In this online approach pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions. A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period 2000-2010. To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to the lack of information on ragweed density distribution, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Accordingly a cross validation is conducted and shows reasonable error and sensitivity of the calibration. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe. The model can explain 68.6, 39.2, and 34.3 % of the observed variance in starting, central, and ending dates of the pollen season with associated root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 4.7, 3.9, and 7.0 days, respectively. The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0.69. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger and the model is better constrained. From these simulations health risks associated to common ragweed pollen

  7. IgE reactivity and cross-reactivity to Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollen allergens in dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Masuda, K; Yasueda, H; Saito, S; DeBoer, D J; Tsujimoto, H

    2001-11-01

    The natural occurrence of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis has been reported in dogs with atopic dermatitis. However, the reactivity to Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollen allergens in these dogs has not been reported. The present study was designed to investigate the reactivity to Japanese cypress pollen allergens in dogs sensitized to Japanese cedar pollen allergens. In 19 dogs with specific IgE to C. japonica pollen allergen, we measured the specific IgE to C. obtusa pollen allergen and examined the reactivity to the allergen by intradermal test. Of the 19 dogs, 18 had specific IgE to crude and purified major allergens (Cha o 1) of C. obtusa pollen. Most of the dogs showed a positive reaction to C. obtusa pollen allergens in the intradermal test. Allergenic cross-reactivity between Cha o 1 and Cry j 1 (a major allergen in C. japonica pollen) was observed by the ELISA inhibition method. Dogs sensitized to Japanese cedar pollen allergens demonstrate reactivity to Japanese cypress pollen allergens.

  8. Incompatibility and pollen competition in Alnus glutinosa: Evidence from pollination experiments.

    PubMed

    Steiner, W; Gregorius, H R

    1999-03-01

    Different types of incompatibility systems were found to operate simultaneously in Alnus glutinosa in the course of numerous pollination experiments, including self-pollination and pollination with controlled pollen mixtures. Isozyme genetic markers were used to identify the pollen parent of each offspring from the mixed pollination experiments, thus allowing specification of the fertilization success of each pollen parent. In a first step, these results were compared with observations on in vitro pollen germination experiments. This comparison allows for exploration of the explanatory value of different germination media as models of germination conditions on stigmas. In most cases, the data suggest that the in vitro germination conditions resemble the fertilization conditions in vivo, at least in the sense that they favor the same pollen parents. By providing a generic and operable definition of the two basic types of incompatibility, eliminating (inability to fertilize ovules) and cryptic (resulting in lowered fertilization success of a pollen parent under competition), evidence was detected for the existence of both types of incompatibility in Alnus glutinosa, where eliminating incompatibility occurred as self-incompatibility only. However, since this incompatibility seems to act primarily via pollen elimination, seed production is not likely to be negatively affected in natural populations, even for comparatively large amounts of self-pollination.

  9. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Duhl, Tiffany; Salam, Muhammad T.; House, James M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Avol, Edward L.; Gilliland, Frank D.; Guenther, Alex; Chung, Serena H.; Lamb, Brian K.; VanReken, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the WRF/CMAQ air-quality modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 km and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to underestimate walnut and peak oak pollen concentrations, and tends

  10. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Duhl, T.; Salam, M. T.; House, J. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Avol, E. L.; Gilliland, F. D.; Guenther, A.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California (USA) for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to

  11. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Duhl, T.; Salam, M. T.; House, J. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Avol, E. L.; Gilliland, F. D.; Guenther, A.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; VanReken, T. M.

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the WRF/CMAQ air-quality modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 km and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to underestimate walnut and peak oak pollen concentrations, and tends to

  12. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Duhl, Tiffany; Salam, Muhammad T; House, James M; Flagan, Richard C; Avol, Edward L; Gilliland, Frank D; Guenther, Alex; Chung, Serena H; Lamb, Brian K; VanReken, Timothy M

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the WRF/CMAQ air-quality modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 km and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to underestimate walnut and peak oak pollen concentrations, and tends

  13. Heterospecific pollen deposition in Delphinium barbeyi: linking stigmatic pollen loads to reproductive output in the field

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Heather M.; Anderson, Lucy M.; Atalla, Laila M.; Delva, André M.; Dobbs, Emily K.; Brosi, Berry J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Most pollinators are generalists and therefore are likely to transfer heterospecific pollen among co-flowering plants. Most work on the impacts of heterospecific pollen deposition on plant fecundity has utilized hand-pollination experiments in greenhouse settings, and we continue to know very little about the reproductive effects of heterospecific pollen in field settings. Methods We explored how patterns of naturally deposited heterospecific pollen relate to the reproductive output of Delphinium barbeyi, a common subalpine perennial herb in the Rocky Mountains (USA). We assessed a wide range of naturally occurring heterospecific pollen proportions and pollen load sizes, and linked stigmatic pollen deposition directly to seed set in individual carpels in the field. Key Results We found that heterospecific pollen deposition in D. barbeyi is common, but typically found at low levels across stigmas collected in our sites. Neither conspecific nor heterospecific pollen deposition was related to carpel abortion. By contrast, we saw a significant positive relationship between conspecific pollen amount and viable seed production, as well as a significant negative interaction between the effects of conspecific pollen and heterospecific pollen amount, whereby the effect of conspecific pollen on viable seed production became weaker with greater heterospecific deposition on stigmas. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a relationship between heterospecific pollen and seed production in a field setting. In addition, it is the first report of an interaction between conspecific and heterospecific pollen quantities on seed production. These findings, taken with the results from other studies, suggest that greenhouse hand-pollination studies and field studies should be more tightly integrated in future work to better understand how heterospecific pollen transfer can be detrimental for plant reproduction. PMID:26658101

  14. Polyploidy Enhances F1 Pollen Sterility Loci Interactions That Increase Meiosis Abnormalities and Pollen Sterility in Autotetraploid Rice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinwen; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Chen, Lin; Chen, Zhixiong; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-12-01

    Intersubspecific autotetraploid rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica × japonica) hybrids have greater biological and yield potentials than diploid rice. However, the low fertility of intersubspecific autotetraploid hybrids, which is largely caused by high pollen abortion rates, limits their commercial utility. To decipher the cytological and molecular mechanisms underlying allelic interactions in autotetraploid rice, we developed an autotetraploid rice hybrid that was heterozygous (S(i)S(j)) at F1 pollen sterility loci (Sa, Sb, and Sc) using near-isogenic lines. Cytological studies showed that the autotetraploid had higher percentages (>30%) of abnormal chromosome behavior and aberrant meiocytes (>50%) during meiosis than did the diploid rice hybrid control. Analysis of gene expression profiles revealed 1,888 genes that were differentially expressed between the autotetraploid and diploid hybrid lines at the meiotic stage, among which 889 and 999 were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Of the 999 down-regulated genes, 940 were associated with the combined effect of polyploidy and pollen sterility loci interactions (IPE). Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified a prominent functional gene class consisting of seven genes related to photosystem I (Gene Ontology 0009522). Moreover, 55 meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes were associated with IPE in autotetraploid rice, including Os02g0497500, which encodes a DNA repair-recombination protein, and Os02g0490000, which encodes a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These results suggest that polyploidy enhances epistatic interactions between alleles of pollen sterility loci, thereby altering the expression profiles of important meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes and resulting in high pollen sterility.

  15. Molecular diversity of Epstein-Barr virus IgG and IgA antibody responses in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a comparison of Indonesian, Chinese, and European subjects.

    PubMed

    Fachiroh, Jajah; Schouten, Tabitha; Hariwiyanto, Bambang; Paramita, Dewi K; Harijadi, Ahmad; Haryana, Sofia M; Ng, Mun H; Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2004-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific immunoblot analysis was used to reveal the molecular diversity of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA antibody responses against Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA), early antigen (EA), and viral capsid antigen (VCA) in serum samples from patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and control subjects, by use of immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Control donors (n=150) showed IgG responses to few EBV proteins--VCA-p18, VCA-p40, EBNA1, and Zebra--and sporadically weak IgA reactivity to EBNA1 and VCA-p18. Patients with NPC stage 1 (n=6) had similar response patterns. Patients with NPC stage 2-4 (n=132) showed significantly more diverse IgG and IgA responses to EA and VCA proteins--VCA-p18/-p40, EBNA1, Z-encoded broadly reactive activator, and EAd-p47/54, -DNAse, -thymidine kinase, and -p138. No correlation was found between IFA titers and the number of EBV proteins recognized by IgG or IgA. Our results reveal dissimilarity between EBV polypeptides recognized by IgG and IgA antibodies, which suggests independent B cell triggering events.

  16. Drug-induced linear IgA bullous dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Navi, Daniel; Michael, Daniel J; Fazel, Nasim

    2006-09-08

    A 73-year-old man was admitted to the University of California Davis Medical Center for treatment of a pleural effusion and congestive heart failure. His hospital course was complicated by asymptomatic sustained ventricular tachycardia requiring placement of an implantable cardiac defibrillator. The patient was treated with vancomycin and cefazolin during the procedure. After 3 days he developed tense vesicles over the dorsal aspect of the hands. Perilesional skin biopsy showed subepidermal cleavage with a neutrophilic infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence revealed granular IgA and C3 deposition along the dermal epidermal junction. A diagnosis of drug-induced linear IgA bullous dermatosis secondary to vancomycin was established. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis is a rare autoimmune blistering disorder with clinical features that can overlap with bullous pemphigoid and dermatitis herpetiformis. Drug-induced linear IgA bullous dermatosis is a less common variant that is correspondingly less well characterized. Although a variety of medications have been implicated, vancomycin is the most common associated drug.

  17. Defective Pollen Wall 2 (DPW2) Encodes an Acyl Transferase Required for Rice Pollen Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianxin; Rautengarten, Carsten; Yang, Li; Uzair, Muhammad; Zhu, Lu; Luo, Qian; An, Gynheung; Waßmann, Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic lipids are both essential structural components of the plant cuticle, an important interface between the plant and environment. Although cross links between aromatic and aliphatic or other moieties are known to be associated with the formation of leaf cutin and root and seed suberin, the contribution of aromatic lipids to the biosynthesis of anther cuticles and pollen walls remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) male sterile mutant, defective pollen wall 2 (dpw2), which showed an abnormal anther cuticle, a defective pollen wall, and complete male sterility. Compared with the wild type, dpw2 anthers have increased amounts of cutin and waxes and decreased levels of lipidic and phenolic compounds. DPW2 encodes a cytoplasmically localized BAHD acyltransferase. In vitro assays demonstrated that recombinant DPW2 specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acid moieties, using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs as acyl donors. Thus, The cytoplasmic hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:ω-hydroxy fatty acid transferase DPW2 plays a fundamental role in male reproduction via the biosynthesis of key components of the anther cuticle and pollen wall. PMID:27246096

  18. Impaired Antibody-mediated Protection and Defective IgA B-Cell Memory in Experimental Infection of Adults with Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Maximillian S.; Jozwik, Agnieszka; Makris, Spyridon; Dunning, Jake; Paras, Allan; DeVincenzo, John P.; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Wrammert, Jens; Openshaw, Peter J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Despite relative antigenic stability, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) reinfects throughout life. After more than 40 years of research, no effective human vaccine exists and correlates of protection remain poorly defined. Most current vaccine candidates seek to induce high levels of RSV-specific serum neutralizing antibodies, which are associated with reduced RSV-related hospitalization rates in observational studies but may not actually prevent infection. Objectives: To characterize correlates of protection from infection and the generation of RSV-specific humoral memory to promote effective vaccine development. Methods: We inoculated 61 healthy adults with live RSV and studied protection from infection by serum and mucosal antibody. We analyzed RSV-specific peripheral blood plasmablast and memory B-cell frequencies and antibody longevity. Measurements and Main Results: Despite moderately high levels of preexisting serum antibody, 34 (56%) became infected, of whom 23 (68%) developed symptomatic colds. Prior RSV-specific nasal IgA correlated significantly more strongly with protection from polymerase chain reaction–confirmed infection than serum neutralizing antibody. Increases in virus-specific antibody titers were variable and transient in infected subjects but correlated with plasmablasts that peaked around Day 10. During convalescence, only IgG (and no IgA) RSV-specific memory B cells were detectable in peripheral blood. This contrasted with natural influenza infection, in which virus-specific IgA memory B cells were readily recovered. Conclusions: This observed specific defect in IgA memory may partly explain the ability of RSV to cause recurrent symptomatic infections. If so, vaccines able to induce durable RSV-specific IgA responses may be more protective than those generating systemic antibody alone. PMID:25730467

  19. A Pollen Primer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several types of pollen cause mild to severe seasonal respiratory allergy, including allergic rhinitis and asthma. But helpful defenses ... Pollen Grass pollens are regional as well as seasonal. Their levels also are ... Bermuda grass Johnson grass Kentucky bluegrass Sweet ...

  20. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Hay fever and pollen counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has ... Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air ...

  1. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    PubMed

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  2. Seed set, pollen morphology and pollen surface composition response to heat stress in field pea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunfei; Lahlali, Rachid; Karunakaran, Chithra; Kumar, Saroj; Davis, Arthur R; Bueckert, Rosalind A

    2015-11-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a major legume crop grown in a semi-arid climate in Western Canada, where heat stress affects pollination, seed set and yield. Seed set and pod growth characteristics, along with in vitro percentage pollen germination, pollen tube growth and pollen surface composition, were measured in two pea cultivars (CDC Golden and CDC Sage) subjected to five maximum temperature regimes ranging from 24 to 36 °C. Heat stress reduced percentage pollen germination, pollen tube length, pod length, seed number per pod, and the seed-ovule ratio. Percentage pollen germination of CDC Sage was greater than CDC Golden at 36 °C. No visible morphological differences in pollen grains or the pollen surface were observed between the heat and control-treated pea. However, pollen wall (intine) thickness increased due to heat stress. Mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) spectra revealed that the chemical composition (lipid, proteins and carbohydrates) of each cultivar's pollen grains responded differently to heat stress. The lipid region of the pollen coat and exine of CDC Sage was more stable compared with CDC Golden at 36 °C. Secondary derivatives of ATR spectra indicated the presence of two lipid types, with different amounts present in pollen grains from each cultivar.

  3. Some carbohydrates found in pollen and pollen substitutes are toxic to honey bees.

    PubMed

    Barker, R J

    1977-10-01

    Carbohydrates in some pollen substitutes (galactose, lactose, raffinose, stachyose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, and pectin) were toxic to caged adult Apis mellifera L. These toxins can be diluted to safe levels by sucrose. Collected nectar apparently dilutes the toxic sugars in pollen thus permitting assimilation of essential nutrients from pollen.

  4. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media. PMID:25405230

  5. Prognostic Value of Serum Biomarkers of Autoimmunity for Recurrence of IgA Nephropathy after Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Berthoux, Francois; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Mohey, Hesham; Maillard, Nicolas; Mariat, Christophe; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A

    2017-03-02

    A prognostic biomarker for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) recurrence after renal transplant is lacking. We followed 96 consecutive first renal transplant recipients with native kidney IgAN (79 men; 92 deceased donors; mean age =48.1 years old) on calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression over 10 years for death, allograft failure, and clinicopathologic recurrence (CPR; clinically evident and biopsy proven). Using time-dependent Cox regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves, we assessed prognostic significance of levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1; autoantigen) and Gd-IgA1-specific IgG and IgA autoantibodies in serum obtained at time of transplant or native kidney IgAN diagnosis (30 patients only). Overall, 13 patients died, 34 kidneys failed (17 due to CPR), and 34 patients developed CPR after a mean interval of 5.8 years. Compared with healthy controls (n=30), patients had significantly elevated serum Gd-IgA1 levels at diagnosis and transplant, but levels did not associate with any outcome. Patients also had significantly elevated levels of normalized (but not total) serum Gd-IgA1-specific IgG autoantibodies at diagnosis and transplant, and the level at transplant associated with higher risk of CPR (relative risk, 2.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 5.71; P=0.01; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.74; P=0.05). Normalized Gd-IgA1-specific IgG autoantibody level remained an independent risk factor for CPR in multivariate analysis. Serum Gd-IgA1-specific IgA autoantibody level did not change between diagnosis and transplant or predict outcome. This study emphasizes post-transplant prognostic value of normalized serum IgG antiglycan autoantibody level in patients with IgAN.

  6. Personal pollen exposure compared to stationary measurements.

    PubMed

    Riediker, M; Keller, S; Wüthrich, B; Koller, T; Monn, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine to what extent stationary outdoor pollen measurements are representative for estimating personal exposure to pollen. Ten subjects were studied during a total of 36 days in spring and summer Pollen was sampled using personal SKC total dust samplers and stationary Burkard pollen traps. The personal activity pattern was recorded quarter-hourly as well as the time spent outdoors. As a reference, SKC and Burkard samplers were run stationary and in parallel. Stationary comparison of the samplers showed good correlation (r = 0.981, p <0.001). However, the SKC sampler collected systematically about four times less pollen than the Burkard sampler. Taking into account the systematic difference between the sampling devices, the personal exposure data were about 30% of the stationary pollen concentrations with significant correlation (log-transformed data, r = 0.719, p <0.0001). Considering the average time the subjects spent outdoors (14% of sampling time), the indoor-outdoor ratio for pollen was 0.2. In conclusion, pollen reports are reliable for estimating personal exposure over a limited time period although personal pollen exposure is much lower.

  7. Release of developmental constraints on tetrad shape is confirmed in inaperturate pollen of Potamogeton

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Elaine Lopes Pereira; Bona, Cleusa; de Chiara Moço, Maria Cecília; Coan, Alessandra Ike

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Microsporogenesis in monocots is often characterized by successive cytokinesis with centrifugal cell plate formation. Pollen grains in monocots are predominantly monosulcate, but variation occurs, including the lack of apertures. The aperture pattern can be determined by microsporogenesis features such as the tetrad shape and the last sites of callose deposition among the microspores. Potamogeton belongs to the early divergent Potamogetonaceae and possesses inaperturate pollen, a type of pollen for which it has been suggested that there is a release of the constraint on tetrad shape. This study aimed to investigate the microsporogenesis and the ultrastructure of pollen wall in species of Potamogeton in order to better understand the relationship between microsporogenesis features and the inaperturate condition. Methods The microsporogenesis was investigated using both light and epifluorescence microscopy. The ultrastructure of the pollen grain was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Key Results The cytokinesis is successive and formation of the intersporal callose wall is achieved by centrifugal cell plates, as a one-step process. The microspore tetrads were tetragonal, decussate, T-shaped and linear, except in P. pusillus, which showed less variation. This species also showed a callose ring in the microsporocyte, and some rhomboidal tetrads. In the mature pollen, the thickening observed in a broad area of the intine was here interpreted as an artefact. Conclusions The data support the view that there is a correlation between the inaperturate pollen production and the release of constraint on tetrad shape. However, in P. pusillus the tetrad shape may be constrained by a callose ring. It is also suggested that the lack of apertures in the pollen of Potamogeton may be due to the lack of specific sites on which callose deposition is completed. Moreover, inaperturate pollen of Potamogeton would be better classified as omniaperturate

  8. Predicting daily ragweed pollen concentrations using Computational Intelligence techniques over two heavily polluted areas in Europe.

    PubMed

    Csépe, Zoltán; Makra, László; Voukantsis, Dimitris; Matyasovszky, István; Tusnády, Gábor; Karatzas, Kostas; Thibaudon, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Forecasting ragweed pollen concentration is a useful tool for sensitive people in order to prepare in time for high pollen episodes. The aim of the study is to use methods of Computational Intelligence (CI) (Multi-Layer Perceptron, M5P, REPTree, DecisionStump and MLPRegressor) for predicting daily values of Ambrosia pollen concentrations and alarm levels for 1-7 days ahead for Szeged (Hungary) and Lyon (France), respectively. Ten-year daily mean ragweed pollen data (within 1997-2006) are considered for both cities. 10 input variables are used in the models including pollen level or alarm level on the given day, furthermore the serial number of the given day of the year within the pollen season and altogether 8 meteorological variables. The study has novelties as (1) daily alarm thresholds are firstly predicted in the aerobiological literature; (2) data-driven modelling methods including neural networks have never been used in forecasting daily Ambrosia pollen concentration; (3) algorithm J48 has never been used in palynological forecasts; (4) we apply a rarely used technique, namely factor analysis with special transformation, to detect the importance of the influencing variables in defining the pollen levels for 1-7 days ahead. When predicting pollen concentrations, for Szeged Multi-Layer Perceptron models deliver similar results with tree-based models 1 and 2 days ahead; while for Lyon only Multi-Layer Perceptron provides acceptable result. When predicting alarm levels, the performance of Multi-Layer Perceptron is the best for both cities. It is presented that the selection of the optimal method depends on climate, as a function of geographical location and relief. The results show that the more complex CI methods perform well, and their performance is case-specific for ≥2 days forecasting horizon. A determination coefficient of 0.98 (Ambrosia, Szeged, one day and two days ahead) using Multi-Layer Perceptron ranks this model the best one in the literature.

  9. The dominant 55 kDa allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) pollen is a group 13 pollen allergen, Pas n 13.

    PubMed

    Davies, Janet M; Voskamp, Astrid; Dang, Thanh D; Pettit, Benjamin; Loo, Dorothy; Petersen, Arnd; Hill, Michelle M; Upham, John W; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2011-03-01

    Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is an important pollen allergen source with a long season of pollination and wide distribution in subtropical and temperate regions. We aimed to characterize the 55 kDa allergen of Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) and ascertain its clinical importance. BaGP extract was separated by 2D-PAGE and immunoblotted with serum IgE of a grass pollen-allergic patient. The amino-terminal protein sequence of the predominant allergen isoform at 55 kDa had similarity with the group 13 allergens of Timothy grass and maize pollen, Phl p 13 and Zea m 13. Four sequences obtained by rapid amplification of the allergen cDNA ends represented multiple isoforms of Pas n 13. The predicted full length cDNA for Pas n 13 encoded a 423 amino acid glycoprotein including a signal peptide of 28 residues and with a predicted pI of 7.0. Tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides of 2D gel spots identified peptides specific to the deduced amino acid sequence for each of the four Pas n 13 cDNA, representing 47% of the predicted mature protein sequence of Pas n 13. There was 80.6% and 72.6% amino acid identity with Zea m 13 and Phl p 13, respectively. Reactivity with a Phl p 13-specific monoclonal antibody AF6 supported designation of this allergen as Pas n 13. The allergen was purified from BaGP extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction and size exclusion chromatography. Purified Pas n 13 reacted with serum IgE of 34 of 71 (48%) grass pollen-allergic patients and specifically inhibited IgE reactivity with the 55 kDa band of BaGP for two grass pollen-allergic donors. Four isoforms of Pas n 13 from pI 6.3-7.8 had IgE-reactivity with grass pollen allergic sera. The allergenic activity of purified Pas n 13 was demonstrated by activation of basophils from whole blood of three grass pollen-allergic donors tested but not control donors. Pas n 13 is thus a clinically relevant pollen allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass likely to be important in eliciting

  10. Zm908p11, encoded by a short open reading frame (sORF) gene, functions in pollen tube growth as a profilin ligand in maize

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Wang, Dongxue; Liu, Peng; Li, Chengxia; Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2013-01-01

    Double fertilization of flowering plants depends on the targeted transportation of sperm to the embryo sac by the pollen tube. Currently, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate pollen germination and pollen tube growth in maize (Zea mays). Here, a maize pollen-predominant gene Zm908, with several putative short open reading frames (sORFs), was isolated and characterized. The longest ORF of Zm908 encodes a small protein of 97 amino acids. This was designated as Zm908p11 and is distributed throughout the maize pollen tube. Western blot detected the small peptide in mature pollen. Quantitative reverse transcription–PCR and northern blot analysis revealed that Zm908p11 was expressed predominantly in mature pollen grains. Ectopic overexpression of full-length Zm908 and Zm908p11 in tobacco resulted in defective pollen, while transgenic tobacco plants with a site-specific mutation or a frameshift mutation of Zm908p11 showed normal pollen development. Overexpression of Zm908p11 in maize decreased pollen germination efficiency. Maize pollen cDNA library screening and protein–protein interaction assays demonstrated that Zm908p11 interacts with maize profilin 1 (ZmPRO1). A microarray analysis identified 273 up-regulated and 203 down-regulated genes in the overexpressing transgenic Zm908p11 pollen. Taken together, these results indicate that Zm908 functions as Zm908p11, and binds to profilins as a novel ligand, with a required role during pollen tube growth in maize. Accordingly, a model is proposed for the role of Zm908p11 during pollen tube growth in maize. PMID:23676884

  11. Oxidative Stress and Galactose-Deficient IgA1 as Markers of Progression in IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Camilla, Roberta; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Daprà, Valentina; Loiacono, Elisa; Peruzzi, Licia; Amore, Alessandro; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Mazzucco, Gianna; Scolari, Francesco; Gharavi, Ali G.; Appel, Gerald B.; Troyanov, Stéphan; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives We assessed the activation of the oxidative stress pathway in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), while evaluating the classic marker of the disease (galactose-deficient serum IgA1). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Sera from 292 patients and 69 healthy controls from Italy and the United States were assayed for advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), free sulfhydryl groups on albumin (SH-Alb), and IgA1 with galactose-deficient hinge-region O-glycans (Gd-IgA1). Gd-IgA1 was detected by binding to Helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) and expressed as total Gd-IgA1 or as degree of galactose deficiency relative to a standard Gd-IgA1 myeloma protein (%HAA). Results Sera from IgAN patients showed higher levels of Gd-IgA1, %HAA, and AOPPs, but lower levels of SH-Alb in comparison to that from healthy controls. Serum levels of AOPPs significantly correlated with serum Gd-IgA1 and %HAA. The relationship between these biomarkers and clinical features at sampling and during follow-up was assessed in 62 patients with long-term follow-up. AOPPs and %HAA correlated with proteinuria at sampling and independently associated with subsequent proteinuria. Levels of AOPPs correlated with rate of decline in renal function after sampling. The combination of a high level of AOPPs and a high level of %HAA associated with decline in estimated GFR. Conclusions Serum levels of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 are elevated and oxidative stress pathways are activated in patients with IgAN; the intensity of the stress correlated with expression and progression of the disease. We speculate that oxidative stress may modulate the nephrotoxicity of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in IgAN. PMID:21784819

  12. IgA1 immune complexes from pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy activate cultured human mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    Raskova Kafkova, Leona; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Tomana, Milan; Matousovic, Karel; Brown, Rhubell; Hall, Stacy; Sanders, John T.; Eison, T. Matthew; Moldoveanu, Zina; Novak, Lea; Novak, Zdenek; Mayne, Richard; Julian, Bruce A.; Mestecky, Jiri; Wyatt, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Circulating immune complexes (CIC) containing galactose (Gal)-deficient IgA1 from adults with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) induce proliferation of cultured mesangial cells, but activities of CIC from pediatric patients with the disease have not been studied. Methods. CIC of different sizes were isolated from sera of pediatric and adult IgAN patients and their effects on cultured human mesangial cells (MC) were assessed by measuring cellular proliferation, expression of IL-6 and IL-8 and laminin and phosphotyrosine signaling. Results. Large CIC from pediatric IgAN patients (>800 kDa) containing Gal-deficient IgA1 stimulated cellular proliferation, whereas in some patients, smaller CIC were inhibitory. Addition of stimulatory and inhibitory CIC to MC differentially altered phosphorylation patterns of three major tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins of molecular mass 37, 60 and 115 kDa. The stimulatory CIC transiently increased tyrosine-phosphorylation of the 37-kDa protein and decreased phosphorylation of the other two proteins, whereas the inhibitory CIC increased phosphorylation of all three proteins. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of IgA1-containing CIC from sera of children with IgAN with clinically active disease (i.e., abnormal urinalysis and/or serum creatinine concentration) or inactive disease (i.e., normal urinalysis and serum creatinine concentration) on the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 genes by mesangial cells. Real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction results showed that the CIC from a patient with active disease stimulated MC to express the two cytokine genes at higher levels than did the CIC from a patient with inactive disease. Moreover, stimulatory CIC increased production of the extracellular matrix protein laminin. Conclusion. These data indicate that sera of pediatric IgAN patients contain biologically active CIC with Gal-deficient IgA1. PMID:21828345

  13. Self-incompatibility-induced programmed cell death in field poppy pollen involves dramatic acidification of the incompatible pollen tube cytosol.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Katie A; Bosch, Maurice; Haque, Tamanna; Teng, Nianjun; Poulter, Natalie S; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2015-03-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important genetically controlled mechanism to prevent inbreeding in higher plants. SI involves highly specific interactions during pollination, resulting in the rejection of incompatible (self) pollen. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism for destroying cells in a precisely regulated manner. SI in field poppy (Papaver rhoeas) triggers PCD in incompatible pollen. During SI-induced PCD, we previously observed a major acidification of the pollen cytosol. Here, we present measurements of temporal alterations in cytosolic pH ([pH]cyt); they were surprisingly rapid, reaching pH 6.4 within 10 min of SI induction and stabilizing by 60 min at pH 5.5. By manipulating the [pH]cyt of the pollen tubes in vivo, we show that [pH]cyt acidification is an integral and essential event for SI-induced PCD. Here, we provide evidence showing the physiological relevance of the cytosolic acidification and identify key targets of this major physiological alteration. A small drop in [pH]cyt inhibits the activity of a soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase required for pollen tube growth. We also show that [pH]cyt acidification is necessary and sufficient for triggering several key hallmark features of the SI PCD signaling pathway, notably activation of a DEVDase/caspase-3-like activity and formation of SI-induced punctate actin foci. Importantly, the actin binding proteins Cyclase-Associated Protein and Actin-Depolymerizing Factor are identified as key downstream targets. Thus, we have shown the biological relevance of an extreme but physiologically relevant alteration in [pH]cyt and its effect on several components in the context of SI-induced events and PCD.

  14. BcMF21 is important for pollen development and germination in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Yu, Youjian; Dong, Heng; Yao, Lina; Zhang, Zhixian; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-01-01

    Brassica campestris Male Fertility 21 (BcMF21) was previously isolated from the flower buds of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) and expressed specifically in tapetum and microspores during the meiosis stage and the uninucleate stage of microspore development. Here, we used antisense RNA technology to knock down the expression level of BcMF21 in B. campestris and analyzed the phenotype of the transgenic plants. Alexander staining and scanning electron microscope revealed sterility and exine deformities in the mature pollen grains of BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic plants. The germination furrow of the BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic pollen was covered by lipid like materials. The pollen tubes burst and could not grow normally in vitro. Therefore, we presented here BcMF21 might be an important gene for pollen development and germination.

  15. Pollen structure visualization using high-resolution laboratory-based hard X-ray tomography.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Gluch, Jürgen; Krüger, Peter; Gall, Martin; Neinhuis, Christoph; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2016-10-14

    A laboratory-based X-ray microscope is used to investigate the 3D structure of unstained whole pollen grains. For the first time, high-resolution laboratory-based hard X-ray microscopy is applied to study pollen grains. Based on the efficient acquisition of statistically relevant information-rich images using Zernike phase contrast, both surface- and internal structures of pine pollen - including exine, intine and cellular structures - are clearly visualized. The specific volumes of these structures are calculated from the tomographic data. The systematic three-dimensional study of pollen grains provides morphological and structural information about taxonomic characters that are essential in palynology. Such studies have a direct impact on disciplines such as forestry, agriculture, horticulture, plant breeding and biodiversity.

  16. Antigenicity of the pollen proteins of various cultivars of Olea europaea.

    PubMed

    Waisel, Y; Geller-Bernstein, C; Keynan, N; Arad, G

    1996-11-01

    The incidence of positive skin test responses among atopic subjects with suspected respiratory allergy was investigated with commercial and autochthonous pollen extracts of various cultivars of Olea europaea. Pollen was collected from olive trees of well-defined cultivars, extracted, and separated by SDS-PAGE. Immunoblots were used to identify the various IgE-binding proteins of the pollen extracts of the various cultivars. The results revealed six predominant IgE-binding bands, some of which appear in all the cultivars examined. The 18-20-kDa band (Ole e 1) appeared in only eight of the cultivars, but not in the nine others. The presence of specific IgE-binding bands in the various pollen extracts and their correlation with the incidence of positive skin tests are discussed.

  17. Allergens of weed pollen: an overview on recombinant and natural molecules.

    PubMed

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima

    2014-03-01

    Weeds represent a botanically unrelated group of plants that usually lack commercial or aesthetical value. Pollen of allergenic weeds are able to trigger type I reactions in allergic patients and can be found in the plant families of Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Plantaginaceae, Urticaceae, and Euphorbiaceae. To date, 34 weed pollen allergens are listed in the IUIS allergen nomenclature database, which were physicochemically and immunologically characterized to varying degrees. Relevant allergens of weeds belong to the pectate lyase family, defensin-like family, Ole e 1-like family, non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 family and the pan-allergens profilin and polcalcins. This review provides an overview on weed pollen allergens primarily focusing on the molecular level. In particular, the characteristics and properties of purified recombinant allergens and hypoallergenic derivatives are described and their potential use in diagnosis and therapy of weed pollen allergy is discussed.

  18. O-Linked Glycosylation Determines the Nephritogenic Potential of IgA Rheumatoid Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kihara, Masao; Ito, Kiyoaki; Nakata, Junichiro; Otani, Masako; Tran, Ngoc Lan; Morito, Naoki; Takahashi, Satoru; Wada, Yoshinao

    2014-01-01

    Deficient glycosylation of O-linked glycans in the IgA1 hinge region is associated with IgA nephropathy in humans, but the pathogenic contribution of the underlying structural aberrations remains incompletely understood. We previously showed that mice implanted with cells secreting the class-switch variant 6-19 IgA anti-IgG2a rheumatoid factor, but not 46-42 IgA anti-IgG2a rheumatoid factor, develop glomerular lesions resembling IgA nephropathy. Because the levels of O-linked glycosylation in the hinge region and the structures of N-linked glycans in the CH1 domain differ in 6-19 IgA and 46-42 IgA, we determined the respective contributions of O- and N-linked glycans to the nephritogenic potential of the 6-19 IgA rheumatoid factor in mice. Wild-type 6-19 IgA secreted by implanted cells induced significant formation of glomerular lesions, whereas poorly O-glycosylated 6-19 IgA glycovariants or a 6-19 IgA hinge mutant lacking O-linked glycans did not. However, we observed no apparent heterogeneity in the structure of N-linked glycans attached to three different sites of the Fc regions of nephritogenic and non-nephritogenic 6-19 IgAs. Collectively, our data suggest a critical role of O-linked glycans attached to the hinge region in the development of IgA nephropathy–like GN induced by 6-19 IgA rheumatoid factor in mice. PMID:24511137

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

    PubMed

    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Sonoran Desert Bee Pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bee products have been consumed by mankind since antiquity and their health benefits are becoming more apparent. Bee pollen (pollen collected by honey bees) was collected in the high intensity ultraviolet (UV) Sonoran desert and was analyzed by the anti-2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and...

  1. Endogenous Gibberellins of Pine Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Kamienska, Aniela; Durley, Richard C.; Pharis, Richard P.

    1976-01-01

    Gibberellins A1 and A34 (possibly A2) were found as products of metabolism of 1,2-[3H]GA4 during germination of Pinus attenuata pollen. The conversion from GA4 to GA1 and GA34 occurred as hydroxylations at atoms C-13 and C-2 of the ent-gibberellane skeleton, respectively. Percentage interconversion of the GA4 absorbed was in the range of 0.15 to 0.43% for GA1 and 1.54 to 3.22% for GA34. Identifications were made on a gas-liquid chromatograph with radioactive monitoring by comparison with standards. PMID:16659622

  2. Development of IgA nephropathy-like disease with high serum IgA levels and increased proportion of polymeric IgA in Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nishie, Toshikazu; Miyaishi, Osamu; Azuma, Haruhito; Kameyama, Akihiko; Naruse, Chie; Hashimoto, Noriyoshi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Wada, Takashi; Asano, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    The glycosylation of glycoproteins is important for their biological activity, conformation and stability. Recent studies indicate that aberrant glycosylation causes various human disorders. Here we report that mice lacking beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-I (beta4GalT-I), which transfers galactose from UDP-Gal to terminal GlcNAc of N- and O-glycans in a beta-1,4- linkage, developed IgA nephropathy (IgAN)-like disease. Urinary albumin levels were significantly increased in the beta4GalT-I-deficient mice. Hematuria was detected in some of the beta4GalT-I-deficient mice, suggesting impaired renal function. Furthermore, histological and immunohistochemical examination showed expanded mesangial matrix, IgA deposition with mesangial pattern and electron-dense deposits in the paramesangial regions in the beta4GalT-Ideficient mice. These results demonstrate that the beta4GalT-I-deficient mice developed IgANlike disease. Furthermore, high serum IgA levels with increased polymeric forms were detected. In humans, serum IgA derived from patients with IgAN has aberrant beta3-galactosylation and sialylation on its O-linked glycans of the hinge region. Mouse IgA does not have O-glycans of the hinge region and has several N-glycans. As expected, beta4-galactosylation on the N-glycans of the serum IgA of the beta4GalT-I-deficient mice was completely absent. This is the first report demonstrating that genetic remodeling of protein glycosylation causes IgAN. We suggest that aberrant beta4-galactosylation of serum IgA participates in the Nishie/Miyaishi/Azuma/Kameyama/Naruse/Hashimoto/Yokoyama/Narimatsu/Wada/Asano 126 development of IgAN, including deposition of IgA, polymerization of IgA, and glomerular injury after IgA deposition.

  3. New insights into ragweed pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Groeme, Rachel; Chabre, Henri; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Pollen allergens from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe. To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) allergen database. With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies. This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome.

  4. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  5. Arabidopsis Villins Promote Actin Turnover at Pollen Tube Tips and Facilitate the Construction of Actin Collars[W

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaolu; Zhang, Hua; Xie, Yurong; Wang, Juan; Chen, Naizhi; Huang, Shanjin

    2013-01-01

    Apical actin filaments are crucial for pollen tube tip growth. However, the specific dynamic changes and regulatory mechanisms associated with actin filaments in the apical region remain largely unknown. Here, we have investigated the quantitative dynamic parameters that underlie actin filament growth and disappearance in the apical regions of pollen tubes and identified villin as the major player that drives rapid turnover of actin filaments in this region. Downregulation of Arabidopsis thaliana VILLIN2 (VLN2) and VLN5 led to accumulation of actin filaments at the pollen tube apex. Careful analysis of single filament dynamics showed that the severing frequency significantly decreased, and the lifetime significantly increased in vln2 vln5 pollen tubes. These results indicate that villin-mediated severing is critical for turnover and departure of actin filaments originating in the apical region. Consequently, the construction of actin collars was affected in vln2 vln5 pollen tubes. In addition to the decrease in severing frequency, actin filaments also became wavy and buckled in the apical cytoplasm of vln2 vln5 pollen tubes. These results suggest that villin confers rigidity upon actin filaments. Furthermore, an observed decrease in skewness of actin filaments in the subapical region of vln2 vln5 pollen tubes suggests that villin-mediated bundling activity may also play a role in the construction of actin collars. Thus, our data suggest that villins promote actin turnover at pollen tube tips and facilitate the construction of actin collars. PMID:23715472

  6. Genome-wide identification and analysis of rice genes preferentially expressed in pollen at an early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tien Dung; Moon, Sunok; Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Gho, Yunsil; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Soh, Moon-Soo; Song, Jong Tae; An, Gynheung; Oh, Sung Aeong; Park, Soon Ki; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Microspore production using endogenous developmental programs has not been well studied. The main limitation is the difficulty in identifying genes preferentially expressed in pollen grains at early stages. To overcome this limitation, we collected transcriptome data from anthers and microspore/pollen and performed meta-expression analysis. Subsequently, we identified 410 genes showing preferential expression patterns in early developing pollen samples of both japonica and indica cultivars. The expression patterns of these genes are distinguishable from genes showing pollen mother cell or tapetum-preferred expression patterns. Gene Ontology enrichment and MapMan analyses indicated that microspores in rice are closely linked with protein degradation, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA biosynthesis and regulation, while the pollen mother cell or tapetum are strongly associated with cell wall metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, and RNA biosynthesis and regulation. We also generated transgenic lines under the control of the promoters of eight microspore-preferred genes and confirmed the preferred expression patterns in plants using the GUS reporting system. Furthermore, cis-regulatory element analysis revealed that pollen specific elements such as POLLEN1LELAT52, and 5659BOXLELAT5659 were commonly identified in the promoter regions of eight rice genes with more frequency than estimation. Our study will provide new sights on early pollen development in rice, a model crop plant.

  7. Biphasic regulation of the transcription factor ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) is essential for tapetum and pollen development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Alison C; Pearce, Simon; Band, Leah R; Yang, Caiyun; Ferjentsikova, Ivana; King, John; Yuan, Zheng; Zhang, Dabing; Wilson, Zoe A

    2017-01-01

    Viable pollen is essential for plant reproduction and crop yield. Its production requires coordinated expression at specific stages during anther development, involving early meiosis-associated events and late pollen wall formation. The ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) transcription factor is a master regulator of sporopollenin biosynthesis, secretion and pollen wall formation in Arabidopsis. Here we show that it has complex regulation and additional essential roles earlier in pollen formation. An inducible-AMS reporter was created for functional rescue, protein expression pattern analysis, and to distinguish between direct and indirect targets. Mathematical modelling was used to create regulatory networks based on wild-type RNA and protein expression. Dual activity of AMS was defined by biphasic protein expression in anther tapetal cells, with an initial peak around pollen meiosis and then later during pollen wall development. Direct AMS-regulated targets exhibit temporal regulation, indicating that additional factors are associated with their regulation. We demonstrate that AMS biphasic expression is essential for pollen development, and defines distinct functional activities during early and late pollen development. Mathematical modelling suggests that AMS may competitively form a protein complex with other tapetum-expressed transcription factors, and that biphasic regulation is due to repression of upstream regulators and promotion of AMS protein degradation.

  8. LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, R; Grallath, S; Breitkreuz, K E; Stransky, E; Stransky, H; Frommer, W B; Rentsch, D

    1999-01-01

    During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes. PMID:10072398

  9. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-11-01

    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  10. Development and evaluation of indirect ELISAs for the detection of IgG, IgM and IgA1 against duck hepatitis A virus 1.

    PubMed

    Mao, Sai; Ou, XuMin; Zhu, DeKang; Chen, Shun; Ma, GuangPeng; Wang, MingShu; Jia, RenYong; Liu, MaFeng; Sun, KunFeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, XiaoYue; Cheng, AnChun

    2016-11-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus 1 (DHAV-1) is the principal pathogen that causes duck viral hepatitis (DHV), a highly fatal infectious disease in ducklings. Given the importance of the humoral immune response in the clearance of DHAV-1, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (I-ELISAs) to detect immune indices, including IgG, IgM and IgA1, were developed and evaluated in this study. The optimal concentrations of coating-antigen were 1.79μg/ml, 2.23μg/ml and 2.23μg/ml for IgG, IgM and IgA1, respectively. Meanwhile, the optimal dilutions of sera were 1:80, 1:40 and 1:40, respectively; and of the conjugates were 1:300, 1:1800 and 1:800, respectively. Based on these conditions, three linear regression equations, y=1.363+1.954x (r(2)=0.983), y=1.141+2.228x (r(2)=0.970) and y=1.103+1.559x (r(2)=0.995) were derived for IgG, IgM and IgA1, respectively. Analytical sensitivities of the new methods were 1:2560, 1:1280 and 1:640 for IgG, IgM and IgA1, respectively. The concordances between the I-ELISAs and serum-neutralization were 95.2% for IgG and IgA1, and 75% for IgM. Although there was a weak cross-reaction with DHAV-3 positive serum for the IgG and IgA1 tests, it didn't affect the ability to detect DHAV-1 specific antibodies. Thus, these new I-ELISAs were shown to be potentially convenient methods to survey the status of humoral immune response to DHAV-1.

  11. Immunological investigations in individuals with selective IgA deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Out, T A; van Munster, P J; De Graeff, P A; Thé, T H; Vossen, J M; Zegers, B J

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of IgG2, IgG4 and IgE were low in 16, 24 and 20% of 25 persons with selective IgA deficiency. Fifty-two per cent had IgD concentrations below 5 iu/ml. Trends for association between any of these parameters and the presence of clinical symptoms were not significant. All patients, except one, had normal amounts of Ig-bearing lymphocytes in the blood. IgG1 antibodies against casein were increased in titre and frequency, whereas IgG4 antibodies were normal. Similar results were found in other sera from persons with selective IgA deficiency. PMID:3491694

  12. An update on pathology of IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Soares, Maria Fernanda

    2016-12-01

    IgA Nephropathy (IgAN) is the commonest of the glomerular diseases in the world. Its progression rate of 30-40% of the cases em 20-30 years makes IgAN an important healthcare issue in Nephrology. Diagnosis of IgAN depends on biopsy findings, particularly at immunofluorescence microscopy. The frequence of IgAN diagnosis is variable in different populations and depends on screening and biopsy indication policies. IgAN pathogenesis is considered multifactorial; its primordial defect is the production of galactosis-deficient IgA molecules. This review paper discusses the most uptodate aspects of the pathogenesis, pathological classification and clinical implications of IgAN.

  13. IgA nephropathy and tonsils--an approach from the structure of IgA1 produced by tonsillar lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Yoshiyuki; Horie, Akeyo; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Iwase, Hitoo; Sugiyama, Satoshi

    2004-12-01

    Human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), which is the predominant subtype to be deposited in glomeruli in IgA nephropathy (IgAN), has a unique mucine-like structure in its hinge region. Namely, it contains O-glycans and proline-rich peptides We previously observed underglycosylation of the hinge region in serum and deposited IgA1 in IgAN. On the other hand, clinical development and exacerbation of IgAN are frequently preceded by episodes of upper respiratory tract infection, and palatine tonsils represent the predominant immunocompetent tissue of the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, we hypothesized that tonsils were one of the origins of glomerular IgA1 in IgAN, and investigated the O-glycan structure of IgA1 produced by tonsillar lymphocytes (tonsillar IgA1). A significant increase in asialo-agalacto type O-glycans was found in the tonsillar IgA1 hinge in IgAN. These results suggest that the tonsils produce underglycosylated IgA1 molecules, which enter the bloodstream and are then deposited in the glomeruli.

  14. Pollen competition between two sympatric Orchis species (Orchidaceae): the overtaking of conspecific of heterospecific pollen as a reproductive barrier.

    PubMed

    Luca, A; Palermo, A M; Bellusci, F; Pellegrino, G

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of hybrid formation in angiosperms depends on how and when heterospecific pollen is transferred to the stigma, and on the success of that heterospecific pollen at fertilising ovules. We applied pollen mixtures to stigmas to determine how pollen interactions affect siring success and the frequency of hybrid formation between two species of Mediterranean deceptive orchid. Plants of Orchis italica and O. anthropophora were pollinated with conspecific and heterospecific pollen (first conspecific pollen then heterospecific pollen and vice versa) and molecular analysis was used to check the paternity of the seeds produced. In this pair of Mediterranean orchids, competition between conspecific and heterospecific pollen functions as a post-pollination pre-zygotic barrier limiting the frequency of the formation of hybrids in nature. Flowers pollinated with heterospecific pollen can remain receptive for the arrival of conspecific pollen for a long time. There is always an advantage of conspecific pollen for fruit formation, whether it comes before or after heterospecific pollen, because it overtakes the heterospecific pollen. The conspecific pollen advantage exhibited in O. italica and O. anthropophora is likely to result from the reduced germination of heterospecific pollen or retarded growth of heterospecific pollen tubes in the stigma and ovary. Overall, the results indicate that our hybrid zone represents a phenomenon of little evolutionary consequence, and the conspecific pollen advantage maintains the genetic integrity of the parental species.

  15. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transformation using embryogenic pollen cultures.

    PubMed

    Otto, Ingrid; Müller, Andrea; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The temperate cereal barley is grown as a source of food, feed, and malt. The development of a broad range of genetic resources and associated technologies in this species has helped to establish barley as the prime model for the other Triticeae cereals. The specific advantage of the transformation method presented here is that transgene homozygosity is attained in the same generation as the transgenic event occurred through the coupling of haploid technology with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Pollen is haploid and, following transformation, can be induced to regenerate into haploid plantlets, which can subsequently subjected to colchicine treatment to obtain diploid, genetically fixed plants. The routine application of the method based on the winter-type barley cultivar 'Igri' over a period of over 10 years has achieved an average yield of about two transgenic plants per donor spike. The whole procedure from pollen isolation to non-segregating transgenic, mature grain takes less than 12 months.

  16. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Özlem; Pirinçci, Şerife Şeyda; Öztürk, Selma

    2016-01-01

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31). The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2–50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort. PMID:27187470

  17. Release from Th1-type immune tolerance in spleen and enhanced production of IL-5 in Peyer's patch by cholera toxin B induce the glomerular deposition of IgA.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takahiro; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Terashima, Masazumi; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Habu, Sonoko; Okumura, Ko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the pathogenesis of glomerular damage in Th2 type-dependent GATA-3 transgenic (GATA-3 Tg) mice with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). GATA-3 Tg mice were immunized orally using OVA plus cholera toxin B (CTB), and measurement of the serum IgA antibody level and histopathological examination were performed. Marked increases in the serum levels of OVA-specific IgA antibody, IgA and IgG, C3 deposits analogous to those seen in IgAN, and expansion of the matrix in association with mesangial cell proliferation were observed. Furthermore, glomerular IgA deposits were co-localized with mannan-binding lectin (MBL) deposits, which might actually have been abnormal IgA deposits. In GATA-3/TCR-Tg mice that had been orally sensitized with CTB plus OVA and were re-stimulated with OVA in vitro, cultured Peyer's patch cells showed the enhanced production of IL-5 and supernatants from cultures of spleen cells showed a reduction of TGF-β production with a simultaneous increase in IL-2 production and the recovery of IFN-γ formation. The amount of TGF-β produced by the spleen cells was found to be correlated with the amount of IFN-γ and IL-IL-2 produced by the cells. Also, the percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg) in the spleens of mice sensitized with OVA plus CTB was lower than that in mice orally sensitized with OVA alone. These results suggest that the increased production of IL-5 from Peyer's patch cells (PPc) and the restored Th1-type immune response might cause the production of abnormal IgA and might induce the deposition of IgA in glomeruli.

  18. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    PubMed

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  19. Comparison of Pollen Transfer Dynamics by Multiple Floral Visitors: Experiments with Pollen and Fluorescent Dye

    PubMed Central

    ADLER, LYNN S.; IRWIN, REBECCA E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Most plant species are visited by a diversity of floral visitors. Pollen transfer of the four most common pollinating bee species and one nectar-robbing bee of the distylous plant Gelsemium sempervirens were compared. • Methods Naturally occurring pollen loads carried by the common floral visitor species of G. sempervirens were compared. In addition, dyed pollen donor flowers and sequences of four emasculated recipient flowers in field cages were used to estimate pollen transfer, and the utility of fluorescent dye powder as an analogue for pollen transfer was determined. • Key Results Xylocopa virginica, Osmia lignaria and Habropoda laboriosa carried the most G. sempervirens pollen on their bodies, followed by Bombus bimaculatus and Apis mellifera. However, B. bimaculatus, O. lignaria and H. laboriosa transferred significantly more pollen than A. mellifera. Nectar-robbing X. virginica transferred the least pollen, even when visiting legitimately. Dye particles were strongly correlated with pollen grains on a stigma, and therefore provide a good analogue for pollen in this system. The ratio of pollen : dye across stigmas was not affected by bee species or interactions between bee species and floral morphology. However, dye transfer was more sensitive than pollen transfer to differences in floral morphology. • Conclusions The results from this study add to a growing body of literature highlighting that floral visitors vary in pollination effectiveness, and that visitors carrying the most pollen on their bodies may not always be the most efficient at depositing pollen on stigmas. Understanding the magnitude of variability in pollinator quality is one important factor for predicting how different pollinator taxa may influence the evolution of floral traits. PMID:16299005

  20. IgG deposition in IgA nephropathy patients.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common form of glomerular disease among young adults. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation of IgG deposition with morphologic variables of Oxford classification and some clinical data of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN).A total of 114 biopsies were enrolled to the study (70.2% were male). Mean age of the patients was 37.7±13.6 years. This study showed that, IgG deposition intensity had not significant correlation with serum creatinine. No significant association of sex with IgG was found. There was not significant association of IgG deposits with age below and more that 40 years. There was not significant association of IgG deposit intensity with four morphologic variables of Oxford classification. Less studied published regarding the immunostaining findings in IgA nephropathy patients. Location of deposited immunoglobulin (mesangial versus mesangial-capillary) or the type of immunoglobulin (IgG or IgM) may have prognostic significant. More studies needs to find the clinical significance of immunostaining data.

  1. Increasing allergy potency of Zinnia pollen grains in polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Majde, Ahmad; Moin, Mostafa; Gholami, Mansour; Ali Shariatzadeh, Mohammad; Nassiri, Hosein

    2004-06-01

    There is much evidence that allergic symptoms represent a major health problem in polluted cities. The aim of this research is to elucidate some microscopic effects of air pollutants on pollen structure, proteins, and allergenicity. A scanning electron microscopy study of pollen grains indicated that in polluted areas, airborne particles accumulate on the surface of pollen grains and change the shape and tectum of pollen. Also, many vesicles are released from polluted pollen grains and the pollen material agglomerates on the surface of pollen grains. SDS-PAGE revealed that different proteins exist in mature and immature pollen grains. There were no significant differences between protein bands of polluted and nonpolluted pollen grains, but in polluted pollen, protein content decreases in response to air pollution, causing the release of pollen proteins. The results indicate that mature pollen have more allergenicity than immature pollen. According to the experiments polluted pollen grains are more effective than nonpolluted pollen grains in inducing allergic symptoms. Air pollutants can cause allergic symptoms, but when associated with allergen pollen grains, their allergenicity power is increased.

  2. Natural Sunflower Pollen as a Drug Delivery Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C; Potroz, Michael G; Park, Soohyun; Shirahama, Hitomi; Lee, Jae Ho; Seo, Jeongeun; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-03-02

    In nature, pollen grains play a vital role for encapsulation. Many pollen species exist which are often used as human food supplements. Dynamic image particle analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed the size, structural uniformity, and macromolecular encapsulation in sunflower pollen, paving the way to explore natural pollen grains for the encapsulation of therapeutic molecules.

  3. Chapter 25: Collecting pollen for genetic resources conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of pollen as a conservation target allows for the preservation of many diverse alleles within a genepool. Although it is possible to generate haploid plants from pollen grains, pollen is more commonly conserved as a gamete for gene conservation. The ease of pollen storage, shipment, and po...

  4. The identification of allergen proteins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pollen causing occupational allergy in greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Luoto, Susanne; Lambert, Wietske; Blomqvist, Anna; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Background During production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) seeds in greenhouses, workers frequently develop allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize possible allergens in sugar beet pollen. Methods Sera from individuals at a local sugar beet seed producing company, having positive SPT and specific IgE to sugar beet pollen extract, were used for immunoblotting. Proteins in sugar beet pollen extracts were separated by 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and IgE-reactive proteins analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results A 14 kDa protein was identified as an allergen, since IgE-binding was inhibited by the well-characterized allergen Che a 2, profilin, from the related species Chenopodium album. The presence of 17 kDa and 14 kDa protein homologues to both the allergens Che a 1 and Che a 2 were detected in an extract from sugar beet pollen, and partial amino acid sequences were determined, using inclusion lists for tandem mass spectrometry based on homologous sequences. Conclusion Two occupational allergens were identified in sugar beet pollen showing sequence similarity with Chenopodium allergens. Sequence data were obtained by mass spectrometry (70 and 25%, respectively for Beta v 1 and Beta v 2), and can be used for cloning and recombinant expression of the allergens. As for treatment of Chenopodium pollinosis, immunotherapy with sugar beet pollen extracts may be feasible. PMID:18694503

  5. Differential allergenicity of mature and immature pollen grains in Shasta daisy (Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond).

    PubMed

    Sharif Shoushtari, Maryam; Majd, Ahmad; Pourpak, Zahra; Shahali, Youcef; Moin, Mostafa; Eslami, Mohammad Bagger

    2013-05-15

    Weed pollen grains belonging to the Asteraceae family contain a variety of allergens inducing type I and IV allergies in susceptible people. The aim of this research was to compare the allergenic properties of immature and mature Shasta daisy pollen grains (Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond) to define the potential role of the maturation process on the allergenicity of Asteraceae pollen grains. The immature (IP) and mature pollen (MP) grains were first studied by optical and scanning electron microscopand their protein contents were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Pollen extracts were finally used to sensitize guinea pigs in order to obtain IP and MP specific antibodies. Nasal provocation tests using IP and MP crude extracts were also performed on pre-sensitized guinea pigs. The MP extract induced IgE and eosinophilia in blood and positive skin tests in sensitized guinea pigs. Moreover, high number of eosinophils was found in the nasal mucosa of MP sensitized guinea pigs. SDS-PAGE analysis of the IP and MP protein content showed seven and five apparent bands ranging from 7 to 66kDa respectively. According to immunoblot analysis, MP extract contained a single allergen of 66kDa. The overall results showed developmental processes of Shasta daisy pollen grains towards both morphological and molecular changes increasing their allergenic potency.

  6. Mid- to Late-Wisconsin Pollen Record of San Felipe Basin, Baja California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, María. Socorro; Ortega-Guerrero, Beatriz; Sosa-Nájera, Susana

    2002-07-01

    A lacustrine sequence from Laguna Seca San Felipe, Baja California, in the southwestern Sonoran Desert, provides the first record of mid- to late-Wisconsin vegetation in one of the driest regions of North America. Pollen analysis was performed in the intermediate part of the sequence from ca. 44,000 to ca. 13,000 14C yr B.P. according to six 14C radiocarbon dates. Sedimentation of eolian sands prior to 44,000 14C yr B.P. indicates dry conditions. High pollen concentration of montane and chaparral species in the pollen assemblages contrast with the modern desert vegetation. Sixty-four pollen types were identified. The source of mid- to late-Wisconsin sedimentation must have been the plant communities in the surrounding highlands of the basin. Mid-Wisconsin pollen assemblages dominated by pines, junipers, and Artemisia reflect humid conditions in the area. By late Wisconsin time, a significant increment in junipers indicates a lowering in the altitudinal ranges of woodlands/chaparral. Pollen from wind-pollinated species is abundant while desert plants, specifically animal or insect pollinated species, are poorly represented. The San Felipe record does not identify the Last Glacial Maximum as the time of greatest effective moisture, as suggested by pluvial lake levels and other paleoclimatic evidence in the soutwestern United States.

  7. Long-range transport of beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) pollen to Catalonia (north-eastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, J.; Alarcón, M.; Avila, A.; Scialabba, E.; Pino, D.

    2008-09-01

    Local and long-range transport of beech ( Fagus sylvatica) pollen was analysed by using 23-year data (1983-2007) at six stations in Catalonia, Spain, and numerical simulations. Back trajectories and synoptic meteorology indicated a consistent north European provenance during beech pollen peak days. Specifically, the area from northern Italy to central Germany was the most probable source, as indicated by a source-receptor model based on back trajectories. For the event with the highest pollen levels (17 May 2004), back trajectories indicated a source in the Vosges (NE France) and the Schwarzwald (SW Germany) regions. By applying a mesoscale model (MM5) to this event, pollen transport could be further refined, allowing its entrance to Catalonia through the lower easternmost pass of the Pyrenees (the Alberes pass, 500 m a.s.l.) to be described. Hourly counts of Fagus pollen allowed the timing of pollen arrival during this episode to be matched with the model results regarding the above-mentioned passage. This study may help to interpret some results of modern beech genetic diversity and contribute to the understanding of paleopalynological records by taking long-range transport into consideration.

  8. A mitochondrial DNA sequence is associated with abnormal pollen development in cytoplasmic male sterile bean plants.

    PubMed Central

    Johns, C; Lu, M; Lyznik, A; Mackenzie, S

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in common bean is associated with the presence of a 3-kb unique mitochondrial sequence designated pvs. The pvs sequence encodes at least two open reading frames (297 and 720 bp in length) with portions derived from the chloroplast genome. Fertility restoration by the nuclear restorer gene Fr results in the loss of this transcriptionally active unique region. We examined the effect of CMS (pvs present) and fertility restoration by Fr (pvs absent) on the pattern of pollen development in bean. In the CMS line, pollen aborted in the tetrad stage late in microgametogenesis. Microspores maintained cytoplasmic connections throughout pollen development, indicating aberrant or incomplete cytokinesis. Pollen-specific events associated with pollen abortion and fertility restoration imply that a gametophytic factor or event may be involved in CMS. In situ hybridization experiments suggested that significant reduction or complete loss of the mitochondrial sterility-associated sequence occurred in fertile pollen of F2 populations segregating for fertility. These observations support a model of fertility restoration by the loss of a mitochondrial DNA sequence prior to or during microsporogenesis/gametogenesis. PMID:1498602

  9. Generalist Behavior Describes Pollen Foraging for Perceived Oligolectic and Polylectic Bees.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Alan D; Ruppel, Rebecca; Jha, Shalene

    2016-08-01

    Native bees provide essential pollination services to cultivated and wild plants worldwide. Despite the need to conserve pollinators, the foraging patterns of native bees are poorly understood. Classic concepts of resource use have typically categorized bee species as specialists or generalists based on floral visitation patterns. While intraspecific variation in bee foraging likely depends on local land use, sex, and phenological period, among other factors, these potential drivers of floral visitation are rarely explicitly investigated. In this study, we explore the potential for inter- and intra-specific variation in floral visitation by investigating the pollen loads of two solitary, similarly sized, ground-nesting native bee species within the Apinae, Melissodes tepaneca (Cresson) and Diadasia rinconis (Cockerell), categorized as generalist and specialist based on past floral visitation studies, respectively. Our analyses reveal generalist foraging and indicate that natural habitat availability significantly drives pollen load composition for both species. The putative specialist, D. rinconis, exhibited significant differences in pollen load composition between males and females, between pan and net collection methods, and between the different phenological periods. The putative generalist, M. tepaneca, exhibited significant differences in pollen load composition between the sexes, but only in the late season. Both species exhibited significant preference levels for multiple native plant species across the study region. Given that pollen collection is essential for native bee population persistence across natural and human-dominated habitats, our findings suggest consideration of both pollen collection and floral visitation patterns to holistically describe floral usage and develop pollinator conservation strategies.

  10. Defensin-like polypeptide LUREs are pollen tube attractants secreted from synergid cells.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Satohiro; Tsutsui, Hiroki; Shiina, Keiko; Sprunck, Stefanie; Takeuchi, Hidenori; Yui, Ryoko; Kasahara, Ryushiro D; Hamamura, Yuki; Mizukami, Akane; Susaki, Daichi; Kawano, Nao; Sakakibara, Takashi; Namiki, Shoko; Itoh, Kie; Otsuka, Kurataka; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Nakano, Akihiko; Kanaoka, Masahiro M; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sasaki, Narie; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2009-03-19

    For more than 140 years, pollen tube guidance in flowering plants has been thought to be mediated by chemoattractants derived from target ovules. However, there has been no convincing evidence of any particular molecule being the true attractant that actually controls the navigation of pollen tubes towards ovules. Emerging data indicate that two synergid cells on the side of the egg cell emit a diffusible, species-specific signal to attract the pollen tube at the last step of pollen tube guidance. Here we report that secreted, cysteine-rich polypeptides (CRPs) in a subgroup of defensin-like proteins are attractants derived from the synergid cells. We isolated synergid cells of Torenia fournieri, a unique plant with a protruding embryo sac, to identify transcripts encoding secreted proteins as candidate molecules for the chemoattractant(s). We found two CRPs, abundantly and predominantly expressed in the synergid cell, which are secreted to the surface of the egg apparatus. Moreover, they showed activity in vitro to attract competent pollen tubes of their own species and were named as LUREs. Injection of morpholino antisense oligomers against the LUREs impaired pollen tube attraction, supporting the finding that LUREs are the attractants derived from the synergid cells of T. fournieri.

  11. Utility of Surface Pollen Assemblages to Delimit Eastern Eurasian Steppe Types

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Feng; Wang, Yu-Fei; Ferguson, David K.; Chen, Wen-Li; Li, Ya-Meng; Cai, Zhe; Wang, Qing; Ma, Hong-Zhen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Modern pollen records have been used to successfully distinguish between specific prairie types in North America. Whether the pollen records can be used to detect the occurrence of Eurasian steppe, or even to further delimit various steppe types was until now unclear. Here we characterized modern pollen assemblages of meadow steppe, typical steppe and desert steppe from eastern Eurasia along an ecological humidity gradient. The multivariate ordination of the pollen data indicated that Eurasian steppe types could be clearly differentiated. The different steppe types could be distinguished primarily by xerophilous elements in the pollen assemblages. Redundancy analysis indicated that the relative abundances of Ephedra, Tamarix, Nitraria and Zygophyllaceae were positively correlated with aridity. The relative abundances of Ephedra increased from meadow steppe to typical steppe and desert steppe. Tamarix and Zygophyllaceae were found in both typical steppe and desert steppe, but not in meadow steppe. Nitraria was only found in desert steppe. The relative abundances of xerophilous elements were greater in desert steppe than in typical steppe. These findings indicate that Eurasian steppe types can be differentiated based on recent pollen rain. PMID:25763576

  12. Preferential expression of an alpha-tubulin gene of Arabidopsis in pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, J L; Ploense, S E; Snustad, D P; Silflow, C D

    1992-01-01

    The pool of tubulin protein in tissues of Arabidopsis is provided by the expression of multiple alpha-tubulin (TUA) and beta-tubulin genes. Whereas most tubulin genes are expressed in many tissues, previous evidence suggested that the TUA1 gene might be expressed primarily in pollen. We now report a detailed analysis of TUA1 expression during Arabidopsis development. In RNA from tissues of dissected flowers, TUA1 transcripts were detected only in stamens and mature pollen. Chimeric genes containing TUA1 5' flanking DNA fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) coding region were used to create transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Plants containing a chimeric gene with 533 bp of 5' flanking sequence were analyzed by histochemical assay to localize GUS expression within the plant. The blue product of GUS enzyme activity accumulated very rapidly in postmitotic pollen grains. Much lower levels of GUS activity were detected in anthers with uninucleate pollen grains, in flower receptacles, and in a few vegetative tissues. Analysis of 5' deletions of the TUA1 promoter suggested that 97 bp of 5' flanking DNA is sufficient to drive GUS expression in pollen and young anthers, whereas at least 380 bp is required to detect GUS expression in the receptacle. Examination of the TUA1 promoter sequence revealed several motifs that are repeated within the TUA1 promoter and are similar to sequences in other pollen-specific promoters. PMID:1498610

  13. Diversity and function of maize pollen coat proteins: from biochemistry to proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Fangping; Wu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is globally cultivated as one of the most important grain crops. As a wind-pollinated species, maize produces a large quantity of pollen grains that heavier and larger compared to Arabidopsis. Maize is an important model plant in pollen biology of monocots. The pollen coat, the outermost layer of pollen, plays a vital role in pollen–stigma interactions and successful fertilization. Pollen coat proteins (PCPs), which confer species specificity, are required for pollen adhesion, recognition, hydration, and germination on the stigma. Thus, PCPs have attracted intensive research efforts in plant science for decades. However, only a few PCPs in maize have been characterized to date, whereas the functions of most maize PCPs remain unclear. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of maize PCPs with regard to protein constituents, synthesis and transport, and functions by comparison with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica plants. An understanding of the comprehensive knowledge of maize PCPs will help to illuminate the mechanism by which PCPs are involved in pollen–stigma interactions in maize and other crop plants. PMID:25870606

  14. Overexpression of the Tomato Pollen Receptor Kinase LePRK1 Rewires Pollen Tube Growth to a Blebbing Mode[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Cai-Ping; Dong, Xin; Liu, Hai-Kuan; Huang, Wei-Jie; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Shu-Jie; Barberini, Ma