Science.gov

Sample records for polluted subtropical marine

  1. The chronic effects of oil pollution on marine phytoplankton in a subtropical bay, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Jun; Jiang, Zhi-Bing; Zeng, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Quan-Zhen; Zhao, Yong-qiang; Liao, Yi-bo; Shou, Lu; Xu, Xiao-qun

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of crude oil water accommodated fraction (WAF) on marine phytoplankton community, natural phytoplankton collected seasonally from the Yueqing bay were exposed to eight groups of crude oil WAF for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Chlorophyll a and cell density were measured, and species of phytoplankton were identified every 24 h to reflect the change of phytoplankton community. The results showed that (1) High concentrations (≥ 2.28 mg l(-1)) of oil pollution would greatly restrain phytoplankton growth (p<0.001), decrease chlorophyll a content and cell density, whereas low concentrations (≤ 1.21 mg l(-1)) did not restrain its growth but rather promoted the phytoplankton growth. (2) The biodiversity, evenness, and species number of phytoplankton were all significantly influenced by crude oil WAF in all seasons (p<0.001). (3) The dominant species changes were different under different pollutant concentrations in different seasons. Different species had different tolerances to the oil pollution, thus leading to abnormal succession.

  2. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Marine pollution: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  4. Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Marcus; Maximenko, Nikolai; Thiel, Martin; Cummins, Anna; Lattin, Gwen; Wilson, Stiv; Hafner, Jan; Zellers, Ann; Rifman, Samuel

    2013-03-15

    Plastic marine pollution in the open ocean of the southern hemisphere is largely undocumented. Here, we report the result of a (4489 km) 2424 nautical mile transect through the South Pacific subtropical gyre, carried out in March-April 2011. Neuston samples were collected at 48 sites, averaging 50 nautical miles apart, using a manta trawl lined with a 333 μm mesh. The transect bisected a predicted accumulation zone associated with the convergence of surface currents, driven by local winds. The results show an increase in surface abundance of plastic pollution as we neared the center and decrease as we moved away, verifying the presence of a garbage patch. The average abundance and mass was 26,898 particles km(-2) and 70.96 g km(-2), respectively. 88.8% of the plastic pollution was found in the middle third of the samples with the highest value of 396,342 particles km(-2) occurring near the center of the predicted accumulation zone. PMID:23324543

  5. Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Marcus; Maximenko, Nikolai; Thiel, Martin; Cummins, Anna; Lattin, Gwen; Wilson, Stiv; Hafner, Jan; Zellers, Ann; Rifman, Samuel

    2013-03-15

    Plastic marine pollution in the open ocean of the southern hemisphere is largely undocumented. Here, we report the result of a (4489 km) 2424 nautical mile transect through the South Pacific subtropical gyre, carried out in March-April 2011. Neuston samples were collected at 48 sites, averaging 50 nautical miles apart, using a manta trawl lined with a 333 μm mesh. The transect bisected a predicted accumulation zone associated with the convergence of surface currents, driven by local winds. The results show an increase in surface abundance of plastic pollution as we neared the center and decrease as we moved away, verifying the presence of a garbage patch. The average abundance and mass was 26,898 particles km(-2) and 70.96 g km(-2), respectively. 88.8% of the plastic pollution was found in the middle third of the samples with the highest value of 396,342 particles km(-2) occurring near the center of the predicted accumulation zone.

  6. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    With 63,000 chemicals in common use, the task of identifying specific pollutants and their effects in relation to marine life is immense. The interdisciplinary approach to this complex issue includes studies in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, vertebrate and invertebrate pathology, electron microscopy, immunology, and behavioral biology. Primary concerns are whether pollutants are available to organisms and whether they are transferred through marine food webs. Studies on marine and estuarine pollution in the New York Bight and Puget Sound, Washington, are summarized. Among other results it is interactive effects between two pollutants in marine organism that account for substantial alterations in certain biochemical systems and in cellular morphology. (JGB)

  7. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to identifying chemical pollution in the marine environment and assessing the effects of such pollution on living marine resources is described. Such a study requires knowing: what pollutants organisms are exposed to, which pollutants are accumulated; the fate of pollutants taken up by organisms, and biological changes caused by the pollutants. Analytical limitations of such studies are noted. Examples of specific interdisciplinary laboratory and field investigations are presented, for instance, the finding of liver tumors in flatfish that accumulated sediment-bound naphthalene.

  8. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region.

  9. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region. PMID:26457869

  10. National priorities in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.M.; Leschine, T.M.; Landy, R.B.

    1988-02-01

    The National Ocean Pollution Program Office (NOPPO) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is required by the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (PL 95-273) to make recommendations on the federal program in marine pollution research, development, and monitoring, and promote interagency cooperation in these areas. The first step in evaluating the Federal effort in ocean pollution research is to identify the marine pollution needs and problems that are facing the nation. To broaden the knowledge base used in identifying and prioritizing these issues, NOPPO has consulted pollution experts outside as well as within the Federal Government using the Priorities Worksheet for National Marine Pollution Problems and Needs. The worksheet was mailed out in January 1987 to over 250 participants representing the following sectors of the ocean community: the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Federal Government, conservation groups, sport and commercial fisheries, offshore petroleum and mining interests, the ports and recreation industries, state and regional governments, and researchers in the marine pollution field. The list of participants was developed with the assistance of a steering committee.

  11. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... packaging that contains a marine pollutant— (1) If the proper shipping name for a material which is a marine pollutant does not identify by name the component which makes the material a marine pollutant, the name of... shipping name. Where two or more components which make a material a marine pollutant are present, the...

  12. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  13. Sediment characteristics and benthic ecological status in contrasting marine environments of subtropical Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alice K Y; Xu, Wen-Zhe; Liu, Xiao-Shou; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S

    2016-02-15

    Sediment characteristics and benthic communities on a finer sampling scale in four contrasting environments in subtropical Hong Kong were analyzed in summer and winter 2012. In two harbour habitats which suffered from historic sewage pollution or hypoxic events, organic carbon, nutrient and trace metal content in the sediment were significantly higher than that in an offshore area and a marine reserve. The relatively low organic and nutrient content in the offshore habitat could be resulted from enhanced resuspension of such materials from the seabed owing to intense water mixing and disturbance caused by bottom trawling. The biotic indices AMBI and M-AMBI were shown to be useful in assessing the benthic ecological status of these habitats. Such indices can also be more sensitive than sediment physico-chemical parameters in differentiating the response of macrofauna to seasonal changes in the benthic environment.

  14. Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a subtropical recreational marine beach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of Staphylococcus aureus detected in marine environments have occurred since the early 1990’s. This investigation sought to isolate and characterize S. aureus from marine waters and sand at a subtropical recreational beach, with and without bathers present, in order to investigate possible s...

  15. 49 CFR 176.70 - Stowage requirements for marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. 176.70... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.70 Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. (a) Marine pollutants must be properly stowed and secured to minimize the hazards to the marine environment...

  16. Presence of Pathogens and Indicator Microbes at a Non-Point Source Subtropical Recreational Marine Beach ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Wright, Mary E.; Ortega, Cristina; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Miller, Gary; Elmir, Samir; Newman, Xihui; Shih, Peter; Bonilla, J. Alfredo; Bonilla, Tonya D.; Palmer, Carol J.; Scott, Troy; Lukasik, Jerzy; Harwood, Valerie J.; McQuaig, Shannon; Sinigalliano, Chris; Gidley, Maribeth; Plano, Lisa R. W.; Zhu, Xiaofang; Wang, John D.; Fleming, Lora E.

    2010-01-01

    Swimming in ocean water, including ocean water at beaches not impacted by known point sources of pollution, is an increasing health concern. This study was an initial evaluation of the presence of indicator microbes and pathogens and the association among the indicator microbes, pathogens, and environmental conditions at a subtropical, recreational marine beach in south Florida impacted by non-point sources of pollution. Twelve water and eight sand samples were collected during four sampling events at high or low tide under elevated or reduced solar insolation conditions. The analyses performed included analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens), human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers (human polyomaviruses [HPyVs] and Enterococcus faecium esp gene), and pathogens (Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus aureus, enterovirus, norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp.). The enterococcus concentrations in water and sand determined by quantitative PCR were greater than the concentrations determined by membrane filtration measurement. The FIB concentrations in water were below the recreational water quality standards for three of the four sampling events, when pathogens and MST markers were also generally undetectable. The FIB levels exceeded regulatory guidelines during one event, and this was accompanied by detection of HPyVs and pathogens, including detection of the autochthonous bacterium V. vulnificus in sand and water, detection of the allochthonous protozoans Giardia spp. in water, and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in sand samples. The elevated microbial levels were detected at high tide and under low-solar-insolation conditions. Additional sampling should be conducted to further explore the relationships between tidal and solar insolation conditions and between indicator microbes and pathogens in subtropical recreational marine waters impacted

  17. Effects of Pollutants on Marine Life Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research activities conducted by scientists from the United State of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom to determine the long-term effects on natural marine ecosystems, especially plankton communities, of such pollutants as heavy metals, synthetic hydrocarbons, and petroleum hydrocarbons. (CC)

  18. Marine oil pollution detection with MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Xiao, Kang; Fang, Shenghui; Dong, Yanfang

    2013-10-01

    Marine oil pollution is one of the most serious pollutants on the damage to the contemporary marine environment, with the characteristics of a wide range of proliferation, which is difficult to control and eliminate. As a result, marine oil pollution has caused huge economic losses. The remote sensing sensors can detect and record the spectral information of sea film and background seawater. Here we chose to use 250-resolution MODIS data in the area of Dalian Xingang, China where ill spill case was happened on April.4th, 2005. Based on the image pre-processing and enhanced image processing, the spectral features of different bands were analyzed. More obvious characteristics of the spectral range of film was obtained. The oil-water contrast was calculated to evaluate the feature of oil at different spectral band. The result indicates that IR band has the maximum value of reflective. So band ratio was used between 400nm and 800nm and the original radiance images were used between 800nm and 2130nm. In order to get the most obvious images of entropy windows of different sizes were tested in order to decide the optimum window. At last, a FCM fuzzy clustering method and image texture analysis was combined for the MODIS images of the oil spill area segmentation. At last, the oil spill zone was estimated, the results were satisfied.

  19. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Morrison, Ann Michelle; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    This review covers selected 2015 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due largely to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them. PMID:27620108

  20. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Ginn, Thomas; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    This review covers selected 2014 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due in part to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico and the 2011 Japanese tsunami. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them. PMID:26420104

  1. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Morrison, Ann Michelle; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    This review covers selected 2015 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due largely to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them.

  2. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Ginn, Thomas; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    This review covers selected 2014 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due in part to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico and the 2011 Japanese tsunami. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them.

  3. Acute toxicities of five commonly used antifouling booster biocides to selected subtropical and cosmopolitan marine species.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Lam, Michael H W

    2011-05-01

    Since 1990s, various booster biocides have been increasingly used as substitutes of organotins. However, knowledge about their toxicities on tropical/sub-tropical marine species is significantly lacking. This study comprehensively investigated the acute toxicities of copper, tributyltin (TBT), and five commonly used booster biocides including Irgarol, diuron, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), copper pyrithione (CuPT) and chlorothalonil on the growth or survival of 12 marine species in which eight of them are native species of subtropical Hong Kong. We found that Irgarol was more toxic than TBT on the growth of autotrophic species. The toxicity of CuPT was comparable to that of TBT on almost all test species, while it showed higher toxicity than TBT on medaka fish larvae. As the usage of these biocides is expected to further increase worldwide, accurate assessments of their ecological risks are required for better informed decision on their management. This study provided useful datasets for such purposes. PMID:21420693

  4. Impact of flood damage on pollutant removal efficiencies of a subtropical urban constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chun-Han; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Tsai-Ming; Chen, Pen-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-Hsiung; Hsieh, Hwey-Lien; Guan, Chung-Yu

    2010-09-15

    Typhoons and hurricanes in subtropical/tropical regions can induce significant environmental changes (e.g., mass flooding and inundations). However, the damage to the pollutant removal efficiencies of constructed wetlands brought about by these natural disturbances has been neglected in major studies conducted in temperate climates. Therefore, this study compares the pollutant removal performance of a constructed wetland in the Danshui River Basin, before and after the system was inundated with flooding from Typhoon Krosa in 2007. The pollutant removal performance of the free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland was investigated monthly from September 2006 to April 2008. Results of the study demonstrated that this FWS wetland effectively removed 64.3% BOD, 98.9% NH(4)-N, and 39.5% Total-P before Typhoon Krosa. However, the extensive flooding caused by Typhoon Krosa swept over most of the aboveground plant community and deposited the sediment onto the bottom of each compartment. Subsequently, reduced pollutant removal efficiencies were observed. Only 37.7% BOD, 35.1% NH(4)-N, and 31.8% Total-P were removed after this event, although the flow regime was immediately restored. Comparing the water quality data for the FWS wetland before and after Typhoon Krosa revealed the immediate, quantitative damage to the pollutant removal performance caused by the typhoon's inundation. Consequently, a high-flow bypass and additional preventive measures would protect any constructed wetland in areas subject to typhoons. PMID:20656329

  5. Impact of flood damage on pollutant removal efficiencies of a subtropical urban constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chun-Han; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Tsai-Ming; Chen, Pen-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-Hsiung; Hsieh, Hwey-Lien; Guan, Chung-Yu

    2010-09-15

    Typhoons and hurricanes in subtropical/tropical regions can induce significant environmental changes (e.g., mass flooding and inundations). However, the damage to the pollutant removal efficiencies of constructed wetlands brought about by these natural disturbances has been neglected in major studies conducted in temperate climates. Therefore, this study compares the pollutant removal performance of a constructed wetland in the Danshui River Basin, before and after the system was inundated with flooding from Typhoon Krosa in 2007. The pollutant removal performance of the free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland was investigated monthly from September 2006 to April 2008. Results of the study demonstrated that this FWS wetland effectively removed 64.3% BOD, 98.9% NH(4)-N, and 39.5% Total-P before Typhoon Krosa. However, the extensive flooding caused by Typhoon Krosa swept over most of the aboveground plant community and deposited the sediment onto the bottom of each compartment. Subsequently, reduced pollutant removal efficiencies were observed. Only 37.7% BOD, 35.1% NH(4)-N, and 31.8% Total-P were removed after this event, although the flow regime was immediately restored. Comparing the water quality data for the FWS wetland before and after Typhoon Krosa revealed the immediate, quantitative damage to the pollutant removal performance caused by the typhoon's inundation. Consequently, a high-flow bypass and additional preventive measures would protect any constructed wetland in areas subject to typhoons.

  6. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Jonatas H. F.; Mattos, Paulo H.; Silva, Kleber G.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  7. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jonatas H F; Mattos, Paulo H; Silva, Kleber G; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  8. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jonatas H F; Mattos, Paulo H; Silva, Kleber G; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  9. Marine Pollution and the Law of the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Arthur E., III

    1975-01-01

    Despite a rising tide of contamination, effective controls of marine pollution appear dubious because of conflicting national and economic interests. Since countries can not agree on problems such as national sovereignty, dispute settlement, jurisdiction over oil on the Continental Shelf and international seabed sources, marine pollution will…

  10. Sunrise ozone destruction found in the sub-tropical marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Ippei; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    A new mechanism of ozone loss is found in the sub-tropical marine boundary layer over the north Pacific. This ozone destruction occurs just after sunrise (hereafter Sunrise Ozone Destruction, SOD) and is commonly found throughout the year. SOD is a predominant ozone loss mechanism in winter, which takes place after sunrise in a few hours with 1∼2 ppbv of ozone depletion for 40∼50 ppbv of background ozone, while, in summer, SOD is weaker than in winter with small ozone depletion for 10∼20 ppbv of background ozone. In summer, daytime ozone destruction (hereafter, DOD) associated with UV photolysis and subsequent HOx reaction is more active. Since DOD is not active in early morning, SOD should be a new ozone loss mechanism. After demonstrating the observational findings, halogen chemistry associated with sea-salt aerosols is described as a possible mechanism.

  11. The impact of a high magnitude flood on metal pollution in a shallow subtropical estuarine embayment.

    PubMed

    Coates-Marnane, J; Olley, J; Burton, J; Grinham, A

    2016-11-01

    Drought-breaking floods pose a risk to coastal water quality as sediments, nutrients, and pollutants stored within catchments during periods of low flow are mobilized and delivered to coastal waters within a short period of time. Here we use subtidal surface sediment surveys and sediment cores to explore the effects of the 2011 Brisbane River flood on trace metals zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and phosphorus (P) deposition in Moreton Bay, a shallow subtropical bay in eastern Australia. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Pb in sediments in central Moreton Bay derived from the 2011 flood were the highest yet observed in the Bay. We suggest flushing of metal rich sediments which had accumulated on the Brisbane River floodplain and in its estuary during the preceding 10 to 40years of low flows to be the primary source of this increase. This highlights the importance of intermittent high magnitude floods in tidally influenced rivers in controlling metal transport to coastal waters in subtropical regions. PMID:27380395

  12. The impact of a high magnitude flood on metal pollution in a shallow subtropical estuarine embayment.

    PubMed

    Coates-Marnane, J; Olley, J; Burton, J; Grinham, A

    2016-11-01

    Drought-breaking floods pose a risk to coastal water quality as sediments, nutrients, and pollutants stored within catchments during periods of low flow are mobilized and delivered to coastal waters within a short period of time. Here we use subtidal surface sediment surveys and sediment cores to explore the effects of the 2011 Brisbane River flood on trace metals zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and phosphorus (P) deposition in Moreton Bay, a shallow subtropical bay in eastern Australia. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Pb in sediments in central Moreton Bay derived from the 2011 flood were the highest yet observed in the Bay. We suggest flushing of metal rich sediments which had accumulated on the Brisbane River floodplain and in its estuary during the preceding 10 to 40years of low flows to be the primary source of this increase. This highlights the importance of intermittent high magnitude floods in tidally influenced rivers in controlling metal transport to coastal waters in subtropical regions.

  13. The marine algae Sargassum spp. (Sargassaceae) as feed for sheep in tropical and subtropical regions.

    PubMed

    Marín, Alejandro; Casas-Valdez, Margarita; Carrillo, Silvia; Hernández, Hugo; Monroy, Alberto; Sanginés, Leonor; Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate Sargassum meal as feed for sheep through the measures of in vivo digestibility, dry matter degradability, pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids in rumen. The Sargassum algae used in this experiment were collected at the end of spring, when they are more abundant, bigger, and have completed their reproductive cycle. Four tons (wet weigth) were collected manually from the intertidal zone of La Paz bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico. These algae were sun-dried and ground in a hammer mill to obtain the Sargassum meal. Four fistulated Pelibuey sheep, were fed daily with diets containing the marine algae (MA) at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30 %), using a 4 x 4 Latin-square design experiment. Feed intake was not affected (p>0.05). Water consumption and urine excretion increased with MA (p<0.05; r2=0.54 and r2=0.74, respectively). In all treatments dry matter digestibility was of 74%-79%, and crude protein digestibility was of 85%-88%. Acid detergent fiber (59%-65%) and neutral detergent fiber (55%-66%) digestibility were greater in all treatments with MA. Ruminal pH was greater in all groups fed with MA (p<0.05). Ammonium concentration was not influenced (p>0.05) by MA. Ruminal volatile fatty acids decreased in all MA groups (p<0.05). The marine algae Sargassum spp. can be used as a feed supplement for sheep, especially in tropical and subtropical regions where these marine algae are available.

  14. Marine biogenic source of atmospheric organic nitrogen in the subtropical North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Katye E; Fawcett, Sarah E; Peters, Andrew J; Sigman, Daniel M; Hastings, Meredith G

    2016-01-26

    Global models estimate that the anthropogenic component of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the ocean accounts for up to a third of the ocean's external N supply and 10% of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. However, there are few observational constraints from the marine atmospheric environment to validate these findings. Due to the paucity of atmospheric organic N data, the largest uncertainties related to atmospheric N deposition are the sources and cycling of organic N, which is 20-80% of total N deposition. We studied the concentration and chemical composition of rainwater and aerosol organic N collected on the island of Bermuda in the western North Atlantic Ocean over 18 mo. Here, we show that the water-soluble organic N concentration ([WSON]) in marine aerosol is strongly correlated with surface ocean primary productivity and wind speed, suggesting a marine biogenic source for aerosol WSON. The chemical composition of high-[WSON] aerosols also indicates a primary marine source. We find that the WSON in marine rain is compositionally different from that in concurrently collected aerosols, suggesting that in-cloud scavenging (as opposed to below-cloud "washout") is the main contributor to rain WSON. We conclude that anthropogenic activity is not a significant source of organic N to the marine atmosphere over the North Atlantic, despite downwind transport from large pollution sources in North America. This, in conjunction with previous work on ammonium and nitrate, leads to the conclusion that only 27% of total N deposition to the global ocean is anthropogenic, in contrast to the 80% estimated previously. PMID:26739561

  15. Marine biogenic source of atmospheric organic nitrogen in the subtropical North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Katye E.; Fawcett, Sarah E.; Peters, Andrew J.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Hastings, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    Global models estimate that the anthropogenic component of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the ocean accounts for up to a third of the ocean’s external N supply and 10% of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. However, there are few observational constraints from the marine atmospheric environment to validate these findings. Due to the paucity of atmospheric organic N data, the largest uncertainties related to atmospheric N deposition are the sources and cycling of organic N, which is 20–80% of total N deposition. We studied the concentration and chemical composition of rainwater and aerosol organic N collected on the island of Bermuda in the western North Atlantic Ocean over 18 mo. Here, we show that the water-soluble organic N concentration ([WSON]) in marine aerosol is strongly correlated with surface ocean primary productivity and wind speed, suggesting a marine biogenic source for aerosol WSON. The chemical composition of high-[WSON] aerosols also indicates a primary marine source. We find that the WSON in marine rain is compositionally different from that in concurrently collected aerosols, suggesting that in-cloud scavenging (as opposed to below-cloud “washout”) is the main contributor to rain WSON. We conclude that anthropogenic activity is not a significant source of organic N to the marine atmosphere over the North Atlantic, despite downwind transport from large pollution sources in North America. This, in conjunction with previous work on ammonium and nitrate, leads to the conclusion that only 27% of total N deposition to the global ocean is anthropogenic, in contrast to the 80% estimated previously. PMID:26739561

  16. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Hamish A; Schultz, Arthur L; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs.

  17. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Hamish A; Schultz, Arthur L; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs. PMID:26061036

  18. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Hamish A.; Schultz, Arthur L.; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs. PMID:26061036

  19. The niche of an invasive marine microbe in a subtropical freshwater impoundment

    PubMed Central

    David Hambright, K; Beyer, Jessica E; Easton, James D; Zamor, Richard M; Easton, Anne C; Hallidayschult, Thayer C

    2015-01-01

    Growing attention in aquatic ecology is focusing on biogeographic patterns in microorganisms and whether these potential patterns can be explained within the framework of general ecology. The long-standing microbiologist's credo ‘Everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects' suggests that dispersal is not limiting for microbes, but that the environment is the primary determining factor in microbial community composition. Advances in molecular techniques have provided new evidence that biogeographic patterns exist in microbes and that dispersal limitation may actually have an important role, yet more recent study using extremely deep sequencing predicts that indeed everything is everywhere. Using a long-term field study of the ‘invasive' marine haptophyte Prymnesium parvum, we characterize the environmental niche of P. parvum in a subtropical impoundment in the southern United States. Our analysis contributes to a growing body of evidence that indicates a primary role for environmental conditions, but not dispersal, in the lake-wide abundances and seasonal bloom patterns in this globally important microbe. PMID:24950108

  20. Physical transport properties of marine microplastic pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballent, A.; Purser, A.; Mendes, P. de Jesus; Pando, S.; Thomsen, L.

    2012-12-01

    Given the complexity of quantitative collection, knowledge of the distribution of microplastic pollution in many regions of the world ocean is patchy, both spatially and temporally, especially for the subsurface environment. However, with knowledge of typical hydrodynamic behavior of waste plastic material, models predicting the dispersal of pelagic and benthic plastics from land sources into the ocean are possible. Here we investigate three aspects of plastic distribution and transport in European waters. Firstly, we assess patterns in the distribution of plastics found in fluvial strandlines of the North Sea and how distribution may be related to flow velocities and distance from source. Second, we model transport of non-buoyant preproduction pellets in the Nazaré Canyon of Portugal using the MOHID system after assessing the density, settling velocity, critical and depositional shear stress characteristics of such waste plastics. Thirdly, we investigate the effect of surface turbulences and high pressures on a range of marine plastic debris categories (various densities, degradation states and shapes tested) in an experimental water column simulator tank and pressure laboratory. Plastics deposited on North Sea strandlines varied greatly spatially, as a function of material composition and distance from source. Model outputs indicated that such dense production pellets are likely transported up and down canyon as a function of tidal forces, with only very minor net down canyon movement. Behaviour of plastic fragments under turbulence varied greatly, with the dimensions of the material, as well as density, playing major determining roles. Pressure was shown to affect hydrodynamic behaviours of only low density foam plastics at pressures ≥ 60 bar.

  1. Habitat partitioning by five congeneric and abundant Choerodon species (Labridae) in a large subtropical marine embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairclough, D. V.; Clarke, K. R.; Valesini, F. J.; Potter, I. C.

    2008-04-01

    The habitats occupied by the juveniles and adults of five morphologically similar, diurnally active and abundant Choerodon species in the large subtropical environment of Shark Bay, a "World Heritage Property" on the west coast of Australia, have been determined. The densities of the two life cycle stages of each Choerodon species in those habitats were used in various analyses to test the hypotheses that: (1) habitats are partitioned among these species and between their juveniles and adults; (2) such habitat partitioning is greatest in the case of the two Western Australian endemic species, i.e. Choerodon rubescens and Choerodon cauteroma; and (3) the extent of habitat partitioning between both of these two species and the only species that is widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, i.e. Choerodon schoenleinii, will be less pronounced. Initially, catches of each of the five congeneric species, obtained during other studies in Shark Bay by angling, spearfishing and otter trawling, were collated to elucidate the broad distribution of these species in that embayment. Underwater visual census was then used to determine the densities of the juveniles and adults of each Choerodon species at sites representing the four habitat types in which one or more of these species had been caught, i.e. reefs in marine waters at the western boundary of the bay and seagrass, reefs and rocky shorelines in the two inner gulfs. The compositions of the Choerodon species over marine (entrance channel) reefs and in seagrass were significantly different and each differed significantly from those in both inner gulf reefs and rocky shorelines, which were, however, not significantly different. Choerodon rubescens was restricted to exposed marine reefs, and thus occupied a different habitat and location of the bay than C. cauteroma, the other endemic species, which was almost exclusively confined to habitats found in the inner gulfs. Choerodon cauteroma differed from other Choerodon

  2. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    PubMed

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications. PMID:26330016

  3. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    PubMed

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications.

  4. Biological effects and subsequent economic effects and losses from marine pollution and degradations in marine environments: Implications from the literature.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, Douglas D; Seneca, Joseph J

    2006-08-01

    This paper serves as the missing piece in a more fuller understanding about economic losses from marine pollution, and demonstrates what losses have been estimated in the literature. Biological effects from marine pollution are linked with resulting economic effects and losses. The merging of these two areas is usually absent in studies of marine pollution losses. The literature has examined several effects due to marine pollution: damages due to harvest closures-restrictions, damages from consumption of unsafe seafood, damages due to decreased recreational activity, and damages related to waterfront real estate adjacent to contaminated water. Overall, marine pollution can and has resulted in sizable economic effects and losses. On the basis of the literature there is adequate justification for public policy actions to curb marine pollution, require inspection of seafood for toxic substances, and preserve marine water quality and sensitive marine environments.

  5. Multiscale Covariability of Surface Wind, Humidity and Temperature in the Subtropical Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fildier, Benjamin; Collins, William

    2016-04-01

    Trade cumulus and stratocumulus clouds in oceanic subtropical regions are sources of much uncertainty in current global climate model (GCM) simulations. Errors in low cloud fraction and rain amounts are a result of inadequate parameterizations for describing the small-scale boundary layer processes specific to the convective and cloud-formation dynamics of those regions. While most cloud parameterization techniques do consider sub-grid scale variability in specific humidity (q), the significant fluctuations in temperature (T) and wind speed (u) in the boundary layer are still often neglected. In order to better acknowledge the interactions of these fields with cloud and convection, understanding their codependence seems crucial. For example, using the negative correlations between T and q on large scales has helped to improve cloud parameterizations, and wind shear is known to modulate cloud layer decoupling and affect the liquid water path (LWP). While numerous studies document the spatial properties of T , q and u independently through power spectra and multifractal analyses, the covariation between these three variables and their spatial increments - and how these relationships change across spatial scales - has not been adequately and quantitatively characterized. The present work focuses on the spatial covariability and multiscale coupling between fluctuations in q, T and u in the marine boundary layer and seeks to understand which pieces of information are required for better predicting LWP on a variety of scales from a few tens to a few hundred kms. We use remote-sensing measurements of thermodynamic variables from MODIS and surface wind estimates from QuikSCAT. The scale-by-scale covariability of two variables is quantified through their Fourier and wavelet cross spectra, using Haar wavelets; these spectra permit the calculation of multiscale coupling exponents when appropriate. Results from this study are threefold: (1) we quantify the contributions of

  6. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... POLLUTANT mark shall be placed in association with the hazard warning labels required by subpart E of this... Symbol (fish and tree): Black on white or suitable contrasting background. (2) The symbol and border must be black and the background white, or the symbol, border and background must be of contrasting...

  7. Marine iguanas die from trace oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Wikelski, Martin; Wong, Vanessa; Chevalier, Brett; Rattenborg, Niels; Snell, Howard L

    2002-06-01

    An oil tanker ran aground on the Galapagos island of San Cristóbal on 17 January 2001, spilling roughly three million litres of diesel and bunker oil. The slick started to spread westwards and was dispersed by strong currents, so only a few marine animals were killed immediately as a result. Here we draw on the long-term data sets gathered before the spill to show that a population of marine iguanas (Amblyrhychus cristatus) on Sante Fe island suffered a massive 62% mortality in the year after the accident, due to a small amount of residual oil contamination in the sea. Another population on the more remote island of Genovesa was unaffected.

  8. [Application of lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring: research progress].

    PubMed

    Weng, You-Zhu; Fang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Lysosome is an important organelle existing in eukaryotic cells. With the development of the study on the structure and function of lysosome in recent years, lysosome is considered as a target of toxic substances on subcellular level, and has been widely applied abroad in marine pollution monitoring. This paper summarized the biological characteristics of lysosomal marker enzyme, lysosome-autophagy system, and lysosomal membrane, and introduced the principles and methods of applying lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring. Bivalve shellfish digestive gland and fish liver are the most sensitive organs for lysosomal detection. By adopting the lysosomal detection techniques such as lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) test, neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, morphological measurement (MM) of lysosome, immunohistochemical (Ih) assay of lysosomal marker enzyme, and electron microscopy (EM), the status of marine pollution can be evaluated. It was suggested that the lysosome could be used as a biomarker for monitoring marine environmental pollution. The advantages and disadvantages of lysosomal detection and some problems worthy of attention were analyzed, and the application prospects of lysosomal detection were discussed.

  9. Speciation of Gram-positive bacteria in fresh and ambient-stored sub-tropical marine fish.

    PubMed

    Al Bulushi, Ismail M; Poole, Susan E; Barlow, Robert; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-03-31

    This study identified Gram-positive bacteria in three sub-tropical marine fish species; Pseudocaranx dentex (silver trevally), Pagrus auratus (snapper) and Mugil cephalus (sea mullet). It further elucidated the role played by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage on the composition of the Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 266 isolates of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by conventional biochemical methods, VITEK, PCR using genus- and species-specific primers and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolates were found to fall into 13 genera and 30 species. In fresh fish, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus were the most frequent isolates. After ambient storage, S. epidermidis, S. xylosus and Bacillus megaterium were no longer present whereas S. warneri, B. sphaericus, Brevibacillus borstelensis, Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus uberis increased in frequency. Micrococcus luteus and S. warneri were the most prevalent isolates from P. dentex, while E. faecium and Strep. uberis were the most frequent isolates from P. auratus and M. cephalus. With respect to different parts of the fish body, E. faecium, Strep. uberis and B. sphaericus were the most frequent isolates from the muscles, E. faecium, Strep. uberis from the gills and M. luteus from the gut. This study showed a diversity of Gram-positive bacteria in sub-tropical marine fish; however, their abundance was affected by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage.

  10. Monitoring Mediterranean marine pollution using remote sensing and hydrodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Loggia, Goffredo; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Drago, Aldo; Maltese, Antonino

    2011-11-01

    Human activities contaminate both coastal areas and open seas, even though impacts are different in terms of pollutants, ecosystems and recovery time. In particular, Mediterranean offshore pollution is mainly related to maritime transport of oil, accounting for 25% of the global maritime traffic and, during the last 25 years, for nearly 7% of the world oil accidents, thus causing serious biological impacts on both open sea and coastal zone habitats. This paper provides a general review of maritime pollution monitoring using integrated approaches of remote sensing and hydrodynamic modeling; focusing on the main results of the MAPRES (Marine pollution monitoring and detection by aerial surveillance and satellite images) research project on the synergistic use of remote sensing, forecasting, cleanup measures and environmental consequences. The paper also investigates techniques of oil spill detection using SAR images, presenting the first results of "Monitoring of marine pollution due to oil slick", a COSMO-SkyMed funded research project where X-band SAR constellation images provided by the Italian Space Agency are used. Finally, the prospect of using real time observations of marine surface conditions is presented through CALYPSO project (CALYPSO-HF Radar Monitoring System and Response against Marine Oil Spills in the Malta Channel), partly financed by the EU under the Operational Programme Italia-Malta 2007-2013. The project concerns the setting up of a permanent and fully operational HF radar observing system, capable of recording surface currents (in real-time with hourly updates) in the stretch of sea between Malta and Sicily. A combined use of collected data and numerical models, aims to optimize intervention and response in the case of marine oil spills.

  11. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  12. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  13. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  14. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved]...

  15. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  16. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  17. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  18. Experimental studies on some genetic effects of marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, B.; Bisol, P. M.; Rodinò, E.

    1980-03-01

    Following the results of a series of investigations carried out to estimate the degree of marine pollution by utilizing certain marine filter feeders, such as the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, research has been planned to detect possible genetic effects of pollutants, with special attention to those acting at the population level. The possible selective role of pollutants has been studied both in natural ( Mytilus) and in experimental ( Tisbe holothuriae) populations by utilizing some electrophoretically-detected gene-enzyme systems as genetic markers. For some of the seven polymorphic loci studied in Mytilus (AP, LAP, 6-PGD, IDHs, IDHm, PGI, PGM) significant changes in gene frequencies have been detected which can be related to the degree of pollution in the sampling areas. In the more polluted areas these changes were accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of heterozygotes. Similar changes in gene frequencies also occurred in laboratory populations of the copepod Tisbe, reared under various experimental conditions. In particular, certain alleles of two loci, PGI-1 and AP-1, exhibited an increase in frequency, especially in populations cultured at various levels of oil pollution. This trend appeared more significant for the locus PGI. The fact that equilibria are reached and that the less favoured alleles are nevertheless maintained in the populations, even at extremely low frequencies, suggests the balanced nature of these enzyme polymorphisms. The significance of the above findings is briefly discussed.

  19. Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Antifouling paint particles (APP) are generated during the maintenance of boats and are shed from abandoned structures and grounded ships. Although they afford a highly visible, colourful reflection of contamination in the vicinity of the source, little systematic study has been undertaken regarding the distribution, composition and effects of APP in the wider marine environment. This paper reviews the state of knowledge in respect of APP, with particular emphasis on those generated by recreational boatyards. The likely biogeochemical pathways of the biocidal and non-biocidal metals in current use (mainly Cu and Zn) are addressed in light of recent research and an understanding of the more general behaviour of contaminants in marine systems. Analyses of paint fragment composites from recreational facilities in the UK reveal chemical compositions that are similar to those representing the net signal of the original formulations; significantly, dry weight concentrations of Cu and Zn of up to about 35% and 15%, respectively, are observed and, relative to ambient dusts and sediment, elevated concentrations of other trace metals, like Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Sn, occur. These metals leach more rapidly from APP than a painted surface due to the greater surface area of pigments and additives exposed to the aqueous medium. In suspension, APP are subject to greater and more rapid environmental variation (e.g. salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen) than painted hulls, while settled APP represent an important source of persistent and degradable biocides to poorly circulating environments. Through diffusion and abrasion, high concentrations of contaminants are predicted in interstitial waters that may be accumulated directly by benthic invertebrates. Animals that feed non-selectively and that are exposed to or ingest paint-contaminated sediment are able to accelerate the leaching, deposition and burial of biocides and other substances, and represent an alternative vehicle for

  20. Heritable pollution tolerance in a marine invader.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Louise A; Brooks, Rob; Johnston, Emma L

    2011-10-01

    The global spread of fouling invasive species is continuing despite the use of antifouling biocides. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that non-indigenous species introduced via hull fouling may be capable of adapting to metal-polluted environments. Using a laboratory based toxicity assay, we investigated tolerance to copper in the non-indigenous bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata from four source populations. Individual colonies were collected from four sites within Port Hacking (Sydney, Australia) and their offspring exposed to a range of copper concentrations. This approach, using a full-sib, split-family design, tests for a genotype by environment (G×E) interaction. Settlement and complete metamorphosis (recruitment) were measured as ecologically relevant endpoints. Larval sizes were also measured for each colony. Successful recruitment was significantly reduced by the highest copper concentration of 80μgL(-1). While there was no difference in pollution tolerance between sites, there was a significant G×E interaction, with large variation in the response of colony offspring within sites. Larval size differed significantly both between sites and between colonies and was positively correlated with tolerance. The high level of variation in copper tolerance between colonies suggests that there is considerable potential within populations to adapt to elevated copper levels, as tolerance is a heritable trait. Also, colonies that produce large larvae are more tolerant to copper, suggesting that tolerance may be a direct consequence of larger size. PMID:21295292

  1. Ciliated Protozoa in marine pollution studies. A conspectus

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.G.

    1983-04-01

    The ecological role of the marine ciliates is discussed with reference to the interaction of this group with contaminants. While the ciliates may be of some value in routine screening of potential toxins, simple laboratory bioassays are unlikely to be of predictive value in assessing threats to the marine environment. There is some evidence that ciliates may take part in the transfer and transformation of potential pollutants. Further field and laboratory studies are required in order to identify and quantify the role of ciliates in these processes.

  2. The developing framework of marine ecotoxicology: Pollutants as a variable in marine ecosystems?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, Samuel N.

    1996-01-01

    Marine ecosystems include a subset in which at least some interrelated geochemical, biochemical, physiological, population and community characteristics are changed by pollutants. Moderate contamination is relatively widespread in coastal and estuarine ecosystems, so the subset of ecosystems with at least some processes affected could be relatively large. Pollutant influences have changed and will probably continue to change on time scales of decades. Biological exposures and dose in such ecosystems are species-specific and determined by how the species is exposed to different environmental media and the geochemistry of individual pollutants within those media. Bioaccumulation models offer significant promise for interpreting such exposures. Biological responses to pollutants need to be more directly linked to exposure and dose. At the level of the individual this might be improved by better understanding relationships between tissue concentrations of pollutants and responses to pollutants. Multi-discipline field and laboratory studies combined with advanced understanding of some basic processes have reduced the ambiguities in interpreting a few physiological/organismic responses to pollutants in nature. Recognition of pollutant-induced patterns in population responses could lead to similar advances. A rational framework for ecotoxicology is developing, but its further advance is dependent upon better integration of ecotoxicology with basic marine ecology and biology.

  3. Spatio-temporal changes of marine macrobenthic community in sub-tropical waters upon recovery from eutrophication. II. Life-history traits and feeding guilds of polychaete community.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S G; Lam, N W Y; Wu, R S S; Shin, P K S

    2008-02-01

    A two-year study was conducted in the vicinity of a harbour in sub-tropical Hong Kong, to examine the progress of recovery of macrobenthic community, based on analyses of both life-history traits and trophic guilds of polychaetes, upon cessation of organic pollution caused by sewage discharge. Seventy seven out of 83 species collected were classified under four ecological groups based on the life-history traits and sensitivity to organic gradients. The mean ATZI marine biotic index (AMBI) derived from these ecological groups showed spatial difference among the five sampling locations. In particular, the presence of different percentages of polychaete species from Groups III (unbalanced community) and IV (polluted community) suggested the presence of pollution stress in certain degree at all sampling locations. However, no significant temporal changes were noted over the study period. From all polychaete species identified, they were classified into 13 feeding guilds. The mean diversity of these feeding guilds at most of the sampling locations was significantly higher than that at one of the inside-harbour locations. The composition of feeding guilds was also significantly different spatially. At one of the inside-harbour locations, the dominant feeding guilds were motile/discretely motile surface deposit feeders with tentaculates or unarmed pharynx, and motile omnivores with jawed pharynx in the first year of study, but were replaced by motile, jawed carnivores in the second year of study. The increased proportion of carnivores over the study period can be seen as a sign of recovery in the community structure since abundance of predators is commonly higher in habitats with better environmental quality. The implications of using life-history traits and feeding guild analyses for benthic community are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of subtropical marine low stratiform clouds in CMIP5 AMIP experiments using ISCCP observations and simulator outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshiro, T.; Kawai, H.; Yukimoto, S.

    2015-12-01

    Subtropical marine low stratiform clouds (LSCs), which are quite important for the earth's climate in terms of cloud radiative effect, simulated in AMIP experiments by COSP ISCCP simulators implemented in nine CMIP5 models are evaluated by comparing with ISCCP observational data. In regions with large amounts of higher level clouds, low clouds observed from satellites can be obscured by them, especially by using passive sensors like ISCCP; however, high cloud amounts are climatologically small in the subtropical regions, corresponding to the descending branches of the Hadley circulation. Although middle cloud amounts are smaller in lower latitudes, they are relatively large in the eastern subtropical oceans such as off Peruvian coast. These clouds are not middle but indeed low clouds; this is because of the misdetection due to their cold cloud top temperatures. In addition, optically thick low clouds correspond to LSCs, while thin to shallow cumuliform clouds, generally in the ISCCP classification. Therefore, to facilitate robust evaluation, only ocean areas between 40N and 40S where climatological high cloud amounts are less than 20% are considered, and middle+low cloud amounts, corrected with the random-overlap assumption, with optical thickness >9.4 are defined as "the LSC amount" in this study. From these definitions, five LSC regions (Californian, Canarian, Peruvian, Namibian, and Australian) are detected in the ISCCP observations. We also derived the LSC amounts from the ISCCP simulator outputs of each CMIP5 model. CCSM4, HadGEM2-A, and MRI-CGCM3 are relatively well simulated, whereas IPSL-CM5B-LR and bcc-csm1-1-m produce similar patterns but with greater LSC amounts. CanAM4 and MPI-ESM-LR show noisy spatial distributions. The LSC amounts in CNRM-CM5 and MIROC5 are much less; they are smaller in regions closer to land. Comparing with the satellite observations and reanalysis data, the relationships with meteorological processes will be discussed.

  5. Bacterial diversity in oil-polluted marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Marqués, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine environments harbour a persistent microbial seed which can be shaped by changes of the environmental conditions such as contamination by petroleum components. Oil spills, together with small but continuous discharges of oil from transportation and recreational activities, are important sources of hydrocarbon pollution within the marine realm. Consequently, prokaryotic communities have become well pre-adapted toward oil pollution, and many microorganisms that are exposed to its presence develop an active degradative response. The natural attenuation of oil pollutants, as has been demonstrated in many sites, is modulated according to the intrinsic environmental properties such as the availability of terminal electron acceptors and elemental nutrients, together with the degree of pollution and the type of hydrocarbon fractions present. Whilst dynamics in the bacterial communities in the aerobic zones of coastal sediments are well characterized and the key players in hydrocarbon biodegradation have been identified, the subtidal ecology of the anaerobic community is still not well understood. However, current data suggest common patterns of response in these ecosystems. PMID:26773654

  6. Bacterial diversity in oil-polluted marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Marqués, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine environments harbour a persistent microbial seed which can be shaped by changes of the environmental conditions such as contamination by petroleum components. Oil spills, together with small but continuous discharges of oil from transportation and recreational activities, are important sources of hydrocarbon pollution within the marine realm. Consequently, prokaryotic communities have become well pre-adapted toward oil pollution, and many microorganisms that are exposed to its presence develop an active degradative response. The natural attenuation of oil pollutants, as has been demonstrated in many sites, is modulated according to the intrinsic environmental properties such as the availability of terminal electron acceptors and elemental nutrients, together with the degree of pollution and the type of hydrocarbon fractions present. Whilst dynamics in the bacterial communities in the aerobic zones of coastal sediments are well characterized and the key players in hydrocarbon biodegradation have been identified, the subtidal ecology of the anaerobic community is still not well understood. However, current data suggest common patterns of response in these ecosystems.

  7. Predicting ecological effects of pollutants: A role for marine mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    The major uncertainty in predicting the ecological effects of a pollutant is the relationship between dose and the ecological response. Mesocosms may be used to simulate population-level biological processes and to estimate the nature and shape of dose-related responses to pollutants, for use in predictive evaluations of pollutant impacts. To ensure that responses observed in mesocosm tests are representative it is necessary to confirm that the simulated processes operate at rates similar to those found in the field. Pilot experiments were conducted in small marine mesocosms simulating major processes in two local habitat types: unvegetated sand and sand colonized by the brown macroalga Sargassum. The results showed that for a range of variates (such as the % of egg-bearing harpacticoid copepods, or the chlorophyll a concentration in surface sediments) the mean values for measurements in the tanks over a 9 week period did not consistently converge or diverge from those in the field. Also, for a number of the variates, a modelled decrease of more than about 60% in the mean could be detected with greater than 80% statistical power. This indicates that the effects of a pollutant could be detected with acceptable power. Use of a combination of such variates based on different functional or taxonomic groups for pollutant effects testing could greatly decrease uncertainty about the predicted effects of pollutants discharged to these habitats.

  8. Air Pollution and Daily Clinic Visits for Headache in a Subtropical City: Taipei, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and daily clinic visits for headache in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for headache and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006–2011. The odds ratio of clinic visits for headache was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single pollutant models, on warm days (≥23 °C) statistically significant positive associations were found for increased rate of headache occurrence and levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (<23 °C), all pollutants were significantly associated with increased headache visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3 and NO2 were significant for higher rate of headache visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO remained statistically significant in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air pollutants increase the risk of clinic visits for headache. PMID:25690001

  9. Air pollution exposure and daily clinical visits for allergic rhinitis in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant level exposure and daily clinic visits for allergic rhinitis (AR) in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for AR and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period of 2006-2011. The relative risk for clinic visits for AR was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days (>23ºC) significant positive associations were found for increased rate of AR occurrence and ambient levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (<23ºC), all air pollutants were significantly associated with elevated number of AR visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3, and NO2 were significantly associated with higher rate of AR visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO levels remained significantly related with increased AR visits in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air contaminants enhance the risk of elevated frequency of clinic visits for AR. PMID:27294298

  10. Marine casualty and pollution database (raw data only) (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Marine Casualty and Pollution Database provides details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Officer. The database is an invaluable source of information to understand particulars and circumstances of marine accidents and pollution incidents. The CD-ROM contains forty data tables derived from marine casualty and pollution investigations conducted by investigators at US Coast Guard Marine Safety Offices throughout the United States. The data collection period began in 1973 and is ongoing. Also included on the CD-ROM are vessel and facility tables with specific information on vessel and facility constitution and operating details. The Coast Guard maintains a comprehensive database on approximately 460,000 US and foreign vessels and 32,000 facilities. Entity and attribute descriptions and suggested solutions to general marine pollution, vessel casualty, and personnel injury and death questions are outlined in the documentation.

  11. Something's fishy. [Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats from pollutants such as PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1994-07-02

    Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats to the immune system of marine animals such as seals, dolphins and turtles. A number of studies are discussed in this article, with particular emphasis on an ongoing study which makes the connection between marine pollution and the decrease in immune system functioning in harbor seals. The effects on the whole marine ecosystem are discussed.

  12. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    PubMed

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided. PMID:26248825

  13. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    PubMed

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided.

  14. Millennial-scale versus long-term dynamics in the surface and subsurface of the western North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, André; Nürnberg, Dirk; Karas, Cyrus; Grützner, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Subtropical Gyres are an important constituent of the ocean-atmosphere system due to their capacity to store vast amounts of warm and saline waters. Here we decipher the sensitivity of the (sub)surface North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre with respect to orbital and millennial scale climate variability between ~ 140 and 70 ka, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. Using (isotope) geochemical proxy data from surface and thermocline dwelling foraminifers from Blake Ridge off the west coast of North America (ODP Site 1058) we show that the oceanographic development at subsurface (thermocline) level is substantially different from the surface ocean. Most notably, surface temperatures and salinities peak during the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II) and early MIS 5e, implying that subtropical surface ocean heat and salt accumulation might have resulted from a sluggish northward heat transport. In contrast, maximum thermocline temperatures are reached during late MIS 5e when surface temperatures are already declining. We argue that the subsurface warming originated from intensified Ekman downwelling in the Subtropical Gyre due to enhanced wind stress. During MIS 5a-d a tight interplay of the subtropical upper ocean hydrography to high latitude millennial-scale cold events can be observed. At Blake Ridge, the most pronounced of these high latitude cold events are related to surface warming and salt accumulation in the (sub)surface. Similar to Termination II, heat accumulated in the Subtropical Gyre probably due to a reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Additionally, a southward shift and intensification of the subtropical wind belts lead to a decrease of on-site precipitation and enhanced evaporation, coupled to intensified gyre circulation. Subsequently, the northward advection of this warm and saline water likely contributed to the fast resumption of the overturning circulation at the end of these high latitude cold events.

  15. Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of sub-tropical industrial region and its phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004-2005. Pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with heavy metals was Belwadah, i.e., waters and sediments had the highest concentration of all the metals examined. The reference site was characterized by the presence of low concentrations of metals in waters and in sediments. Further, several wetland plants were harvested from different sites, and simultaneously, these were assessed for their metal concentration efficiency. Following the water quality monitoring and metal concentration efficiency, two-month field phytoremediation experiments were conducted using large enclosures at the discharge point of different polluted sites of the lake. Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata were frontier metal accumulators hence selected for previously mentioned field phytoremediation experiments. During field phytoremediation experiments using aquatic macrophytes, marked percentage reduction in metals concentrations were recorded. The percentage decrease for different metals was in the range of 25-67.90% at Belwadah (with Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), 25-77.14% at Dongia nala (with Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata) and 25-71.42% at Ash pond site of G.B. Pant Sagar (with Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata). Preliminary studies of polluted sites are therefore useful for improved microcosm design and for the systematic extrapolation of information from experimental ecosystems to natural ecosystems.

  16. Contaminants in tracked seabirds showing regional patterns of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Ito, Atsuo; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige; Yamamoto, Takashi; Shiomi, Kozue; Zavalaga, Carlos; Abe, Tomoya; Watanabe, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Maki; Sato, Katsufumi; Kohno, Hiroyoshi; Yoda, Ken; Iida, Tomohiko; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2013-07-16

    Ocean-scale monitoring of pollution is challenging. Seabirds are useful indicators because they travel over a broad foraging range. Nevertheless, this coarse spatial resolution is not fine enough to discriminate pollution in a finer scale. Previous studies have demonstrated that pollution levels are higher in the Sea of Japan and South and East China Seas than the Northen Pacific Ocean. To test these findings in a wide-ranging animal, we tracked streaked shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas) from four islands in Japan using global positioning system (GPS) and measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the oil of their preen glands. The POPs did not change during 6 to 21 days when birds from Awashima were foraging only in the Sea of Japan, while it increased when they crossed to the Pacific through the Tsugaru Strait and foraged along the eastern coast of Hokkaido where industrial cities occur. These results indicate that POPs in the oil reflect relatively short-term exposure. Concentrations of POPs displayed greater variation among regions. Total polychlorinated biphenyls were highest in birds foraging in a small area of the semiclosed Seto Inland Sea surrounded by urbanized coast, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was highest in birds foraging in the East China Sea, and total hexachlorocyclohexanes were highest in birds foraging in the Sea of Japan. All were lowest in birds foraging in the Pacific. This distribution of POPs concentration partly agrees with previous findings based on mussels, fish, and seawater and possibly reflects the mobility and emission sources of each type of POP. These results highlight the importance of information on the foraging area of highly mobile top predators to make them more effective monitors of regional marine pollution.

  17. Characterization of shallow marine convection in subtropical regions by airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Gutleben, Manuel; Schäfler, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Wirth, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in present day climate research is still the quantification of cloud feedbacks in climate models. Especially the feedback from marine cumulus clouds in the boundary layer with maximum cloud top heights of 4 km introduces large uncertainties in climate sensitivity. Therefore a better understanding of these shallow marine clouds, as well as of their interaction with aerosols and the Earth's energy budget is demanded. To improve our knowledge of shallow marine cumulus convection, measurements onboard the German research aircraft HALO were performed during the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-sensing for Validation studies) mission in December 2013. During NARVAL an EarthCARE equivalent remote sensing payload, with the DLR airborne high spectral resolution and differential absorption lidar system WALES and the cloud radar of the HAMP (HALO Microwave Package) as its core instrumentation, was deployed. To investigate the capability of spaceborne lidar measurements for this kind of study several CALIOP underflights were performed. We will present a comparison of airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements, and we will present the vertical and horizontal distribution of the clouds during NARVAL based on lidar measurements. In particular we investigate the cloud top distribution and the horizontal cloud and cloud gap length. Furthermore we study the representativeness of the NARVAL data by comparing them to and analysing a longer time series and measurements at different years and seasons.

  18. Transport, Evolution and Entrainment of Asian Dust/Pollution into the Pacific Marine Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, A. D.; McNaughton, C. S.; Kapustin, V.; Vetter, O.; Dibb, J. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Browell, E. V.; Carmichael, G.; Landing, B.

    2007-05-01

    Various airborne and ship based studies over the past several years have allowed us to measure Asian dust and pollution aerosol from near its source to locations up to 10,000km downwind where it was entrained into the marine boundary layer (MBL). Dust was found to accumulate up to half of the soluble species such as sulfate and nitrate during passage through pollution regions in Asia before being lofted into the free troposphere near Japan. At times, transport in the free troposphere included regions of subsidence in high pressure regions that brought these "rivers" of dust and pollution down to the top of the MBL. Shipboard measurements and lidar data indicated both clear air entrainment and convective activity, associated with the passage of low pressure systems, facilitated dust transport through the inversion. High temperature volatilization of particles in the MBL up to 900C was used to remove most sulfates, nitrates, carbon and sea-salt to leave only dust measured and sized by an optical particle counter. These shipboard data and concurrent chemical measurements revealed the relation between entrainment of pollution and dust into the MBL associated with passage of high pressure systems. Subsequent passage of low pressure systems also revealed scavenging and removal of aerosol through precipitation to the ocean surface. This process appears to be a common removal pathway for dust over the Pacific and a mechanism for supplying the ocean surface with soluble iron and aluminum to the ocean surface. Measurements in the free troposphere and MBL also captured various aspects of these processes. Airborne missions flown north of Hawaii during the NASA PEM-Tropics and IMPEX missions characterized the vertical structure of subsiding dust and pollution. In-flight mapping of the dust/pollution layers and structure using the NASA Langley DIAL LIDAR show a sloping, subsiding Asian air-mass entraining into the marine boundary layer (MBL). In-situ measurements of the aerosol

  19. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration). PMID:26287831

  20. Establishing a conceptual model for photochemical ozone pollution in subtropical Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Z. H.; Guo, H.; Zheng, J. Y.; Louie, P. K. K.; Cheng, H. R.; Jiang, F.; Cheung, K.; Wong, L. C.; Feng, X. Q.

    2013-09-01

    Photochemical ozone (O3) formation is related to its precursors and meteorological conditions. A conceptual model of O3 air pollution is developed based on the analysis of data obtained at Tung Chung (TC) in Hong Kong. By comparing meteorological parameters between O3 and non-O3 episode days, it was found that high temperatures, strong solar radiation, low wind speeds and relative humidity, northeasterly and/or northwesterly prevailing winds were favorable for the O3 formation, while tropical cyclones were most conducive to the occurrence of O3 episodes. Backward trajectories simulation and graphical illustration of O3 pollution suggested that super-regional (i.e. central and eastern China) and regional (i.e. Pearl River Delta, southern China) transport was another factor that contributed to high O3 levels in Hong Kong. The photochemical O3 formation, generally VOC-limited in Hong Kong, was controlled by a small number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Furthermore, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) simulation suggested that solvent usage and vehicular emissions are the major contributors to ambient VOCs in Hong Kong. Finally, this paper presents recommendations for further O3 research and implementation of O3 control strategies.

  1. Coral disease dynamics at a subtropical location, Solitary Islands Marine Park, eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Steven J.; Smith, Stephen D. A.

    2006-03-01

    Recent observations suggest that a spreading disease is increasingly contributing to hard coral mortality in the Solitary Islands Marine Park, NSW, Australia. This study determined coral disease prevalence and rate-of-spread through individual affected colonies and investigated the effect this epizootic had on coral populations at sites adjacent to South West Solitary Island. Quantitative data were collected between 2002 and 2004 using photographic and video methods, and visual census along radial arc belt transects. Disease similar to the reported white syndrome and white plague was apparent, spreading through hard coral species from the genera Turbinaria, Acropora, Goniastrea, Pocillopora, Stylophora and Porites. Coral disease prevalence varied between survey dates with mean prevalence increasing from 8.55% during March 2003 to 13.58% in June and declining to 7.75% in September and 6.21% during March 2004. There was a significant difference in mean prevalence between the affected species (p<0.001) and an overall difference between survey dates (p=0.001). Additionally, the rate-of-spread of coral disease through coral colonies determined using repeated, seasonal, still photographs followed similar patterns, with disease progression differing between affected species (p=0.004), and between survey dates (p<0.001). Analysis of the video-transects indicated significant difference in disease prevalence over larger spatial scales (100s of m). However, disease frequency did not vary significantly between 2002 and 2003.

  2. Global Transport of Organic Pollutants: Ambient Concentrations in the Remote Marine Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Giam, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Concentrations of organic pollutants in the air and in precipitation have been measured at Enewetak Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. These data from a site removed from industrial and human activity indicate the present concentrations of synthetic organic pollutants in the atmosphere and establish the long-range atmospheric transport of organic pollutants to remote marine areas. Hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers are present in the remote marine atmosphere. Polychlorobiphenyls, total DDT, dieldrin, chlordane, and two phthalate ester plasticizers were also found in the samples. The concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere remote from continental sources are good measures of the minimum concentrations of air pollutants on Earth.

  3. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  4. A census of marine zooplankton in the tropical/subtropical Atlantic from the surface to 5000 m.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, P. H.; Bucklin, A.; Madin, L.; Angel, M. V.; Sutton, T.; Pages, F.; Hopcroft, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Zooplankton from tropical/subtropical waters in the Atlantic Ocean were sampled from the surface to 5000 m, with a particular focus on the mesopelagic, bathypelagic, abyssopelagic zones. Sampling, on a cruise sponsored by the NOAA Ocean Exploration Program and the Census of Marine Life, was conducted at five stations from the northern Sargasso Sea to the equatorial waters northeast of Brazil. Environmental data and zooplankton samples were collected using three Multiple Opening/Closing Nets and Environmental Sensing Systems (MOCNESS): a 10-m opening/closing trawl with 335-um mesh nets sampled from 5000 to 1000 m and two smaller MOCNESS with similar or smaller mesh sampled the upper 1000 m. Ring net and water bottle casts, and blue-water SCUBA diving were also carried out. Samples were analyzed at sea using traditional morphological taxonomic approaches by a team of experts, followed by molecular systematic analysis, including determination of a DNA barcode (i.e., short DNA sequence for species recognition) for each species. Over 500 species were identified onboard ship; more than 1000 specimens were placed in a queue for barcoding; 87 species were barcoded at sea. For several taxonomic groups, a significant fraction of the region's species were collected and identified. Sixty-five species of planktonic ostracods were identified at sea out of the 140 known for the North Atlantic Ocean, with at least six undescribed species collected and the first DNA barcode for a planktonic ostracod obtained. At-sea analysis of samples also yielded identified specimens for more than 40 species of molluscs (pteropods, heteropods, etc.), more than 100 species of jellyfish, several hundred species of copepods, and more than 100 species of fish. In all, taxonomists estimated that at least 12 - 15 new species will be described from this effort. The special deployment of trawls to sample large volumes at great depths for small zooplankton yielded preliminary confirmation that species

  5. Marine pollution effects on the southern surf crab Ovalipes trimaculatus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Polybiidae) in Patagonia Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, Aníbal Hernán; Rojas Quiroga, María Laura; Liberoff, Ana Laura; Van der Molen, Silvina

    2015-02-28

    We compared the carapace shape and thickness as well as the energy density of Ovalipes trimaculatus inhabiting areas comprising a gradient of marine pollution: high, moderate and undetected, in the Nuevo gulf (Patagonia Argentina). The carapace shape was evaluated by means of individual asymmetry scores (=fluctuating asymmetry) whereas the carapace thickness was assessed by measuring the carapace dry weight. The energy density was analyzed through its negative relationship with water content in muscle tissue. The individual asymmetry scores as well as the percentage of water content in muscle tissue were proportional to the marine pollution gradient, whereas the carapaces thickness did not differ among sampling sites. Our results are consistent with previous findings and demonstrate the direct effect of marine pollution on other taxa different from gastropods, cephalopods and polyplacophora and add to long-standing concerns about detrimental effects caused by marine pollution on the benthic community of the Nuevo gulf.

  6. Marine pollution effects on the southern surf crab Ovalipes trimaculatus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Polybiidae) in Patagonia Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, Aníbal Hernán; Rojas Quiroga, María Laura; Liberoff, Ana Laura; Van der Molen, Silvina

    2015-02-28

    We compared the carapace shape and thickness as well as the energy density of Ovalipes trimaculatus inhabiting areas comprising a gradient of marine pollution: high, moderate and undetected, in the Nuevo gulf (Patagonia Argentina). The carapace shape was evaluated by means of individual asymmetry scores (=fluctuating asymmetry) whereas the carapace thickness was assessed by measuring the carapace dry weight. The energy density was analyzed through its negative relationship with water content in muscle tissue. The individual asymmetry scores as well as the percentage of water content in muscle tissue were proportional to the marine pollution gradient, whereas the carapaces thickness did not differ among sampling sites. Our results are consistent with previous findings and demonstrate the direct effect of marine pollution on other taxa different from gastropods, cephalopods and polyplacophora and add to long-standing concerns about detrimental effects caused by marine pollution on the benthic community of the Nuevo gulf. PMID:25293645

  7. Lead pollution in subtropical ecosystems on the SE Gulf of California Coast: a study of concentrations and isotopic composition.

    PubMed

    Soto-Jiménez, Martin F; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Scelfo, Genine; Hibdon, Sharon; Franks, Rob; Aggarawl, Jugdeep; Flegal, A Russell

    2008-10-01

    Lead pollution was investigated in environmental matrices and biological indicators collected from two typical subtropical coastal ecosystems in the southeast Gulf of California, Mexico. Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb) were measured using high resolution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), respectively. Lead in surface estuary sediments (10.0-34.2microgg(-1)) and particulate Pb (25.0-128.7microgg(-1), >98% of total Pb) in the water column were significantly higher than levels in natural bedrock soils (15.1+/-8.3microgg(-1)) and river runoff (1.9+/-1.4microgg(-1)). Aquatic plants had Pb concentrations between 2.5 and 7.2microgg(-1), while those in macroalgae ranged from 3 to 5microgg(-1). The ranges of mean Pb concentrations in the aquatic animals studied (ranges in microgg(-1)) were as follows: zooplankton 32+/-3, mussels 2.3-3.9, oysters 1.9-7.9, snail 2.0-7.7, barnacles 0.1-18.5, fish 1.4-8.9, crab 6.3-40.2 and polychaetae 8.5-16.7. Pb values in 20-40% of oyster and fish samples and in all samples of crab exceeded acceptable levels for a food source for human consumption. Pb isotope ratios (206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(207)Pb in biota ranged from 1.188 to 1.206 and 2.448 to 2.470, respectively. A plot of (206)Pb/(207)Pb versus (208)Pb/(207)Pb for the environmental and biological samples collected from two study areas indicates that they contain lead from ores mined in Mexico and used in the past to produce leaded gasoline in use until 1997, natural Pb weathered from the Sierra Madre Occidental mother rock, and the later influence of inputs from a more radiogenic source related to industrial activity in the United States. Statistical software IsoSource results revealed that the Pb contained in environmental matrices and biomonitors is mostly derived from gasoline (20-90%) and US emissions (10-40%).

  8. Marine biodegradation: Chemical pollutants. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological degradation of marine pollutants. The citations explore the microbial breakdown of petroleum, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and other hazardous materials. The chemical details of biotransformation, and the development of microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants are presented. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Changes in the marine pollution management system in response to the Amorgos oil spill in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiau, Wen-Yen

    2005-01-01

    The Marine Pollution Control Act (MPCA) of Taiwan was promulgated on November 1, 2000, with the specific aim of controlling marine pollution, safeguarding public health, and promoting the sustainable use of marine resources. In addition to land-based pollution, oil spills are one of the most significant threats to the local marine environment largely on account of the some 30,000 tankers which pass through Taiwan's coastal waters each year. In January 2001, two months after the enactment of this newly-introduced law, a Greek merchant vessel, the Amorgos ran aground in the vicinity of a national park on the southern tip of Taiwan, causing a serious oil spill and leading to considerable changes with regard to the marine pollution management system. The incident brought to the forefront many serious problems, such as a lack of experience, expertise as well as equipment required to respond to such disasters, as well as the ambiguous, unclear jurisdiction among related agencies. Thus, this paper reviews the incident of the Amorgos spill, identifies the major issues and lessons learned, and proposes several recommendations in an effort for Taiwan to further improve its marine pollution management system. PMID:16291204

  10. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans. PMID:23992682

  11. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans.

  12. Interactive effects of global climate change and pollution on marine microbes: the way ahead

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Santos, Ana L; Coimbra, Joana; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Cleary, Daniel F R; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change has the potential to seriously and adversely affect marine ecosystem functioning. Numerous experimental and modeling studies have demonstrated how predicted ocean acidification and increased ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can affect marine microbes. However, researchers have largely ignored interactions between ocean acidification, increased UVR and anthropogenic pollutants in marine environments. Such interactions can alter chemical speciation and the bioavailability of several organic and inorganic pollutants with potentially deleterious effects, such as modifying microbial-mediated detoxification processes. Microbes mediate major biogeochemical cycles, providing fundamental ecosystems services such as environmental detoxification and recovery. It is, therefore, important that we understand how predicted changes to oceanic pH, UVR, and temperature will affect microbial pollutant detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. The intrinsic characteristics of microbes, such as their short generation time, small size, and functional role in biogeochemical cycles combined with recent advances in molecular techniques (e.g., metagenomics and metatranscriptomics) make microbes excellent models to evaluate the consequences of various climate change scenarios on detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. In this review, we highlight the importance of microbial microcosm experiments, coupled with high-resolution molecular biology techniques, to provide a critical experimental framework to start understanding how climate change, anthropogenic pollution, and microbiological interactions may affect marine ecosystems in the future. PMID:23789087

  13. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence.

  14. Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Czyz, A.; Jasiecki, J.; Bogdan, A.; Szpilewska, H.; Wegrzyn, G.

    2000-02-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, the authors consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

  15. Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

    PubMed

    Czyz, A; Jasiecki, J; Bogdan, A; Szpilewska, H; Wegrzyn, G

    2000-02-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. We found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, we developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. We constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, we consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

  16. Terrestrial and oceanic influence on spatial hydrochemistry and trophic status in subtropical marine near-shore waters.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ojeda, Sara M; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Montero, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial and oceanic influences like groundwater discharges and/or oceanic upwelling define the hydrochemical and biological characteristics of near-shore regions. In karst environments, such as the Yucatan Peninsula (SE Mexico), the balance between these two influences on spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood. This study focused on near-shore waters within 200 m offshore along the Yucatan coast. The trophic status and hydrochemical zones of the study area were determined as a function of physical and nutrient data collected from 2005 to 2006. The main terrestrial influence was groundwater discharge, while the most important marine influence was related to seasonal changes in water turbulence. Spatial differences (p < 0.05) were observed among salinity, light extinction coefficient (k), NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), and Chl-a. Seasonal differences were observed for all variables except for k. During the dry season, terrestrial influences are the dominant factor on near-shore hydrochemistry. The region around Dzilam exhibited the maximum influence of groundwater discharge estimated by salinity dissolution (δ). During the rainy and "nortes" seasons, there is a balance between oceanic and terrestrial influences. The trophic status measured using the TRIX index, indicated that near-shore waters were mainly oligo-mesotrophic; with a meso-eutrophic status in areas with documented anthropogenic impacts. Four hydrological zones were identified by a Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) using salinity, NO(2)(-), k and NH(4)(+) as the main discriminating variables. Zones I and II showed almost pristine conditions, with well-balanced terrestrial-oceanic influences. In Zone III, terrestrial influences such as groundwater discharges and inland pollution suggesting human impacts were dominant respect to the effects of oceanic influences like upwelling and sediment resuspension caused by winds and oceanic currents. Zone IV received enhanced groundwater and associated nutrients

  17. Bioindicators of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Bioindicators of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Application of different enzyme assays and biomarkers for pollution monitoring of the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Seitkalieva, Alexandra V; Menzorova, Natalie I; Rasskazov, Valerу A

    2016-01-01

    New phosphatase and DNase inhibition tests for assessing the total pollution of a natural marine ecosystem were applied. The seawater samples with different pollution degrees were collected in the Troitsa Bay of the Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan). The sensitivity of the alkaline phosphatase test to integrated pollution was in accordance with the sensitivity of the standard sea urchin sperm cell toxicity test. The increased seawater pollution level was shown to result in an up to fourfold increase in specific activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. It was demonstrated that a complex methodological approach can be used to assess marine water areas, as well as to assess the biological conditions of invertebrates adapting to different environmental and anthropogenic effects. PMID:26721566

  20. Application of different enzyme assays and biomarkers for pollution monitoring of the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Seitkalieva, Alexandra V; Menzorova, Natalie I; Rasskazov, Valerу A

    2016-01-01

    New phosphatase and DNase inhibition tests for assessing the total pollution of a natural marine ecosystem were applied. The seawater samples with different pollution degrees were collected in the Troitsa Bay of the Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan). The sensitivity of the alkaline phosphatase test to integrated pollution was in accordance with the sensitivity of the standard sea urchin sperm cell toxicity test. The increased seawater pollution level was shown to result in an up to fourfold increase in specific activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. It was demonstrated that a complex methodological approach can be used to assess marine water areas, as well as to assess the biological conditions of invertebrates adapting to different environmental and anthropogenic effects.

  1. Oxidative metabolism of chemical pollutants in marine organisms: molecular and biochemical biomarkers in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Maura; Giuliani, Maria Elisa; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress biomarkers are widely used in marine ecotoxicology. Environmental pollutants enhance intracellular formation of oxyradicals through several mechanisms, but complex oxidative interactions occur in response to chemical mixtures. Metabolism of individual classes of pollutants can be influenced by a sophisticated network of prooxidant relationships, reciprocal and cascade effects, changes of redox-sensitive signaling proteins, and transcription factors. Chemically mediated pathways can affect antioxidant responses at different levels, including pretranscriptional, transcriptional, protein, and catalytic functions; such mechanisms remain largely unexplored in marine organisms. Molecular responses of antioxidants are frequently not paralleled by expected biochemical changes or cellular effects, and caution is needed when interpreting the effects of environmental pollutants. Results on antioxidant variations can be influenced by mRNA stability and protein turnover, different timing for transcriptional and translational mechanisms, metabolic capability of tissues, posttranscriptional modifications of proteins, biphasic responses of antioxidant enzymes, and adaptation mechanisms to chronic pollution. PMID:25712694

  2. The use of the Novosol process for the treatment of polluted marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Zoubeir, Lafhaj; Adeline, Saliceto; Laurent, Cohen Solal; Yoann, Coudray; Truc, Huynh Trung; Benoît, Le Guen; Federico, Anguoni

    2007-09-30

    The work presented in this article concerns polluted marine sediments. The article is divided into three parts. The first part discusses existing industrial procedures of treatment. The second part introduces the Novosol((R)) process, which was used for the treatment of polluted marine sediments. This process is based on the stabilization of heavy metals in the solid matrix by phosphatation and the destruction of organic matter by calcination. Finally, after a comparison had been made between environmental results obtained on both polluted marine sediments and inert ones, treated sediments were introduced in the production of clay bricks. The results obtained show that the Novosol process leads to the immobilization of most heavy metals and can be considered as an efficient tool for the stabilisation of polluted marine sediment. Thus, the results of physical and mechanical tests as compressive strength and water absorption indicate that performances obtained were comparable to standard brick values. These results confirm that, once treated, polluted sediments can be recycled.

  3. The use of the Novosol process for the treatment of polluted marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Zoubeir, Lafhaj; Adeline, Saliceto; Laurent, Cohen Solal; Yoann, Coudray; Truc, Huynh Trung; Benoît, Le Guen; Federico, Anguoni

    2007-09-30

    The work presented in this article concerns polluted marine sediments. The article is divided into three parts. The first part discusses existing industrial procedures of treatment. The second part introduces the Novosol((R)) process, which was used for the treatment of polluted marine sediments. This process is based on the stabilization of heavy metals in the solid matrix by phosphatation and the destruction of organic matter by calcination. Finally, after a comparison had been made between environmental results obtained on both polluted marine sediments and inert ones, treated sediments were introduced in the production of clay bricks. The results obtained show that the Novosol process leads to the immobilization of most heavy metals and can be considered as an efficient tool for the stabilisation of polluted marine sediment. Thus, the results of physical and mechanical tests as compressive strength and water absorption indicate that performances obtained were comparable to standard brick values. These results confirm that, once treated, polluted sediments can be recycled. PMID:17459577

  4. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 154 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 117 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 163 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Spatial distribution and source identification of persistent pollutants in marine sediments of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Jiang, Honglei; Zhang, Yaozong

    2013-06-01

    A data matrix, obtained during a 3-year monitoring period (2007-2009) from 45 sampling sites in Hong Kong marine, was subjected to determine the spatial characterization and identify the sources of main pollutants. Indicator analyses indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nickel, manganese, and arsenic (As) were at safe levels. Five heavy metals (zinc, lead, cupper, cadmium, chromium (Cr)) were moderate to severe enrichment at some sites. Inner Deep Bay and Victoria Harbor were considered as hot spots for PAHs and the heavy metals, while Tolo Harbor was highly polluted by the heavy metals. Cluster analysis classified the 45 sampling sites into three groups, representing different pollution levels. Principal component analysis/factor analysis identified four principal components (PCs) and explained 84.9 % of the total variances, standing for persistent pollution, N factor, P and Cr factor, and As factor, respectively. Group A was highly polluted by persistent pollution, group B was the less polluted group, and subgroup B1 was less affected by PC3 and PC4 than subgroup B2. Group C, considered as the moderately polluted group, was greatly affected by N factor or persistent pollution, while subgroup C2 received more N pollution than subgroup C1. PMID:23001553

  10. Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean.

    PubMed

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Geyer, Roland; Wilcox, Chris; Siegler, Theodore R; Perryman, Miriam; Andrady, Anthony; Narayan, Ramani; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-02-13

    Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025.

  11. Greek Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environmental Behavior toward Marine Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boubonari, Theodora; Markos, Angelos; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…

  12. Spatial variability of three benthic indices for marine quality assessment in a subtropical estuary of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brauko, Kalina Manabe; de Souza, Fernanda Maria; Muniz, Pablo; de Camargo, Maurício Garcia; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2015-02-28

    Indices based on macrobenthic responses to disturbance remain to be adequately tested for the detection of spatial variability by robust sampling designs. We present herein a congruence test to real-world data of the widely used indices AMBI, M-AMBI and BENTIX in tidal flats of a subtropical estuary. We used a hierarchical sampling design to evaluate the spatial variability of the indices in response to distinct levels of sewage contamination. Indices were then tested for correlations with chemical proxies of contamination and for the similarity of responses. BENTIX and M-AMBI produced over- and underestimations of ecological status. We found a low degree of similarity among indices as an expression of the spatial variation of macrofaunal assemblages on their performances. Only AMBI varied at the contamination scale (10(3)m) and was congruent with physical-chemical proxies. Ambiguous responses indicated effects of natural inputs of organic matter rather than environmental quality associated to sewage. PMID:25455787

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of polyhalogenated pollutants from aquaculture and marine environmental samples: a review.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Diego; Carro-Díaz, Antonia María; Lorenzo-Ferreira, Rosa Antonia

    2008-05-01

    This article focuses on the state-of-the-art in sample preparation using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), to monitor the content of polyhalogenated pollutants in aquaculture and marine environmental samples. Marine sediments and biological applications, including several types of samples matrices (fish, shellfish, seaweed and fish feed) and analyte groups (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD)/Fs and organochlorinated pesticide (OCPs)) are discussed with respect to SFE use and optimisation of conditions. We also discuss the great analytical potential of SFE, the integration of the extraction and clean-up steps for rapid sample processing justifying its use for routine work. The most recent SFE applications to the determination of these pollutants in marine environmental (biota and sediment) samples, published in the last 15 years, are reviewed. PMID:18398865

  14. Cytology of pollutant metals in marine invertebrates: A review of microanalytical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nott, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    x-ray microanalysis (XRMA) is customized for investigations of the metabolic and detoxification strategies of heavy metals taken by marine organisms from polluted environments. Sites of uptake, intracellular accumulation, transport and excretion are visualized, analysed and quantified. Cryopreparation techniques are required to prevent the translocation or loss from specimens of soluble metal species. In marine invertebrates, metals are detoxified by systems of chemical binding and intracellular compartmentalization. XRMA investigations have concentrated on marine molluscs and crustaceans and even within these restricted groups there are marked inter-species differences in the biochemical and cytological processes which reduce metal bioavailability. Some detoxification systems also protect the carnivores which ingest the metal-laden tissues of the prey. This results in the bioreduction of metals along a food chain. These processes are investigated by XRMA which can be tuned to observe the complex interactions which operate at all levels within and between the biota and polluted environments. 90 refs.

  15. DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Checko, M.; Krca, S.; Garg, A.; Gupta, R.C. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX )

    1988-09-01

    {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of mussel living at a site heavily polluted with a waste waters of an oil refinery. Fresh water fish species Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama and Rutilus pigus virgo living in a polluted Sava River, Yugoslavia, or in its unpolluted tributary Korana River, have induced in their livers qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar DNA adducts. These DNA adducts had a species-specific patterns and their appearance was seasonally-dependent.

  16. The role of social marketing, marine turtles and sustainable tourism in reducing plastic pollution.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Lynne; Hamann, Mark; Low, David R

    2016-06-15

    Environmental plastic pollution constitutes a significant hazard to marine turtles, human health and well-being. We describe a transdisciplinary approach to draw together findings from diverse disciplines in order to highlight key environmental pollution problems and their consequences, together with social marketing-based strategies to address the problems. The example of plastic pollution and impacts to marine turtles illustrates the severity of the problem. Wildlife tourism and sustainable tourism activity have not focussed on specific behaviours to change and have had minimal impact on subsequent human behaviour regarding environmental issues, indicating the need for new strategies. Social marketing principles offer promise, but there is a need to investigate the utility of various theoretical foundations to aid the design and implementation of interventions. We offer insight towards using sophisticated multi-method research to develop insights into behaviours and segmentation-based strategies, that can aid the identification of barriers to, and enablers of, sustained behaviour change. PMID:27048689

  17. The role of social marketing, marine turtles and sustainable tourism in reducing plastic pollution.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Lynne; Hamann, Mark; Low, David R

    2016-06-15

    Environmental plastic pollution constitutes a significant hazard to marine turtles, human health and well-being. We describe a transdisciplinary approach to draw together findings from diverse disciplines in order to highlight key environmental pollution problems and their consequences, together with social marketing-based strategies to address the problems. The example of plastic pollution and impacts to marine turtles illustrates the severity of the problem. Wildlife tourism and sustainable tourism activity have not focussed on specific behaviours to change and have had minimal impact on subsequent human behaviour regarding environmental issues, indicating the need for new strategies. Social marketing principles offer promise, but there is a need to investigate the utility of various theoretical foundations to aid the design and implementation of interventions. We offer insight towards using sophisticated multi-method research to develop insights into behaviours and segmentation-based strategies, that can aid the identification of barriers to, and enablers of, sustained behaviour change.

  18. Entrainment of free troposphere Asian dust/pollution into the marine boundary layer North of Hawai`i during INTEX-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNaughton, C.; Clarke, A.; Kapustin, V.; Dibb, J.; Anderson, B.; Browell, E.; Carmichael, G.

    2006-12-01

    During NASA's INTEX-B experiment (April, 2006), regional and global chemical transport models (CTM's) successfully predicted two Asian dust/pollution outbreaks. The dusty airmasses were transported from Asia to the Pacific Ocean north of Hawai`i via the free troposphere (FT) and reached locations as far south the Mauna Loa atmospheric observatory. Five research flights using the NASA DC-8 were flown in order to characterize the long-range transport of trace gases and aerosols from Asia and in order to calibrate/validate both CTM predictions and satellite retrievals. In-flight mapping of the dust/pollution layers using the NASA Langley DIAL LIDAR show a sloping, subsiding Asian airmass entraining into the marine boundary layer (MBL). Using in-situ measurements of the aerosol size distribution, chemistry, optical properties and the increase in light scattering as a function of relative humidity [f(RH)], we are able to characterize and discriminate between MBL air, FT Asian dust/pollution and an external mixture of the two airmasses during entrainment. After entrainment aerosols are removed via wet deposition ahead of the trailing low pressure front. The entire episode is put further into context using models, satellite observations and data from the Mauna Loa Observatory. We include a discussion of dust-flux to the ocean surface due to wet-deposition, a potentially important source of iron to the oligotrophic waters of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

  19. Gaseous elemental mercury in the marine boundary layer: evidence for rapid removal in anthropogenic pollution.

    PubMed

    Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Jaffe, Daniel A; McClintick, Anna; Prestbo, Eric M; Landis, Matthew S

    2003-09-01

    In this study, gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) and related species (including inorganic reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (PHg)) were measured at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), Washington State, in the marine boundary layer during 2001-2002. Air of continental origin containing anthropogenic pollutants from the urban areas to the east contained on average 5.3% lower Hg0 levels as compared to the marine background. This result is difficult to reconcile since it is known that industrial emissions in our region are sources of Hg0. The rate of removal of Hg0 from a pollution plume necessary to account for our observations is inconsistent with the accepted view of Hg0 as a stable atmospheric pollutant. The largest and most frequent Hg0 loss events occurred in the presence of increased ozone (O3) during the summer. Hg0 and O3 also display diurnal cycles that are out-of-phase with one another. In other seasons Hg0 behavior is less consistent, as we observe weak positive correlations with O3 and occasional Hg0 enhancements in local pollution. RGM and PHg concentrations are enhanced only slightly during Hg0 loss events, comprising a small fraction of the mercury pool (approximately 3%). Long-range transported pollution of Asian origin was also detected at CPO, and this contains both higher and lower levels of Hg0 as compared to the background with maximum changes being <20%. Here, the more photochemically processed the air mass, as determined by propane/ethane ratios, the more likely we are to observe Hg0 loss. Air from the marine background in summer displays a significant diurnal cycle with a phase that matches the diurnal cycles seen in polluted air masses. A Junge lifetime for Hg0 in the clean marine boundary layer is calculated to be 7.1 months, which is on the low end of previous estimates (0.5-2 yr).

  20. Tracking long-distance migration to assess marine pollution impact

    PubMed Central

    Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Animal tracking provides new means to assess far-reaching environmental impacts. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to assess) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the case in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns. PMID:22012949

  1. Sequential determination of biological and pollutant elements in marine bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Zeisler, R.; Stone, S.F.; Sanders, R.W.

    1988-12-15

    A unique sequence of instrumental methods has been employed to obtain concentrations for 44 elements in marine bivalve tissue. The techniques used were (1) X-ray fluorescence, (2) prompt gamma activation analysis, and (3) neutron activation analysis. It is possible to use a single subsample and follow it nondestructively through the three instrumental analysis techniques. A final radiochemical procedure for tin was also applied after completing the instrumental analyses. Comparison of results for elements determined by more than one technique in sequence showed good agreement, as did results from certified reference material samples analyzed along with the samples. The concentrations found in the bivalve samples ranged from carbon at more than 50% dry weight down to gold at several microgram per kilogram.

  2. Global research priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vegter, Amanda C.; Barletta, Mário; Beck, Cathy A.; Borrero, Jose C.; Burton, Harry; Campbell, Marnie L.; Costa, Monica F.; Eriksen, Marcus; Eriksson, Cecilia; Estrades, Andres; Gilardi, Kirsten V.; Hardesty, Britta D.; do Sul, Juliana A. Ivar; Lavers, Jennifer L.; Lazar, Bojan; Lebreton, Laurent; Nichols, Wallace J.; Ribic, Christine A.; Ryan, Peter G.; Schuyler, Qamar A.; Smith, Stephen D. A.; Takada, Hideshige; Townsend, Kathy A.; Wabnitz, Colette C. C.; Wilcox, Chris; Young, Lindsay C.; Hamann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Marine wildlife faces a growing number of threats across the globe, and the survival of many species and populations will be dependent on conservation action. One threat in particular that has emerged over the last 4 decades is the pollution of oceanic and coastal habitats with plastic debris. The increased occurrence of plastics in marine ecosystems mirrors the increased prevalence of plastics in society, and reflects the high durability and persistence of plastics in the environment. In an effort to guide future research and assist mitigation approaches to marine conservation, we have generated a list of 16 priority research questions based on the expert opinions of 26 researchers from around the world, whose research expertise spans several disciplines, and covers each of the world’s oceans and the taxa most at risk from plastic pollution. This paper highlights a growing concern related to threats posed to marine wildlife from microplastics and fragmented debris, the need for data at scales relevant to management, and the urgent need to develop interdisciplinary research and management partnerships to limit the release of plastics into the environment and curb the future impacts of plastic pollution.

  3. Levels of Viable Enterococci Fecal Indicator Bacteria at a Marine Subtropical Beach: Assessing Temporal and Spatial Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach water quality monitoring is an important tool to inform the public of health risks from recreational beach use, as well as to assess the impacts of land-based sources of pollution on coastal ecosystems. Many beach monitoring programs in the US currently utilize a strategy o...

  4. Fine-scale detection of pollutants by a benthic marine jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Hannah E; Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2016-06-15

    Local sources of pollution can vary immensely on small geographic scales and short time frames due to differences in runoff and adjacent land use. This study examined the rate of uptake and retention of trace metals in Cassiopea maremetens, a benthic marine jellyfish, over a short time frame and in the presence of multiple pollutants. This study also validated the ability of C. maremetens to uptake metals in the field. Experimental manipulation demonstrated that metal accumulation in jellyfish tissue began within 24h of exposure to treated water and trended for higher accumulation in the presence of multiple pollutants. C. maremetens was found to uptake trace metals in the field and provide unique signatures among locations. This fine-scale detection and rapid accumulation of metals in jellyfish tissue can have major implications for both biomonitoring and the trophic transfer of pollutants through local ecosystems. PMID:27068562

  5. Histopathological and apoptotic changes on marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark, 1819) following exposure to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yavaşoğlu, Altuğ; Özkan, Dilara; Güner, Adem; Katalay, Selma; Oltulu, Fatih; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2016-08-15

    Marine bivalve mussels, especially Mytilus species are an earlywarning system used for determining of damage caused by the various aquatic pollutions. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis L. (black mussel) have been utilised as a biomonitoring organism to reveal environmental pollution in the Aliaga, Foca and Urla where located along the Izmir Coast of Turkey. Mussels were collected at these areas and gill and hepatopancreas (digestive gland) tissues were excised. mRNA expressions of initiator (caspase-2 and -8) and executioner (caspase -3/7-1, -3/7-2, -3/7-3 and -3/7-4) caspases of mussels tissues in areas exposed to pollution agent have been observed. TUNEL immunoreactivity in paralel to histopathological changes in both Aliaga and Foca areas were compared with Urla. This study is the first report to reveal the pollution with apoptotic expression on mussels in the coast of Turkey.

  6. Pollutants bioavailability and toxicological risk from microplastics to marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Milan, Massimo; Benedetti, Maura; Fattorini, Daniele; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Microplastics represent a growing environmental concern for the oceans due to their potential of adsorbing chemical pollutants, thus representing a still unexplored source of exposure for aquatic organisms. In this study polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) microplastics were shown to adsorb pyrene with a time and dose-dependent relationship. Results also indicated a marked capability of contaminated microplastics to transfer this model PAH to exposed mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis; tissue localization of microplastics occurred in haemolymph, gills and especially digestive tissues where a marked accumulation of pyrene was also observed. Cellular effects included alterations of immunological responses, lysosomal compartment, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant system, neurotoxic effects, onset of genotoxicity; changes in gene expression profile was also demonstrated through a new DNA microarray platform. The study provided the evidence that microplastics adsorb PAHs, emphasizing an elevated bioavailability of these chemicals after the ingestion, and the toxicological implications due to responsiveness of several molecular and cellular pathways to microplastics.

  7. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station incident and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Zhao, Yue

    2012-05-01

    Based on the facts relating to the radioactive wastewater discharged by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station in Japan, this paper intends to explore the international legal obligations for Japan from three perspectives, namely, the immediate notification, the prevention of transboundary harm and the prevention of dumping. Furthermore, this article defines and compares two types of international legal liabilities, the traditional state responsibility and the responsibility for transboundary harm. Through comparison, the international legal liability of Japan is discussed. After detailed analysis, the conclusion is that Japan should be responsible for the obligation of immediate notification and since Japan unilaterally discharge the wastes without prior specific permits of other contracting countries, it should also be responsible for the violation of prevention of dumping. Since so far, no material injury has emerged and there would appear to be no culpability as regards the prevention of transboundary harm. Finally, this paper stresses the necessity to develop a worldwide agreement concerning the liability for transboundary harm and to establish an institutional framework for the enforcement of a state's obligations, and also the great significance of international cooperation between nations and organisations in relation to marine environmental protection.

  8. Leakage current monitoring of insulators exposed to marine and industrial pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kanashiro, A.G.; Burani, G.F.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a research project considering 13.8 kV distribution lines and 88 kV transmission lines, exposed to marine and industrial pollution, respectively. Leakage current measurements were performed in the field. Tests were performed at the laboratory and registration instruments were developed to enable measurements of the leakage current values in the field and at the laboratory. Various correlations were performed with the measurements of: leakage current, climatic conditions and the amount of the pollutants on the insulators surface. Suitable insulators were selected for distribution lines and permissible levels of the leakage current were analyzed for transmission lines.

  9. Differential response of marine organisms to certain metal and agrichemical pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.H.; Xu, C.H.

    1984-10-01

    Oocyte maturation of the starfish, fertilization and embryogenesis of sea urchins, and the development of amphioxus and brine shrimps were used to assay the effects of several common metals and agrichemicals frequently found in marine environments. While brine shrimp embryos were tolerant to metals and agrichemicals used here, sea urchins and amphioxus showed a differential response to the common metal pollutants. Starfish oocyte maturation process was affected by agrichemicals. The results show that no one single organism, or its embryonic form, or a particular stage of development, can be used as the indicator for a particular pollutant. However, the use of lower forms of marine organisms can be useful collectively for environmental investigations and the management of waste disposal.

  10. Plastic pollution in the marine environment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adverse effects of synthetic polymers on oceans and beaches. The citations examine the impact of discarded plastics upon fish, seabirds, and other aquatic animals. The sources of plastic litter and the efforts of coastal communities to manage plastics pollution are referenced. International agreements designed to protect the marine environment by banning ocean dumping of plastics are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 145 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km(-2), and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km(-2). These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton. PMID:24312224

  12. Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments (“microplastics”, median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km−2, and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km−2. These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton. PMID:24312224

  13. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km(-2), and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km(-2). These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton.

  14. The present and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F

    2014-02-01

    Recently, research examining the occurrence of microplastics in the marine environment has substantially increased. Field and laboratory work regularly provide new evidence on the fate of microplastic debris. This debris has been observed within every marine habitat. In this study, at least 101 peer-reviewed papers investigating microplastic pollution were critically analysed (Supplementary material). Microplastics are commonly studied in relation to (1) plankton samples, (2) sandy and muddy sediments, (3) vertebrate and invertebrate ingestion, and (4) chemical pollutant interactions. All of the marine organism groups are at an eminent risk of interacting with microplastics according to the available literature. Dozens of works on other relevant issues (i.e., polymer decay at sea, new sampling and laboratory methods, emerging sources, externalities) were also analysed and discussed. This paper provides the first in-depth exploration of the effects of microplastics on the marine environment and biota. The number of scientific publications will increase in response to present and projected plastic uses and discard patterns. Therefore, new themes and important approaches for future work are proposed.

  15. A hydrological budget (2002-2008) for a large subtropical wetland ecosystem indicates marine groundwater discharge accompanies diminished freshwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saha, Amartya K.; Moses, Christopher S.; Price, Rene M.; Engel, Victor; Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Water budget parameters are estimated for Shark River Slough (SRS), the main drainage within Everglades National Park (ENP) from 2002 to 2008. Inputs to the water budget include surface water inflows and precipitation while outputs consist of evapotranspiration, discharge to the Gulf of Mexico and seepage losses due to municipal wellfield extraction. The daily change in volume of SRS is equated to the difference between input and outputs yielding a residual term consisting of component errors and net groundwater exchange. Results predict significant net groundwater discharge to the SRS peaking in June and positively correlated with surface water salinity at the mangrove ecotone, lagging by 1 month. Precipitation, the largest input to the SRS, is offset by ET (the largest output); thereby highlighting the importance of increasing fresh water inflows into ENP for maintaining conditions in terrestrial, estuarine, and marine ecosystems of South Florida.

  16. Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    Although persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (PBTs) are well-studied individually, their distribution and variability on a global scale are largely unknown, particularly in marine fish. Using 2,662 measurements collected from peer-reviewed literature spanning 1969–2012, we examined variability of five classes of PBTs, considering effects of geography, habitat, and trophic level on observed concentrations. While we see large-scale spatial patterning in some PBTs (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls), habitat type and trophic level did not contribute to significant patterning, with the exception of mercury. We further examined patterns of change in PBT concentration as a function of sampling year. All PBTs showed significant declines in concentration levels through time, ranging from 15–30% reduction per decade across PBT groups. Despite consistent evidence of reductions, variation in pollutant concentration remains high, indicating ongoing consumer risk of exposure to fish with pollutant levels exceeding EPA screening values. The temporal trends indicate that mitigation programs are effective, but that global levels decline slowly. In order for monitoring efforts to provide more targeted assessments of risk to PBT exposure, these data highlight an urgent need for improved replication and standardization of pollutant monitoring protocols for marine finfish. PMID:26839747

  17. Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Lindsay T; Hamdoun, Amro; Sandin, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Although persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (PBTs) are well-studied individually, their distribution and variability on a global scale are largely unknown, particularly in marine fish. Using 2,662 measurements collected from peer-reviewed literature spanning 1969-2012, we examined variability of five classes of PBTs, considering effects of geography, habitat, and trophic level on observed concentrations. While we see large-scale spatial patterning in some PBTs (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls), habitat type and trophic level did not contribute to significant patterning, with the exception of mercury. We further examined patterns of change in PBT concentration as a function of sampling year. All PBTs showed significant declines in concentration levels through time, ranging from 15-30% reduction per decade across PBT groups. Despite consistent evidence of reductions, variation in pollutant concentration remains high, indicating ongoing consumer risk of exposure to fish with pollutant levels exceeding EPA screening values. The temporal trends indicate that mitigation programs are effective, but that global levels decline slowly. In order for monitoring efforts to provide more targeted assessments of risk to PBT exposure, these data highlight an urgent need for improved replication and standardization of pollutant monitoring protocols for marine finfish. PMID:26839747

  18. Bioremediation of oil polluted marine sediments: A bio-engineering treatment.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Simone; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Genovese, Maria; Denaro, Renata; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Mancini, Giuseppe; Yakimov, Michail M

    2015-06-01

    The fate of hydrocarbon pollutants and the development of oil-degrading indigenous marine bacteria in contaminated sediments are strongly influenced by abiotic factors such as temperature, low oxygen levels, and nutrient availability. In this work, the effects of different biodegradation processes (bioremediation) on oil-polluted anoxic sediments were analyzed. In particular, as a potential bioremediation strategy for polluted sediments, we applied a prototype of the "Modular Slurry System" (MSS), allowing containment of the sediments and their physical-chemical treatment (by air insufflations, temperature regulation, and the use of a slow-release fertilizer). Untreated polluted sediments served as the blank in a non-controlled experiment. During the experimental period (30 days), bacterial density and biochemical oxygen demand were measured and functional genes were identified by screening. Quantitative measurements of pollutants and an eco-toxicological analysis (mortality of Corophium orientale) were carried out at the beginning and end of the experiments. The results demonstrated the high biodegradative capability achieved with the proposed technology and its strong reduction of pollutant concentrations and thus toxicity. PMID:26496620

  19. Marine molluscs in environmental monitoring. II. Experimental exposure to selected pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Mokady, Ofer; Fishelson, Lev; Feldstein, Tamar; Abelson, Avigdor

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to establish biomonitoring programmes for routine and emergency monitoring of littoral marine habitats, organismal responses are examined in two ways: firstly, in controlled, laboratory studies, where the response may be accurately characterized; secondly, in field-collected specimens, with the hope of obtaining evidence regarding disturbances such as the ones caused by anthropogenic pollution. In many cases, there is a gap between the two types of studies, and different species and experimental and/or analytical procedures are used. In a series of recent studies, we have examined responses of field-collected molluscs, and interpreted our findings with respect to pollution. Here, we report a complementary study, in which molluscs collected from reference and polluted sites were exposed to cadmium or DDT under controlled laboratory conditions. Using fluorescent probes and microfluorometry, we examined the effect of these pollutants on paracellular permeability, lysosomal stability and metabolic status of mitochondria. Our findings indicate that molluscs from polluted sites are less affected, showing significantly smaller alterations in all examined parameters. These findings are in line with previous results showing higher levels of activity of cellular defence mechanisms in molluscs collected from polluted sites. Taken together, the results may be used to establish a reliable biomonitoring system. The sensitivity of the suggested methodology is also expected to qualify such a system for early warning.

  20. Bioremediation of oil polluted marine sediments: A bio-engineering treatment.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Simone; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Genovese, Maria; Denaro, Renata; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Mancini, Giuseppe; Yakimov, Michail M

    2015-06-01

    The fate of hydrocarbon pollutants and the development of oil-degrading indigenous marine bacteria in contaminated sediments are strongly influenced by abiotic factors such as temperature, low oxygen levels, and nutrient availability. In this work, the effects of different biodegradation processes (bioremediation) on oil-polluted anoxic sediments were analyzed. In particular, as a potential bioremediation strategy for polluted sediments, we applied a prototype of the "Modular Slurry System" (MSS), allowing containment of the sediments and their physical-chemical treatment (by air insufflations, temperature regulation, and the use of a slow-release fertilizer). Untreated polluted sediments served as the blank in a non-controlled experiment. During the experimental period (30 days), bacterial density and biochemical oxygen demand were measured and functional genes were identified by screening. Quantitative measurements of pollutants and an eco-toxicological analysis (mortality of Corophium orientale) were carried out at the beginning and end of the experiments. The results demonstrated the high biodegradative capability achieved with the proposed technology and its strong reduction of pollutant concentrations and thus toxicity.

  1. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions.

  2. Enabling and enacting 'practical action' in catchments: responding to the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source pollution in coastal subtropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Enabling and enacting 'practical action' (i.e., purposeful and concerted collective action) in catchments is a key challenge in responding to a wide range of pressing catchment and natural resource management (NRM) issues. It is particularly a challenge in responding to 'wicked problems,' where generating action is not straightforward and cannot be brought about solely by any single actor, policy or intervention. This paper responds to the critical need to better understand how practical action can be generated in catchments, by conducting an in-depth empirical case study of efforts to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. SEQ has seen substantial concerted efforts to manage waterway and catchment issues over two decades, yet NPS pollution remains a major problem for waterway health. A novel framework was applied to empirically analyze practical action in three local catchment cases embedded within the broader SEQ region. The analysis focuses on 'enabling capacities' underpinning practical action in catchments. Findings reveal that capacities manifested in different ways in different cases, yet many commonalities also occurred across cases. Interplay between capacities was critical to the emergence of adaptive and contextual forms of practical action in all cases. These findings imply that in order to enable and enact practical action in catchments, it is vital to recognize and support a diversity of enabling capacities across both local and regional levels of decision making and action. This is likely to have relevance for other 'wicked' catchment and NRM problems requiring local responses within broader multiscalar regional problem situations. PMID:25423950

  3. Enabling and enacting 'practical action' in catchments: responding to the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source pollution in coastal subtropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Enabling and enacting 'practical action' (i.e., purposeful and concerted collective action) in catchments is a key challenge in responding to a wide range of pressing catchment and natural resource management (NRM) issues. It is particularly a challenge in responding to 'wicked problems,' where generating action is not straightforward and cannot be brought about solely by any single actor, policy or intervention. This paper responds to the critical need to better understand how practical action can be generated in catchments, by conducting an in-depth empirical case study of efforts to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. SEQ has seen substantial concerted efforts to manage waterway and catchment issues over two decades, yet NPS pollution remains a major problem for waterway health. A novel framework was applied to empirically analyze practical action in three local catchment cases embedded within the broader SEQ region. The analysis focuses on 'enabling capacities' underpinning practical action in catchments. Findings reveal that capacities manifested in different ways in different cases, yet many commonalities also occurred across cases. Interplay between capacities was critical to the emergence of adaptive and contextual forms of practical action in all cases. These findings imply that in order to enable and enact practical action in catchments, it is vital to recognize and support a diversity of enabling capacities across both local and regional levels of decision making and action. This is likely to have relevance for other 'wicked' catchment and NRM problems requiring local responses within broader multiscalar regional problem situations.

  4. Enabling and Enacting `Practical Action' in Catchments: Responding to the `Wicked Problem' of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Coastal Subtropical Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, James J.; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Enabling and enacting `practical action' (i.e., purposeful and concerted collective action) in catchments is a key challenge in responding to a wide range of pressing catchment and natural resource management (NRM) issues. It is particularly a challenge in responding to `wicked problems,' where generating action is not straightforward and cannot be brought about solely by any single actor, policy or intervention. This paper responds to the critical need to better understand how practical action can be generated in catchments, by conducting an in-depth empirical case study of efforts to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. SEQ has seen substantial concerted efforts to manage waterway and catchment issues over two decades, yet NPS pollution remains a major problem for waterway health. A novel framework was applied to empirically analyze practical action in three local catchment cases embedded within the broader SEQ region. The analysis focuses on `enabling capacities' underpinning practical action in catchments. Findings reveal that capacities manifested in different ways in different cases, yet many commonalities also occurred across cases. Interplay between capacities was critical to the emergence of adaptive and contextual forms of practical action in all cases. These findings imply that in order to enable and enact practical action in catchments, it is vital to recognize and support a diversity of enabling capacities across both local and regional levels of decision making and action. This is likely to have relevance for other `wicked' catchment and NRM problems requiring local responses within broader multiscalar regional problem situations.

  5. Organic pollution and its effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Eastern Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Emmanouil, Christina; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadi-Psyllou, Asimina; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Okay, Oya; Machera, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    Persistent chemicals and emerging pollutants are continuously detected in marine waters and biota. Out of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are significant contaminants with decades of presence in the marine environment. The Mediterranean Sea is an ecosystem directly affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities including industry, municipal, touristic, commercial and agricultural. The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a filter feeder, which presents wide distribution. In this regard, the specific organism was used as a biological indicator for the monitoring and evaluation of pollution in the studied areas with focus on the mentioned chemical groups. Pristine Turkish sites with minimum effect from anthropogenic activities, in contrast with Greek sites which were subjected to heavy industrial and shipping activity, were selected. A gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method (GC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to monitor 34 compounds (16 EPA priority PAHs and 18 OCs). Analyses of mussel samples in 2011 from sites with the limited anthropogenic pollution shores have shown the occurrence of 11 pollutants (6 PAHs, 5 OCs), while in the samples from sites with intensive activity and expected pollution, 12 PAHs and 6 OCs were detected. Biochemical and biological responses studied only in mussels samples from the sites with the highest contamination showed a situation that was under strong seasonal influence. The intensity of the response was also influenced by deployment duration. Noteworthy correlations were detected among biochemical/biological effects and between mussel body burden and these effects. Continuous monitoring of priority pollutants of East Mediterranean Sea is vital both for ecological and human risk assessment purposes.

  6. Evaluating the potential of foraminiferal Beryllium-10 as a marine sediment chronometer in sub-tropical Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, M. H.; Fifield, L. K.; Abrajevitch, A.; Heslop, D.; De Deckker, P.; Roberts, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of meteoric 10Be (half-life of ~1.5 My) incorporated in the calcium carbonate tests of foraminifera have the potential to provide useful chronological control for marine sediment records. However, complications arise associated with varying terrigenous inputs and poorly-constrained production rates. Here we present 10Be/9Be results from a ~42 m-long sediment core collected off the NW coast of Australia (MD00-2361: 113°28.63‧E, 22°04.92‧S, 1805 m water depth). Measurements of δ18O on Globigerinoides ruber, supported by magnetostratigraphy, indicate that the record extends back >1.5 Ma. This independent chronology, in conjunction with the excellent carbonate preservation at this site, allows for a preliminary evaluation of foraminiferal 10Be as a chronometer. We also evaluate cosmogenic isotope production rate changes associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals, as well as the influence of varying terrigenous input as reconstructed from high-resolution XRF scanning profiles.

  7. Size fraction analysis of fish-derived carbonates in shallow sub-tropical marine environments and a potentially unrecognised origin for peloidal carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Michael A.; Perry, Chris T.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2014-12-01

    Marine bony fish are now known as primary producers of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, within the shallow sub-tropical platform settings of the Bahamas, this production process has been shown to occur at rates relevant to carbonate sediment production budgets. Fish excrete these carbonates as loosely aggregated pellets which, post-excretion, exhibit a range of distinctive crystal morphologies and have mineralogies ranging from low (0-4 mol% MgCO3) to high (4-40 mol% MgCO3) Mg-calcites, aragonite and amorphous carbonate phases. Here we provide the first quantitative assessment of the size fractions of the carbonates produced by a range of tropical fish species, and document the extent of post-excretion carbonate pellet break down under a range of physical agitation conditions. Specifically, we document the morphologies and size fractions of: i) intact pellets at the point of excretion; ii) intact pellets after agitation in seawater; and iii) the particles released from pellets post-disaggregation. Results indicate that fish-derived pellets initially fall within the very fine to very coarse sand fractions. Exposure to conditions of moderate seawater agitation for 30 days results in significant pellet diminution; 66% of initial pellet mass being released as individual particles, whilst 34% is retained as partially intact pellets that are smaller (fine sand-grade) and more rounded than initial pellets. In contrast, pellets exposed to very gently agitated conditions for up to 200 days show little change. Where pellet disaggregation does occur, particles are commonly released as individual clay- and silt-grade crystals. However, some morphotypes (e.g., polycrystalline spheres) can be intergrown and are released as strongly cohesive particle clusters falling within the coarse silt to fine sand fractions. Only very vigorous agitation may disaggregate such particles, resulting in the release of their component clay-grade crystals. We conclude that fish-derived carbonates

  8. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    PubMed

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf.

  9. Ligia italica (Isopoda, Oniscidea) as Bioindicator of Mercury Pollution of Marine Rocky Coasts

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Guglielmo; Trovato, Michelanna; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita; Conti, Gea Oliveri

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the possible role of Ligia italica as a bioindicator for the monitoring of heavy metals pollution in the suppralittoral zone of marine rocky coasts. Between 2004 and 2011 specimens of L. italica were collected along the Eastern Sicilian coasts from sites known for their high pollution levels as they are near to an area where in September 2001 a refinery plant discharged into the sea some waste containing Hg. Other specimens were collected from the Vendicari Natural Reserve located about 30 miles from the polluted sites and used as control area. On a consistent number of animals, the concentration in toto of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. On other animals, investigations were carried out in order to check for ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas, that is the main metals storage organ in isopods. Results revealed the presence, in the animals collected in 2004 from the polluted sites, of considerable concentrations of Hg and of lower concentrations of other metals such as As, Pb and V. The Hg bioaccumulation resulted in remarkable ultrastructural alterations of the two cellular types (B and S cells) in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas. Surprisingly, a moderate amount of Hg was also found in specimens collected in 2004 from the Vendicari Natural Reserve, proving that the Hg pollution can also spread many miles away. Animals collected from the polluted sites in the following years showed a progressively decreasing Hg content, reaching very low levels in those from the last sampling. Also, the ultrastructural alterations found in the hepatopancreas of the animals from the last sample were quite irrelevant. In conclusion, Ligia italica can represent a good bioindicator and the ultrastructure of the hepatopancreas could be used as ultrastructural biomarker of heavy metals pollution in the supralittoral zones. PMID:23472204

  10. Ligia italica (Isopoda, Oniscidea) as bioindicator of mercury pollution of marine rocky coasts.

    PubMed

    Longo, Guglielmo; Trovato, Michelanna; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita; Conti, Gea Oliveri

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the possible role of Ligia italica as a bioindicator for the monitoring of heavy metals pollution in the suppralittoral zone of marine rocky coasts. Between 2004 and 2011 specimens of L. italica were collected along the Eastern Sicilian coasts from sites known for their high pollution levels as they are near to an area where in September 2001 a refinery plant discharged into the sea some waste containing Hg. Other specimens were collected from the Vendicari Natural Reserve located about 30 miles from the polluted sites and used as control area. On a consistent number of animals, the concentration in toto of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. On other animals, investigations were carried out in order to check for ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas, that is the main metals storage organ in isopods. Results revealed the presence, in the animals collected in 2004 from the polluted sites, of considerable concentrations of Hg and of lower concentrations of other metals such as As, Pb and V. The Hg bioaccumulation resulted in remarkable ultrastructural alterations of the two cellular types (B and S cells) in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas. Surprisingly, a moderate amount of Hg was also found in specimens collected in 2004 from the Vendicari Natural Reserve, proving that the Hg pollution can also spread many miles away. Animals collected from the polluted sites in the following years showed a progressively decreasing Hg content, reaching very low levels in those from the last sampling. Also, the ultrastructural alterations found in the hepatopancreas of the animals from the last sample were quite irrelevant. In conclusion, Ligia italica can represent a good bioindicator and the ultrastructure of the hepatopancreas could be used as ultrastructural biomarker of heavy metals pollution in the supralittoral zones.

  11. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  12. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans.

  13. Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study.

    PubMed

    González Carman, Victoria; Machain, Natalia; Campagna, Claudio

    2015-03-15

    Plastics are the most common form of debris found along the Argentine coastline. The Río de la Plata estuarine area is a relevant case study to describe a situation where ample policy exists against a backdrop of plastics disposed by populated coastal areas, industries, and vessels; with resultant high impacts of plastic pollution on marine turtles and mammals. Policy and institutions are in place but the impact remains due to ineffective waste management, limited public education and awareness, and weaknesses in enforcement of regulations. This context is frequently repeated all over the world. We list possible interventions to increase the effectiveness of policy that require integrating efforts among governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the inhabitants of coastal cities to reduce the amount of plastics reaching the Río de la Plata and protect threatened marine species. What has been identified for Argentina applies to the region and globally. PMID:25627195

  14. Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study.

    PubMed

    González Carman, Victoria; Machain, Natalia; Campagna, Claudio

    2015-03-15

    Plastics are the most common form of debris found along the Argentine coastline. The Río de la Plata estuarine area is a relevant case study to describe a situation where ample policy exists against a backdrop of plastics disposed by populated coastal areas, industries, and vessels; with resultant high impacts of plastic pollution on marine turtles and mammals. Policy and institutions are in place but the impact remains due to ineffective waste management, limited public education and awareness, and weaknesses in enforcement of regulations. This context is frequently repeated all over the world. We list possible interventions to increase the effectiveness of policy that require integrating efforts among governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the inhabitants of coastal cities to reduce the amount of plastics reaching the Río de la Plata and protect threatened marine species. What has been identified for Argentina applies to the region and globally.

  15. Exposure Patterns and Health Effects Associated with Swimming and Surfing in Polluted Marine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, S. B.

    2007-05-01

    Marine bathing beaches are closed to the public whenever water quality fails to meet State and Federal standards. In this talk I will explore the science (and lack thereof!) behind these beach closures, including the health effects data upon which standards are based, shortcomings of the current approach used for testing and notification, and the high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity associated with human exposure to pollutants in these systems. The talk will focus on examples from Huntington Beach, where the speaker has conducted research over the past several years.

  16. Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly polluted marine area.

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Giovanna; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Tramati, Cecilia D; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-08-15

    Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focussed on fishbone of selected fish species from a highly polluted marine area, Augusta Bay (Italy, Central Mediterranean) to evaluate if toxicant elements had an effect on the mineralogical structure of bones, although macroscopic deformations were not evident. In particular, an attempt was made to evaluate if bone mineral features, such as crystallinity, mineral maturity and carbonate/phosphate mineral content, determined by XR-Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy, suffered negative effects due to trace element levels in fishbone, detected by ICP-OES. Results confirmed the reliability of the use of diffractometric and spectroscopic techniques to assess the degree of crystallinity and the mineral maturity in fishbone. In addition, in highly polluted areas, Hg and Cr contamination induced a process of premature aging of fishbone, altering its biochemical and mineral contents.

  17. Evaluation of bioremediation potential of three benthic annelids in organically polluted marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Ohta, Kohei; Hano, Takeshi; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Mochida, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Kazunori

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possible remedial effects of three marine benthic annelids on organically polluted sediments from the waters of Hatsukaichi Marina, Hiroshima, Japan. Two polychaetes, Perinereis nuntia and Capitella cf. teleta, and an oligochaete, Thalassodrilides sp., were incubated in sediments for 50 days. Their effects on physicochemical properties such as organic matter (loss on ignition), redox potential (Eh), acid volatile sulfides (AVS), and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed. The polychaetes P. nuntia and C. cf. teleta significantly increased Eh level and decreased AVS level compared with the oligochaete Thalassodrilides sp. and control (without benthic organisms). Total PAH concentration significantly decreased from the initial level with all three groups; Thalassodrilides sp. had a marked ability to reduce PAHs in sediment. These results indicate that benthic organisms have species-specific remediation properties and ecological functions in organically polluted sediments. PMID:27565306

  18. Evaluation of bioremediation potential of three benthic annelids in organically polluted marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Ohta, Kohei; Hano, Takeshi; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Mochida, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Kazunori

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possible remedial effects of three marine benthic annelids on organically polluted sediments from the waters of Hatsukaichi Marina, Hiroshima, Japan. Two polychaetes, Perinereis nuntia and Capitella cf. teleta, and an oligochaete, Thalassodrilides sp., were incubated in sediments for 50 days. Their effects on physicochemical properties such as organic matter (loss on ignition), redox potential (Eh), acid volatile sulfides (AVS), and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed. The polychaetes P. nuntia and C. cf. teleta significantly increased Eh level and decreased AVS level compared with the oligochaete Thalassodrilides sp. and control (without benthic organisms). Total PAH concentration significantly decreased from the initial level with all three groups; Thalassodrilides sp. had a marked ability to reduce PAHs in sediment. These results indicate that benthic organisms have species-specific remediation properties and ecological functions in organically polluted sediments.

  19. Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the Arctic?

    PubMed

    Zarfl, Christiane; Matthies, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Plastic litter accounts for 50-80% of waste items stranded on beaches, floating on the ocean surface and lodged in the seabed. Organic pollutants can be absorbed onto plastic particles from sea water, attached to their surfaces or included in the plastic matrix as additives. Such chemicals may be transported to remote regions by buoyant plastics and ocean currents. We have estimated mass fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Arctic via the main ocean currents and compared them to those in the dissolved state and in air. Substance fluxes with atmospheric or sea water currents account for several tons per year, whereas those mediated by plastics are four to six orders of magnitude smaller. However, the significance of various pollutant transport routes does not depend only on absolute mass fluxes but also on bioaccumulation in marine food chains.

  20. A method for sampling dimethylsulfide in polluted and remote marine atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Brian M.; Allen, Andrew G.

    Methods have been developed for the measurement of atmospheric dimethylsulfide in both polluted and clean marine environments, avoiding Sampling losses due to reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Preconcentration of DMS on Molecular Sieve 5A was followed by analysis using gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Prolonged contact of polluted air samples with a potassium iodide-based solution resulted in total oxidant destruction. Dimethylsulfide was measured over the Atlantic Ocean during a cruise between the U.K. and the Antarctic, between October 1992 and January 1993. In equatorial regions (30° N-30° S) the atmospheric DMS concentration ranged from 5 to 90 ng m -3 with an average of 30 ng m -3 In the polar waters and regions south of the Falkland Islands concentrations from 5 to 1050 ng m -3 were observed with a mean concentration of 120 ng m -3

  1. Effects of organism preparation in metallothionein and metal analysis in marine invertebrates for biomonitoring marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Oaten, J F P; Hudson, M D; Jensen, A C; Williams, I D

    2015-06-15

    Metallothionein (MT) is established as a potentially useful biomarker for monitoring aquatic pollution. This paper addresses widespread inconsistencies in storage conditions, tissue type selection and pre-treatment of samples before MT and metal analysis in biomarker studies. This variation hampers comparability and so the widespread implementation of this monitoring approach. Actively sampled Mytilus edulis in Southampton Water, UK were exposed to different storage temperatures, a variety of tissue types were analysed, and various pre-treatments of transportation on ice, transportation in seawater, depuration, and rapid dissection in the field were examined. Storage temperatures of -20 °C were found to be adequate for periods of at least ten weeks, as MT was not reduced by protein degradation compared with samples kept at -80 °C. Whole tissue and digestive gland concentrations of MT and metals were significantly positively correlated and directly relatable. MT in the digestive gland appeared to be more responsive to metals than in whole tissue, where it may be diluted, masking MT responses. However, longer study periods may suffer the effects of mass changes to the digestive gland, which alters MT concentration, and it may therefore be advisable to measure whole tissue. Depuration and transportation in seawater reduced both MT and metal concentrations in the digestive gland, and few correlations between MT and metals were identified for these treatments. It is therefore recommended that: i) samples are transported to the laboratory on ice and dissected as soon as possible thereafter, ii) depuration should not be used when examining MT response to metal exposure until further research clarifying its utility is reported, iii) either whole tissue or the digestive gland can be used to measure MT, though whole tissue may be preferable on long-term studies, and iv) organisms can be stored at -20 °C before analysis for up to ten weeks. These practices can be applied

  2. Using ERS-2 SAR images for routine observation of marine pollution in European coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Gade, M; Alpers, W

    1999-09-30

    More than 660 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired over the southern Baltic Sea, the North Sea, and the Gulf of Lion in the Mediterranean Sea by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) have been analyzed since December 1996 with respect to radar signatures of marine pollution and other phenomena causing similar signatures. First results of our analysis reveal that the seas are most polluted along the main shipping routes. The sizes of the detected oil spills vary between < 0.1 km2 and > 56 km2. SAR images acquired during descending (morning) and ascending (evening) satellite passes show different percentages of oil pollution, because most of this pollution occurs during night time and is still visible on the SAR images acquired in the morning time. Moreover, we found a higher amount of oil spills on SAR images acquired during summer (April-September) than on SAR images acquired during winter (October-March). We attribute this finding to the higher mean wind speed encountered in all three test areas during winter. By using an ERS-2 SAR image of the North Sea test area we show how the reduction of the normalized radar backscattering cross section (NRCS) by an oil spill depends on wind speed.

  3. Coral skeletal Tin and Copper Concentration at Pohnpei, Micronesia, as a potential proxy for marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Suzuki, A.; Nohara, M.; Kan, H.; Edward, A.; Kawahata, H.

    2002-12-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly threatened by human activities such as industrialization, sewage discharge, dredging, deforestation and so on. The annually-banded coral (Porites sp.) collected from Pohnpei Island, Micronesia, recorded fluctuations of copper (Cu) and tin (Sn) contents in ambient seawater for about last 40 years. Both the elements are present in antifouling marine paints. Especially, Sn has often been used in the form of tributyltin (TBT) compound. In general, pretreatment of coral skeleton is conducted in order to remove contaminations due to coral coring and/or sample storage and then lattice-bound metals are determined as a potential proxy for marine pollution. We conducted a preliminary experimental treatment consisting of 9 cleaning steps. Based on a stepwise pretreatment examination, we found that skeletal Sn and Cu, not only inside but also outside of aragonite lattice, have potential for use as pollution indicators. High values of extra-skeletal Cu/Ca and Sn/Ca atomic ratios were found between late 1960s and late 1980s during a period of active use of TBT-based antifouling paints worldwide. However, significant decrease in both the ratios since the beginning of 1990s can be attributed to regulation of use of TBT on cargo ships by the developed countries such as the USA, Japan and Australia.

  4. Biochemical and bioaccumulation approaches for investigating marine pollution using Mediterranean rainbow wrasse, Coris julis (Linneaus 1798).

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Barbara; Copat, Chiara; Pulvirenti, Valentina; Ferrito, Venera; Ferrante, Margherita; Renis, Marcella; Sciacca, Salvatore; Tigano, Concetta

    2012-12-01

    A multibiomarkers approach was used in order to estimate and monitor marine pollution. Coris julis (Linneaus, 1758) was chosen as a sentinel organism, and the specimens were collected from three well-known sites along the Ionic coast of Sicily: the protected marine area (P.M.A) "Cyclop's Islands" of Acitrezza (CT), used as a control site, Riposto (CT), and the industrial site of Augusta (SR). Abiotic levels of contaminants were also detected. High levels of biotic and abiotic accumulation were found at the industrial site in which the presence of genotoxic and oxidative damage were also evidenced, measured by Micronuclei, Alkaline and Fpg-modified Comet assays. The protein expression analysis showed metallothioneins (MTs) as good tissue-specific markers of metal accumulation. Their levels were significantly higher in muscle than in liver tissue for all the sampling sites, with a positive correlation among tissue levels and the degree of pollution at the sites. Conversely, heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) expression was higher in Augusta and Riposto than in the control site, but no significant difference was found between the examined tissues among all sites. PMID:23025894

  5. The effect of benzo[a]pyrene on sponges as model organisms in marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Zahn, R K; Kurelec, B; Zahn-Daimler, G; Müller, W E; Rijavec, M; Batel, R; Given, R; Pondeljak, V; Beyer, R

    1982-03-15

    The majority of the investigations were performed with the marine sponge Tethya lyncurium at concentrations of 2 X 10(-8) to 1 X 10(-11) g/ml of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Sea-pollution was characterized as BaP equivalent activity in the Ames test. Increased activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) was observed when sponges were artificially exposed at polluted marine areas for 3 weeks. In contrast to the situation in higher animals no ODC induction of the fast type was observed. Mixed function oxygenases (MFO) were not detected in sponges nor could they be induced as in vertebrates. BaP was absorbed by Tethya and concentrated 30--60-fold. In live, but not dead, artificially perfused sponges [3H]- and [14C]BaP-radiolabeled became firmly associated with DNA, RNA and protein of the sponges. The association persisted in isolated fractions, in nucleotides, in nucleosides and in protein hydrolysates. The BaP binding ratio to DNA was found to be strongly correlated to the concentration of BaP. Light modifies BaP and thus enables binding. In the dark only very low association, if any, is observed. The possible consequences of these findings are discussed.

  6. Comparison of PCR and Plaque Assay for Detection and Enumeration of Coliphage in Polluted Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Rose, J. B.; Zhou, X.; Griffin, D. W.; Paul, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 68 marine samples from various sites impacted by sewage and storm waters were analyzed by both the plaque assay and a reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR technique for F(sup+)-specific coliphage. The coliphage levels detected by the plaque assay averaged 1.90 x 10(sup4) PFU/100.0 ml. Using a most probable number (MPN) PCR approach, the levels averaged 2.40 x 10(sup6) MPN-PCR units/100.0 ml. Two samples were positive by RT-PCR but negative by plaque assay, and 12 samples were positive by plaque assay but negative by RT-PCR (levels lower than 11.00 PFU/100.0 ml). The host system used for the plaque assay may detect somatic coliphage in addition to the F(sup+)-specific coliphage. When it is used as an indicator of pollution, contamination may be missed with more restrictive systems. The difference in results may be due to the sensitivity, specificity, or inhibition of RT-PCR in marine samples. This study provides information on quantifying PCR results by an MPN method and insights into interpretation of PCR data for detection of viruses in marine environments. PMID:16535737

  7. Bioindicators of marine pollution. January 1974-July 1989 (Citations from Oceanic abstracts). Report for January 1974-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (This updated bibliography contains 296 citations, 40 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. Analysis of marine sediment, water and biota for selected organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Ray, L.E.; Giam, C.S.

    1981-12-01

    The concentrations of various organic pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined in samples of water, sediment and biota (flounder, killifish, shrimp, crabs, and squid) from San Luis Pass, Texas. Sediment was also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and various pesticides. Only PCP was detectable in water. In sediment, the relative concentrations were PAEs >> BaP > (PCBs approx. HCB) > PCP. In biota, BaP was not detectable in any animal; HCB was highest in crabs and PCP was highest in all others (flounder, killifish, shrimp and squid). The relative concentrations of HCB and PCP were different in the different organisms. The differences between the relative concentrations in the biota and in sediment are discussed. The results of this study are compared to values measured at other sites. This study is part of a larger effort to identify and quantitate pollutants in various Texas estuaries and to serve as a basis for monitoring marine pollution.

  9. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution.

  10. Water-soluble species in the marine aerosol from the northern South China Sea: High chloride depletion related to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Liu, Shaw Chen; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Jeng, Woei-Lih; Huang, Yi-Tang; Tseng, Chun-Mao; Tsai, Fujung; Tu, Jien-Yi; Yang, Yih

    2007-10-01

    Dichotomous (PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 modes) and size-resolved marine aerosols collected during the northeastern monsoon on two wintertime cruises in the subtropical South China Sea (SCS) were analyzed for water-soluble ions. During the sampling periods the study region was under the influence of strong pollution originating primarily from the Asian continent. Elevated levels of non-sea-salt sulfate and ammonium ions of up to 4.5 and 1.2 μg/m3, respectively, were observed, indicating that the SCS is now substantially contaminated by massive amounts of air pollutants most likely from China and South/Southeast Asia. The non-sea-salt sulfate to nitrate mass ratios reaching 3.8 ± 1.9 are much larger than those (approximately 2) in and around East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean, suggesting that the Asian outflow aerosols measured in the SCS experienced different traveling history from those in the vicinity of source regions. High chloride depletion (Cl-depletion) measured in the SCS marine aerosols was, on average, 30% for coarse-mode particles and nearly 90% for fine-mode particles. Cl-depletion is size-dependent, and maximizes in submicrometer particles (i.e., Cl has almost been completely lost). Acid displacement is responsible for the observed high Cl-depletion: nitrate substitution accounts for the coarse-mode depletion, whereas sulfate substitution accounts for the fine-mode depletion. The acid displacement of sea salt aerosols may be related to a variety of factors, especially the substantial air pollution, which is discussed in detail in this paper. On cloudy/rainy days, fine-mode aerosol samples have moderate Cl-depletion (i.e., ˜40-50%), in contrast to nearly complete Cl loss on sunny days, presumably indicating that photochemical reactions would play a key role in the Cl-deficit; however, it merits further investigation as the available samples were limited.

  11. IOC/WMO Workshop on Marine Pollution Monitoring (3rd, New Delhi, India, February 11-15, 1980). Summary Report. Workshop Report No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    Provided is a summary report of the third IOC/WMO (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission/World Meteorological Organization) workshop of marine pollution monitoring. Summaries are presented in nine sections, including: (1) workshop opening; (2) welcoming addresses; (3) reports on the Marine Pollution (Petroleum) Monitoring Pilot Project…

  12. Applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of natural and pollutant hydrocarbons in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, J.K.; Revill, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past few years, many thousands of compounds have identified in crude oils using techniques such as capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some of these have quite distinctive chemical structures which are closely related to the organic compounds produced by plants, bacteria and algae. These {open_quote}biomarkers{close_quote} have proven to be very useful in petroleum exploration for identifying the likely source rocks from which the oils were derived. They are also very useful in studies of modern day pollution of the marine environment for identifying contamination by crude oil and petroleum-derived products. Although a wide range of hydrocarbons are available for oil spill fingerprinting, most attention has been given to some of the better-studied biomarkers which are readily analyzed using selected ion monitoring GC-MS techniques.

  13. Acclimation and adaptation to common marine pollutants in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Patrick Y; Foley, Helen B; Handschumacher, Lisa; Suzuki, Amanda; Karamanukyan, Tigran; Edmands, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Establishing water quality criteria using bioassays is complicated by variation in chemical tolerance between populations. Two major contributors to this variation are acclimation and adaptation, which are both linked to exposure history, but differ in how long their effects are maintained. Our study examines how tolerance changes over multiple generations of exposure to two common marine pollutants, copper (Cu) and tributyltin oxide (TBTO), in a sexually reproducing marine copepod, Tigriopus californicus. Lines of T. californicus were chronically exposed to sub-lethal levels of Cu and TBTO for 12 generations followed by a recovery period of 3 generations in seawater control conditions. At each generation, the average number of offspring produced and survived to 28 d was determined and used as the metric of tolerance. Lines exposed to Cu and TBTO showed an overall increase in tolerance over time. Increased Cu tolerance arose by generation 3 in the chronically exposed lines and was lost after 3 generations in seawater control conditions. Increased TBTO tolerance was detected at generation 7 and was maintained even after 3 generations in seawater control conditions. It was concluded from this study that tolerance to Cu is consistent with acclimation, a quick gain and loss of tolerance. In contrast, TBTO tolerance is consistent with adaptation, in which onset of tolerance was delayed relative to an acclimation response and maintained in the absence of exposure. These findings illustrate that consideration of exposure history is necessary when using bioassays to measure chemical tolerance.

  14. Internal modifications to reduce pollutant emissions from marine engines. A numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamas, M. I.; Rodríguez, C. G.; Rodríguez, J. D.; Telmo, J.

    2013-12-01

    Taking into account the increasingly stringent legislation on emissions from marine engines, this work aims to analyze several internal engine modifications to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides) and other pollutants. To this end, a numerical model was employed to simulate the operation cycle and characterize the exhaust gas composition. After a preliminary validation process was carried out using experimental data from a four-stroke, medium-speed marine engine, the numerical model was employed to study the influence of several internal modifications, such as water addition from 0 to 100% water to fuel ratios, exhaust gas recirculation from 0 to 100% EGR rates, modification of the overlap timing from 60 to 120°, modification of the intake valve closing from 510 to 570°, and modification of the cooling water temperature from 70 to 90 oC. NOx was reduced by nearly 100%. As expected, it was found that, by lowering the combustion temperature, there is a notable reduction in NOx, but an increase in CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbons) and consumption.

  15. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  16. Proliferative Responses of Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) T Lymphocytes to Model Marine Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Jennifer C. C.; Van de Water, Judith A.; Harvey, James T.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, population declines related to viral outbreaks in marine mammals have been associated with polluted coastal waters and high tissue concentrations of certain persistent, lipophilic contaminants. Such observations suggest a contributing role of contaminant-induced suppression of cell-mediated immunity leading to decreased host resistance. Here, we assessed the effects of the prototypic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), CB-156 and CB-80, on the T-cell proliferative response to mitogen in harbor seal peripheral lymphocytes. Despite the variability associated with our samples from free-ranging harbor seals, we observed a clear suppressive effect of B[a]P (10 uM) exposure on T cell mitogenesis. Exposures to 10 uM CB-156 and CB-80, and 1.0 and 0.1 uM B[a]P, did not produce significant depression in lymphoproliferation. Exposure to the model PAH at 10 uM resulted in a 61% (range 34-97%) average reduction in lymphoproliferation. We were able to rule out a direct cytotoxic effect of B[a]P, indicating that observed effects were due to altered T cell function. Based on our in vitro results, we hypothesize that extensive accumulation of PAH by top-trophic-level marine mammals could alter T cell activation in vivo and impaired cell-mediated immunity against viral pathogens. PMID:15144018

  17. Detecting marine hazardous substances and organisms: sensors for pollutants, toxins, and pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, O.; Busch, J. A.; Cembella, A. D.; Daly, K. L.; Engelbrektsson, J.; Hannides, A. K.; Schmidt, H.

    2009-05-01

    Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution. Significant technological advancements have been made in recent years for the detection and analysis of such marine hazards. In particular, sensors deployed on a variety of mobile and fixed-point observing platforms provide a valuable means to assess hazards. In this review, we present state-of-the-art of sensor technology for the detection of harmful substances and organisms in the ocean. Sensors are classified by their adaptability to various platforms, addressing large, intermediate, or small areal scales. Current gaps and future demands are identified with an indication of the urgent need for new sensors to detect marine hazards at all scales in autonomous real-time mode. Progress in sensor technology is expected to depend on the development of small-scale sensor technologies with a high sensitivity and specificity towards target analytes or organisms. However, deployable systems must comply with platform requirements as these interconnect the three areal scales. Future developments will include the integration of existing methods into complex and operational sensing systems for a comprehensive strategy for long-term monitoring. The combination of sensor techniques on all scales will remain crucial for the demand of large spatial and temporal coverage.

  18. Detecting marine hazardous substances and organisms: sensors for pollutants, toxins, and pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, O.; Busch, J. A.; Cembella, A. D.; Daly, K. L.; Engelbrektsson, J.; Hannides, A. K.; Schmidt, H.

    2009-09-01

    Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution. Significant technological advancements have been made in recent years for the detection and analysis of such marine hazards. In particular, sensors deployed on a variety of mobile and fixed-point observing platforms provide a valuable means to assess hazards. In this review, we present state-of-the-art of sensor technology for the detection of harmful substances and organisms in the ocean. Sensors are classified by their adaptability to various platforms, addressing large, intermediate, or small areal scales. Current gaps and future demands are identified with an indication of the urgent need for new sensors to detect marine hazards at all scales in autonomous real-time mode. Progress in sensor technology is expected to depend on the development of small-scale sensor technologies with a high sensitivity and specificity towards target analytes or organisms. However, deployable systems must comply with platform requirements as these interconnect the three areal scales. Future developments will include the integration of existing methods into complex and operational sensing systems for a comprehensive strategy for long-term monitoring. The combination of sensor techniques on all scales will remain crucial for the demand of large spatial and temporal coverage.

  19. Interactive visualization of marine pollution monitoring and forecasting data via a Web-based GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulawiak, M.; Prospathopoulos, A.; Perivoliotis, L.; łuba, M.; Kioroglou, S.; Stepnowski, A.

    2010-08-01

    This work implements a Web-based Geographic Information System (Web GIS) for an existing oil spill monitoring and forecasting service, developed in the framework of the MARCOAST project. This is achieved by remotely presenting the results of the oil spill forecasting module via a dedicated Web GIS, which allows authenticated end users to view the simulation results in a geographical context. A number of Web GIS technologies for presentation of dissimilar types of semi-dynamic geographic data are applied and their respective capabilities for publishing and remote presentation of interactive geospatial information, such as oil spill spread animation overlaid on background data (terrain elevation data, satellite imagery, etc.), are described. More specifically, technologies like ESRI ® ArcIMS ® (Arc Internet Map Server) and Open Source GeoServer with OpenLayers client library are implemented. The capabilities of the system for visualization and mapping are illustrated by specific applications concerning the spreading scenarios of oil spills in two selected areas of the Aegean Sea, Greece. The presented Web GIS offers added value in the form of providing the end user with comprehensive and synthetic, both spatial and temporal, environmental information through a remotely customizable user-friendly graphical interface. In this context, its integration to a marine pollution monitoring and forecasting system could result in an enhanced pollution awareness and emergency management tool.

  20. Report on land-based sources of marine pollution in the Caribbean. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The report is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The document presents information gathered during a series of interviews with professionals from governmental agencies in each of the Caribbean nations, with the exception of the U.S. possessions. The report provides, on a nation-by-nation basis, background information regarding the sources of pollution and the agencies within each nation which retain some authority to remedy or otherwise manage these problems. Names of contact persons within these agencies, their phone numbers and addresses are also provided. The audience for the report is persons within organizations in the Caribbean Basin nations working to coordinate activities aimed at identifying and reducing land based sources of marine pollution. The report is a resource for achieving unified environmental efforts in the region. The final section briefly notes factors which may work in favor of regional solutions and those that may not.

  1. Microphysical and macrophysical responses of marine stratocumulus polluted by underlying ships: Evidence of cloud deepening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Matthew W.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2011-02-01

    Ship tracks observed by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) were analyzed to determine the extent to which aerosol plumes from ships passing below marine stratocumulus alter the microphysical and macrophysical properties of the clouds. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery was used to distinguish ship tracks embedded in closed, open, and undefined mesoscale cellular cloud structures. The impact of aerosol on the microphysical cloud properties in both the closed and open cell regimes were consistent with the changes predicted by the Twomey hypothesis. For the macrophysical changes, differences were observed between regimes. In the open cell regime, polluted clouds had significantly higher cloud tops (16%) and more liquid water (39%) than nearby unpolluted clouds. However, in the closed cell regime, polluted clouds exhibited no change in cloud top height and had less liquid water (-6%). Both microphysical (effective radius) and macrophysical (liquid water path) cloud properties contribute to a fractional change in cloud optical depth; in the closed cell regime the microphysical contribution was 3 times larger than the macrophysical contribution. However, the opposite was true in the open cell regime where the macrophysical contribution was nearly 2 times larger than the microphysical contribution because the aerosol probably increased cloud coverage. The results presented here demonstrate key differences aerosols have on the microphysical and macrophysical responses of boundary layer clouds between mesoscale stratocumulus convective regimes.

  2. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is emitted in the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources, these last accounting for one third of the total emissions. Since the pre-industrial age, the atmospheric deposition of mercury have increased notably, while ocean emissions have doubled owing to the re-emission of anthropogenic mercury. Exchange between the atmosphere and ocean plays an important role in cycling and transport of mercury. We present the preliminary results from a study on the distribution and evasion flux of mercury at the atmosphere/sea interface in the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area affected by a high degree of contamination (heavy metals and PHA) due to the oil refineries placed inside its commercial harbor. It seems that the intense industrial activity of the past have lead to an high Hg pollution in the bottom sediments of the basin, whose concentrations are far from the background mercury value found in most of the Sicily Strait sediments. The release of mercury into the harbor seawater and its dispersion by diffusion from sediments to the surface, make the Augusta basin a potential supplier of mercury both to the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere. Based on these considerations, mercury concentration and flux at the air-sea interface of the Bay have been estimated using a real-time atomic adsorption spectrometer (LUMEX - RA915+) and an home-made accumulation chamber, respectively. Estimated Total Atmospheric Mercury (TGM) concentrations during the cruise on the bay were in the range of 1-3 ng · m-3, with a mean value of about 1.4 ng · m-3. These data well fit with the background Hgatm concentration values detected on the land (1-2 ng · m-3, this work), and, more in general, with the background atmospheric TGM levels found in the North Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng · m-3)a. Besides, our measurements are in the range of those reported for other important polluted marine areas. The mercury evasion flux at the air-sea interface

  3. Yeasts from Marine and Estuarine Waters with Different Levels of Pollution in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, Allen N.; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C.

    1981-01-01

    Yeast counts were made at 24 marine and estuarine sites in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mean salinities of estuarine sites ranged from 14.2 to 27.4‰, and mean temperatures ranged from 25 to 28°C. Total coliform counts varied from 80% above 100,000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 ml at heavily polluted sites to 100% below 100 CFU/100 ml at unpolluted sites. Total yeast counts above 100 CFU/100 ml were typical of heavily and moderately polluted water but atypical of lightly polluted and unpolluted water. Mean total yeast counts were 2,880 CFU/100 ml for heavily polluted sites, 202 CFU/100 ml for moderately polluted sites, and 3 CFU/100 ml for lightly polluted and unpolluted sites. Total yeast counts had a positive response to increased pollution levels, and Candida krusei and phenotypically similar yeasts as a group were prevalent in polluted estuarine water but rare in unpolluted seawater. The 549 strains of yeasts and yeast-like organisms isolated were grouped into 67 species, of which the 21 most prevalent made up 86% of the total yeast population. The prevalent genera in the polluted estuary were Candida, Rhodotorula, Torulopsis, Hanseniaspora, Debaryomyces, and Trichosporon. PMID:16345683

  4. HNS-MS : Improving Member States preparedness to face an HNS pollution of the Marine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Sebastien; Le Floch, Stéphane; Aprin, Laurent; Parthenay, Valérie; Donnay, Eric; Parmentier, Koen; Ovidio, Fabrice; Schallier, Ronny; Poncet, Florence; Chataing, Sophie; Poupon, Emmanuelle; Hellouvry, Yann-Hervé

    2016-04-01

    When dealing with a HNS pollution incident, one of the priority requirements is the identification of the hazard and an assessment of the risk posed to the public and responder safety, the environment and socioeconomic assets upon which a state or coastal community depend. The primary factors which determine the safety, environmental and socioeconomic impact of the released substance(s) relate to their physico-chemical properties and fate in the environment. Until now, preparedness actions at various levels have primarily aimed at classifying the general environmental or public health hazard of an HNS, or at performing a risk analysis of HNS transported in European marine regions. Operational datasheets have been (MIDSIS-TROCS) or are being (MAR-CIS) developed collating detailed, substance-specific information for responders and covering information needs at the first stage of an incident. However, contrary to oil pollution preparedness and response tools, only few decision-support tools used by Member State authorities (Coastguard agencies or other) integrate 3D models that are able to simulate the drift, fate and behaviour of HNS spills in the marine environment. When they do, they usually consider simplified or steady-state environmental conditions. Moreover, the above-mentioned available HNS information is currently not sufficiently detailed or not suitably classified to be used as an input for an advanced HNS support decision tool. HNS-MS aims at developing a 'one-stop shop' integrated HNS decision-support tool that is able to predict the drift, behaviour and Fate of HNS spills under realistic environmental conditions and at providing key product information - drawing upon and in complement to existing studies and databases - to improve the understanding and evaluation of a HNS spill situation in the field and the environmental and safety-related issues at stake. The 3D HNS drift and fate model and decision-support tool will also be useful at the preparedness

  5. Anthropogenic pollution indicators in marine environment of the Eastern Part of the Gulf of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhakovskaya, Zoya; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Mamontova, Varvara; Khoroshko, Larisa; Chernova, Ekaterina; Russkikh, Iana

    2014-05-01

    Pollution involving hazardous substances is considered one of the major problems affecting the state of the Baltic marine environment. However, assessment of the vast majority of the hazardous substances (including accepted as pollution indicators) in the environment have not been monitored in Russian Federation yet. Moreover there are no official guideline values for their presence or release in environment. For our investigation we have selected the organotin biocides and widespread pharmaceutical diclofenac. The study is focused on surface marine water and bottom sediments, collected from the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland during the navigation seasons of 2012-2013. Organotin compounds belong to a large group of key marine contaminants. They had been widely used in the world industry as antifouling paints, fungicides and biocides until the middle of 1980s. Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are the most hazardous of all organotin compounds, causing such biological effects as shell deformation, endocrine disruption, imposex and intersex phenomena at the concentration of 2 ng/L. The use of TBT in antifouling paints was banned within EU in 2003 and within Russian Federation in 2008. Monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) were analysed as ethyl derivatives using electron impact gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI) in single ion monitoring mode (SIM). TBT and TPhT were frequently found above MAC of 1.5 ng/L and 2 ng/g dw respectively in both water and bottom sediment samples collected from the Gulf of Finland water basin. The highest detected concentration detected mainly in coastal areas with dense ship traffic were 670 ng/L (TBT) in water samples, 440 ng/g dw (TBT), 160 ng/g dw (TPhT) in sediment samples. Potential risks from the environmental presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP), such as medicine, hormones, means of personal hygiene, etc. reveal in abnormal physiological

  6. NO3 radical measurements in a polluted marine environment: links to ozone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, R.; Wojtal, P.; Majonis, D.; McCourt, J.; Halla, J. D.; Brook, J.

    2010-05-01

    Nighttime chemistry in polluted regions is dominated by the nitrate radical (NO3) including its direct reaction with natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons, its reaction with NO2 to form N2O5, and subsequent reactions of N2O5 to form HNO3 and chlorine containing photolabile species. We report nighttime measurements of NO3, NO2, and O3, in the polluted marine boundary layer southwest of Vancouver, BC during a three week study in the summer of 2005. The concentration of N2O5 was calculated using the well known equilibrium, NO3+NO2↔N2O5. Median overnight mixing ratios of NO3, N2O5 and NO2 were 10.3 ppt, 122 ppt and 8.3 ppb with median N2O5/NO3 molar ratios of 13.1 and median nocturnal partitioning of 4.9%. Due to the high levels of NO2 that can inhibit approach to steady-state, we use a method for calculating NO3 lifetimes that does not assume the steady-state approximation. Median and average lifetimes of NO3 in the NO3-N2O5 nighttime reservoir were 1.1-2.3 min. We have determined nocturnal profiles of the pseudo first order loss coefficient of NO3 and the first order loss coefficients of N2O5 by regression of the NO3 inverse lifetimes with the [N2O5]/[NO3] ratio. Direct losses of NO3 are highest early in the night, tapering off as the night proceeds. The magnitude of the first order loss coefficient of N2O5 is consistent with, but not verification of, recommended homogeneous rate coefficients for reaction of N2O5 with water vapor early in the night, but increases significantly in the latter part of the night when relative humidity increases beyond 75%, consistent with heterogeneous reactions of N2O5 with aerosols with a rate constant khet=(1.2±0.4)×10-3 s-1-(1.6±0.4)×10-3 s-1. Analysis indicates that a correlation exists between overnight integrated N2O5 concentrations in the marine boundary layer, a surrogate for the accumulation of chlorine containing photolabile species, and maximum 1-h average O3 at stations in the Lower Fraser Valley the next day when

  7. NO3 radical measurements in a polluted marine environment: links to ozone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, R.; Wojtal, P.; Majonis, D.; McCourt, J.; Halla, J. D.; Brook, J.

    2009-11-01

    Nighttime chemistry in polluted regions is dominated by the nitrate radical (NO3) including its direct reaction with natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons, its reaction with NO2 to form N2O5, and subsequent reactions of N2O5 to form HNO3 and chlorine containing photolabile species. We report nighttime measurements of NO3, NO2, and O3, in the polluted marine boundary layer southwest of Vancouver, BC during a three week study in summer of 2005. The concentration of N2O5 was calculated using the well known equilibrium, NO3+NO2↔N2O5. Median overnight mixing ratios of NO3, N2O5 and NO2 were 10.3 ppt, 122 ppt and 8.3 ppb with median N2O5/NO3 molar ratios of 13.1 and median nocturnal partitioning of 4.9%. Due to the high levels of NO2 that can inhibit approach to steady-state, we use a method for calculating NO3 lifetimes that does not assume the steady-state approximation. Median and average lifetimes of NO3 in the NO3-N2O5 nighttime reservoir were 1.1-2.3 min. We have determined nocturnal profiles of the pseudo first order loss coefficient of NO3 and the first order loss coefficients of N2O5 by regression of the NO3 inverse lifetimes with the [N2O5]/[NO3] ratio. Direct losses of NO3 are highest early in the night, tapering off as the night proceeds. The magnitude of the first order loss coefficient of N2O5 is consistent with recommended homogeneous rate coefficients for reaction of N2O5 with water vapor early in the night, but increases significantly in the latter part of the night when relative humidity increases beyond 75%, consistent with heterogeneous reactions of N2O5 with sea salt and/or other aerosols with rate constant khet=1.2×10-3 s-1. Analysis indicates that a correlation exists between overnight integrated N2O5 concentrations in the marine boundary layer, a surrogate for the accumulation of chlorine containing photolabile species, and maximum 1-h average O3 at stations in the Lower Fraser Valley the next day when there is clear evidence of a sea

  8. 78 FR 50412 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to Spark Ignition Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Ignition Engine (``Marine SI'') regulations.'' \\1\\ 72 FR 14546 (March 28, 2007). \\2\\ 76 FR 24872 (May 3... California Spark Ignition Marine Engine and Boat Regulations (2008 Marine SI Amendments or 2008 Amendments... request for authorization of the 2008 Marine SI Amendments. DATES: EPA has tentatively scheduled a...

  9. Subtropical Biotic Fringing Reefs as Ecological Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a 16-week course in marine biology involving a class-coordinated investigation of a subtropical biotic fringing reef of Hawaii. Describes in detail the development of preliminary hypotheses regarding general cause-effect relationships on the reef, and the exploration of specific areas, such as chemical or physical factors. (CS)

  10. Plastic Accumulation in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Morét-Ferguson, Skye; Maximenko, Nikolai A.; Proskurowski, Giora; Peacock, Emily E.; Hafner, Jan; Reddy, Christopher M.

    2010-09-01

    Plastic marine pollution is a major environmental concern, yet a quantitative description of the scope of this problem in the open ocean is lacking. Here, we present a time series of plastic content at the surface of the western North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1986 to 2008. More than 60% of 6136 surface plankton net tows collected buoyant plastic pieces, typically millimeters in size. The highest concentration of plastic debris was observed in subtropical latitudes and associated with the observed large-scale convergence in surface currents predicted by Ekman dynamics. Despite a rapid increase in plastic production and disposal during this time period, no trend in plastic concentration was observed in the region of highest accumulation.

  11. Microbial community dynamics and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in polluted marine sediments in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y F; Tam, N F Y

    2011-01-01

    Dynamics of microbial community and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted marine sediments, artificially spiked with a mixture of PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene), were examined for a period of 60 days. Microbial communities were characterised by bacterial counts, ester-linked fatty acid methyl ester (EL-FAME) analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A noted reduction in species diversity occurred only in the high PAH level treatment at onset. Both EL-FAME and DGGE demonstrated a marked shift in microbial community, in all the PAH level treatments, afterwards, with increases in the number of fatty acid degraders, the relative abundance of fatty acid biomarkers for gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in species diversity. The shift was also accompanied by the significant decrease in PAH concentrations. By the end of the experiment, diversity indices, based on both approaches, recovered when PAH concentrations declined to their background levels, except in the high PAH level treatment. PMID:21620420

  12. Legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutants in marine organisms from the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Run-Xia; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tan, Xiao-Xin; Tang, Bin; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-11-01

    A suite of legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs) were measured in marine organisms (coastal fish and invertebrates) from the Pearl River Estuary, South China, to investigate the current contamination status after the Stockholm Convention was implemented in China. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in all samples at concentrations of 54-1500, 16-700, and 0.56-59ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Dechlorane Plus (DP), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene (pTBX), and pentabromotoluene (PBT) were also found at concentrations of ND (non-detectable) to 37ng/g lipid weight. The concentrations of these investigated contaminants in the present study were at moderate levels, as compared with those reported in other regions. Significant interspecies differences were found in the levels of DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs and the alternative halogenated flame retardants (AHFRs). DDTs were the predominant HOPs in those species and represented >50% of the total HOPs, followed by PCBs, PBDEs, and AHFRs. The total estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs, and AHFRs were 28, 12, 1.0, and 0.18 (ng/kg)/d, respectively, via seafood consumption. These concentrations are not expected to pose health risks to humans. PMID:26318119

  13. Bioremediation of the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone and its toxicity effect on microalgae.

    PubMed

    Pi, Yongrui; Xu, Nana; Bao, Mutai; Li, Yiming; Lv, Dong; Sun, Peiyan

    2015-04-01

    Custom-designed devices with 0.6 m (L) × 0.3 m (W) × 0.4 m (H) and a microbial consortium were applied to simulate bioremediation on the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone. After the bioremediation, the removal efficiency of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon homologues in crude oil evaluated by GC-MS were higher than 58% and 41% respectively. Besides, the acute toxicity effects of crude oil on three microalgae, i.e. Dicrateria sp., Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, varied with concentration. The effects of microbe and surfactant treated water on the three microalgae followed a decreasing order: the microbial consortium plus Tween-80 > the microbial consortium > Tween-80. During 96 h, the cell densities of the three microalgae in treated seawater increased from 4.0 × 10(5), 1.0 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(5) cells per mL to 1.7 × 10(6), 8.5 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(6) cells per mL, respectively, which illustrated that the quality of seawater contaminated by crude oil was significantly improved by the bioremediation. PMID:25786771

  14. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Henrique M R; Koerting, Lina; Devito, Sarah; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Dubbeldam, Marco; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Murk, Albertinka J

    2011-11-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mortality, morphological abnormalities and larval development stages were quantified at specific time points during the 16-day experimental period. In contrast to amphibians and fish, P. miliaris early life development was not sensitive to dioxin-like toxicity in the prolonged early life stage test. Triclosan (TCS) levels higher than 500 nM were acutely toxic during embryo development. Morphological abnormalities were induced at concentrations higher than 50 nM hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1000 nM tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Larval development was delayed above 25 nM HBCD and 500 nM TBBPA. Heptadecafluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure slightly accelerated larval development at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, the accelerated development was no longer observed at the end of the test period (16 dpf). The newly developed 16-day echinoid ELS bioassay proved to be sensitive to toxic effects of POPs that can be monitored for individual echinoid larvae. The most sensitive and dose related endpoint was the number of developmental penalty points. By manipulation of the housing conditions, the reproductive season could be extended from 3 to 9 months per year and the ELS experiments could be performed in artificial sea water as well.

  15. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web.

    PubMed

    Evenset, A; Hallanger, I G; Tessmann, M; Warner, N; Ruus, A; Borgå, K; Gabrielsen, G W; Christensen, G; Renaud, P E

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ(15)N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ(15)N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone.

  16. Legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutants in marine organisms from the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Run-Xia; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tan, Xiao-Xin; Tang, Bin; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-11-01

    A suite of legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs) were measured in marine organisms (coastal fish and invertebrates) from the Pearl River Estuary, South China, to investigate the current contamination status after the Stockholm Convention was implemented in China. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in all samples at concentrations of 54-1500, 16-700, and 0.56-59ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Dechlorane Plus (DP), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene (pTBX), and pentabromotoluene (PBT) were also found at concentrations of ND (non-detectable) to 37ng/g lipid weight. The concentrations of these investigated contaminants in the present study were at moderate levels, as compared with those reported in other regions. Significant interspecies differences were found in the levels of DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs and the alternative halogenated flame retardants (AHFRs). DDTs were the predominant HOPs in those species and represented >50% of the total HOPs, followed by PCBs, PBDEs, and AHFRs. The total estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs, and AHFRs were 28, 12, 1.0, and 0.18 (ng/kg)/d, respectively, via seafood consumption. These concentrations are not expected to pose health risks to humans.

  17. Bioremediation of the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone and its toxicity effect on microalgae.

    PubMed

    Pi, Yongrui; Xu, Nana; Bao, Mutai; Li, Yiming; Lv, Dong; Sun, Peiyan

    2015-04-01

    Custom-designed devices with 0.6 m (L) × 0.3 m (W) × 0.4 m (H) and a microbial consortium were applied to simulate bioremediation on the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone. After the bioremediation, the removal efficiency of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon homologues in crude oil evaluated by GC-MS were higher than 58% and 41% respectively. Besides, the acute toxicity effects of crude oil on three microalgae, i.e. Dicrateria sp., Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, varied with concentration. The effects of microbe and surfactant treated water on the three microalgae followed a decreasing order: the microbial consortium plus Tween-80 > the microbial consortium > Tween-80. During 96 h, the cell densities of the three microalgae in treated seawater increased from 4.0 × 10(5), 1.0 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(5) cells per mL to 1.7 × 10(6), 8.5 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(6) cells per mL, respectively, which illustrated that the quality of seawater contaminated by crude oil was significantly improved by the bioremediation.

  18. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web.

    PubMed

    Evenset, A; Hallanger, I G; Tessmann, M; Warner, N; Ruus, A; Borgå, K; Gabrielsen, G W; Christensen, G; Renaud, P E

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ(15)N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ(15)N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. PMID:26519572

  19. Reproductive performance and organochlorine pollutants in an Antarctic marine top predator: the south polar skua.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Tveraa, Torkild; Varpe, Øystein; Henden, John A; Skaare, Janneche U

    2007-10-01

    Despite low levels of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in Antarctic biota, some compounds may exceed the levels in equivalent Arctic species, and previous studies have found biochemical evidence of pollutant exposure in south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki), a common marine top predator in the region. In this study we examined relationships between fitness components (fecundity and adult return rate between breeding seasons) and concentrations of OCs in this species. In 65 nests, both males and females were caught, and using principal component analyses (PCA) we produced composite measurements (PC1 and PC2) of six highly correlated OCs measured in blood samples. Although the concentrations of OC were below those documented to have reproductive effects in other aquatic birds, we found that the eggs of females with high levels of OCs in the blood hatched later, and their chicks were in poorer condition at hatching, than females with low OC levels. Thus OCs may delay reproduction and reduce foetal growth in the skuas. However, there was no relationship between the parents' OC residues and the occurrence of non-viable eggs, although the proportion of nests containing non-viable eggs was high (47%). Moreover, there were no significant relationships between OCs and reproductive variables in males, even if males had higher OC levels than females, and no associations between OCs and adult return rate between breeding seasons. PMID:17561256

  20. Practical procedures for selected biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis--implications for marine pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Bellas, Juan

    2013-09-01

    Biomarkers are required to assess the biological effects of pollutants on marine organisms in order to monitor ecosystem status, but their use is often limited by their strong variability due to environmental and/or intrinsic biological factors. Accordingly, the main aim of this work was to set up practical procedures for a battery of widely used biomarkers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT] and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]), a phase II detoxification enzyme (glutathione S-transferase [GST]) and a neurotransmitter catabolism enzyme (acetylcholinesterase [AChE]), were considered. Several relevant aspects were studied in order to obtain a more realistic interpretation of biomarker responses, including the calculation of the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with a fixed error margin, the selection of the specific organ or tissue where the enzymatic activity is higher for each biomarker, and the influence of tidal height and temperature on the basal enzymatic activity. GST and CAT activities needed a minimum sample size of 12, whereas for GPx and AChE activities a minimum sample size of 14 was required. The gills were the organ with higher GST, GPx and AChE enzymatic activities, whereas the digestive gland showed the highest CAT activity. Also, the low inter-tidal was the recommended tide level whilst no significant effect of temperature was observed on GST, GPx and CAT, and no clear pattern could be identified for AChE. The implications for environmental monitoring are discussed. PMID:23712116

  1. Comparison of the effects of pollution on the marine bivalve Donax trunculus in the vicinity of polluted sites with specimens from a clean reference site (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Yawetz, Aminadav; Fishelson, Lev; Bresler, Vladimir; Manelis, Rami

    2010-02-01

    The physiological and biochemical characteristics of tissue samples of the marine mussel, Donax trunculus, from an oil-polluted site (Qiryat Yam) and from a site adjacent to an industrial factory (Frutarom) producing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were compared with samples from a clean reference site (Akko). All sites were located along the sandy shores of the Israeli Mediterranean Sea. The mussels from the oil-polluted site showed increased activity of the system of active transport of organic anions (SATOA) in the gills and the renocardial organ and also of the multixenobiotic resistance transporter (MXR) in the gills. In contrast, samples collected near the PVC factory showed a decrease in SATOA activity and no increase in the activity of MXR in the gills. Specimens from the reference site demonstrated a redox state of equilibrium between energy production and utilization, while in Donax from both the oil polluted and the PVC-polluted sites, the mitochondrial redox state reflected intensive consumption of energy. No significant changes were found in the activity of reduced glutathione s-transferase (GST) in the cytosolic fraction of the digestive gland of Donax collected from any of the three sites. The data demonstrate a differential increase in the anti-chemical defense systems and an intensification of energy metabolism in the mussels exposed to pollution.

  2. Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomanek, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change.

  3. Numerical modelling for real-time forecasting of marine oil pollution and hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Dominicis, Michela; Pinardi, Nadia; Bruciaferri, Diego; Liubartseva, Svitlana

    2015-04-01

    Many factors affect the motion and transformation of oil at sea. The most relevant of these are the meteorological and marine conditions at the air-sea interface; the chemical characteristics of the oil; its initial volume and release rates; and, finally, the marine currents at different space scales and timescales. All these factors are interrelated and must be considered together to arrive at an accurate numerical representation of oil evolution and movement in seawater. The oil spill model code MEDSLIK-II is a freely available community model. By using a Lagrangian approach, MEDSLIK-II predicts the transport and diffusion of a surface oil slick governed by water currents, winds and waves, which are provided by operational oceanographic and meteorological models. In addition, the model simulates the oil transformations at sea: evaporation, spreading, dispersion, adhesion to coast and emulsification. The model results have been validated using surface drifters and oil slicks observed by satellite in different regions of the Mediterranean Sea. It is found that the forecast skill largely depends on the accuracy of the Eulerian ocean currents: the operational models give useful estimates of currents, but high-frequency (hourly) and high spatial resolution is required, and the Stokes drift velocity has to be often added, especially in coastal areas. MEDSLIK-II is today available at the Mediterranean scale allowing a possible support to oil spill emergencies. The model has been used during the Costa Concordia disaster, the partial sinking of the Italian cruise ship Costa Concordia when it ran aground at Isola del Giglio, Italy. MEDSLIK-II system was run to produce forecast scenarios of the possible oil spill from the Costa Concordia, to be delivered to the competent authorities, by using the currents provided every day by the operational ocean models available in the area. Moreover, MEDSLIK-II is part of the Mediterranean Decision Support System for Marine Safety

  4. Bioaccumulation of metallic trace elements and organic pollutants in marine sponges from the South Brittany Coast, France.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Charline; Rehel, Karine; Dufour, Alain; Sauleau, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accumulation of metallic and organic pollutants in marine sponges with the oyster Crassostrea gigas used as sentinel species. The concentrations of 12 Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs), 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), 7 PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and 3 organotin derivatives were measured in 7 marine sponges collected in the Etel River (South Brittany, France). Results indicated Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Pb, and Ti particularly accumulated in marine sponges such as Hymeniacidon perlevis and Raspailia ramosa at higher levels compared to oysters. At the opposite, Cu and Zn accumulated significantly at higher concentrations in oysters. Among PAHs analyzed, benzo(a)pyrene bioaccumulated in H. perlevis at levels up to 17-fold higher than in oysters. In contrast, PCBs bioaccumulated preferentially in oysters. Significant differences exist in the abilities of marine phyla and sponge species to accumulate organic and metallic pollutants however, among the few sponge species studied, H. perlevis showed impressive bioaccumulation properties. The use of this species as bioindicator and/or bioremediator near shellfish farming areas is also discussed.

  5. Bioaccumulation of metallic trace elements and organic pollutants in marine sponges from the South Brittany Coast, France.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Charline; Rehel, Karine; Dufour, Alain; Sauleau, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accumulation of metallic and organic pollutants in marine sponges with the oyster Crassostrea gigas used as sentinel species. The concentrations of 12 Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs), 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), 7 PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and 3 organotin derivatives were measured in 7 marine sponges collected in the Etel River (South Brittany, France). Results indicated Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Pb, and Ti particularly accumulated in marine sponges such as Hymeniacidon perlevis and Raspailia ramosa at higher levels compared to oysters. At the opposite, Cu and Zn accumulated significantly at higher concentrations in oysters. Among PAHs analyzed, benzo(a)pyrene bioaccumulated in H. perlevis at levels up to 17-fold higher than in oysters. In contrast, PCBs bioaccumulated preferentially in oysters. Significant differences exist in the abilities of marine phyla and sponge species to accumulate organic and metallic pollutants however, among the few sponge species studied, H. perlevis showed impressive bioaccumulation properties. The use of this species as bioindicator and/or bioremediator near shellfish farming areas is also discussed. PMID:26634290

  6. Puerto Rico workshop on land-based sources of marine pollution in the wider Caribbean region. Held in San Huan, Puerto Rico on August 7-9, 1989. US man and the biosphere program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The participants in the conference met August 7-9, 1989, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The participants divided the report into four major sections, each succeeding section relying for inputs from the preceding sections. They are: inventory of land-based sources of marine pollution. The inventory, divided into point sources and non-point sources of pollutants, establishes the baseline data for dealing with marine pollution, impact of land-based sources of marine pollution. The extent of the impact of pollutants on the ecological and economic life dependent on the marine environment calls for scientific analyses involving the nature of the polluting substances as well as that of the receiving marine areas, development of tropical water quality and effluent standards. Tropical water quality criteria and standards provide essential analytical links between the use of marine waters and the control of marine pollution, and marine pollution control strategy. The means for managing land-based sources of marine pollution can be divided into utilizing marine water quality standards, effluent standards, environmental planning, and best management practices. The writers of the report dealt with only man-made pollution, which is distinct from natural pollution such as oil seepage through ancient fissures in the seabed.

  7. Remote sensing and GIS for the modeling of persistent organic pollutant in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzini, S.; Teggi, S.; Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-10-01

    The characterization of the marine environment plays an important role in the understanding of the dynamics affecting the transport, fate and persistence (TFP) of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This work is part of a project funded by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca. The aim of the project is the assessment of the TFP of POPs in the Mediterranean sea. The analysis will be carried out at regionalmesoscale (central Mediterranean), and at local spatial scale considering different Italian test sites (the Delta of the Po River, the Venice Lagoon and the estuary of the Rio Nocella). The first step of this work involves the implementation of GIS geodatabases for the definition of the input dataset. The geodatabases were populated with MERIS and MODIS level 2 and level 3 products of Chlorophyll-a (CHL-a), Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient (DAC), Particulate Inorganic Carbon (PIC), Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The spatial scale (central Mediterranean sea) and the reference system (Plate Carrée projection) have been imposed as a constraint for the geodatabases. Four geodatabases have been implemented, two for MODIS and two for MERIS products with a monthly, seasonal and climatological temporal scale (2002 -2013). Here, we present a first application of a methodology aimed to identify vulnerable areas to POPs accumulation and persistence. The methodology allowed to assess the spatial distribution of the CHL-a in the central Mediterranean sea. The chlorophyll concentration is related to the amount of nutrients in the water and therefore provides an indicator of the potential presence of POPs. A pilot area of 300 x 200 km located in the North Adriatic sea has been initially considered. The seasonal and climatological MODIS and MERIS CHL-a variability were retrieved and compared with in-situ forcing parameters, i.e. Po River

  8. Are Mussels Always the Best Bioindicators? Comparative Study on Biochemical Responses of Three Marine Invertebrate Species to Chronic Port Pollution.

    PubMed

    Laitano, María V; Fernández-Gimenez, Analía V

    2016-07-01

    Bivalves have traditionally been considered good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to pollution, among other features. This characteristic is shared by several other non-bivalve species as well, though studies in this respect remain scarce. This work aims to compare biomarker sensitivity to chronic port pollution among three intertidal invertebrate species with good bioindicator characteristics. Mussels' immunological (phenoloxidase and peroxidases) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase) responses were contrasted against those of limpets and barnacles. The three species under study evidenced activity of all the enzymes measured, although with differences. Barnacle Balanus glandula was the most sensitive species showing pollution modulation of the three enzymes, which suggests that mussels would not always be the best bioindicator species among marine invertebrates depending on the responses that are assessed. PMID:27221210

  9. Are Mussels Always the Best Bioindicators? Comparative Study on Biochemical Responses of Three Marine Invertebrate Species to Chronic Port Pollution.

    PubMed

    Laitano, María V; Fernández-Gimenez, Analía V

    2016-07-01

    Bivalves have traditionally been considered good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to pollution, among other features. This characteristic is shared by several other non-bivalve species as well, though studies in this respect remain scarce. This work aims to compare biomarker sensitivity to chronic port pollution among three intertidal invertebrate species with good bioindicator characteristics. Mussels' immunological (phenoloxidase and peroxidases) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase) responses were contrasted against those of limpets and barnacles. The three species under study evidenced activity of all the enzymes measured, although with differences. Barnacle Balanus glandula was the most sensitive species showing pollution modulation of the three enzymes, which suggests that mussels would not always be the best bioindicator species among marine invertebrates depending on the responses that are assessed.

  10. Environmental pollutants in the Swedish marine ecosystem, with special emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE).

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Herzke, Dorte; Wedborg, Margareta; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2011-02-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) were analysed in whole herring (Clupea harengus) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus), eggs from common eider (Somateria mollissima) and eggs and livers from herring gull (Larus argentatus) from the Swedish west coast. The contaminant values obtained were compared with published values from the Arctic marine ecosystem. Tetra- and penta-brominated PBDEs were detected at low levels in herring, sprat and common eider (ΣPBDE 0.3-2.0 ng g(-1) ww), while the levels were higher in the herring gull samples (ΣPBDE 1.3-29.9 ng g(-1) ww). Hexa-decaBDEs were also found in samples from herring gulls. Eggs from herring gulls from the sub-Arctic contained four times more PBDE than the Swedish herring gulls eggs. Fish samples from the Arctic had two times higher levels of PBDEs and DDTs than similar samples from Sweden. The higher levels of contaminants in fish and seabirds from the Arctic reflect differences in transport processes, feeding ecology (reflected by trophic levels) and metabolism. PBDEs contributed to <10% of the total contaminant load in all investigated samples. The relative contribution of DDTs was higher in fish and bird samples from the Arctic when compared to Swedish samples, e.g. 65% in glaucous gull livers compared to 10% in herring gull livers. This study shows that even though the Swedish west coast is more urban than the Arctic, higher pollutants levels are found in seabird species from the Arctic. PMID:21220151

  11. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  12. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  13. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources.

  14. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  15. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Luther L.

    1970-01-01

    Our mechanized environment has produced a variety of man-made pollutants. Prevention of pollution and resulting health hazards is a primary challenge. The Federal Government undertakes a large responsibility in the field of environmental control. (CK)

  16. Monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment after the Prestige oil spill by means of seabird blood analysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; López-Alonso, Marta; Oro, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    In this study we tested the use of seabird blood as a bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in the marine environment. Blood cells of breeding yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) were able to track spatial and temporal changes consistent with the massive oil pollution pulse that resulted from the Prestige oil spill. Thus, in 2004, blood samples from yellow-legged gulls breeding in colonies that were in the trajectory of the spill doubled in theirtotal PAH concentrations when compared to samples from unoiled colonies. Furthermore, PAH levels in gulls from an oiled colony decreased by nearly a third in two consecutive breeding seasons (2004 and 2005). Experimental evidence was gathered by means of an oil-ingestion field experiment. The total concentration of PAHs in the blood of gulls given oil supplements was 30% higher compared to controls. This strongly suggested that measures of PAHs in the blood of gulls are sensitive to the ingestion of small quantities of oil. Our study provides evidence that seabirds were exposed to residual Prestige oil 17 months after the spill commenced and gives support to the nondestructive use of seabirds as biomonitors of oil pollution in marine environments.

  17. Relative contribution of persistent organic pollutants to marine phytoplankton biomass dynamics in the North Sea and the Kattegat.

    PubMed

    Everaert, Gert; De Laender, Frederik; Goethals, Peter L M; Janssen, Colin R

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we use concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and of chlorophyll a to infer POP-induced effects on marine primary production in the Kattegat and the North Sea between the 1990s and the 2000s. To do so, we modelled phytoplankton dynamics using four classical drivers (light and nutrient availability, temperature and zooplankton grazing) and tested whether extending this model with a POP-induced phytoplankton growth limitation term improved model fit to observed chlorophyll a concentrations. Including monitored concentrations of PCBs and pesticides did not lead to a better model fit, suggesting that POP-induced growth limitation of marine phytoplankton in the North Sea and the Kattegat is small compared to the limitations caused by the classical drivers. In an attempt to more fully represent the multitude of POPs in the marine environment, the monitored concentrations were multiplied with a factor 10 and 100. Under these two configurations, region-specific contributions of POPs in the phytoplankton growth limitation were found. The inferred contribution of POPs to phytoplankton growth limitation was ca. 1% in Belgian marine waters, but in the Kattegat POPs explained ca. 10% of the phytoplankton growth limitation. These results suggest that there are regional differences in the contribution of POPs to the phytoplankton growth limitation.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS.

  19. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals. PMID:26440545

  20. Estimation of lost tourism revenue in Geoje Island from the 2011 marine debris pollution event in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Mi Jeong; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-04-15

    Following a period of heavy rainfall in July 2011, a large amount of marine debris was washed up on the beaches of Geoje Island, South Korea, affecting the island's tourism industry. The tourism revenue decreased due to this pollution event and was estimated by multiplying the decreased number of visitors by the average expenditure of visitors to the beaches. Due to the fact that the visitor count at the Island's beaches decreased from 890,435 in 2010 to 330,207 in 2011 (i.e., a reduction of 560,228 persons, 63%), the tourism revenue loss of the island was estimated to be US$29-37 million. This study is one of the few to consider the economic effects of marine debris.

  1. Estimation of lost tourism revenue in Geoje Island from the 2011 marine debris pollution event in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Mi Jeong; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-04-15

    Following a period of heavy rainfall in July 2011, a large amount of marine debris was washed up on the beaches of Geoje Island, South Korea, affecting the island's tourism industry. The tourism revenue decreased due to this pollution event and was estimated by multiplying the decreased number of visitors by the average expenditure of visitors to the beaches. Due to the fact that the visitor count at the Island's beaches decreased from 890,435 in 2010 to 330,207 in 2011 (i.e., a reduction of 560,228 persons, 63%), the tourism revenue loss of the island was estimated to be US$29-37 million. This study is one of the few to consider the economic effects of marine debris. PMID:24635983

  2. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals.

  3. Desert Dust Layers Over Polluted Marine Boundary Layers: ACE-2 Measurements and ACE-Asia Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols in ACE-Asia are expected to have some commonalties with those in ACE-2, along with important differences. Among the commonalities are occurrences of desert dust layers over polluted marine boundary layers. Differences include the nature of the dust (yellowish in the East Asia desert outflow, vs. reddish-brown in the Sahara Outflow measured in ACE-2) and the composition of boundary-layer aerosols (e.g., more absorbing, soot and organic aerosol in-the Asian plume, caused by coal and biomass burning, with limited controls). In this paper we present ACE-2 measurements and analyses as a guide to our plans for ACE-2 Asia. The measurements include: (1) Vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth and extinction (380-1558 nm), and of water vapor column and concentration, from the surface through the elevated desert dust, measured by the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14); (2) Comparisons of airborne and shipborne sunphotometer optical depths to satellite-retrieved values, with and without desert dust; (3) Comparisons between airborne Sunphotometer optical depth and extinction spectra and those derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption; (4) Comparisons between size distributions measured in situ and retrieved from sunphotometer optical depth spectra; (5) Comparisons between aerosol single scattering albedo values obtained by several techniques, using various combinations of measurements of backscatter, extinction, size distribution, scattering, absorption, and radiative flux. We show how analyses of these data can be used to address questions important to ACE-Asia, such as: (1) How do dust and other absorbing aerosols affect the accuracy of satellite optical depth retrievals? How important are asphericity effects? (2) How important are supermicron dust and seasalt aerosols to overall aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing? How well are these aerosols sampled by aircraft

  4. Understanding sources, sinks, and transport of marine debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2011-07-01

    Fifth International Marine Debris Conference: Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris; Honolulu, Hawaii, 20 March 2011; Ocean pollution in the form of marine debris, especially plastic debris, has received increasing public and media attention in recent years through striking but frequently inaccurate descriptions of “garbage patches.” Marine debris is composed of all manufactured materials, including glass, metal, paper, fibers, and plastic, that have been deliberately dumped or that accidentally entered the marine environment. Marine debris is most visible on beaches, but it has been observed in all oceans and in such remote locations as on the deep seabed and floating in the middle of subtropical ocean gyres. While many initiatives have been developed to solve this pollution problem through prevention and cleanup efforts, there is relatively little scientific information available to assess the current status of the problem or to provide metrics to gauge the success of remediation measures. With this in mind, a full-day workshop entitled “Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris” was convened at the Fifth International Marine Debris Conference in Hawaii, bringing together observational scientists and oceanographic modelers to outline the steps necessary to quantify the major sources and sinks of marine debris and the pathways between them. The ultimate goal in integrating the two approaches of study is to quantify the basinscale and global inventory of marine debris by closing the associated mass budgets.

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution and pollution assessment of trace metals in marine sediments in Oyster Bay, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Alyazichi, Yasir M; Jones, Brian G; McLean, Errol

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of untreated urban and industrial wastewater has a deleterious effect on both the water and sediment quality of Oyster Bay located in south Sydney, Australia. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the potential pollution of marine sediments in Oyster Bay. The results of metals were compared with adverse biological effect values effect range low (ERL) and effect range median (ERM). Spatial distribution of trace metals was estimated by applying geographic information system. The results indicated that the sediments were polluted with Cu, Zn, As and Pb, which exceeded ERL levels. However, these metals were still below ERM values, and other metals Cr and Ni were below ERL. Moreover, the highest concentrations of metals were around discharge points and in the inner bay. Further, trace metals could be attributed to human activities within the bay as they declined in concentrations with increasing sediment depth.

  6. Development of a hybrid pollution index for heavy metals in marine and estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal pollution of sediments is a growing concern in most parts of the world, and numerous studies focussed on identifying contaminated sediments by using a range of digestion methods and pollution indices to estimate sediment contamination have been described in the literature. The current work provides a critical review of the more commonly used sediment digestion methods and identifies that weak acid digestion is more likely to provide guidance on elements that are likely to be bioavailable than other traditional methods of digestion. This work also reviews common pollution indices and identifies the Nemerow Pollution Index as the most appropriate method for establishing overall sediment quality. Consequently, a modified Pollution Index that can lead to a more reliable understanding of whole sediment quality is proposed. This modified pollution index is then tested against a number of existing studies and demonstrated to give a reliable and rapid estimate of sediment contamination and quality.

  7. Drivers of foraminiferal and bulk-sedimentary 10Be/9Be ratios in a marine sediment record offshore of sub-tropical Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, M. H.; Abrajevitch, A.; Srncik, M.; Fifield, L. K.; De Deckker, P.; Heslop, D.; Roberts, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Meteoric 10Be (half-life of ~1.5 My) is produced in the atmosphere via cosmic ray spallation of 16O, following which it is quickly transported to Earth's surface by precipitation. This process concentrates 10Be in the ocean, where it is thought to remain with a residence time of ~500-1000 years prior to export to the marine sedimentary record largely associated with sorption to the surface of settling clay particles. The bulk beryllium isotopic composition of marine clays hence reflects the convoluted factors of 10Be production and varying scavenging efficiency/terrigenous input. However, measurements of meteoric 10Be/9Be incorporated in the calcium carbonate tests of foraminifera (and hence presumably isolated from the dilution effects of sediment-bound terrigenous 9Be) may have the potential to provide useful chronological control for marine sediment records. Here we present 10Be/9Be results from a ~42 m-long sediment core collected off the NW coast of Australia (MD00-2361: 113°28.63‧E, 22°04.92‧S, 1805 m water depth). Measurements of δ18O on Globigerinoides ruber, supported by magnetostratigraphy, indicate that the record extends back >1.2 Ma. This independent chronology, in conjunction with excellent carbonate preservation at this site, allows preliminary evaluation of foraminiferal 10Be as a chronometer. We also evaluate the relationship between sedimentary 10Be/9Be ratios, regional surface ocean conditions as inferred from the δ18O stratigraphy and low-resolution Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca ratios, as well as large-scale changes in regional fluvial input as reconstructed from high-resolution XRF scanning profiles.

  8. Free fatty acid profiling of marine sentinels by nanoLC-EI-MS for the assessment of environmental pollution effects.

    PubMed

    Albergamo, Ambrogina; Rigano, Francesca; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-11-15

    The present work aims to elucidate the free fatty acid (FFA) profile of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caged in an anthropogenically impacted area and in a reference site through an innovative and validated analytical approach for the assessment of biological alterations induced by marine pollution. The FFA pattern is involved in the regulation of different cellular pathways and differs with respect to metabolic stimuli. To this purpose, the lipid fraction of mussels coming from both sampling areas was extracted and the FFA fractions were isolated and purified by a solid phase extraction; then, nano-scale liquid chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (nanoLC-EI-MS) was employed for the characterization of the two samples. A total of 19 and 17 FFAs were reliably identified in the mussels coming from the reference and polluted site, respectively. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences found in saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated species may be exploited as typical pollution biomarkers (e.g. alteration of the fatty acid biosynthetic system and lipotoxicity) and explain adverse and compromising effects (e.g. oxidative stress and inflammatory processes) related to environmental pollution.

  9. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution. PMID:27105728

  10. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution.

  11. Free fatty acid profiling of marine sentinels by nanoLC-EI-MS for the assessment of environmental pollution effects.

    PubMed

    Albergamo, Ambrogina; Rigano, Francesca; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-11-15

    The present work aims to elucidate the free fatty acid (FFA) profile of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caged in an anthropogenically impacted area and in a reference site through an innovative and validated analytical approach for the assessment of biological alterations induced by marine pollution. The FFA pattern is involved in the regulation of different cellular pathways and differs with respect to metabolic stimuli. To this purpose, the lipid fraction of mussels coming from both sampling areas was extracted and the FFA fractions were isolated and purified by a solid phase extraction; then, nano-scale liquid chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (nanoLC-EI-MS) was employed for the characterization of the two samples. A total of 19 and 17 FFAs were reliably identified in the mussels coming from the reference and polluted site, respectively. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences found in saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated species may be exploited as typical pollution biomarkers (e.g. alteration of the fatty acid biosynthetic system and lipotoxicity) and explain adverse and compromising effects (e.g. oxidative stress and inflammatory processes) related to environmental pollution. PMID:27453141

  12. Responses of aerobic and anaerobic ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms to anthropogenic pollution in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiluo; Li, Meng; Dang, Hongyue; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Up to date, numerous studies have shown that the community structure of aerobic ammonia oxidizers including ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria (Beta-AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and, more recently, the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria is responsive to environmental conditions including salinity, pH, selected metal ions, concentrations of inorganic nitrogen, total phosphorus, the ratio of organic carbon and nitrogen, and sedimentological factors such as the sediment median grain size. Identification of these responses to known anthropogenic pollution is of particular interest to better understand the growth dynamics and activities of nitrogen transforming microorganisms in marine environments. This chapter discusses currently available methods including molecular ecological analysis using clone library constructions with specific molecular genetic markers for delineating community changes of Beta-AOB, AOA, and anammox bacteria. Using data on ammonia-oxidizing microbial community structures from Jiaozhou Bay in North China and three marine environments with anthropogenic pollution gradients in South China from coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve of Hong Kong to the South China Sea as examples, statistical analyses packages (DOTUR, UniFrac, and Canoco) are presented as useful tools to illustrate the relationship between changes in nitrogen metabolizing microbial communities and established environmental variables. PMID:21514459

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-09-15

    Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment.

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-09-15

    Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment. PMID:23830520

  15. Responses of aerobic and anaerobic ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms to anthropogenic pollution in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiluo; Li, Meng; Dang, Hongyue; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Up to date, numerous studies have shown that the community structure of aerobic ammonia oxidizers including ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria (Beta-AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and, more recently, the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria is responsive to environmental conditions including salinity, pH, selected metal ions, concentrations of inorganic nitrogen, total phosphorus, the ratio of organic carbon and nitrogen, and sedimentological factors such as the sediment median grain size. Identification of these responses to known anthropogenic pollution is of particular interest to better understand the growth dynamics and activities of nitrogen transforming microorganisms in marine environments. This chapter discusses currently available methods including molecular ecological analysis using clone library constructions with specific molecular genetic markers for delineating community changes of Beta-AOB, AOA, and anammox bacteria. Using data on ammonia-oxidizing microbial community structures from Jiaozhou Bay in North China and three marine environments with anthropogenic pollution gradients in South China from coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve of Hong Kong to the South China Sea as examples, statistical analyses packages (DOTUR, UniFrac, and Canoco) are presented as useful tools to illustrate the relationship between changes in nitrogen metabolizing microbial communities and established environmental variables.

  16. [Effects of Oil Pollutants on the Performance of Marine Benthonic Microbial Fuel Cells and Its Acceleration of Degradation].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yao; Fu, Yu-bin; Liang, Sheng-kang; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2015-08-01

    Degradation of oil pollutants under the sea is slow for its oxygen-free environment which has caused long-term harm to ocean environment. This paper attempts to accelerate the degradation of the sea oil pollutants through electro catalysis by using the principle of marine benthonic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs). The influence of oil pollutants on the battery performance is innovatively explored by comparing the marine benthonic microbial fuel cells ( BMFCs-A) containing oil and oil-free microbial fuel cells (BMFCs-B). The acceleration effect of BMFCs is investigated by the comparison between the oil-degrading rate and the number of heterotrophic bacteria of the BMFCs-A and BMFCs-B on their anodes. The results show that the exchange current densities in the anode of the BMFCs-A and BMFCs-B are 1. 37 x 10(-2) A x m(-2) and 1.50 x 10(-3) A x m(-2) respectively and the maximum output power densities are 105.79 mW x m(-2) and 83.60 mW x m(-2) respectively. The exchange current densities have increased 9 times and the maximum output power density increased 1. 27 times. The anti-polarization ability of BMFCs-A is improved. The heterotrophic bacteria numbers of BMFCs-A and BMFCs-C on their anodes are (66 +/- 3.61) x 10(7) CFU x g(-1) and (7.3 +/- 2.08) x 10(7) CFU x g(-1) respectively and the former total number has increased 8 times, which accelerates the oil-degrading rate. The degrading rate of the oil in the BMFCs-A is 18.7 times higher than that in its natural conditions. The BMFCs can improve its electrochemical performance, meanwhile, the degradation of oil pollutants can also be accelerated. A new model of the marine benthonic microbial fuel cells on its acceleration of oil degradation is proposed in this article.

  17. The use of the Vibrio harveyi luminescence mutagenicity assay as a rapid test for preliminary assessment of mutagenic pollution of marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Podgórska, Beata; Pazdro, Ksenia; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2007-01-01

    Mutagenic pollution of the natural environment is currently one of the most serious environmental problems. It includes the pollution of marine sediments. Therefore, rapid detection of the presence of mutagens is an important issue. Recently, we have developed a novel microbiological assay for rapid assessment of mutagenicity of samples from the natural environment. This assay is based on bioluminescence of a mutant Vibrio harveyi strain, and was shown to be useful in testing samples of marine water and plant tissues. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this assay in preliminary assessment of mutagenic pollution of marine sediments. Mutagenicity of environmental samples taken from the Baltic Sea, is documented and compared here with a commercially available standard sediment sample (IAEA 383), which contains known amounts of mutagenic compounds. The whole procedure, from obtaining a sample in the laboratory to getting final results, is very short (less than 4 h).

  18. Long-range transport of the April 2001 dust clouds over the subtropical East Asia and the North Pacific and its impacts on ground-level air pollution: A Lagrangian simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2007-05-01

    One of the most remarkable Asian dust storms occurred in April 2001, during the periods of the Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE)-Asia and the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P) field experiments. Our high-resolution Lagrangian simulations and the detailed comparisons with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)-Aerosol Index (AI) data, the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS)-5 derived dust distribution, and the ground-level ambient air particulate matter measurements over Taiwan in the subtropical East Asia reveal several features which were not reported before. We found that (1) the trans-Pacific long-range transport was dominated by the dust emissions from the natural source over the Gobi desert and the anthropogenic source over east China before 6-7 April, while the southward long-range transport to the subtropical East Asia were mainly contributed by the dust emissions from natural source over the Taklamakan and the Gobi, and the anthropogenic source over east China after 6-7 April; (2) the southward long-range transport implies that the anthropogenic pollution is ahead of the cold front (where the precipitation washes out the particulate matter), while the dust is behind the cold front. (3) The dust emissions from the Gobi during 7-9 April, anthropogenic emissions from east China during 9-10 April, and dust emissions from the Taklamakan during 1-4 April appear to have the most significant impacts on the ground-level particulate matter concentrations over Taiwan. The simulated particle emitted from desert regions before 6-7 April mainly confined to the Gobi and the Taklamakan regions until 6 April when they became highly mobile for the long-range transport by the large-scale cyclonic activity and its associated cold air outbreak. The southward transport characteristics simulated here are consistent with the aerosol characterization observed at Taiwan during this period. Our simulations reveal that the rapid trans

  19. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Nicklisch, Sascha C. T.; Rees, Steven D.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T.; Vermeer, Lydia M.; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)–100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  20. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Rees, Steven D; McGrath, Aaron P; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T; Vermeer, Lydia M; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-04-01

    The world's oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)-100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  1. Potential effects of oil spills and other chemical pollutants on marine mammals occurring in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The outer continental shelf report describes and assesses the potential effects of oil spills and other contaminants on marine mammals that occur in Alaskan waters, assuming that a spill or contamination occurs. The report focuses primarily on the potential direct and indirect effects of oil spills on marine mammals and addresses both short-term effects that may occur at the time of contact with oil, and long-term effects that may occur long after contact with oil. The report also briefly reviews the literature on the potential effects of other contaminants such as heavy metals and organochlorines (DDT and PCB's) on marine mammals. The assessment concludes that sea otters, polar bears, fur seals, and very young seal pups could suffer serious or lethal effects if contact with oil occurred.

  2. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review.

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B

    2002-09-01

    The deleterious effects of plastic debris on the marine environment were reviewed by bringing together most of the literature published so far on the topic. A large number of marine species is known to be harmed and/or killed by plastic debris, which could jeopardize their survival, especially since many are already endangered by other forms of anthropogenic activities. Marine animals are mostly affected through entanglement in and ingestion of plastic litter. Other less known threats include the use of plastic debris by "invader" species and the absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls from ingested plastics. Less conspicuous forms, such as plastic pellets and "scrubbers" are also hazardous. To address the problem of plastic debris in the oceans is a difficult task, and a variety of approaches are urgently required. Some of the ways to mitigate the problem are discussed.

  3. Assessing pollution in marine protected areas: the role of a multi-biomarker and multi-organ approach.

    PubMed

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; de Araújo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Stremel, Tatiana; Campos, Sandro; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Sousa; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to many pressures, including pollution. However, environmental quality monitoring in these areas traditionally relies on only water chemistry and microbiological parameters. The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of a set of biomarkers in different target organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of fish in order to assess the environmental quality of an MPA (MTs, GPx, GST, GSH, DNA damage, LPO, AChE, and condition index). Chemical analyses were also performed on liver and muscle tissues to evaluate metal body burdens, and PAHs were identified in bile. A demersal fish (Cathorops spixii) that is widely consumed by the local population was used as bioindicator species, and the results were integrated using multivariate analysis. The use of the biomarker approach allowed for the identification of both seasonal and spatial variations in pollution sources around the Environmental Protected Area of Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (APA-CIP). Higher metal body burdens associated with biological responses were found in the sites under the influence of urban areas during the dry season, and they were found in the sites under the influence of the Ribeira de Iguape River (RIR) during the rainy season. The liver was found to be more responsive in terms of its antioxidant responses, whereas gills were found to be more responsive to biomarkers of effect. These results show that this set of biomarker analyses in different organs of fish is a useful tool for assessing chemical pollution in an MPA.

  4. Seasonal variation in the abundance of marine plastic debris in the estuary of a subtropical macro-scale drainage basin in South China.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Pui Kwan; Cheung, Lewis Ting On; Fok, Lincoln

    2016-08-15

    Marine plastic debris, including microplastic debris (0.315-5mm) and large plastic debris (>5mm), was collected from 25 beaches in Hong Kong during a wet summer season (June-August 2014) and the following dry winter season (January-March 2015). Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare the abundances and weights of seven categories of plastic debris between the two seasons. The results showed that the abundances and weights were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the wet season than in the dry season. Additionally, seasonal differences were detected only at the sites that were located on the west coast of Hong Kong and not at the sites on the east coast. These results suggest that the Pearl River Estuary on the west of Hong Kong plays a prominent role in the abundance and distribution of plastic debris in Hong Kong. In addition, the study indicates that estimates of microplastic abundance may be biased if samples are collected only during the wet or dry season if the sample locations are strongly influenced by a seasonal variation of riverine inputs, such as from the Pearl River.

  5. Seasonal variation in the abundance of marine plastic debris in the estuary of a subtropical macro-scale drainage basin in South China.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Pui Kwan; Cheung, Lewis Ting On; Fok, Lincoln

    2016-08-15

    Marine plastic debris, including microplastic debris (0.315-5mm) and large plastic debris (>5mm), was collected from 25 beaches in Hong Kong during a wet summer season (June-August 2014) and the following dry winter season (January-March 2015). Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare the abundances and weights of seven categories of plastic debris between the two seasons. The results showed that the abundances and weights were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the wet season than in the dry season. Additionally, seasonal differences were detected only at the sites that were located on the west coast of Hong Kong and not at the sites on the east coast. These results suggest that the Pearl River Estuary on the west of Hong Kong plays a prominent role in the abundance and distribution of plastic debris in Hong Kong. In addition, the study indicates that estimates of microplastic abundance may be biased if samples are collected only during the wet or dry season if the sample locations are strongly influenced by a seasonal variation of riverine inputs, such as from the Pearl River. PMID:27110978

  6. Differential fitness of allelic isozymes in the marine gastropods Littorina punctata and Littorina neritoides, exposed to the environmental stress of the combined effects of cadmium and mercury pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Batia; Nevo, Eviatar

    1987-07-01

    The present study tested the separate and the interactive pollution effects of cadmium and mercury on the electrophoretically detected allelic isozyme frequencies of the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase for two species of littoral marine gastropods — Littorina punctata and L. neritoides — and the enzyme amino peptidase for L. neritoides. Our results indicate differential survivorship of allelic isozyme genotypes specific for each type of pollutant and for their interaction, as well as trends common to all pollutants. Theoretically the results reflect the adaptive nature of at least some allozymic genotypes in these marine gastropods and seem inconsistent with the neutral theory of allozyme polymorphisms. Practically, the results reinforce earlier conclusions that changes in the frequency of allelic isozymes may be used as a genetic monitor of pollution.

  7. Potential sources of nitrous acid (HONO) and their impacts on ozone: A WRF-Chem study in a polluted subtropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Junyu; Xu, Zheng; Lv, Mengyao

    2016-04-01

    the Pearl River Delta region. This result highlights the importance of accurately representing HONO sources in simulations of secondary pollutants over polluted regions.

  8. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species

    PubMed Central

    Miya, M.; Sato, Y.; Fukunaga, T.; Sado, T.; Poulsen, J. Y.; Sato, K.; Minamoto, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Araki, H.; Kondoh, M.; Iwasaki, W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163–185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  9. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species.

    PubMed

    Miya, M; Sato, Y; Fukunaga, T; Sado, T; Poulsen, J Y; Sato, K; Minamoto, T; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, H; Araki, H; Kondoh, M; Iwasaki, W

    2015-07-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163-185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  10. GASEOUS ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN THE MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID REMOVAL IN ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) and related species (including inorganic reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (PHg)) were measured at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), Washington State, in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during 2001-2002. Air of...

  11. Transfer of radionuclides from high polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chain in post Fukushima period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezhenar, Roman; Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Willemsen, Stefan; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli

    2015-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake and tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) that resulted in an uncontrolled release of radioactivity into air and ocean. Around 80% of the radioactivity released due to the FDNPP accident in March-April 2011 was either directly discharged into the ocean or deposited onto the ocean surface from the atmosphere. A large amount of long-lived radionuclides (mainly Cs-137) were released into the environment. The concentration of radionuclides in the ocean reached a maximum in mid-April of 2011, and then gradually decreased. From 2011 the concentration of Cs-137 in water essentially fell except the area around the FDNPP where leaks of contaminated water are continued. However, in the bottom sediment high concentrations of Cs-137 were found in the first months after the accident and slowly decreased with time. Therefore, it should be expected that a time delay is found of sediment-bound radionuclides in marine organisms. For the modeling of radionuclide transfer from highly polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms the dynamical food chain model BURN-POSEIDON (Heling et al, 2002; Maderich et al., 2014) was extended. In this model marine organisms are grouped into a limited number of classes based on their trophic level and type of species. These include: phytoplankton, zooplankton, fishes (two types: piscivorous and non-piscivorous), crustaceans, and molluscs for pelagic food chain and bottom sediment invertebrates, demersal fishes and bottom predators for benthic food chain and whole water column predators feeding by pelagial and benthic fishes. Bottom invertebrates consume organic parts of bottom sediments with adsorbed radionuclides which then migrate through the food chain. All organisms take radionuclides directly from water as well as via food. In fishes where radioactivity is not homogeneously distributed over all tissues of the organism, it is assumed that radionuclide

  12. Microphysical and macrophysical responses of marine stratocumulus polluted by underlying ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Matthew Wells

    Multiple sensors flying in the A-train constellation of satellites were used to determine the extent to which aerosol plumes from ships passing below marine stratocumulus alter the microphysical and macrophysical properties of the clouds. Aerosol plumes generated by ships sometimes influence cloud microphysical properties (effective radius) and, to a largely undetermined extent, cloud macrophysical properties (liquid water path, coverage, depth, precipitation, and longevity). Aerosol indirect effects were brought into focus, using observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the 94-GHZ radar onboard CloudSat. To assess local cloud scale responses to aerosol, the locations of over one thousand ship tracks coinciding with the radar were meticulously logged by hand from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. MODIS imagery was used to distinguish ship tracks that were embedded in closed, open, and unclassifiable mesoscale cellular cloud structures. The impact of aerosol on the microphysical cloud properties in both the closed and open cell regimes were consistent with the changes predicted by the Twomey hypothesis. For the macrophysical changes, differences in the sign and magnitude of these properties were observed between cloud regimes. The results demonstrate that the spatial extent of rainfall (rain cover fraction) and intensity decrease in the clouds contaminated by the ship plume compared to the ambient pristine clouds. Although reductions of precipitation were common amongst the clouds with detectable rainfall (72% of cases), a substantial fraction of ship tracks (28% of cases) exhibited the opposite response. The sign and strength of the response was tied to the type of stratocumulus (e.g., closed vs open cells), depth of the boundary layer, and humidity in the free-troposphere. When closed cellular clouds were identified, liquid water path, drizzle rate, and rain cover fraction (an average

  13. Assessing consequences of marine pollution by hydrocarbons using sponges as model organisms.

    PubMed

    Zahn, R K; Zahn, G; Müller, W E; Kurelec, B; Rijavec, M; Batel, R; Given, R

    1981-09-01

    Pollution has been assessed as a mutagenic activity determined by the Ames test, using radiolabelled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a model pollutant. Experimental animals were sponges, mainly Tethya lyncurium from the Northern Adriatic and from the Pacific near Catalina Island, California, U.S.A. Changes in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17) and polyamine concentrations with and without pollution were observed. There is a slow rise in ODC activity during the course of three-weeks exposure and a fast increase of polyamine levels during the course of one day. Mixed function oxygenase (MFO; EC 1.14) activity could not be detected in sponges. There was a significant concentration dependent coupling of radioactive BaP derivatives (BaPD) to the macromolecular fractions; the highest in protein, X 1000 greater than DNA and X 500 greater than RNA. Coupling is light-mediated and drops to zero in the dark. However when activated microsomal fractions from fish, that had been exposed to high level polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution are added, dark incorporation rises to significant levels which can be decreased by the MFO inhibitor 7,8-benzoflavone (BP). The question of possible absence of DNA repair in the sponges and some implications are discussed.

  14. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Echeveste, Pedro; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agustí, Susana

    2016-11-15

    Semivolatile and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) undergo atmospheric transport before being deposited to the oceans, where they partition to phytoplankton organic matter. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of naturally occurring complex mixtures of organic pollutants to temperate and polar phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, the North East (NE) Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. The cell abundance of the different phytoplankton groups, chlorophyll a concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly affected by the complex mixtures of non-polar and polar organic pollutants, with toxicity being greater for these mixtures than for single POPs or simple POP mixtures. Cocktails' toxicity arose at concentrations as low as tenfold the field oceanic levels, probably due to a higher chemical activity of the mixture than of simple POPs mixtures. Overall, smaller cells were the most affected, although Mediterranean picophytoplankton was significantly more tolerant to non-polar POPs than picophytoplankton from the Atlantic Ocean or the Bellingshausen Sea microphytoplankton. PMID:27470667

  15. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Echeveste, Pedro; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agustí, Susana

    2016-11-15

    Semivolatile and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) undergo atmospheric transport before being deposited to the oceans, where they partition to phytoplankton organic matter. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of naturally occurring complex mixtures of organic pollutants to temperate and polar phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, the North East (NE) Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. The cell abundance of the different phytoplankton groups, chlorophyll a concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly affected by the complex mixtures of non-polar and polar organic pollutants, with toxicity being greater for these mixtures than for single POPs or simple POP mixtures. Cocktails' toxicity arose at concentrations as low as tenfold the field oceanic levels, probably due to a higher chemical activity of the mixture than of simple POPs mixtures. Overall, smaller cells were the most affected, although Mediterranean picophytoplankton was significantly more tolerant to non-polar POPs than picophytoplankton from the Atlantic Ocean or the Bellingshausen Sea microphytoplankton.

  16. Screening and isolation of PHB-producing bacteria in a polluted marine microbial mat.

    PubMed

    López-Cortés, Alejandro; Lanz-Landázuri, Alberto; García-Maldonado, José Q

    2008-07-01

    The characteristics of microbial mats within the waste stream from a seafood cannery were compared to a microbial community at a pristine site near a sandy beach at Puerto San Carlos, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Isolation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)-producing bacteria, recognition of brightly refractile cytoplasmatic inclusions, lipophilic stains with Sudan Black and Nile Red, and chemical extraction of PHB were used as a culture-dependent strategy for the detection of PHB-producing bacteria. The culture-independent approach included denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of phylotypes of 16S rRNA of microbial communities from environmental samples. Significant differences in community structure were found among the polluted and pristine sites. These differences were correlated with the physicochemical characteristics of the seawater column. At the polluted site, the seawater was rich in nutrients (ammonia, phosphates, and organic matter), compared to the pristine location. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA of cultures of bacteria producing PHB included Bacillus and Staphylococcus at both sites; Paracoccus and Micrococcus were found only at the polluted site and Rhodococcus and Methylobacterium were found only at the pristine site. Bands of the sequences of 16S rDNA from both field samples in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses affiliated closely only with bacterial sequences of cultures of Bacillus and Staphylococcus. High concentrations of organic and inorganic nutrients at the polluted site had a clear effect on the composition and diversity of the microbial community compared to the unpolluted site.

  17. The use of the shanny Lipophrys pholis for pollution monitoring: a new sentinel species for the northwestern European marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lima, D; Santos, M M; Ferreira, A M; Micaelo, C; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic ecosystems by organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a matter of great concern. Mussels have been extensively used as sentinel species in a large number of monitoring programs. However, the use of bivalves as the sole species has some limitations, because they are not as responsive as fish to Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor agonists. Hence, for many marine areas, there is the need to validate new sentinel fish species that can be used in the assessment of pollution by organic contaminants. The shanny Lipophrys pholis is an intertidal fish that combines many characteristics required in a sentinel species: is abundant and easy to catch, has a wide geographical distribution and restrict home range. After larvae recruitment to the intertidal rocky shores, they remain in the same area for the rest of the life-cycle, thus reflecting local pollutants exposure. In order to evaluate the species sensitivity to organic contaminants under field conditions, L. pholis were collected at six sites reflecting different degrees of anthropogenic contamination. The induction of two biomarkers extensively validated in the assessment of PAHs contamination ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) and Fluorescent Aromatic Compounds (FACs) was evaluated. In parallel, mussels were collected at the same locations and levels of 16 PAHs and selected heavy metals determined. Overall, the specimens collected in the urban areas showed a significant induction of EROD and FACs (up to a six-fold induction) if compared with the reference sites. Additionally, a positive correlation was observed between the biomarkers and PAHs levels in mussel tissues. Even though further validation is currently in progress, the available data indicate that L. pholis is responsive to organic contaminants such as PAHs, suggesting its future integration in monitoring programmes designed to evaluate the presence of these contaminants in European marine ecosystems.

  18. Temporal evolution of anthropogenic pollution and environmental changes in a marine inlet: the example of Gemlik Gulf, Marmara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albut, Gülüm; Namık Cagatay, M.; Gungor, Nurdan; Gungor, Emin; Acar, Dursun; Balkıs, Nuray

    2014-05-01

    Marginal marine basins are particularly prone to anthropogenic pollution because of restricted water circulation and commonly high population density in their drainage basin. Gemlik Gulf is such a semi-enclosed inlet with maximum depth of 113 m in the eastern part of the Sea of Marmara, which is separated from the rest of the Marmara shelf by a -50 m deep sill. It is under anthropogenic risk from different industrial and municipal pollution sources in its drainage basin. Moreover, Gemlik Gulf, located on the middle branch of the North Anatolian fault (NAF), is under a future earthquake risk with a high possibility of pollution from disruption to industrial plants and municipal infrastucture, similar to the the one that occurred in the Ä°zmit Gulf during the 1999 Mw 7.4 Ä°zmit earthquake. In this study, we investigated the extent and temporal evolution of the heavy metal and organic pollution using a wide range of analyses of a 84 cm sediment/water interface long core from the central part of the basin, involving μ-XRF Core Scanner, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Total Organic (TOC) and Inorganic Carbon (TIC), and mass spectrometric stable C and N isotopic and C and N elemental analyses. The chronology of the core was determined using radionuclide (210Pb and 137Cs) and AMS radiocarbon analysis. The core covers about last 800 years. The upper part of the core, representing the last 155 years, is gray mud grading into very dark grey mud in the top 84 cm. The 5-8 cm interval below sea floor (bsf) (AD 1985-1995) includes 3 white laminae consisting of coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi and another carbonate rich layer deposited during AD 1855-1950. TOC values are commonly between 1.5 and 2.5 % below 12.5 cmbsf (AD 1965), but increases up to 4.25 % towards the core top. The core includes a mass flow unit, which is most probably triggered by the AD 1855 earthquake, and is characterized by high contents of Fe, Zr, low contents of Ca, Nb, La U, Th

  19. Interaction between nitrogen and sulfur cycles in the polluted marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon, S. A.; Plane, J. M. C.; Nien, C.-F.; Cooper, D. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements are reported of the nitrate radical (NO3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the nighttime marine boundary layer over Biscayne Bay in South Florida. These field observations are analyzed and used to initialize a boundary layer box model which examines the relative importance of the various sinks for NOx in the marine boundary layer. The results show that the observed lifetime of NO3 (≤6 min.) is probably controlled both by the loss of nitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) to reaction with water vapor and aerosols and by the reaction between NO3 and DMS. The model is then extended to investigate the loss of nitrogen oxides from an air parcel that remains in the boundary layer with a constant sea-to-air DMS flux for several days. The principal conclusions are (1) that DMS is a much more important sink for NO3 at lower NO2 levels and (2) that the reaction between NO3 and DMS is an important sink for DMS in the marine boundary layer and could exceed that of the daytime removal by OH.

  20. The microbial nitrogen cycling potential is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution of marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Nicole M.; Hess, Matthias; Bouskill, Nick J.; Mason, Olivia U.; Jansson, Janet K.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    During hydrocarbon exposure, the composition and functional dynamics of marine microbial communities are altered, favoring bacteria that can utilize this rich carbon source. Initial exposure of high levels of hydrocarbons in aerobic surface sediments can enrich growth of heterotrophic microorganisms having hydrocarbon degradation capacity. As a result, there can be a localized reduction in oxygen potential within the surface layer of marine sediments causing anaerobic zones. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to elevated hydrocarbon concentrations would positively correlate with an increase in denitrification processes and the net accumulation of dinitrogen. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen cycling identified in 6 metagenomes from sediments contaminated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 metagenomes from sediments associated with natural oil seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel. An additional 8 metagenomes from uncontaminated sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for comparison. We predicted relative changes in metabolite turnover as a function of the differential microbial gene abundances, which showed predicted accumulation of metabolites associated with denitrification processes, including anammox, in the contaminated samples compared to uncontaminated sediments, with the magnitude of this change being positively correlated to the hydrocarbon concentration and exposure duration. These data highlight the potential impact of hydrocarbon inputs on N cycling processes in marine sediments and provide information relevant for system scale models of nitrogen metabolism in affected ecosystems. PMID:24723913

  1. Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from the Natuna Island, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-15

    Five marine fish species were collected from the Natuna Island, South China Sea to investigate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs in marine fish ranged from 2.85 to 7.82, 14.3 to 48.1, and 7.99 to 40.3 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Higher concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs were observed in Snakefish (Trachinocephalus myops), which might be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. PCBs were the predominant POPs in all marine fish, followed by DDTs and PBDEs. BDE 47 and PCB 153 were the predominant congener of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. Compositional distribution of DDTs indicated the possible presence of fresh input sources around the Natuna Island. The ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT being less than 1 in fish samples suggested that DDT contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. New input sources of DDT in South China Sea are worth further research.

  2. Metallothioneins and heat shock proteins 70 in marine mussels as sensors of environmental pollution in Northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Mićović, Vladimir; Bulog, Aleksandar; Kučić, Natalia; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Radošević-Stašić, Biserka

    2009-11-01

    In an attempt to assess the intensity of environmental pollution in industrial zones of Kvarnerian Bay in Northern Adriatic Sea and the reactivity of Mytilus galloprovincialis to these changes, in this study we estimated the concentration of heavy metals at four locations in both sea-sediment and in the mussels. Further we tried to correlate these changes with seasonal variations in environmental temperature, pH and salinity, as well as with the expression of metallothioneins (MTs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the digestive tract of the mussels. Sampling in vivo was performed monthly, during the year 2008, while under the laboratory conditions the reactivity of acclimated mussels were tested to increasing concentrations of CdCl(2) and to thermal stress. The data have shown that the induction of MTs and HSP isoforms of the 70-kDa size class were highly affected by model agents treatment including contamination of sea-sediment by Pb, Hg and Cd, implying that these stress proteins might be power biomarkers of marine pollution.

  3. Comparison of Four Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods for the Rapid Detection of Human Fecal Pollution in Marine and Inland Waters

    PubMed Central

    Bachoon, Dave S.; Miller, Cortney M.; Green, Christen P.; Otero, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of three PCR protocols for the detection of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and one PCR protocol for detecting Bacteroidales as indicators of human fecal pollution in environmental samples. Quantitative PCR indicated that a higher concentration of B. adolescentis DNA was recovered from sewage samples on the 0.2 μm filters compared to the 0.45 μm filters, and there was no evidence of qPCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts. With the Matsuki method (1999), B. adolescentis was detected only in undiluted sewage samples. The King method (2007) performed well and detected B. adolescentis in all of the sewage dilutions (from undiluted to 10−4). In contrast, the Bonjoch approach (2004) was effective at detecting B. adolescentis at lower dilutions (10−3) of sewage samples and it gave false positive results with some (3/8) pig fecal samples. Human-specific Bacteroidales (HuBacs) were detected in the lower diluents of sewage samples but was positive in pig (6/8) and cattle fecal samples. PCR detection of B. adolescentis in marine samples from Puerto Rico and freshwater samples from Georgia indicated that the PCR method of King et al. (2007) and the modified Layton method for HuBac were in agreement in detecting human fecal pollution in most sites. PMID:20811614

  4. Use of ERTS imagery in air pollution and marine biology studies, tasks 1 through 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E.; Ludwick, J. C.; Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator); Bandy, A. R.; Fleischer, P.; Hanna, W. J.; Gosink, T. A.; Bowker, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The general suitability of ERTS imagery in detecting ground originated air pollution has proved to be excellent. The quality and resolution exceeded expectations and has permitted in some instances location of point sources to within a thousand feet. Suitable techniques have not yet been developed for determining or measuring area and line sources of air pollution. A major problem has been cloud cover that has persisted over the area of primary interest, the Chesapeake Bay. Work has been completed on mounting the shipboard transmissometer which will be used for investigations to relate the chlorophyll and suspended sediment content in the waters of the Lower Chesapeake Bay to ERTS-1 imagery. Water sampling, plankton analysis, and preparations for sea collection of water truth along the eastern continental shelf of the U.S. have been completed for use in comparisons with ERTS-1 data.

  5. Chemical characterization of particulate air pollutants Case studies on indoor air quality, cultural heritage and the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horemans, Benjamin

    When attempting to discuss the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), it is important to address both physical and chemical aspects of this pollutant. This work reports on the results of three separate case studies, each approaching a specific problem of air pollution by evaluating the chemical composition of PM. 1. In the US and Europe, office workers often complain about work-related health symptoms. These symptoms are collectively referred as the 'sick building syndrome'. This work could be considered as one of the largest data collections on particulate pollutants in Belgian offices. It helps to understand the sources as well as the behavior and fate of PM at our workplace environments. Especially the chemical information on PM makes the results unique, since it enables a better evaluation of the health risks connected to office dust. 2. The Alhambra and Generalife bring every year more than 3 million people to Granada in Southern Spain. Recently, the increasing urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism form a threat for this heritage. Despite the fact that atmospheric pollutants are known to he potentially aggressive for our cultural patrimony. this case study is the first to assess the effects of environmental aerosols on the Alhambra monument. The results of this study could help decision-makers at the Alhambra and the city of Granada with the formulation of preventive conservation measures. They show how local vehicular traffic is the main source for atmospheric pollution in and around the Alhambra monument. Targeted strategies are necessary in order to maximally preserve these monuments and their UNESCO world cultural heritage label. 3. Excessive input of nitrogen-containing atmospheric nutrients via dry and wet deposition can cause entrophication of marine regions, which is also a common, seasonal phenomenon along the coasts of the North Sea. This study is the first to give a complete quantitative description of the

  6. Comparison of antibodies in marine fish from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight: relative levels against 36 bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Robohm, R A; Brown, C; Murchelano, R A

    1979-01-01

    Fish from polluted waters are subject to increased prevalence of disease. Because they respond to bacterial pathogens by producing serum antibodies, it was possible to construct a seasonal serological record in three fish species from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight. Antibody levels were determined by testing sera for agglutinating activity against 36 strains of bacteria. Evaluation of 5,100 antibody titrations showed the following. During warm months, summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from the polluted area had significantly higher antibody levels and antibody to a greater diversity of bacteria than fish from the unpolluted area. Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) from the same polluted area shared with summer flounder raised titers to many bacteria. The greatest proportion of raised titers was against Vibrio species, although prominent titers were also seen against Aeromonas salmonicida and Haemophilus piscium, bacteria usually associated with diseases in freshwater but not marine fish. Differences between polluted and clean waters were not as evident in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) during cold months. This could be due, in part, to reduced antibody production at colder temperatures. The data illustrate the usefulness of the serum antibody record in identifying environmental exposure to bacteria in marine fish and indicate that the polluted New York Bight apex has increased levels and diversity of bacteria during warm months. PMID:518084

  7. Imposex as a biomonitoring tool for marine pollution by tributyltin: some further observations.

    PubMed

    Axiak, Victor; Micallef, Diane; Muscat, Joanne; Vella, Alfred; Mintoff, Bernardette

    2003-03-01

    Imposex, i.e., the imposition of male sexual characteristics on female neograstropods, has been used worldwide as a bioindicator of pollution by the antifouling agent TBT as well as to assess the related ecological impact. The recent total ban on the use of TBT in the maritime industry has been partly based on the use of such a biomarker. This is mainly based on the assumption that no other pollutant, or environmental stress, is able to induce such a biological response. Nonetheless, several authors had challenged this idea. The present paper will present further field observations on imposex in Hexaplex trunculus from Malta (Central Mediterranean) which may help clarify this issue. Furthermore, the incidence of imposex in this species will be related to body burdens and to the environmental levels of organotins as measured analytically. First histological observations will also be presented which may help clarify the ecological significance of this response in this species. Finally a number of alternative scenarios regarding the relationship between imposex and TBT will be discussed. PMID:12605923

  8. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4'-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect.

  9. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4'-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect. PMID:23044032

  10. Effect of radioactive pollution on the biodiversity of marine benthic ecosystems of the Russian Arctic shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Denis K.; Galtsova, Valentina V.

    2012-07-01

    This study is the result of many years of research on the ecology of the marine benthos of Russian Arctic seas. We used samples collected at various locations from the Russian continental shelf during 1993-2009 as the basis of our study. Our main aim was to analyze the spatial distribution of taxonomic and quantitative characteristics of the meiobenthos (small bottom-dwelling animals, 0.1-3.0 mm in size). Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the factors determining the spatial distribution of meiobenthic organisms under natural conditions, and conditions impacted upon by human activity, were salinity, water depth, hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radiocaesium volumetric activity. The possible use of the meiobenthos as a tool for environmental impact assessment is proposed and discussed on the level of higher taxa.

  11. Water-oil separation performance of technical textiles used for marine pollution disasters.

    PubMed

    Seddighi, Mahdi; Hejazi, Sayyed Mahdi

    2015-07-15

    Oil is principally one of the most important energy sources in the world. However, as long as oil is explored and transported for being used, there will be the risk of the spillage into the marine environment. The use of technical textiles, i.e. fibrous beds, is a conventional separation technique for oil/water emulsion since it is efficient and easy to design. In this paper, the recovery of oil by technical textiles was mathematically modeled based on the structural parameters of textile and the capillary mechanism. Eleven types of commercial technical textiles with different properties were prepared for the experimental program. The experimental design included fiber type (polypropylene and polyester), fabric type (woven and/or nonwoven), fabric thickness and fabric areal density. Consequently, the absorption capacities of different technical textile samples were derived by the use of theoretical and experimental methods. The results show that there is a well fitness between theoretical outputs and experimental data.

  12. Foraminifers as indicators of marine pollution: a culture experiment with Rosalina leei.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, R; Kurtarkar, Sujata R; Mazumder, A; Nigam, R

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop a viable foraminiferal proxy for heavy metal pollutants, juvenile specimens of Rosalina leei were subjected to different mercury concentrations (0-180 ng/l). Initially considerable growth was observed in specimens kept in saline water having a mercury concentration up to 100 ng/l. But with the gradual increase in concentration of mercury the growth rate started decreasing. Total growth achieved was significantly lower in case of specimens kept at relatively higher mercury concentrations then those maintained in normal saline water. The most significant result of this experiment was the addition of abnormal chambers in the specimens kept at higher mercury concentration. Later the specimens kept at highest concentration (180 ng/l) were subjected to progressively increasing concentration of mercury to see the further effects and it was found that the specimens were still living at as high a mercury concentration as 260 ng/l although there was no growth.

  13. Foraminifera as indicators of marine pollutant contamination on the inner continental shelf of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Patricia P B; Eichler, Beatriz B; Gupta, Barun Sen; Rodrigues, André Rösch

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of living foraminiferal and environmental parameters near an outfall at Mar Grosso Beach (Laguna, SC, Brazil) demonstrate its usefulness as indicators of domestic sewage pollution. The low species diversity may be due to sand accumulation in the central part. Higher diversity was noted closer to the mouth of Laguna estuarine system where reduced salinity and higher temperatures indicate freshwater influence, suggesting a relationship between increased diversity and greater availability of terrestrial food. On the basis of foraminiferal diversity and average coliform count the higher values are closer to the mouth of the estuarine system and under the influence of the outfall. Due to the effect of local hydrodynamics, the particulate organic waste derived from the outfall does not settle down locally, and thus, do not accumulate nearby. Our hypothesis is that the fine material derived from the outfall is accumulating on the southwestern and northwestern parts of the beach. PMID:22118897

  14. Boring crustaceans damage polystyrene floats under docks polluting marine waters with microplastic.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Boring isopods damage expanded polystyrene floats under docks and, in the process, expel copious numbers of microplastic particles. This paper describes the impacts of boring isopods in aquaculture facilities and docks, quantifies and discusses the implications of these microplastics, and tests if an alternate foam type prevents boring. Floats from aquaculture facilities and docks were heavily damaged by thousands of isopods and their burrows. Multiple sites in Asia, Australia, Panama, and the USA exhibited evidence of isopod damage. One isopod creates thousands of microplastic particles when excavating a burrow; colonies can expel millions of particles. Microplastics similar in size to these particles may facilitate the spread of non-native species or be ingested by organisms causing physical or toxicological harm. Extruded polystyrene inhibited boring, suggesting this foam may prevent damage in the field. These results reveal boring isopods cause widespread damage to docks and are a novel source of microplastic pollution. PMID:22763283

  15. Boring crustaceans damage polystyrene floats under docks polluting marine waters with microplastic.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Boring isopods damage expanded polystyrene floats under docks and, in the process, expel copious numbers of microplastic particles. This paper describes the impacts of boring isopods in aquaculture facilities and docks, quantifies and discusses the implications of these microplastics, and tests if an alternate foam type prevents boring. Floats from aquaculture facilities and docks were heavily damaged by thousands of isopods and their burrows. Multiple sites in Asia, Australia, Panama, and the USA exhibited evidence of isopod damage. One isopod creates thousands of microplastic particles when excavating a burrow; colonies can expel millions of particles. Microplastics similar in size to these particles may facilitate the spread of non-native species or be ingested by organisms causing physical or toxicological harm. Extruded polystyrene inhibited boring, suggesting this foam may prevent damage in the field. These results reveal boring isopods cause widespread damage to docks and are a novel source of microplastic pollution.

  16. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baya, A.M.; Brayton, P.R.; Brown, V.L.; Grimes, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Colwell, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 ..mu..g of one of a set of chemical selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmic DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites.

  17. Assessment of oxidative stress indices in a marine macro brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck) from comparable polluted coastal regions of the Arabian Sea, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Dusmant; Jena, Karmabeer; Pise, Navnath M; Jagtap, Tanaji G

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems were assessed in a marine brown alga Padina tetrastromatica, commonly occurring from the tropics. Lipid peroxidation (LPX) and H2O2 were measured as oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant defences were measured as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and ascorbic acid (AsA), in order to understand their dissimilarity with respect to pollution levels from selective locations along the central west coast of India. A significant increased levels of LPX, H2O2, CAT and GST were observed in samples from relatively polluted localities (Colaba and Karwar) when compared to less polluted locality (Anjuna), while AsA concentration was higher in algal samples from worst polluted region of Colaba. Heavy metals such as Cd and Pb were also higher in the vicinity of polluted areas compared to reference area. Variation of oxidative stress indices in response to accumulation of heavy metals within P. tetrastromatica could be used as molecular biomarkers in assessment and monitoring environmental quality of ecologically sensitive marine habitats.

  18. Marine meiobenthic and nematode community structure in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong upon recovery from sewage pollution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Shou; Xu, Wen-Zhe; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S

    2011-01-01

    Sediment quality, meiofaunal and nematode communities were monitored across six time points at two inside-harbour and three outside-harbour sites over a three-year period in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong, after the implementation of a sewage treatment project. Twenty-one meiofaunal groups comprising mainly free-living nematodes and harpacticoid copepods and 188 species of free-living nematodes were identified. The outside-harbour area had a more diverse and significantly different nematode community structure as compared to that in the inside-harbour area. Such spatial difference was highly correlated with the total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of the sediments. Over the study period, there was no significant improvement in sediment quality within the harbour. However, in the last sampling time, an increase in meiofaunal abundance and a closer similarity in nematode composition between one of the inside- and outside-harbour sites suggested signs of recovery of the meiofauna as a response to abatement of sewage pollution. PMID:21474152

  19. Use of scleractinian corals to indicate marine pollution in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Barakat, S A; Al-Rousan, S; Al-Trabeen, M S

    2015-02-01

    The actual and fatal concentrations of selected heavy metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in corals from the Gulf of Aqaba were determined. Several living coral samples of different species (e.g., Porites) were collected from shallow depths (of about 5 m) at a number of sites along the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba coast. The coral samples were collected using either a pneumatic diamond drill corer (for Porites) or a hammer and chisel (for other branched species). Some of the corals that had been collected were analyzed for heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrometry, and other samples were used in incubation experiments. The heavy metal concentrations were determined separately in the coral skeleton and the tissue layer. Heavy metal concentrations have not previously been determined in corals from the Gulf of Aqaba. We conclude that corals are suitable for use as proxy tools for assessing environmental pollution (i.e., they are bioindicators) in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Therefore, this study provides useful information on the degree of heavy metal contamination in the study area.

  20. Pollutant threshold concentration determination in marine ecosystems using an ecological interaction endpoint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changyou; Liang, Shengkang; Guo, Wenting; Yu, Hua; Xing, Wenhui

    2015-09-01

    The threshold concentrations of pollutants are determined by extrapolating single-species effect data to community-level effects. This assumes the most sensitive endpoint of the life cycle of individuals and the species sensitivity distribution from single-species toxic effect tests, thus, ignoring the ecological interactions. The uncertainties due to this extrapolation can be partially overcome using the equilibrium point of a customized ecosystem. This method incorporates ecological interactions and integrates the effects on growth, survival, and ingestion into a single effect measure, the equilibrium point excursion in the customized ecosystem, in order to describe the toxic effects on plankton. A case study showed that the threshold concentration of copper calculated with the endpoint of the equilibrium point was 10 μg L(-1), which is significantly different from the threshold calculated with a single-species endpoint. The endpoint calculated using this method provides a more relevant measure of the ecological impact than any single individual-level endpoint. PMID:25982547

  1. Development of an effective methodology for marine pollution monitoring in an industrialized urban envirnoment: (A remotesensing approach)

    SciTech Connect

    Inamdar, A.B.; Venkatakrishnan, N.; Nayak, B.P.

    1997-06-01

    The study area chosen for marine pollution monitoring was Thane Creek; near Bombay city; which essentially constitutes an industrialized urban setting. The area chosen within the Thane Creek, was between Vikhroli Creek and the Vashi Bridge in the south (approx. 75, kms.). Remote sensing technique was applied for assessing water quality parameters around Thane Creek in addition to conventional chemical analysis of samples collected during the pass of the satellite. The variation in the ranges of the water quality parameters chemically analyzed were: pH (6.67 - 7.94), Salinity (5.65 - 33.05 g/Kg), Turbidity (0.2 - 15.0 NTU), TSS (2.1 - 400 mg/L), TDS (850 - 38,500 mg/L), Temperature (24{degrees} - 30{degrees}C), and Colour (colourless-, green-, red-, or black). In the remote sensing studies. Turbidity and Temperature were quantified using Landsat TM data. An empirical approach of relating TM data to ground reference data for these parameters was employed through regression analysis. Two regression models were adapted namely Multiple Regression and Linear Regression. Comparative study between the two model techniques was carried out in order to arrive at the best possible method.

  2. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds.

    PubMed

    Choy, Emily S; Kimpe, Linda E; Mallory, Mark L; Smol, John P; Blais, Jules M

    2010-11-01

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with ∑PCB and ∑DDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing δ(15)N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:∑DDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web.

  3. Benthic foraminifera assemblages as elemental pollution bioindicator in marine sediments around fish farm (Vrgada Island, Central Adriatic, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Vidović, Jelena; Dolenec, Matej; Dolenec, Tadej; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Žvab Rožič, Petra

    2014-06-15

    Effects on sediments of fish farming activity near Vrgada Island was analysed through living and total foraminiferal assemblages and concentration of major, minor and trace elements from three sediment cores. Elemental concentrations of sediments are in accordance with carbonate characteristics of the surrounding area and show mostly natural element variations between sampling locations and throughout the cores, with no significant increases due to fish farming activity. Only phosphorus concentration shows elevate values below the fish cage, assigned to fish pellets. Foraminiferal communities are dominated by epifaunal and stress tolerant species, while diversity indices point to normal marine conditions. The type of substrate and phosphorus content in sediments principally influence foraminiferal community composition, while other elemental concentrations have no perceptible effect on the assemblages. Some foraminiferal species Ammoniatepida, Ammoniabeccarii, Elphidiumcrispum, Elphidiummacellum and genus Haynesina are confirmed to be tolerant to elevated nutrient (phosphorus) content, while Ammonia parkinsoniana shows sensitivity to pollution. Postmortem processes cause decrease of foraminiferal density and species richness with core depth. All results point to negligible influence of fish farming and relatively stable environmental conditions at all sampling locations.

  4. Persistent organic pollutant and mercury concentrations in eggs of ground-nesting marine birds in the Canadian high Arctic.

    PubMed

    Peck, Liam E; Gilchrist, H Grant; Mallory, Conor D; Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L

    2016-06-15

    We collected eggs of eight marine bird species from several colony sites in the Canadian high Arctic located at approximately 76°N and analyzed them for concentrations of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury. We provide the first report on concentrations of POPs in eggs of three Arctic species (Thayer's gull Larus thayeri, Sabine's gull Xema sabini, Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea), and we found significant differences in each of the POP profiles among the five species with sufficient data for statistical comparisons (Thayer's gull, black guillemot Cepphus grylle, Sabine's gull, Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and common eider Somateria mollissima borealis). The Ross's Gull had unexpectedly high POP concentrations relative to the other species examined, although this was based on a single egg, while glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus eggs from our sampling location had very low POPs. Sabine's gulls had the lowest Hg of the eggs studied, consistent with their low trophic position, but concentrations of their legacy POPs were higher than expected. We also noted that total hexachlorocyclohexanes were higher than reported elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic in three species. PMID:26971212

  5. Benthic foraminifera assemblages as elemental pollution bioindicator in marine sediments around fish farm (Vrgada Island, Central Adriatic, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Vidović, Jelena; Dolenec, Matej; Dolenec, Tadej; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Žvab Rožič, Petra

    2014-06-15

    Effects on sediments of fish farming activity near Vrgada Island was analysed through living and total foraminiferal assemblages and concentration of major, minor and trace elements from three sediment cores. Elemental concentrations of sediments are in accordance with carbonate characteristics of the surrounding area and show mostly natural element variations between sampling locations and throughout the cores, with no significant increases due to fish farming activity. Only phosphorus concentration shows elevate values below the fish cage, assigned to fish pellets. Foraminiferal communities are dominated by epifaunal and stress tolerant species, while diversity indices point to normal marine conditions. The type of substrate and phosphorus content in sediments principally influence foraminiferal community composition, while other elemental concentrations have no perceptible effect on the assemblages. Some foraminiferal species Ammoniatepida, Ammoniabeccarii, Elphidiumcrispum, Elphidiummacellum and genus Haynesina are confirmed to be tolerant to elevated nutrient (phosphorus) content, while Ammonia parkinsoniana shows sensitivity to pollution. Postmortem processes cause decrease of foraminiferal density and species richness with core depth. All results point to negligible influence of fish farming and relatively stable environmental conditions at all sampling locations. PMID:24768261

  6. The system Tetrabothrius bassani (Tetrabothriidae)/Morus bassanus (Sulidae) as a bioindicator of marine heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Paula; Eira, Catarina; Vingada, José; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi

    2013-03-01

    Helminths are known to accumulate higher amounts of certain elements than their hosts. The present study assesses the accumulation of heavy metals in Tetrabothrius bassani and in its host, the Atlantic gannet (Morus bassanus) found dead due to bycatch along the seashore in the centre of Portugal. Samples of kidney, liver and pectoral muscle of 23 infected gannets, as well as specimens of T. bassani were analysed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn by ICP-MS. The evidenced lower concentrations of Cr and Pb in tissues of gannets in comparison to an earlier study performed in the same area may reveal a change in the diet of M. bassanus between both study periods. The highest bioaccumulation factor was obtained for Cd with a 12.7-times higher concentration in the cestode than in gannet muscle. Lead concentration in T. bassani was 6.9-times higher than in kidney tissue, 8.5-times higher than in muscle and 9.5-times higher than in liver of M. bassanus. The cestode/seabird system T. bassani/M. bassanus can be considered a promising bioindicator system to monitor environmental Cd and Pb pollution in marine ecosystems.

  7. Determining provenance of marine metal pollution in French bivalves using Cd, Zn and Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiel, Alyssa E.; Weis, Dominique; Cossa, Daniel; Orians, Kristin J.

    2013-11-01

    Cadmium, Zn and Pb isotopic compositions (MC-ICP-MS) and elemental concentrations (HR-ICP-MS) have been used to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in bivalves collected from the coastlines of France (English Channel, Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts). The Cd isotopic signatures (δ114Cd = -1.08‰ to -0.52‰) exhibited by bivalves from the coastlines of France, excluding those from NE France, are within the range of those exhibited by bivalves from the USA East coast (δ114Cd = -1.20‰ to -0.54‰). This indicates the high prevalence of industry, as well as the low natural contributions of Cd from North Atlantic waters in both regions. Thus, the significance of anthropogenic Cd sources is similar. These significant anthropogenic contributions are identified for bivalves with a large range in tissue Cd concentrations. Importantly, French bivalves from the Gironde estuary and Marennes-Oléron basin (regions of historic and modern importance for oyster farming, respectively) exhibited the highest Cd levels of the study. Their Cd isotopic signatures indicate historical smelting emissions remain the primary Cd source despite the cessation of local smelting activities in 1986 and subsequent remedial efforts. No significant variability is observed in the δ66Zn values of the French bivalves (∼0.53‰), with the exception of the much heavier compositions exhibited by oysters from the polluted Gironde estuary (1.19-1.27‰). Lead isotopes do not fractionate during processing like Cd and Zn. They can, therefore, be used to identify emissions from industrial processes and the consumption of unleaded gasoline and diesel fuel as metal sources to French bivalves. Cadmium and Zn isotopes are successfully used here as tracers of anthropogenic processing emissions and are combined with Pb isotope "fingerprinting" techniques to identify metal sources.

  8. Cardiac activity in marine invertebrates in response to pollutants: Automated interpulse duration assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lundebye, A.K.; Curtis, T.; Depledge, M.H.

    1995-12-31

    The updated method of the Computer-Aided Physiological Monitoring (CAPMON) system was used to study the effects of copper exposure on cardiac activity in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and the common mussel (Mytilus edulis). This new Automated Interpulse Duration Assessment (AIDA) system measures the time interval between heart beats, and was found to be a more sensitive tool for evaluating cardiac responses to pollutant exposure than other techniques. In addition to information regarding heart rate, also obtained by the CAPMON system (as beats per minute), the new system enables frequency distribution analysis of interpulse duration. An experiment involving C. maenas examined the effects of short term (24 h) and chronic exposure (4 weeks) to copper concentrations 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mgl{sup {minus}1} Cu. Subsequent recovery (6 weeks) of cardiac activity was also examined. In a second experiment mussels were exposed to one of five copper concentrations (in the range of 0--0.1 mgl{sup {minus}1} Cu) and `normal` cardiac activity was compared with activity after copper exposure. A dose-response relationship was established between copper concentration and heart rate in crabs. The control group had the longest mean inter-pulse duration, and mean interpulse duration decreased in a concentration-dependent manner for the copper treatments, reflecting an increase in heart rate. Distribution of interpulse duration changed from a variable, rather wide distribution in control crabs, to a sharp-peaked normal distribution in exposed crabs. Results after 4 weeks exposure were not significantly different from those found after 24 h. Return to normal cardiac activity was evident after a 6 week `recovery` period. Results from the mussel experiment showed burst activity followed by a decline in heart rate in response to copper exposure.

  9. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM<0.1 have the lowest probability (9%) of being toxic, those with m-ERM from 0.11 to 0.5 have a 21% probability of toxicity, those with m-ERM from 0.51 to 1.5 a 49% probability of toxicity, while sediments with m-ERM >1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina

  10. A novel biomarker for marine environmental pollution of pi-class glutathione S-transferase from Mytilus coruscus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; He, Jianyu; Zhao, Rongtao; Chi, Changfeng; Bao, Yongbo

    2015-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the superfamily of phase II detoxification enzymes that play crucial roles in innate immunity. In this study, a pi-class GST homolog was identified from Mytilus coruscus (named as McGST1, KC525103). The full-length cDNA sequence of McGST1 was 621bp with a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 70bp and a 3'-UTR of 201bp. The deduced amino acid sequence was 206 residues in length with theoretical pI/MW of 5.60/23.72kDa, containing the conserved G-site and diversiform H-site. BLASTn analysis and phylogenetic relationship strongly suggested that this cDNA sequence was a member of pi class GST family. The prediction of secondary structure displayed a preserved N-terminal and a C-terminal comprised with α-helixes. Quantitative real time RT-PCR showed that constitutive expression of McGST1 was occurred, with increasing order in mantle, muscle, gill, hemocyte, gonad and hepatopancreas. The stimulation of bacterial infection, heavy metals and 180CST could up-regulate McGST1 mRNA expression in hepatopancreas with time-dependent manners. The maximum expression appeared at 6h after pathogenic bacteria injected, with 10-fold in Vibrio alginolyticus and 16-fold in Vibrio harveyi higher than that of the control. The highest point of McGST1 mRNA appeared at different time for exposure to copper (10-fold at day 15), cadmium (9-fold at day10) and 180 CST (10-fold at day 15). These results suggested that McGST1 played a significant role in antioxidation and might potentially be used as indicators and biomarkers for detection of marine environmental pollution.

  11. Impact of marine pollution in green mussel Perna viridis from four coastal sites in Karachi, Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: histopathological observations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar; Ayub, Zarrien; Siddiqui, Ghazala

    2015-04-01

    Pathological changes are regarded as a standard technique to monitor the effects of pollutants in marine animals. Histopathological examination of the population of green mussel Perna viridis (L.) from four sites in Pakistan, namely, Manora Channel, Rehri Creek, Sandspit Backwaters and Bhanbore was conducted. The first three sites are on the Karachi coast, whereas the fourth one, Bhanbore is situated outside Karachi, and is considered to be less polluted. Two types of parasites, Rickettsia-like organisms and metacestode were found in the mussels studied. In the present study, we observed various pathological lesions, such as inflammatory responses, granulocytomas, lipofuscin pigments, vacuolation in the digestive gland and gonads, lamellar fusion and dilated hemolymphatic sinus in the gills of P. viridis. These observations indicate the extent of environmental pollution in the studied areas. Although, Bhanbore is considered to be relatively less polluted compared to other three sites, the present results have revealed that the waters of Bhanbore are also polluted as evidenced by the pathological changes observed in the mussels collected from there.

  12. Impact of marine pollution in green mussel Perna viridis from four coastal sites in Karachi, Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: histopathological observations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar; Ayub, Zarrien; Siddiqui, Ghazala

    2015-04-01

    Pathological changes are regarded as a standard technique to monitor the effects of pollutants in marine animals. Histopathological examination of the population of green mussel Perna viridis (L.) from four sites in Pakistan, namely, Manora Channel, Rehri Creek, Sandspit Backwaters and Bhanbore was conducted. The first three sites are on the Karachi coast, whereas the fourth one, Bhanbore is situated outside Karachi, and is considered to be less polluted. Two types of parasites, Rickettsia-like organisms and metacestode were found in the mussels studied. In the present study, we observed various pathological lesions, such as inflammatory responses, granulocytomas, lipofuscin pigments, vacuolation in the digestive gland and gonads, lamellar fusion and dilated hemolymphatic sinus in the gills of P. viridis. These observations indicate the extent of environmental pollution in the studied areas. Although, Bhanbore is considered to be relatively less polluted compared to other three sites, the present results have revealed that the waters of Bhanbore are also polluted as evidenced by the pathological changes observed in the mussels collected from there. PMID:26011983

  13. The Bacterial Community Structure of Hydrocarbon-Polluted Marine Environments as the Basis for the Definition of an Ecological Index of Hydrocarbon Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Marcos, Magalí S.; Commendatore, Marta G.; Gil, Mónica N.; Dionisi, Hebe M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a molecular biological tool, using information provided by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, that could be suitable for environmental assessment and bioremediation in marine ecosystems. We selected 63 bacterial genera that were previously linked to hydrocarbon biodegradation, representing a minimum sample of the bacterial guild associated with this process. We defined an ecological indicator (ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure, EIHE) using the relative abundance values of these genera obtained by pyrotag analysis. This index reflects the proportion of the bacterial community that is potentially capable of biodegrading hydrocarbons. When the bacterial community structures of intertidal sediments from two sites with different pollution histories were analyzed, 16 of the selected genera (25%) were significantly overrepresented with respect to the pristine site, in at least one of the samples from the polluted site. Although the relative abundances of individual genera associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation were generally low in samples from the polluted site, EIHE values were 4 times higher than those in the pristine sample, with at least 5% of the bacterial community in the sediments being represented by the selected genera. EIHE values were also calculated in other oil-exposed marine sediments as well as in seawater using public datasets from experimental systems and field studies. In all cases, the EIHE was significantly higher in oiled than in unpolluted samples, suggesting that this tool could be used as an estimator of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of microbial communities. PMID:24964812

  14. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. PMID:24995635

  15. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research.

  16. Monitoring coastal marine waters for spore-forming bacteria of faecal and soil origin to determine point from non-point source pollution.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, R S

    2001-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have established recreational water quality standards limiting the concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria (faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci) to ensure that these waters are safe for swimming. In the application of these hygienic water quality standards, it is assumed that there are no significant environmental sources of these faecal indicator bacteria which are unrelated to direct faecal contamination. However, we previously reported that these faecal indicator bacteria are able to grow in the soil environment of humid tropical island environments such as Hawaii and Guam and are transported at high concentrations into streams and storm drains by rain. Thus, streams and storm drains in Hawaii contain consistently high concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria which routinely exceed the EPA and WHO recreational water quality standards. Since, streams and storm drains eventually flow out to coastal marine waters, we hypothesize that all the coastal beaches which receive run-off from streams and storm drains will contain elevated concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we monitored the coastal waters at four beaches known to receive water from stream or storm drains for salinity, turbidity, and used the two faecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) to establish recreational water quality standards. To determine if these coastal waters are contaminated with non-point source pollution (streams) or with point source pollution (sewage effluent), these same water samples were also assayed for spore-forming bacteria of faecal origin (Cl. perfringens) and of soil origin (Bacillus species). Using this monitoring strategy it was possible to determine when coastal marine waters were contaminated with non-point source pollution and when coastal waters were contaminated with point source pollution. The results of this study are most likely

  17. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  18. Influence of Nitrate Radical on the Oxidation of Dimethyl Sulfide in a Polluted Marine Environment: Implications for non Sea-Salt Sulfate Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H.; Brown, S. S.; Goldan, P. D.; Aldener, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Jakoubek, R.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Meagher, J. F.; Bates, T. S.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS, CH3SCH3) is the largest natural source of non-sea-salt sulfate (nss) in the marine environment via its oxidation to sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Aerosol particles produced from marine sulfur emissions may have a significant influence on the Earth's climate. The most important oxidants for DMS are hydroxyl (OH) radicals during daytime and nitrate (NO3) radicals during nighttime. Nitrate radical is an important nocturnal oxidant for several other biogenic and some anthropogenic compounds mainly originating from land. We performed simultaneous, in-situ atmospheric measurements of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and nitrate radical (NO3) from the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown off the New England Coast during the summer of 2002. We observed a clear anticorrelation between NO3 and DMS on 13 of 17 measurement nights. Diurnal averages indicate a stronger oxidation by NO3 at night than by OH at daytime under polluted conditions. These increased oxidation rates may influence global new nss aerosol particle production, depending on the chemical oxidation mechanism of DMS and the yield of sulfuric acid. We will discuss the influence of different scenarios for nss production from DMS oxidation mechanisms. We will also discuss the possible influence of halogens (e.g. Cl and BrO) on the DMS oxidation and their implication on nss aerosol production. Our measurements suggest that anthropogenic NO2 sources may influence marine boundary layer chemistry for up to 5 days or 3000 km downwind from NOx source regions.

  19. Marine sponges with contrasting life histories can be complementary biomonitors of heavy metal pollution in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Batista, Daniela; Muricy, Guilherme; Rocha, Rafael Chávez; Miekeley, Norbert F

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we compared the usefulness of a long-living sponge (Hymeniacidon heliophila, Class Demospongiae) and a short-living one (Paraleucilla magna, Class Calcarea) as biomonitors of metallic pollution. The concentrations of 16 heavy metals were analyzed in both species along a gradient of decreasing pollution from the heavily polluted Guanabara Bay to the less impacted coastal islands in Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil (SW Atlantic). The levels of most elements analyzed were higher in H. heliophila (Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Hg, Ni, and Sn) and P. magna (Ni, Cu, Mn, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, Co, Cr, Zn, and V) collected from the heavily polluted bay when compared with the cleanest sites. Hymeniacidon heliophila accumulates 11 elements more efficiently than P. magna. This difference may be related to their skeleton composition, histological organization, symbiont bacteria and especially to their life cycle. Both species can be used as a biomonitors of metallic pollution, but while Hymeniacidon heliophila was more effective in concentrating most metals, Paraleucilla magna is more indicated to detect recent pollutant discharges due to its shorter life cycle. We suggest that the complementary use of species with contrasting life histories can be an effective monitoring strategy of heavy metals in coastal environments.

  20. Lipofuscin-like pigment in gonads of Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius as a potential biomarker of marine pollution: a field study.

    PubMed

    Vaschenko, Marina A; Zhadan, Peter M; Aminin, Dmitry L; Almyashova, Tatyana N

    2012-05-01

    Accumulation of lipofuscin-like pigments (LLPs) has been shown to be an appropriate index of both age and stress in some aquatic invertebrates. In the present study, LLP was quantified by measuring its autofluorescence intensity (ex 450 nm/em 512 nm) in nutritive phagocytes (NPs) of sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius inhabiting polluted and relatively clean areas of Japan Sea. To avoid variations in LLP content related to sea urchin reproductive condition, only developing gonads with acini occupied mostly by NPs were used for LLP quantification as well as semiquantitative histopathological analysis. LLP concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 4.57 ± 0.53% area fraction in female gonads and from 0.0 to 4.61 ± 0.35% in male gonads. The presence of specimens with extremely high LLP concentrations (>1.5%) in all examined samples, including specimens from the reference station, as well as the absence of strong correlations between LLP concentrations and several parameters related to pollution (heavy-metal concentrations in sea urchin gonads and concentrations of heavy metals, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, and total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments), allow us to conclude that LLP content in sea urchin NPs can not be used as a biomarker in marine pollution monitoring.

  1. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  2. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Red-Soil-Polluted Seawater in Okinawa, Japan -Potential Impacts on Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Hamdun, A. M.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Ikota, H.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.

    2004-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into coastal ocean (locally termed as red-soil-pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. In an attempt to understand the impacts of red soil on oxidizing power of the seawater, we studied formation of hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent oxidant in the environment, in red-soil-polluted seawaters, using 313 nm monochromatic light. Photo-formation rates of OH radical showed a good correlation with dissolved iron concentrations (R = 0.98). The major source of OH radical was found to be the Fenton reaction (a reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH). The un-filtered red-soil-polluted seawater samples exhibited faster OH radical formation rates than the filtered samples, suggesting that iron-bearing red soil particles enhanced formation of OH radical.

  3. Predictable pollution: an assessment of weather balloons and associated impacts on the marine environment--an example for the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Owen R; Hamann, Mark; Smith, Walter; Taylor, Heidi

    2014-02-15

    Efforts to curb pollution in the marine environment are covered by national and international legislation, yet weather balloons are released into the environment with no salvage agenda. Here, we assess impacts associated with weather balloons in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). We use modeling to assess the probability of ocean endpoints for released weather balloons and predict pathways post-release. In addition, we use 21 months of data from beach cleanup events to validate our results and assess the abundance and frequency of weather balloon fragments in the GBRWHA. We found between 65% and 70% of balloons land in the ocean and ocean currents largely determine final endpoints. Beach cleanup data revealed 2460 weather balloon fragments were recovered from 24 sites within the GBRWHA. This is the first attempt to quantify this problem and these data will add support to a much-needed mitigation strategy for weather balloon waste.

  4. Marine molluscs and fish as biomarkers of pollution stress in littoral regions of the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Bissinger, Vera; Abelson, Avigdor; Dizer, Halim; Sturm, Armin; Kratke, Renate; Fishelson, Lev; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich

    1999-12-01

    The intensive development of industry and urban structures along the seashores of the world, as well as the immense increase in marine transportation and other activities, has resulted in the deposition of thousands of new chemicals and organic compounds, endangering the existence of organisms and ecosystems. The conventional single biomarker methods used in ecological assessment studies cannot provide an adequate base for environmental health assessment, management and sustainability planning. The present study uses a set of novel biochemical, physiological, cytogenetic and morphological methods to characterize the state of health of selected molluscs and fish along the shores of the German North Sea, as well as the Israeli Mediterranean and Red Sea. The methods include measurement of activity of multixenobiotic resistance-mediated transporter (MXRtr) and the system of active transport of organic anions (SATOA) as indicators of antixenobiotic defence; glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity as an indicator of biotransformation of xenobiotics; DNA unwinding as a marker of genotoxicity; micronucleus test for clastogenicity; levels of phagocytosis for immunotoxicity; cholinesterase (ChE) activity and level of catecholamines as indicators of neurotoxicity; permeability of external epithelia to anionic hydrophilic probe, intralysosomal accumulation of cationic amphiphilic probe and activity of non-specific esterases as indicators of cell/tissue viability. Complete histopathological examination was used for diagnostics of environmental pathology. The obtained data show that the activity of the defensive pumps, MXRtr and SATOA in the studied organisms was significantly higher in the surface epithelia of molluscs from a polluted site than that of the same species from control, unpolluted stations, providing clear evidence of response to stress. Enhanced frequency of DNA lesions (alkaline and acidic DNA unwinding) and micronucleus-containing cells was significantly higher

  5. APPLICATION OF 3D COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO THE QUANTIFICATION OF MARINE SEDIMENT COMMUNITIES IN POLLUTION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) has been demonstrated to be a cost efficient tool for the qualitative and quantitative study of estuarine benthic communities along pollution gradients.
    Now we have advanced this technology to successfully visualize and discriminate three dimen...

  6. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms.

  7. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms. PMID:25098775

  8. Short-term changes in the composition of active marine bacterial assemblages in response to diesel oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Bosch, Rafael; Nogales, Balbina

    2010-09-01

    The changes caused by diesel oil pollution in the metabolically active bacterioplankton from an oligotrophic coastal location were analysed in laboratory microcosms (44 l) using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) as molecular marker. The aim was to simulate typical hydrocarbon pollution events in a coastal area exploited for seasonal touristic activities. The experiment consisted in addition of low amounts of diesel oil without nutrients to seawater collected at different times (winter and summer). Bacterial diversity was analysed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling of 16S rRNAs after reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and by generation of 16S rRNA clone libraries in control and diesel-polluted microcosms. Diesel addition caused a twofold increase in prokaryotic numbers in comparison with controls at the end of the experiment, both in winter and summer microcosms. Bacterioplankton composition, determined by 16S rRNA T-RFLP data, changed rapidly (within 17 h) in response to treatment. The resulting communities were different in microcosms with water collected in summer and winter. A reduction in diversity (Shannon index, calculated on the basis of T-RFLP data) was observed only in summer microcosms. This was due to the rapid increase of phylotypes affiliated to the Oceanospirillaceae, not observed in winter microcosms. After diesel treatment there was a reduction in the number of phylotypes related to SAR11, SAR86 and picocyanobacteria, while phylotypes of the Roseobacter clade, and the OMG group seemed to be favoured. Our results show that diesel pollution alone caused profound effects on the bacterioplankton of oligotrophic seawater, and explained many of the differences in diversity reported previously in pristine and polluted sites in this coastal area.

  9. Short‐term changes in the composition of active marine bacterial assemblages in response to diesel oil pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P.; Bosch, Rafael; Nogales, Balbina

    2010-01-01

    Summary The changes caused by diesel oil pollution in the metabolically active bacterioplankton from an oligotrophic coastal location were analysed in laboratory microcosms (44 l) using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) as molecular marker. The aim was to simulate typical hydrocarbon pollution events in a coastal area exploited for seasonal touristic activities. The experiment consisted in addition of low amounts of diesel oil without nutrients to seawater collected at different times (winter and summer). Bacterial diversity was analysed by terminal‐restriction fragment length polymorphism (T‐RFLP) profiling of 16S rRNAs after reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR), and by generation of 16S rRNA clone libraries in control and diesel‐polluted microcosms. Diesel addition caused a twofold increase in prokaryotic numbers in comparison with controls at the end of the experiment, both in winter and summer microcosms. Bacterioplankton composition, determined by 16S rRNA T‐RFLP data, changed rapidly (within 17 h) in response to treatment. The resulting communities were different in microcosms with water collected in summer and winter. A reduction in diversity (Shannon index, calculated on the basis of T‐RFLP data) was observed only in summer microcosms. This was due to the rapid increase of phylotypes affiliated to the Oceanospirillaceae, not observed in winter microcosms. After diesel treatment there was a reduction in the number of phylotypes related to SAR11, SAR86 and picocyanobacteria, while phylotypes of the Roseobacter clade, and the OMG group seemed to be favoured. Our results show that diesel pollution alone caused profound effects on the bacterioplankton of oligotrophic seawater, and explained many of the differences in diversity reported previously in pristine and polluted sites in this coastal area. PMID:21255357

  10. Transcription of a novel P450 gene varies with some factors (pollutant exposure, temperature, time, and body region) in a marine oligochaete (Thalassodrilides sp.).

    PubMed

    Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Ohta, Kohei; Hano, Takeshi; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Mochida, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play important roles in the metabolism of exogenous compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A novel, full-length CYP gene (CYP4V30) was identified in the oligochaete Thalassodrilides sp. CYP4V30 mRNA expression was studied in worms exposed to PAH-polluted (Σ16PAHs; 37441ng/g dry weight) or unpolluted (Σ16PAHs; 19ng/g dry weight) sediment. CYP4V30 expression was much higher in worms exposed to contaminated sediments than in those exposed to unpolluted sediments at some temperatures (20 and 25°C) and exposure durations (11-fold increase at 20°C, 10-day exposure), but not at 15°C or other exposure durations (P<0.05). CYP4V30 mRNA expression was higher in the middle of the body than in the posterior (P<0.05). The variation in transcriptional response with exposure time, temperature, and body region indicates that these factors should be considered when monitoring marine sediment pollution. PMID:27251443

  11. Trends in chronic marine oil pollution in Danish waters assessed using 22 years of beached bird surveys.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jørn Lennart; Durinck, Jan; Skov, Henrik

    2007-09-01

    Beached bird surveys provide an important tool for monitoring the level of oil pollution at sea, which is the most significant observable cause of death for a large number of waterbird species and pose a serious threat to wintering seabird populations. Linear regression analyses of oil rates from the Danish 22 year dataset show a decline in the oil pollution level in offshore areas of the eastern North Sea and Skagerrak and in near-shore parts of the Kattegat; but a worsening in the offshore areas of the Kattegat. These results raise concern for species such as common scoter, velvet scoter, eider and razorbill, for which the Kattegat serves as a globally important wintering area. It is recommended that surveillance for oil spills is intensified in inner Danish waters, and that action is taken to make responses towards offenders faster, and penalties for oil seepage higher.

  12. Heavy metals in sediments and soft tissues of the Antarctic clam Laternula elliptica: more evidence as a possible biomonitor of coastal marine pollution at high latitudes?

    PubMed

    Vodopivez, Cristian; Curtosi, Antonio; Villaamil, Edda; Smichowski, Patricia; Pelletier, Emilien; Mac Cormack, Walter P

    2015-01-01

    Studies on metal contamination in 25 de Mayo Island, Antarctica, yielded controversial results. In this work, we analyzed Antarctic marine sediments and Antarctic clam (Laternula elliptica) tissues to investigate the possible use of this mollusk as a biomonitor of metals and to identify the sources of metal pollution. Different types of paint from several buildings from Carlini Station were examined to assess their contribution to the local and random metal pollution. Five sediment samples, 105 L. elliptica specimens (40.2-78.0mm length) and four types of paint were analyzed to quantify Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Metal concentrations in sediments were lower than the global averages of the earth's crust, with the exception of Cd and Cu. These results were related to the contribution of the local fresh-water runoff. The different varieties of paint showed low levels of Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn, whereas a broad range of values were found in the case of Cr and Pb (20-15,100 μg·g(-1) and 153-115,500 μg·g(-1) respectively). The remains of the paint would be responsible for the significant increases in Cr and Pb which are randomly detected by us and by other authors. High levels of Fe and Cd, in comparison to other Antarctic areas, appear to be related to the terrigenous materials transported by the local streams. Accumulation indexes suggested that kidney tissue from L. elliptica could be an adequate material for biomonitoring pollution with Cd, Zn and probably also Pb. In general, relationships between size and metal contents reported by other authors were not verified, suggesting that this issue should be revised.

  13. Application of passive sampling devices for screening of micro-pollutants in marine aquaculture using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Martínez Bueno, María Jesús; Hernando, María Dolores; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2009-02-15

    Knowledge on the presence of micro-pollutants, in particular emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, biocides or some pesticides, in semi-enclosed coastal areas, where fish farms are installed, is very limited. This article shows data on the presence of micro-pollutants over 1 year monitoring campaign carried out in a fish farm placed on the Mediterranean Sea. With this work, the results of the development of an analytical procedure which, makes use of passive sampling techniques (with polar organic chemical integrative samplers, POCIS, pharmaceutical configuration) and of the LC-QLIT-MS system, are presented. The development of the analytical procedure entail laboratory-based calibration with the samplers POCIS, for calculating uptake rates and sampling rates of compounds representative of a wide range of polarity (4.56>or=logK(ow)>or=-0.12). The uptake of the target compounds in the sampler POCIS, follows a linear pattern for most compounds, and sampling rates varied from 0.001 to 0.319l/d. The calibration experiments have shown that POCIS pharmaceutical configuration could be used for sampling other non-target compounds, such as pesticides and biocides with a logK(ow)pollutants in the water column, during the field study. An analytical method was developed with the LC-QLIT-MS system and validated to ensure a satisfactory performance for the detection of the target micro-pollutants in water. The limits of detection (LODs) achieved were between 0.01 and 1.50 microg/l. During the monitoring campaign, among the selected compounds, metronidazole, erythromycin, simazine, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, trimethoprim, carbaryl, flumequine, TCMTB and diphenyl sulphone (DPS) were detected. Most of target compounds found were at average concentrations which ranged from 0.01 to 75 ng/l. Irgarol

  14. Selective pressurized liquid extraction technique for halogenated organic pollutants in marine mammal blubber: a lipid-rich matrix.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E M; Jia, M; Trumble, S J; Usenko, S

    2015-03-13

    Analytical methods for unique and rare samples, such as marine mammal tissue, strive to reduce opportunities for analyte loss and contamination. Historically, analytical methodologies for marine mammal tissues required an extraction followed by multiple cleanup and concentration steps. These steps increase the opportunity for analyte loss and sample contamination. Selective pressurized liquid extractions (SPLE; an analytical technique that combines PLE with in-cell adsorbent cleanup) have the potential to reduce and/or eliminate the number of steps. A SPLE method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from bowhead whale blubber. This SPLE utilized acidic silica with a fat-to-fat retainer ratio of 0.02 as well as eliminated post-extraction cleanup steps, such as size-exclusion chromatography step. In addition, neutral silica was placed beneath the acidic silica as an acid buffer, thereby preventing acid from contaminating the extraction system. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in electron capture negative ionization mode. PBDE, PCB and OCP triplicate recoveries averaged 84±1%, 83±3%, and 76±11%, respectively. Overall, measurements of NIST Whale Blubber SRM 1945 were within±30% of certified values. PBDEs were measured for the first time in bowhead whale blubber; average concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). Average OCPs and PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 37 ng g(-1)ww and 0.1 to 3.0 ng g(-1)ww, respectively, which were within one order of magnitude lower than those previously reported in bowhead whale blubber.

  15. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays

    PubMed Central

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5 kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like β propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the

  16. Magnetometry as a tool to estimate the pollution of marine environment around the small shipwrecks (Gulf of Gdańsk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwizdała, Magdalena; Jeleńska, Maria; Łęczyński, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Shipwrecks may pose a serious source of contamination for marine environment. This is a very important reason to use all available methods to estimate the pollution extent of marine environment due to wrecks presence, even these small. In this paper we present, the results of magnetic analysis carried out on surface sediment samples collected around the small shipwrecks (Munin and Abille) in the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea). Data shows a small amount of magnetic materials in the deposits from environment around shipwrecks. However, a relatively large variation of magnetic susceptibility (χ) occurred. In the samples from the area of Abille wreck, the main carrier of magnetic information is magnetite with a small amount of maghemite or hematite. Whereas the samples around Munin wreck divide into two groups, in terms of magnetic mineralogy - magnetite and maghemite. The values of χ were in the range of 5- 8 × 10-8m3/kg. However, sediments collected around Munin wreck were more diversified. The highest values of magnetic susceptibility have been obtained in sediments on SW of Munin wreck (χ = 12.92 × 10-8m3/kg), while the lowest values were recorded on NE of shipwreck (χ = 3.07 × 10-8m3/kg). The direction of spatial variability of magnetic susceptibility were coincided with near-bottom water currents distribution in the western part of the Gulf of Gdańsk. This correlation between the distribution of magnetic susceptibility and hydrodynamic condition around shipwrecks, allows to determine the direction of contaminant transport.

  17. Effects of light pollution on the emergent fauna of shallow marine ecosystems: Amphipods as a case study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Hughes, Lauren Elizabeth

    2015-05-15

    Light pollution from coastal urban development is a widespread and increasing threat to biodiversity. Many amphipod species migrate between the benthos and the pelagic environment and light seems is a main ecological factor which regulates migration. We explore the effect of artificial lighting on amphipod assemblages using two kind of lights, LED and halogen, and control traps in shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef. Both types of artificial light traps showed a significantly higher abundance of individuals for all species in comparison to control traps. LED lights showed a stronger effect over the amphipod assemblages, with these traps collecting a higher number of individuals and differing species composition, with some species showing a specific attraction to LED light. As emergent amphipods are a key ecological group in the shallow water environment, the impact of artificial light can affect the broader functioning of the ecosystem.

  18. Microphysical and macrophysical responses of marine stratocumulus polluted by underlying ships: 2. Impacts of haze on precipitating clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Matthew W.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2012-06-01

    The 94-GHz cloud profiling radar on the CloudSat satellite was used to examine the precipitation response of marine stratocumulus clouds to the increased aerosol burden from oceangoing vessels. Aerosol plumes generated by ships sometimes influence cloud microphysics and, to a largely undetermined extent, precipitation. To assess this response, the locations of over one thousand ship tracks coinciding with the radar were meticulously logged by hand from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. Although precipitation detectable by the radar was infrequent, drizzle rates were often suppressed (72% of cases) and lighter in the ship tracks compared to the clouds adjacent to them. Ship plumes primarily decreased average rain rates through reducing the spatial coverage of precipitation. However, larger liquid water paths in ship tracks seldom coincided with the reduced cloud water sink from the suppression of precipitation (in less than 20% of cases). The sign and strength of the precipitation response was primarily tied to the mesoscale convective structure of the clouds. When closed cellular clouds were identified, significant decreases in the relative average liquid water path, rain rate (an average relative decrease of 68%), and rain cover fraction were observed in ship tracks compared to the surrounding clouds. The opposite occurred in the open cell regime where it was more common to find enhanced precipitation in the perturbed clouds. Ship plumes ingested into this regime resulted in significantly deeper and brighter clouds with higher liquid water amounts and rain rates (an average relative increase of 89%).

  19. Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) as an indicator of long range transport of air pollutants over the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Han, J.; Lee, G.; Choi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) was measured at Gosan ABC Superstation, Korea during 19 October ~ 6 November 2010. PAN and NO2 were separated onto a GC column and then quantified by luminol chemiluminescence at 425 nm every 2 minutes. PAN concentrations ranged from 0.2 ppbv to 2.4 ppbv with an average of 0.6 ppbv. The highest PAN concentrations were observed during the two haze events, when stagnant condition developed over the Yellow Sea. Particularly, PAN was surprisingly well correlated with PM10 for the whole experiment period (r = 0.88) (Fig. 1). The PM10 concentration was raised up to 216 μg/m3 during the second event. In addition, PAN concentrations were noticeably enhanced when air masses passed over the populated or industrialized areas in China or Korea and aged over the Sea, which were identified by backward air mass trajectories. In this study, PAN was suggested to be a good indicator of the long range transport of air pollutants.

  20. A 7-d toxicity test for marine pollutants using the Pacific mysid Mysidopsis intii. 2: Protocol evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, V.L.; Langdon, C.J.

    1996-10-01

    The sensitivity of the Pacific coast mysid Mysidopsis intii to pollutants was compared in 7-d toxicity tests with that of the Gulf coast mysid M. bahia and the Pacific coast mysid Holmesimysis costata. Survival and growth responses of M. intii to zinc (maximum acceptable toxicant concentration [MATC] survival and growth, 152 {micro}g/L) were as sensitive as survival of both M. bahia (MATC survival, 152 {micro}g/L) and H. costata (MATC survival, 152 {micro}g/L). In contrast, the 7-d test for M. intii was less sensitive (MATC growth and survival, 4.99 mg/L) than the test for H. costata (MATC survival, 1.99 mg/L) when sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the toxicant. Interlaboratory evaluation of the 7-d test for M. intii exposed to SDS indicated that the test was reliable. The mean test results for the group of participating laboratories were not significantly different from those of a group of three in-house tests, indicating that shipping and handling did not affect mysid sensitivity to SDS. Mysid growth was not as sensitive to SDS as survival in the interlaboratory tests. Although there were significant differences in median lethal concentration (LC50) values among participating laboratories, coefficients of variation of LC50 and MATC survival values among laboratories were 10.3 and 37%, respectively. These coefficients were comparable to those reported for interlaboratory tests with H. costata.

  1. Steroid hormone related effects of marine persistent organic pollutants in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Rijk, Jeroen C W; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T; Murk, Albertinka J

    2015-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) 126 and 153, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tributyltin (TBT), and methylmercury (MeHg) can be accumulated in seafood and then form a main source for human exposure. Some POPs have been associated with changes in steroid hormone levels in both humans and animals. This study describes the in vitro effects of these POPs and mixtures thereof in H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Relative responses for 13 steroid hormones and 7 genes involved in the steroidogenic pathway, and CYP1A1, were analyzed. PFOS induced the most pronounced effects on steroid hormone levels by significantly affecting 9 out of 13 hormone levels measured, with the largest increases found for 17β-estradiol, corticosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, TCDD, both PCBs, and TBT significantly altered steroidogenesis. Increased steroid hormone levels were accompanied by related increased gene expression levels. The differently expressed genes were MC2R, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, and CYP19A1 and changes in gene expression levels were more sensitive than changes in hormone levels. The POP mixtures tested showed mostly additive effects, especially for DHEA and 17β-estradiol levels. This study shows that some seafood POPs are capable of altering steroidogenesis in H295R cells at concentrations that mixtures might reach in human blood, suggesting that adverse health effects cannot be excluded.

  2. Marine organic pollutants of the Eastern Aegean: aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Candarli Gulf surficial sediments.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Pazi, Idil; Gonul, L Tolga

    2012-11-01

    Aliphatics and PAHs were determined in sediments from the Candarli Gulf in 2009. Aliphatics ranged from 3.88 to 24.7 μg g(-1) while aromatics varied between <4.15 and 405 ng g(-1) (dw). PAHs ranged from a relatively low to a moderate PAHs pollution compared to other urbanized coastal areas worldwide. 3-ring PAHs were most abundant in the sampling area. Both pyrolytic and petrogenic PAHs were present in most samples, although petroleum derived PAHs were dominant at the stations situated near the refinery and petrochemical, metal industry and pyrolytic sources were mainly prevalent in the estuary of Bakircay River. The ratio of UCM to n-alkanes and CPI values in station 6 indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. PAH levels at all sites were below the ERL and ERM except fluorene. The results indicated that the sediments should have no potential biological impact except stations 6 and 14.

  3. The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through beached bird surveys 1984-1999.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Francis K; Ryan, Pierre C

    2003-09-01

    The Grand Banks south of Newfoundland provide year-round feeding habitat for tens of millions of seabirds of numerous species, an abundance and diversity unparalleled in the North Atlantic. Dense ship traffic routes traverse this productive environment as vessels travel the Great Circle Route between Europe and North America. Oiled seabirds have washed up on beaches in Newfoundland for many decades. Most oil on their feathers is heavy fuel oil mixed with lubricants, the mixture found in bilges of large vessels. Beached bird surveys conducted between 1984 and 1999 indicate that chronic oil pollution along the southeast coast of Newfoundland is among the highest in world. Sixty two percent of all dead birds found over the 16-year period had oil on their feathers; 74% during the last five years. Auks, especially Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), are the most affected. The mean number of oiled birds per kilometer was 0.77 and thus higher than in other regions of the world during a comparable time period (0.02-0.33). Oiling rates correlated with weather patterns and degree of the regional murre hunt, indicate that illegal dumping of oil may occur year round, and point out that it is critical to assess all possible environmental and anthropogenic factors influencing the number of clean and oiled dead birds found on beaches before inferring trends in oiling rates over time.

  4. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon H.; Hamilton, Christine D.; Spencer, Gregory C.; Ogston, Heather O.

    2015-05-12

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai‘i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special-status fish (e.g., threatened and endangered) is needed to facilitate project design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef-associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs), forming the nuclei for groups of fishes. Little is known about the potential for WECs and TECs to function as artificial reefs and FADs in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i. We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by reviewing relevant information about fish associations with surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelps, floating debris, oil and gas platforms, marine debris, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net-cages used for mariculture, and piers and docks. Based on our review, we postulate that the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i likely will function as small-scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef-associated fishes (including special-status rockfish species [Sebastes spp.] along the mainland), and that the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai‘i likely will function as de facto FADs with species assemblages varying by distance from shore and deployment depth. Along the U.S. West Coast, frequent associations with midwater and surface structures may be less likely: juvenile, semipelagic, kelp-associated rockfishes may occur at midwater and surface structures of WECs in coastal waters of

  5. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    . Comprehensive study of the natural waters (including biohydro-chemical parameters control) for large part of the inland waterway St. Petersburg ­ White Sea (river Neva - Ladoga Lake ­ river Svir - Onega Lake ­ Petrozavodsk) was provided in frame the experimental voyage onboard the m/v «St. Peterburg» (J uly 1998 and June 1999). The results of organic matter charting for the different water masses for vast water basin in the northwestern of Russia were analyzed and classified. The arrangement of dissolved organic for the largest in Europe lakes Ladoga and Onega is analyzed in comparison with hydrological and meteorological processes and phenomena, including thermal regime modification. Spatial and temporal (seasonal and annual) transformation of organic matter for these water basins are studied. Aquatic environment conditions of the coastal zones, different bays and gulfs more pressed by livestock and agricultural farms, and industry are assessed also. According to the shipborne data more polluted water areas are the Svir Bay (Ladoga Lake) and Petrozavodskaya Guba (Onega Lake). These results are well correlated with in situ data and literature data. Thus, first time in practice is carried out the running control of a COD and spatial profile of the organic matter for different natural waters. Accuracy of measurements in comparison with traditional approaches and new technologies (including ideas and results practical application of sonoluminiscence of dissolved organic) are discussed also. The modification of CS COD was used for the cont rol of dissolved organic in different marine aquatic system. Sea water samples and preserved ice cores, gathered in the Barents, White and Kara Seas, were investigated. Probes of saltish and brackish-water (as ice cores) from the estuary of great Siberian rivers (Ob Bay and Yenisey Gulf) were analyzed in laboratory (biochemical analysis of these probes was fulfilled also). It was demonstrat ed that CS COD system can be used till range a

  6. Direct addition of cultures of tester bacteria into semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as a modified procedure for preliminary detection of mutagenic pollution of the marine environment by use of microbiological mutagenicity assays.

    PubMed

    Cheć, Ewa; Podgórska, Beata; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2006-12-10

    Mutagenic pollution of the natural environment, including marine waters, is a very serious ecological problem. However, since chemical mutagens usually occur and act at low concentrations, their detection and identification is technically difficult, laborious and time-consuming. Therefore, preliminary detection of mutagenic pollution is commonly based on biological mutagenicity assays. On the other hand, triolein-containing semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) provide a method for concentration of hydrophobic organic contaminants, including a large fraction of the mutagens. Combinations of SPMDs with microbiological toxicity and mutagenicity assays have already been described, but only SPMD-derived extracts, prepared with various organic solvents, were tested in such a way to date. We found that the presence of these solvents could interfere with the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence-based mutagenicity assay. Moreover, preparation of the extracts from SPMD takes usually at least 48h. Here, we propose a modified procedure, based on direct addition of tester bacteria cultures into SPMD. We found that this procedure is significantly (at least two times) more rapid and several times more sensitive than that based on testing the extracts. This optimization is presented in this report. Moreover, we have performed preliminary studies on samples of marine waters. Positive results (i.e. detection of mutagenic activity) were obtained when test samples came from a region known to be highly contaminated by industrial pollution, while negative results were observed in the case of samples from a region supposed to be of low risk for mutagenic pollution.

  7. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Canadian Arctic has experienced decreasing sea ice extent and increasing shipping activity in the recent decades. While there are economic incentives to develop resources in the North, there are environmental concerns that increasing marine traffic will contribute to declining air quality in Northern communities. In an effort to characterize the relative impact of shipping on air quality in the North, two monitoring stations have been installed in Cape Dorset and Resolute, Nunavut, and have been operational since 1 June 2013. The impact of shipping and other sources of emissions on NOx, O3, SO2, BC, and PM2.5 pollution have been characterized for the 2013 shipping season from 1 June to 1 November. In addition, a high resolution Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for both sites was computed. Shipping consistently increased O3 mixing ratio and PM2.5 concentration. The 90% confidence interval for mean difference in O3 mixing ratio between ship and no ship-influenced air masses were up to 4.6-4.7 ppb and 2.5-2.7 ppb for Cape Dorset and Resolute, respectively. The same intervals for PM2.5 concentrations were up to 1.8-1.9 μg m-3 and 0.5-0.6 μg m-3. Ship-influenced air masses consistently exhibited degraded air quality by an increase of 0.1 to 0.3 in the high resolution AQHI compared to no ship-influenced air masses. Trajectory cluster analysis in combination with ship traffic tracking provided an estimated range for percent ship contribution to NOx, O3, SO2, and PM2.5 that were 12.9-17.5%, 16.2-18.1%, 16.9-18.3%, and 19.5-31.7% for Cape Dorset and 1.0-7.2%, 2.9-4.8%, 5.5-10.0%, and 6.5-7.2% for Resolute during the 2013 shipping season. Additional measurements in Resolute suggested that percent ship contribution to black carbon was 4.3-9.8% and that black carbon constituted 1.3-9.7% of total PM2.5 mass in ship plumes. Continued air quality monitoring in the above sites for future shipping seasons will improve the statistics in our analysis as well as characterize

  8. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Canadian Arctic has experienced decreasing sea ice extent and increasing shipping activity in recent decades. While there are economic incentives to develop resources in the north, there are environmental concerns that increasing marine traffic will contribute to declining air quality in northern communities. In an effort to characterize the relative impact of shipping on air quality in the north, two monitoring stations have been installed in Cape Dorset and Resolute, Nunavut, and have been operational since 1 June 2013. The impact of shipping and other sources of emissions on NOx, O3, SO2, BC, and PM2.5 pollution have been characterized for the 2013 shipping season from 1 June to 1 November. In addition, a high-resolution Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for both sites was computed. Shipping consistently increased O3 mixing ratio and PM2.5 concentration. The 90% confidence interval for mean difference in O3 mixing ratio between ship- and no ship-influenced air masses were up to 4.6-4.7 ppb and 2.5-2.7 ppb for Cape Dorset and Resolute, respectively. The same intervals for PM2.5 concentrations were up to 1.8-1.9 μg m-3 and 0.5-0.6 μg m-3. Ship-influenced air masses consistently exhibited an increase of 0.1 to 0.3 in the high-resolution AQHI compared to no ship-influenced air masses. Trajectory cluster analysis in combination with ship traffic tracking provided an estimated range for percent ship contribution to NOx, O3, SO2, and PM2.5 that were 12.9-17.5 %, 16.2-18.1 %, 16.9-18.3 %, and 19.5-31.7 % for Cape Dorset and 1.0-7.2 %, 2.9-4.8 %, 5.5-10.0 %, and 6.5-7.2 % for Resolute during the 2013 shipping season. Additional measurements in Resolute suggested that percent ship contribution to black carbon was 4.3-9.8 % and that black carbon constituted 1.3-9.7 % of total PM2.5 mass in ship plumes. Continued air quality monitoring in the above sites for future shipping seasons will improve the statistics in our analysis and characterize repeating seasonal patterns

  9. Trace element levels in fish from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Nurit; Herut, Barak; Shefer, Edna; Hornung, Hava

    1999-12-01

    The bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe was evaluated in the muscle and liver tissue of four fish species (Siganus rivulatus, Diplodus sargus, Lithognatus mormyrus and Plathychtis flesus) from clean and polluted marine coastal sites in the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea within the framework of the MARS 1 program. Representative liver samples were screened for organic contaminants (DDE, PCBs and PAHs) which exhibited very low concentrations. The levels of Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn found in the muscle tissue in this study were similar among the four species and within the naturally occurring metal ranges. However, differences were found among the sites. In the Red Sea, Cu was higher in the muscle of S. rivulatus at Ardag and Zn at the Observatory (OBS). Cu, Zn and Mn were higher in the Red Sea than in the specimens from the Mediterranean. The differences were attributed to different diets derived from distinctively different natural environments. D. sargus from Haifa Bay (HB) had higher Cd, Cu and Mn values than specimens from Jaffa (JFA), and L. mormyrus higher Cd, Fe and Mn in HB, corresponding to the polluted environmental status of the Bay. No differences in metal levels were found among the North Sea sites, except for Fe that was lower at the Eider station. Hg was low in all the specimens, but the values varied with species and sites. The lowest Hg values were found in S. rivulatus, the herbivorous species, as expected from its trophic level. Hg in P. flesus was higher than in S. rivulatus but still low. Higher Hg values were found in the muscle tissue of L. mormyrus,with the highest values in D. sargus, both carnivorous species from the same family. Hg in D. sargus was higher in HB than in JFA, as expected, but in the larger specimens of L. mormyrus from JFA values were higher, while in the small specimens there were no differences in Hg values. The levels of all metals were higher in the liver than in the muscle, with enrichment factors ranging

  10. Effects of xenobiotic compounds on the cell activities of Euplotes crassus, a single-cell eukaryotic test organism for the study of the pollution of marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Trielli, Francesca; Amaroli, Andrea; Sifredi, Francesca; Marchi, Barbara; Falugi, Carla; Corrado, Maria Umberta Delmonte

    2007-08-01

    It is now widely accepted that assays with protists are relevant to be exploited for the study of environmental modifications due to the presence of xenobiotic compounds. In this work, the possibility of utilizing Euplotes crassus, an interstitial marine ciliate, for the pre-chemical screening of estuarine and coastal sediments was evaluated. For this purpose, the effects of exposure to pollutants were tested on the cell viability, fission rate and lysosomal membrane stability of E. crassus. The following toxicants were used: an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, basudin, an organochlorine hydrocarbon, AFD25, both employed especially for pest control in agricultural sites, a toxic heavy metal, mercury (HgCl2) and different mixtures of the above-mentioned compounds, as they might occur in polluted sites. Exposure to these toxicants affected cell viability at concentrations ranging from 96.6 to 966 x 10(3)mg/l for basudin, from 3.3 to 33 x 10(3)mg/l for AFD25 and from 0.1 to 1mg/l for HgCl2. A significant decrease in the mean fission rate (P<0.001) was found after 24- or 48-h exposures to 9.66 mg/l basudin, 3.3 mg/l AFD25 and 7 x 10(-2)mg/l HgCl2. Furthermore, the Neutral Red Retention Assay showed a significant decrease in lysosomal membrane stability after 60- and 120-min exposures to AFD25 (33 mg/l) and HgCl2 (0.33 mg/l). In addition, as it is well-known that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity represents a specific biomarker of exposure to OP and carbamate pesticides in higher organisms, initially the presence of cholinesterase (ChE) activity was detected in E. crassus, using cytochemical, spectrophotometric and electrophoretic methods. Afterwards, this enzyme activity was characterized spectrophotometrically by its sensitivity to specific ChE inhibitors and to variations in pH and temperature. The ChE activity was inhibited significantly by basudin- (9.66 and 96.6 mg/l) or AFD25-exposure (3.3 mg/l). Conversely, exposure to AFD25 (33 mg/l) or HgCl2 (0

  11. What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Barton, Andrew D.; Lozier, M. Susan; McKinley, Galen A.

    2015-06-01

    The oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres cover a significant portion of the global ocean, and exhibit considerable but poorly understood intraseasonal, interannual, and longer-term variations in spatial extent. Here using historical observations of surface ocean nitrate, wind, and currents, we have investigated how horizontal and vertical supplies of nitrate control seasonal changes in the size and shape of oligotrophic regions of the subtropical North Atlantic. In general, the oligotrophic region of the subtropical North Atlantic is associated with the region of weak vertical supply of nitrate. Though the total vertical supply of nitrate here is generally greater than the total horizontal supply, we find that seasonal expansion and contraction of the oligotrophic region is consistent with changes in horizontal supply of nitrate. In this dynamic periphery of the subtropical gyre, the seasonal variations in chlorophyll are linked to variations in horizontal nitrate supply that facilitate changes in intracellular pigment concentrations, and to a lesser extent, phytoplankton biomass. Our results suggest that horizontal transports of nutrient are crucial in setting seasonal cycles of chlorophyll in large expanses of the subtropical North Atlantic, and may play a key and underappreciated role in regulating interannual variations in these globally important marine ecosystems.

  12. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify

  13. Atmospheric Mercury Deposition to a Remote Islet in the Subtropical Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, G.; Lin, N.

    2013-12-01

    Thirty-four weekly rainwater samples were collected in 2009 at Pengjiayu, a remote islet in the subtropical Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean with an area of 1.14 km^2, to study the distribution of rainwater mercury (Hg) concentrations and associated wet deposition fluxes. This is the first study concerning wet Hg deposition to the subtropical NW Pacific Ocean downwind of the East Asian continent, which is the major source region for Hg emissions worldwide. Sample Hg concentrations ranged from 2.25 to 22.33 ng L^-1, with a volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of 8.85 ng L^-1. The annual wet Hg deposition flux was 10.18 μg m^-2, about 2.5 times the fluxes measured at sites on the Pacific coast of the USA, supporting the hypothesis that deposition is higher in the western than in the eastern Pacific. Seasonal VWM concentrations were 7.23, 11.58, 7.82, and 9.84 ng L^-1, whereas seasonal wet deposition fluxes were 2.14, 3.45, 2.38, and 2.21 μg m^-2, for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Higher summer wet Hg deposition was a function of both higher rainwater Hg concentration and greater rainfall. The seasonal pattern of rainwater Hg concentrations was the opposite of the general seasonal pattern of the East Asian air pollutant export. Since there is no significant anthropogenic Hg emission source on the islet of Pengjiayu, the observed high summertime rainwater Hg concentration hints at the importance of Hg(0) oxidation and/or scavenging of upper-altitude reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) by deep convection. Direct anthropogenic RGM emissions from the East Asian continent may not contribute significantly to the rainwater Hg concentrations, but anthropogenic Hg(0) emissions could be transported to the upper troposphere or marine boundary layer where they can be oxidized to produce RGM, which will then be effectively scavenged by cloud water and rainwater.

  14. Using mercury isotopes to understand the bioaccumulation of Hg in the subtropical Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Runsheng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Junjun; Pan, Ke; Wang, Wenxiong; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-03-01

    Coastal and estuarine regions are important areas of mercury pollution. Therefore, it is important to properly characterize the sources and bioaccumulation processes of mercury in these regions. Here, we present mercury stable isotopic compositions in 18 species of wild marine fish collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), south China. Our results showed variations in mass-independent fractionation (Δ(199)Hg: +0.05 ± 0.10‰ to +0.59 ± 0.30‰) with a Δ(199)Hg/Δ(201)Hg of ∼1.26, suggesting that aqueous MeHg underwent photo-degradation prior to incorporation into the food chain. For the results, we discovered small but significant differences of Δ(199)Hg values among herbivorous, demersal, and carnivorous fish, indicating that different feeding guilds of fish may have incorporated MeHg with various degrees of photo-demethylation. The consistent mercury isotope compositions between fish feeding habitat and mercury sources in the estuary provide potentially important findings on the transformation and bioaccumulation of this toxic metal in subtropical coastal environments. PMID:26766353

  15. Spatio-temporal variations in the diversity and abundance of commercially important Decapoda and Stomatopoda in subtropical Hong Kong waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Karen K. Y.; Ng, Jasmine S. S.; Leung, Kenneth M. Y.

    2007-05-01

    In subtropical Hong Kong, western waters (WW) are strongly influenced by the freshwater input from the Pearl River estuary, especially during summer monsoon, whereas eastern waters (EW) are predominantly influenced by oceanic currents throughout the year. Such hydrographical differences may lead to spatio-temporal differences in biodiversity of benthic communities. This study investigated the diversity and abundance of commercially important decapods and stomatopods in EW (i.e. Tolo Harbour and Channel) and WW (i.e. Tuen Mun and Lantau Island) of Hong Kong using monthly trawl surveys (August 2003-May 2005). In total, 22 decapod and nine stomatopod species were recorded. The penaeid Metapenaeopsis sp. and stomatopod Oratosquillina interrupta were the most abundant and dominant crustaceans in EW and WW, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that WW supported significantly higher abundance, biomass and diversity of crustaceans than EW, although there were significant between-site and within-site variations in community structure. Higher abundance and biomass of crustaceans were recorded in summer than winter. Such spatio-temporal variations could be explained by differences in the hydrography, environmental conditions and anthropogenic impacts between the two areas. Temporal patterns in the abundance-biomass comparison curves and negative W-statistics suggest that the communities have been highly disturbed in both areas, probably due to anthropogenic activities such as bottom trawling and marine pollution.

  16. A Citizen Science Approach: A Detailed Ecological Assessment of Subtropical Reefs at Point Lookout, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Thurstan, Ruth; Beger, Maria; Dudgeon, Christine; Loder, Jennifer; Kovacs, Eva; Gallo, Michele; Flower, Jason; Gomez Cabrera, K-le; Ortiz, Juan; Lea, Alexandra; Kleine, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical reefs provide an important habitat for flora and fauna, and proper monitoring is required for conservation. Monitoring these exposed and submerged reefs is challenging and available resources are limited. Citizen science is increasing in momentum, as an applied research tool and in the variety of monitoring approaches adopted. This paper aims to demonstrate an ecological assessment and mapping approach that incorporates both top-down (volunteer marine scientists) and bottom-up (divers/community) engagement aspects of citizen science, applied at a subtropical reef at Point Lookout, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Marine scientists trained fifty citizen scientists in survey techniques that included mapping of habitat features, recording of substrate, fish and invertebrate composition, and quantifying impacts (e.g., occurrence of substrate damage, presence of litter). In 2014 these volunteers conducted four seasonal surveys along semi-permanent transects, at five sites, across three reefs. The project presented is a model on how citizen science can be conducted in a marine environment through collaboration of volunteer researchers, non-researchers and local marine authorities. Significant differences in coral and algal cover were observed among the three sites, while fluctuations in algal cover were also observed seasonally. Differences in fish assemblages were apparent among sites and seasons, with subtropical fish groups observed more commonly in colder seasons. The least physical damage occurred in the most exposed sites (Flat Rock) within the highly protected marine park zones. The broad range of data collected through this top-down/bottom-up approach to citizen science exemplifies the projects’ value and application for identifying ecosystem trends or patterns. The results of the project support natural resource and marine park management, providing a valuable contribution to existing scientific knowledge and the conservation of local reefs. PMID

  17. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of trace metals in humid subtropical soil.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Gopi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2015-11-01

    In this work, several physicochemical properties of sub-tropical soil (up to 20 cm depth) like water holding capacity, organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, texture, pH, and electrical conductivity were determined along with the trace metals, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, in order to evaluate inter-relations among the trace metals and the soil properties. The contribution of the trace metals to ecotoxicological risk was assessed using various tools. Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were found to be lower than the world average, but Co, Ni, and Pb had higher contents. The trace metal concentrations were utilized to obtain the pollution index and the potential ecotoxicological aspects. The trace metals were shown to have come from similar origin and their retention in the soil was contributed by properties like organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, clay content and water holding capacity of the soil. The pollution index showed that the trace metals had the sequence of Pb (considerably polluted) > Co, Ni (moderately polluted) > Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn (unpolluted). The composite ecological risk index was the highest in agricultural land with irrigation and fertilizer use, and was the lowest in the forest land.

  18. Reducing the uncertainty in subtropical cloud feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Timothy A.; Norris, Joel R.

    2016-03-01

    Large uncertainty remains on how subtropical clouds will respond to anthropogenic climate change and therefore whether they will act as a positive feedback that amplifies global warming or negative feedback that dampens global warming by altering Earth's energy budget. Here we reduce this uncertainty using an observationally constrained formulation of the response of subtropical clouds to greenhouse forcing. The observed interannual sensitivity of cloud solar reflection to varying meteorological conditions suggests that increasing sea surface temperature and atmospheric stability in the future climate will have largely canceling effects on subtropical cloudiness, overall leading to a weak positive shortwave cloud feedback (0.4 ± 0.9 W m-2 K-1). The uncertainty of this observationally based approximation of the cloud feedback is narrower than the intermodel spread of the feedback produced by climate models. Subtropical cloud changes will therefore complement positive cloud feedbacks identified by previous work, suggesting that future global cloud changes will amplify global warming.

  19. Differential decay of Enterococci and Escherichia coli originating from two fecal pollution sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using in situ subtropical aquatic mesocosms, fecal source (cattle manure versus sewage) was shown to be the most important contributor to differential loss in viability of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), specifically enterococci in freshwater and Escherichia coli in marine habita...

  20. Tropical/Subtropical Peatland Development and Global CH4 during the Last Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hai; Lan, Jianghu; Sheng, Enguo; Liu, Yong; Liu, Bin; Yu, Keke; Ye, Yuanda; Cheng, Peng; Qiang, Xiaoke; Lu, Fengyan; Wang, Xulong

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of peatland development over the tropical/subtropical zone during the last glaciation is critical for understanding the glacial global methane cycle. Here we present a well-dated ‘peat deposit-lake sediment’ alternate sequence at Tengchong, southwestern China, and discuss the peatland development and its linkage to the global glacial methane cycle. Peat layers were formed during the cold Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-2 and -4, whereas lake sediments coincided with the relatively warm MIS-3, which is possibly related to the orbital/suborbital variations in both temperature and Asian summer monsoon intensity. The Tengchong peatland formation pattern is broadly synchronous with those over subtropical southern China and other tropical/subtropical areas, but it is clearly in contrast to those over the mid-high Northern Hemisphere. The results of this work suggest that the shifts of peatland development between the tropical/subtropical zone and mid-high Northern Hemisphere may have played important roles in the glacial/interglacial global atmospheric CH4 cycles.

  1. Tropical/Subtropical Peatland Development and Global CH4 during the Last Glaciation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai; Lan, Jianghu; Sheng, Enguo; Liu, Yong; Liu, Bin; Yu, Keke; Ye, Yuanda; Cheng, Peng; Qiang, Xiaoke; Lu, Fengyan; Wang, Xulong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of peatland development over the tropical/subtropical zone during the last glaciation is critical for understanding the glacial global methane cycle. Here we present a well-dated ‘peat deposit-lake sediment’ alternate sequence at Tengchong, southwestern China, and discuss the peatland development and its linkage to the global glacial methane cycle. Peat layers were formed during the cold Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-2 and -4, whereas lake sediments coincided with the relatively warm MIS-3, which is possibly related to the orbital/suborbital variations in both temperature and Asian summer monsoon intensity. The Tengchong peatland formation pattern is broadly synchronous with those over subtropical southern China and other tropical/subtropical areas, but it is clearly in contrast to those over the mid-high Northern Hemisphere. The results of this work suggest that the shifts of peatland development between the tropical/subtropical zone and mid-high Northern Hemisphere may have played important roles in the glacial/interglacial global atmospheric CH4 cycles. PMID:27465566

  2. Tropical/Subtropical Peatland Development and Global CH4 during the Last Glaciation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai; Lan, Jianghu; Sheng, Enguo; Liu, Yong; Liu, Bin; Yu, Keke; Ye, Yuanda; Cheng, Peng; Qiang, Xiaoke; Lu, Fengyan; Wang, Xulong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of peatland development over the tropical/subtropical zone during the last glaciation is critical for understanding the glacial global methane cycle. Here we present a well-dated 'peat deposit-lake sediment' alternate sequence at Tengchong, southwestern China, and discuss the peatland development and its linkage to the global glacial methane cycle. Peat layers were formed during the cold Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-2 and -4, whereas lake sediments coincided with the relatively warm MIS-3, which is possibly related to the orbital/suborbital variations in both temperature and Asian summer monsoon intensity. The Tengchong peatland formation pattern is broadly synchronous with those over subtropical southern China and other tropical/subtropical areas, but it is clearly in contrast to those over the mid-high Northern Hemisphere. The results of this work suggest that the shifts of peatland development between the tropical/subtropical zone and mid-high Northern Hemisphere may have played important roles in the glacial/interglacial global atmospheric CH4 cycles. PMID:27465566

  3. Dangerous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C

    1976-04-01

    Tales of dangerous marine animals have flourished, entwining history, legend and imagination. Man is now demonstrating his remarkable adaptability in returning to the aquatic environment, from which he had his origins, and factual knowledge of marine creatures is surplanting mystery, folklore and fear. There is still cause to fear certain aspects of the underwater world, and the one aspect that still holds sway over public interest is that of dangerous marine animals. There is little justification for this top priority. The kelp beds of San Diego will claim more diving victims than all the marine animals around the United States of America. The cold seas off the English coastline, the tidal currents of Hawaii and the multitude of drowning accidents in water caves of Florida and Australia belittle the relatively few fatalities caused by marine animals. Nevertheless, the latter do cause injury and death, especially in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The Indo-Pacific area seems particularly well endowed with a variety of potentially lethal species, and some of these will be dealt with in this paper.

  4. Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.

    PubMed

    Liu, J Y

    2013-01-01

    China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by

  5. Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.

    PubMed

    Liu, J Y

    2013-01-01

    China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by

  6. Status of Marine Biodiversity of the China Seas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by

  7. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  8. Dangers in the ocean: the traveler and marine envenomation. II. Marine vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Fenner, P J

    1998-12-01

    Envenomation both from jellyfish and other marine animals causes human deaths and severe morbidity in many countries in the world having tropical, or subtropical waters. In part II the world distribution of venomous marine vertebrates is discussed, together with simple first aid and effective medical treatment. Suggestions are made for the awareness and prevention of marine envenomation. With travel becoming more popular than ever, general practitioners and travel medicine consultants must routinely advise their patients on the worldwide hazards of marine envenomation. PMID:9876198

  9. Enhancement of phytoplankton chlorophyll by submesoscale frontal dynamics in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Levine, Naomi M.

    2016-02-01

    Subtropical gyres contribute significantly to global ocean productivity. As the climate warms, the strength of these gyres as a biological carbon pump is predicted to diminish due to increased stratification and depleted surface nutrients. We present results suggesting that the impact of submesoscale physics on phytoplankton in the oligotrophic ocean is substantial and may either compensate or exacerbate future changes in carbon cycling. A new statistical tool was developed to quantify surface patchiness from sea surface temperatures. Chlorophyll concentrations in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre were shown to be enhanced by submesoscale frontal dynamics with an average increase of 38% (maximum of 83%) during late winter. The magnitude of this enhancement is comparable to the observed decline in chlorophyll due to a warming of ~1.1°C. These results highlight the need for an improved understanding of fine-scale physical variability in order to predict the response of marine ecosystems to projected climate changes.

  10. Gulf Stream - subtropical gyre properties across two Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Downy, F.; Andersson, M. A.; Chapman, M. R.; Elderfield, H.; McCave, I. N.; Lenton, T. M.; Grützner, J.

    2013-12-01

    Salinity increase in the subtropical gyre system may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic Ocean for a rapid return to stronger overturning circulation and high-latitude warming following meltwater events during the Last Glacial period. Here we investigate the Gulf Stream - subtropical gyre system properties over Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles 14 to 12, including Heinrich ice-rafting event 5. During the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum a positive gradient in surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera δ18O (Globigerinoides ruber) can be observed between the Gulf Stream and subtropical gyre, due to decreasing temperature, increasing salinity, and a change from summer to year-round occurrence of G. ruber. We assess whether this gradient was a common feature during stadial-interstadial climate oscillations of Marine Isotope Stage 3, by comparing existing G. ruber δ18O from ODP Site 1060 (subtropical gyre location) and new data from ODP Site 1056 (Gulf Stream location) between 54 and 46 ka. Our results suggest that this gradient was largely absent during the period studied. During the major warm DO interstadials 14 and 12 we infer a more zonal and wider Gulf Stream, influencing both ODP Sites 1056 and 1060. A Gulf Stream presence during these major interstadials is also suggested by the large vertical δ18O gradient between shallow dwelling planktonic foraminifera species, especially G. ruber, and the deep dwelling species Globorotalia inflata at site 1056, which we associate with strong summer stratification and Gulf Stream presence. A major reduction in this vertical δ18O gradient from 51 ka until the end of Heinrich event 5 at 48.5 ka suggests site 1056 was situated within the subtropical gyre in this mainly cold period, from which we infer a migration of the Gulf Stream to a position nearer to the continental shelf, indicative of a narrower Gulf Stream with possibly reduced transport.

  11. Periodical Literature of Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawani, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    In order to foster improvements in bibliographical control, this study attempts to provide some information on the periodicals in which articles on tropical and subtropical agriculture are published. The periodicals in which publications most frequently appear are listed, and the extent of bibliographic scattering and language of publication are…

  12. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  13. New genera of RNA viruses in subtropical seawater, inferred from polymerase gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2007-09-01

    Viruses are an integral component of the marine food web, contributing to the disease and mortality of essentially every type of marine life, yet the diversity of viruses in the sea, especially those with RNA genomes, remains very poorly characterized. Isolates of RNA-containing viruses that infect marine plankton are still rare, and the only cultivation-independent surveys of RNA viral diversity reported so far were conducted for temperate coastal waters of British Columbia. Here, we report on our improvements to a previously used protocol to investigate the diversity of marine picorna-like viruses and our results from applying this protocol in subtropical waters. The original protocol was simplified by using direct filtration, rather than tangential flow filtration, to harvest viruses from seawater, and new degenerate primers were designed to amplify a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene by reverse transcription-PCR from RNA extracted from the filters. Whereas the original protocol was unsuccessful in a preliminary test, the new protocol resulted in amplification of picorna-like virus sequences in every sample of subtropical and temperate coastal seawater assayed. These polymerase sequences formed a diverse, but monophyletic cluster along with other sequences amplified previously from seawater and sequences from isolates infecting marine protists. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that our sequences represent at least five new genera and 24 new species of RNA viruses. These results contribute to our understanding of RNA virus diversity and suggest that picorna-like viruses are a source of mortality for a wide variety of marine protists.

  14. Energy-related pollution of semi-tropical and tropical nearshore ecosystems. Annual report, 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Thorhaug, A.; Marcus, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The major components of the nearshore marine ecosystems in the subtropics and tropics (seagrasses, mangroves, and corals) are examined and compound sublethal and lethal effects from extremes in some energy-related effects (temperature, salinity and light) are discussed.

  15. [Climatic suitability of citrus in subtropical China].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-Lai; Qian, Huai-Sui; Li, Ming-Xia; Du, Yao-Dong

    2010-08-01

    By applying the theories of ecological suitability and the methods of fuzzy mathematics, this paper established a climatic suitability model for citrus, calculated and evaluated the climatic suitability and its spatiotemporal differences for citrus production in subtropical China, and analyzed the climatic suitability of citrus at its different growth stages and the mean climatic suitability of citrus in different regions of subtropical China. The results showed that the citrus in subtropical China had a lower climatic suitability and a higher risk at its flower bud differentiation stage, budding stage, and fruit maturity stage, but a higher climatic suitability and a lower risk at other growth stages. Cold damage and summer drought were the key issues affecting the citrus production in subtropical China. The citrus temperature suitability represented a latitudinal zonal pattern, i. e., decreased with increasing latitude; its precipitation suitability was high in the line of "Sheyang-Napo", medium in the southeast of the line, low in the northwest of the line, and non in high mountainous area; while the sunlight suitability was in line with the actual duration of sunshine, namely, higher in high-latitude areas than in low-latitude areas, and higher in high-altitude areas than in plain areas. Limited by temperature factor, the climatic suitability was in accordance with temperature suitability, i. e., south parts had a higher suitability than north parts, basically representing latitudinal zonal pattern. From the analysis of the inter-annual changes of citrus climatic suitability, it could be seen that the citrus climatic suitability in subtropical China was decreasing, and had obvious regional differences, suggesting that climate change could bring about the changes in the regions suitable for citrus production and in the key stages of citrus growth.

  16. Marine pollution risk in a coastal city: use of an eco-genotoxic tool as a stress indicator in mussels from the Eastern Aegean Sea.

    PubMed

    Kacar, Asli; Pazi, Idil; Gonul, Tolga; Kucuksezgin, Filiz

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas, such as bays, estuaries, and harbors, are heavily polluted since these areas are the settlements to which toxic chemicals from industrial and domestic wastes are discharged. The genetic damage was evaluated using bioindicator mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caused by toxic chemicals (metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in İzmir and Çandarlı Bays (the Eastern Aegean Sea) through comet assay. Three sampling sites from the two bays were selected and the study was conducted during the spring and autumn periods. The highest levels of DNA damage expressed as %Tail-DNA were observed in İzmir Bay (34.60 % Tail-DNA) in the spring. Analysis of the correlation between PAHs and metals in mussels and %T-DNA in the hemolymph and gill cells showed a statistically significant positive correlation between %T-DNA and ∑PAH, chromium (p < 0.05). This study determined the pollution level of the İzmir and Çandarlı Bays by using the DNA damage to the mussel, which can identify the effects of environmental pollutants at the cellular levels. These results confirm that comet assay can be used to determine the temporal and spatial differences of DNA damage, and as a suitable tool for the measurement of genotoxicity in regions with low pollutant concentrations. PMID:27146544

  17. Marine pollution risk in a coastal city: use of an eco-genotoxic tool as a stress indicator in mussels from the Eastern Aegean Sea.

    PubMed

    Kacar, Asli; Pazi, Idil; Gonul, Tolga; Kucuksezgin, Filiz

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas, such as bays, estuaries, and harbors, are heavily polluted since these areas are the settlements to which toxic chemicals from industrial and domestic wastes are discharged. The genetic damage was evaluated using bioindicator mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caused by toxic chemicals (metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in İzmir and Çandarlı Bays (the Eastern Aegean Sea) through comet assay. Three sampling sites from the two bays were selected and the study was conducted during the spring and autumn periods. The highest levels of DNA damage expressed as %Tail-DNA were observed in İzmir Bay (34.60 % Tail-DNA) in the spring. Analysis of the correlation between PAHs and metals in mussels and %T-DNA in the hemolymph and gill cells showed a statistically significant positive correlation between %T-DNA and ∑PAH, chromium (p < 0.05). This study determined the pollution level of the İzmir and Çandarlı Bays by using the DNA damage to the mussel, which can identify the effects of environmental pollutants at the cellular levels. These results confirm that comet assay can be used to determine the temporal and spatial differences of DNA damage, and as a suitable tool for the measurement of genotoxicity in regions with low pollutant concentrations.

  18. Subtropical Shelf Front off eastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piola, Alberto R.; Campos, Edmo J. D.; MöLler, Osmar O.; Charo, Marcela; Martinez, Carlos

    2000-03-01

    Historical hydrographic data from the continental shelf off eastern South America are used to examine the thermohaline properties of the water masses in the region between 20°S and 40°S. The continental shelf water masses are originated by dilution of open ocean waters of the western boundary currents of the South Atlantic Ocean. On the basis of temperature-salinity relation, two distinct water masses are identified, namely, the Subantarctic Shelf Water and the Subtropical Shelf Water. Subantarctic Shelf Water originates by dilution of Subantarctic Water, primarily in the southeast Pacific, due to excess precipitation and continental runoff and enters the continental shelf near 55°S. The Subtropical Shelf Water is modified South Atlantic Central Water diluted by continental runoff from the coast of Brazil. In addition, substantial dilution of the upper shelf waters takes place at the mouth of Río de la Plata (approximately located at 36°S) and, in a lesser extent, at the Patos-Mirim Lagoon (at 32°S). The Río de la Plata and the Patos outflows form a low-salinity tongue that caps the shelf water leading to a salinity decrease to values <30. The low-salinity tongue extends northward over the shelf penetrating farther north in winter than in summer. The extent of the low-salinity water has a strong impact on the vertical stratification and acts to limit winter convection to the layer above the halocline. There is little or no indication of mixing between Subantarctic Shelf Water and Subtropical Shelf Water. An intense temperature, salinity, and nutrient front separates these water masses. The front is oriented along the north-south direction, located on average near the 50 m isobath at 32°S and extends southward toward the shelf break near 36°S. Between 32° and 34°S the Subtropical Shelf Front follows the 100 to 200 m isobaths and separates Subantarctic Shelf Water from the oceanic South Atlantic Central Water. On the basis of the temperature and salinity

  19. Bacterioplankton carbon cycling along the Subtropical Frontal Zone off New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltar, Federico; Stuck, Esther; Morales, Sergio; Currie, Kim

    2015-06-01

    Marine heterotrophic bacterioplankton (Bacteria and Archaea) play a central role in ocean carbon cycling. As such, identifying the factors controlling these microbial populations is crucial to fully understanding carbon fluxes. We studied bacterioplankton activities along a transect crossing three water masses (i.e., Subtropical waters [STW], Sub-Antarctic waters [SAW] and neritic waters [NW]) with contrasting nutrient regimes across the Subtropical Frontal Zone. In contrast to bacterioplankton production and community respiration, bacterioplankton respiration increased in the offshore SAW, causing a seaward increase in the contribution of bacteria to community respiration (from 7% to 100%). Cell-specific bacterioplankton respiration also increased in SAW, but cell-specific production did not, suggesting that prokaryotic cells in SAW were investing more energy towards respiration than growth. This was reflected in a 5-fold decline in bacterioplankton growth efficiency (BGE) towards SAW. One way to explain this decrease in BGE could be due to the observed reduction in phytoplankton biomass (and presumably organic matter concentration) towards SAW. However, this would not explain why bacterioplankton respiration was highest in SAW, where phytoplankton biomass was lowest. Another factor affecting BGE could be the iron limitation characteristic of high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions like SAW. Our field-study based evidences would agree with previous laboratory experiments in which iron stress provoked a decrease in BGE of marine bacterial isolates. Our results suggest that there is a strong gradient in bacterioplankton carbon cycling rates along the Subtropical Frontal Zone, mainly due to the HNLC conditions of SAW. We suggest that Fe-induced reduction of BGE in HNLC regions like SAW could be relevant in marine carbon cycling, inducing bacterioplankton to act as a link or a sink of organic carbon by impacting on the quantity of organic carbon they incorporate

  20. Persistent organic pollutants monitoring in marine coastal environment using beached plastic resin pellets and effective risk communication via International Pellet Watch (IPW) as a tool.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, B. G. M.; Takada, H.; Hosoda, J.

    2014-12-01

    International Pellet Watch (IPW) is an ongoing global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using preproduction plastic resin pellets. These pellets are easily collected and transported allowing the general public worldwide to get involved. Thus, risk communication toward the pellet collectors is a significant part of IPW to ensure continuous effort and interest. The pellet samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Additional pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes were also analyzed for some samples. Analytical results showed distinct patterns with high concentrations (< 200ng/g-pellet) of PCBs in urban and industrialized areas mainly in the United States, Japan, and some European countries. These countries are prone to legacy pollution where PCBs were used extensively before the ban in the late 1980's. Pesticide DDTs instead were found to be higher in developing countries such as Brazil and Vietnam (> 500ng/g-pellet). These countries may still be using DDTs as a vector control mostly to combat malaria. High concentrations of DDTs were also found in Greece, China and Australia (> 100ng/g-pellet) suggesting the possibility of illegal usage as pesticide or anti fouling paint. HCHs concentrations were mostly low due to its low retention in the environment. However, high HCHs concentrations were mostly found in the southern hemisphere. Very high concentration of PAHs in pellet samples can be utilized for early identification of recent oil pollution. High PAHs concentration in Tauranga, New Zealand was found to be caused by local oil spill. Hopanes in pellets can be used for source identification of oil pollution. Global mapping and comparison among IPW data can be used to provide better explanations to IPW volunteers by sorting concentrations into pollution categories. Communication reports are tailor written

  1. Aquatic pollution, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book systematically covers all aspects of water pollution in marine and freshwater systems. Didactic style, frequent use of case studies and an extensive bibliography facilitate understanding of fundamental concepts. Offers basic, relevant ecological and toxicological information. Straightforward presentation of the scientific aspects of environmental issues. Information updated, particularly the discussion of toxicology and the case studies of water pollution. Three new chapters on acid rain, groundwater pollution and plastics are added.

  2. Characterization of the cytosolic distribution of priority pollutant metals and metalloids in the digestive gland cytosol of marine mussels: seasonal and spatial variability.

    PubMed

    Strižak, Zeljka; Ivanković, Dušica; Pröfrock, Daniel; Helmholz, Heike; Cindrić, Ana-Marija; Erk, Marijana; Prange, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Cytosolic profiles of several priority pollutant metals (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb) and metalloid As were analyzed in the digestive gland of the mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) sampled at locations with different environmental pollution levels along the Croatian coast in the spring and summer season. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) connected to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine selected elements bound to cytosolic biomolecules separated based on their molecular size. Copper, cadmium and zinc eluted mostly associated with high molecular weight (HMW) and medium molecular weight (MMW) biomolecules, but with a more prominent elution in the MMW peak at polluted locations which were probably associated with the 20 kDa metallothionein (MT). Elution of all three metals within this peak was also strongly correlated with cytosolic Cd as strong inducer of MT. Lead mostly eluted in HMW biomolecule range, but in elevated cytosolic Pb concentrations, significant amount eluted in low molecular weight (LMW) biomolecules. Arsenic, on the other hand eluted almost completely in LMW range, but we could not distinguish specific molecular weight biomolecules which would be predominant in detoxification mechanism. Seasonal variability in element abundance within specific peaks was present, although not in the same extent, for all elements and locations, especially for As. The results confirm the suitability of the distribution of selected metals/metalloids among different cytosolic ligands as potential indicator for metal exposure. Obtained findings can also serve as guidelines for further separation and characterization of specific cytosolic metal-binding biomolecules.

  3. Priming effects in a subtropical forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianru; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang

    2015-04-01

    Priming effects can accelerate decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) and thus have great potential to change SOC dynamics. Although temperature and addition of fresh substrates could affect the intensity and direction of priming, it remains unclear how their interactions affect priming. Therefore we conducted an incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil. We incubated the soil for 10 days at two temperatures: 15oC and 25oC, with four treatments: CK (only adding water), G (13C-glucose addition), NT (13C-glucose and nitrate additions) and AM (13C-glucose and ammonium additions). The results showed that glucose addition significantly accelerated the decomposition of SOC in both temperatures, indicates that positive priming occurs in this subtropical soil. While negative priming was observed in soils with simultaneous additions of glucose and nitrogen addition, especially at 25oC. The effect of temperature on PE was not significant. This indicates that mining of nitrogen is a major mechanism responsible for priming in this subtropical soil and there is no strong interaction between temperature and substrate additions to induce priming.

  4. Gravitational Motions in a Large Subtropical Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, C. L.; Imberger, J.

    2015-12-01

    Subtropical lakes and reservoirs are characterized by a definite, but moderate vertical thermal stratification, so that vertical mixing is the result of a balance between the surface buoyancy flux and wind stirring and horizontal exchanges are the result of a series of gravitational motions: differential mixing, cooling, heating, and absorption. Here we report on two field experiments carried out in Lake Argyle, Australia's second largest artificial lake by volume, in May 2012 and November 2013 that illustrate the delicate balance that exists in subtropical lakes between buoyancy and inertia and how this balance interacts with the resident biology. The field experiments were conducted using a state-of-the-art real-time field technology that allows instant comparison of field data and 3D numerical modelling results of all physical variables at micro and fine scales and phytoplankton concentration at the group level. The results demonstrate that subtropical lakes present special opportunities and challenges for mitigation of water quality problems in face of global warming.

  5. Assesment of trace elements and organic pollutants from a marine oil complex into the coral reef system of Cayo Arcas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cram, Silke; Ponce De León, Claudia A; Fernández, Pilar; Sommer, Irene; Rivas, Hilda; Morales, Luis Miguel

    2006-10-01

    Possible contaminants produced by the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) marine oil complex in the vicinity of the Cayo Arcas (Mexico) coral reef ecosystem were evaluated by analyzing sediments and sea water for hydrocarbons and metal elements. We found that the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sea water were generally low, with the highest values detected near the oil station; the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was generally below the detection limit. The hydrocarbons found in the sediments seem to have a pyrogenic origin, and were probably produced by marine traffic in the study area. The total PAH concentration did not exceed the NOAA criteria, although levels of some individual PAHs did. The only metal detected in the sea water at high concentrations was nickel. The Ni/V ratio in the sediments indicates the contribution of crude oil to the system. The high content of Ni and Zn was attributed to the ballast waters from the oil tankers that load at the station's monobuoys. The presence of fine sediments that commonly originate from terrestrial ecosystems supported this assumption. PMID:16741791

  6. Manatees as sentinels of marine ecosystem health: are they the 2000-pound canaries?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonde, R.K.; Aguirre, A.A.; Powell, J.

    2004-01-01

    The order Sirenia is represented by three species of manatees and one species of dugong distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and considered vulnerable to extinction. The sentinel species concept is useful to identify indicators of the environment and may reflect the quality of health in marine ecosystems. The single species approach to evaluate ecological health may provide a series of “snap shots” of environmental changes to determine if animal, human, or ecosystem health may be affected. Under this concept, marine vertebrates may be good integrators of changes over space and time, and excellent sentinels of ecosystem health. Based on their life history, manatees may or may not be ideal sentinels, as they are robust, long-lived species and appear remarkably resilient to natural disease and the effects of human-related injury and trauma. These characteristics might be the result of an efficient and responsive immune system compared to other marine mammals. Although relatively immune to infectious agents, manatees face other potentially serious threats, including epizootic diseases and pollution while in large aggregations. Manatees can serve as excellent sentinels of harmful algal blooms due to their high sensitivity, specifically to brevetoxicosis, which has caused at least two major die-offs in recent times. Threats to manatees worldwide, such as illegal hunting and boat collisions, are increasing. Habitat is being lost at an alarming rate and the full effects of uncontrolled human population growth on the species are unknown. The manatee may serve as a sentinel species, prognosticating the deleterious effects of unhealthy marine and aquatic ecosystems on humans. We have identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that could help advance the use of the sentinel species concept in marine ecosystem health and monitoring of disease emergence using our knowledge on these magnificent

  7. Using Heavy Metal Content and Lipid Peroxidation Indicators in the Tissues of the Mussel Crenomytilus grayanus for Pollution Assessment After Marine Environmental Remediation.

    PubMed

    Belcheva, Nina; Istomina, Alexandra; Dovzhenko, Nadezhda; Lishavskaya, Tatiana; Chelomin, Victor

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effects of environmental remediation on the heavy metal concentration and lipid peroxidation activity in the digestive gland and gills of the marine mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. Changes in heavy metal concentrations and lipid peroxidation biomarkers in the tissues of mussels collected at a contaminated site were compared with those obtained from a reference site. Prior to remediation the concentration of Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe and Zn and the levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and lipofuscin in mussels collected from the contaminated site were significantly increased compared with those obtained from the reference site. Three years after remediation, these parameters did not significantly exceed the reference site parameters, except Pb, whose concentration, though markedly decreased, yet was much higher than in tissues of mussels from the reference site.

  8. Scales of spatial heterogeneity of plastic marine debris in the northeast pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Miriam C; Titmus, Andrew J; Ford, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris has been documented in many marine ecosystems, including remote coastlines, the water column, the deep sea, and subtropical gyres. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), colloquially called the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch," has been an area of particular scientific and public concern. However, quantitative assessments of the extent and variability of plastic in the NPSG have been limited. Here, we quantify the distribution, abundance, and size of plastic in a subset of the eastern Pacific (approximately 20-40°N, 120-155°W) over multiple spatial scales. Samples were collected in Summer 2009 using surface and subsurface plankton net tows and quantitative visual observations, and Fall 2010 using surface net tows only. We documented widespread, though spatially variable, plastic pollution in this portion of the NPSG and adjacent waters. The overall median microplastic numerical concentration in Summer 2009 was 0.448 particles m(-2) and in Fall 2010 was 0.021 particles m(-2), but plastic concentrations were highly variable over the submesoscale (10 s of km). Size-frequency spectra were skewed towards small particles, with the most abundant particles having a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.01 cm(2). Most microplastic was found on the sea surface, with the highest densities detected in low-wind conditions. The numerical majority of objects were small particles collected with nets, but the majority of debris surface area was found in large objects assessed visually. Our ability to detect high-plastic areas varied with methodology, as stations with substantial microplastic did not necessarily also contain large visually observable objects. A power analysis of our data suggests that high variability of surface microplastic will make future changes in abundance difficult to detect without substantial sampling effort. Our findings suggest that assessment and monitoring of oceanic plastic debris must account for high spatial variability

  9. Scales of spatial heterogeneity of plastic marine debris in the northeast pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Miriam C; Titmus, Andrew J; Ford, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris has been documented in many marine ecosystems, including remote coastlines, the water column, the deep sea, and subtropical gyres. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), colloquially called the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch," has been an area of particular scientific and public concern. However, quantitative assessments of the extent and variability of plastic in the NPSG have been limited. Here, we quantify the distribution, abundance, and size of plastic in a subset of the eastern Pacific (approximately 20-40°N, 120-155°W) over multiple spatial scales. Samples were collected in Summer 2009 using surface and subsurface plankton net tows and quantitative visual observations, and Fall 2010 using surface net tows only. We documented widespread, though spatially variable, plastic pollution in this portion of the NPSG and adjacent waters. The overall median microplastic numerical concentration in Summer 2009 was 0.448 particles m(-2) and in Fall 2010 was 0.021 particles m(-2), but plastic concentrations were highly variable over the submesoscale (10 s of km). Size-frequency spectra were skewed towards small particles, with the most abundant particles having a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.01 cm(2). Most microplastic was found on the sea surface, with the highest densities detected in low-wind conditions. The numerical majority of objects were small particles collected with nets, but the majority of debris surface area was found in large objects assessed visually. Our ability to detect high-plastic areas varied with methodology, as stations with substantial microplastic did not necessarily also contain large visually observable objects. A power analysis of our data suggests that high variability of surface microplastic will make future changes in abundance difficult to detect without substantial sampling effort. Our findings suggest that assessment and monitoring of oceanic plastic debris must account for high spatial variability

  10. Scales of Spatial Heterogeneity of Plastic Marine Debris in the Northeast Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Miriam C.; Titmus, Andrew J.; Ford, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris has been documented in many marine ecosystems, including remote coastlines, the water column, the deep sea, and subtropical gyres. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), colloquially called the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch,” has been an area of particular scientific and public concern. However, quantitative assessments of the extent and variability of plastic in the NPSG have been limited. Here, we quantify the distribution, abundance, and size of plastic in a subset of the eastern Pacific (approximately 20–40°N, 120–155°W) over multiple spatial scales. Samples were collected in Summer 2009 using surface and subsurface plankton net tows and quantitative visual observations, and Fall 2010 using surface net tows only. We documented widespread, though spatially variable, plastic pollution in this portion of the NPSG and adjacent waters. The overall median microplastic numerical concentration in Summer 2009 was 0.448 particles m−2 and in Fall 2010 was 0.021 particles m−2, but plastic concentrations were highly variable over the submesoscale (10 s of km). Size-frequency spectra were skewed towards small particles, with the most abundant particles having a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.01 cm2. Most microplastic was found on the sea surface, with the highest densities detected in low-wind conditions. The numerical majority of objects were small particles collected with nets, but the majority of debris surface area was found in large objects assessed visually. Our ability to detect high-plastic areas varied with methodology, as stations with substantial microplastic did not necessarily also contain large visually observable objects. A power analysis of our data suggests that high variability of surface microplastic will make future changes in abundance difficult to detect without substantial sampling effort. Our findings suggest that assessment and monitoring of oceanic plastic debris must account for high spatial variability

  11. Gulf Stream-Subtropical Gyre Properties Across Two Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B.; Chapman, M.; Elderfield, H.; McCave, I. N. N.; Gruetzner, J.

    2014-12-01

    It has been suggested that salinity increases in the subtropical gyre system may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic Ocean for a rapid return to stronger overturning circulation and high-latitude warming following meltwater events during the Last Glacial period (Schmidt et al., 2006). Planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotopes (δ18O) measured on the surface dwelling Globigerinoides ruber show a positive gradient going from the Gulf Stream into the subtropical gyre during the Holocene as well as the Last Glacial Maximum (Keigwin, 2004). This gradient is due to decreasing temperatures, increasing salinity and a change from a summer to year round occurrence of G. ruber(Keigwin, 2004). During rapid climate oscillations between 54 and 46 ka of Marine Isotope Stage 3, including Heinrich ice-rafting event 5, this gradient may have been largely absent; G. ruber δ18O of ODP Site 1060 (subtropical gyre location) and ODP Site 1056 (Gulf Stream location) are virtually identical. Lower G. ruber δ18O that characterize the major warm DO interstadials 14 and 12 suggest a mainly summer occurrence of this species and indicate a more zonal and wider Gulf Stream influencing both ODP Sites. A large vertical δ18O gradient between shallow dwelling G. ruber and the deep dwelling species Globorotalia inflataat site 1056 is associated with strong summer stratification, supporting a Gulf Stream presence during these major interstadials. From about 51 ka until the end of Heinrich event 5 G. ruber δ18O is increased and the δ18O gradient between G. ruber and G. inflata is greatly reduced, suggesting a more year round occurrence of G. ruber and absence of summer stratification at site 1056, associated with subtropical gyre conditions. From this we infer that the Gulf Stream may have taken up a position nearer to the continental shelf during this cold period, where it may have been narrower with reduced transport.

  12. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045...

  13. Wandering albatrosses document latitudinal variations in the transfer of persistent organic pollutants and mercury to Southern Ocean predators.

    PubMed

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Tartu, Sabrina; Meillère, Alizée; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier; Cherel, Yves

    2014-12-16

    Top marine predators are effective tools to monitor bioaccumulative contaminants in remote oceanic environments. Here, we used the wide-ranging wandering albatross Diomedea exulans to investigate potential geographical variations of contaminant transfer to predators in the Southern Ocean. Blood concentrations of 19 persistent organic pollutants and 14 trace elements were measured in a large number of individuals (N = 180) of known age, sex and breeding status from the subantarctic Crozet Islands. Wandering albatrosses were exposed to a wide range of contaminants, with notably high blood mercury concentrations. Contaminant burden was markedly influenced by latitudinal foraging habitats (inferred from blood δ(13)C values), with individuals feeding in warmer subtropical waters having lower concentrations of pesticides, but higher concentrations of mercury, than those feeding in colder subantarctic waters. Sexual differences in contaminant burden seemed to be driven by gender specialization in feeding habitats, rather than physiological characteristics, with females foraging further north than males. Other individual traits, such as adult age and reproductive status, had little effect on blood contaminant concentrations. Our study provides further evidence of the critical role of global distillation on organic contaminant exposure to Southern Ocean avian predators. In addition, we document an unexpected high transfer of mercury to predators in subtropical waters, which merits further investigation. PMID:25423551

  14. Passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer: 2. Observations and simulations of microplastic marine debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, K.; Kukulka, T.; Proskurowski, G.; Law, K. L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is the second of a two-part series that investigates passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL). The first part examines the influence of equilibrium wind-waves on vertical tracer distributions, based on large eddy simulations (LESs) of the wave-averaged Navier-Stokes equation. Motivated by observations of buoyant microplastic marine debris (MPMD), this study applies the LES model and the parametric one-dimensional column model from part one to examine the vertical distributions of MPMD. MPMD is widely distributed in vast regions of the subtropical gyres and has emerged as a major open ocean pollutant whose distribution is subject to upper ocean turbulence. The models capture shear-driven turbulence, Langmuir turbulence (LT), and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy input due to breaking waves (BWs). Model results are only consistent with observations of MPMD profiles and the relationship between surface concentrations and wind speed if LT effects are included. Neither BW nor shear-driven turbulence is capable of deeply submerging MPMD, suggesting that the observed vertical MPMD distributions are a characteristic signature of wave-driven LT. Thus, this study demonstrates that LT substantially increases turbulent transport in the OSBL, resulting in deep submergence of buoyant tracers. The parametric model is applied to 11 years of observations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific subtropical gyres to show that surface measurements substantially underestimate MPMD concentrations by a factor of 3-13.

  15. Metal concentrations in the growth bands of Porites sp.: A baseline record on the history of marine pollution in the Gulf of Mannar, India.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, S; Ramasamy, S; Magesh, N S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon

    2015-12-15

    The present study was carried out on the Porites coral growth bands (1979 to 2014) to measure the metal accumulation for assessing the environmental pollution status. The concentrations of studied metals are compared with similar global studies, which indicate that the metals are probably derived from natural sources. The identical peaks of Fe and Mn are perfectly matched with Cu, Cr and Ni concentrations. However, the metal profile trend is slightly depressed from a regular trend in Zn, Cd and Pb peaks. The metal accumulation affinity of the reef skeleton is ranked in the following order Cr>Cd>Pb>Fe>Mn>Cu>Ni>Zn. The distribution of metal constituents in coral growth bands is primarily controlled by Fe and Mn in the reef skeleton. Other reef associated metals such as Pb and Cd are derived from other sources like coastal developments and anthropogenic sources.

  16. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  17. Consistent Occurrence of Hydrocarbonoclastic Marinobacter Strains in Various Cultures of Picocyanobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: Promising Associations for Biodegradation of Marine Oil Pollution.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahaib, Dhuha; Al-Bader, Dhia; Al-Shaikh Abdou, Dana K; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir S

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen nonaxenic cultures of picocyanobacteria were isolated from the Arabian Gulf, from which 122 heterotrophic bacterial strains were obtained. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, those strains were affiliated with 22 different species, 82.8% of which belonged to the genus Marinobacter, known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. The remaining species belonged to the genera Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Halomonas, Mesorhizobium, and Paenibacillus, and a Bacteriodetes bacterium also known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. All the picocyanobacterial cultures harbored one or more strains of Marinobacter. Marinobacter in addition to Alcanivorax and other genera isolated from those picocyanobacteria grew on Tween 80, crude oil, and pure hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy, i.e. they are related to the obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria group. They consumed crude oil, n-octadecane, and phenanthrene in batch cultures. The results indicated that Marinobacter isolates seemed to grow better and consume more oil in the presence of their host picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Such natural microbial associations assumingly play a role in bioremediation of spilled hydrocarbons in the Arabian Gulf. Similar associations probably occur in other marine environments as well and are active in oil spill removal.

  18. Consistent Occurrence of Hydrocarbonoclastic Marinobacter Strains in Various Cultures of Picocyanobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: Promising Associations for Biodegradation of Marine Oil Pollution.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahaib, Dhuha; Al-Bader, Dhia; Al-Shaikh Abdou, Dana K; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir S

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen nonaxenic cultures of picocyanobacteria were isolated from the Arabian Gulf, from which 122 heterotrophic bacterial strains were obtained. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, those strains were affiliated with 22 different species, 82.8% of which belonged to the genus Marinobacter, known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. The remaining species belonged to the genera Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Halomonas, Mesorhizobium, and Paenibacillus, and a Bacteriodetes bacterium also known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. All the picocyanobacterial cultures harbored one or more strains of Marinobacter. Marinobacter in addition to Alcanivorax and other genera isolated from those picocyanobacteria grew on Tween 80, crude oil, and pure hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy, i.e. they are related to the obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria group. They consumed crude oil, n-octadecane, and phenanthrene in batch cultures. The results indicated that Marinobacter isolates seemed to grow better and consume more oil in the presence of their host picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Such natural microbial associations assumingly play a role in bioremediation of spilled hydrocarbons in the Arabian Gulf. Similar associations probably occur in other marine environments as well and are active in oil spill removal. PMID:27165413

  19. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  20. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  1. The annual silica cycle of the North Pacific subtropical gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Church, Matthew J.; Karl, David M.; Li, Binglin; Jones, Janice L.; Updyke, Brett

    2011-10-01

    . Annual silica production at HOT is nearly 4-fold lower than estimates at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea from the 1990s, but annual silica export at the base of the euphotic zone is similar between the two gyres indicating very different balances between silica production and its loss in surface waters. On a relative basis, BATS is a more productive system with respect to silica, where biogenic silica is recycled with high efficiency in surface waters; in contrast the NPSG is a lower productivity system with respect to silica, but where lower recycling efficiency leads to a much higher fraction of new silica production. The two gyres show contrasting long-term trends in diatom biomass as biogenic silica concentrations at HOT have been increasing since 1997, but they have been decreasing at BATS suggesting very different forcing of decadal trends in the contribution of diatoms in carbon cycling between these gyres. Combining the data from both gyres indicates that globally subtropical gyres produce 13 Tmol Si a -1, which is only 51% of previous estimates reducing the contribution of subtropical gyres to 5-7% of global annual marine silica production.

  2. Trace metal variability, background levels and pollution status assessment in line with the water framework and Marine Strategy Framework EU Directives in the waters of a heavily impacted Mediterranean Gulf.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulou, V; Zeri, C; Kaberi, H; Chalkiadaki, O; Krasakopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Scoullos, M

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to assess trace metal pollution status (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in the waters of Saronikos Gulf, Greece, in line with the WFD and MSFD European Directives, based on data collected over a decade (2000-2010). Dissolved metal background levels are estimated for the first time for Greek marine waters and the upper limits are: Cd: 0.574 nmol L(-1); Cu: 8.26 nmol L(-1); Ni: 7.94 nmol L(-1); Pb: 2.60 nmol L(-1); Zn: 115 nmol L(-1). The variability of dissolved and particulate metals reflected the presence of several point sources and revealed the importance of natural mechanisms acting as non-point sources. The status of Saronikos Gulf is classified as 'High' for most metals studied. An exception to this is the enclosed Elefsis Bay where Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations are found above background. Our work will assist the implementation of WFD and MSFD directives in Greece.

  3. Subtropical Productivity from Profiling Floats and Gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, D. P.; Johnson, K. S.; Karl, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007 profiling floats equipped with dissolved oxygen and nitrate sensors have been released from the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) and Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) sites and can be calibrated using time-series observations. More recent deployments have also included bio-optical and pH sensors. Gliders with oxygen sensors and bio-optics have been intermittently deployed near HOT Station ALOHA since 2008 and at BATS since 2014. While gliders maintain a restricted survey region near the time-series stations, profiling floats drifted widely across the subtropical gyres. Multiple floats and gliders enables a cotemporaneous comparison of biogeochemical processes across gyres. These platforms enable observations on spatial scales from submesoscale to basin scale and on temporal scales from diel to interannual. Here, I focus on the spatiotemporal variability of nitrate and oxygen mass balances in the North Pacific and North Atlantic subtropical gyres using a data-assimilating and float-tracking 1D upper ocean model.

  4. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  5. Impact of polar ozone depletion on subtropical precipitation.

    PubMed

    Kang, S M; Polvani, L M; Fyfe, J C; Sigmond, M

    2011-05-20

    Over the past half-century, the ozone hole has caused a poleward shift of the extratropical westerly jet in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we argue that these extratropical circulation changes, resulting from ozone depletion, have substantially contributed to subtropical precipitation changes. Specifically, we show that precipitation in the southern subtropics in austral summer increases significantly when climate models are integrated with reduced polar ozone concentrations. Furthermore, the observed patterns of subtropical precipitation change, from 1979 to 2000, are very similar to those in our model integrations, where ozone depletion alone is prescribed. In both climate models and observations, the subtropical moistening is linked to a poleward shift of the extratropical westerly jet. Our results highlight the importance of polar regions for the subtropical hydrological cycle. PMID:21512001

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in a marine bivalve on the Marennes-Oléron Bay and the Gironde Estuary (French Atlantic Coast) - part 1: bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Luna-Acosta, A; Budzinski, H; Le Menach, K; Thomas-Guyon, H; Bustamante, P

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine 1) the relevance of using the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas as a sentinel organism, at a juvenile stage, for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and persistent organic pollutant (polychlorobiphenyl, PCB, polybromodimethylether, PBDE, and organochlorine pesticide, OCP) contamination, 2) the potential levels of chemical organic contamination in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, and their potential sources and 3) the potential influence of physiological or environmental factors on contaminant body burdens in oysters. To this end, juvenile oysters purchased from an oyster hatchery were transplanted to a reference site, in Bouin, and to different transplantation sites in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, the first oyster production area in France, and in the Gironde Estuary, the biggest estuary in Occidental Europe. Transplantations were done during summer and winter. Whole oyster soft tissues from each site were analysed for PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs. Results obtained with a transplantation period of 3months suggest that C. gigas, at the juvenile stage, is a relevant sentinel organism for short-term assessment of contamination for these contaminants. In addition, no significant effects of physiological factors on contaminant body burdens were observed. Principal component analysis revealed two distinct groups of contaminants (PAHs and OPCs, and PCBs and PBDEs) and three groups of sites: 1) the reference site, 2) Les Palles (LP) and Boyard (BOY) in winter and 3) all the other sites. The group of LP and BOY was clearly defined by the levels of PAHs and OCPs, suggesting higher levels of contamination of these chemical compounds on these sites, potentially due to local contamination sources. In addition, no relevant effects of physiological or environmental factors on contaminant body burdens were observed. Results suggest also a predominance of contaminants related to agricultural activities along the Marennes-Oléron Bay, and therefore

  7. The comet assay in Environmental Risk Assessment of marine pollutants: applications, assets and handicaps of surveying genotoxicity in non-model organisms.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marta; Costa, Pedro M

    2015-01-01

    Determining the genotoxic effects of pollutants has long been a priority in Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) for coastal ecosystems, especially of complex areas such as estuaries and other confined waterbodies. The acknowledged link between DNA damage, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity to the exposure to certain toxicants has been responsible to the growing interest in determining the genotoxic effects of xenobiotics to wildlife as a measure of environmental risk. The comet assay, although widely employed in in vivo and in vitro toxicology, still holds many constraints in ERA, in large part owing to difficulties in obtaining conclusive cause-effect relationships from complex environments. Nevertheless, these challenges do not hinder the attempts to apply the alkaline comet assay on sentinel organisms, wild or subjected to bioassays in or ex situ (from fish to molluscs) as well to standardise protocols and establish general guidelines to the interpretation of findings. Fish have been regarded as an appealing subject due to the ease of performing the comet assay in whole blood. However, the application of the comet assay is becoming increasingly common in invertebrates (e.g. in molluscan haemocytes and solid tissues such as gills). Virtually all sorts of results have been obtained from the application of the comet assay in ERA (null, positive and inconclusive). However, it has become clear that interpreting DNA damage data from wild organisms is particularly challenging due to their ability to adapt to continuous environmental stressors, including toxicants. Also, the comet assay in non-model organisms for the purpose of ERA implies different constraints, assumptions and interpretation of findings, compared with the in vitro procedures from which most guidelines have been derived. This paper critically reviews the application of the comet assay in ERA, focusing on target organisms and tissues; protocol developments, case studies plus data handling and

  8. Diesel pollution. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning pollution from diesel systems. Articles are included for automotive systems, large scale diesel generators, marine diesel engines, and other applications of diesel fuels. Citations examine the toxic and environmental effects of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions from combustion sources. Pollution control measures from a fuel and post-combustion aspect are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 194 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Diesel pollution. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning pollution from diesel systems. Articles are included for automotive systems, large scale diesel generators, marine diesel engines, and other applications of diesel fuels. Citations examine the toxic and environmental effects of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions from combustion sources. Pollution control measures from a fuel and post-combustion aspect are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 176 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. The positive relationship between ocean acidification and pollution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie

    2015-02-15

    Ocean acidification and pollution coexist to exert combined effects on the functions and services of marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification can increase the biotoxicity of heavy metals by altering their speciation and bioavailability. Marine pollutants, such as heavy metals and oils, could decrease the photosynthesis rate and increase the respiration rate of marine organisms as a result of biotoxicity and eutrophication, facilitating ocean acidification to varying degrees. Here we review the complex interactions between ocean acidification and pollution in the context of linkage of multiple stressors to marine ecosystems. The synthesized information shows that pollution-affected respiration acidifies coastal oceans more than the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Coastal regions are more vulnerable to the negative impact of ocean acidification due to large influxes of pollutants from terrestrial ecosystems. Ocean acidification and pollution facilitate each other, and thus coastal environmental protection from pollution has a large potential for mitigating acidification risk.

  11. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  12. Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing countries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a "precautionary principle." Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this paper, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries. PMID:19965343

  13. Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing countries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a "precautionary principle." Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this paper, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries.

  14. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  15. Two different deglaciation processes in the subtropical Pacific at MIS 5/6 and 1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, Y.; Asahi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Deglaciation process is one of the results that the tropical climate forcing impact on the global changes by its large heat capacity. However, the deglacial fluctuation has poorly been explored in the tropical Pacific area due to less resolution records from the marine deposits. The Okinawa region is available to represent the high-resolution paleocenographic records of the tropical-subtropical Pacific during the late Quaternary, because of the oscillation between the Kuroshio Current continuing from the North Equatorial Current and central water of the subtropical gyre in this region. Two IMAGES cores were collected from the Okinawa Trough (under the Kuroshio Current) and Ryukyu Trench (under the central water of the subtropical gyre), respectively. Both cores MD982196 (Okinawa Trough) and MD012398 (Ryukyu Trench) covered over the records until Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 7. Here, we aim to demonstrate the deglacial fluctuations of the surface and intermediate waters during two glacial-interglacial shifts, MIS 6 to 5 and MIS 2 to 1, based on the comprehensive analyses of the oxygen isotopes, Mg/Ca ratios of two planktic foraminiferal faunas (surface and upper intermediate species), and faunal assemblages of planktic foraminifera. The glacial-interglacial cycles were clearly confirmed in whole of the Okinawa region by the planktic δ18O curves. Surface Mg/Ca paleo-temperature showed a same trend as the δ18O curve. However, the paleo-temperature of the upper intermediate water showed unique fluctuation: temperature increased from late MIS 6 to 5e, whereas decreased from MIS 2 to Holocene. Moreover, the temperature difference (dT) between the surface and intermediate layers defined these phenomena. Fast warming of intermediate layer proitor to the deglaciation MIS 5/6 delayed a stratification of water column, while cooling of this layer make a large dT during MIS 1/2. Intriguingly, the faunal compositions of planktic foraminifera changed through the shifts of the

  16. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  17. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: EVIDENCE FOR SUBSTRATE LIMITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were measured along a transect in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA, to examine the factors that control microbial water column processes in this subtropical estuary. The microbial measures included 3 H-L-leucine incorporation, e...

  18. Effects of Hypoxia on the Phylogenetic Composition and Species Distribution of Protists in a Subtropical Harbor.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Emma; Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-07-01

    Tolo Harbor, a subtropical semi-enclosed coastal water body, is surrounded by an expanding urban community, which contributes to large concentrations of nutrient runoff, leading to algal blooms and localized hypoxic episodes. Present knowledge of protist distributions in subtropical waters during hypoxic conditions is very limited. In this study, therefore, we combined parallel 454 pyrosequencing technology and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint analyses to reveal the protist community shifts before, during, and after a 2-week hypoxic episode during the summer of 2011. Hierarchical clustering for DGGE demonstrated similar grouping of hypoxic samples separately from oxic samples. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and dissolved inorganic nitrogen:phosphate (DIN:PO4) concentrations significantly affected OTU distribution in 454 sequenced samples, and a shift toward a ciliate and marine alveolate clade II (MALV II) species composition occurred as waters shifted from oxic to hypoxic. These results suggest that protist community shifts toward heterotrophic and parasitic tendencies as well as decreased diversity and richness in response to hypoxic outbreaks. PMID:26979838

  19. Effects of Hypoxia on the Phylogenetic Composition and Species Distribution of Protists in a Subtropical Harbor.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Emma; Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-07-01

    Tolo Harbor, a subtropical semi-enclosed coastal water body, is surrounded by an expanding urban community, which contributes to large concentrations of nutrient runoff, leading to algal blooms and localized hypoxic episodes. Present knowledge of protist distributions in subtropical waters during hypoxic conditions is very limited. In this study, therefore, we combined parallel 454 pyrosequencing technology and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint analyses to reveal the protist community shifts before, during, and after a 2-week hypoxic episode during the summer of 2011. Hierarchical clustering for DGGE demonstrated similar grouping of hypoxic samples separately from oxic samples. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and dissolved inorganic nitrogen:phosphate (DIN:PO4) concentrations significantly affected OTU distribution in 454 sequenced samples, and a shift toward a ciliate and marine alveolate clade II (MALV II) species composition occurred as waters shifted from oxic to hypoxic. These results suggest that protist community shifts toward heterotrophic and parasitic tendencies as well as decreased diversity and richness in response to hypoxic outbreaks.

  20. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  1. Social Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Aristide Henri

    1971-01-01

    Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

  2. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed.

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  4. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  6. Structure and taxonomic composition of free-living nematode and macrofaunal assemblages in a eutrophic subtropical harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Xu, W Z; Cheung, S G; Shin, Paul K S

    2014-08-30

    The spatial and seasonal taxonomic composition patterns of macrofauna and nematodes in a eutrophic subtropical harbour, previously suffered from sewage pollution, were studied in relation to a number of sediment parameters. In the polluted, inner-harbour area, levels of organic contents and heavy metals were high, whereas species number, abundance and diversity of nematodes and macrofauna were the lowest in comparison to the cleaner, outer-harbour area. Different taxonomic composition patterns of nematodes and macrofaunal assemblages were found between inner-harbour and outer-harbour area, which was highly correlated with sediment nutrient levels. Different responses of macrofaunal and nematode communities to sewage pollution suggested that macrofauna might be more tolerant than nematodes to eutrophic conditions due to their ability to modify the sediment. The present findings indicated the usefulness of studying both nematode and macrofaunal communities, in order to reveal different aspects of the benthic ecosystems in response to organic enrichment. PMID:24467853

  7. Arctic seabirds transport marine-derived contaminants.

    PubMed

    Blais, Jules M; Kimpe, Lynda E; McMahon, Dominique; Keatley, Bronwyn E; Mallory, Mark L; Douglas, Marianne S V; Smol, John P

    2005-07-15

    Long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants is generally assumed to be the main vector for arctic contamination, because local pollution sources are rare. We show that arctic seabirds, which occupy high trophic levels in marine food webs, are the dominant vectors for the transport of marine-derived contaminants to coastal ponds. The sediments of ponds most affected by seabirds had 60 times higher DDT, 25 times higher mercury, and 10 times higher hexachlorobenzene concentrations than nearby control sites. Bird guano greatly stimulates biological productivity in these extreme environments but also serves as a major source of industrial and agricultural pollutants in these remote ecosystems.

  8. Isotopic Composition of Cadmium across the Subtropical Convergence in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gault-Ringold, M.; Stirling, C. H.; Frew, R.; Hunter, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    The almost linear relationship between cadmium (Cd) and phosphate (PO4) in the oceans has been used extensively as a paleoproxy to investigate historical nutrient cycling (Boyle, 1992, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 20, 245). However, our limited understanding of oceanic Cd cycling and the mechanism of the Cd/PO4 relationship limits the reliability of this paleoproxy (Elderfield and Rickaby, 2000, Nature. 405, 305), particularly in the surface waters of the Southern Ocean. Recent studies have shown that the biological uptake of Cd by phytoplankton can create significant (permil-level) isotopic shifts between the phytoplankton and surface ocean water (Ripperger and Rehkamper, 2007, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 261, 670) suggesting that Cd isotopes have the potential to provide more information about the marine cycling of Cd than concentration measurements alone. The subtropical convergence (STC) in the Southern Ocean has some of the world’s lowest Cd:PO4 ratios (Frew and Hunter, 1995, Mar. Chem. 51, 223) and provides an ideal location to study the biogeochemical cycling of Cd in the marine environment. Utilizing double-spiking protocols combined with multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) (Ripperger and Rehkamper, 2007, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 71, 631), we have determined the isotopic composition of Cd in seawater samples collected from the Otago transect off the southeast coast of New Zealand. This transect intersects the STC, passing through both subtropical (iron replete) and subantarctic (HNLC) water masses. Samples were collected seasonally from May 2008 through January 2010 to identify seasonal variability of isotopic composition and concentration due to changes in water mass chemistry and biological activity. This Cd isotope data will help determine the mechanisms controlling Cd uptake in the Southern Ocean and provide insight into the effectiveness of the current Cd/PO4 paleoproxy helping to improve its application.

  9. Modeling the drift of massive icebergs to the subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condron, A.; Hill, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    New evidence from high-resolution seafloor bathymetry data indicates that massive (>300m thick) icebergs from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) drifted south to the tip of Florida during the last deglaciation. This finding is particularly exciting as it contradicts evidence from marine sediments that icebergs were mainly confined to the subpolar North Atlantic (50 - 70N) at this time. Indeed, the freshwater released from icebergs melting in the subpolar gyre is repeatedly cited as a main trigger for a slow-down of the Atlantic MOC in the past, and the possible cause of any climate cooling related to the melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet in the future. Using a sophisticated iceberg model (MITberg), coupled to a high (18-km; 1/6 deg.) resolution ocean model (MITgcm), we investigate the ocean circulation dynamics required to allow icebergs to drift to the southern tip of Florida. We find that icebergs only reach this location if they turn right at the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, and stay inshore of the Gulf Stream all the way to Florida. Modern-day circulation dynamics do not readily allow this to happen as cold, southward flowing, Labrador Current Water (important for iceberg survival) has little penetration south of Cape Hatteras. However, when a liquid meltwater flood is released from Hudson Bay at the same time, icebergs are rapidly transported (inshore of the Gulf Stream) in a narrow, buoyant, coastal current all the way to southern Florida. The meltwater and icebergs result in a significant freshening of the subtropical North Atlantic and weaken the strength of the Gulf Stream, suggesting such an event would have a large cooling effect on climate. We are only able to simulate the flow of meltwater and icebergs to the subtropics by modeling ocean circulation at a resolution that is 5 - 10 times higher than the majority of existing paleoclimate models; at lower resolutions the narrow, coastal boundary currents important for iceberg transport to the subtropics are

  10. Characteristics, determinants, and spatial variations of ambient fungal levels in the subtropical Taipei metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rao, Carol Y.; Lee, Chung-Te; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Chao, H. Jasmine

    This study was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions, compositions, and determinants of ambient aeroallergens in Taipei, Taiwan, a subtropical metropolis. We monitored ambient culturable fungi in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area, and Shi-Men Township, a rural area, in Taipei metropolis from 2003 to 2004. We collected ambient fungi in the last week of every month during the study period, using duplicate Burkard portable samplers and Malt Extract Agar. The median concentration of total fungi was 1339 colony-forming units m -3 of air over the study period. The most prevalent fungi were non-sporulating fungi, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia and Aspergillus at both sites. Airborne fungal concentrations and diversity of fungal species were generally higher in urban than in rural areas. Most fungal taxa had significant seasonal variations, with higher levels in summer. Multivariate analyses showed that the levels of ambient fungi were associated positively with temperature, but negatively with ozone and several other air pollutants. Relative humidity also had a significant non-linear relationship with ambient fungal levels. We concluded that the concentrations and the compositions of ambient fungi are diverse in urban and rural areas in the subtropical region. High ambient fungal levels were related to an urban environment and environmental conditions of high temperature and low ozone levels.

  11. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... freight container or portable tank loaded on a motor vehicle or rail car. This mark may be displayed in... Symbol (fish and tree): Black on white or suitable contrasting background. (2) The symbol and border...

  12. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... freight container or portable tank loaded on a motor vehicle or rail car. This mark may be displayed in... Symbol (fish and tree): Black on white or suitable contrasting background. (2) The symbol and border...

  13. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... freight container or portable tank loaded on a motor vehicle or rail car. This mark may be displayed in... Symbol (fish and tree): Black on white or suitable contrasting background. (2) The symbol and border...

  14. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  15. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  16. Interannual variability of trace gases in the subtropical winter stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.J.; Russell, J.M. III

    1999-04-01

    Measurements of water vapor and methane from the Halogen Occultation Experiment instrument on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are used to study the interannual variability of trace gas distributions in the atmosphere. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms influencing trace gas distributions in the subtropics. The study highlights the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) dependence of subtropical tracer distributions more clearly than in previous studies. There is a strong correlation between the equatorial wind QBO and the slope of the tracer isolines in the Northern Hemisphere subtropics, with steeper subtropical isoline slopes in the easterly phase compared with the westerly phase. This is particularly so in the lower stratosphere. Two possible mechanisms for the QBO signal in subtropical isoline slopes are identified: advection by the mean circulation and isentropic mixing. A comparison between the QBO signal in the slope of the tracer isolines and the isentropic tracer gradients is proposed as a method of determining which process is dominant. The authors suggest that the behavior of these two data diagnostics provides a stringent constraint on computer models of the atmosphere. On the basis of these diagnostics three height regions of the subtropical atmosphere are identified. (1) Below 450--500 K isentropic mixing associated with tropospheric disturbances penetrating the lower stratosphere is dominant. (2) In the region 500--750 K the data suggest that advection by the mean meridional circulation is important and that the role of isentropic mixing by eddies is relatively small. (3) Above 750 K isentropic mixing becomes increasingly important with height, and both advection and mixing are influential in determining the subtropical tracer distributions.

  17. Synoptic-scale forcing of marine stratocumulus cloud dissipation during ASTEX

    SciTech Connect

    Wegiel, J.W.; Kloesel, K.A.

    1994-12-31

    Data gathered during ASTEX will be used to intensively study the synoptic-scale and mesoscale dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the marine stratocumulus environment during an intense stratocumulus cloud clearing episode occurring from June 14--16, 1992 in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies have attempted to explain the cause(s) of marine-stratocumulus cloud clearing episodes. However, a great deal of debate remains. Explanations derived from other studies include prefrontal convergence and upward vertical motion associated with the passage of cold fronts; cloud top entrainment instability, which causes evaporation of the cloud by the entrainment of dry air from above the cloud; warm, dry, offshore flow from continental regions caused by ridging of the subtropical anticyclone onshore; and enhanced synoptic-scale subsidence within the subtropical anticyclone. This particular clearing event appeared to be related to the ridging of the Atlantic subtropical anticyclone into the British Isles, resulting in offshore flow effects from the European continent.

  18. [Toxocariasis in children from a subtropical region].

    PubMed

    Lopez, Maria De Los Angeles; Martin, Graciela; Chamorro, Myrian Del Carmen; Mario Alonso, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Toxocariasis is present worldwide but people living in areas with sanitary deficiencies are considered at the highest risk of infection, particularly children. The aim of this work was to know clinical and immunological aspects of infantile toxocariasis in a subtropical region in Argentina. For this purpose, 182 children of both sexes, 0-16 years old and with eosinophilia higher than 10%, living in Resistencia City (Northeast Argentina) were studied. Clinical examination, personal and epidemiological data recording, parasitological fecal examination and dosage of Toxocara canis IgG and IgM levels by EIE were performed; all positive sera were confirmed by Western Blot. Out of 182 children, 122 were positive for T. canis-IgG (67.0%); 28.8% lack of potable drinking water at home, 58.8% lack of sewerage facilities, 91.1% referred a close contact with dogs or cats, 30.0% had a history of geophagia and 86.7% lived along streets without pavement. The clinical forms of the infection were: 77.8% asymptomatic, 6.7% ocular larva migrans and 15.5% visceral larva migrans. In 22 children the serological follow up until 18 months after treatment showed 10 children without change in IgG levels, in 11 it decreased but remained high, and in one it increased. There were 19 children with high levels of T. canis-IgM; in 8 it decreased along treatment, in one it remained stable and 10 of them became negative. There was one child considered as a re-infection case. Results highlight the importance that health authorities should assign to this infection in regions with sanitary deficiencies, where toxocariasis is usually not recognized as a relevant public health problem. PMID:16042133

  19. Subtropical Gyre Variability as Seen from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; McClain, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    A satellite multi-sensor approach is used to analyse the biological response of open ocean regions of the subtropical gyres to changes in physical forcing. Thirteen years (1998-2010) of SeaWiFS chlorophyll a (Chl-a), combined with concurrent satellite records of sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea level height, were analysed to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of Chl-a concentration within these immense so-called ocean deserts. The seasonal variability of Chl-a within the gyres is driven mostly by the warming/cooling of surface waters. Summer warming promotes shallower mixed layers and lower Chl-a due to a reduction of vertical mixing and consequently a decrease in nutrient supply. The opposite happens during the winter cooling period. Therefore, long-term trends in SST have the potential to cause an impact on the interannual variability of Chl-a. Our analyses show that, during the 13 whole years of SeaWiFS data record, the North Pacific, Indian Ocean, and North Atlantic gyres experienced a decrease in Chl-a of 9%, 12%, and 11%, respectively, with corresponding SST increases of 0.27 C, 0.42 C, and 0.32 C. The South Pacific and South Atlantic gyres also showed warming trends but with weak positive trends in Chl-a that are not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the warming of surface waters in these two gyres are counterbalanced by other interacting physical and biological driving mechanisms, as indicated in previous studies.

  20. A baseline study of benthic community associated with Amphioxus Sand in subtropical Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Cheung, S G; Shin, P K S

    2013-07-15

    An annual investigation on the seasonal changes of benthic community structure associated with Amphioxus Sand was conducted at two sites in the eastern waters of subtropical Hong Kong, where three species of amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, B. japonicum and B. malayanum coexist. A total of 84 species and 4169 individuals were recorded at Tai Long Wan, whereas a total of 87 species and 3915 individuals were recorded at Pak Lap Wan. Benthic polychaetes were dominant, including high abundance of Onuphis eremita and Prionospio malmgreni. Results of cluster analysis showed significant community structures between the two areas because of difference in sediment granulometry. However, temporal changes within these Amphioxus Sand communities were minimal. In general, the Amphioxus Sand communities in Hong Kong showed higher species richness of Polychaeta as compared with similar studies elsewhere, possibly implying an increased level of organic pollution in Hong Kong waters. PMID:23622836

  1. The Relationship between the Western North Pacific Subtropical High and the East Asian Surface Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wie, Jieun; Kim, Ga-Young; Moon, Byung-Kwon

    2016-04-01

    The tropospheric ozone is known as one of the short-lived climate pollutants and the greenhouse gases, but little is known about it. The purpose of this study is to diagnose the relationship between the western North Pacific subtropical high and the East Asian surface ozone. For the study, we used the trajectory enhanced tropospheric ozone residual (TTOR) for 9 years (2005-2013) and GEOS-Chem model data for 41 years (1971-2011). Despite the short period, the observation well shows the ozone concentration changes according to the WNPSH strength and the model as well. WNPSH enhances the convection along the East Asian monsoon band and the surface ozone concentration decreases. The ozone concentration increases in the area around the rainband. Depending on the location of the rain band, the ozone concentration changes. This study indicates that the ozone concentration is affected by not only the emission of ozone precursors and but also the meteorological condition.

  2. Ocean Pollution Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Ocean Pollution Research Center (OPRC) is a University of Miami center based at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) and with significant involvement by the College of Engineering. It was formed in 1992 out of concerns for potential oil spills placing at risk the fragile ecosystems of the Florida Keys. OPRC's scope also includes the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the South Atlantic Bight. Focus is on the physical transport of oil spills and information management for response operations. Studies of the fates and effects of oil spills are also undertaken.

  3. Moisture sources for subtropical cyclogenesis over Southwestern South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozzo, Luiz Felippe; Gimeno, Luis; da Rocha, Rosmeri P.

    2014-05-01

    Subtropical cyclones are non-frontal low pressure systems that present a hybrid thermal structure, with a low tropospheric warm core and an upper level cold core. These systems ideally develop in a tropical-like environment, with weak vertical wind shears and high sea surface temperature; however, subtropical cyclogenesis is possible even when these conditions are not met. Over the soubtropical South Atlantic Ocean, near the eastern coast of South America, these cyclones generally occur over relatively cool waters (around 23oC). As the local source of heat and moisture associated to surface turbulent fluxes is reduced, remote source regions may play an important role in the development of such systems. To investigate this hypothesis, a composite analysis of moisture source and sink regions was carried out for 112 cyclogeneses days, in the period of 1979-2008, using the Lagragian FLEXPART model and data from ERA-Interim reanalysis. The cyclones were tracked over the RG1 cyclogenetic area (30.5oS-21oS, 49.5oW-35.5oW) using an algorithm based on relative vorticity of horizontal wind field at 925 hPa, and the subtropical ones were selected by applying the Cyclone Phase Space (CPS) methodology. The Lagrangean analysis shows that most of the moisture available for these subtropical cyclogeneses in summer (DJF), autumn (MAM) and spring (SON) originates in the South Atlantic around the latitude 15oS and is advected to the RG1 by the South Atlantic Subtropical High flow. During autumn, an important contribution is seen from the region to the south of RG1, due to enhanced transient anticyclones activity. The moisture transported by the South Atlantic Low Level Jet does not contribute significantly for the subtropical cyclogeneses, as the air parcels lose most of its moisture content by precipitation over the continent, before reaching RG1. As expected, the local source of moisture presents a negative anomaly in all season's composites. A case study of the Hurricane Catarina

  4. Characteristics of nitrogen loading and its influencing factors in several typical agricultural watersheds of subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyuan; Jiao, Junxia; Wang, Yi; Yang, Wen; Meng, Cen; Li, Baozhen; Li, Yong; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-02-01

    Increasingly, the characteristics of nitrogen (N) loading have been recognized to be critical for the maintenance and restoration of water quality in agricultural watersheds, in response to the spread of water eutrophication. This paper estimates N loading and investigates its influencing factors in ten small watersheds variously dominated by forest and agricultural land use types in the subtropics of China, over an observation period of 23-29 months. The results indicate that the average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), NH4 (+)-N, and NO3 (-)-N were 0.83, 0.07, and 0.46 mg N L(-1) in the forest watersheds and 1.49-5.16, 0.21-3.23, and 0.99-1.30 mg N L(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, respectively. Such concentrations exceed the national criteria for nutrient pollution in surface waters considerably, suggesting severe stream pollution in the studied agricultural watersheds. The average annual TN loadings (ANL) were estimated to be 1,640.8 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, 63.3-86.1 % of which was composed of dissolved inorganic N (DIN; comprising NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N). The watershed with intensive livestock production (i.e., the maximum livestock density of 2.66 animal units (AU) ha(-1)) exhibited the highest ANL (2,928.7 kg N km(-2) year(-1)) related to N loss with effluent discharge. The results of correlation and principle component analysis suggest that livestock production was the dominant influencing factor for the TN and NH4 (+)-N loadings and that the percentages of cropland in watersheds can significantly increase the NO3 (-)-N loading in agricultural watersheds. Therefore, to restore and maintain water quality, animal production regulations and more careful planning of land use are necessary in the agricultural watersheds of subtropical China.

  5. Characteristics of nitrogen loading and its influencing factors in several typical agricultural watersheds of subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyuan; Jiao, Junxia; Wang, Yi; Yang, Wen; Meng, Cen; Li, Baozhen; Li, Yong; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-02-01

    Increasingly, the characteristics of nitrogen (N) loading have been recognized to be critical for the maintenance and restoration of water quality in agricultural watersheds, in response to the spread of water eutrophication. This paper estimates N loading and investigates its influencing factors in ten small watersheds variously dominated by forest and agricultural land use types in the subtropics of China, over an observation period of 23-29 months. The results indicate that the average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), NH4 (+)-N, and NO3 (-)-N were 0.83, 0.07, and 0.46 mg N L(-1) in the forest watersheds and 1.49-5.16, 0.21-3.23, and 0.99-1.30 mg N L(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, respectively. Such concentrations exceed the national criteria for nutrient pollution in surface waters considerably, suggesting severe stream pollution in the studied agricultural watersheds. The average annual TN loadings (ANL) were estimated to be 1,640.8 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, 63.3-86.1 % of which was composed of dissolved inorganic N (DIN; comprising NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N). The watershed with intensive livestock production (i.e., the maximum livestock density of 2.66 animal units (AU) ha(-1)) exhibited the highest ANL (2,928.7 kg N km(-2) year(-1)) related to N loss with effluent discharge. The results of correlation and principle component analysis suggest that livestock production was the dominant influencing factor for the TN and NH4 (+)-N loadings and that the percentages of cropland in watersheds can significantly increase the NO3 (-)-N loading in agricultural watersheds. Therefore, to restore and maintain water quality, animal production regulations and more careful planning of land use are necessary in the agricultural watersheds of subtropical China. PMID:25172462

  6. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, R.B. )

    1992-06-01

    Air pollution has been directly responsible for increases in mortality and morbidity in the general population during periods known as episodes, when pollutant levels were elevated well above those that occur on a regular basis. The major concern today regarding pollution and health is, however, more subtle--namely, whether the lower levels of pollution to which we are exposed daily are harmful to health. It is extremely difficult to relate specific health problems to specific pollutants, because other environmental and lifestyle factors may contribute to decrements in health. Furthermore, people are generally exposed to mixtures of pollutants, making it difficult to extract the effects caused by individual components, or to determine which combinations are the most hazardous. Community air pollution results from various sources: mobile sources, such as vehicles; stationary sources, such as power plants and factories; and indoor sources, such as building material. Complicating the picture is the fact that many chemicals released into the air may react, producing additional secondary pollutants. This article provides an overview of the major air pollutants that may be of concern in terms of public health.

  7. Atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, R B

    1992-06-01

    Air pollution has been directly responsible for increases in mortality and morbidity in the general population during periods known as episodes, when pollutant levels were elevated well above those that occur on a regular basis. The major concern today regarding pollution and health is, however, more subtle--namely, whether the lower levels of pollution to which we are exposed daily are harmful to health. It is extremely difficult to relate specific health problems to specific pollutants, because other environmental and lifestyle factors may contribute to decrements in health. Furthermore, people are generally exposed to mixtures of pollutants, making it difficult to extract the effects caused by individual components, or to determine which combinations are the most hazardous. Community air pollution results from various sources: mobile sources, such as vehicles; stationary sources, such as power plants and factories; and indoor sources, such as building material. Complicating the picture is the fact that many chemicals released into the air may react, producing additional secondary pollutants. This article provides an overview of the major air pollutants that may be of concern in terms of public health.

  8. Differential decay of enterococci and Escherichia coli originating from two fecal pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Korajkic, Asja; McMinn, Brian R; Harwood, Valerie J; Shanks, Orin C; Fout, G Shay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2013-04-01

    Using in situ subtropical aquatic mesocosms, fecal source (cattle manure versus sewage) was shown to be the most important contributor to differential loss in viability of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), specifically enterococci in freshwater and Escherichia coli in marine habitats. In this study, sunlight exposure and indigenous aquatic microbiota were also important contributors, whose effects on FIB also differed between water types.

  9. Large eddy simulation of the influence of CCN and thermodynamic conditions on marine stratocumulus cloud development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K.; Yum, S. S.

    2009-09-01

    The marine stratocumulus topped boundary layer, which prevails in the subtropical oceanic regions where the subsidence inversion associated with the descending branch of the Hadley-Walker cell dominates, is thought to be an important component of the climate system. High albedo (30-40%) of stratocumulus clouds compared to the ocean background (10%) gives rise to large deficits in the absorbed solar radiation flux. Since cloud radiative properties are highly dependent on cloud microphysical properties, which are in turn dependent on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) distribution, understanding the influence of anthropogenic CCN on cloud microphysics and dynamics is a key to accurately assess the climatic impact of marine stratocumulus clouds. A large eddy simulation (LES) model is good for studying stratocumulus clouds in the boundary layer because it explicitly resolves turbulent scale eddies and can provide information on detailed microphysical structure that is difficult to be measured over the ocean. We employ the CIMMS (Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma) 3D LES model with explicit bin microphysics. We examine the microphysical and dynamical evolution of stratocumulus clouds under different CCN loadings for four different thermodynamic conditions (the key differences are in moisture content and temperature inversion height). Contrasting results of daytime and nocturnal simulations are also examined. Three different measured CCN spectra that represent maritime, continental, and polluted air masses are used as input CCN spectra for the model; the concentrations at 1% supersaturation are 163, 1023, and 5292 cm-3, respectively. The grid spacing is 75 m in the horizontal and 25 m in the vertical, to make the total domain size of 3×3×1.25 km. Total simulation time is 6 hrs. The large-scale subsidence is prescribed by w= -Dz, where the large-scale divergence D = 5×10-6 s-1 is assumed. For the clouds formed under

  10. Phylogenetic inferences reveal a large extent of novel biodiversity in chemically rich tropical marine cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Engene, Niclas; Gunasekera, Sarath P; Gerwick, William H; Paul, Valerie J

    2013-03-01

    Benthic marine cyanobacteria are known for their prolific biosynthetic capacities to produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites with biomedical application and their ability to form cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms. In an effort to provide taxonomic clarity to better guide future natural product drug discovery investigations and harmful algal bloom monitoring, this study investigated the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical natural product-producing marine cyanobacteria on the basis of their evolutionary relatedness. Our phylogenetic inferences of marine cyanobacterial strains responsible for over 100 bioactive secondary metabolites revealed an uneven taxonomic distribution, with a few groups being responsible for the vast majority of these molecules. Our data also suggest a high degree of novel biodiversity among natural product-producing strains that was previously overlooked by traditional morphology-based taxonomic approaches. This unrecognized biodiversity is primarily due to a lack of proper classification systems since the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical, benthic marine cyanobacteria has only recently been analyzed by phylogenetic methods. This evolutionary study provides a framework for a more robust classification system to better understand the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical marine cyanobacteria and the distribution of natural products in marine cyanobacteria.

  11. Subtropical stratocumulus and its effect on climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Peter M.

    Despite widespread recognition of the importance of subtropical stratocumulus clouds to the planetary energy budget, the strength and even the sign of stratocumulus response to increased levels of greenhouse gases is still unknown. In this study, we attempt to address some of the causes for this uncertainty. One challenge to assessing stratocumulus response to warming is that stratocumulus behavior is determined both by small-scale local processes and by the large-scale circulation. We present a new method which sidesteps this range-of-scales difficulty by explicitly resolving fine-scale detail in the stratocumulus region while implicitly including the effects of the large-scale circulation. The results of this model suggest that stratocumulus feedback acts to cool the planet. Another reason why stratocumulus response to climate change is uncertain is that processes in the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer are not well understood or parameterized due to a dearth in measurements of key quantities. We improve this situation by deriving estimates of the diurnal cycle of entrainment from shipboard measurements taken during the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001 cruise. Comparison between these observations and values derived from several existing entrainment parameterizations is better than expected, suggesting that entrainment should be relatively well captured by models. The EPIC data is also used to construct a diurnal cycle of buoyancy flux profiles under the assumption of well-mixed conditions. These profiles, in conjunction with a comparison of the difference between cloudbase and lifting condensation level, suggest that drizzle is acting during EPIC to limit early-morning turbulent mixing. We also perform a more in-depth comparison between a large-eddy simulation (LES) and the EPIC data. The LES was found to reproduce many features of the EPIC observations. In particular, budgets of boundary-layer moisture and energy, the diurnal cycle of

  12. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is likely to reach levels that could be ... high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. ... pollution levels are usually lower. Choose easier outdoor activities ( ...

  13. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  14. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  15. Picoeukaryotic diversity and distribution in the subtropical-tropical South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenxue; Huang, Bangqin; Liao, Yu; Sun, Ping

    2014-09-01

    Little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of picoeukaryotes in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, although these organisms are vital components of their environment. Here, we used a culture-independent approach to assess the 18S rDNA diversity of picoeukaryotes at six sampling sites along a transcontinental section of the South China Sea. The Alveolata group comprised 58.6% of the clones and was mainly represented by the novel marine alveolates (MALV)-I (18.8%) and MALV-II (30.6%), corresponding to 66.5% of all operational taxonomic units. Sequences affiliated with seven clades of the novel marine stramenopiles (MAST) were widely distributed in different clone libraries. We report an entirely new group representing the deepest evolutionary branch of the Hacrobia; this finding suggests the existence of novel picoeukaryotes at a high taxonomic level. Many phylotypes could not be taxonomically assigned, indicating the presence of numerous previously unknown groups. Horizontally, picoeukaryotic assemblages in the coastal water characterized with the rare occurrence of MALV-I were distinct from offshore communities. Vertically, MAST-4 were mainly retrieved in surface waters; however, the Radiolaria (Rhizaria) were mainly detected in clone libraries from depths of 60 m. Our findings further emphasize the immense diversity of picoeukaryotes, especially in the subtropical-tropical northwestern Pacific Ocean.

  16. Mapping the Origins of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, N.; Logendran, V.; Evans, D. G.; Peters, A.; Nelson, N. B.

    2010-12-01

    The chromophoric or "light-absorbing" fraction of dissolved organic matter plays a significant role in the regulation of the underwater light field. In the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, it's origins vary, and include contributions from both terrestrial and marine sources. Furthermore, within the fraction of marine-origin CDOM, there are distinctions between that of local origin and that coming from other regions via transport through water masses or through atmospheric deposition. As the optical and chemical properties of CDOM depend largely on its source, an analysis of its origins could lead to a better understanding of processes in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. For this analysis, we have used absorption data from CDOM measurements collected repeatedly for a number of years at the BATS site in the Sargasso Sea. Samples have been collected at the same series of depths ranging from surface waters to 4200 meters. The samples were analyzed using a dual beam spectrophotometer to obtain absorption spectra. The slope parameter, S, provides more in depth information about the source of CDOM than does the absorption spectra alone, and thus we have used it as well as the slope ratio, Sr, for differentiating between different types of CDOM. Slope ratios were obtained by selecting portions of the spectral slope at wavelength ranges, which have been found to be indicative of CDOM originating from a particular source. For example, it can be used to distinguish marine CDOM formed locally in the Sargasso Sea from that which has been formed further north in the Atlantic and then subducted and transported to the Sargasso. There are various other methods for ascertaining the sources of CDOM, and the most comprehensive model for CDOM in the North Atlantic is likely obtained using a combination of all of them. Excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEMS) have been performed on samples from the same site in the Sargasso Sea to corroborate findings from the S and Sr analyses

  17. Analysis of the origin of the distribution of CO in the subtropical southern Indian Ocean in 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duflot, V.; Dils, B.; Baray, J. L.; de MazièRe, M.; Attié, J. L.; Vanhaelewyn, G.; Senten, C.; Vigouroux, C.; Clain, G.; Delmas, R.

    2010-11-01

    We show carbon monoxide (CO) distributions at different vertical levels over the subtropical southern Indian Ocean, analyzing an observation campaign using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectrometry performed in 2007 at Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E). The CO pollution levels detected by the FTIR measurements during the campaign show a doubling of the CO total columns during the Southern Hemisphere biomass burning season. Using correlative data from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument and back trajectories analyses, we show that the potential primary sources for CO throughout the troposphere in 2007 are southern Africa (June-August) and South America (September-October). A secondary potential contribution from Southeast Asia and Indonesia-Malaysia was identified in the upper troposphere, especially in July and September. We examine the relation between the Asian monsoon anticyclone seasonal cycle and this result. We also investigate the relative contribution of different areas across the globe to the CO concentration in the subtropical southern Indian Ocean in 2007 using backward simulations combining the Lagrangian model FLEXPART 6.2, the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2.1) and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv3.2-FT2000). We confirm the predominance of the African and South American contributions in the CO concentration in the southern subtropical Indian Ocean below 11 km. We show that CO transported from Australia makes only a small contribution to the total CO concentration observed over Reunion Island, and that the long-range transport of CO coming from Southeast Asia and Indonesia-Malaysia is important, especially from June until September in the upper troposphere.

  18. Trichodesmium, a globally significant marine cyanobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Capone, D.G.; Zehr, J.P.; Paerl, H.W.

    1997-05-23

    Planktonic marine cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium occur throughout the oligotrophic tropical and subtropical oceans. Their unusual adaptations, from the molecular to the macroscopic level, contribute to their ecological success and biogeochemical importance. Trichodesmium fixes nitrogen gas (N{sub 2}) under fully aerobic conditions while photosynthetically evolving oxygen. Its temporal pattern of N{sub 2} fixation results from an enclogenous daily cycle that confines N{sub 2} fixation to daylight hours. Trichodesmium colonies provide a unique pelagic habitat that supports a complex assemblage of consortial organisms. These colonies often represent a large fraction of the plant biomass in tropical, oligotrophic waters and contribute substantially to primary production. N{sub 2} fixation by Trichodesmium is likely a major input to the marine and global nitrogen cycle.

  19. Microplastics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony L

    2011-08-01

    This review discusses the mechanisms of generation and potential impacts of microplastics in the ocean environment. Weathering degradation of plastics on the beaches results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that are carried into water by wind or wave action. Unlike inorganic fines present in sea water, microplastics concentrate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by partition. The relevant distribution coefficients for common POPs are several orders of magnitude in favour of the plastic medium. Consequently, the microparticles laden with high levels of POPs can be ingested by marine biota. Bioavailability and the efficiency of transfer of the ingested POPs across trophic levels are not known and the potential damage posed by these to the marine ecosystem has yet to be quantified and modelled. Given the increasing levels of plastic pollution of the oceans it is important to better understand the impact of microplastics in the ocean food web.

  20. Source seasonality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Zhang, G; Li, X D; Qi, S H; Liu, G Q; Peng, X Z

    2006-02-15

    Mega-cities are large sources of air pollution on a regional base. Differences in energy structures, geographical settings and regional climate features lead to a large variety of air pollution sources from place to place. To understand the seasonality of air pollution sources is critical to precise emission inventories and a sound protection of human health. Based on a year-round dataset, the sources of PAHs in the air of Guangzhou were drawn by principal factor analysis (PCA) in combination with diagnostic ratios, and the seasonality of these sources were analyzed by PCA/MLR (multiple linear regressions) and discussed. The average total gaseous and particulate PAHs concentrations were 313 and 23.7 ng m(-3), respectively, with a higher concentration of vapor PAHs in summer and particulate PAHs in winter. In addition to vehicle exhaust, which contributed 69% of the particulate PAHs, coal combustion was still an important source and contributed 31% of the particulate PAHs. Relatively constant contribution from coal combustion was found through the year, implying that coal combustion in power plants was not a seasonally dependent source. Evaporation from contaminated ground may be an important source of light PAHs in summer, providing an average contribution of 68% to the total PAHs in this study. By comparing the PAH concentrations and meteorological parameters, we found that higher concentrations of particulate PAHs in winter resulted from enhanced vehicle exhaust under low temperature and accumulation of pollutants under decreased boundary layer, slower wind speed, and long-term dryness conditions. It is suggested that the typical subtropical monsoon climate in South China, cool and dry in winter, hot and humid in summer, may play a key role in controlling the source seasonality (by enhancing vehicle exhaust in winter, ground evaporation in summer), and hence the ambient concentrations of PAHs in the air.

  1. Influence of transient flooding on methane fluxes from subtropical pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonally flooded subtropical pastures are major methane (CH4) sources, where transient flooding drives episodic and high-magnitude emissions from the underlying landscape. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these patterns is needed to better understand pasture CH4 emissions and their response...

  2. Documentation in the Literature of Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennen, Patrick W.

    1974-01-01

    A six month study of serial literature of tropical and subtropical agriculture at 51 land-grant universities and the National Agricultural Library showed wide ranges of coverage. The results present a strong case in favor of division of subject fields among libraries within regional areas in the United States. (Author/LS)

  3. Thermodynamic Environments Supporting Extreme Convection in Subtropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Trier, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) similar to those seen over the U.S. Great Plains and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. In recent years, studies on the nature of convection in subtropical South America using spaceborne radar data have elucidated key processes responsible for their extreme characteristics, including a strong relationship between the Andes topography and convective initiation. Building on previous work, an investigation of the thermodynamic environment supporting some of the deepest convection in the world will be presented. In particular, an analysis of the thermodynamic destabilization in subtropical South America, which considers the parcel buoyancy minimum for conditionally unstable air parcels, will be presented. Additional comparisons between the nocturnal nature and related diurnal cycle of MCSs in subtropical South America the U.S. Great Plains will provide insights into the processes controlling MCS initiation and upscale growth.

  4. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  5. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  6. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  7. Marine energy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David

    2007-04-15

    Marine energy is renewable and carbon free and has the potential to make a significant contribution to energy supplies in the future. In the UK, tidal power barrages and wave energy could make the largest contribution, and tidal stream energy could make a smaller but still a useful contribution. This paper provides an overview of the current status and prospects for electrical generation from marine energy. It concludes that a realistic potential contribution to UK electricity supplies is approximately 80 TWh per year but that many years of development and investment will be required if this potential is to be realized. PMID:17272244

  8. The nitrate export in subtropical mountainous catchment: implication for land use change impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.-C.; Lee, T.-Y.; Kao, S.-J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Lin, H.-J.; Peng, T.-R.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural activity is the dominant factor affecting water quality and nitrate export, which causes eutrophication and episodic acidification in downstream water bodies (e.g., reservoirs, lakes, and coastal zones). However, in subtropical mountainous areas such environmental impact due to the land use change was rarely documented. In this study, we investigated 16 sub-catchments during 2007 and 2008 in the Chi-Chia-Wan catchment where is the sole habitat for the endemic species, Formosan landlocked salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus). The results revealed that the NO3-N concentration in pristine catchments varied from 0.144 to 0.151 mg/L without significant seasonal variation. This concentration was comparable with other forestry catchments around the world. However, the annual nitrate export was around 375.3-677.1 kg/km2/yr, much higher than other catchments due to the greater amount of rainfall. This is an important baseline for comparisons with other climate areas. As for the impact of agricultural activities, the catchments with some human disturbance, ~5.2% of the catchment area, might yield 5947.2 kg N/km2/yr - over 10-times higher than that of pristine catchment. Such high export caused by such a low level of disturbance might indicate that subtropical mountainous area is highly sensitive to agricultural activities. As for the land-use effect on nitrate yield, the forestry land might yield 488.5 ± 325.1 kg/km2/yr and the vegetable farm could yield 298 465.4 ± 3347.2 kg/km2/yr - 1000-times greater than the forestry. The estimated nitrate yields for land use classes were a crucial basis and useful for the land manager to assess the possible impacts (e.g., non-point source pollution evaluation and the recovery of land expropriation).

  9. Effect of storm events on riverine nitrogen dynamics in a subtropical watershed, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nengwang; Wu, Jiezhong; Hong, Huasheng

    2012-08-01

    Rain storms are predicted to increase in the subtropical region due to climate change. However, the effects of storm events on riverine nitrogen (N) dynamics are poorly understood. In this study, the riverine N dynamics and storm effects in a large subtropical river (North Jiulong River, southeastern China) were investigated through continuous sampling of two storm events which occurred in June 2010 and June 2011. The results disclosed a strong linkage between N dynamics and hydrological controls and watershed characteristics. The extreme storm in June 2010 resulted in more fluctuations in N concentrations, loads, and composition, compared with the moderate storm in June 2011. There were contrasting patterns (e.g., the hysteresis effect) between nitrate and ammonium behavior in storm runoff, reflecting their different supply source and transport mechanism. Overall, nitrate supply originated from subsurface runoff and was dominated by within-channel mobilization, while ammonium was mainly from over-land sources and flushed by surface runoff. Extreme storm runoff (2010) caused a four-fold increase in dissolved inorganic N fluxes (DIN), with a greater fraction of ammonium (up to 30% of DIN) compared with the moderate storm and background flow condition (less than 15%). Storm-driven sharp increases of N loads and changes in nutrient stoichiometry (more ammonium) might have been connected with algal blooms in the adjacent estuary and Xiamen Bay. Combined with the background flow measurement of N gradients along the main river and a stream together with anthropogenic N load information, the interactive effect of hydrological and biogeochemical process on riverine N was preliminarily revealed. Current results suggested that storm runoff N was controlled by rainfall, hydrological condition, antecedent soil moisture, spatial variability of land-based N source, and damming. These findings could be used as a reference for future water quality monitoring programs and the

  10. Effect of storm events on riverine nitrogen dynamics in a subtropical watershed, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nengwang; Wu, Jiezhong; Hong, Huasheng

    2012-08-01

    Rain storms are predicted to increase in the subtropical region due to climate change. However, the effects of storm events on riverine nitrogen (N) dynamics are poorly understood. In this study, the riverine N dynamics and storm effects in a large subtropical river (North Jiulong River, southeastern China) were investigated through continuous sampling of two storm events which occurred in June 2010 and June 2011. The results disclosed a strong linkage between N dynamics and hydrological controls and watershed characteristics. The extreme storm in June 2010 resulted in more fluctuations in N concentrations, loads, and composition, compared with the moderate storm in June 2011. There were contrasting patterns (e.g., the hysteresis effect) between nitrate and ammonium behavior in storm runoff, reflecting their different supply source and transport mechanism. Overall, nitrate supply originated from subsurface runoff and was dominated by within-channel mobilization, while ammonium was mainly from over-land sources and flushed by surface runoff. Extreme storm runoff (2010) caused a four-fold increase in dissolved inorganic N fluxes (DIN), with a greater fraction of ammonium (up to 30% of DIN) compared with the moderate storm and background flow condition (less than 15%). Storm-driven sharp increases of N loads and changes in nutrient stoichiometry (more ammonium) might have been connected with algal blooms in the adjacent estuary and Xiamen Bay. Combined with the background flow measurement of N gradients along the main river and a stream together with anthropogenic N load information, the interactive effect of hydrological and biogeochemical process on riverine N was preliminarily revealed. Current results suggested that storm runoff N was controlled by rainfall, hydrological condition, antecedent soil moisture, spatial variability of land-based N source, and damming. These findings could be used as a reference for future water quality monitoring programs and the

  11. Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.

    PubMed

    Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

    2013-06-15

    In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants.

  12. The changing focus of marine mammal conservation.

    PubMed

    Hofman, R J

    1995-11-01

    Overexploitation has been the principal focus of marine mammal conservation. Less attention has been paid to bycatch in commercial fisheries; entanglement in lost and discarded fishing gear; food shortages owing to climate change and/or overharvesting of essential prey; point and non-point source pollution; and diseases. Also, relatively little attention has been paid to situations where marine mammals pose threats to the existence and human uses of other marine species. As overexploitation is addressed, focus must be shifted to these problems that are no less significant.

  13. Pollution in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rheinheimer, G

    1998-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is almost totally surrounded by land and therefore more endangered by pollution than other marine areas. The sources of marine pollution are municipal and industrial waste inputs directly into the sea or via rivers, and atmospheric inputs mainly from traffic and agriculture. The increase of inorganic plant nutrients (NH3, NOx, PO4) caused eutrophication and consequent oxygen depletion in coastal bottom waters as well as in the depths of the open sea. In the anoxic sediments, hydrogen sulfide can be produced by protein-decomposing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The bottom fauna will be destroyed and only H2S tolerant microorganisms can survive. Originating from cellulose manufacturing and from paper mills, large amounts of poisonous chlorinated compounds contaminated the coastal waters of Sweden and Finland until the 1980s. Most of this material is still present in sediments of the central Baltic Sea and can be resuspended by near bottom currents. To reduce pollution and improve the situation in the Baltic Sea, the surrounding countries organized the Helsinki Convention, which came into force on 3.5.1980. The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) founded in 1974 acts as coordinator and is responsible for the enforcement of the Baltic monitoring program and international research projects. The activities of HELCOM have led to the reduction of dangerous pollutants which in turn has caused the regeneration of flora and fauna in some areas. Further improvements can be expected. PMID:9722964

  14. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  15. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  16. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures. PMID:24275176

  17. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  18. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  19. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc. PMID:22888729

  20. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  1. Subtropical versus subpolar freshwater routing: The pathways of icebergs and meltwater in the North Atlantic during deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condron, A.; Hill, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Marine sediment records reveal episodes of increased ice rafted debris (IRD) to the subpolar N. Atlantic (40N-50N) during deglaciation that are linked to the calving of enormous numbers of icebergs from the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. There is considerable interest, and uncertainty, as to whether meltwater from these icebergs freshened the ocean sufficiently to weaken the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Very recently, hundreds of iceberg scours have been observed along the east coast of the United States as far south as Florida. The iceberg scours are oriented SSW along the coast and are observed in water depths up to several hundred meters deep, indicating that massive (up to 300m thick) icebergs once drifted along the east coast of N. America into the subtropics during deglaciation. A newly developed iceberg model (MITberg) is coupled to an eddy-permitting ocean model to show that icebergs are carried south to Florida by coastally-confined meltwater currents caused by the sudden release of large volumes of meltwater from Hudson Bay and/or Gulf of St. Lawrence. When meltwater fluxes exceed 2.5Sv simulated icebergs drift as far south as Miami, Florida, and thousands are carried into the center of the subtropical gyre by narrow meltwater filaments and instabilities along the boundary current. When the meltwater flood ends, icebergs can no longer drift into the subtropics, and quickly become confined to the subpolar gyre where the majority of IRD is found. Our results indicate that icebergs and meltwater from the north did not always directly freshening the subpolar gyre, but were periodically transported south of the main subpolar deep water formation regions that regulate AMOC strength and climate. Dating the observed iceberg scours will tell us exactly how active and persistent this coastally-confined meltwater pathway was during deglaciation and help us unravel why there is not always a clear relationship between increased high latitude

  2. Co-occurrence of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin; Jing, Hongmei; Wong, Thomas H C; Chen, Bingzhang

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic diversity of Synechococcus with different pigmentation in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong was revealed by the phylogeny of cpcBA and cpeBA operons encoding for phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE). Synechococcus containing only PC (PC-rich Synechococcus) dominated at the estuarine station in summer, whereas PE-rich marine Synechococcus containing both PC and PE (PE-rich Synechococcus) dominated in the coastal waters. Our PC sequences are closely related to freshwater strains but differed from Baltic Sea strains, implying that they were from river discharge. Among PE-rich Synechococcus, clones grouping with strains containing only phycoerythrobilin (PEB-only) were abundant in July, while clones grouping with strains possessing a low content of phycourobilin (PUB) in addition to PEB (low PUB/PEB) were more abundant in January at both stations. Clones of high PUB/PEB types were only presented at the coastal station, but were not detected at the estuarine station. The much higher diversity of both PC-rich and PE-rich Synechococcus, as compared with the Baltic Sea, and the occurrence of the high PUB/PEB strains indicate the high dynamic nature of this subtropical estuarine-coastal environment with strong mixing of water masses ranging from Pearl River plume to oceanic South China Sea water. Our results of phylogenetic study agreed well with flow cytometric counts, which revealed the coexistence of PC-rich and PE-rich Synechococcus in the subtropical coastal waters and the dominance of the former type in the estuarine waters during summer high freshwater discharge. These results indicate that picocyanobacteria, particularly PC-rich Synechococcus, which has long been overlooked, are an important part of the primary production, and they could play an important role in the microbial food web in estuarine ecosystems.

  3. Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Amy E.

    At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

  4. Response of epiphytic bryophytes to simulated N deposition in a subtropical montane cloud forest in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Qi, Jin-Hua

    2012-11-01

    A field manipulation experiment was conducted in a subtropical montane cloud forest in southwestern China to determine the possible responses of epiphytic bryophytes to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition from community to physiology level, and to find sensitive epiphytic bryophytes that may be used as indicators for assessing the degree of N pollution. N addition had significantly negative effects on species richness and cover of the epiphytic bryophyte community. Harmful effects of high N loads were recorded for chlorophyll, growth, and vitality of the species tested. The decline of some epiphytic bryophytes may result from detrimental effects on degradation to photosynthetic pigments. Bazzania himalayana (Mitt.) Schiffn., Bazzania ovistipula (Steph.) Mizut., and Homaliodendron flabellatum (Sm.) Fleisch. are candidates in atmospheric nitrogen monitoring. Epiphytic bryophytes in the montane cloud forest are very sensitive to increasing N deposition and often difficult to recover once they have been destroyed, providing early detection of enhanced N pollution for trees or even the whole forest ecosystem. The inference that increasing N pollution may lead to loss of biodiversity is a concern to the developing economy in western China, and should alert the government to the adverse impacts caused by increased industrial pollution during the process of China's West Development.

  5. Occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution, mass balance and ecological risks of antibiotics in subtropical shallow Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Wu, Qinglong L; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Bi-Ying

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution, mass balance and ecological risks of 43 commonly used human and veterinary antibiotics in both aqueous and sedimentary phases in a large subtropical shallow lake, Lake Taihu. In the aqueous phase, sulfonamides (2.64-344 ng L(-1)), lincomycin (ND to 53.8 ng L(-1)) and florfenicol (0.15-963 ng L(-1)) were the main compounds with high concentrations and detection frequencies. In the sedimentary phase, fluoroquinolones (ND to 174 ng g(-1), dry weight) and tetracyclines (ND to 39.6 ng g(-1), dry weight) were the predominant compounds. Antibiotic concentrations in Lake Taihu were generally lower relative to data documented in previous studies on China and other countries. The composition of antibiotics showed that livestock wastewater might be the main source of antibiotics in Lake Taihu, followed by domestic wastewater. Antibiotics in the lake water showed slight spatial variation in summer and significant spatial variation in winter; whereas, antibiotic concentrations in the sediments varied obviously, with high concentrations found in the sites close to potential pollution sources. Mass balance showed that sediments are an important sink and potential source for fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines. In addition to antibiotics' physicochemical properties, the spatiotemporal distribution of antibiotics in the lake was influenced by both pollution sources and lake hydrodynamics. The environmental risk assessment results showed that sulfamethoxazole could pose high risks on the algae in the aquatic ecosystem, followed by tetracyclines (algae) and fluoroquinolones (bacteria). Overall, our study reveals complex compositions and clear spatiotemporal dynamics in Lake Taihu, which were the consequence of pollution sources and lake hydrodynamics. PMID:27048777

  6. On the occurrence of egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 in the subtropical eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands). A potential commercial species?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Alejandro Escánez; Elena, Rodrigo Riera; González, Ángel Francisco González; Sierra, Ángel Guerra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Data on opportunistic sightings of diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses in the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean) are presented. A total of 16 egg masses of this species were recorded and photographed from 2000 to 2010 around the western islands of the archipelago (El Hierro, Tenerife and La Gomera). These data reveal the existence of an important spawning area for diamond-shaped squid around the Canary Islands, in subtropical east Atlantic waters. We provide preliminary data for the potential development of an artisanal fishery focused on this species, and a discussion on its potential impacts on the marine ecosystem. PMID:23129987

  7. Shifts of the Subtropical Shelf Front controlled by atmospheric variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    In the western South Atlantic, off the coast of South America, a band of cold, fresh, nutrient-rich Sub-Antarctic Shelf Water (SASW) meets warm, salty, nutrient-poor Subtropical Shelf Water (STSW) to form the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF). This front is the shallow-water expression of the major Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone and has moved northward and southward during the Holocene (the past ~12,000 years). Bender et al. reconstruct the latitudinal shifts of the STSF over the past 11,000 calendar-equivalent years using records of oxygen and carbon stable isotope compositions of benthic foraminifera and total organic carbon and calcium carbonate content from a sediment record collected off Uruguay. These measurements serve as proxies for ocean water temperature and nutrient content, which can be used to distinguish the SASW and STSW.

  8. Turbulent vertical diffusivity in the sub-tropical stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Legras, B.

    2008-02-01

    Vertical (cross-isentropic) mixing is produced by small-scale turbulent processes which are still poorly understood and paramaterized in numerical models. In this work we provide estimates of local equivalent diffusion in the lower stratosphere by comparing balloon borne high-resolution measurements of chemical tracers with reconstructed mixing ratio from large ensembles of random Lagrangian backward trajectories using European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysed winds and a chemistry-transport model (REPROBUS). We focus on a case study in subtropical latitudes using data from HIBISCUS campaign. An upper bound on the vertical diffusivity is found in this case study to be of the order of 0.5 m2 s-1 in the subtropical region, which is larger than the estimates at higher latitudes. The relation between diffusion and dispersion is studied by estimating Lyapunov exponents and studying their variation according to the presence of active dynamical structures.

  9. Turbulent vertical diffusivity in the sub-tropical stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Legras, B.

    2007-05-01

    Vertical (cross-isentropic) mixing is produced by small-scale turbulent processes which are still poorly understood and parametrized in numerical models. In this work we provide estimates of local equivalent diffusion in the lower stratosphere by comparing balloon borne high-resolution measurements of chemical tracers with reconstructed mixing ratio from large ensembles of random Lagrangian backward trajectories using European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysed winds and a chemistry-transport model (REPROBUS). We have investigated cases in subtropical latitudes using data from HIBISCUS campaign. Upper bound on the vertical diffusivity is found to be of the order of 0.5 m2 s-1 in the subtropical region, which is larger than the estimates at higher latitudes. The relation between diffusion and dispersion is studied by estimating Lyapunov exponents and studying their variation according to the presence of active dynamical structures.

  10. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  11. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  12. [Indoor pollution].

    PubMed

    Tarsitani, G

    1995-01-01

    The Author reports more important phases from the beginning of housing to now: the indoor pollution time. Shelter is a basic need; humans require protection against the elements, somewhere to store and prepare the food, and a secure place to raise offspring; but indoor environment is not always safe. It has been known since Hippocrates' time that housing conditions affect health. Today situation starts from the enormous growth of urbanization. At 1888 in Italy first legislation on health, including healthy building, has been issued. The prevention policies were based on local hygiene regulations. At present housing programmes of who stress the problem in consideration too of the great part of time that, in industrialized Countries, we all pass at home, in the indoor environment. Following the general introduction the Author relates on the features of indoor climate, that may be identical that out of doors, or may be modified by heating, cooling, humidification and ventilation. Larger commentaries are reported on indoor pollution and its increasing by modern technology producing several new hazards. Physical, chemical and biological indoor air pollutants, with their principal sources and health damages associated, are analyzed. In conclusion the author shows some data from a research on indoor pollution in the houses of Rome.

  13. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  14. Constraining the shallow subtropical overturning circulation with archived radiocarbon records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenheim, B. E.; Swart, P. K.; Thorrold, S. R.; Roberts, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    Archived radiocarbon records in accretionary skeletons can be used to constrain the shallow overturning subtropical cells (STC's) that transport significant amounts of tropical heat poleward in the world's oceans. Radiocarbon values of DIC in the world's oceans reflect a continuum between waters residing on the surface over long periods (high Δ14C due to equilibration with "modern" atmosphere) and waters decoupled from the atmosphere in the abyss (low Δ14C due to radioisotope decay), as well as mixtures between water masses of different ages. Thus, measurements of radiocarbon have demonstrated utility in assessing convective heat tranport such as the Meridional Overturning Circulation that is central to global climate. A prominent radiocarbon gradient is also present between the subsiding subtropical surface waters and the upwelling equatorial surface waters in the world's oceans due to the presence of STC's. These convection cells transport a major proportion of tropical heat in the Pacific and a significant proportion of tropical heat in the Atlantic towards the poles. Archived radiocarbon records in surface corals and subsurface sclerosponges constrain the N. Atlantic STC's on a centennial time scale. Published short records from Cape Verde corals indicate significant changes in radiocarbon content; this is potentially related to migration of the front between upwelled tropical waters and downwelled subtropical waters. An approach is outlined to estimate the proportion of tropical to subtropical waters at Cape Verde using as endmembers high-resolution sclerosponge radiocarbon records from Bahamas subsurface waters and coral radiocarbon records from São Tome and Principe in the Gulf of Guinea. Preliminary data from Bahamas sclerosponges indicate the need for high-resolution subsampling of the skeletons. Initial novel AMS measurements from fine scale laser-decomposition of the skeletons are presented.

  15. Convective initiation in the vicinity of the subtropical Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Houze, R.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. An investigation of the most intense storms for 11 years of TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data shows a tendency for squall lines to initiate and develop in this region with the canonical leading convective line/trailing stratiform structure. The synoptic environment and structures of the extreme convection and MCSs in subtropical South America are similar to those found in other regions of the world, especially the United States. In subtropical South America, however, the topographical influence on the convective initiation and maintenance of the MCSs is unique. A capping inversion in the lee of the Andes is important in preventing premature triggering. The Andes and other mountainous terrain of Argentina focus deep convective initiation in a narrow region. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems similar to those seen over the Great Plains of the U. S. and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. Numerical simulations conducted with the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model extend the observational analysis and provide an objective evaluation of storm initiation, terrain effects, and development mechanisms. The simulated mesoscale systems closely resemble the storm structures seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar as well as the overall shape and character of the storms shown in GOES satellite data. A sensitivity experiment with different configurations of topography, including both decreasing and increasing the height of the Andes Mountains, provides insight into the significant influence of orography in focusing convective initiation in this region. Lee cyclogenesis and a strong low-level jet are modulated by the height of the Andes Mountains and directly affect the character

  16. Levels of total arsenic in edible fish and shellfish obtained from two coastal sectors of the Atacama Desert in the north of Chile: use of non-migratory marine species as bioindicators of sea environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Ponce, Lorena; Lienqueo, Hugo H; Arriaza, Bernardo T

    2011-01-01

    The Camarones (CB) and Vitor (VB) Bays are situated in the middle of Atacama Desert, and their economies are based on activities entirely associated with the extraction of marine produce. The aim of this study was to determine the total arsenic content in three species of fish and seven species of shellfish from these two bays. The quantification of the total arsenic content in these products was performed by Hydride-Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, HG-AAS. The results showed that marine species associated with the CB sector had higher total arsenic levels than the same species in the area of VB, a finding attributed to much higher total arsenic concentrations in the water and soils of CB than VB. The species with the highest total arsenic concentration was the Venus antique (7.50 mg kg (-1)) from the CB, and the lowest total arsenic content was found in Cheilodactylidae variegatus (0.34 mg kg(-1)) from VB. PMID:21879860

  17. Comparison of mercury bioaccumulation between wild and mariculture food chains from a subtropical bay of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yao-Wen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-02-01

    Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury (Hg) both in the natural marine ecosystem and the mariculture ecosystem were studied at Daya Bay, a subtropical bay in Southern China. Averaged Hg concentrations in sediment, phytoplankton, macrophyte, shrimp, crab, shellfish, planktivorous fish, carnivorous fish, farmed pompano, farmed snapper, compound feed and trash fish were 0.074, 0.054, 0.044, 0.098, 0.116, 0.171, 0.088, 0.121, 0.210, 0.125, 0.038 and 0.106 μg g(-1) dw, respectively. These Hg levels were at the low-middle ends of the global range. Positive correlation between Hg concentrations in farmed fish and fish weights/sizes was observed, whereas no clear correlation between Hg concentrations and lipid contents was found. Hg concentrations followed macrophyte < phytoplankton < sediment < planktivorous fish < shrimp < crab < carnivorous fish < shellfish, and commercial feed < trash fish < farmed fish. Hg was biomagnified along the marine food chain in the ecosystem of Daya Bay. Hg levels in the farmed fish were higher than those in the wild fish primarily because of the higher Hg level in fish feed and the smaller size of marine wild fish.

  18. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  19. Marine Education: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Wildman, Terry M.

    1980-01-01

    Examined are the scope and status of precollege marine education, including history of marine education, present interdisciplinary marine education, informal approaches to marine education, marine awareness studies, and some implications of marine education. (Author/DS)

  20. Screening for exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria from sub-tropical polluted groundwater.

    PubMed

    Fusconi, R; Godinho, M J L

    2002-05-01

    A selection of exopolysaccharide (EPS)--producing bacterial strains was conducted in groundwater adjacent to an old controlled landfill in the City of São Carlos (São Paulo, Brazil). The strains were isolated in P and E media under aerobic and microacrophilic conditions at 25 degrees C. A total of 26 strains were isolated and based on the mucoid mode of the colonies, 6 were selected and their morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects were characterized. All strains presented pigmentation, ranging from yellow to orange and from pink to salmon, with a shiny glistening aspect in all tested media. Strains Lb, Lc and Lg, which excelled the others with regard to the mucoid mode of the colonies, were selected to be cultured in E medium with alternate sucrose and glucose as carbon sources in anaerobiosis at 25 degrees C to analyze the production of EPS. Strains Lc and Lg were classified as being of order Actinomycelates, suborder Corynebacterineae. Lg strain was identified as Gordonia polyisoprenivorans and Lc strain did not correspond to a known description and therefore a more detailed study is under preparation. Considering all ecological aspects and the metabolic potential associated with the microorganisms of the environment studied, as well as the capacity to produce pigment and EPS, and the presence of G. polyisoprenivorans, a rubber degrader bacterium, the potential of the groundwater analyzed is evident as a source of microorganisms to be utilized in studies related to environmental remediation.

  1. Chemical fate of Bunker C fuel oil in a subtropical marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, D.L.; Van Vleet, E.S.

    1996-12-31

    On August 10, 1993, a major oil spill occurred when approximately 1.2 million liters of Bunker C (No. 6) fuel oil spilled from the fuel tanker Bouchard 155 after it collided with the phosphate freighter Balsa 37 in a shipping channel at the entrance to Tampa Bay, Florida. Although early hydrodynamic conditions with ebbing tides caused most of the oil to be carried several kilometers out of Tampa Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico, subsequent onshore winds and spring tides caused significant quantities of the oil to be deposited on nearby beaches and in mangrove, seagrass and estuarine habitats north of the mouth of Tampa Bay.

  2. Predictive Modeling of a Fecal Indicator at a Subtropical Marine Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Model Builder (VBMB) is a software tool that can be used to develop predictive models at beaches based on microbial data and observations (explanatory variables) that describe hydrometeorological and biogeochemical conditions. During the summer of 2008, a study...

  3. Subtropical dipole mode in the Southern Hemisphere: A global view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.

    2010-05-01

    A global wavenumber-3 dipole SST mode is showed to exist in the Southern Hemisphere subtropical climate variability in austral summer. A positive (negative) phase of the mode is characterized by cool (warm) SST anomalies in the east and warm (cool) SST anomalies in the southwest of the south Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans, respectively. This coherent dipole structure is largely a response of ocean mixed layer to the atmospheric forcing characterized by migration and modulation of the subtropical high-pressures, in which the latent heat flux play a leading role through wind-induced evaporation, although ocean dynamics may also be crucial in forming SST anomalies attached to the continents. Exploratory analyses suggest that this mode is strongly damped by the negative heat flux feedback, with a persistence time about three months and no spectral peak at interannual to decadal time scales. As the subtropical dipole mode is linearly independent of ENSO and SAM, whether it represents an additional source of climate predictability should be further studied.

  4. Mercury biomagnification in subtropical reservoir fishes of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Razavi, N Roxanna; Qu, Mingzhi; Jin, Binsong; Ren, Wenwei; Wang, Yuxiang; Campbell, Linda M

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about mercury (Hg) biomagnification in the subtropics, aquatic systems with high species diversity resulting in complex food webs. High atmospheric Hg emissions and ubiquitous reservoir fisheries may lead to elevated Hg bioaccumulation in Chinese freshwater fishes. However, stocking practices using fast-growing species can result in low fish total Hg (THg) concentrations. Here, we describe Hg transfer within the fish food web of a large subtropical reservoir, Qiandao Hu (Xin'anjiang reservoir) situated in eastern China. We measured food web Hg biomagnification and THg concentrations in 33 species of stocked and wild fishes. Mercury concentrations in most fishes were low, though we also found high Hg concentrations in wild top predators. The food web structure, assessed using stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N), demonstrated a high degree of omnivory and a long food chain. THg concentrations were highly correlated with fish δ(15)N values. The regression of log10THg against δ(15)N revealed the overall Hg biomagnification rate was low. This study shows that where long food chains exist in subtropical reservoirs, elevated Hg accumulation in top predators can occur despite a low Hg biomagnification rate.

  5. Ocean-to-Ocean Dissimilarities of Salty Subtropical Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Each ocean basin displays its own 'personality', reflecting its degree of isolation or connectivity to the global ocean, its place in the interocean exchange network and associated ocean overturning circulation systems, as well as regional circulation and air-sea exchange patterns. While dissimilarities are most notable in the northern hemisphere (the salty North Atlantic vs the fresher North Pacific; as well as the salty Arabian and the fresher Bay of Bengal, a miniature Atlantic/Pacific analog?) far removed from the grand equalizing interocean link of the circum-Antarctic belt, and where large continental blocks impose contrasting forcing, the southern hemisphere ocean basins also display differences. Ocean to ocean dissimilarities are evident in the dry subtropical climate belt, marked by deserts on land and salty surface ocean water. The subtropical sea surface salinity maximum (SSS-max) patterns of 5 the subtropical regimes (the North and South Atlantic, North and South Pacific, and the southern Indian Ocean) display significant dissimilarities in their relative position within their ocean basin, in the structure and seasonality of the SSS-max pattern. The near synoptic coverage of Aquarius and Argo profilers are further defining interannual variability. The South Atlantic SSS-max is pressed against the western boundary, whereas in the other regimes the SSS-max falls within the eastern half of the ocean basin, though the western South Pacific displays a secondary SSS-max. For further details see: A. Gordon, C. Giulivi, J. Busecke, F. Bingham, submitted to the SPURS Oceanography special issue.

  6. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  7. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  11. Relationship between the seasonal change in fluorescent dissolved organic matter and mixed layer depth in the subtropical western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Yuko; Hama, Takeo; Ishii, Masao; Saito, Shu

    2010-06-01

    Spatial and temporal distributions of marine humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOMM) were determined in the subtropical western North Pacific to evaluate the controlling factors of FDOMM behaviors. The observations were conducted at 4 stations (15-30°N) along 137°E in a subtropical area between January 2006 and April 2007. The florescence intensity of FDOMM was low (0.14-0.25 quinine sulfate units (QSU)) in the surface layer probably due to photodegradation, and increased with depth (0.90-1.10 QSU at 1000 m), irrespective of season and station. In the surface layer, the thickness of the water mass with low fluorescence intensity (<0.3 QSU) showed the seasonal change by being deeper in winter and shallower in summer, depending on the mixed layer depth (MLD). The average fluorescence intensity within the mixed layer also varied seasonally at midlatitudes; the intensity in summer was 40.8-53.8% of that in winter. Since the MLD was very much shallower in summer than in winter, FDOMM in the mixed layer would be kept within a shallow depth during the summer where intensive photodegradation could occur. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) was at its maximum at the water surface and decreased with depth, being adverse to FDOMM. Thus, the ratio of fluorescence intensity to TOC concentration was lowest (0.002-0.003) in surface water, which implies that FDOMM is not quantitatively important to the dissolved organic carbon pool. However, considering the possible difference in the stabilities of FDOMM against photochemical and microbial degradation, it is conceivable that photobleached FDOMM is one of the important organic groups constituting marine dissolved organic matter.

  12. Denitrification and N2O emission in an N-saturated subtropical forest catchment, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Mulder, Jan; Dörsch, Peter

    2010-05-01

    N2O emission in upland soils is an important N sink in chronically N polluted subtropical forests. Future studies are planned to confirm and further characterize denitrification as main N removal process in this ecosystem. 15N and 18O natural abundance of NO3 as well as Ar:N2 ratios will be analyzed along hydrological flowpaths and compared to in situ N2O emissions and process rates. Apportionment of nitrification and denitrification in N2O production will be studied in a 15N labeling experiment. N2O product stoichiometry of nitrification and denitrification will be investigated in laboratory. Biological N-turnover together with hydrological modeling, constrained by mass balance approaches will be used to scale N removal to the landscape level. Keywords: Denitrification, N2O, watershed, subtropical forest, N-removal References: Zhang, W., Mo, J. M., Yu, G. R., Fang, Y. T., Li, D. J., Lu, X. K., et al. 2008. Emissions of nitrous oxide from three tropical forests in Southern China in response to simulated nitrogen deposition. Plant Soil, 306, 221-236

  13. Intensive rice agriculture deteriorates the quality of shallow groundwater in a typical agricultural catchment in subtropical central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Li, Yuyuan; Li, Yong; Liu, Feng; Liu, Xinliang; Gong, Dianlin; Ma, Qiumei; Li, Wei; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-09-01

    High nitrogen (N) concentrations in rural domestic water supplies have been attributed to excessive agricultural N leaching into shallow groundwater systems; therefore, it is important to determine the impact of agriculture (e.g., rice production) on groundwater quality. To understand the impact of agricultural land use on the N concentrations in the shallow groundwater in subtropical central China, a large observation program was established to observe ammonium-N (NH4-N), nitrate-N (NO3-N), and total N (TN) concentrations in 161 groundwater observation wells from April 2010 to November 2012. The results indicated that the median values of NH4-N, NO3-N, and TN concentrations in the groundwater were 0.15, 0.39, and 1.38 mg N L(-1), respectively. A total of 36.3 % of the water samples were categorized as NH4-N pollution, and only a small portion of the samples were categorized as NO3-N pollution, based on the Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Groundwater of GB/T 14848-93 (General Administration of Quality Supervision of China, 1993). These results indicated of moderate groundwater NH4-N pollution, which was mainly attributed to intensive rice agriculture with great N fertilizer application rates in the catchment. In addition, tea and vegetable fields showed higher groundwater NO3-N and TN concentrations than other agricultural land use types. The factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) suggested that the flooded agricultural land use types (e.g., single-rice and double-rice) had potential to impose NH4-N pollution, particularly in the soil exhausting season during from July to October. And, the great N fertilizer application rates could lead to a worse NO3-N and TN pollution in shallow groundwater. Hence, to protect groundwater quality and minimize NH4-N pollution, managing optimal fertilizer application and applying appropriate agricultural land use types should be implemented in the region. PMID:25940468

  14. Intensive rice agriculture deteriorates the quality of shallow groundwater in a typical agricultural catchment in subtropical central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Li, Yuyuan; Li, Yong; Liu, Feng; Liu, Xinliang; Gong, Dianlin; Ma, Qiumei; Li, Wei; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-09-01

    High nitrogen (N) concentrations in rural domestic water supplies have been attributed to excessive agricultural N leaching into shallow groundwater systems; therefore, it is important to determine the impact of agriculture (e.g., rice production) on groundwater quality. To understand the impact of agricultural land use on the N concentrations in the shallow groundwater in subtropical central China, a large observation program was established to observe ammonium-N (NH4-N), nitrate-N (NO3-N), and total N (TN) concentrations in 161 groundwater observation wells from April 2010 to November 2012. The results indicated that the median values of NH4-N, NO3-N, and TN concentrations in the groundwater were 0.15, 0.39, and 1.38 mg N L(-1), respectively. A total of 36.3 % of the water samples were categorized as NH4-N pollution, and only a small portion of the samples were categorized as NO3-N pollution, based on the Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Groundwater of GB/T 14848-93 (General Administration of Quality Supervision of China, 1993). These results indicated of moderate groundwater NH4-N pollution, which was mainly attributed to intensive rice agriculture with great N fertilizer application rates in the catchment. In addition, tea and vegetable fields showed higher groundwater NO3-N and TN concentrations than other agricultural land use types. The factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) suggested that the flooded agricultural land use types (e.g., single-rice and double-rice) had potential to impose NH4-N pollution, particularly in the soil exhausting season during from July to October. And, the great N fertilizer application rates could lead to a worse NO3-N and TN pollution in shallow groundwater. Hence, to protect groundwater quality and minimize NH4-N pollution, managing optimal fertilizer application and applying appropriate agricultural land use types should be implemented in the region.

  15. Middle to Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in subtropical southern East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, Isla S.; Caley, Thibaut; Dupont, Lydie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Malaizé, Bruno; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    In this study we investigate Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in southern East Africa by examining plant leaf waxes in a marine sediment core that receives terrestrial runoff from the Limpopo River. The plant leaf wax records are compared to a multi-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record and pollen assemblage data from the same site. We find that Indian Ocean SST variability, driven by high-latitude obliquity, exerted a strong control on the vegetation of southern East Africa during the past 800,000 yr. Interglacial periods were characterized by relatively wetter and warmer conditions, increased contributions of C3 vegetation, and higher SST, whereas glacial periods were marked by cooler and arid conditions, increased contributions of C4 vegetation, and lower SST. We find that Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e, 11c, 15e and 7a-7c are strongly expressed in the plant leaf wax records but MIS 7e is absent while MIS 9 is rather weak. Our plant leaf wax records also record the climate transition associated with the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) suggesting that the pre-MBE interval (430-800 ka) was characterized by higher inputs from grasses in comparison to relatively higher inputs from trees in the post-MBE interval (430 to 0 ka). Differences in vegetation and SST of southern East Africa between the pre- and post-MBE intervals appear to be related to shifts in the location of the Subtropical Front. Comparison with vegetation records from tropical East Africa indicates that the vegetation of southern East Africa, while exhibiting glacial-interglacial variability and notable differences between the pre- and post-MBE portions of the record, likely did not experience such dramatic extremes as occurred to the north at Lake Malawi.

  16. Migration of the subtropical front as a modulator of glacial climate.

    PubMed

    Bard, Edouard; Rickaby, Rosalind E M

    2009-07-16

    Ice cores extracted from the Antarctic ice sheet suggest that glacial conditions, and the relationship between isotopically derived temperatures and atmospheric PCO(2) have been constant over the last 800,000 years of the Late Pleistocene epoch. But independent lines of evidence, such as the extent of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, sea level and other temperature records, point towards a fluctuating severity of glacial periods, particularly during the more extreme glacial stadials centred around 340,000 and 420,000 years ago (marine isotope stages 10 and 12). Previously unidentified mechanisms therefore appear to have mediated the relationship between insolation, CO(2) and climate. Here we test whether northward migration of the subtropical front (STF) off the southeastern coast of South Africa acts as a gatekeeper for the Agulhas current, which controls the transport of heat and salt from the Indo-Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Using a new 800,000-year record of sea surface temperature and ocean productivity from ocean sediment core MD962077, we demonstrate that during cold stadials (particularly marine isotope stages 10 and 12), productivity peaked and sea surface temperature was up to 6 degrees C cooler than modern temperatures. This suggests that during these cooler stadials, the STF moved northward by up to 7 degrees latitude, nearly shutting off the Agulhas current. Our results, combined with faunal assemblages from the south Atlantic show that variable northwards migration of the Southern Hemisphere STF can modulate the severity of each glacial period by altering the strength of the Agulhas current carrying heat and salt to the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. We show hence that the degree of northwards migration of the STF can partially decouple global climate from atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide, P CO(2), and help to resolve the long-standing puzzle of differing glacial amplitudes within a consistent range of atmospheric

  17. Diurnal and seasonal variations of iodocarbons (CH2ClI, CH2I2, CH3I, and C2H5I) in the marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokouchi, Yoko; Saito, Takuya; Ooki, Atsushi; Mukai, Hitoshi

    2011-03-01

    Four iodocarbons, chloroiodomethane (CH2ClI), diiodomethane (CH2I2), methyl iodide (CH3I), and ethyl iodide (C2H5I), were measured with an automated preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system at two remote marine sites, Hateruma Island (24.05°N, 123.8°E) in the East China Sea and Cape Ochiishi (43.15°N, 145.5°E) on the eastern coast of Hokkaido, for 17 months, giving the first full-year high-frequency data sets for all these compounds. CH2ClI and CH2I2, which are highly photolyzed, showed remarkable diurnal variation in all seasons, with lower concentrations in the daytime, whereas CH3I and C2H5I showed no significant diurnal changes. At Cape Ochiishi, all of the iodocarbons showed clear seasonal variations and were highest in summer and autumn, which are characterized by algal blooms in the adjacent ocean. At Hateruma Island, which is surrounded by subtropical oligotrophic waters, the seasonal variations were not significant, but C2H5I and CH2I2 showed lower mixing ratios in summer. The nighttime mixing ratio of CH2ClI was strongly and positively correlated with wind speed throughout the observation period at Hateruma Island, suggesting the ubiquitous presence of CH2ClI sources, probably nonbiogenic, in the subtropical ocean. CH3I and C2H5I mixing ratios occasionally increased at Hateruma Island concurrently with winter and spring pollution events from the Asian continent, indicating possible continental anthropogenic sources or emissions from seawater off the continental coast. A rise in the CH3I baseline mixing ratio was also observed at Hateruma Island, when the air mass origin became more southerly, compared with the earlier, easterly source area, suggesting higher concentrations in equatorial regions.

  18. Quantifying subtropical North Pacific gyre mixed layer primary productivity from Seaglider observations of diel oxygen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, David P.; Wilson, Samuel T.; Doney, Scott C.; Karl, David M.

    2015-05-01

    Using autonomous underwater gliders, we quantified diurnal periodicity in dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and temperature in the subtropical North Pacific near the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) Station ALOHA during summer 2012. Oxygen optodes provided sufficient stability and precision to quantify diel cycles of average amplitude of 0.6 µmol kg-1. A theoretical diel curve was fit to daily observations to infer an average mixed layer gross primary productivity (GPP) of 1.8 mmol O2 m-3 d-1. Cumulative net community production (NCP) over 110 days was 500 mmol O2 m-2 for the mixed layer, which averaged 57 m in depth. Both GPP and NCP estimates indicated a significant period of below-average productivity at Station ALOHA in 2012, an observation confirmed by 14C productivity incubations and O2/Ar ratios. Given our success in an oligotrophic gyre where biological signals are small, our diel GPP approach holds promise for remote characterization of productivity across the spectrum of marine environments.

  19. Iron stable isotopes track pelagic iron cycling during a subtropical phytoplankton bloom

    PubMed Central

    Ellwood, Michael J.; Hutchins, David A.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Milne, Angela; Nasemann, Philipp; Nodder, Scott D.; Sander, Sylvia G.; Wilhelm, Steven W.; Boyd, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    The supply and bioavailability of dissolved iron sets the magnitude of surface productivity for ∼40% of the global ocean. The redox state, organic complexation, and phase (dissolved versus particulate) of iron are key determinants of iron bioavailability in the marine realm, although the mechanisms facilitating exchange between iron species (inorganic and organic) and phases are poorly constrained. Here we use the isotope fingerprint of dissolved and particulate iron to reveal distinct isotopic signatures for biological uptake of iron during a GEOTRACES process study focused on a temperate spring phytoplankton bloom in subtropical waters. At the onset of the bloom, dissolved iron within the mixed layer was isotopically light relative to particulate iron. The isotopically light dissolved iron pool likely results from the reduction of particulate iron via photochemical and (to a lesser extent) biologically mediated reduction processes. As the bloom develops, dissolved iron within the surface mixed layer becomes isotopically heavy, reflecting the dominance of biological processing of iron as it is removed from solution, while scavenging appears to play a minor role. As stable isotopes have shown for major elements like nitrogen, iron isotopes offer a new window into our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of iron, thereby allowing us to disentangle a suite of concurrent biotic and abiotic transformations of this key biolimiting element. PMID:25535372

  20. Effects of Man's Activities on the Marine Environment; Committee on Commerce, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session. Committee Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce.

    This report, prepared for the Committee on Commerce and the National Ocean Policy Study Committee, describes many aspects of water pollution, both national and international. Specific sections are devoted to: (1) assessing man's influence on the oceans, (2) activities that generate marine pollution, (3) specific marine pollutants, (4) policy for…