Science.gov

Sample records for polluted subtropical marine

  1. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  2. The chronic effects of oil pollution on marine phytoplankton in a subtropical bay, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Jun; Jiang, Zhi-Bing; Zeng, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Quan-Zhen; Zhao, Yong-qiang; Liao, Yi-bo; Shou, Lu; Xu, Xiao-qun

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of crude oil water accommodated fraction (WAF) on marine phytoplankton community, natural phytoplankton collected seasonally from the Yueqing bay were exposed to eight groups of crude oil WAF for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Chlorophyll a and cell density were measured, and species of phytoplankton were identified every 24 h to reflect the change of phytoplankton community. The results showed that (1) High concentrations (≥ 2.28 mg l(-1)) of oil pollution would greatly restrain phytoplankton growth (p<0.001), decrease chlorophyll a content and cell density, whereas low concentrations (≤ 1.21 mg l(-1)) did not restrain its growth but rather promoted the phytoplankton growth. (2) The biodiversity, evenness, and species number of phytoplankton were all significantly influenced by crude oil WAF in all seasons (p<0.001). (3) The dominant species changes were different under different pollutant concentrations in different seasons. Different species had different tolerances to the oil pollution, thus leading to abnormal succession.

  3. Viruses and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

    2003-03-01

    This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems.

  4. Marine pollution data services

    SciTech Connect

    Abram, R.J.

    1980-09-01

    The Nat'l Oceanographic Data Center of NOAA is responsible for building and maintaining a global data base on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of world oceans. Data relevant to pollution studies, primarily those associated with oil spills, are included. Inventory and retrieval systems utilized are described. International programs provide extensive data for this marine pollution information service. (1 diagram, 1 map, 2 photos)

  5. Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Marcus; Maximenko, Nikolai; Thiel, Martin; Cummins, Anna; Lattin, Gwen; Wilson, Stiv; Hafner, Jan; Zellers, Ann; Rifman, Samuel

    2013-03-15

    Plastic marine pollution in the open ocean of the southern hemisphere is largely undocumented. Here, we report the result of a (4489 km) 2424 nautical mile transect through the South Pacific subtropical gyre, carried out in March-April 2011. Neuston samples were collected at 48 sites, averaging 50 nautical miles apart, using a manta trawl lined with a 333 μm mesh. The transect bisected a predicted accumulation zone associated with the convergence of surface currents, driven by local winds. The results show an increase in surface abundance of plastic pollution as we neared the center and decrease as we moved away, verifying the presence of a garbage patch. The average abundance and mass was 26,898 particles km(-2) and 70.96 g km(-2), respectively. 88.8% of the plastic pollution was found in the middle third of the samples with the highest value of 396,342 particles km(-2) occurring near the center of the predicted accumulation zone.

  6. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Marine pollution: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  8. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to identifying chemical pollution in the marine environment and assessing the effects of such pollution on living marine resources is described. Such a study requires knowing: what pollutants organisms are exposed to, which pollutants are accumulated; the fate of pollutants taken up by organisms, and biological changes caused by the pollutants. Analytical limitations of such studies are noted. Examples of specific interdisciplinary laboratory and field investigations are presented, for instance, the finding of liver tumors in flatfish that accumulated sediment-bound naphthalene.

  9. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region.

  10. National priorities in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.M.; Leschine, T.M.; Landy, R.B.

    1988-02-01

    The National Ocean Pollution Program Office (NOPPO) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is required by the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (PL 95-273) to make recommendations on the federal program in marine pollution research, development, and monitoring, and promote interagency cooperation in these areas. The first step in evaluating the Federal effort in ocean pollution research is to identify the marine pollution needs and problems that are facing the nation. To broaden the knowledge base used in identifying and prioritizing these issues, NOPPO has consulted pollution experts outside as well as within the Federal Government using the Priorities Worksheet for National Marine Pollution Problems and Needs. The worksheet was mailed out in January 1987 to over 250 participants representing the following sectors of the ocean community: the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Federal Government, conservation groups, sport and commercial fisheries, offshore petroleum and mining interests, the ports and recreation industries, state and regional governments, and researchers in the marine pollution field. The list of participants was developed with the assistance of a steering committee.

  11. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Champ, M.A. ); Park, P.K. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in oceans; disposal of coal wastes in marine environments; the role of pollution conventions and regulation of oil disposal; and monitoring of high-level radioactive waste disposal sites in oceans.

  12. Presence of pathogens and indicator microbes at a non-point source subtropical recreational marine beach.

    PubMed

    Abdelzaher, Amir M; Wright, Mary E; Ortega, Cristina; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Miller, Gary; Elmir, Samir; Newman, Xihui; Shih, Peter; Bonilla, J Alfredo; Bonilla, Tonya D; Palmer, Carol J; Scott, Troy; Lukasik, Jerzy; Harwood, Valerie J; McQuaig, Shannon; Sinigalliano, Chris; Gidley, Maribeth; Plano, Lisa R W; Zhu, Xiaofang; Wang, John D; Fleming, Lora E

    2010-02-01

    Swimming in ocean water, including ocean water at beaches not impacted by known point sources of pollution, is an increasing health concern. This study was an initial evaluation of the presence of indicator microbes and pathogens and the association among the indicator microbes, pathogens, and environmental conditions at a subtropical, recreational marine beach in south Florida impacted by non-point sources of pollution. Twelve water and eight sand samples were collected during four sampling events at high or low tide under elevated or reduced solar insolation conditions. The analyses performed included analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens), human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers (human polyomaviruses [HPyVs] and Enterococcus faecium esp gene), and pathogens (Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus aureus, enterovirus, norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp.). The enterococcus concentrations in water and sand determined by quantitative PCR were greater than the concentrations determined by membrane filtration measurement. The FIB concentrations in water were below the recreational water quality standards for three of the four sampling events, when pathogens and MST markers were also generally undetectable. The FIB levels exceeded regulatory guidelines during one event, and this was accompanied by detection of HPyVs and pathogens, including detection of the autochthonous bacterium V. vulnificus in sand and water, detection of the allochthonous protozoans Giardia spp. in water, and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in sand samples. The elevated microbial levels were detected at high tide and under low-solar-insolation conditions. Additional sampling should be conducted to further explore the relationships between tidal and solar insolation conditions and between indicator microbes and pathogens in subtropical recreational marine waters impacted

  13. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 172.322 Section 172.322... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.322 Marine pollutants. (a) For vessel transportation of each non-bulk packaging that contains a marine pollutant— (1) If the proper shipping name for a material which is a...

  14. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  15. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  16. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 172.322 Section 172.322... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.322 Marine pollutants. (a) For vessel transportation of each non-bulk packaging that contains a marine pollutant— (1) If the proper shipping name for a material which is a...

  17. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 172.322 Section 172.322... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.322 Marine pollutants. (a) For vessel transportation of each non-bulk packaging that contains a marine pollutant— (1) If the proper shipping name for a material which is a...

  18. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 172.322 Section 172.322... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.322 Marine pollutants. (a) For vessel transportation of each non-bulk packaging that contains a marine pollutant— (1) If the proper shipping name for a material which is a...

  19. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  20. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  1. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 172.322 Section 172.322... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.322 Marine pollutants. (a) For vessel transportation of each non-bulk packaging that contains a marine pollutant— (1) If the proper shipping name for a material which is a...

  2. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  3. Sediment characteristics and benthic ecological status in contrasting marine environments of subtropical Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alice K Y; Xu, Wen-Zhe; Liu, Xiao-Shou; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S

    2016-02-15

    Sediment characteristics and benthic communities on a finer sampling scale in four contrasting environments in subtropical Hong Kong were analyzed in summer and winter 2012. In two harbour habitats which suffered from historic sewage pollution or hypoxic events, organic carbon, nutrient and trace metal content in the sediment were significantly higher than that in an offshore area and a marine reserve. The relatively low organic and nutrient content in the offshore habitat could be resulted from enhanced resuspension of such materials from the seabed owing to intense water mixing and disturbance caused by bottom trawling. The biotic indices AMBI and M-AMBI were shown to be useful in assessing the benthic ecological status of these habitats. Such indices can also be more sensitive than sediment physico-chemical parameters in differentiating the response of macrofauna to seasonal changes in the benthic environment.

  4. Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a subtropical recreational marine beach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of Staphylococcus aureus detected in marine environments have occurred since the early 1990’s. This investigation sought to isolate and characterize S. aureus from marine waters and sand at a subtropical recreational beach, with and without bathers present, in order to investigate possible s...

  5. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, D.J. ); Duedall, I.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods.

  6. 49 CFR 176.70 - Stowage requirements for marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. 176.70... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.70 Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. (a) Marine pollutants must be properly stowed and secured to minimize the hazards to the marine environment...

  7. 49 CFR 176.70 - Stowage requirements for marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. 176.70... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.70 Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. (a) Marine pollutants must be properly stowed and secured to minimize the hazards to the marine environment...

  8. 49 CFR 176.70 - Stowage requirements for marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. 176.70... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.70 Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. (a) Marine pollutants must be properly stowed and secured to minimize the hazards to the marine environment...

  9. 49 CFR 176.70 - Stowage requirements for marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. 176.70... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.70 Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. (a) Marine pollutants must be properly stowed and secured to minimize the hazards to the marine environment...

  10. 49 CFR 176.70 - Stowage requirements for marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. 176.70... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.70 Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. (a) Marine pollutants must be properly stowed and secured to minimize the hazards to the marine environment...

  11. The application of lichens as ecological surrogates of air pollution in the subtropics: a case study in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koch, Natália M; Branquinho, Cristina; Matos, Paula; Pinho, Pedro; Lucheta, Fabiane; Martins, Suzana M A; Vargas, Vera M F

    2016-10-01

    The use of lichens as ecological surrogates has been an important tool to evaluate the impact of air pollution in both ecosystem and human health but remains underused in the subtropics due to lack of knowledge. Aiming to support the application of lichen as ecological surrogates of the effects of air pollution in the subtropics, we hypothesized that urbanization was an important driver of changes on lichen diversity, composition, and vitality. For that, we quantified several lichen diversity metrics (richness, cover, and community composition) and photobiont vitality in relation to atmospheric pollution or its surrogates (modeled pollutant gases, pollutants in lichen thallus, and land cover). We confirmed that air pollution was a key driver for lichen diversity. Changes in lichen community composition and vitality were very significantly related to air pollution and integrated the effect of multiple stressors (particulate matter, NOx, and Cu), thus being powerful ecological indicators of air pollution in the subtropics.

  12. Effects of Pollutants on Marine Life Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research activities conducted by scientists from the United State of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom to determine the long-term effects on natural marine ecosystems, especially plankton communities, of such pollutants as heavy metals, synthetic hydrocarbons, and petroleum hydrocarbons. (CC)

  13. Regulations to prevent marine pollution. Tankships in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Höfer, T

    1999-01-01

    This report gives an inside view on discussions held at the headquarters of the International Maritime Organization, the United Nations agency concerned with maritime safety and the prevention of pollution from ships. Marine environmental protection regulations and their historical development are presented and discussed. The regulative measures that have been taken under the responsibility of this organization during the last decades to reduce accidental and operational discharge from tankships have achieved success although the marine environment is still suffering. Those standards which will come into force will further reduce the risks of accidental pollution. The report summarizes aspects beyond issues of environmental science which have to be analysed in order to reduce the impact of tankships on the marine environment. The report ends with the thesis that safer ships and improved occupational conditions on board are prerequisites for cleaner seas.

  14. Monitoring marine pollution by airborne remote sensing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yuanfu, S.; Quanan, Z.

    1982-06-01

    In order to monitor marine pollution by airborne remote sensing techniques, some comprehensive test of airborne remote sensing, involving monitoring marine oil pollution, were performed at several bay areas of China. This paper presents some typical results of monitoring marine oil pollution. The features associated with the EM spectrum (visible, thermal infrared, and microwave) response of marine oil spills is briefly analyzed. It has been verified that the airborne oil surveillance systems manifested their advantages for monitoring the oil pollution of bay environments.

  15. Reducing Navy Marine Plastic Pollution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-28

    pollution. Plastic debris from ships is littering beaches, and killing and debilitating fish and wildlife because they are ingesting plastic , or because...they are becoming entangled in plastic debris . While no one is purposefully causing these impacts, the effects are becoming more pronounced. In the...generate support for shipboard and service-wide activities. The recommendations in this section call for disseminating information about the plastic debris

  16. Marine oil pollution detection with MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Xiao, Kang; Fang, Shenghui; Dong, Yanfang

    2013-10-01

    Marine oil pollution is one of the most serious pollutants on the damage to the contemporary marine environment, with the characteristics of a wide range of proliferation, which is difficult to control and eliminate. As a result, marine oil pollution has caused huge economic losses. The remote sensing sensors can detect and record the spectral information of sea film and background seawater. Here we chose to use 250-resolution MODIS data in the area of Dalian Xingang, China where ill spill case was happened on April.4th, 2005. Based on the image pre-processing and enhanced image processing, the spectral features of different bands were analyzed. More obvious characteristics of the spectral range of film was obtained. The oil-water contrast was calculated to evaluate the feature of oil at different spectral band. The result indicates that IR band has the maximum value of reflective. So band ratio was used between 400nm and 800nm and the original radiance images were used between 800nm and 2130nm. In order to get the most obvious images of entropy windows of different sizes were tested in order to decide the optimum window. At last, a FCM fuzzy clustering method and image texture analysis was combined for the MODIS images of the oil spill area segmentation. At last, the oil spill zone was estimated, the results were satisfied.

  17. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Morrison, Ann Michelle; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    This review covers selected 2015 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due largely to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them.

  18. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Ginn, Thomas; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    This review covers selected 2014 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due in part to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico and the 2011 Japanese tsunami. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them.

  19. Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP).

    PubMed

    Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael H

    2006-01-01

    RAMP embraces the integrated use of methods for the rapid measurement, assessment and access to information on the nature, sources and influences of coastal environmental change. It embraces approaches held in the literature, research and programs of RAMP (Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution) and the emerging work described as RASE (Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators). To protect coastal ecosystems and the health of communities effectively, management infrastructure requires the tools and resources necessary to detect damage to coastal ecosystems and their components, identify causative agents, impose remedial action, and demonstrate that measures have been effective. Pragmatic monitoring and prediction capabilities must also be built to provide further confidence that human impacts are being minimized and that threats to human health have been contained. For most of the world, however, the ability to build such capability is a technical challenge and often cost prohibitive. These constraints point to the need to develop and expand the integrated use of simple, robust, cost-effective environmental assessment procedures. This paper suggests that a system built around the Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP) and the Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators (RASE) can, should and in some cases already has been effective in meeting such informational and management needs.

  20. Trophic Magnification of Parabens and Their Metabolites in a Subtropical Marine Food Web.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaohong; Xue, Jingchuan; Liu, Wenbin; Adams, Douglas H; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-01-17

    Despite the widespread use of parabens in a range of consumer products, little is known about bioaccumulation of these chemicals in aquatic environments. In this study, six parabens and four of their common metabolites were measured in abiotic (water, sediment) and biotic (fish including sharks, invertebrates, plants) samples collected from a subtropical marine food web in coastal Florida. Methyl paraben (MeP) was found in all abiotic (100%) and a majority of biotic (87%) samples. 4-Hydroxy benzoic acid (4-HB) was the most abundant metabolite, found in 97% of biotic and all abiotic samples analyzed. The food chain accumulation of MeP and 4-HB was investigated for this food web. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) of MeP was estimated to be 1.83, which suggests considerable bioaccumulation and biomagnification of this compound in the marine food web. In contrast, a low TMF value was found for 4-HB (0.30), indicating that this compound is metabolized and excreted along the food web. This is the first study to document the widespread occurrence of parabens and their metabolites in fish, invertebrates, seagrasses, marine macroalgae, mangroves, seawater, and ocean sediments and to elucidate biomagnification potential of MeP in a marine food web.

  1. Marine Pollution and the Law of the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Arthur E., III

    1975-01-01

    Despite a rising tide of contamination, effective controls of marine pollution appear dubious because of conflicting national and economic interests. Since countries can not agree on problems such as national sovereignty, dispute settlement, jurisdiction over oil on the Continental Shelf and international seabed sources, marine pollution will…

  2. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Jonatas H. F.; Mattos, Paulo H.; Silva, Kleber G.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  3. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jonatas H F; Mattos, Paulo H; Silva, Kleber G; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  4. White-faced storm-petrels Pelagodroma marina predated by gulls as biological monitors of plastic pollution in the pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Ricardo; Menezes, Dilia; Santos, Carolina Jardim; Catry, Paulo

    2016-11-15

    Marine plastic pollution is rapidly growing and is a source of major concern. Seabirds often ingest plastic debris and are increasingly used as biological monitors of plastic pollution. However, virtually no studies have assessed plastics in seabirds in the deep subtropical North Atlantic. We investigated whether remains of white-faced storm-petrels (WFSP) present in gull pellets could be used for biomonitoring. We analysed 263 pellets and 79.0% of these contained plastic debris originating in the digestive tract of WFSP. Pellets with no bird prey did not contain plastics. Most debris were fragments (83.6%) with fewer plastic pellets (8.2%). Light-coloured plastics predominated (71.0%) and the most frequent polymer was HDPE (73.0%). Stable isotopes in toe-nails of WFSP containing many versus no plastics did not differ, indicating no individual specialisation leading to differential plastic ingestion. We suggest WFSP in pellets are highly suitable to monitor the little known pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

  5. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Tao; Becquer, Thierry; Dai, Jun; Quantin, Cécile; Benedetti, Marc F

    2009-04-01

    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils.

  6. Genomic and metabolic diversity of Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota in the mesopelagic of two subtropical gyres.

    PubMed

    Swan, Brandon K; Chaffin, Mark D; Martinez-Garcia, Manuel; Morrison, Hilary G; Field, Erin K; Poulton, Nicole J; Masland, E Dashiell P; Harris, Christopher C; Sczyrba, Alexander; Chain, Patrick S G; Koren, Sergey; Woyke, Tanja; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2014-01-01

    Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaeota are one of the most abundant and cosmopolitan chemoautotrophs within the global dark ocean. To date, no representatives of this archaeal group retrieved from the dark ocean have been successfully cultured. We used single cell genomics to investigate the genomic and metabolic diversity of thaumarchaea within the mesopelagic of the subtropical North Pacific and South Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic and metagenomic recruitment analysis revealed that MGI single amplified genomes (SAGs) are genetically and biogeographically distinct from existing thaumarchaea cultures obtained from surface waters. Confirming prior studies, we found genes encoding proteins for aerobic ammonia oxidation and the hydrolysis of urea, which may be used for energy production, as well as genes involved in 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate and oxidative tricarboxylic acid pathways. A large proportion of protein sequences identified in MGI SAGs were absent in the marine cultures Cenarchaeum symbiosum and Nitrosopumilus maritimus, thus expanding the predicted protein space for this archaeal group. Identifiable genes located on genomic islands with low metagenome recruitment capacity were enriched in cellular defense functions, likely in response to viral infections or grazing. We show that MGI Thaumarchaeota in the dark ocean may have more flexibility in potential energy sources and adaptations to biotic interactions than the existing, surface-ocean cultures.

  7. Status of marine pollution research in South Africa (1960-present).

    PubMed

    Wepener, V; Degger, N

    2012-07-01

    The published literature on marine pollution monitoring research in South Africa from 1960 to present was evaluated. There has been a general decline in the number of papers from the 1980s and this can be linked to the absence of a marine pollution monitoring programme in South Africa. General trends observed were that contaminant exposure monitoring of metals predominates the research conducted to date. Monitoring results indicate that there has been a general decrease in metal concentrations in South African coastal waters and concentrations of metals and most organics in mussels are lower than in other industrialised nations. This is reflected in the general pristine nature and high biodiversity of the South African coastline. The establishment of a national marine pollution monitoring framework would stimulate marine pollution research.

  8. Strategies and advanced techniques for marine pollution studies

    SciTech Connect

    Giam, C.S.; Dou, H.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Here is a review of strategies and techniques for evaluating marine pollution by hazardous organic compounds. Geo-chemical considerations such as the relationship between the inputs, atmospheric and estuarine transport, and the outputs, sedimentation and degradation, guide the decision on appropriate approaches to pollution monitoring in the marine environment. The latest instrumental methods and standard protocols for analysis of organic compounds are presented, as well as advances in interpretation and correlation of data made possible by the accessibility of commercial data bases.

  9. Physical transport properties of marine microplastic pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballent, A.; Purser, A.; Mendes, P. de Jesus; Pando, S.; Thomsen, L.

    2012-12-01

    Given the complexity of quantitative collection, knowledge of the distribution of microplastic pollution in many regions of the world ocean is patchy, both spatially and temporally, especially for the subsurface environment. However, with knowledge of typical hydrodynamic behavior of waste plastic material, models predicting the dispersal of pelagic and benthic plastics from land sources into the ocean are possible. Here we investigate three aspects of plastic distribution and transport in European waters. Firstly, we assess patterns in the distribution of plastics found in fluvial strandlines of the North Sea and how distribution may be related to flow velocities and distance from source. Second, we model transport of non-buoyant preproduction pellets in the Nazaré Canyon of Portugal using the MOHID system after assessing the density, settling velocity, critical and depositional shear stress characteristics of such waste plastics. Thirdly, we investigate the effect of surface turbulences and high pressures on a range of marine plastic debris categories (various densities, degradation states and shapes tested) in an experimental water column simulator tank and pressure laboratory. Plastics deposited on North Sea strandlines varied greatly spatially, as a function of material composition and distance from source. Model outputs indicated that such dense production pellets are likely transported up and down canyon as a function of tidal forces, with only very minor net down canyon movement. Behaviour of plastic fragments under turbulence varied greatly, with the dimensions of the material, as well as density, playing major determining roles. Pressure was shown to affect hydrodynamic behaviours of only low density foam plastics at pressures ≥ 60 bar.

  10. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Hamish A.; Schultz, Arthur L.; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs. PMID:26061036

  11. The niche of an invasive marine microbe in a subtropical freshwater impoundment

    PubMed Central

    David Hambright, K; Beyer, Jessica E; Easton, James D; Zamor, Richard M; Easton, Anne C; Hallidayschult, Thayer C

    2015-01-01

    Growing attention in aquatic ecology is focusing on biogeographic patterns in microorganisms and whether these potential patterns can be explained within the framework of general ecology. The long-standing microbiologist's credo ‘Everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects' suggests that dispersal is not limiting for microbes, but that the environment is the primary determining factor in microbial community composition. Advances in molecular techniques have provided new evidence that biogeographic patterns exist in microbes and that dispersal limitation may actually have an important role, yet more recent study using extremely deep sequencing predicts that indeed everything is everywhere. Using a long-term field study of the ‘invasive' marine haptophyte Prymnesium parvum, we characterize the environmental niche of P. parvum in a subtropical impoundment in the southern United States. Our analysis contributes to a growing body of evidence that indicates a primary role for environmental conditions, but not dispersal, in the lake-wide abundances and seasonal bloom patterns in this globally important microbe. PMID:24950108

  12. Genetic mechanisms of pollution resistance in a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Galletly, Bronwyn C; Blows, Mark W; Marshall, Dustin J

    2007-12-01

    Pollution is a common stress in the marine environment and one of today's most powerful agents of selection, yet we have little understanding of how anthropogenic toxicants influence mechanisms of adaptation in marine populations. Due to their life history strategies, marine invertebrates are unable to avoid stress and must adapt to variable environments. We examined the genetic basis of pollution resistance across multiple environments using the marine invertebrate, Styela plicata. Gametes were crossed in a quantitative genetic breeding design to enable partitioning of additive genetic variance across a concentration gradient of a common marine pollutant, copper. Hatching success was scored as a measure of stress resistance in copper concentrations of 0, 75, 150, and 350 microg/L. There was a significant genotype x environment interaction in hatching success across copper concentrations. Further analysis using factor analytic modeling confirmed a significant dimension of across-environment genetic variation where the genetic basis of resistance to stress in the first three environments differed from that in the environment of highest copper concentration. A second genetic dimension further differentiated between the genetic basis of resistance to low and high stress environments. These results suggest that marine organisms use different genetic mechanisms to adapt to different levels of pollution and that the level of genetic variation to adapt to intense pollution stresses may be limited.

  13. Biochemical biomarkers in algae and marine pollution: a review.

    PubMed

    Torres, Moacir A; Barros, Marcelo P; Campos, Sara C G; Pinto, Ernani; Rajamani, Satish; Sayre, Richard T; Colepicolo, Pio

    2008-09-01

    Environmental pollution by organic compounds and metals became extensive as mining and industrial activities increased in the 19th century and have intensified since then. Environmental pollutants originating from diverse anthropogenic sources have been known to possess adverse values capable of degrading the ecological integrity of marine environment. The consequences of anthropogenic contamination of marine environments have been ignored or poorly characterized with the possible exception of coastal and estuarine waters close to sewage outlets. Monitoring the impact of pollutants on aquatic life forms is challenging due to the differential sensitivities of organisms to a given pollutant, and the inability to assess the long-term effects of persistent pollutants on the ecosystem as they are bio-accumulated at higher trophic levels. Marine microalgae are particularly promising indicator species for organic and inorganic pollutants since they are typically the most abundant life forms in aquatic environments and occupy the base of the food chain. We review the effects of pollutants on the cellular biochemistry of microalgae and the biochemical mechanisms that microalgae use to detoxify or modify pollutants. In addition, we evaluate the potential uses of microalgae as bioindicator species as an early sentinel in polluted sites.

  14. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    PubMed

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications.

  15. Habitat partitioning by five congeneric and abundant Choerodon species (Labridae) in a large subtropical marine embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairclough, D. V.; Clarke, K. R.; Valesini, F. J.; Potter, I. C.

    2008-04-01

    The habitats occupied by the juveniles and adults of five morphologically similar, diurnally active and abundant Choerodon species in the large subtropical environment of Shark Bay, a "World Heritage Property" on the west coast of Australia, have been determined. The densities of the two life cycle stages of each Choerodon species in those habitats were used in various analyses to test the hypotheses that: (1) habitats are partitioned among these species and between their juveniles and adults; (2) such habitat partitioning is greatest in the case of the two Western Australian endemic species, i.e. Choerodon rubescens and Choerodon cauteroma; and (3) the extent of habitat partitioning between both of these two species and the only species that is widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, i.e. Choerodon schoenleinii, will be less pronounced. Initially, catches of each of the five congeneric species, obtained during other studies in Shark Bay by angling, spearfishing and otter trawling, were collated to elucidate the broad distribution of these species in that embayment. Underwater visual census was then used to determine the densities of the juveniles and adults of each Choerodon species at sites representing the four habitat types in which one or more of these species had been caught, i.e. reefs in marine waters at the western boundary of the bay and seagrass, reefs and rocky shorelines in the two inner gulfs. The compositions of the Choerodon species over marine (entrance channel) reefs and in seagrass were significantly different and each differed significantly from those in both inner gulf reefs and rocky shorelines, which were, however, not significantly different. Choerodon rubescens was restricted to exposed marine reefs, and thus occupied a different habitat and location of the bay than C. cauteroma, the other endemic species, which was almost exclusively confined to habitats found in the inner gulfs. Choerodon cauteroma differed from other Choerodon

  16. Biological effects and subsequent economic effects and losses from marine pollution and degradations in marine environments: Implications from the literature.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, Douglas D; Seneca, Joseph J

    2006-08-01

    This paper serves as the missing piece in a more fuller understanding about economic losses from marine pollution, and demonstrates what losses have been estimated in the literature. Biological effects from marine pollution are linked with resulting economic effects and losses. The merging of these two areas is usually absent in studies of marine pollution losses. The literature has examined several effects due to marine pollution: damages due to harvest closures-restrictions, damages from consumption of unsafe seafood, damages due to decreased recreational activity, and damages related to waterfront real estate adjacent to contaminated water. Overall, marine pollution can and has resulted in sizable economic effects and losses. On the basis of the literature there is adequate justification for public policy actions to curb marine pollution, require inspection of seafood for toxic substances, and preserve marine water quality and sensitive marine environments.

  17. Multiscale Covariability of Surface Wind, Humidity and Temperature in the Subtropical Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fildier, Benjamin; Collins, William

    2016-04-01

    Trade cumulus and stratocumulus clouds in oceanic subtropical regions are sources of much uncertainty in current global climate model (GCM) simulations. Errors in low cloud fraction and rain amounts are a result of inadequate parameterizations for describing the small-scale boundary layer processes specific to the convective and cloud-formation dynamics of those regions. While most cloud parameterization techniques do consider sub-grid scale variability in specific humidity (q), the significant fluctuations in temperature (T) and wind speed (u) in the boundary layer are still often neglected. In order to better acknowledge the interactions of these fields with cloud and convection, understanding their codependence seems crucial. For example, using the negative correlations between T and q on large scales has helped to improve cloud parameterizations, and wind shear is known to modulate cloud layer decoupling and affect the liquid water path (LWP). While numerous studies document the spatial properties of T , q and u independently through power spectra and multifractal analyses, the covariation between these three variables and their spatial increments - and how these relationships change across spatial scales - has not been adequately and quantitatively characterized. The present work focuses on the spatial covariability and multiscale coupling between fluctuations in q, T and u in the marine boundary layer and seeks to understand which pieces of information are required for better predicting LWP on a variety of scales from a few tens to a few hundred kms. We use remote-sensing measurements of thermodynamic variables from MODIS and surface wind estimates from QuikSCAT. The scale-by-scale covariability of two variables is quantified through their Fourier and wavelet cross spectra, using Haar wavelets; these spectra permit the calculation of multiscale coupling exponents when appropriate. Results from this study are threefold: (1) we quantify the contributions of

  18. [Application of lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring: research progress].

    PubMed

    Weng, You-Zhu; Fang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Lysosome is an important organelle existing in eukaryotic cells. With the development of the study on the structure and function of lysosome in recent years, lysosome is considered as a target of toxic substances on subcellular level, and has been widely applied abroad in marine pollution monitoring. This paper summarized the biological characteristics of lysosomal marker enzyme, lysosome-autophagy system, and lysosomal membrane, and introduced the principles and methods of applying lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring. Bivalve shellfish digestive gland and fish liver are the most sensitive organs for lysosomal detection. By adopting the lysosomal detection techniques such as lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) test, neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, morphological measurement (MM) of lysosome, immunohistochemical (Ih) assay of lysosomal marker enzyme, and electron microscopy (EM), the status of marine pollution can be evaluated. It was suggested that the lysosome could be used as a biomarker for monitoring marine environmental pollution. The advantages and disadvantages of lysosomal detection and some problems worthy of attention were analyzed, and the application prospects of lysosomal detection were discussed.

  19. Airborne remote sensing combating marine pollution in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, C.; Small, J.; Mason, D.

    1996-10-01

    The Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU) is a small command, control and rapid response Organization set up to exercise the responsibility accepted by the United Kingdom Government for counter pollution operations at sea when spilled oil (or other dangerous substances) from ships threatens major pollution of the UK coast. Resources used by WCU to respond to pollution incidents include two surveillance aircraft fitted with side-looking radar (SLAR), and infrared (IR) and ultra-violet (UV) Remote Sensing equipment. The paper will describe the use of Airborne Remote Sensing in an operational role and demonstrate how the United Kingdom Government responds to pollution incidents. The paper will also explain how Airborne Remote Sensing is used to patrol the waters surrounding the United Kingdom. Reference will be made to coordinated flights carried out under the Bonn Agreement, a non-mandatory support Organization involving all states bordering the North Sea, and the EU. 2 refs.

  20. Marine iguanas die from trace oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Wikelski, Martin; Wong, Vanessa; Chevalier, Brett; Rattenborg, Niels; Snell, Howard L

    2002-06-06

    An oil tanker ran aground on the Galapagos island of San Cristóbal on 17 January 2001, spilling roughly three million litres of diesel and bunker oil. The slick started to spread westwards and was dispersed by strong currents, so only a few marine animals were killed immediately as a result. Here we draw on the long-term data sets gathered before the spill to show that a population of marine iguanas (Amblyrhychus cristatus) on Sante Fe island suffered a massive 62% mortality in the year after the accident, due to a small amount of residual oil contamination in the sea. Another population on the more remote island of Genovesa was unaffected.

  1. Are marine environmental pollutants influencing global patterns of human disease?

    PubMed

    Depledge, M H; Tyrrell, J; Fleming, L E; Holgate, S T

    2013-02-01

    Thousands of toxic chemicals, many of which pollute marine ecosystems, potentially cause diseases, but building a consensus view of the significance of human body burdens of environmental chemicals is proving difficult. Causative mechanisms are often lacking. Older members of the population, of which there are increasing numbers worldwide, accumulate higher body burdens than the young, and may be especially at risk. It also remains unclear when crucially sensitive periods for chemical exposures occur across the life course. Very early exposures may lead to diseases much later on. The current lack of robust science upon which to base high quality expert advice is hampering effective policymaking that leads to further reductions in marine pollution, greater protection of marine life and lowering of risks to human health.

  2. Shell shape as a biomarker of marine pollution historic increase.

    PubMed

    Márquez, F; Primost, M A; Bigatti, G

    2017-01-30

    Buccinanops globulosus is a TBT sensitive marine gastropod, classified as a good indicator of imposex incidence and used as a model to study adverse contamination effects. Population and maritime industries has incremented pollution in Nuevo gulf harbor since 1970s, promoting morphological changes in B. globulosus shell shape. We study the shell shape of the species comparing present day's specimens from the harbor zone with those collected in the same zone before the increasing of maritime activity and pre-Hispanic archaeological Middens. We demonstrated that harbor pollution produces globular shell shape in B. globulosus, an effect that probably allows gastropods to isolate themselves from the external adverse environment. On the contrary, shells from pre-Hispanic periods, unpolluted sites and those collected before the expansion of maritime activities, presented an elongated shell shape. Our study confirms that shell shape variation in marine gastropods can be used as a biomarker of harbor pollution.

  3. Monitoring Mediterranean marine pollution using remote sensing and hydrodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Loggia, Goffredo; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Drago, Aldo; Maltese, Antonino

    2011-11-01

    Human activities contaminate both coastal areas and open seas, even though impacts are different in terms of pollutants, ecosystems and recovery time. In particular, Mediterranean offshore pollution is mainly related to maritime transport of oil, accounting for 25% of the global maritime traffic and, during the last 25 years, for nearly 7% of the world oil accidents, thus causing serious biological impacts on both open sea and coastal zone habitats. This paper provides a general review of maritime pollution monitoring using integrated approaches of remote sensing and hydrodynamic modeling; focusing on the main results of the MAPRES (Marine pollution monitoring and detection by aerial surveillance and satellite images) research project on the synergistic use of remote sensing, forecasting, cleanup measures and environmental consequences. The paper also investigates techniques of oil spill detection using SAR images, presenting the first results of "Monitoring of marine pollution due to oil slick", a COSMO-SkyMed funded research project where X-band SAR constellation images provided by the Italian Space Agency are used. Finally, the prospect of using real time observations of marine surface conditions is presented through CALYPSO project (CALYPSO-HF Radar Monitoring System and Response against Marine Oil Spills in the Malta Channel), partly financed by the EU under the Operational Programme Italia-Malta 2007-2013. The project concerns the setting up of a permanent and fully operational HF radar observing system, capable of recording surface currents (in real-time with hourly updates) in the stretch of sea between Malta and Sicily. A combined use of collected data and numerical models, aims to optimize intervention and response in the case of marine oil spills.

  4. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  5. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  6. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved]...

  7. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  8. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  9. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  10. Experimental studies on some genetic effects of marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, B.; Bisol, P. M.; Rodinò, E.

    1980-03-01

    Following the results of a series of investigations carried out to estimate the degree of marine pollution by utilizing certain marine filter feeders, such as the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, research has been planned to detect possible genetic effects of pollutants, with special attention to those acting at the population level. The possible selective role of pollutants has been studied both in natural ( Mytilus) and in experimental ( Tisbe holothuriae) populations by utilizing some electrophoretically-detected gene-enzyme systems as genetic markers. For some of the seven polymorphic loci studied in Mytilus (AP, LAP, 6-PGD, IDHs, IDHm, PGI, PGM) significant changes in gene frequencies have been detected which can be related to the degree of pollution in the sampling areas. In the more polluted areas these changes were accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of heterozygotes. Similar changes in gene frequencies also occurred in laboratory populations of the copepod Tisbe, reared under various experimental conditions. In particular, certain alleles of two loci, PGI-1 and AP-1, exhibited an increase in frequency, especially in populations cultured at various levels of oil pollution. This trend appeared more significant for the locus PGI. The fact that equilibria are reached and that the less favoured alleles are nevertheless maintained in the populations, even at extremely low frequencies, suggests the balanced nature of these enzyme polymorphisms. The significance of the above findings is briefly discussed.

  11. Molecular Biomarkers: their significance and application in marine pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Ray, D; Shrivastava, Amulya N; Sarker, Subhodeep

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the significance of the use of molecular biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools for marine pollution monitoring. In order to assess the impact of highly persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDF), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), tributyltin (TBT) and other toxic metals on the marine ecosystem a suite of biomarkers are being extensively used worldwide. Among the various types of biomarkers, the following have received special attention: cytochrome P4501A induction, DNA integrity, acetylcholinesterase activity and metallothionein induction. These biomarkers are being used to evaluate exposure of various species of sentinel marine organisms (e.g. mussels, clams, oysters, snails, fishes, etc.) to and the effect of various contaminants (organic xenobiotics and metals) using different molecular approaches [biochemical assays, enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA), spectrophotometric, fluorometric measurement, differential pulsed polarography, liquid chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry]. The induction of the biotransformation enzyme, cytochrome P4501A in fishes (Callionymus lyra, Limanda limanda, Serranus sp., Mullus barbatus) and mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by various xenobiotic contaminants such as PCBs, PAHs, PCDs is used as a biomarker of exposure to such organic pollutants. The induction of cytochrome P4501A is involved in chemical carcinogenesis through catalysis of the covalent bonding of organic contaminants to a DNA strand leading to formation of DNA adduct. Measurement of the induction of cytochrome P4501A in terms of EROD (7-ethoxy resorufin O-deethylase) activity is successfully used as a potential biomarker of exposure to xenobiotic contaminants in marine pollution monitoring. In order to assess the impact of neurotoxic compounds on marine environment the evaluation of acetylcholinesterase

  12. National Marine Pollution Orogram: federal plan for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring, fiscal years 1988-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The National Marine Pollution Program is the composite of all programs funded by the Federal Government that conduct marine pollution research, development, or monitoring activities. In FY 1988, the Federal Government expended an estimated $107.2 million for marine pollution research and monitoring activities. These activities were funded by 11 Federal departments and independent agencies and included studies pertaining to pollution in coastal areas, estuaries, open oceans, and the Great Lakes. The Plan represents the fourth such document in the continuing interagency planning process called for in the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-273), as amended. As required by the Act, a comprehensive 5-year Plan for the overall Federal effort is prepared and updated every 3 years. The Plan identifies national marine pollution needs and problems, describes the existing Federal capability for conducting marine pollution research and monitoring.

  13. Heritable pollution tolerance in a marine invader.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Louise A; Brooks, Rob; Johnston, Emma L

    2011-10-01

    The global spread of fouling invasive species is continuing despite the use of antifouling biocides. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that non-indigenous species introduced via hull fouling may be capable of adapting to metal-polluted environments. Using a laboratory based toxicity assay, we investigated tolerance to copper in the non-indigenous bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata from four source populations. Individual colonies were collected from four sites within Port Hacking (Sydney, Australia) and their offspring exposed to a range of copper concentrations. This approach, using a full-sib, split-family design, tests for a genotype by environment (G×E) interaction. Settlement and complete metamorphosis (recruitment) were measured as ecologically relevant endpoints. Larval sizes were also measured for each colony. Successful recruitment was significantly reduced by the highest copper concentration of 80μgL(-1). While there was no difference in pollution tolerance between sites, there was a significant G×E interaction, with large variation in the response of colony offspring within sites. Larval size differed significantly both between sites and between colonies and was positively correlated with tolerance. The high level of variation in copper tolerance between colonies suggests that there is considerable potential within populations to adapt to elevated copper levels, as tolerance is a heritable trait. Also, colonies that produce large larvae are more tolerant to copper, suggesting that tolerance may be a direct consequence of larger size.

  14. Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Antifouling paint particles (APP) are generated during the maintenance of boats and are shed from abandoned structures and grounded ships. Although they afford a highly visible, colourful reflection of contamination in the vicinity of the source, little systematic study has been undertaken regarding the distribution, composition and effects of APP in the wider marine environment. This paper reviews the state of knowledge in respect of APP, with particular emphasis on those generated by recreational boatyards. The likely biogeochemical pathways of the biocidal and non-biocidal metals in current use (mainly Cu and Zn) are addressed in light of recent research and an understanding of the more general behaviour of contaminants in marine systems. Analyses of paint fragment composites from recreational facilities in the UK reveal chemical compositions that are similar to those representing the net signal of the original formulations; significantly, dry weight concentrations of Cu and Zn of up to about 35% and 15%, respectively, are observed and, relative to ambient dusts and sediment, elevated concentrations of other trace metals, like Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Sn, occur. These metals leach more rapidly from APP than a painted surface due to the greater surface area of pigments and additives exposed to the aqueous medium. In suspension, APP are subject to greater and more rapid environmental variation (e.g. salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen) than painted hulls, while settled APP represent an important source of persistent and degradable biocides to poorly circulating environments. Through diffusion and abrasion, high concentrations of contaminants are predicted in interstitial waters that may be accumulated directly by benthic invertebrates. Animals that feed non-selectively and that are exposed to or ingest paint-contaminated sediment are able to accelerate the leaching, deposition and burial of biocides and other substances, and represent an alternative vehicle for

  15. Ciliated Protozoa in marine pollution studies. A conspectus

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.G.

    1983-04-01

    The ecological role of the marine ciliates is discussed with reference to the interaction of this group with contaminants. While the ciliates may be of some value in routine screening of potential toxins, simple laboratory bioassays are unlikely to be of predictive value in assessing threats to the marine environment. There is some evidence that ciliates may take part in the transfer and transformation of potential pollutants. Further field and laboratory studies are required in order to identify and quantify the role of ciliates in these processes.

  16. Spatio-temporal changes of marine macrobenthic community in sub-tropical waters upon recovery from eutrophication. II. Life-history traits and feeding guilds of polychaete community.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S G; Lam, N W Y; Wu, R S S; Shin, P K S

    2008-02-01

    A two-year study was conducted in the vicinity of a harbour in sub-tropical Hong Kong, to examine the progress of recovery of macrobenthic community, based on analyses of both life-history traits and trophic guilds of polychaetes, upon cessation of organic pollution caused by sewage discharge. Seventy seven out of 83 species collected were classified under four ecological groups based on the life-history traits and sensitivity to organic gradients. The mean ATZI marine biotic index (AMBI) derived from these ecological groups showed spatial difference among the five sampling locations. In particular, the presence of different percentages of polychaete species from Groups III (unbalanced community) and IV (polluted community) suggested the presence of pollution stress in certain degree at all sampling locations. However, no significant temporal changes were noted over the study period. From all polychaete species identified, they were classified into 13 feeding guilds. The mean diversity of these feeding guilds at most of the sampling locations was significantly higher than that at one of the inside-harbour locations. The composition of feeding guilds was also significantly different spatially. At one of the inside-harbour locations, the dominant feeding guilds were motile/discretely motile surface deposit feeders with tentaculates or unarmed pharynx, and motile omnivores with jawed pharynx in the first year of study, but were replaced by motile, jawed carnivores in the second year of study. The increased proportion of carnivores over the study period can be seen as a sign of recovery in the community structure since abundance of predators is commonly higher in habitats with better environmental quality. The implications of using life-history traits and feeding guild analyses for benthic community are discussed.

  17. The developing framework of marine ecotoxicology: Pollutants as a variable in marine ecosystems?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, Samuel N.

    1996-01-01

    Marine ecosystems include a subset in which at least some interrelated geochemical, biochemical, physiological, population and community characteristics are changed by pollutants. Moderate contamination is relatively widespread in coastal and estuarine ecosystems, so the subset of ecosystems with at least some processes affected could be relatively large. Pollutant influences have changed and will probably continue to change on time scales of decades. Biological exposures and dose in such ecosystems are species-specific and determined by how the species is exposed to different environmental media and the geochemistry of individual pollutants within those media. Bioaccumulation models offer significant promise for interpreting such exposures. Biological responses to pollutants need to be more directly linked to exposure and dose. At the level of the individual this might be improved by better understanding relationships between tissue concentrations of pollutants and responses to pollutants. Multi-discipline field and laboratory studies combined with advanced understanding of some basic processes have reduced the ambiguities in interpreting a few physiological/organismic responses to pollutants in nature. Recognition of pollutant-induced patterns in population responses could lead to similar advances. A rational framework for ecotoxicology is developing, but its further advance is dependent upon better integration of ecotoxicology with basic marine ecology and biology.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in the Olifants River Basin, South Africa: Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer through a subtropical aquatic food web.

    PubMed

    Verhaert, Vera; Newmark, Nadine; D'Hollander, Wendy; Covaci, Adrian; Vlok, Wynand; Wepener, Victor; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Jooste, Antoinette; Teuchies, Johannes; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2017-05-15

    This study investigates the trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs and PFASs) in the subtropical aquatic ecosystem of the Olifants River Basin (South Africa) by means of trophic magnification factors (TMFs). Relative trophic levels were determined by stable isotope analysis. POP levels in surface water, sediment and biota were low. Only ∑DDTs levels in fish muscle (1, indicating biomagnification of all detected POPs. Calculated TMFs for PCBs were comparable to TMF values reported from the tropical Congo River basin and lower than TMFs from temperate and arctic regions. For p,p'-DDT, a higher TMF value was observed for the subtropical Olifants River during the winter low flow season than for the tropical Congo river. TMFs of DDTs from the present study were unexpectedly higher than TMFs from temperate and arctic aquatic food webs. The fish species in the aquatic ecosystem of the Olifants River can be consumed with a low risk for POP contamination.

  19. Remote sensing for the control of marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Massin, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    In 1976, as the risk of pollution by hydrocarbons in marine waters increased, fourteen countries led by France and the United States began a joint study on the possibilities offered by remote sensing techniques for the detection, surveillance, and monitoring of oil (and other hazardous substances) spills at sea. This volume presents the findings of this study in an in-depth investigation into the problems that arise from deliberate and accidental spills.

  20. Bacterial diversity in oil-polluted marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Marqués, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine environments harbour a persistent microbial seed which can be shaped by changes of the environmental conditions such as contamination by petroleum components. Oil spills, together with small but continuous discharges of oil from transportation and recreational activities, are important sources of hydrocarbon pollution within the marine realm. Consequently, prokaryotic communities have become well pre-adapted toward oil pollution, and many microorganisms that are exposed to its presence develop an active degradative response. The natural attenuation of oil pollutants, as has been demonstrated in many sites, is modulated according to the intrinsic environmental properties such as the availability of terminal electron acceptors and elemental nutrients, together with the degree of pollution and the type of hydrocarbon fractions present. Whilst dynamics in the bacterial communities in the aerobic zones of coastal sediments are well characterized and the key players in hydrocarbon biodegradation have been identified, the subtidal ecology of the anaerobic community is still not well understood. However, current data suggest common patterns of response in these ecosystems.

  1. National Marine Pollution Program: federal plan for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring, Fiscal Uears 1985-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The National Marine Pollution Program is the composite of all programs funded by the Federal Government that conduct research, development, or monitoring activities related to marine pollution. In FY 1985, the Program consisted of about 650 projects with a total Federal expenditure of about $122.7 million. These projects were funded by eleven Federal departments and independent agencies and included studies pertaining to pollution in coastal areas, estuaries, open oceans, and the Great Lakes. This plan is intended to guide and coordinate the overall Federal effort in marine pollution research, development, and monitoring during FY 1985-1989 and represents the third such document in the continuing interagency planning process called for in the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-273), as amended. As required by the Act, this plan identifies and establishes priorities for national marine pollution needs and problems.

  2. Pollution prevention assessments for marine maintenance and commercial printing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, H.L.; Erten-Unal, M.; Marchello, J.M.; Burgess, M.; Aydlett, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper represents the results of ten pollution prevention/waste minimization assessments performed on marine maintenance and commercial printing industries in the Hampton Roads area of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The pollution prevention project is the result of a working partnership (the Partnership) formed between Old Dominion University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (ODU) and Hampton Roads Sanitation District Industrial Waste Division (HRSD) for the Pollution Prevention Incentives for States (PPIS) grant awarded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Local businesses were provided with direct on-site technical consultation on waste reduction, and possible alternatives for the reduction or elimination of solid and hazardous waste, waste water discharges, and air emissions, were evaluated. Financial analyses of identified technology and procedural options were developed in order to prepare comprehensive reports for each business on findings and recommendations. Industry profiles are provided in order to establish the type of services rendered by the facilities participating within the program. Material usage, waste generation, and waste minimization recommendations are examined for both the marine maintenance and commercial printing industries. In addition to loss prevention and good housekeeping, waste minimization recommendations for the commercial printing industry include hazardous solvent source reduction, recycling of available markets, and silver recovery during photoprocessing operations.

  3. Marine casualty and pollution database (raw data only) (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Marine Casualty and Pollution Database provides details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Officer. The database is an invaluable source of information to understand particulars and circumstances of marine accidents and pollution incidents. The CD-ROM contains forty data tables derived from marine casualty and pollution investigations conducted by investigators at US Coast Guard Marine Safety Offices throughout the United States. The data collection period began in 1973 and is ongoing. Also included on the CD-ROM are vessel and facility tables with specific information on vessel and facility constitution and operating details. The Coast Guard maintains a comprehensive database on approximately 460,000 US and foreign vessels and 32,000 facilities. Entity and attribute descriptions and suggested solutions to general marine pollution, vessel casualty, and personnel injury and death questions are outlined in the documentation.

  4. Something's fishy. [Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats from pollutants such as PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1994-07-02

    Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats to the immune system of marine animals such as seals, dolphins and turtles. A number of studies are discussed in this article, with particular emphasis on an ongoing study which makes the connection between marine pollution and the decrease in immune system functioning in harbor seals. The effects on the whole marine ecosystem are discussed.

  5. Are greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping a type of marine pollution?

    PubMed

    Shi, Yubing

    2016-12-15

    Whether greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of marine pollution is a controversial issue and is currently open to debate. This article examines the current treaty definitions of marine pollution, and applies them to greenhouse gas emissions from ships. Based on the legal analysis of treaty definitions and relevant international and national regulation on this issue, this article asserts that greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of 'conditional' marine pollution.

  6. Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of sub-tropical industrial region and its phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004-2005. Pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with heavy metals was Belwadah, i.e., waters and sediments had the highest concentration of all the metals examined. The reference site was characterized by the presence of low concentrations of metals in waters and in sediments. Further, several wetland plants were harvested from different sites, and simultaneously, these were assessed for their metal concentration efficiency. Following the water quality monitoring and metal concentration efficiency, two-month field phytoremediation experiments were conducted using large enclosures at the discharge point of different polluted sites of the lake. Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata were frontier metal accumulators hence selected for previously mentioned field phytoremediation experiments. During field phytoremediation experiments using aquatic macrophytes, marked percentage reduction in metals concentrations were recorded. The percentage decrease for different metals was in the range of 25-67.90% at Belwadah (with Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), 25-77.14% at Dongia nala (with Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata) and 25-71.42% at Ash pond site of G.B. Pant Sagar (with Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata). Preliminary studies of polluted sites are therefore useful for improved microcosm design and for the systematic extrapolation of information from experimental ecosystems to natural ecosystems.

  7. Millennial-scale versus long-term dynamics in the surface and subsurface of the western North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, André; Nürnberg, Dirk; Karas, Cyrus; Grützner, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Subtropical Gyres are an important constituent of the ocean-atmosphere system due to their capacity to store vast amounts of warm and saline waters. Here we decipher the sensitivity of the (sub)surface North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre with respect to orbital and millennial scale climate variability between ~ 140 and 70 ka, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. Using (isotope) geochemical proxy data from surface and thermocline dwelling foraminifers from Blake Ridge off the west coast of North America (ODP Site 1058) we show that the oceanographic development at subsurface (thermocline) level is substantially different from the surface ocean. Most notably, surface temperatures and salinities peak during the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II) and early MIS 5e, implying that subtropical surface ocean heat and salt accumulation might have resulted from a sluggish northward heat transport. In contrast, maximum thermocline temperatures are reached during late MIS 5e when surface temperatures are already declining. We argue that the subsurface warming originated from intensified Ekman downwelling in the Subtropical Gyre due to enhanced wind stress. During MIS 5a-d a tight interplay of the subtropical upper ocean hydrography to high latitude millennial-scale cold events can be observed. At Blake Ridge, the most pronounced of these high latitude cold events are related to surface warming and salt accumulation in the (sub)surface. Similar to Termination II, heat accumulated in the Subtropical Gyre probably due to a reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Additionally, a southward shift and intensification of the subtropical wind belts lead to a decrease of on-site precipitation and enhanced evaporation, coupled to intensified gyre circulation. Subsequently, the northward advection of this warm and saline water likely contributed to the fast resumption of the overturning circulation at the end of these high latitude cold events.

  8. Contaminants in tracked seabirds showing regional patterns of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Ito, Atsuo; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige; Yamamoto, Takashi; Shiomi, Kozue; Zavalaga, Carlos; Abe, Tomoya; Watanabe, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Maki; Sato, Katsufumi; Kohno, Hiroyoshi; Yoda, Ken; Iida, Tomohiko; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2013-07-16

    Ocean-scale monitoring of pollution is challenging. Seabirds are useful indicators because they travel over a broad foraging range. Nevertheless, this coarse spatial resolution is not fine enough to discriminate pollution in a finer scale. Previous studies have demonstrated that pollution levels are higher in the Sea of Japan and South and East China Seas than the Northen Pacific Ocean. To test these findings in a wide-ranging animal, we tracked streaked shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas) from four islands in Japan using global positioning system (GPS) and measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the oil of their preen glands. The POPs did not change during 6 to 21 days when birds from Awashima were foraging only in the Sea of Japan, while it increased when they crossed to the Pacific through the Tsugaru Strait and foraged along the eastern coast of Hokkaido where industrial cities occur. These results indicate that POPs in the oil reflect relatively short-term exposure. Concentrations of POPs displayed greater variation among regions. Total polychlorinated biphenyls were highest in birds foraging in a small area of the semiclosed Seto Inland Sea surrounded by urbanized coast, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was highest in birds foraging in the East China Sea, and total hexachlorocyclohexanes were highest in birds foraging in the Sea of Japan. All were lowest in birds foraging in the Pacific. This distribution of POPs concentration partly agrees with previous findings based on mussels, fish, and seawater and possibly reflects the mobility and emission sources of each type of POP. These results highlight the importance of information on the foraging area of highly mobile top predators to make them more effective monitors of regional marine pollution.

  9. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-07-01

    An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands) shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2) receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  10. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands) was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  11. Integrated studies of a regional ozone pollution synthetically affected by subtropical high and typhoon system in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Lei; Xie, Min; Wang, Tijian; Gao, Da; Chen, Pulong; Han, Yong; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Li, Mengmeng

    2016-12-01

    Severe high ozone (O3) episodes usually have close relations to synoptic systems. A regional continuous O3 pollution episode was detected over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China during 7-12 August 2013, in which the O3 concentrations in more than half of the cities exceeded the national air quality standard. The maximum hourly concentration of O3 reached 167.1 ppb. By means of the observational analysis and the numerical simulation, the characteristics and the essential impact factors of the typical regional O3 pollution are comprehensively investigated. The observational analysis shows that the atmospheric subsidence dominated by the western Pacific subtropical high plays a crucial role in the formation of high-level O3. The favorable weather conditions, such as extremely high temperature, low relative humidity and weak wind speed, caused by the abnormally strong subtropical high are responsible for the trapping and the chemical production of O3 in the boundary layer. In addition, when the YRD cities are at the front of Typhoon Utor, the periphery circulation of typhoon system can enhance the downward airflows and cause worse air quality. However, when the typhoon system weakens the subtropical high, the prevailing southeasterly surface wind leads to the mitigation of the O3 pollution. The integrated process rate (IPR) analysis incorporated in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is applied to further illustrate the combined influence of subtropical high and typhoon system in this O3 episode. The results show that the vertical diffusion (VDIF) and the gas-phase chemistry (CHEM) are two major contributors to O3 formation. During the episode, the contributions of VDIF and CHEM to O3 maintain the high values over the YRD region. On 10-12 August, the cities close to the sea are apparently affected by the typhoon system, with the contribution of VDIF increasing to 28.45 ppb h-1 in Shanghai and 19.76 ppb h-1 in Hangzhou. In contrast, the cities

  12. Establishing a conceptual model for photochemical ozone pollution in subtropical Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Z. H.; Guo, H.; Zheng, J. Y.; Louie, P. K. K.; Cheng, H. R.; Jiang, F.; Cheung, K.; Wong, L. C.; Feng, X. Q.

    2013-09-01

    Photochemical ozone (O3) formation is related to its precursors and meteorological conditions. A conceptual model of O3 air pollution is developed based on the analysis of data obtained at Tung Chung (TC) in Hong Kong. By comparing meteorological parameters between O3 and non-O3 episode days, it was found that high temperatures, strong solar radiation, low wind speeds and relative humidity, northeasterly and/or northwesterly prevailing winds were favorable for the O3 formation, while tropical cyclones were most conducive to the occurrence of O3 episodes. Backward trajectories simulation and graphical illustration of O3 pollution suggested that super-regional (i.e. central and eastern China) and regional (i.e. Pearl River Delta, southern China) transport was another factor that contributed to high O3 levels in Hong Kong. The photochemical O3 formation, generally VOC-limited in Hong Kong, was controlled by a small number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Furthermore, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) simulation suggested that solvent usage and vehicular emissions are the major contributors to ambient VOCs in Hong Kong. Finally, this paper presents recommendations for further O3 research and implementation of O3 control strategies.

  13. Characterization of shallow marine convection in subtropical regions by airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Gutleben, Manuel; Schäfler, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Wirth, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in present day climate research is still the quantification of cloud feedbacks in climate models. Especially the feedback from marine cumulus clouds in the boundary layer with maximum cloud top heights of 4 km introduces large uncertainties in climate sensitivity. Therefore a better understanding of these shallow marine clouds, as well as of their interaction with aerosols and the Earth's energy budget is demanded. To improve our knowledge of shallow marine cumulus convection, measurements onboard the German research aircraft HALO were performed during the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-sensing for Validation studies) mission in December 2013. During NARVAL an EarthCARE equivalent remote sensing payload, with the DLR airborne high spectral resolution and differential absorption lidar system WALES and the cloud radar of the HAMP (HALO Microwave Package) as its core instrumentation, was deployed. To investigate the capability of spaceborne lidar measurements for this kind of study several CALIOP underflights were performed. We will present a comparison of airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements, and we will present the vertical and horizontal distribution of the clouds during NARVAL based on lidar measurements. In particular we investigate the cloud top distribution and the horizontal cloud and cloud gap length. Furthermore we study the representativeness of the NARVAL data by comparing them to and analysing a longer time series and measurements at different years and seasons.

  14. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  15. Marine pollution by persistent organochlorines in Asia and Oceania

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, S.; Iwata, H.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1995-12-31

    The global chemical trade increased year by year and exceeded US$300 billion in 1991. In this context, the share of chemical exports in developing countries is expanding markedly from 7% of the world total value in 1980to 13% in 1991, almost doubling within 10 years. It was also reported that the growth rates of chemical exports in 1991 were less than 1% in developed nations, whereas those in developing countries revealed more than 13%. Among several developing nations, Asian countries have the largest bulk of chemical exports and now top the list of chemical exporters. It is also remarkable that 68% of the share of Asia`s chemical exports in 1991 has gone to the regional market in the same area. These statistics indicate that the growth in supply and demand of chemicals has been far outpaced in developing, countries, particularly the Asian region, and therefore corresponding, environmental problems caused by toxic chemicals are of great concern. The present paper overviews the marine pollution by toxic organochlorines such as PCBs, DDT, HCHs and chlordane compounds in Asia and Oceania, and also deals with their ecotoxicological implications in marine ecosystems. The recent pattern of contamination by organochlorines is prominent in tropical coastal regions, suggesting their continuous usage in the low-latitude developing countries. Due to the high temperature, the toxic contaminants used in the tropics are rapidly evaporated into the air, and then carried by the long-range atmospheric transport on global terms and eventually deposited in the water phase in the polar regions. These situations may accelerate the biological contaminations and possible toxic effects to marine organisms, particularly mammals which are now facing the extraordinary contamination by persistent organochlorines and serious mass mortalities.

  16. Global Transport of Organic Pollutants: Ambient Concentrations in the Remote Marine Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Giam, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Concentrations of organic pollutants in the air and in precipitation have been measured at Enewetak Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. These data from a site removed from industrial and human activity indicate the present concentrations of synthetic organic pollutants in the atmosphere and establish the long-range atmospheric transport of organic pollutants to remote marine areas. Hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers are present in the remote marine atmosphere. Polychlorobiphenyls, total DDT, dieldrin, chlordane, and two phthalate ester plasticizers were also found in the samples. The concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere remote from continental sources are good measures of the minimum concentrations of air pollutants on Earth.

  17. Global transport of organic pollutants: ambient concentrations in the remote marine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Atlas, E; Giam, C S

    1981-01-09

    Concentrations of organic pollutants in the air and in precipitation have been measured at Enewetak Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. These data from a site removed from industrial and human activity indicate the present concentrations of synthetic organic pollutants in the atmosphere and establish the long-range atmospheric transport of organic pollutants to remote marine areas. Hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers are present in the remote marine atmosphere. Polychlorobiphenyls, total DDT, dieldrin, chlordane, and two phthalate ester plasticizers were also found in the samples. The concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere remote from continental sources are good measures of the minimum concentrations of air pollutants on Earth.

  18. National marine pollution program: summary of federal programs and projects FY 1985 update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (NOPPA; P.L. 95-273) requires NOAA to develop a detailed description of Federal research, development, and monitoring efforts related to ocean pollution. The Summary report presents descriptions of 524 projects in 56 programs funded by the 10 Federal departments and independent agencies involved in the National Marine Pollution Program. The update reviews the marine pollution programs undertaken by each of these departments and agencies by describing program goals, objectives, recent accomplishments, future milestones, funding for Fiscal Years 1984 through 1987, and legislative mandates. In addition, the update includes information on Federal personnel, facilities, vessels and other equipment currently assigned to ocean pollution programs.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide in the marine atmospheric boundary layer during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment/Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange experiment in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Daniel; Tsivou, Maria; Bonsang, Bernard; Abonnel, Christian; Carsey, Thomas; Springer-Young, Margie; Pszenny, Alex; Suhre, Karsten

    1997-03-01

    Gas phase H2O2 was measured in surface air on the NOAA ship Malcolm Baldrige from June 8 to 27, 1992 (Julian days 160-179), during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment/Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange experiment in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic region. Average H2O2 mixing ratios observed were 0.63±0.28 ppbv, ranging between detection limit and 1.5 ppbv. For the entire experiment, only weak or no correlation was found between H2O2 mixing ratio and meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, humidity, or UV radiation flux) as well as with tracers of continental air masses (CO, black carbon, radon). The average daily H2O2 cycle for the entire period exhibits a maximum of 0.8±0.3 ppbv near sunset and a minimum of 0.4±0.2 ppbv 4-5 hours after sunrise. Several clear H2O2 diurnal variations have been observed, from which a first-order removal rate of about 1×10-5 s-1 for H2O2 can be inferred from nighttime measurements. This rate compares well with those deduced from measurements taken at Cape Grim (Tasmania, 41°S) and during the Soviet-American Gas and Aerosol III experiment (equatorial Pacific Ocean).

  20. Casualty Data Analysis of the World Merchant Fleet for Reported Fire and Explosion Incidents Resulting in Marine Pollution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    World wide merchant vessel fire and explosion casualty data were analyzed to determine the contribution of these casualties to the marine pollution problem... marine pollution , and (4) fires/explosions contributing to marine pollution . General categories of merchant vessel types were identified and the

  1. Experimental Study on the Role of Sedimentation and Degradation Processes on Atmospheric Deposition of Persistent Organic Pollutants in a Subtropical Water Column.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Ruijie; Li, Kechang; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhong, Guangcai; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun

    2017-04-07

    The goal of this study is to experimentally assess the role of vertical sinking and degradation processes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a subtropical water column. This was done by measuring the concentrations of selected typical organochlorine pesticides, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), trans-chlordane (TC), and cis-chlordane (CC), in atmosphere (gas phase), water (dissolved and particulate phases), and sedimentation samples simultaneously from October 2011 to April 2013 in a subtropical lake. The fugacity ratios suggested net deposition for α-HCH, γ-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, TC, and CC, indicating that the subtropical lake was acting as a "sink" for these chemicals. The enantiomer fractions of α-HCH, o,p'-DDT, TC, and CC in the dissolved phase samples were much more deviated from the racemic values than were those in the air samples, suggesting that these chemicals have suffered microbial degradation in the subtropical lake. In fact, 99% to 100% of atmospheric input of α-HCH and γ-HCH to the subtropical lake was estimated to be depleted via microbial degradation, while the role of hydrolysis and vertical sinking was very small. For more hydrophobic p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, TC, and CC, the role of vertical sinking was 2 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than that for α-HCH and γ-HCH. Microbial degradation was also very important for removing p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, TC, and CC from the water column.

  2. Coral disease dynamics at a subtropical location, Solitary Islands Marine Park, eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Steven J.; Smith, Stephen D. A.

    2006-03-01

    Recent observations suggest that a spreading disease is increasingly contributing to hard coral mortality in the Solitary Islands Marine Park, NSW, Australia. This study determined coral disease prevalence and rate-of-spread through individual affected colonies and investigated the effect this epizootic had on coral populations at sites adjacent to South West Solitary Island. Quantitative data were collected between 2002 and 2004 using photographic and video methods, and visual census along radial arc belt transects. Disease similar to the reported white syndrome and white plague was apparent, spreading through hard coral species from the genera Turbinaria, Acropora, Goniastrea, Pocillopora, Stylophora and Porites. Coral disease prevalence varied between survey dates with mean prevalence increasing from 8.55% during March 2003 to 13.58% in June and declining to 7.75% in September and 6.21% during March 2004. There was a significant difference in mean prevalence between the affected species (p<0.001) and an overall difference between survey dates (p=0.001). Additionally, the rate-of-spread of coral disease through coral colonies determined using repeated, seasonal, still photographs followed similar patterns, with disease progression differing between affected species (p=0.004), and between survey dates (p<0.001). Analysis of the video-transects indicated significant difference in disease prevalence over larger spatial scales (100s of m). However, disease frequency did not vary significantly between 2002 and 2003.

  3. Evaluation of impairment of DNA in marine gastropod, Morula granulata as a biomarker of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Bhagat, Jacky; Sarker, Subhodeep

    2014-08-01

    The impairment of DNA in marine gastropod Morula granulata was evaluated in terms of the loss of DNA integrity in the species as a measure of the impact of genotoxic contaminants prevalent in the marine environment along the coast of Goa, India. The extent of DNA damage occurred in the marine gastropods collected from different sampling sites such as Arambol, Anjuna, Sinquerim, Dona Paula, Bogmalo, Hollant, Velsao, Betul and Palolem along the coast of Goa was measured following the technique of partial alkaline unwinding as well as comet assays. The highest DNA integrity was observed at Arambol (F, 0.75), identified as the reference site, whereas the lowest DNA integrity at Hollant (F, 0.33) situated between the two most contaminated sites at Bogmalo and Velsao. The impact of genotoxic contaminants on marine gastropods was pronounced by their low DNA integrity at Sinquerim (F, 0.40) followed by Betul (F, 0.47), Velsao (F, 0.51), Anjuna (F, 0.54), Bogmalo (F, 0.55), Dona Paula (F, 0.67) and Palolem (F, 0.70). The extent of DNA damage occurred in M. granulata due to ecotoxicological impact of the prevailing marine pollutants along the coast of Goa was further substantiated by comet assay and expressed in terms of %head-DNA, %tail DNA, tail length and Olive tail moment. The single cell gel electrophoresis of M. granulata clearly showed relatively higher olive tail moment in the marine gastropod from the contaminated sites, Anjuna, Hollant, Velsao and Betul. The variation in the mean %head DNA at different sampling sites clearly indicated that the extent of DNA damage in marine gastropod increases with the increase in the levels of contamination at different sampling sites along the coast. The stepwise multiple regression analysis of the water quality parameters showed significant correlation between the variation in DNA integrity and PAH in combination with NO3, salinity and PO4 (R¯(2), 0.90). The measurement of DNA integrity in M. granulata thus provides an early

  4. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  5. Lead pollution in subtropical ecosystems on the SE Gulf of California Coast: a study of concentrations and isotopic composition.

    PubMed

    Soto-Jiménez, Martin F; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Scelfo, Genine; Hibdon, Sharon; Franks, Rob; Aggarawl, Jugdeep; Flegal, A Russell

    2008-10-01

    Lead pollution was investigated in environmental matrices and biological indicators collected from two typical subtropical coastal ecosystems in the southeast Gulf of California, Mexico. Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb) were measured using high resolution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), respectively. Lead in surface estuary sediments (10.0-34.2microgg(-1)) and particulate Pb (25.0-128.7microgg(-1), >98% of total Pb) in the water column were significantly higher than levels in natural bedrock soils (15.1+/-8.3microgg(-1)) and river runoff (1.9+/-1.4microgg(-1)). Aquatic plants had Pb concentrations between 2.5 and 7.2microgg(-1), while those in macroalgae ranged from 3 to 5microgg(-1). The ranges of mean Pb concentrations in the aquatic animals studied (ranges in microgg(-1)) were as follows: zooplankton 32+/-3, mussels 2.3-3.9, oysters 1.9-7.9, snail 2.0-7.7, barnacles 0.1-18.5, fish 1.4-8.9, crab 6.3-40.2 and polychaetae 8.5-16.7. Pb values in 20-40% of oyster and fish samples and in all samples of crab exceeded acceptable levels for a food source for human consumption. Pb isotope ratios (206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(207)Pb in biota ranged from 1.188 to 1.206 and 2.448 to 2.470, respectively. A plot of (206)Pb/(207)Pb versus (208)Pb/(207)Pb for the environmental and biological samples collected from two study areas indicates that they contain lead from ores mined in Mexico and used in the past to produce leaded gasoline in use until 1997, natural Pb weathered from the Sierra Madre Occidental mother rock, and the later influence of inputs from a more radiogenic source related to industrial activity in the United States. Statistical software IsoSource results revealed that the Pb contained in environmental matrices and biomonitors is mostly derived from gasoline (20-90%) and US emissions (10-40%).

  6. Marine pollution effects on the southern surf crab Ovalipes trimaculatus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Polybiidae) in Patagonia Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, Aníbal Hernán; Rojas Quiroga, María Laura; Liberoff, Ana Laura; Van der Molen, Silvina

    2015-02-28

    We compared the carapace shape and thickness as well as the energy density of Ovalipes trimaculatus inhabiting areas comprising a gradient of marine pollution: high, moderate and undetected, in the Nuevo gulf (Patagonia Argentina). The carapace shape was evaluated by means of individual asymmetry scores (=fluctuating asymmetry) whereas the carapace thickness was assessed by measuring the carapace dry weight. The energy density was analyzed through its negative relationship with water content in muscle tissue. The individual asymmetry scores as well as the percentage of water content in muscle tissue were proportional to the marine pollution gradient, whereas the carapaces thickness did not differ among sampling sites. Our results are consistent with previous findings and demonstrate the direct effect of marine pollution on other taxa different from gastropods, cephalopods and polyplacophora and add to long-standing concerns about detrimental effects caused by marine pollution on the benthic community of the Nuevo gulf.

  7. Guide to marine-pollution related data collected by federally sponsored projects identified in the FY 1984-1987 National Marine Pollution Program catalogs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Section 8 of the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-273, supplemented by PL 99-272 to include specifically the Great Lakes and estuaries of National importance) mandates that the results of Federally sponsored marine pollution programs be disseminated to all interested persons. In an effort to fulfill NOAA's responsibility under Section 8 of the Act, the Central Coordination and Referral Office (CCRO) of the Ocean Pollution Data and Information Network (OPDIN) has compiled summary descriptions of 98 projects described in the annual Summary of Federal Programs and Projects published for fiscal years 1984 through 1987 that have collected pollution related measurements in the marine or Great Lakes environment.

  8. A census of marine zooplankton in the tropical/subtropical Atlantic from the surface to 5000 m.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, P. H.; Bucklin, A.; Madin, L.; Angel, M. V.; Sutton, T.; Pages, F.; Hopcroft, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Zooplankton from tropical/subtropical waters in the Atlantic Ocean were sampled from the surface to 5000 m, with a particular focus on the mesopelagic, bathypelagic, abyssopelagic zones. Sampling, on a cruise sponsored by the NOAA Ocean Exploration Program and the Census of Marine Life, was conducted at five stations from the northern Sargasso Sea to the equatorial waters northeast of Brazil. Environmental data and zooplankton samples were collected using three Multiple Opening/Closing Nets and Environmental Sensing Systems (MOCNESS): a 10-m opening/closing trawl with 335-um mesh nets sampled from 5000 to 1000 m and two smaller MOCNESS with similar or smaller mesh sampled the upper 1000 m. Ring net and water bottle casts, and blue-water SCUBA diving were also carried out. Samples were analyzed at sea using traditional morphological taxonomic approaches by a team of experts, followed by molecular systematic analysis, including determination of a DNA barcode (i.e., short DNA sequence for species recognition) for each species. Over 500 species were identified onboard ship; more than 1000 specimens were placed in a queue for barcoding; 87 species were barcoded at sea. For several taxonomic groups, a significant fraction of the region's species were collected and identified. Sixty-five species of planktonic ostracods were identified at sea out of the 140 known for the North Atlantic Ocean, with at least six undescribed species collected and the first DNA barcode for a planktonic ostracod obtained. At-sea analysis of samples also yielded identified specimens for more than 40 species of molluscs (pteropods, heteropods, etc.), more than 100 species of jellyfish, several hundred species of copepods, and more than 100 species of fish. In all, taxonomists estimated that at least 12 - 15 new species will be described from this effort. The special deployment of trawls to sample large volumes at great depths for small zooplankton yielded preliminary confirmation that species

  9. Marine pollution from land-based sources: current problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowska, B.

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate legal measures for the prevention and abatement of land-based pollution have only recently been undertaken despite its significant share (approximately 80 percent) in marine pollution. This article surveys solutions contained in regional conventions concluded in that field, and also indicates rules and principles to serve as the basis for states cooperation. Special attention has been given to problems which still give rise to controversies: pollution of the sea through international watercourses, control systems consisting of environmental impact assessment, and the obligation of prior notification and consultation, as well as state responsibility for marine pollution damage. The analysis carried out in this article supports the final conclusion that it would be desirable to consider developing guidelines for the drafting of treaties on the protection of the marine environment against pollution from land-based sources. 43 references.

  10. Mutagen content and metabolic activation of promutagens by molluscs as biomarkers of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    López-Barea, J; Pueyo, C

    1998-03-13

    Organisms combat pollutants by inducing biotransformation pathways, which can be used for biomonitoring. Several parameters--biomarkers--change in stressed organisms or populations at different organisation levels. Molecular or cellular biomarkers are early-warning indicators of pollution. Xenobiotics are first biotransformed by phase I enzymes and then conjugated with endogenous metabolites by phase II enzymes. Many organic xenobiotics are initially biotransformed by cytochrome P4501A1; in mammals, it is induced by pollutants via Ah receptor, although in marine invertebrates, its inducibility is much more equivocal. Metallothioneins are small Cys-rich proteins which bind transition metals; they detoxicate pollutant metals and are clearly induced in metal-exposed marine invertebrates. Some pollutants are genotoxins or can be converted into them. Determination of mutagens in bivalve molluscs following extraction with solvents and assay of mutagenicity with bacterial tests is a useful biomarker for marine pollution. While some pollutants are directly mutagenic, others are only mutagenic after they are activated to mutagenic derivatives by monooxygenases or conjugative enzymes. Many of these catalysts are induced by xenobiotics; thus, increased activation of known promutagens can be used as biomarker of environmental pollution. Bioactivation of promutagens requires the simultaneous action of different pathways, thus, reproducing more closely the in vivo situation than the specific assay of individual biotransforming enzymes. Study of molluscs with different pollution levels indicates that polluted animals have higher capacity to activate 2-aminoanthracene and contain more apolar mutagens than those from reference areas.

  11. National marine pollution program: summary of federal programs and projects: FY 1986 update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The report is published annually by NOPPO to provide information on Federal marine pollution programs. It contains a discussion of agency missions and mandates, Federal personnel and facilities, program descriptions, and a listing of all Federal ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring projects including project descriptions and fiscal year funding levels.

  12. Marine biodegradation: Chemical pollutants. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological degradation of marine pollutants. The citations explore the microbial breakdown of petroleum, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and other hazardous materials. The chemical details of biotransformation, and the development of microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants are presented. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Changes in the marine pollution management system in response to the Amorgos oil spill in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiau, Wen-Yen

    2005-01-01

    The Marine Pollution Control Act (MPCA) of Taiwan was promulgated on November 1, 2000, with the specific aim of controlling marine pollution, safeguarding public health, and promoting the sustainable use of marine resources. In addition to land-based pollution, oil spills are one of the most significant threats to the local marine environment largely on account of the some 30,000 tankers which pass through Taiwan's coastal waters each year. In January 2001, two months after the enactment of this newly-introduced law, a Greek merchant vessel, the Amorgos ran aground in the vicinity of a national park on the southern tip of Taiwan, causing a serious oil spill and leading to considerable changes with regard to the marine pollution management system. The incident brought to the forefront many serious problems, such as a lack of experience, expertise as well as equipment required to respond to such disasters, as well as the ambiguous, unclear jurisdiction among related agencies. Thus, this paper reviews the incident of the Amorgos spill, identifies the major issues and lessons learned, and proposes several recommendations in an effort for Taiwan to further improve its marine pollution management system.

  14. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans.

  15. National Marine Pollution Program: Summary of Federal Programs and Projects FY 1987 update. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This Summary of Federal Programs and Projects presents descriptions of 542 projects in 47 programs funded by the 11 Federal departments and independent agencies involved in the National Marine Pollution Program. The update reviews the marine-pollution programs undertaken by each of these departments and agencies by describing program goals, objectives, recent accomplishments, future milestones, funding for Fiscal Years 1986 through 1989, and legislative mandates. In addition, the update includes information on Federal personnel, facilities, vessels, and other equipment currently assigned to ocean pollution programs. Projects included are limited to efforts that focus primarily on pollution problems in the oceans and Great Lakes. Projects that exclusively address inland pollution are excluded, as are industrial, regulatory, and management activities such as development of waste-treatment methods or assessment of fisheries stocks. The FY 1987 update of the Summary presents information on projects and programs that were funded or underway during FY 1987.

  16. A preliminary spatial assessment of risk: Marine birds and chronic oil pollution on Canada's Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Fox, C H; O'Hara, P D; Bertazzon, S; Morgan, K; Underwood, F E; Paquet, P C

    2016-12-15

    Chronic oil pollution poses substantial risks to marine birds and other marine wildlife worldwide. On Canada's Pacific coast, the negative ecological consequences to marine birds and marine ecosystems in general remain poorly understood. Using information relating to oil spill probability of occurrence, areas of overall importance to marine birds, and the at-sea distribution and density of 12 marine bird species and seven bird groups, including multiple Species at Risk, we undertook a spatial assessment of risk. Our results identify two main areas important to marine birds potentially at higher risk of exposure to oil. For individual bird species or species groups, those predicted to have elevated bird densities near the mainland and the northeast coast of Vancouver Island were identified as being at higher potential risk of exposure. Our results, however, should be considered preliminary. As with other anthropogenic stressors, in order to better understand and subsequently mitigate the consequences of chronic oil pollution on marine birds, improved information relating to marine birds and the occurrence of oil spills on Canada's Pacific coast is needed.

  17. Interactive effects of global climate change and pollution on marine microbes: the way ahead

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Santos, Ana L; Coimbra, Joana; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Cleary, Daniel F R; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change has the potential to seriously and adversely affect marine ecosystem functioning. Numerous experimental and modeling studies have demonstrated how predicted ocean acidification and increased ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can affect marine microbes. However, researchers have largely ignored interactions between ocean acidification, increased UVR and anthropogenic pollutants in marine environments. Such interactions can alter chemical speciation and the bioavailability of several organic and inorganic pollutants with potentially deleterious effects, such as modifying microbial-mediated detoxification processes. Microbes mediate major biogeochemical cycles, providing fundamental ecosystems services such as environmental detoxification and recovery. It is, therefore, important that we understand how predicted changes to oceanic pH, UVR, and temperature will affect microbial pollutant detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. The intrinsic characteristics of microbes, such as their short generation time, small size, and functional role in biogeochemical cycles combined with recent advances in molecular techniques (e.g., metagenomics and metatranscriptomics) make microbes excellent models to evaluate the consequences of various climate change scenarios on detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. In this review, we highlight the importance of microbial microcosm experiments, coupled with high-resolution molecular biology techniques, to provide a critical experimental framework to start understanding how climate change, anthropogenic pollution, and microbiological interactions may affect marine ecosystems in the future. PMID:23789087

  18. Interactive effects of global climate change and pollution on marine microbes: the way ahead.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Santos, Ana L; Coimbra, Joana; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Cleary, Daniel F R; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-06-01

    Global climate change has the potential to seriously and adversely affect marine ecosystem functioning. Numerous experimental and modeling studies have demonstrated how predicted ocean acidification and increased ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can affect marine microbes. However, researchers have largely ignored interactions between ocean acidification, increased UVR and anthropogenic pollutants in marine environments. Such interactions can alter chemical speciation and the bioavailability of several organic and inorganic pollutants with potentially deleterious effects, such as modifying microbial-mediated detoxification processes. Microbes mediate major biogeochemical cycles, providing fundamental ecosystems services such as environmental detoxification and recovery. It is, therefore, important that we understand how predicted changes to oceanic pH, UVR, and temperature will affect microbial pollutant detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. The intrinsic characteristics of microbes, such as their short generation time, small size, and functional role in biogeochemical cycles combined with recent advances in molecular techniques (e.g., metagenomics and metatranscriptomics) make microbes excellent models to evaluate the consequences of various climate change scenarios on detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. In this review, we highlight the importance of microbial microcosm experiments, coupled with high-resolution molecular biology techniques, to provide a critical experimental framework to start understanding how climate change, anthropogenic pollution, and microbiological interactions may affect marine ecosystems in the future.

  19. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence.

  20. Benthic foraminifera from polluted marine environment of Sulaibikhat Bay (Kuwait).

    PubMed

    Al-Zamel, A Z; Al-Sarawi, M A; Khader, S R; Al-Rifaiy, I A

    2009-02-01

    Quantitative analyses of recent benthic foraminiferal assemblages (living and dead) were carried out on the surface sediments of Sulaibikhat Bay. Marked contrast in foraminiferal assemblages between the shallow tidal mudflats and the deep tidal channel and their relation to the extent of pollution were observed. Cluster analysis of quantitative data on the distribution of foraminiferal tests revealed three assemblages that depend mainly on the intensity of pollution; (1) a highly polluted tidal flat assemblage, (2) normal (or less polluted) mud flat assemblage and, (3) tidal channel and subtidal assemblage. The highly polluted assemblage characterized by a drop in species densities (< 100 tests/20 cm(3) sediment) but with high average diversity (5.8 Yule-Simpson Index). The microfauna of the less polluted flat displays relatively lower diversity (4.6) but high density of tests (47.2% of the total picked tests). The most abundant species of this assemblage is Ammonia tepida, displays its maximum density in this assemblage. Ammonia tepida drops in density from 17.12% to 3.07% in the polluted assemblage. Tidal channel foraminiferal assemblages should normally display lower diversities than those of tidal flats, because tidal current in the channels tend to wash away most nutrient materials. However, this is not the case of the present study area which could be due to environmental setting of the Sulaibikhat Bay in which tidal currents bring in exceptionally high amounts of nutrients from Shatt Al-Arab Estuary and in which the tidal flats are strongly and adversely polluted.

  1. Ozone, cloud, solar and UV-B levels at a low pollution, Southern Hemisphere, sub-tropical site for winter/spring 1995.

    PubMed

    Sabburg, J; Parisi, A; Wong, J

    1997-12-01

    This paper analyses daily ozone, cloud cover, solar radiation and broadband UV-B data for winter/spring at a low pollution Southern Hemispheric sub-tropical site (27.80 degrees S). The average ozone concentration for the period was 290 DU. An anti-correlation is presented between the ozone and UV-B data over a 5 day period during winter. An ozone deficiency of 45 DU was calculated for the cloud free day on the 16th July, 1995, in which the UV-B level exceeded the clear sky envelope by about 6%. Part of this increase may be attributed to a decrease in cloud cover. In winter, the July average of the daily integrated UV-B irradiance was 29.0 kJ/m2, (a level which is comparable to that observed in Japan during the summer months).

  2. Biosensors for marine pollution research, monitoring and control.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Silke; Piletsky, Sergey; Turner, Anthony P F

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of ecological, climatic and anthropogenic changes underpins the formulation of effective management strategies for sustainable use and protection of the marine environment. Sensors are traditionally used in marine studies to determine physical parameters, but there is increasing demand for real-time information about chemical and biological parameters. These parameters are currently measured in samples collected at sea and subsequently analysed in the laboratory. Biosensors fuse the exquisite sensitivity and specificity of living systems with the processing power of microelectronics to deliver simple, inexpensive measurement systems for use in the field or deployment in situ. While their potential for use in the marine environment is enormous, much published work to date has focussed on applications in freshwater and wastewater. Marine applications pose a substantial challenge in the robustness required for remote application, but recent developments in portable medical devices and receptor design suggest that these demands can now be realistically tackled.

  3. Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Czyz, A.; Jasiecki, J.; Bogdan, A.; Szpilewska, H.; Wegrzyn, G.

    2000-02-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, the authors consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

  4. Bioindicators of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Bioindicators of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Application of different enzyme assays and biomarkers for pollution monitoring of the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Seitkalieva, Alexandra V; Menzorova, Natalie I; Rasskazov, Valerу A

    2016-01-01

    New phosphatase and DNase inhibition tests for assessing the total pollution of a natural marine ecosystem were applied. The seawater samples with different pollution degrees were collected in the Troitsa Bay of the Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan). The sensitivity of the alkaline phosphatase test to integrated pollution was in accordance with the sensitivity of the standard sea urchin sperm cell toxicity test. The increased seawater pollution level was shown to result in an up to fourfold increase in specific activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. It was demonstrated that a complex methodological approach can be used to assess marine water areas, as well as to assess the biological conditions of invertebrates adapting to different environmental and anthropogenic effects.

  7. Oxidative metabolism of chemical pollutants in marine organisms: molecular and biochemical biomarkers in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Maura; Giuliani, Maria Elisa; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress biomarkers are widely used in marine ecotoxicology. Environmental pollutants enhance intracellular formation of oxyradicals through several mechanisms, but complex oxidative interactions occur in response to chemical mixtures. Metabolism of individual classes of pollutants can be influenced by a sophisticated network of prooxidant relationships, reciprocal and cascade effects, changes of redox-sensitive signaling proteins, and transcription factors. Chemically mediated pathways can affect antioxidant responses at different levels, including pretranscriptional, transcriptional, protein, and catalytic functions; such mechanisms remain largely unexplored in marine organisms. Molecular responses of antioxidants are frequently not paralleled by expected biochemical changes or cellular effects, and caution is needed when interpreting the effects of environmental pollutants. Results on antioxidant variations can be influenced by mRNA stability and protein turnover, different timing for transcriptional and translational mechanisms, metabolic capability of tissues, posttranscriptional modifications of proteins, biphasic responses of antioxidant enzymes, and adaptation mechanisms to chronic pollution.

  8. Terrestrial and oceanic influence on spatial hydrochemistry and trophic status in subtropical marine near-shore waters.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ojeda, Sara M; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Montero, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial and oceanic influences like groundwater discharges and/or oceanic upwelling define the hydrochemical and biological characteristics of near-shore regions. In karst environments, such as the Yucatan Peninsula (SE Mexico), the balance between these two influences on spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood. This study focused on near-shore waters within 200 m offshore along the Yucatan coast. The trophic status and hydrochemical zones of the study area were determined as a function of physical and nutrient data collected from 2005 to 2006. The main terrestrial influence was groundwater discharge, while the most important marine influence was related to seasonal changes in water turbulence. Spatial differences (p < 0.05) were observed among salinity, light extinction coefficient (k), NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), and Chl-a. Seasonal differences were observed for all variables except for k. During the dry season, terrestrial influences are the dominant factor on near-shore hydrochemistry. The region around Dzilam exhibited the maximum influence of groundwater discharge estimated by salinity dissolution (δ). During the rainy and "nortes" seasons, there is a balance between oceanic and terrestrial influences. The trophic status measured using the TRIX index, indicated that near-shore waters were mainly oligo-mesotrophic; with a meso-eutrophic status in areas with documented anthropogenic impacts. Four hydrological zones were identified by a Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) using salinity, NO(2)(-), k and NH(4)(+) as the main discriminating variables. Zones I and II showed almost pristine conditions, with well-balanced terrestrial-oceanic influences. In Zone III, terrestrial influences such as groundwater discharges and inland pollution suggesting human impacts were dominant respect to the effects of oceanic influences like upwelling and sediment resuspension caused by winds and oceanic currents. Zone IV received enhanced groundwater and associated nutrients

  9. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 117 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 154 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 163 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. National marine pollution program: Summary of federal programs and projects, FY 1988 update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (NOPPA; P.L. 95-273) requires NOAA to develop a detailed description of Federal research, development, and monitoring efforts related to ocean pollution. The Summary of Federal Programs and Projects is prepared each year in partial fulfillment of this requirement. The Summary presents descriptions of 474 projects in 44 programs funded by the 11 Federal departments and independent agencies involved in the National Marine Pollution Program. Figure 1 displays the agencies involved and their responsibilities. The update reviews the marine pollution programs undertaken by each of these departments and agencies by describing program goals, objectives, recent accomplishments, future milestones, funding for Fiscal Years 1987 through 1990, and legislative mandates. In addition, the update includes information on Federal personnel, facilities, vessels and other equipment currently assigned to ocean pollution programs. Projects included are limited to efforts that focus primarily on pollution problems in the oceans and Great Lakes. Projects that exclusively address inland pollution are excluded, as are industrial, regulatory, and management activities such as development of waste treatment methods or assessment of fisheries stocks. The FY 1988 update of the Summary presents information on projects and programs that were funded or underway during FY 1988.

  15. Greek Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environmental Behavior toward Marine Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boubonari, Theodora; Markos, Angelos; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…

  16. Global marine pollution bibliography: Ocean dumping of municipal and industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Champ, M.A.; Park, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography contains papers from the following categories: marine pollution/ocean dumping, municipal wastes, industrial wastes, legislation/regulations, international conventions, ocean dumping criteria/site selection studies, waste management strategies, biological processes, chemical processes, geological processes, physical processes, engineering studies, and dumping by countries and by regions.

  17. Marine-Derived Biocatalysts: Importance, Accessing, and Application in Aromatic Pollutant Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaivits, Efstratios; Dimarogona, Maria; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to highlight the potential use of marine biocatalysts (whole cells or enzymes) as an alternative bioprocess for the degradation of aromatic pollutants. Firstly, information about the characteristics of the still underexplored marine environment and the available scientific tools used to access novel marine-derived biocatalysts is provided. Marine-derived enzymes, such as dioxygenases and dehalogenases, and the involved catalytic mechanisms for the degradation of aromatic and halogenated compounds, are presented, with the purpose of underpinning their potential use in bioremediation. Emphasis is given on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that are organic compounds with significant impact on health and environment due to their resistance in degradation. POPs bioaccumulate mainly in the fatty tissue of living organisms, therefore current efforts are mostly focused on the restriction of their use and production, since their removal is still unclear. A brief description of the guidelines and criteria that render a pollutant POP is given, as well as their potential biodegradation by marine microorganisms by surveying recent developments in this rather unexplored field. PMID:28265269

  18. Marine-Derived Biocatalysts: Importance, Accessing, and Application in Aromatic Pollutant Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Nikolaivits, Efstratios; Dimarogona, Maria; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to highlight the potential use of marine biocatalysts (whole cells or enzymes) as an alternative bioprocess for the degradation of aromatic pollutants. Firstly, information about the characteristics of the still underexplored marine environment and the available scientific tools used to access novel marine-derived biocatalysts is provided. Marine-derived enzymes, such as dioxygenases and dehalogenases, and the involved catalytic mechanisms for the degradation of aromatic and halogenated compounds, are presented, with the purpose of underpinning their potential use in bioremediation. Emphasis is given on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that are organic compounds with significant impact on health and environment due to their resistance in degradation. POPs bioaccumulate mainly in the fatty tissue of living organisms, therefore current efforts are mostly focused on the restriction of their use and production, since their removal is still unclear. A brief description of the guidelines and criteria that render a pollutant POP is given, as well as their potential biodegradation by marine microorganisms by surveying recent developments in this rather unexplored field.

  19. DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Checko, M.; Krca, S.; Garg, A.; Gupta, R.C. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX )

    1988-09-01

    {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of mussel living at a site heavily polluted with a waste waters of an oil refinery. Fresh water fish species Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama and Rutilus pigus virgo living in a polluted Sava River, Yugoslavia, or in its unpolluted tributary Korana River, have induced in their livers qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar DNA adducts. These DNA adducts had a species-specific patterns and their appearance was seasonally-dependent.

  20. Aspects of the usefulness of five marine pollution biomarkers, with emphasis on MN and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Koukouzika, N; Dimitriadis, V K

    2008-05-01

    By using cellular biomarkers, such as the formation of the micronucleus, the morphometric alterations of lipids and the morphometric changes in the lysosomal system, we investigated effects of experimental exposure to phenanthrene, Cu, Cd, and Hg for 15 days in mussels. Concerning micronuclei, the evaluation of the total nuclear abnormalities, instead of the micronucleus only, as a biomarker of marine pollution, indicated more statistically significant differences between the control and the pollutant treated groups. Contrary to the existing knowledge showing that there is an increase in lipid content after pollutant exposure, our results showed that there was a decrease in the amount of lipid, as well as an increase in the number of neutral lipids. Furthermore, although prior studies found that fewer lysosomes formed after pollutant exposure, this was not confirmed by our work, as pollutant treated animals exhibited a decrease in the volume and an increase in the numerical density of lysosomes, compared to control groups.

  1. Marine environment pollution: The contribution of mass spectrometry to the study of seawater.

    PubMed

    Magi, Emanuele; Di Carro, Marina

    2016-09-09

    The study of marine pollution has been traditionally addressed to persistent chemicals, generally known as priority pollutants; a current trend in environmental analysis is a shift toward "emerging pollutants," defined as newly identified or previously unrecognized contaminants. The present review is focused on the peculiar contribution of mass spectrometry (MS) to the study of pollutants in the seawater compartment. The work is organized in five paragraphs where the most relevant groups of pollutants, both "classical" and "emerging," are presented and discussed, highlighting the relative data obtained by the means of different MS techniques. The hyphenation of MS and separative techniques, together with the development of different ion sources, makes MS and tandem MS the analytical tool of choice for the determination of trace organic contaminants in seawater. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev.

  2. Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean.

    PubMed

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Geyer, Roland; Wilcox, Chris; Siegler, Theodore R; Perryman, Miriam; Andrady, Anthony; Narayan, Ramani; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-02-13

    Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025.

  3. Light-stick: A problem of marine pollution in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cesar-Ribeiro, Caio; Rosa, Helena Costi; Rocha, Daniele Oliveira; Dos Reis, Camila Galli Baldini; Prado, Tabata Sarti; Muniz, Daniela Hernandes Coimbra; Carrasco, Raquel; Silva, Flávia Milão; Martinelli-Filho, José Eduardo; Palanch-Hans, Maria Fernanda

    2017-04-15

    Light-sticks are used as bait in surface long-line fishing, to capture swordfish and other large pelagic predators. When discharged in the ocean, it may reach the beaches. The traditional Brazilian community of Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia, use light-sticks as a medicine for rheumatism, vitiligo and mycoses. It may affect the marine life when its content leak in the open ocean. This work evaluated and identified the acute and chronic toxicity of the light-stick. A high acute toxicity was observed in the mobility/mortality of Artemia sp.; in the fertilization of sea urchin eggs, and a high chronic toxicity in the development of the pluteus larvae of the same sea urchin. The main compounds that probably caused toxicity were the volatiles such as the fluorescent PAH and oxidants such as the hydrogen peroxide. Its disposal in the open ocean is a potential threat for marine life.

  4. Cytology of pollutant metals in marine invertebrates: A review of microanalytical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nott, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    x-ray microanalysis (XRMA) is customized for investigations of the metabolic and detoxification strategies of heavy metals taken by marine organisms from polluted environments. Sites of uptake, intracellular accumulation, transport and excretion are visualized, analysed and quantified. Cryopreparation techniques are required to prevent the translocation or loss from specimens of soluble metal species. In marine invertebrates, metals are detoxified by systems of chemical binding and intracellular compartmentalization. XRMA investigations have concentrated on marine molluscs and crustaceans and even within these restricted groups there are marked inter-species differences in the biochemical and cytological processes which reduce metal bioavailability. Some detoxification systems also protect the carnivores which ingest the metal-laden tissues of the prey. This results in the bioreduction of metals along a food chain. These processes are investigated by XRMA which can be tuned to observe the complex interactions which operate at all levels within and between the biota and polluted environments. 90 refs.

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction of polyhalogenated pollutants from aquaculture and marine environmental samples: a review.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Diego; Carro-Díaz, Antonia María; Lorenzo-Ferreira, Rosa Antonia

    2008-05-01

    This article focuses on the state-of-the-art in sample preparation using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), to monitor the content of polyhalogenated pollutants in aquaculture and marine environmental samples. Marine sediments and biological applications, including several types of samples matrices (fish, shellfish, seaweed and fish feed) and analyte groups (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD)/Fs and organochlorinated pesticide (OCPs)) are discussed with respect to SFE use and optimisation of conditions. We also discuss the great analytical potential of SFE, the integration of the extraction and clean-up steps for rapid sample processing justifying its use for routine work. The most recent SFE applications to the determination of these pollutants in marine environmental (biota and sediment) samples, published in the last 15 years, are reviewed.

  6. [open quote]Appropriate[close quote] technologies for marine pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, A.J. )

    1993-10-01

    In developing an appropriate technology, or deciding if an existing one is appropriate, producers and users of marine pollution control technology must first agree on the definition of pollution. To many marine ecologists, pollution is not just an excess of material, but rather a damaging excess. Removing all visible oil off a shoreline, while commendable and aesthetically comforting, may result in injury to the surviving resources we were trying to protect; however, to those who question the ability of science to protect them or their resources, then the word pollution may indeed mean any excess. Technology producers and technology users need to understand whether they are solving a real problem or, simply preventing an excess input. Each of these levels has its own societal and economic costs and is accompanied by its own set of collateral impacts that must be accommodated elsewhere on land, sea or air. Shoreline cleaning, bioremediation, waste water treatment and environmental monitoring and assessment are examined in terms of their appropriateness for marine pollution control and recommendations are given.

  7. Spatial variability of three benthic indices for marine quality assessment in a subtropical estuary of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brauko, Kalina Manabe; de Souza, Fernanda Maria; Muniz, Pablo; de Camargo, Maurício Garcia; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2015-02-28

    Indices based on macrobenthic responses to disturbance remain to be adequately tested for the detection of spatial variability by robust sampling designs. We present herein a congruence test to real-world data of the widely used indices AMBI, M-AMBI and BENTIX in tidal flats of a subtropical estuary. We used a hierarchical sampling design to evaluate the spatial variability of the indices in response to distinct levels of sewage contamination. Indices were then tested for correlations with chemical proxies of contamination and for the similarity of responses. BENTIX and M-AMBI produced over- and underestimations of ecological status. We found a low degree of similarity among indices as an expression of the spatial variation of macrofaunal assemblages on their performances. Only AMBI varied at the contamination scale (10(3)m) and was congruent with physical-chemical proxies. Ambiguous responses indicated effects of natural inputs of organic matter rather than environmental quality associated to sewage.

  8. The role of social marketing, marine turtles and sustainable tourism in reducing plastic pollution.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Lynne; Hamann, Mark; Low, David R

    2016-06-15

    Environmental plastic pollution constitutes a significant hazard to marine turtles, human health and well-being. We describe a transdisciplinary approach to draw together findings from diverse disciplines in order to highlight key environmental pollution problems and their consequences, together with social marketing-based strategies to address the problems. The example of plastic pollution and impacts to marine turtles illustrates the severity of the problem. Wildlife tourism and sustainable tourism activity have not focussed on specific behaviours to change and have had minimal impact on subsequent human behaviour regarding environmental issues, indicating the need for new strategies. Social marketing principles offer promise, but there is a need to investigate the utility of various theoretical foundations to aid the design and implementation of interventions. We offer insight towards using sophisticated multi-method research to develop insights into behaviours and segmentation-based strategies, that can aid the identification of barriers to, and enablers of, sustained behaviour change.

  9. Turritella attenuata (Kasinathan): as biological indicator of marine pollution--a trace metal analytical study.

    PubMed

    Paul, V I; Radhakrishnan, M V; Hemalatha, S

    1999-11-01

    A study to monitor marine pollution with reference to trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) on T. attenuata, commonly called as screw shell over a period of one year on the whole body and various organs, viz. digestive diverticula, foot, mantle and ovary was conducted from the sandy beach of Porto Novo Coast (Lat 11 degrees 29' N Long: 79 degrees 46' E) of Peninsular India using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Higher concentration of all the four trace metals analysed were recorded in the digestive diverticula, whereas lower concentration of zinc and manganese were recorded in the ovary during the monsoon period. The higher level of trace metal concentration in the monsoon period may be due to the presence of these pollutants in large amounts in water. The accumulation of selected trace metals varies in different seasons according to the extent of pollution load in the marine environment.

  10. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development, and monitoring activities: West Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    Knowledge of current marine pollution research and monitoring programs is an important factor in planning and guiding future national efforts to control such pollution. To supplement these reports on Federal activities, NMPPO published a series of reports in 1980 on non-federally funded marine pollution research and monitoring activities in various regions. The following document presents an update of one of these reports. It presents an inventory of the non-federally funded research and monitoring projects for the West Coast region of the United States. It is one in a series of four updates that will collectively provide an updated inventory of non-federally funded projects for all the coastal regions of the United States.

  11. Beyond the Mussel Watch--new directions for monitoring marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, E D; Bertine, K K

    2000-03-20

    The increasing numbers and types of potential pollutants in the world oceans calls for novel strategies for their assays. The 'Mussel Watch' well served the latter decades of the 20th century. For the immediate future, individual assays of the chemicals of concern should be replaced by the analyses of groups of pollutants which have a common impact upon marine organisms. Secondly, more attention should be focussed upon the benthos where many potential pollutants continue to accumulate. Impacts upon members of the marine biosphere may be recognized by population changes of individual species. Lastly, time frame monitoring studies should be initiated, so that long-term trends in the health of a system can be detected.

  12. Epilithic and endolithic microorganisms and deterioration on stone church facades subject to urban pollution in a sub-tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Gaylarde, Christine; Baptista-Neto, Jose Antônio; Ogawa, Akiko; Kowalski, Matthew; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Beech, Iwona

    2017-02-01

    Weathering of two church facades in Rio de Janeiro was caused substantially by salts, mainly halite and gypsum, detected by SEM and chemical analyses, which cause physical stresses by deposition within the rock. Biofilm populations, determined by SEM and as operational taxonomic units (OTUs), degraded stone by penetration, solubilization and redeposition of minerals on their surfaces. Endolithic cyanobacteria were associated with gypsum deposits. Microbiomes were typical for high-stress environments, high salt, intense insolation, low water and low nutrients (eg halophilic Rubrobacter, Salinicola, Sterigmatomyces). The main colonizers on the church most affected by traffic (Nossa Senhora da Candelária - CA) were Actinobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria (chiefly Pseudomonas) were predominant on the site situated in a leafy square (São Francisco de Paula - SF). Major Gammaproteobacteria on CA were halophilic Halomonas and Rhodobacteriaceae. Fungal OTUs on both churches were principally dimorphic, yeast-like basidiomycetes. Many OTUs of thermophilic microorganisms (eg the Thermomicrobia class, Chloroflexi) were present. This is the first use of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study microbial biofilm interactions with metamorphic and granite buildings in an intensely urban, sub-tropical climate.

  13. Marine mammals as global pollution indicators for organochlorines.

    PubMed

    Mössner, S; Ballschmiter, K

    1997-01-01

    Blubber tissues of the following marine mammals differing in their geographic distribution (North Atlantic, North Pacific, Bering Sea/Arctic Ocean), trophic level, and feeding habits were analyzed for their organochlorine contents: two seal species (harbor seals--Phoca vitulina, northern fur seals--Callorhinus ursinus), three toothed whale species (belukha whales--Delphinapterus leucas, one common dolphin--Delphinus delphis, one pilot whale--Globicephala melaena), and one baleen whale species (a bowhead whale--Balaena mysticetus). As xenobiotics were quantified the seven indicator congeners of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180), three isomers of the hexachlorocyclohexanes (alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH) as well as six components of the DDT-group (4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 2,4'-DDD, and 2,4'-DDE). When comparing the xenobiotic levels of these marine mammals, it showed that the animals from the western North Atlantic were contaminated about 15 times more with organochlorines than the animals from the eastern North Pacific and the Bering Sea/Arctic Ocean. The total organochlorine burden, the 4,4'-DDE-percentage as well as the metabolic PCB patterns correlate with the trophic levels of the marine mammals studied. The quantitative analyses were done by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (HRGC/ECD) whereas the analyses of the metabolic PCB patterns were done by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and mass selective detection (HRGC/MSD).

  14. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    PubMed

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-02-18

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source.

  15. Peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in fig leaves in response to ambient air pollution in a subtropical city.

    PubMed

    Li, M H

    2003-08-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious problem in both developing and developed countries, and antioxidant enzyme activities in plants have been suggested as a useful bioindicator of air pollution. In this study, the seasonal and spatial variability of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured in leaves of Ficus microcarpa at eight sampling sites in the Taipei metropolitan area and one background site in rural area at each month for a year. The spatial pattern of peroxidase activity in figs collected from the Taipei metropolitan area was similar to the spatial pattern of O3 concentration in the Taipei metropolitan area. The peroxidase activities of Ficus microcarpa were significantly higher at sampling sites from the outer zone of the metropolitan area than those from the inner zone of the metropolitan area in spring and summer. On the other hand, the spatial pattern of superoxide dismutase activity in fig leaves did not show significant differences between the inner and outer zones of the Taipei metropolitan area. In addition, peroxidase activities, but not superoxide dismutase activities, of Ficus microcarpa were significantly higher in sites with high traffic density than those in low traffic density sites. Even though peroxidase activities in Ficus microcarpa tended to be higher in high traffic density sites or some sites with high ozone concentration, site-specific changes of peroxidase activity in Ficus microcarpa due to O3 pollution were not clearly observed in this study. Based on these results, neither peroxidase nor superoxide dismutase in Ficus microcarpa is a sensitive bioindicator for O3 pollution, although peroxidase shows some potential to be used as a general bioindicator of air quality.

  16. Global research priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vegter, Amanda C.; Barletta, Mário; Beck, Cathy A.; Borrero, Jose C.; Burton, Harry; Campbell, Marnie L.; Costa, Monica F.; Eriksen, Marcus; Eriksson, Cecilia; Estrades, Andres; Gilardi, Kirsten V.; Hardesty, Britta D.; do Sul, Juliana A. Ivar; Lavers, Jennifer L.; Lazar, Bojan; Lebreton, Laurent; Nichols, Wallace J.; Ribic, Christine A.; Ryan, Peter G.; Schuyler, Qamar A.; Smith, Stephen D. A.; Takada, Hideshige; Townsend, Kathy A.; Wabnitz, Colette C. C.; Wilcox, Chris; Young, Lindsay C.; Hamann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Marine wildlife faces a growing number of threats across the globe, and the survival of many species and populations will be dependent on conservation action. One threat in particular that has emerged over the last 4 decades is the pollution of oceanic and coastal habitats with plastic debris. The increased occurrence of plastics in marine ecosystems mirrors the increased prevalence of plastics in society, and reflects the high durability and persistence of plastics in the environment. In an effort to guide future research and assist mitigation approaches to marine conservation, we have generated a list of 16 priority research questions based on the expert opinions of 26 researchers from around the world, whose research expertise spans several disciplines, and covers each of the world’s oceans and the taxa most at risk from plastic pollution. This paper highlights a growing concern related to threats posed to marine wildlife from microplastics and fragmented debris, the need for data at scales relevant to management, and the urgent need to develop interdisciplinary research and management partnerships to limit the release of plastics into the environment and curb the future impacts of plastic pollution.

  17. Marine copepod cytochrome P450 genes and their applications for molecular ecotoxicological studies in response to oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-09-26

    Recently, accidental spills of heavy oil have caused adverse effects in marine organisms. Oil pollution can induce damages on development and reproduction, linking with detrimental effects on diverse molecular levels of genes and proteins in plankton and fish. However, most information was mainly focused on marine vertebrates and consequently, limited information was available in marine invertebrates. Furthermore, there is still a lack of knowledge bridging in vivo endpoints with the functional regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in response to oil spill pollution in marine invertebrates. In this paper, adverse effects of oil spill pollution in marine invertebrates are summarized with the importance of CYP genes as a potential biomarker, applying for environmental monitoring to detect oil spill using marine copepods.

  18. Pollution monitoring in Southeast Asia using biomarkers in the mytilid mussel Perna viridis (Mytilidae: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S; Lam, P K S

    2005-01-01

    Mytilid mussels have been extensively used in marine pollution monitoring programmes in temperate regions of the world although widespread subtropical representatives such as Perna viridis have only comparatively recently been utilised to monitor the sublethal effects of pollution in Southeast Asia. P. viridis is considered a subtropical equivalent of the temperate Mytilus sp. and has considerable potential for pollution monitoring throughout its geographical range. This paper reviews the current status of biomarkers in P. viridis and provides some recommendations on biological-effects monitoring to facilitate the assessment of coastal pollution in Southeast Asia.

  19. Tracking long-distance migration to assess marine pollution impact.

    PubMed

    Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory

    2012-04-23

    Animal tracking provides new means to assess far-reaching environmental impacts. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to assess) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the case in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns.

  20. Sequential determination of biological and pollutant elements in marine bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Zeisler, R.; Stone, S.F.; Sanders, R.W.

    1988-12-15

    A unique sequence of instrumental methods has been employed to obtain concentrations for 44 elements in marine bivalve tissue. The techniques used were (1) X-ray fluorescence, (2) prompt gamma activation analysis, and (3) neutron activation analysis. It is possible to use a single subsample and follow it nondestructively through the three instrumental analysis techniques. A final radiochemical procedure for tin was also applied after completing the instrumental analyses. Comparison of results for elements determined by more than one technique in sequence showed good agreement, as did results from certified reference material samples analyzed along with the samples. The concentrations found in the bivalve samples ranged from carbon at more than 50% dry weight down to gold at several microgram per kilogram.

  1. Levels of Viable Enterococci Fecal Indicator Bacteria at a Marine Subtropical Beach: Assessing Temporal and Spatial Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach water quality monitoring is an important tool to inform the public of health risks from recreational beach use, as well as to assess the impacts of land-based sources of pollution on coastal ecosystems. Many beach monitoring programs in the US currently utilize a strategy o...

  2. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development and monitoring activities: Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Region

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, S.S.; Margulies, D.; Zacherle, A.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report includes descriptions of projects which were partially funded by the Federal Government, although the Federal contributions are not considered in the funding analyses. This report only considers marine pollution research, development, and monitoring activities. ''Research'' projects include studies, investigations, and surveys to study the sources, behavior, and effects of pollutants and polluting activities as well as studies concerning natural oceanic processes if these studies are conducted to improve understanding concerning pollutants and polluting activities. ''Development'' projects include efforts to provide analytical methods, instrumentation, and equipment necessary for research and monitoring of marine pollution. ''Monitoring'' projects include time-series observations of marine environmental conditions to determine the existing levels, trends in time and space, and natural variations in parameters measured. Some projects fall into the category of ''compliance'' monitoring. ''Compliance'' monitoring is generally undertaken for a permitted or licensed resource development activity to assure that an unacceptable level of environmental change has not occurred.

  3. Pollutants bioavailability and toxicological risk from microplastics to marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Milan, Massimo; Benedetti, Maura; Fattorini, Daniele; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Microplastics represent a growing environmental concern for the oceans due to their potential of adsorbing chemical pollutants, thus representing a still unexplored source of exposure for aquatic organisms. In this study polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) microplastics were shown to adsorb pyrene with a time and dose-dependent relationship. Results also indicated a marked capability of contaminated microplastics to transfer this model PAH to exposed mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis; tissue localization of microplastics occurred in haemolymph, gills and especially digestive tissues where a marked accumulation of pyrene was also observed. Cellular effects included alterations of immunological responses, lysosomal compartment, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant system, neurotoxic effects, onset of genotoxicity; changes in gene expression profile was also demonstrated through a new DNA microarray platform. The study provided the evidence that microplastics adsorb PAHs, emphasizing an elevated bioavailability of these chemicals after the ingestion, and the toxicological implications due to responsiveness of several molecular and cellular pathways to microplastics.

  4. Stricter marine pollution standards accelerate move to zero discharge rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Thorson, J.A. )

    1991-12-30

    The trend toward solving pollution problems on site has accelerated the replacement and upgrading of rig equipment, specifically with the conversion of many mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) to zero discharge operations. This approach will increase as governments with jurisdiction over onshore disposal facilities grapple with the shrinking availability of land-based waste disposal facilities. Recent Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing U.S. outer continental shelf mandate compliance using the best available technology to deal with waste disposal. The determination of best is debatable and leaves the door open for requiring the continual replacement of equipment as technology improves. New regulations are being imposed so rapidly that technology is hard pressed to keep pace. This paper reports on the techniques for controlling discharges that cover two general areas: solids and liquids.

  5. Biomarkers of marine pollution observed in species of mullet living in two eastern Mediterranean harbours.

    PubMed

    F Telli Karakoc A Hewer D H Phillips A F Gaines And G Yuregir

    1997-01-01

    The activities of enzymes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and or oxidative processes, and the levels of aromatic DNA adducts, have been determined in the livers of grey mullet Oedalechilus labeo and Lisa ramada living in two eastern Mediterranean harbours. Glutathione peroxidase GSH P activity was 2.5 times higher 9 IU g-1 liver and glutathione reductase GSSG R activity was twice as high 2.5 IU g-1 liver in fish from the more polluted harbour at Mersin than in the harbour near Erdemli. Superoxide dismutase SOD activity was 25 lower 4.3 IU g-1 liver in the more polluted harbour. The concentrations of glutathione and malondialdehyde varied both with species and environment by a factor of 2.5-3. DNA adducts in liver were determined by 32P postlabelling. In Oedalechilus labeo in the more polluted harbour, adduct levels were 258 21 adducts per 108 nucleotides mean SE; two groups of Lisa ramada were distinguished having 261 48 and 30 6 adducts per 108 nucleotides, respectively. The average adduct level in a group of mullet of mixed species in the less polluted harbour was 3.3 2.3 adducts per 108 nucleotides. The results illuminate the ability of mullet to live in contaminated marine environments, and show that enzyme activities and liver DNA adduct levels can serve as indicators of marine pollution.

  6. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station incident and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Zhao, Yue

    2012-05-01

    Based on the facts relating to the radioactive wastewater discharged by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station in Japan, this paper intends to explore the international legal obligations for Japan from three perspectives, namely, the immediate notification, the prevention of transboundary harm and the prevention of dumping. Furthermore, this article defines and compares two types of international legal liabilities, the traditional state responsibility and the responsibility for transboundary harm. Through comparison, the international legal liability of Japan is discussed. After detailed analysis, the conclusion is that Japan should be responsible for the obligation of immediate notification and since Japan unilaterally discharge the wastes without prior specific permits of other contracting countries, it should also be responsible for the violation of prevention of dumping. Since so far, no material injury has emerged and there would appear to be no culpability as regards the prevention of transboundary harm. Finally, this paper stresses the necessity to develop a worldwide agreement concerning the liability for transboundary harm and to establish an institutional framework for the enforcement of a state's obligations, and also the great significance of international cooperation between nations and organisations in relation to marine environmental protection.

  7. Use of multiple functional traits of protozoa for bioassessment of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Guangjian; Xu, Henglong

    2017-03-27

    Ecological parameters based on multiply functional traits have many advantages for monitoring programs by reducing "signal to noise" ratios of observed species data. To identify potential indicators for bioassessment of marine pollution in function space, the functional patterns of protozoan communities and relationships with environmental changes were studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea during a 1-year period. The results showed that: (1) the spatial variability in functional trait distributions of the protozoa was significantly associated with changes in environmental variables, especially chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients on spatial scale; (2) the functional traits, especially food resources and feeding type, were significantly correlated with COD and nutrients; and (3) the functional diversity indices were generally related to nutrients or COD. Based on the results, we suggest that the functional traits and diversity indices of protozoan communities may be used as more effective indicators for bioassessment of marine pollution.

  8. Tracking the relative concentration between Bacteroidales DNA markers and culturable Escherichia coli in fecally polluted subtropical seawater: potential use in differentiating fresh and aged pollution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rulong; Yeung, Leo T C; Ho, Pui-Hei; Lau, Stanley C K

    2017-03-01

    Routine water quality monitoring practices based on the enumeration of culturable Escherichia coli provides no information about the source or age of fecal pollution. An emerging strategy is to use culturable E. coli and the DNA markers of Bacteroidales complementarily for microbial source tracking. In this study, we consistently observed in seawater microcosms of 3 different conditions that culturable E. coli decayed faster (T99 = 1.14 - 4.29 days) than Bacteroidales DNA markers did (T99 = 1.81 - 200.23 days). Concomitantly, the relative concentration between Bacteroidales DNA markers and culturable E. coli increased over time in all treatments. Particularly, the increase during the early stage of the experiments (before T99 of E. coli was reached) was faster than during the later stage (after T99 of E. coli was attained). We propose that the tracking of the relative concentration between Bacteroidales DNA markers and culturable E. coli provides an opportunity to differentiate a pollution that is relatively fresh from one that has aged. This method, upon further investigation and validation, could be useful in episodic pollution events where the surge of E. coli concentration causes noncompliance to the single sample maximum criterion that mandates high frequency follow-up monitoring.

  9. Enabling and Enacting `Practical Action' in Catchments: Responding to the `Wicked Problem' of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Coastal Subtropical Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, James J.; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Enabling and enacting `practical action' (i.e., purposeful and concerted collective action) in catchments is a key challenge in responding to a wide range of pressing catchment and natural resource management (NRM) issues. It is particularly a challenge in responding to `wicked problems,' where generating action is not straightforward and cannot be brought about solely by any single actor, policy or intervention. This paper responds to the critical need to better understand how practical action can be generated in catchments, by conducting an in-depth empirical case study of efforts to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. SEQ has seen substantial concerted efforts to manage waterway and catchment issues over two decades, yet NPS pollution remains a major problem for waterway health. A novel framework was applied to empirically analyze practical action in three local catchment cases embedded within the broader SEQ region. The analysis focuses on `enabling capacities' underpinning practical action in catchments. Findings reveal that capacities manifested in different ways in different cases, yet many commonalities also occurred across cases. Interplay between capacities was critical to the emergence of adaptive and contextual forms of practical action in all cases. These findings imply that in order to enable and enact practical action in catchments, it is vital to recognize and support a diversity of enabling capacities across both local and regional levels of decision making and action. This is likely to have relevance for other `wicked' catchment and NRM problems requiring local responses within broader multiscalar regional problem situations.

  10. Plastic pollution in the marine environment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adverse effects of synthetic polymers on oceans and beaches. The citations examine the impact of discarded plastics upon fish, seabirds, and other aquatic animals. The sources of plastic litter and the efforts of coastal communities to manage plastics pollution are referenced. International agreements designed to protect the marine environment by banning ocean dumping of plastics are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 145 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Depth and Medium-Scale Spatial Processes Influence Fish Assemblage Structure of Unconsolidated Habitats in a Subtropical Marine Park

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Arthur L.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; Bucher, Daniel J.; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region. PMID:24824998

  12. The present and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F

    2014-02-01

    Recently, research examining the occurrence of microplastics in the marine environment has substantially increased. Field and laboratory work regularly provide new evidence on the fate of microplastic debris. This debris has been observed within every marine habitat. In this study, at least 101 peer-reviewed papers investigating microplastic pollution were critically analysed (Supplementary material). Microplastics are commonly studied in relation to (1) plankton samples, (2) sandy and muddy sediments, (3) vertebrate and invertebrate ingestion, and (4) chemical pollutant interactions. All of the marine organism groups are at an eminent risk of interacting with microplastics according to the available literature. Dozens of works on other relevant issues (i.e., polymer decay at sea, new sampling and laboratory methods, emerging sources, externalities) were also analysed and discussed. This paper provides the first in-depth exploration of the effects of microplastics on the marine environment and biota. The number of scientific publications will increase in response to present and projected plastic uses and discard patterns. Therefore, new themes and important approaches for future work are proposed.

  13. A framework for the implementation of the comprehensive plan for the global investigation of pollution in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Prepared to provide guidance to the IOC and its Member States on implementing the IOC/GIPME program in general and on developing the Marine Pollution Monitoring System (MARPOLMON), this document outlines the components and essential features of the Comprehensive Plan for the Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment (GIPME), assesses the validity of the approach advocated in it, and offers a strategic framework for GIPME activities.

  14. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km(-2), and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km(-2). These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton.

  15. Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments (“microplastics”, median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km−2, and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km−2. These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton. PMID:24312224

  16. Bioremediation of oil polluted marine sediments: A bio-engineering treatment.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Simone; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Genovese, Maria; Denaro, Renata; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Mancini, Giuseppe; Yakimov, Michail M

    2015-06-01

    The fate of hydrocarbon pollutants and the development of oil-degrading indigenous marine bacteria in contaminated sediments are strongly influenced by abiotic factors such as temperature, low oxygen levels, and nutrient availability. In this work, the effects of different biodegradation processes (bioremediation) on oil-polluted anoxic sediments were analyzed. In particular, as a potential bioremediation strategy for polluted sediments, we applied a prototype of the "Modular Slurry System" (MSS), allowing containment of the sediments and their physical-chemical treatment (by air insufflations, temperature regulation, and the use of a slow-release fertilizer). Untreated polluted sediments served as the blank in a non-controlled experiment. During the experimental period (30 days), bacterial density and biochemical oxygen demand were measured and functional genes were identified by screening. Quantitative measurements of pollutants and an eco-toxicological analysis (mortality of Corophium orientale) were carried out at the beginning and end of the experiments. The results demonstrated the high biodegradative capability achieved with the proposed technology and its strong reduction of pollutant concentrations and thus toxicity.

  17. Marine molluscs in environmental monitoring. II. Experimental exposure to selected pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Mokady, Ofer; Fishelson, Lev; Feldstein, Tamar; Abelson, Avigdor

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to establish biomonitoring programmes for routine and emergency monitoring of littoral marine habitats, organismal responses are examined in two ways: firstly, in controlled, laboratory studies, where the response may be accurately characterized; secondly, in field-collected specimens, with the hope of obtaining evidence regarding disturbances such as the ones caused by anthropogenic pollution. In many cases, there is a gap between the two types of studies, and different species and experimental and/or analytical procedures are used. In a series of recent studies, we have examined responses of field-collected molluscs, and interpreted our findings with respect to pollution. Here, we report a complementary study, in which molluscs collected from reference and polluted sites were exposed to cadmium or DDT under controlled laboratory conditions. Using fluorescent probes and microfluorometry, we examined the effect of these pollutants on paracellular permeability, lysosomal stability and metabolic status of mitochondria. Our findings indicate that molluscs from polluted sites are less affected, showing significantly smaller alterations in all examined parameters. These findings are in line with previous results showing higher levels of activity of cellular defence mechanisms in molluscs collected from polluted sites. Taken together, the results may be used to establish a reliable biomonitoring system. The sensitivity of the suggested methodology is also expected to qualify such a system for early warning.

  18. Mutagenic activation of aromatic amines by molluscs as a biomarker of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Méndez, F M; Rodríguez-Ariza, A; Usero-García, J; Pueyo, C; López-Barea, J

    1998-01-01

    Mutagenic activation of arylamines by mollusc S9 fractions was evaluated as a biomarker for marine pollution. Two bivalve species were used as bioindicators, the common mussel (Mytilus edulis) and the striped venus (Chameleo gallina). A strain of Salmonella typhimurium overproducing O-acetyltransferase was used as indicator of mutagenicity. Mussels from an area of the North Atlantic Spanish zone that was exposed to an accidental crude oil spill were compared to bivalves from a reference area. C. gallina samples were from low polluted and highly polluted areas of the South Atlantic Spanish littoral. The promutagen 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) was activated to mutagenic derivative(s) by S9 fractions from both C. gallina and M. edulis. Animals from contaminated sites showed higher arylamine activation capabilities than reference animals. This was further correlated with the mutagenic activities of corresponding cyclopentone-dichloromethane animal extracts. 2-AA activation by mollusc S9 was potentiated by alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), known to inhibit PAH-inducible CYP1A cytochromes from vertebrates, but inhibited by methimazole (MZ), a substrate of the flavin monooxygenase (FMO) system. 2-AA-activating enzymes were mainly cytosolic; this localization clearly suggests that such activity could be attributed to soluble enzymes, different from the CYP1A or FMO systems. In conclusion, mutagenic activation of arylamines by mollusc S9, using as indicator a strain of Salmonella typhimurium that overproduces O-acetyltransferase, could be a reliable biomarker for marine pollution.

  19. Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    Although persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (PBTs) are well-studied individually, their distribution and variability on a global scale are largely unknown, particularly in marine fish. Using 2,662 measurements collected from peer-reviewed literature spanning 1969–2012, we examined variability of five classes of PBTs, considering effects of geography, habitat, and trophic level on observed concentrations. While we see large-scale spatial patterning in some PBTs (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls), habitat type and trophic level did not contribute to significant patterning, with the exception of mercury. We further examined patterns of change in PBT concentration as a function of sampling year. All PBTs showed significant declines in concentration levels through time, ranging from 15–30% reduction per decade across PBT groups. Despite consistent evidence of reductions, variation in pollutant concentration remains high, indicating ongoing consumer risk of exposure to fish with pollutant levels exceeding EPA screening values. The temporal trends indicate that mitigation programs are effective, but that global levels decline slowly. In order for monitoring efforts to provide more targeted assessments of risk to PBT exposure, these data highlight an urgent need for improved replication and standardization of pollutant monitoring protocols for marine finfish. PMID:26839747

  20. Assessment of automated access to existing federal marine pollution data and information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The objective of the Ocean Pollution Data and Information Network (OPDIN) under Section 8 of Public Law 95-273 is to improve the dissemination of information concerning Federal marine pollution-related projects. One means of improving dissemination is developing direct access and establishing a working knowledge with those systems that have automated data and information files. The Central Coordination and Referral Office (CCRO) maintains a description of the systems and services with pollution interests that are available from eleven Federal organizations. These systems and services range from completely automated, user-accessible systems of national interest, to non-automated services for retrieval of hard-copy materials and products of regional interest. This report focuses on the present CCRO access capabilities to those systems and identifies additional systems with potential access by the CCRO and its Network participants.

  1. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions.

  2. A hydrological budget (2002-2008) for a large subtropical wetland ecosystem indicates marine groundwater discharge accompanies diminished freshwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saha, Amartya K.; Moses, Christopher S.; Price, Rene M.; Engel, Victor; Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Water budget parameters are estimated for Shark River Slough (SRS), the main drainage within Everglades National Park (ENP) from 2002 to 2008. Inputs to the water budget include surface water inflows and precipitation while outputs consist of evapotranspiration, discharge to the Gulf of Mexico and seepage losses due to municipal wellfield extraction. The daily change in volume of SRS is equated to the difference between input and outputs yielding a residual term consisting of component errors and net groundwater exchange. Results predict significant net groundwater discharge to the SRS peaking in June and positively correlated with surface water salinity at the mangrove ecotone, lagging by 1 month. Precipitation, the largest input to the SRS, is offset by ET (the largest output); thereby highlighting the importance of increasing fresh water inflows into ENP for maintaining conditions in terrestrial, estuarine, and marine ecosystems of South Florida.

  3. Organic pollution and its effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Eastern Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Emmanouil, Christina; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadi-Psyllou, Asimina; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Okay, Oya; Machera, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    Persistent chemicals and emerging pollutants are continuously detected in marine waters and biota. Out of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are significant contaminants with decades of presence in the marine environment. The Mediterranean Sea is an ecosystem directly affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities including industry, municipal, touristic, commercial and agricultural. The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a filter feeder, which presents wide distribution. In this regard, the specific organism was used as a biological indicator for the monitoring and evaluation of pollution in the studied areas with focus on the mentioned chemical groups. Pristine Turkish sites with minimum effect from anthropogenic activities, in contrast with Greek sites which were subjected to heavy industrial and shipping activity, were selected. A gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method (GC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to monitor 34 compounds (16 EPA priority PAHs and 18 OCs). Analyses of mussel samples in 2011 from sites with the limited anthropogenic pollution shores have shown the occurrence of 11 pollutants (6 PAHs, 5 OCs), while in the samples from sites with intensive activity and expected pollution, 12 PAHs and 6 OCs were detected. Biochemical and biological responses studied only in mussels samples from the sites with the highest contamination showed a situation that was under strong seasonal influence. The intensity of the response was also influenced by deployment duration. Noteworthy correlations were detected among biochemical/biological effects and between mussel body burden and these effects. Continuous monitoring of priority pollutants of East Mediterranean Sea is vital both for ecological and human risk assessment purposes.

  4. Spatio-temporal changes of marine macrobenthic community in sub-tropical waters upon recovery from eutrophication. I. Sediment quality and community structure.

    PubMed

    Shin, P K S; Lam, N W Y; Wu, R S S; Qian, P Y; Cheung, S G

    2008-02-01

    A two-year study was conducted in the vicinity of a harbour in sub-tropical Hong Kong, to examine the progress of improvement in sediment quality and recovery of macrobenthic community upon cessation of organic pollution caused by sewage discharge. Median sediment particle diameter (Mdphi) and levels of total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N) and total phosphorus (TP), as well as macrobenthic species composition and abundance were determined bi-monthly at three inside-harbour and two outside-harbour locations. At the two inside-harbour locations, significantly higher levels of TOC, TKN, NH(3)-N and TP in sediments were observed than the outside-harbour locations. However, no significant temporal change of nutrient levels was detected at all sampling locations during the two-year study, except a significant decrease in TKN and NH(3)-N levels at one outside-harbour location and a decline in NH(3)-N content at another outside-harbour location. Spatially, the highest in mean total species number, individual number, species diversity H' and lowest evenness J was found at one outside-harbour location, whereas the other four locations had relatively similar values. H' was negatively correlated with TOC, TKN, NH(3)-N and TP content in sediments while J was positively correlated with MDphi. Across the study period, the patterns of macrobenthic community were significantly different among all samplings and that the spatial difference of benthic community was best correlated with MDphi, TOC, TKN and water depth. A weak sign of recovery in macrobenthic community structure was detected at inside-harbour locations, with replacement of opportunistic by ubiquitous species over the two-year study. The slow recovery of macrobenthic community was related to sediment characteristics. Results of a larval settlement bioassay using the polychaete Capitella sp. I also demonstrated that the inside-harbour sediments were still unfavourable for

  5. Functional genomics to assess biological responses to marine pollution at physiological and evolutionary timescales: toward a vision of predictive ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Reid, Noah M; Whitehead, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Marine pollution is ubiquitous, and is one of the key factors influencing contemporary marine biodiversity worldwide. To protect marine biodiversity, how do we surveil, document and predict the short- and long-term impacts of pollutants on at-risk species? Modern genomics tools offer high-throughput, information-rich and increasingly cost-effective approaches for characterizing biological responses to environmental stress, and are important tools within an increasing sophisticated kit for surveiling and assessing impacts of pollutants on marine species. Through the lens of recent research in marine killifish, we illustrate how genomics tools may be useful for screening chemicals and pollutants for biological activity and to reveal specific mechanisms of action. The high dimensionality of transcriptomic responses enables their usage as highly specific fingerprints of exposure, and these fingerprints can be used to diagnose environmental problems. We also emphasize that molecular pathways recruited to respond at physiological timescales are the same pathways that may be targets for natural selection during chronic exposure to pollutants. Gene complement and sequence variation in those pathways can be related to variation in sensitivity to environmental pollutants within and among species. Furthermore, allelic variation associated with evolved tolerance in those pathways could be tracked to estimate the pace of environmental health decline and recovery. We finish by integrating these paradigms into a vision of how genomics approaches could anchor a modernized framework for advancing the predictive capacity of environmental and ecotoxicological science.

  6. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    PubMed

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf.

  7. Presence of hepatitis E RNA in mussels used as bio-monitors of viral marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Donia, Domenica; Dell'Amico, Maria Chiara; Petrinca, Anna Rita; Martinucci, Ilaria; Mazzei, Maurizio; Tolari, Francesco; Divizia, Maurizio

    2012-12-01

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), collected from a harvesting area approved by European Community Regulation, were transplanted to four polluted sites located in the Northwestern Mediterranean area (Tuscany). They were used as bio-monitors to test the quality of the marine water pollution. At different times after the transplantation, mussels were withdrawn and tested for presence of phages and enteric viruses by molecular tests. 52.4% of the transplanted mussel samples were positive for at least one enteric virus. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was identified in each site (17/37; 45.9%). Three samples were positive for hepatitis E virus (HEV) (8.1%) and two (5.4%) for norovirus (NoV) genogroup I. Coliphages and RYC 2056 phages were detected in all sites, while HSP 40 phages were detected in three sites. Results demonstrate the ability of transplanted mussels in accumulating and retaining different species of enteric microorganisms. Their utility as bio-monitor organisms enables testing for viral marine pollution.

  8. Ligia italica (Isopoda, Oniscidea) as bioindicator of mercury pollution of marine rocky coasts.

    PubMed

    Longo, Guglielmo; Trovato, Michelanna; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita; Conti, Gea Oliveri

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the possible role of Ligia italica as a bioindicator for the monitoring of heavy metals pollution in the suppralittoral zone of marine rocky coasts. Between 2004 and 2011 specimens of L. italica were collected along the Eastern Sicilian coasts from sites known for their high pollution levels as they are near to an area where in September 2001 a refinery plant discharged into the sea some waste containing Hg. Other specimens were collected from the Vendicari Natural Reserve located about 30 miles from the polluted sites and used as control area. On a consistent number of animals, the concentration in toto of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. On other animals, investigations were carried out in order to check for ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas, that is the main metals storage organ in isopods. Results revealed the presence, in the animals collected in 2004 from the polluted sites, of considerable concentrations of Hg and of lower concentrations of other metals such as As, Pb and V. The Hg bioaccumulation resulted in remarkable ultrastructural alterations of the two cellular types (B and S cells) in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas. Surprisingly, a moderate amount of Hg was also found in specimens collected in 2004 from the Vendicari Natural Reserve, proving that the Hg pollution can also spread many miles away. Animals collected from the polluted sites in the following years showed a progressively decreasing Hg content, reaching very low levels in those from the last sampling. Also, the ultrastructural alterations found in the hepatopancreas of the animals from the last sample were quite irrelevant. In conclusion, Ligia italica can represent a good bioindicator and the ultrastructure of the hepatopancreas could be used as ultrastructural biomarker of heavy metals pollution in the supralittoral zones.

  9. Ligia italica (Isopoda, Oniscidea) as Bioindicator of Mercury Pollution of Marine Rocky Coasts

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Guglielmo; Trovato, Michelanna; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita; Conti, Gea Oliveri

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the possible role of Ligia italica as a bioindicator for the monitoring of heavy metals pollution in the suppralittoral zone of marine rocky coasts. Between 2004 and 2011 specimens of L. italica were collected along the Eastern Sicilian coasts from sites known for their high pollution levels as they are near to an area where in September 2001 a refinery plant discharged into the sea some waste containing Hg. Other specimens were collected from the Vendicari Natural Reserve located about 30 miles from the polluted sites and used as control area. On a consistent number of animals, the concentration in toto of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. On other animals, investigations were carried out in order to check for ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas, that is the main metals storage organ in isopods. Results revealed the presence, in the animals collected in 2004 from the polluted sites, of considerable concentrations of Hg and of lower concentrations of other metals such as As, Pb and V. The Hg bioaccumulation resulted in remarkable ultrastructural alterations of the two cellular types (B and S cells) in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas. Surprisingly, a moderate amount of Hg was also found in specimens collected in 2004 from the Vendicari Natural Reserve, proving that the Hg pollution can also spread many miles away. Animals collected from the polluted sites in the following years showed a progressively decreasing Hg content, reaching very low levels in those from the last sampling. Also, the ultrastructural alterations found in the hepatopancreas of the animals from the last sample were quite irrelevant. In conclusion, Ligia italica can represent a good bioindicator and the ultrastructure of the hepatopancreas could be used as ultrastructural biomarker of heavy metals pollution in the supralittoral zones. PMID:23472204

  10. Marine oil pollution: federal program review. Environmental impact of offshore oil and gas development. Technology for oil and hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    As part of its responsibility in assuring that the Federal marine pollution program is well coordinated and directed, the Interagency Committee on Ocean Pollution Research, Development, and Monitoring (COPRDM) organized a review to examine the elements of the Federal program that deal with petroleum pollution in the marine environment. Virtually all agencies that are concerned with marine pollution also are concerned with oil and are conducting research in one or more oil-related problem areas according to their individual agency mandates. The entire program had never been viewed as a whole. Consequently, this review was undertaken for the purpose of determining the overall relevance and adequacy of current program directions. This document is intended as a tool for sharpening the focus of the Federal program for petroleum-related studies.

  11. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  12. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans.

  13. [Characteristics of Pahs pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of PAHs concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 PAHs were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma PAHs concentration was Leizhou < Shenzhen < Liusha. In spatial distribution, PAHs concentrations were the east < the south < the west in Leizhou; the inside > the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in PAHs pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of PAHs in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.

  14. Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study.

    PubMed

    González Carman, Victoria; Machain, Natalia; Campagna, Claudio

    2015-03-15

    Plastics are the most common form of debris found along the Argentine coastline. The Río de la Plata estuarine area is a relevant case study to describe a situation where ample policy exists against a backdrop of plastics disposed by populated coastal areas, industries, and vessels; with resultant high impacts of plastic pollution on marine turtles and mammals. Policy and institutions are in place but the impact remains due to ineffective waste management, limited public education and awareness, and weaknesses in enforcement of regulations. This context is frequently repeated all over the world. We list possible interventions to increase the effectiveness of policy that require integrating efforts among governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the inhabitants of coastal cities to reduce the amount of plastics reaching the Río de la Plata and protect threatened marine species. What has been identified for Argentina applies to the region and globally.

  15. Freeliving marine nematodes as a pollution indicator of the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-qing; Warwick, R M; Zhang, Zhi-nan; Mu, Fang-hong

    2002-10-01

    A hierarchical diversity index--taxonomic distinctness index delta+, which was first defined by Warwick and Clark in 1998, was employed to evaluate the pollution status of the Bohai Sea with freeliving marine nematodes. The result showed that the Bohai Bay and other coastal sampling sites might be affected by oil and gas production and other anthropogenic influences. In other words, anthropogenic disturbance was affecting this component of the benthos in these locations. And most offshore sampling sites in the middle of the Bohai Sea were clear and unpolluted.

  16. Assessment of economic losses from marine pollution: an introduction to economic principles and methods.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, D D

    2001-09-01

    This paper introduces economic concepts and theory pertaining to public policy issues and concerns about pollution in marine environments. Many of these concepts and theories are unfamiliar to individuals and professionals outside the field of economics, such as biologists, ecologists, environmental lawyers, and even public policymakers. Yet many of these individuals observe economics in action, often for the first time, within a public policy arena. Exposure and a better understanding of the concepts and ideas in economics that are particularly relevant for public policies can help to achieve efficiencies in the form of better designed policies, and help to bridge communications gaps across other professions and the economics profession.

  17. Use of marine fouling communities to evaluate the ecological effects of pollution. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.K.

    1990-06-01

    The ecological consequences of pollution were evaluated by measuring the biological responses of marine fouling communities to increasing levels of pollution in San Diego Bay, California. Measurements of a gradient of increasing levels of copper and organotin compounds were made using anodic stripping voltammetry and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy for copper and hydride derivation with atomic spectroscopy detection for the organotin compounds tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin, and monobutyltin. The copper gradient increased by a factor of 4.2 and the TBT gradient increased by a factor of 8.75. Differences in community structures were correlated with distinctly higher concentrations of toxic chemicals present at locations along the gradient. A portable microcosm system was used to study the community responses to different concentrations of TBT in controlled environments. The microcosm study was inconclusive because there was very low settlement of fouling organisms in the microcosm tanks relative to their settlement and colonization in the bay.

  18. Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the Arctic?

    PubMed

    Zarfl, Christiane; Matthies, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Plastic litter accounts for 50-80% of waste items stranded on beaches, floating on the ocean surface and lodged in the seabed. Organic pollutants can be absorbed onto plastic particles from sea water, attached to their surfaces or included in the plastic matrix as additives. Such chemicals may be transported to remote regions by buoyant plastics and ocean currents. We have estimated mass fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Arctic via the main ocean currents and compared them to those in the dissolved state and in air. Substance fluxes with atmospheric or sea water currents account for several tons per year, whereas those mediated by plastics are four to six orders of magnitude smaller. However, the significance of various pollutant transport routes does not depend only on absolute mass fluxes but also on bioaccumulation in marine food chains.

  19. Microplastic pollution in the marine waters and sediments of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y Y; Mak, C W; Liebich, C; Lam, S W; Sze, E T-P; Chan, K M

    2017-02-15

    The presence of plastic waste with a diameter of less than 5mm ("microplastics") in marine environments has prompted increasing concern in recent years, both locally and globally. We conducted seasonal surveys of microplastic pollution in the surface waters and sediments from Deep Bay, Tolo Harbor, Tsing Yi, and Victoria Harbor in Hong Kong between June 2015 and March 2016. The average concentrations of microplastics in local coastal waters and sediments respectively ranged from 51 to 27,909particles per 100m(3) and 49 to 279particles per kilogram. Microplastics of different shapes (mainly fragments, lines, fibers, and pellets) were identified as polypropylene, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, a blend of polypropylene and ethylene propylene, and styrene acrylonitrile by means of Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. This is the first comprehensive study to assess the spatial and temporal variations of microplastic pollution in Hong Kong coastal regions.

  20. Evaluation of bioremediation potential of three benthic annelids in organically polluted marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Ohta, Kohei; Hano, Takeshi; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Mochida, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Kazunori

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possible remedial effects of three marine benthic annelids on organically polluted sediments from the waters of Hatsukaichi Marina, Hiroshima, Japan. Two polychaetes, Perinereis nuntia and Capitella cf. teleta, and an oligochaete, Thalassodrilides sp., were incubated in sediments for 50 days. Their effects on physicochemical properties such as organic matter (loss on ignition), redox potential (Eh), acid volatile sulfides (AVS), and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed. The polychaetes P. nuntia and C. cf. teleta significantly increased Eh level and decreased AVS level compared with the oligochaete Thalassodrilides sp. and control (without benthic organisms). Total PAH concentration significantly decreased from the initial level with all three groups; Thalassodrilides sp. had a marked ability to reduce PAHs in sediment. These results indicate that benthic organisms have species-specific remediation properties and ecological functions in organically polluted sediments.

  1. Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly polluted marine area.

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Giovanna; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Tramati, Cecilia D; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-08-15

    Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focussed on fishbone of selected fish species from a highly polluted marine area, Augusta Bay (Italy, Central Mediterranean) to evaluate if toxicant elements had an effect on the mineralogical structure of bones, although macroscopic deformations were not evident. In particular, an attempt was made to evaluate if bone mineral features, such as crystallinity, mineral maturity and carbonate/phosphate mineral content, determined by XR-Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy, suffered negative effects due to trace element levels in fishbone, detected by ICP-OES. Results confirmed the reliability of the use of diffractometric and spectroscopic techniques to assess the degree of crystallinity and the mineral maturity in fishbone. In addition, in highly polluted areas, Hg and Cr contamination induced a process of premature aging of fishbone, altering its biochemical and mineral contents.

  2. Effects of temperature and organic pollution on nutrient cycling in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Lazaro, C.; Valdemarsen, T.; Holmer, M.

    2015-08-01

    Increasing ocean temperature due to climate change is an important anthropogenic driver of ecological change in coastal systems. In these systems sediments play a major role in nutrient cycling. Our ability to predict ecological consequences of climate change is enhanced by simulating real scenarios. Based on predicted climate change scenarios, we tested the effect of temperature and organic pollution on nutrient release from coastal sediments to the water column in a mesocosm experiment. PO43- release rates from sediments followed the same trends as organic matter mineralization rates, increased linearly with temperature and were significantly higher under organic pollution than under nonpolluted conditions. NH4+ release only increased significantly when the temperature rise was above 6 °C, and it was significantly higher in organic polluted compared to nonpolluted sediments. Nutrient release to the water column was only a fraction from the mineralized organic matter, suggesting PO43- retention and NH4+ oxidation in the sediment. Bioturbation and bioirrigation appeared to be key processes responsible for this behavior. Considering that the primary production of most marine basins is N-limited, the excess release of NH4+ at a temperature rise > 6 °C could enhance water column primary productivity, which may lead to the deterioration of the environmental quality. Climate change effects are expected to be accelerated in areas affected by organic pollution.

  3. Using ERS-2 SAR images for routine observation of marine pollution in European coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Gade, M; Alpers, W

    1999-09-30

    More than 660 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired over the southern Baltic Sea, the North Sea, and the Gulf of Lion in the Mediterranean Sea by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) have been analyzed since December 1996 with respect to radar signatures of marine pollution and other phenomena causing similar signatures. First results of our analysis reveal that the seas are most polluted along the main shipping routes. The sizes of the detected oil spills vary between < 0.1 km2 and > 56 km2. SAR images acquired during descending (morning) and ascending (evening) satellite passes show different percentages of oil pollution, because most of this pollution occurs during night time and is still visible on the SAR images acquired in the morning time. Moreover, we found a higher amount of oil spills on SAR images acquired during summer (April-September) than on SAR images acquired during winter (October-March). We attribute this finding to the higher mean wind speed encountered in all three test areas during winter. By using an ERS-2 SAR image of the North Sea test area we show how the reduction of the normalized radar backscattering cross section (NRCS) by an oil spill depends on wind speed.

  4. Effects of organism preparation in metallothionein and metal analysis in marine invertebrates for biomonitoring marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Oaten, J F P; Hudson, M D; Jensen, A C; Williams, I D

    2015-06-15

    Metallothionein (MT) is established as a potentially useful biomarker for monitoring aquatic pollution. This paper addresses widespread inconsistencies in storage conditions, tissue type selection and pre-treatment of samples before MT and metal analysis in biomarker studies. This variation hampers comparability and so the widespread implementation of this monitoring approach. Actively sampled Mytilus edulis in Southampton Water, UK were exposed to different storage temperatures, a variety of tissue types were analysed, and various pre-treatments of transportation on ice, transportation in seawater, depuration, and rapid dissection in the field were examined. Storage temperatures of -20 °C were found to be adequate for periods of at least ten weeks, as MT was not reduced by protein degradation compared with samples kept at -80 °C. Whole tissue and digestive gland concentrations of MT and metals were significantly positively correlated and directly relatable. MT in the digestive gland appeared to be more responsive to metals than in whole tissue, where it may be diluted, masking MT responses. However, longer study periods may suffer the effects of mass changes to the digestive gland, which alters MT concentration, and it may therefore be advisable to measure whole tissue. Depuration and transportation in seawater reduced both MT and metal concentrations in the digestive gland, and few correlations between MT and metals were identified for these treatments. It is therefore recommended that: i) samples are transported to the laboratory on ice and dissected as soon as possible thereafter, ii) depuration should not be used when examining MT response to metal exposure until further research clarifying its utility is reported, iii) either whole tissue or the digestive gland can be used to measure MT, though whole tissue may be preferable on long-term studies, and iv) organisms can be stored at -20 °C before analysis for up to ten weeks. These practices can be applied

  5. Coral skeletal Tin and Copper Concentration at Pohnpei, Micronesia, as a potential proxy for marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Suzuki, A.; Nohara, M.; Kan, H.; Edward, A.; Kawahata, H.

    2002-12-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly threatened by human activities such as industrialization, sewage discharge, dredging, deforestation and so on. The annually-banded coral (Porites sp.) collected from Pohnpei Island, Micronesia, recorded fluctuations of copper (Cu) and tin (Sn) contents in ambient seawater for about last 40 years. Both the elements are present in antifouling marine paints. Especially, Sn has often been used in the form of tributyltin (TBT) compound. In general, pretreatment of coral skeleton is conducted in order to remove contaminations due to coral coring and/or sample storage and then lattice-bound metals are determined as a potential proxy for marine pollution. We conducted a preliminary experimental treatment consisting of 9 cleaning steps. Based on a stepwise pretreatment examination, we found that skeletal Sn and Cu, not only inside but also outside of aragonite lattice, have potential for use as pollution indicators. High values of extra-skeletal Cu/Ca and Sn/Ca atomic ratios were found between late 1960s and late 1980s during a period of active use of TBT-based antifouling paints worldwide. However, significant decrease in both the ratios since the beginning of 1990s can be attributed to regulation of use of TBT on cargo ships by the developed countries such as the USA, Japan and Australia.

  6. Biochemical and bioaccumulation approaches for investigating marine pollution using Mediterranean rainbow wrasse, Coris julis (Linneaus 1798).

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Barbara; Copat, Chiara; Pulvirenti, Valentina; Ferrito, Venera; Ferrante, Margherita; Renis, Marcella; Sciacca, Salvatore; Tigano, Concetta

    2012-12-01

    A multibiomarkers approach was used in order to estimate and monitor marine pollution. Coris julis (Linneaus, 1758) was chosen as a sentinel organism, and the specimens were collected from three well-known sites along the Ionic coast of Sicily: the protected marine area (P.M.A) "Cyclop's Islands" of Acitrezza (CT), used as a control site, Riposto (CT), and the industrial site of Augusta (SR). Abiotic levels of contaminants were also detected. High levels of biotic and abiotic accumulation were found at the industrial site in which the presence of genotoxic and oxidative damage were also evidenced, measured by Micronuclei, Alkaline and Fpg-modified Comet assays. The protein expression analysis showed metallothioneins (MTs) as good tissue-specific markers of metal accumulation. Their levels were significantly higher in muscle than in liver tissue for all the sampling sites, with a positive correlation among tissue levels and the degree of pollution at the sites. Conversely, heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) expression was higher in Augusta and Riposto than in the control site, but no significant difference was found between the examined tissues among all sites.

  7. Intermediate water links to Deep Western Boundary Current variability in the subtropical NW Atlantic during marine isotope stages 5 and 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, H. K.; Hall, I. R.; Bianchi, G. G.; Oppo, D. W.

    2007-09-01

    Records from Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1057 and 1059 (2584 m and 2985 m water depth, respectively) have been used to reconstruct the behavior of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) on the Blake Outer Ridge (BOR) from 130 to 60 kyr B.P. (marine isotope stage (MIS) 5 and the 5/4 transition). Site 1057 lies within Labrador Sea Water (LSW) but close to the present-day boundary with Lower North Atlantic Deep Water (LNADW), while Site 1059 lies within LNADW. High-resolution sortable silt mean (?) grain size and benthic δ13C records were obtained, and changes in the DWBC intensity and spatial variability were inferred. Comparisons are made with similar proxy records generated for the Holocene from equivalent depth cores on the BOR. During MIS 5e, ? evidence at Site 1057 suggests slower relative flow speeds consistent with a weakening and a possible shoaling of the LSW-sourced shallower limb of the DWBC that occupies these depths today. In contrast, the paleocurrent record from the deeper site suggests that the fast flowing deep core of the DWBC was located close to its modern depth below 3500 m. During this interval the benthic δ13C suggests little chemical stratification of the water column and the presence of a near-uniform LNADW-dominated water mass. After ˜111 kyr B.P. the ? record at Site 1057 increases to reach values similar to Site 1059 for the rest of MIS 5. The strengthening of flow speeds at the shallow site may correspond to the initiation of Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water formation also suggested by a divergence in the benthic δ13C records with Site 1057 values increasing to ˜1.2‰. Coupled suborbital oscillations in DWBC flow variability and paleohydrography persisted throughout MIS 5. Comparison of these data with planktonic δ18O records from the sites and alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from the nearby Bermuda Rise suggest a hitherto unrecognized degree of linkage between oscillations in subtropical North

  8. Bioindicators of marine pollution. January 1974-July 1989 (Citations from Oceanic abstracts). Report for January 1974-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (This updated bibliography contains 296 citations, 40 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  9. Oxidative DNA damage levels and catalase activity in the clam Ruditapes decussatus as pollution biomarkers of Tunisian marine environment.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the oxidative DNA damage 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in the digestive gland and gills of clams Ruditapes decussatus, related to the presence of pollutants along Tunisian marine environment. Increased levels of CAT were observed in tissues of clams from all the sites studied, compared to control values, and elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed at specific sites. Results obtained in this work indicate that the measurement of 8-oxodG levels and CAT activity in tissues of R. decussatus is promising in pollution monitoring studies of the Tunisian marine environment.

  10. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development and monitoring activities: Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Region

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, R.S.

    1985-12-01

    The Northeast and Mid-Atlantic inventory includes marine-pollution projects conducted in or are related to the states of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. Projects related to outer continental shelf, oceanic, coastal, and estuarine areas are included. Some projects related to freshwater areas are also included where these were conducted for the purpose of determining sources of pollutants in estuarine and coastal areas or the effects on the marine environment resulting from changes in freshwater areas.

  11. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution.

  12. Analysis of marine sediment, water and biota for selected organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Ray, L.E.; Giam, C.S.

    1981-12-01

    The concentrations of various organic pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined in samples of water, sediment and biota (flounder, killifish, shrimp, crabs, and squid) from San Luis Pass, Texas. Sediment was also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and various pesticides. Only PCP was detectable in water. In sediment, the relative concentrations were PAEs >> BaP > (PCBs approx. HCB) > PCP. In biota, BaP was not detectable in any animal; HCB was highest in crabs and PCP was highest in all others (flounder, killifish, shrimp and squid). The relative concentrations of HCB and PCP were different in the different organisms. The differences between the relative concentrations in the biota and in sediment are discussed. The results of this study are compared to values measured at other sites. This study is part of a larger effort to identify and quantitate pollutants in various Texas estuaries and to serve as a basis for monitoring marine pollution.

  13. Effect of marine pollutants on the acid DNase activity in the hemocytes and digestive gland of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Fafandel, Maja; Bihari, Nevenka; Perić, Lorena; Cenov, Arijana

    2008-03-26

    The level of the acid DNase activity in the hemocytes and digestive gland of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after exposure to model marine pollutants, a detergent, gasoline and a copper salt, as well as to unknown environmental mixture at selected sampling sites, was investigated. The specific enzyme activity in unexposed mussels from mariculture area was higher in hemocytes than in digestive gland. Concentration and time effect patterns of DNase activity revealed tissue- and pollutant-specific responses to model marine pollutants. Since in some cases the pollutant effect could not be detected by measurement of acid DNase in single tissue only, digestive gland/hemocyte (Hep/Hem) ratio was introduced. The Hep/Hem ratio enabled the detection of pollutant effect at the significance level. Field investigations indicated that the digestive gland is a suitable tissue for discrimination of polluted areas from maricultured area. Additionally, the Hep/Hem ratio enabled differentiation within a group of polluted sampling sites that differ in the type of pollutants and/or environmental conditions.

  14. Proteomics-based method for the assessment of marine pollution using liquid chromatography coupled with two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Amelina, Hanna; Apraiz, Itxaso; Sun, Wei; Cristobal, Susana

    2007-06-01

    Using a proteomic approach, we have developed a new method for the assessment of marine pollution that generates highly reproducible protein expression patterns and it is simple and scalable. The protocol is based on applying liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to analyze changes in the protein expression pattern after exposure to marine pollution. The digestive gland of the sentinel "blue mussel" (Mytilus edulis) was batch-processed through a simple cell fractionation followed by ion-exchange chromatography and 2-DE. The selection of ligands, elution method, and small volume design was carefully considered to define a protocol that could be mainly robotized. A pilot study with samples collected from different Gothenburg harbor areas indicated that the clean area could be distinguished from the polluted ones based on a protein expression pattern (PES) composed of 13 proteins. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering confirmed that the PES was sufficient to discriminate polluted and unpolluted areas and to provide a spatial gradient from the polluted source. Several proteins from the PES were identified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), and they are involved in beta-oxidation, amino acid metabolism, detoxification, protein degradation, organelle biogenesis, and protein folding. In the near future, this methodology could show potential advantages to assess marine pollution and could become a stable platform to elucidate ecotoxicological questions.

  15. IOC/WMO Workshop on Marine Pollution Monitoring (3rd, New Delhi, India, February 11-15, 1980). Summary Report. Workshop Report No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    Provided is a summary report of the third IOC/WMO (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission/World Meteorological Organization) workshop of marine pollution monitoring. Summaries are presented in nine sections, including: (1) workshop opening; (2) welcoming addresses; (3) reports on the Marine Pollution (Petroleum) Monitoring Pilot Project…

  16. Distribution and pollution assessment of trace elements in marine sediments in the Quintero Bay (Chile).

    PubMed

    Parra, Sonnia; Bravo, Manuel A; Quiroz, Waldo; Querol, Xavier; Paipa, Carolina

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of heavy metal pollution in the clay/silt fraction (<63 μm fraction) of marine sediments from Quintero Bay, Chile. For this, sediment samples were collected from 14 sites from the bay and analyzed for major and minor element determination. The metal concentrations found suggest an anthropogenic origin related with Cu, Se, Mo, As, Sb and Pb. The mineralogical characteristics of the samples were determined by XRD and selected samples were examined by SEM to determine morphological differences. The results showed heavy metal-bearing particles such as Cu, Zn, As and Pb, which are most likely associated with by the copper smelter.

  17. Microbial community dynamics and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in polluted marine sediments in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y F; Tam, N F Y

    2011-01-01

    Dynamics of microbial community and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted marine sediments, artificially spiked with a mixture of PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene), were examined for a period of 60 days. Microbial communities were characterised by bacterial counts, ester-linked fatty acid methyl ester (EL-FAME) analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A noted reduction in species diversity occurred only in the high PAH level treatment at onset. Both EL-FAME and DGGE demonstrated a marked shift in microbial community, in all the PAH level treatments, afterwards, with increases in the number of fatty acid degraders, the relative abundance of fatty acid biomarkers for gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in species diversity. The shift was also accompanied by the significant decrease in PAH concentrations. By the end of the experiment, diversity indices, based on both approaches, recovered when PAH concentrations declined to their background levels, except in the high PAH level treatment.

  18. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  19. The Posidonia oceanica marine sedimentary record: A Holocene archive of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Serrano, O; Mateo, M A; Dueñas-Bohórquez, A; Renom, P; López-Sáez, J A; Martínez Cortizas, A

    2011-10-15

    The study of a Posidonia oceanica mat (a peat-like marine sediment) core has provided a record of changes in heavy metal abundances (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Al) since the Mid-Holocene (last 4470yr) in Portlligat Bay (NW Mediterranean). Metal contents were determined in P. oceanica. Both, the concentration records and the results of principal components analysis showed that metal pollution in the studied bay started ca. 2800yr BP and steadily increased until present. The increase in Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and As concentrations since ca. 2800yr BP and in particular during Greek (ca. 2680-2465cal BP) and Roman (ca. 2150-1740cal BP) times shows an early anthropogenic pollution rise in the bay, which might be associated with large- and short-scale cultural and technological development. In the last ca. 1000yr the concentrations of heavy metals, mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, have significantly increased (e.g. from ~15 to 47μg g(-1) for Pb, ~23 to 95μg g(-1) for Zn and ~8 to 228μg g(-1) for As). Our study demonstrates for the first time the uniqueness of P. oceanica meadows as long-term archives of abundances, patterns, and trends of heavy metals during the Late Holocene in Mediterranean coastal ecosystems.

  20. Interactive visualization of marine pollution monitoring and forecasting data via a Web-based GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulawiak, M.; Prospathopoulos, A.; Perivoliotis, L.; łuba, M.; Kioroglou, S.; Stepnowski, A.

    2010-08-01

    This work implements a Web-based Geographic Information System (Web GIS) for an existing oil spill monitoring and forecasting service, developed in the framework of the MARCOAST project. This is achieved by remotely presenting the results of the oil spill forecasting module via a dedicated Web GIS, which allows authenticated end users to view the simulation results in a geographical context. A number of Web GIS technologies for presentation of dissimilar types of semi-dynamic geographic data are applied and their respective capabilities for publishing and remote presentation of interactive geospatial information, such as oil spill spread animation overlaid on background data (terrain elevation data, satellite imagery, etc.), are described. More specifically, technologies like ESRI ® ArcIMS ® (Arc Internet Map Server) and Open Source GeoServer with OpenLayers client library are implemented. The capabilities of the system for visualization and mapping are illustrated by specific applications concerning the spreading scenarios of oil spills in two selected areas of the Aegean Sea, Greece. The presented Web GIS offers added value in the form of providing the end user with comprehensive and synthetic, both spatial and temporal, environmental information through a remotely customizable user-friendly graphical interface. In this context, its integration to a marine pollution monitoring and forecasting system could result in an enhanced pollution awareness and emergency management tool.

  1. A study of marine pollution caused by the release of metals into seawater following acid spills.

    PubMed

    Cabon, Jean-Yves; Giamarchi, Philippe; Le Floch, Stephane

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the potential metal pollution induced by the accidental spill of different acids into seawater. The acids sink to the bottom according to their densities and subsequently react with marine sediments. The acids selected for this study were acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids; the metallic elements selected were Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. The sediment was collected in Brest Harbour. The percentages of metals released from this sediment in the presence of various concentrations of acids in seawater were important; concentrations of approximately 7 mg L(-1) for Mn and 60 mg L(-1) for Zn were observed under our experimental conditions. We also examined the rate of release of these metals from the sediment into the seawater in the presence of the different acids and under different experimental conditions. We found that most of the metallic elements were released from the sediments into the seawater during the first fifteen minutes of exposure. After this time, a high degree of pollution was induced if acids leached into seawater were not rapidly diluted.

  2. Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: microplastics in facial cleansers.

    PubMed

    Fendall, Lisa S; Sewell, Mary A

    2009-08-01

    Plastics pollution in the ocean is an area of growing concern, with research efforts focusing on both the macroplastic (>5mm) and microplastic (<5mm) fractions. In the 1990 s it was recognized that a minor source of microplastic pollution was derived from liquid hand-cleansers that would have been rarely used by the average consumer. In 2009, however, the average consumer is likely to be using microplastic-containing products on a daily basis, as the majority of facial cleansers now contain polyethylene microplastics which are not captured by wastewater plants and will enter the oceans. Four microplastic-containing facial cleansers available in New Zealand supermarkets were used to quantify the size of the polythelene fragments. Three-quarters of the brands had a modal size of <100 microns and could be immediately ingested by planktonic organisms at the base of the food chain. Over time the microplastics will be subject to UV-degradation and absorb hydrophobic materials such as PCBs, making them smaller and more toxic in the long-term. Marine scientists need to educate the public to the dangers of using products that pose an immediate and long-term threat to the health of the oceans and the food we eat.

  3. Report on land-based sources of marine pollution in the Caribbean. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The report is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The document presents information gathered during a series of interviews with professionals from governmental agencies in each of the Caribbean nations, with the exception of the U.S. possessions. The report provides, on a nation-by-nation basis, background information regarding the sources of pollution and the agencies within each nation which retain some authority to remedy or otherwise manage these problems. Names of contact persons within these agencies, their phone numbers and addresses are also provided. The audience for the report is persons within organizations in the Caribbean Basin nations working to coordinate activities aimed at identifying and reducing land based sources of marine pollution. The report is a resource for achieving unified environmental efforts in the region. The final section briefly notes factors which may work in favor of regional solutions and those that may not.

  4. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is emitted in the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources, these last accounting for one third of the total emissions. Since the pre-industrial age, the atmospheric deposition of mercury have increased notably, while ocean emissions have doubled owing to the re-emission of anthropogenic mercury. Exchange between the atmosphere and ocean plays an important role in cycling and transport of mercury. We present the preliminary results from a study on the distribution and evasion flux of mercury at the atmosphere/sea interface in the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area affected by a high degree of contamination (heavy metals and PHA) due to the oil refineries placed inside its commercial harbor. It seems that the intense industrial activity of the past have lead to an high Hg pollution in the bottom sediments of the basin, whose concentrations are far from the background mercury value found in most of the Sicily Strait sediments. The release of mercury into the harbor seawater and its dispersion by diffusion from sediments to the surface, make the Augusta basin a potential supplier of mercury both to the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere. Based on these considerations, mercury concentration and flux at the air-sea interface of the Bay have been estimated using a real-time atomic adsorption spectrometer (LUMEX - RA915+) and an home-made accumulation chamber, respectively. Estimated Total Atmospheric Mercury (TGM) concentrations during the cruise on the bay were in the range of 1-3 ng · m-3, with a mean value of about 1.4 ng · m-3. These data well fit with the background Hgatm concentration values detected on the land (1-2 ng · m-3, this work), and, more in general, with the background atmospheric TGM levels found in the North Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng · m-3)a. Besides, our measurements are in the range of those reported for other important polluted marine areas. The mercury evasion flux at the air-sea interface

  5. HNS-MS : Improving Member States preparedness to face an HNS pollution of the Marine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Sebastien; Le Floch, Stéphane; Aprin, Laurent; Parthenay, Valérie; Donnay, Eric; Parmentier, Koen; Ovidio, Fabrice; Schallier, Ronny; Poncet, Florence; Chataing, Sophie; Poupon, Emmanuelle; Hellouvry, Yann-Hervé

    2016-04-01

    When dealing with a HNS pollution incident, one of the priority requirements is the identification of the hazard and an assessment of the risk posed to the public and responder safety, the environment and socioeconomic assets upon which a state or coastal community depend. The primary factors which determine the safety, environmental and socioeconomic impact of the released substance(s) relate to their physico-chemical properties and fate in the environment. Until now, preparedness actions at various levels have primarily aimed at classifying the general environmental or public health hazard of an HNS, or at performing a risk analysis of HNS transported in European marine regions. Operational datasheets have been (MIDSIS-TROCS) or are being (MAR-CIS) developed collating detailed, substance-specific information for responders and covering information needs at the first stage of an incident. However, contrary to oil pollution preparedness and response tools, only few decision-support tools used by Member State authorities (Coastguard agencies or other) integrate 3D models that are able to simulate the drift, fate and behaviour of HNS spills in the marine environment. When they do, they usually consider simplified or steady-state environmental conditions. Moreover, the above-mentioned available HNS information is currently not sufficiently detailed or not suitably classified to be used as an input for an advanced HNS support decision tool. HNS-MS aims at developing a 'one-stop shop' integrated HNS decision-support tool that is able to predict the drift, behaviour and Fate of HNS spills under realistic environmental conditions and at providing key product information - drawing upon and in complement to existing studies and databases - to improve the understanding and evaluation of a HNS spill situation in the field and the environmental and safety-related issues at stake. The 3D HNS drift and fate model and decision-support tool will also be useful at the preparedness

  6. Anthropogenic pollution indicators in marine environment of the Eastern Part of the Gulf of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhakovskaya, Zoya; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Mamontova, Varvara; Khoroshko, Larisa; Chernova, Ekaterina; Russkikh, Iana

    2014-05-01

    Pollution involving hazardous substances is considered one of the major problems affecting the state of the Baltic marine environment. However, assessment of the vast majority of the hazardous substances (including accepted as pollution indicators) in the environment have not been monitored in Russian Federation yet. Moreover there are no official guideline values for their presence or release in environment. For our investigation we have selected the organotin biocides and widespread pharmaceutical diclofenac. The study is focused on surface marine water and bottom sediments, collected from the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland during the navigation seasons of 2012-2013. Organotin compounds belong to a large group of key marine contaminants. They had been widely used in the world industry as antifouling paints, fungicides and biocides until the middle of 1980s. Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are the most hazardous of all organotin compounds, causing such biological effects as shell deformation, endocrine disruption, imposex and intersex phenomena at the concentration of 2 ng/L. The use of TBT in antifouling paints was banned within EU in 2003 and within Russian Federation in 2008. Monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) were analysed as ethyl derivatives using electron impact gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI) in single ion monitoring mode (SIM). TBT and TPhT were frequently found above MAC of 1.5 ng/L and 2 ng/g dw respectively in both water and bottom sediment samples collected from the Gulf of Finland water basin. The highest detected concentration detected mainly in coastal areas with dense ship traffic were 670 ng/L (TBT) in water samples, 440 ng/g dw (TBT), 160 ng/g dw (TPhT) in sediment samples. Potential risks from the environmental presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP), such as medicine, hormones, means of personal hygiene, etc. reveal in abnormal physiological

  7. Metal pollution and ecological risk assessment in marine sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mashiatullah, Azhar; Chaudhary, Muhammad Zaman; Ahmad, Nasir; Javed, Tariq; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Concentrations of 12 metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V, Zn, and Zr) in surface sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan were determined to evaluate their distribution and pollution assessment. The measured metals in the sediments were found to be in the range of Fe, 0.84-6.96 %; Mn, 300-1,300 μg/g; Cr, 12.0-319.84 μg/g; Mo, 0.49-2.03 μg/g; Ni, 1.53-58.86 μg/g; Pb, 9.0-49.46 μg/g; Se, 0.25-.86 μg/g; Sr, 192-1185 μg/g; U, 0.19-1.66 μg/g; V, 15.80-118.20 μg/g; Zn, 15.60-666.28 μg/g; and Zr, 44.02-175.26 μg/g. The mean contents of the metal studied were: Fe, 3.07 %, Mn, 0.05 %; Cr, 96.75 μg/g; Mo, 1.34 μg/g; Ni, 31.39 μg/g; Pb, 23.24 μg/g; Se, 0.61 μg/g; Sr, 374.83 μg/g; U, 0.64 μg/g; V, 61.75 μg/g; Zn, 204.75 μg/g; and Zr:76.27 μg/g, and arrangement of the metals from higher to lower mean content in this area is: Fe > Zn > Mn > Sr > Zn > Cr > Zr > V > Ni > Pb > Mo > U > Se. There is no significant correlation among most of these metals, indicating different anthropogenic and natural sources. To assess ecotoxic potential of marine sediments, Numerical Sediment Quality Guidelines were also applied. The concentration of Pb in all the sediments except one was lower than the threshold effect concentration (TECs) showing that there are no harmful effects to marine life from Pb. On the other hand, the concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn exceeded TEC in three stations, indicating their potential risk. The degree of pollution in sediments for metals was assessed by calculating enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI). The results indicated that sediments of Layari River Mouth Area, Fish Harbour, and KPT Boat Building Area are highly enriched with Cr and Zn (EF > 5). Sediments of Layari River Outfall Zone were moderately enriched with Ni and Pb (EF > 2). The pollution load index was found in the range of 0.98 to 1.34. Lower values of PLI (≤ 1) at most of sampling locations imply no appreciable input from anthropogenic sources. However

  8. Plastic accumulation in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Law, Kara Lavender; Morét-Ferguson, Skye; Maximenko, Nikolai A; Proskurowski, Giora; Peacock, Emily E; Hafner, Jan; Reddy, Christopher M

    2010-09-03

    Plastic marine pollution is a major environmental concern, yet a quantitative description of the scope of this problem in the open ocean is lacking. Here, we present a time series of plastic content at the surface of the western North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1986 to 2008. More than 60% of 6136 surface plankton net tows collected buoyant plastic pieces, typically millimeters in size. The highest concentration of plastic debris was observed in subtropical latitudes and associated with the observed large-scale convergence in surface currents predicted by Ekman dynamics. Despite a rapid increase in plastic production and disposal during this time period, no trend in plastic concentration was observed in the region of highest accumulation.

  9. Plastic Accumulation in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Morét-Ferguson, Skye; Maximenko, Nikolai A.; Proskurowski, Giora; Peacock, Emily E.; Hafner, Jan; Reddy, Christopher M.

    2010-09-01

    Plastic marine pollution is a major environmental concern, yet a quantitative description of the scope of this problem in the open ocean is lacking. Here, we present a time series of plastic content at the surface of the western North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1986 to 2008. More than 60% of 6136 surface plankton net tows collected buoyant plastic pieces, typically millimeters in size. The highest concentration of plastic debris was observed in subtropical latitudes and associated with the observed large-scale convergence in surface currents predicted by Ekman dynamics. Despite a rapid increase in plastic production and disposal during this time period, no trend in plastic concentration was observed in the region of highest accumulation.

  10. Comparison of the effects of pollution on the marine bivalve Donax trunculus in the vicinity of polluted sites with specimens from a clean reference site (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Yawetz, Aminadav; Fishelson, Lev; Bresler, Vladimir; Manelis, Rami

    2010-02-01

    The physiological and biochemical characteristics of tissue samples of the marine mussel, Donax trunculus, from an oil-polluted site (Qiryat Yam) and from a site adjacent to an industrial factory (Frutarom) producing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were compared with samples from a clean reference site (Akko). All sites were located along the sandy shores of the Israeli Mediterranean Sea. The mussels from the oil-polluted site showed increased activity of the system of active transport of organic anions (SATOA) in the gills and the renocardial organ and also of the multixenobiotic resistance transporter (MXR) in the gills. In contrast, samples collected near the PVC factory showed a decrease in SATOA activity and no increase in the activity of MXR in the gills. Specimens from the reference site demonstrated a redox state of equilibrium between energy production and utilization, while in Donax from both the oil polluted and the PVC-polluted sites, the mitochondrial redox state reflected intensive consumption of energy. No significant changes were found in the activity of reduced glutathione s-transferase (GST) in the cytosolic fraction of the digestive gland of Donax collected from any of the three sites. The data demonstrate a differential increase in the anti-chemical defense systems and an intensification of energy metabolism in the mussels exposed to pollution.

  11. Subtropical Biotic Fringing Reefs as Ecological Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a 16-week course in marine biology involving a class-coordinated investigation of a subtropical biotic fringing reef of Hawaii. Describes in detail the development of preliminary hypotheses regarding general cause-effect relationships on the reef, and the exploration of specific areas, such as chemical or physical factors. (CS)

  12. Practical procedures for selected biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis--implications for marine pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Bellas, Juan

    2013-09-01

    Biomarkers are required to assess the biological effects of pollutants on marine organisms in order to monitor ecosystem status, but their use is often limited by their strong variability due to environmental and/or intrinsic biological factors. Accordingly, the main aim of this work was to set up practical procedures for a battery of widely used biomarkers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT] and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]), a phase II detoxification enzyme (glutathione S-transferase [GST]) and a neurotransmitter catabolism enzyme (acetylcholinesterase [AChE]), were considered. Several relevant aspects were studied in order to obtain a more realistic interpretation of biomarker responses, including the calculation of the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with a fixed error margin, the selection of the specific organ or tissue where the enzymatic activity is higher for each biomarker, and the influence of tidal height and temperature on the basal enzymatic activity. GST and CAT activities needed a minimum sample size of 12, whereas for GPx and AChE activities a minimum sample size of 14 was required. The gills were the organ with higher GST, GPx and AChE enzymatic activities, whereas the digestive gland showed the highest CAT activity. Also, the low inter-tidal was the recommended tide level whilst no significant effect of temperature was observed on GST, GPx and CAT, and no clear pattern could be identified for AChE. The implications for environmental monitoring are discussed.

  13. Numerical modelling for real-time forecasting of marine oil pollution and hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Dominicis, Michela; Pinardi, Nadia; Bruciaferri, Diego; Liubartseva, Svitlana

    2015-04-01

    Many factors affect the motion and transformation of oil at sea. The most relevant of these are the meteorological and marine conditions at the air-sea interface; the chemical characteristics of the oil; its initial volume and release rates; and, finally, the marine currents at different space scales and timescales. All these factors are interrelated and must be considered together to arrive at an accurate numerical representation of oil evolution and movement in seawater. The oil spill model code MEDSLIK-II is a freely available community model. By using a Lagrangian approach, MEDSLIK-II predicts the transport and diffusion of a surface oil slick governed by water currents, winds and waves, which are provided by operational oceanographic and meteorological models. In addition, the model simulates the oil transformations at sea: evaporation, spreading, dispersion, adhesion to coast and emulsification. The model results have been validated using surface drifters and oil slicks observed by satellite in different regions of the Mediterranean Sea. It is found that the forecast skill largely depends on the accuracy of the Eulerian ocean currents: the operational models give useful estimates of currents, but high-frequency (hourly) and high spatial resolution is required, and the Stokes drift velocity has to be often added, especially in coastal areas. MEDSLIK-II is today available at the Mediterranean scale allowing a possible support to oil spill emergencies. The model has been used during the Costa Concordia disaster, the partial sinking of the Italian cruise ship Costa Concordia when it ran aground at Isola del Giglio, Italy. MEDSLIK-II system was run to produce forecast scenarios of the possible oil spill from the Costa Concordia, to be delivered to the competent authorities, by using the currents provided every day by the operational ocean models available in the area. Moreover, MEDSLIK-II is part of the Mediterranean Decision Support System for Marine Safety

  14. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  15. Halogenated organic pollutants in marine biota from the Xuande Atoll, South China Sea: Levels, biomagnification and dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hu, Yong-Xia; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Heng-Xiang; Zuo, Lin-Zi; Zhong, Yi; Sun, Hong; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-03-11

    Six marine biota species were collected from the Xuande Atoll, South China Sea to investigate the bioaccumulation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and dechlorane plus (DP). Pike conger (Muraenesox talabonoides) had the highest concentrations of halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs) among the six marine biota species. DDTs were the predominant HOPs, followed by PCBs and PBDEs, with minor contributions of DBDPE and DP. Twenty-one percent of samples had ratios of (DDE+DDD)/ΣDDTs lower than 0.5, implying the presence of fresh DDT inputs in the environment of the Xuande Atoll. The biomagnification factor values for DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs and DP were higher than 1, suggesting biomagnification of these contaminants in the marine food chains. Consumption of seafood from the Xuande Atoll might not subject local residents in the coastal areas of South China to health risks as far as HOPs are concerned.

  16. Bioaccumulation of metallic trace elements and organic pollutants in marine sponges from the South Brittany Coast, France.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Charline; Rehel, Karine; Dufour, Alain; Sauleau, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accumulation of metallic and organic pollutants in marine sponges with the oyster Crassostrea gigas used as sentinel species. The concentrations of 12 Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs), 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), 7 PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and 3 organotin derivatives were measured in 7 marine sponges collected in the Etel River (South Brittany, France). Results indicated Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Pb, and Ti particularly accumulated in marine sponges such as Hymeniacidon perlevis and Raspailia ramosa at higher levels compared to oysters. At the opposite, Cu and Zn accumulated significantly at higher concentrations in oysters. Among PAHs analyzed, benzo(a)pyrene bioaccumulated in H. perlevis at levels up to 17-fold higher than in oysters. In contrast, PCBs bioaccumulated preferentially in oysters. Significant differences exist in the abilities of marine phyla and sponge species to accumulate organic and metallic pollutants however, among the few sponge species studied, H. perlevis showed impressive bioaccumulation properties. The use of this species as bioindicator and/or bioremediator near shellfish farming areas is also discussed.

  17. Puerto Rico workshop on land-based sources of marine pollution in the wider Caribbean region. Held in San Huan, Puerto Rico on August 7-9, 1989. US man and the biosphere program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The participants in the conference met August 7-9, 1989, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The participants divided the report into four major sections, each succeeding section relying for inputs from the preceding sections. They are: inventory of land-based sources of marine pollution. The inventory, divided into point sources and non-point sources of pollutants, establishes the baseline data for dealing with marine pollution, impact of land-based sources of marine pollution. The extent of the impact of pollutants on the ecological and economic life dependent on the marine environment calls for scientific analyses involving the nature of the polluting substances as well as that of the receiving marine areas, development of tropical water quality and effluent standards. Tropical water quality criteria and standards provide essential analytical links between the use of marine waters and the control of marine pollution, and marine pollution control strategy. The means for managing land-based sources of marine pollution can be divided into utilizing marine water quality standards, effluent standards, environmental planning, and best management practices. The writers of the report dealt with only man-made pollution, which is distinct from natural pollution such as oil seepage through ancient fissures in the seabed.

  18. Bioremediation of bacteria pollution using the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis in the intensive mariculture water system of turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xichang; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Lingyun; Zhang, Bi; Jin, Meifang; Fu, Wantao

    2010-01-01

    Sessile filter-feeding marine sponges (Porifera) have been reported to possess high efficiency in removing bacteria pollution from natural or aquaculture seawater. However, no investigation has been carried out thus far in a true mariculture farm water system. Therefore this study sought to investigate the ability of the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis to bioremediate the bacteria pollution in the intensive aquaculture water system of turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Sponge specimens were hung in fish culture effluent at different temperature to investigate the optimal temperature condition for bacteria removal by H. perlevis. Turbots S. maximus were co-cultured with sponge H. perlevis in 1.5 m(3) of water system at 15-18 degrees C for 6 weeks to control the growth of bacteria. It was found that H. perlevis was able to remove pathogenic bacteria efficiently at 10-20 degrees C, with a maximal removal of 71.4-78.8% of fecal coliform, 73.9-98.7% of pathogenic vibrio, and 75.0-83.7% of total culturable bacteria from fish-culture effluent at 15 degrees C; H. perlevis continuously showed good bioremediation of bacteria pollution in the S. maximus culture water system, achieving removal of 60.0-90.2% of fecal coliform, 37.6-81.6% of pathogenic vibrio, and 45.1-83.9% of total culturable bacteria. The results demonstrate that H. perlevis is an effective bioremediator of bacteria pollution in the turbot S. maximus culture farm water system.

  19. Estimating the global burden of thalassogenic diseases: human infectious diseases caused by wastewater pollution of the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Hillel

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary attempt at obtaining an order-of-magnitude estimate of the global burden of disease (GBD) of human infectious diseases associated with swimming/bathing in coastal waters polluted by wastewater, and eating raw or lightly steamed filter-feeding shellfish harvested from such waters. Such diseases will be termed thalassogenic--caused by the sea. Until recently these human health effects have been viewed primarily as local phenomena, not generally included in the world agenda of marine scientists dealing with global marine pollution problems. The massive global scale of the problem can be visualized when one considers that the wastewater and human body wastes of a significant portion of the world's population who reside along the coastline or in the vicinity of the sea are discharged daily, directly or indirectly, into the marine coastal waters, much of it with little or no treatment. Every cubic metre of raw domestic wastewater discharged into the sea can carry millions of infectious doses of pathogenic microorganisms. It is estimated that globally, foreign and local tourists together spend some 2 billion man-days annually at coastal recreational resorts and many are often exposed there to coastal waters polluted by wastewater. Annually some 800 million meals of potentially contaminated filter-feeding shellfish/bivalves and other sea foods, harvested in polluted waters are consumed, much of it raw or lightly steamed. A number of scientific studies have shown that swimmers swallow significant amounts of polluted seawater and can become ill with gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases from the pathogens they ingest. Based on risk assessments from the World Health Organization (WHO) and academic research sources the present study has made an estimate that globally, each year, there are in excess of 120 million cases of gastrointestinal disease and in excess of 50 million cases of more severe respiratory diseases caused by swimming and

  20. Are Mussels Always the Best Bioindicators? Comparative Study on Biochemical Responses of Three Marine Invertebrate Species to Chronic Port Pollution.

    PubMed

    Laitano, María V; Fernández-Gimenez, Analía V

    2016-07-01

    Bivalves have traditionally been considered good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to pollution, among other features. This characteristic is shared by several other non-bivalve species as well, though studies in this respect remain scarce. This work aims to compare biomarker sensitivity to chronic port pollution among three intertidal invertebrate species with good bioindicator characteristics. Mussels' immunological (phenoloxidase and peroxidases) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase) responses were contrasted against those of limpets and barnacles. The three species under study evidenced activity of all the enzymes measured, although with differences. Barnacle Balanus glandula was the most sensitive species showing pollution modulation of the three enzymes, which suggests that mussels would not always be the best bioindicator species among marine invertebrates depending on the responses that are assessed.

  1. The trophic transfer of persistent pollutants (HCB, DDTs, PCBs) within polar marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Sarà, Gianluca

    2017-02-23

    Biomagnification (increase in contaminant concentrations at successively higher levels of trophic web), is a process that can transversally impair biodiversity and human health. Most research shows that biomagnification should be higher at poles with northern sites having a major tendency to biomagnify Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) through their marine food webs. We investigated the biomagnification degree into two marine trophic webs combining carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and POP analyses. We showed that the Antarctic trophic web was more depleted than the sub-Arctic one and the differences highlighted for the basal part could explain the difference in length between them. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and p,p'-DDE were of the same order of magnitude in the two polar trophic webs, with some values surprisingly higher in the Antarctic than sub-arctic organisms: PCBs ranged (average ± standard deviation) 1.10 ± 0.39-12.93 ± 7.62, HCB <0.10-7.28 ± 5.32, and p,p'-DDE 0.52 ± 0.18-11.36 ± 5.3 ng/g wet weight (wt) in the Antarctic organisms, and 0.53-5.08, <0.10-1.48, and 0.27 ± 0.35-5.46 ± 1.73 ng/g wet wt, respectively, in the sub-Arctic ones. The contribution of tetra- and penta-CBs to the ∑PCBs was 10-65% in the Antarctic species and 15-45% in the Arctic species. The relationships between POPs and trophic levels, and the information obtained by the Trophic Magnification Factor revealed that the Antarctic trophic web had a greater tendency to biomagnify PCBs and p,p'-DDE than its sub-Arctic counterpart. POP availability in the environment and specific ecological features may play an important role in the bioaccumulation, and biomagnification is apparently less important than bioconcentration.

  2. Remote sensing and GIS for the modeling of persistent organic pollutant in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzini, S.; Teggi, S.; Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-10-01

    The characterization of the marine environment plays an important role in the understanding of the dynamics affecting the transport, fate and persistence (TFP) of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This work is part of a project funded by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca. The aim of the project is the assessment of the TFP of POPs in the Mediterranean sea. The analysis will be carried out at regionalmesoscale (central Mediterranean), and at local spatial scale considering different Italian test sites (the Delta of the Po River, the Venice Lagoon and the estuary of the Rio Nocella). The first step of this work involves the implementation of GIS geodatabases for the definition of the input dataset. The geodatabases were populated with MERIS and MODIS level 2 and level 3 products of Chlorophyll-a (CHL-a), Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient (DAC), Particulate Inorganic Carbon (PIC), Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The spatial scale (central Mediterranean sea) and the reference system (Plate Carrée projection) have been imposed as a constraint for the geodatabases. Four geodatabases have been implemented, two for MODIS and two for MERIS products with a monthly, seasonal and climatological temporal scale (2002 -2013). Here, we present a first application of a methodology aimed to identify vulnerable areas to POPs accumulation and persistence. The methodology allowed to assess the spatial distribution of the CHL-a in the central Mediterranean sea. The chlorophyll concentration is related to the amount of nutrients in the water and therefore provides an indicator of the potential presence of POPs. A pilot area of 300 x 200 km located in the North Adriatic sea has been initially considered. The seasonal and climatological MODIS and MERIS CHL-a variability were retrieved and compared with in-situ forcing parameters, i.e. Po River

  3. [Pollution Characteristics of Perfluorinated Compounds in Offshore Marine Area of Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bao-lin; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Liu-wei; Liu, Guo-qing; Wang, Yan-ping; Wang, Xin-xuan; Li, Jing; Dong, Wei-hua

    2015-06-01

    In order to explore the pollution characteristics of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), 10 surface seawaters and 7 surface sediments were collected in offshore marine area of Shenzhen (offshore distance >2 km) in September 2013. All the samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS). The results showed that 10 PFCs, including C4, C6 and C8 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and C5-C11, perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in the surface waters. ∑ PFC concentrations ranged from 1.74 ng x L(-1) to 14.7 ng x L(-1) with PFBS, PFOS and PFOA being the dominant compounds. The spatial distribution of ∑ PFC concentrations displayed the characteristic of "the west being higher than the east", with ∑ PFC concentrations of Lingding Sea and Shenzhen Bay being higher than those of Daya Bay and Dapeng Bay (P < 0.05). The farther the sampling location was from the shore, the lower the ∑ PFC concentrations were. Direct sewage emissions and rivers emptying into the sea might be the primary sources of PFCs in the surface seawaters. 8 PFCs, including C6 and C8 PFSAs and C5, C6, and C8-C11 PFCAs were detected in the surface sediments. ∑ PFC concentrations ranged from 2.22 micorg x kg(-1) to 2.62 microg x kg(-1) with PFOS being the dominant compounds. There was a small change of ∑ PFC concentrations in surface sediments, which might be contributed by the adsorption from overlying water. The adsorption of PFCs on sediment significantly increased with the increasing length of carbon chain, and the adsorption of PFSA was higher than that of PFCA with the same length of carbon chain as PFSA. Additionally, the comparison with other seawater PFC measurements showed high PFBS pollution in this study, whereas the level of PFOS in sediment was close to those of other studies.

  4. A comparative assessment of heavy metal accumulation in soft parts and byssus of mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical marine environments.

    PubMed

    Szefer, P; Fowler, S W; Ikuta, K; Osuna, F Paez; Ali, A A; Kim, B-S; Fernandes, H M; Belzunce, M-J; Guterstam, B; Kunzendorf, H; Wołowicz, M; Hummel, H; Deslous-Paoli, M

    2006-01-01

    Existing data on metal concentrations in mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical waters were analyzed using multivariate statistics in order to assess regional variations in metal contamination. Potential errors were reduced by only analyzing data from surveys that employed the same protocols, analytical methodologies and analysts. Factor analysis demonstrated that mussels inhabiting extremely contaminated areas (e.g. from Japanese and Swedish metallurgy sources) could be separated from mussels from other contaminated areas, and that metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn could be used to identify heavily contaminated samples while Co, Fe, Cr and Ni concentrations were good markers for exposure to inputs from different industrial sources. Furthermore byssus, like soft tissue, selectively and sensitively reflects variations of certain metal concentrations in ambient waters and thus serves as a reliable biomonitor for these contaminants in a variety of coastal and estuarine areas.

  5. Bacillus Probiotic Enzymes: External Auxiliary Apparatus to Avoid Digestive Deficiencies, Water Pollution, Diseases, and Economic Problems in Marine Cultivated Animals.

    PubMed

    Olmos Soto, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Exploitation of marine fishes is the main source of several life-supporting feed compounds such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that maintain the production of most trading marine organisms by aquaculture. However, at this rate the marine inventory will go to the end soon, since fishery resources are finite. In this sense, the availability of the principal ingredients obtained from marine fishes is going to decrease considerably, increasing the diet prices and affecting the economy of this activity. Therefore, aquaculture industry needs to find nonexpensive land unconventional resources of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids and use bacterial probiotics to improve digestion-assimilation of these unfamiliar compounds. Bacillus subtilis is a cosmopolitan probiotic bacterium with a great enzymatic profile that could improve nutrient digestion-assimilation, induce healthy growth, and avoid water pollution, decreasing economic problems and increasing yields in the aquaculture industry. In this chapter, we present how Bacillus enzymes can help marine animals to assimilate nutrients from unconventional and economic plant resources.

  6. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources.

  7. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  8. Chemical fingerprinting applied to the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts of Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Peña-Méndez, E M; Astorga-España, M S; García-Montelongo, F J

    2001-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting approach to environmental assessment is illustrated in the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts using two limpet species as bioindicator organisms, and based on profiles and concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in their tissues. Accidental and chronic releases of hydrocarbons can contaminate the marine environment of the Canary Islands not only because of their geographical situation but also because of the very dense tanker traffic around. This situation affects coastal areas, fishing activities, tourism resort, etc. Concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the soft tissues of the marine intertidal and subtidal limpets, Patella crenata and Patella ullysiponensis aspera, were evaluated. Limpet samples were collected at monthly intervals, at three locations on the southeast coast of Tenerife over a 3-year period (1991-93). Levels of hydrocarbons found in limpets are similar to concentrations found in unpolluted areas around the world. From application of principal component analysis, the interpretation of variable loading plots gives information on variable correlation and can be used to distinguish among potential sources of pollution and the ability of studied molluscs to be used as bioindicator organisms.

  9. Response of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes to cadmium exposure in the marine pollution indicator worm, Perinereis nuntia.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Park, Gyung Soo; Lee, Jehee; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2011-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a phase II enzyme that functions as a detoxicant by catalyzing the conjugation of reduced glutathione with a variety of xenobiotics via cysteine thiol. Molecular genetic approaches using gene biomarkers show substantial relevance as sensitive biomarkers for the indication of pollution levels. In order to use GSTs as molecular biomarkers for marine pollution monitoring, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNA of seven GST genes from the marine polychaete Perinereis nuntia. The deduced amino acid sequence of Pn-GSTs showed a high similarity to those of other species that clustered into the same clades in a phylogenetic analysis. In addition, to evaluate Pn-GSTs as useful biomarkers on effects after cadmium (Cd) exposure, we exposed sublethal concentrations of Cd (5, 50, and 500 μg/L) to P. nuntia, and they showed relatively different but significantly increases, depending on exposure time and Cd concentrations. Particularly, Pn-GST-omega and Pn-GST-sigma genes were highly sensitive with a clear dose-dependent manner on mRNA expression. The total GST activities also have significantly increased levels at higher concentrations of Cd exposure. These results indicate that Pn-GSTs play important roles in Cd-induced oxidative stress in terms of the physiological changes relating to metabolism and cell protection, and those genes would have great potential as molecular biomarkers to monitor marine environmental health.

  10. Modelling exposure of oceanic higher trophic-level consumers to polychlorinated biphenyls: pollution 'hotspots' in relation to mass mortality events of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Handoh, Itsuki C; Kawai, Toru

    2014-08-30

    Marine mammals in the past mass mortality events may have been susceptible to infection because their immune systems were suppressed through the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compiled mortality event data sets of 33 marine mammal species, and employed a Finely-Advanced Transboundary Environmental model (FATE) to model the exposure of the global fish community to PCB congeners, in order to define critical exposure levels (CELs) of PCBs above which mass mortality events are likely to occur. Our modelling approach enabled us to describe the mass mortality events in the context of exposure of higher-trophic consumers to PCBs and to identify marine pollution 'hotspots' such as the Mediterranean Sea and north-western European coasts. We demonstrated that the CELs can be applied to quantify a chemical pollution Planetary Boundary, under which a safe operating space for marine mammals and humanity can exist.

  11. Monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment after the Prestige oil spill by means of seabird blood analysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; López-Alonso, Marta; Oro, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    In this study we tested the use of seabird blood as a bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in the marine environment. Blood cells of breeding yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) were able to track spatial and temporal changes consistent with the massive oil pollution pulse that resulted from the Prestige oil spill. Thus, in 2004, blood samples from yellow-legged gulls breeding in colonies that were in the trajectory of the spill doubled in theirtotal PAH concentrations when compared to samples from unoiled colonies. Furthermore, PAH levels in gulls from an oiled colony decreased by nearly a third in two consecutive breeding seasons (2004 and 2005). Experimental evidence was gathered by means of an oil-ingestion field experiment. The total concentration of PAHs in the blood of gulls given oil supplements was 30% higher compared to controls. This strongly suggested that measures of PAHs in the blood of gulls are sensitive to the ingestion of small quantities of oil. Our study provides evidence that seabirds were exposed to residual Prestige oil 17 months after the spill commenced and gives support to the nondestructive use of seabirds as biomonitors of oil pollution in marine environments.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in marine fishes as a specific biomarker to indicate PAH pollution in the marine coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin H; Hong, Hua S; Mu, Jing L; Lin, Jian Q; Wang, Shong H

    2008-02-15

    In this study, analysis methods for the PAH metabolites of naphthalene (Na), pyrene (Py) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) with different benzo-rings (2-4-5 rings respectively) were developed and the metabolism kinetics of Py and BaP in marine fishes were studied. Two PAH metabolites of Na and Py, namely 1-naphthol (1-OH Na) and 1-hydroxy pyrene (1-OH Py), were determined using the fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) method, and the BaP metabolite, 3-hydroxy benzo(a)pyrene (3-OH BaP), was determined using reverse-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. The dose- and time-response of Lateolabrax japonicus to Py metabolites and Sparus macrocephalus to BaP metabolites were studied in order to evaluate the use of PAH metabolites as a means of assessing exposure to PAHs. The results showed that both fishes could be induced to metabolize and eliminate their metabolites in vivo with increasing Py and BaP exposure concentrations in seawater. As Py and BaP concentrations increased, metabolite concentrations in the fish bile also increased. A significant dose-response of biliary PAH metabolites was observed after exposure for 1, 3 and 7 days for Py and 2, 4 and 7 days for BaP, respectively. These results provide the proof necessary for using PAH metabolites in marine fishes as a specific biomarker or early warning signal of PAH pollution in the marine coastal environment.

  13. Bioreactor-based bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted Niger Delta marine sediment, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chikere, Chioma Blaise; Chikere, Blaise Ositadinma; Okpokwasili, Gideon Chijioke

    2012-03-01

    Crude oil-polluted marine sediment from Bonny River loading jetty Port Harcourt, Nigeria was treated in seven 2.5 l stirred-tank bioreactors designated BNPK, BNK5, BPD, BNO(3), BUNa, BAUT, and BUK over a 56-day period. Five bioreactors were biostimulated with either K(2)HPO(4), NH(4)NO(3), (NH(4))(2)SO(4), NPK, urea or poultry droppings while unamended (BUNa) and heat-killed (BAUT) treatments were controls. For each bioreactor, 1 kg (wet weight) sediment amended with 1 l seawater were spiked with 20 ml and 20 mg of crude oil and anthracene which gave a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) range of 106.4-116 ppm on day 0. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in all spiked sediment slurry ranged from 96.6 to 104.4 ppm. TPH in each treatment was ≤14.9 ppm while PAH was ≤6.8 ppm by day 56. Treatment BNO(3) recorded highest heterotrophic bacterial count (9.8 × 10(8) cfu/g) and hydrocarbon utilizers (1.15 × 10(8) cfu/g). By day 56, the percentages of biodegradation of PAHs, as measured with GC-FID were BNK5 (97.93%), BNPK (98.38%), BUK (98.82%), BUNa (98.13%), BAUT (93.08%), BPD (98.92%), and BNO(3) (98.02%). BPD gave the highest degradation rate for PAH. TPH degradation rates were as follows: BNK5 (94.50%), BNPK (94.77%), BUK (94.10%), BUNa (94.77%), BAUT (75.04%), BPD (95.35%), BNO(3) (95.54%). Fifty-six hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates obtained were Micrococcus spp. 5 (9.62%), Staphylococcus spp. 3 (5.78%), Pseudomonas spp. 7 (13.46%), Citrobacter sp. 1 (1.92%), Klebsiella sp. 1 (1.92%), Corynebacterium spp. 5 (9.62%), Bacillus spp. 5 (9.62%), Rhodococcus spp. 7 (13.46%), Alcanivorax spp. 7 (13.46%), Alcaligenes sp. 1 (1.92%), Serratia spp. 2 (3.85%), Arthrobacter spp. 7 (13.46%), Nocardia spp. 2 (3.85%), Flavobacterium sp. 1 (1.92%), Escherichia sp. 1 (1.92%), Acinetobacter sp. 1 (1.92%), Proteus sp. 1 (1.92%) and unidentified bacteria 10 (17%). These results indicate that the marine sediment investigated is amenable to bioreactor

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS.

  15. Relative contribution of persistent organic pollutants to marine phytoplankton biomass dynamics in the North Sea and the Kattegat.

    PubMed

    Everaert, Gert; De Laender, Frederik; Goethals, Peter L M; Janssen, Colin R

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we use concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and of chlorophyll a to infer POP-induced effects on marine primary production in the Kattegat and the North Sea between the 1990s and the 2000s. To do so, we modelled phytoplankton dynamics using four classical drivers (light and nutrient availability, temperature and zooplankton grazing) and tested whether extending this model with a POP-induced phytoplankton growth limitation term improved model fit to observed chlorophyll a concentrations. Including monitored concentrations of PCBs and pesticides did not lead to a better model fit, suggesting that POP-induced growth limitation of marine phytoplankton in the North Sea and the Kattegat is small compared to the limitations caused by the classical drivers. In an attempt to more fully represent the multitude of POPs in the marine environment, the monitored concentrations were multiplied with a factor 10 and 100. Under these two configurations, region-specific contributions of POPs in the phytoplankton growth limitation were found. The inferred contribution of POPs to phytoplankton growth limitation was ca. 1% in Belgian marine waters, but in the Kattegat POPs explained ca. 10% of the phytoplankton growth limitation. These results suggest that there are regional differences in the contribution of POPs to the phytoplankton growth limitation.

  16. Estimation of lost tourism revenue in Geoje Island from the 2011 marine debris pollution event in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Mi Jeong; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-04-15

    Following a period of heavy rainfall in July 2011, a large amount of marine debris was washed up on the beaches of Geoje Island, South Korea, affecting the island's tourism industry. The tourism revenue decreased due to this pollution event and was estimated by multiplying the decreased number of visitors by the average expenditure of visitors to the beaches. Due to the fact that the visitor count at the Island's beaches decreased from 890,435 in 2010 to 330,207 in 2011 (i.e., a reduction of 560,228 persons, 63%), the tourism revenue loss of the island was estimated to be US$29-37 million. This study is one of the few to consider the economic effects of marine debris.

  17. Coral skeletal tin and copper concentrations at Pohnpei, Micronesia: possible index for marine pollution by toxic anti-biofouling paints.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nohara, Masato; Kan, Hironobu; Edward, Ahser; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2004-06-01

    We present 40 year-long skeletal chronologies of tin (Sn) and copper (Cu) from an annually-banded coral (Porites sp.) collected from Pohnpei Island, Micronesia (western equatorial Pacific). Both the elements are present in antifouling marine paints and are released inadvertently into ambient seawater. Especially, Sn has often been used in the form of tributyltin (TBT). Based on a stepwise pretreatment examination, Sn and Cu both inside and outside the aragonite lattice of the coral skeleton show a potential for providing marine pollution indicators. High values of extra-skeletal Cu/Ca and Sn/Ca atomic ratios were found between late 1960s and late 1980s during a period of active use of TBT-based antifouling paints worldwide. However, a significant decrease in both the ratios in the beginning of 1990s can be attributed to regulation of the use of TBT on cargo ships by countries such as the USA, Japan and Australia.

  18. Comparing differential tolerance of native and non-indigenous marine species to metal pollution using novel assay techniques.

    PubMed

    Piola, Richard F; Johnston, Emma L

    2009-10-01

    Recent research suggests anthropogenic disturbance may disproportionately advantage non-indigenous species (NIS), aiding their establishment within impacted environments. This study used novel laboratory- and field-based toxicity testing to determine whether non-indigenous and native bryozoans (common within marine epibenthic communities worldwide) displayed differential tolerance to the common marine pollutant copper (Cu). In laboratory assays on adult colonies, NIS showed remarkable tolerance to Cu, with strong post-exposure recovery and growth. In contrast, native species displayed negative growth and reduced feeding efficiency across most exposure levels. Field transplant experiments supported laboratory findings, with NIS growing faster under Cu conditions. In field-based larval assays, NIS showed strong recruitment and growth in the presence of Cu relative to the native species. We suggest that strong selective pressures exerted by the toxic antifouling paints used on transport vectors (vessels), combined with metal contamination in estuarine environments, may result in metal tolerant NIS advantaged by anthropogenically modified selection regimes.

  19. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals.

  20. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Sara K.; Harley, John R.; Lieske, Camilla L.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Whiting, Alex V.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals. PMID:26440545

  1. Effects of pollution on the geochemical properties of marine sediments across the fringing reef of Aqaba, Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Al-Rousan, Saber; Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Rashdan, Maen

    2016-09-15

    The Gulf of Aqaba is of significant strategic and economic value to all gulf-bordering states, particularly to Jordan, where it provides Jordan with its only marine outlet. The Gulf is subject to a variety of impacts posing imminent ecological risk to its unique marine ecosystem. We attempted to investigate the status of metal pollution in the coastal sediments of the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba. The distribution of Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations were determined in trapped and bottom-surface sediments at three selected sites at different depths. In addition, monthly sedimentation rates at varying water depths were also estimated at each sampling site using sediment traps. The high concentrations of Cd, Cr, Zn were recorded at the Phosphate Loading Birth (PLB) site followed by the Industrial Complex (IC) site indicating their dominant anthropogenic source (i.e., the contribution of industrial activities). However, Fe, Al, and Mn contents were related to inputs from the terrigenous (crustal) origin. Except for Al, Fe and Mn at the PLB site, the concentrations of metals exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing water depth (distance from the shoreline). The PLB site also showed the highest sedimentation rate which decreased with increasing water depth. The Enrichment factors (EFs) showed that Cd was the most enriched element in the sediment (indicating that Cd pollution is widespread), whereas the least enriched metal in sediments was Cu. EF values suggested that the coastal area is impacted by a combination of human and natural sources of metals, where the anthropogenic sources are intense in the PLB site (north of Gulf of Aqaba). The MSS area is potentially the least polluted, consistent with being a marine reserve. The IC sediments have been found to be impacted by human activities but less intensely compared to the PLB area. These results suggested that there are two sources of metals in sediments; the primary source is likely closer to PLB

  2. Desert Dust Layers Over Polluted Marine Boundary Layers: ACE-2 Measurements and ACE-Asia Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols in ACE-Asia are expected to have some commonalties with those in ACE-2, along with important differences. Among the commonalities are occurrences of desert dust layers over polluted marine boundary layers. Differences include the nature of the dust (yellowish in the East Asia desert outflow, vs. reddish-brown in the Sahara Outflow measured in ACE-2) and the composition of boundary-layer aerosols (e.g., more absorbing, soot and organic aerosol in-the Asian plume, caused by coal and biomass burning, with limited controls). In this paper we present ACE-2 measurements and analyses as a guide to our plans for ACE-2 Asia. The measurements include: (1) Vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth and extinction (380-1558 nm), and of water vapor column and concentration, from the surface through the elevated desert dust, measured by the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14); (2) Comparisons of airborne and shipborne sunphotometer optical depths to satellite-retrieved values, with and without desert dust; (3) Comparisons between airborne Sunphotometer optical depth and extinction spectra and those derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption; (4) Comparisons between size distributions measured in situ and retrieved from sunphotometer optical depth spectra; (5) Comparisons between aerosol single scattering albedo values obtained by several techniques, using various combinations of measurements of backscatter, extinction, size distribution, scattering, absorption, and radiative flux. We show how analyses of these data can be used to address questions important to ACE-Asia, such as: (1) How do dust and other absorbing aerosols affect the accuracy of satellite optical depth retrievals? How important are asphericity effects? (2) How important are supermicron dust and seasalt aerosols to overall aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing? How well are these aerosols sampled by aircraft

  3. Inventory of non-federally funded marine-pollution research, development, and monitoring activities: South Atlantic and Gulf coastal region

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    In 1980, NMPPO published a summary of non-Federally funded projects. This inventory report includes projects in or related to the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, as well as the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In addition to oceanic, coastal, and estuarine studies, projects specific to freshwater areas have been included if these areas are being studied for the purpose of determining sources of pollutants to estuarine and coastal areas or the effects of changes in freshwater areas on the marine environment.

  4. The ascidian Styela plicata hemocytes as a potential biomarker of marine pollution: In vitro effects of seawater and organic mercury.

    PubMed

    Parrinello, D; Bellante, A; Parisi, M G; Sanfratello, M A; Indelicato, S; Piazzese, D; Cammarata, M

    2017-02-01

    Toxic metals, such as mercury, contribute substantially to anthropogenic pollution in many estuarine environments. Animals living in those environments, particularly invertebrate filter feeders like tunicates, can be used as bioindicators. In an attempt to identify cellular markers for revealing pollution, this study examined in vitro the effects of different concentrations of methyl mercury on Styela plicata hemocytes. The harvested hemocytes from S. plicata that were exposed to the metal had a significant mortality, cellular count and morphometric alterations. These findings provided evidence of MeHg immunotoxic effects on S. plicata, resulting in hemocyte death and morphological changes induced by cytoskeleton alterations. Thus, a morphometric cellular parameter, such as spreading ability, was used as a complementary method for differentiation between hemocytes treated with a marine solution (as a negative control) and hemocytes incubated with methylmercury and/or Sicilian seawater samples.

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution and pollution assessment of trace metals in marine sediments in Oyster Bay, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Alyazichi, Yasir M; Jones, Brian G; McLean, Errol

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of untreated urban and industrial wastewater has a deleterious effect on both the water and sediment quality of Oyster Bay located in south Sydney, Australia. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the potential pollution of marine sediments in Oyster Bay. The results of metals were compared with adverse biological effect values effect range low (ERL) and effect range median (ERM). Spatial distribution of trace metals was estimated by applying geographic information system. The results indicated that the sediments were polluted with Cu, Zn, As and Pb, which exceeded ERL levels. However, these metals were still below ERM values, and other metals Cr and Ni were below ERL. Moreover, the highest concentrations of metals were around discharge points and in the inner bay. Further, trace metals could be attributed to human activities within the bay as they declined in concentrations with increasing sediment depth.

  6. Development of a hybrid pollution index for heavy metals in marine and estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal pollution of sediments is a growing concern in most parts of the world, and numerous studies focussed on identifying contaminated sediments by using a range of digestion methods and pollution indices to estimate sediment contamination have been described in the literature. The current work provides a critical review of the more commonly used sediment digestion methods and identifies that weak acid digestion is more likely to provide guidance on elements that are likely to be bioavailable than other traditional methods of digestion. This work also reviews common pollution indices and identifies the Nemerow Pollution Index as the most appropriate method for establishing overall sediment quality. Consequently, a modified Pollution Index that can lead to a more reliable understanding of whole sediment quality is proposed. This modified pollution index is then tested against a number of existing studies and demonstrated to give a reliable and rapid estimate of sediment contamination and quality.

  7. Nitrogen cycling and community structure of proteobacterial beta-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria within polluted marine fish farm sediments.

    PubMed

    McCaig, A E; Phillips, C J; Stephen, J R; Kowalchuk, G A; Harvey, S M; Herbert, R A; Embley, T M; Prosser, J I

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marine fish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-probable-number counts were determined in samples of sediment collected from beneath a fish cage and on a transect at 20 and 40 m from the cage. The data suggest that nitrogen cycling was significantly disrupted directly beneath the fish cage, with inhibition of nitrification and denitrification. Although visual examination indicated some slight changes in sediment appearance at 20 m, all other measurements were similar to those obtained at 40 m, where the sediment was considered pristine. The community structures of proteobacterial beta-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at the sampling sites were compared by PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), using primers which target this group. PCR products were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and with oligonucleotide hybridization probes specific for different ammonia oxidizers. A DGGE doublet observed in PCR products from the highly polluted fish cage sediment sample was present at a lower intensity in the 20-m sample but was absent from the pristine 40-m sample station. Band migration, hybridization, and sequencing demonstrated that the doublet corresponded to a marine Nitrosomonas group which was originally observed in 16S rDNA clone libraries prepared from the same sediment samples but with different PCR primers. Our data suggest that this novel Nitrosomonas subgroup was selected for within polluted fish farm sediments and that the relative abundance of this group was influenced by the extent of pollution.

  8. A miniaturized bismuth-based sensor to evaluate the marine organism Styela plicata bioremediation capacity toward heavy metal polluted seawater.

    PubMed

    Colozza, Noemi; Gravina, Maria Flavia; Amendola, Luca; Rosati, Modesto; Akretche, Djamal Eddine; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-04-15

    Cadmium and lead are highly toxic heavy metals which cause a severe worldwide pollution. In addition to the toxic effect produced by the direct exposure, they can be bioconcentrated and accumulated in living organisms, including humans. Herein, a miniaturized and disposable electrochemical sensor was improved for the simultaneous detection of cadmium and lead ions to study the bioremediation of polluted seawater in presence of the filter-feeding marine organism Styela plicata. A screen-printed electrode modified in situ with a bismuth film was selected using the anodic stripping analysis as detection technique. This sensor was coupled with a portable potentiostat and the detection of cadmium and lead ions was carried out by Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry, allowing the simultaneous detection of both heavy metals at ppb level (LOD=0.3ppb for lead, 1.5ppb for cadmium). This analytical tool was then applied to assess the bioremediation capacity of S. plicata through a bioremediation experiment, in which the organism has been exposed to seawater artificially polluted with 1000ppb of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+). The matrix effect of both seawater and acid digested biological samples was evaluated. A bioconcentration phenomenon was observed for both heavy metals through the analysis of S. plicata tissues. In details, Pb(2+) resulted to be about 2.5 times more bioconcentrated than Cd(2+), giving an effective bioremediation level in seawater of 13% and 40% for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+), respectively. Thus, our results demonstrate the capability of S. plicata to bioremediate Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) polluted seawater as well as the suitability of the electrochemical sensor for contaminated marine environment monitoring and bioremediation evaluation.

  9. National marine pollution program: catalog of federal projects FY 1984 update. Appendix No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The National Ocean Pollution Planning Act, P.L. 95-273 (as amended), calls for the establishment of a comprehensive, coordinated, and effective Federal program for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring. The Catalog of Federal Projects is one of a series of documents published by NMPPO to meet the mandates of the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act. The Act calls for a detailed listing of all existing Federal programs related to ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring. Two reports are published on an annual basis to meet this requirement. One of these contains summaries of the major programs conducted by the Federal agencies.

  10. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution.

  11. Free fatty acid profiling of marine sentinels by nanoLC-EI-MS for the assessment of environmental pollution effects.

    PubMed

    Albergamo, Ambrogina; Rigano, Francesca; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-11-15

    The present work aims to elucidate the free fatty acid (FFA) profile of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caged in an anthropogenically impacted area and in a reference site through an innovative and validated analytical approach for the assessment of biological alterations induced by marine pollution. The FFA pattern is involved in the regulation of different cellular pathways and differs with respect to metabolic stimuli. To this purpose, the lipid fraction of mussels coming from both sampling areas was extracted and the FFA fractions were isolated and purified by a solid phase extraction; then, nano-scale liquid chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (nanoLC-EI-MS) was employed for the characterization of the two samples. A total of 19 and 17 FFAs were reliably identified in the mussels coming from the reference and polluted site, respectively. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences found in saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated species may be exploited as typical pollution biomarkers (e.g. alteration of the fatty acid biosynthetic system and lipotoxicity) and explain adverse and compromising effects (e.g. oxidative stress and inflammatory processes) related to environmental pollution.

  12. Understanding sources, sinks, and transport of marine debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2011-07-01

    Fifth International Marine Debris Conference: Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris; Honolulu, Hawaii, 20 March 2011; Ocean pollution in the form of marine debris, especially plastic debris, has received increasing public and media attention in recent years through striking but frequently inaccurate descriptions of “garbage patches.” Marine debris is composed of all manufactured materials, including glass, metal, paper, fibers, and plastic, that have been deliberately dumped or that accidentally entered the marine environment. Marine debris is most visible on beaches, but it has been observed in all oceans and in such remote locations as on the deep seabed and floating in the middle of subtropical ocean gyres. While many initiatives have been developed to solve this pollution problem through prevention and cleanup efforts, there is relatively little scientific information available to assess the current status of the problem or to provide metrics to gauge the success of remediation measures. With this in mind, a full-day workshop entitled “Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris” was convened at the Fifth International Marine Debris Conference in Hawaii, bringing together observational scientists and oceanographic modelers to outline the steps necessary to quantify the major sources and sinks of marine debris and the pathways between them. The ultimate goal in integrating the two approaches of study is to quantify the basinscale and global inventory of marine debris by closing the associated mass budgets.

  13. National marine pollution program: Summary of federal programs and projects: FY 1988 update. Final report, 1 October 1987-30 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The report is published annually by the National Ocean Pollution Program Office, created under P.L. 95-273 (as amended), which calls for the establishment of a comprehensive, coordinated, and effective Federal program for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring. The report provides information on Federal marine pollution programs. It contains a discussion of agency missions and mandates; Federal personnel and facilities; program descriptions; and a listing of all Federal ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring projects including project descriptions and fiscal-year funding levels. Analyses of funding of Federal programs over time and of the research interest and regional scope of this year's funded projects are also made.

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-09-15

    Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment.

  15. Variation in tolerance to common marine pollutants among different populations in two species of the marine copepod Tigriopus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Patrick Y; Foley, Helen B; Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Edmands, Suzanne

    2015-10-01

    Geographical variation in chemical tolerance within a species can significantly influence results of whole animal bioassays, yet a literature survey showed that the majority of articles using bioassays did not provide detail on the original field collection site of their test specimens confounding the ability for accurate replication and comparison of results. Biological variation as a result of population-specific tolerance, if not addressed, can be misinterpreted as experimental error. Our studies of two marine copepod species, Tigriopus japonicus and Tigriopus californicus, found significant intra- and inter-specific variation in tolerance to copper and tributyltin. Because both species tolerate copper concentrations orders of magnitude higher than those found in coastal waters, difference in copper tolerance may be a by-product of adaptation to other stressors such as high temperature. Controlling for inter-population tolerance variation will greatly strengthen the application of bioassays in chemical toxicity tests.

  16. First report of chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine bird eggs from an oceanic Indian Ocean island.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Kylin, Henrik; Yive, Nee Sun Choong Kwet; Tatayah, Vikash; Løken, Katharina; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Polder, Anuschka

    2012-10-01

    We report for the first time levels of persistent organic pollutants in marine bird eggs from an oceanic island in the Indian Ocean, the world's third largest ocean. Ten eggs each of the Common Noddy, also known as the Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), and Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata) were collected from Ile Cocos off the coast of the island of Rodrigues, located 560 km east of the island of Mauritius. ΣPCBs had the highest levels (2.2 and 2.6n g/g wm, wet mass; 20 and 19 ng/g lm, lipid mass) for common Noddy and Sooty Tern, respectively (and following), then ΣDDT (1.9 and 3.1 ng/g wm; 17 and 23 ng/g lm), and mirex (0.96 and 0.69 ng/g wm; 8.7 and 5.0 ng/gl m). ΣChlordanes (0.094 and 0.15 ng/g wm; 0.48 and 0.73 ng/g lm) and Σtoxaphenes (0.26 and 0.61 ng/g wm; 2.4 and 5.9 ng/g lm) are rare data for these compounds from this ocean. Brominated flame retardants were low (0.08 and 0.07 ng/g wm; 0.7 and 0.7 ng/g lm). Multivariate analyses indicated different contamination patterns in the prey items as Sooty Terns had significantly higher levels of mean Σchlordanes and Σtoxaphenes, as well as CB105, -108 and -157. p,p'-DDE had an association with thinner eggshells in the Sooty Tern. Although the contaminant levels were in all respects low, industrialisation, development on the periphery, commercial exploitation of the marine environment, and pollutants transferred over long distances by marine debris is likely to add to chemical pressure in this region. Monitoring changes in background levels of pollutants in remote regions will indicate such trends, and marine bird eggs from Rodrigues would be an excellent site.

  17. Comparative study of biochemical and immunological biomarkers in three marine bivalves exposed at a polluted site.

    PubMed

    Cotou, Efthimia; Tsangaris, Catherine; Henry, Morgane

    2013-03-01

    A battery of biochemical and immunological biomarkers used for pollution assessment were measured for first time in the clams Venus verrucosa and Callista chione and were compared with those of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established indicator organism utilized in numerous environmental monitoring programs. Clams and mussel were transplanted at a polluted and a reference site or maintained at the laboratory. Among biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase did not differ at the polluted site in all species, but there was a significant difference between the mussel and the clams, glutathione S-transferase showed a clear inhibition at the polluted site in all species and a significant difference between the two clams was also indicated, while catalase activities were increased only in V. verrucosa at the polluted site and not in mussel or the other clam. Immunological biomarkers responses were also pronounced at the polluted site. Lysozyme activity was species-dependent whereas respiratory burst activity measured as luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) was site and stimulus dependent, and it was evident in M. galloprovincialis and V. verrucosa and not in C. chione. Further investigation focused on biochemical and immunological biomarkers related with the oxidative mechanisms in clams will strengthen and expand their use as bioindicators for pollution assessment.

  18. [Effects of Oil Pollutants on the Performance of Marine Benthonic Microbial Fuel Cells and Its Acceleration of Degradation].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yao; Fu, Yu-bin; Liang, Sheng-kang; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2015-08-01

    Degradation of oil pollutants under the sea is slow for its oxygen-free environment which has caused long-term harm to ocean environment. This paper attempts to accelerate the degradation of the sea oil pollutants through electro catalysis by using the principle of marine benthonic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs). The influence of oil pollutants on the battery performance is innovatively explored by comparing the marine benthonic microbial fuel cells ( BMFCs-A) containing oil and oil-free microbial fuel cells (BMFCs-B). The acceleration effect of BMFCs is investigated by the comparison between the oil-degrading rate and the number of heterotrophic bacteria of the BMFCs-A and BMFCs-B on their anodes. The results show that the exchange current densities in the anode of the BMFCs-A and BMFCs-B are 1. 37 x 10(-2) A x m(-2) and 1.50 x 10(-3) A x m(-2) respectively and the maximum output power densities are 105.79 mW x m(-2) and 83.60 mW x m(-2) respectively. The exchange current densities have increased 9 times and the maximum output power density increased 1. 27 times. The anti-polarization ability of BMFCs-A is improved. The heterotrophic bacteria numbers of BMFCs-A and BMFCs-C on their anodes are (66 +/- 3.61) x 10(7) CFU x g(-1) and (7.3 +/- 2.08) x 10(7) CFU x g(-1) respectively and the former total number has increased 8 times, which accelerates the oil-degrading rate. The degrading rate of the oil in the BMFCs-A is 18.7 times higher than that in its natural conditions. The BMFCs can improve its electrochemical performance, meanwhile, the degradation of oil pollutants can also be accelerated. A new model of the marine benthonic microbial fuel cells on its acceleration of oil degradation is proposed in this article.

  19. Effect of pollution history on immunological responses and organ histology in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Sheir, Sherin K; Handy, Richard D; Henry, Theodore B

    2013-05-01

    The effect of previous toxicant exposure (i.e., exposure history) on an organism's response to re-exposure to the toxicant is of considerable interest. The marine mussel Mytilus edulis was collected from reference and polluted sites in southwest England, and groups of mussels from each site were exposed to 20 μg/L CdCl2 for 0, 1, 4, and 8 days and compared with unexposed controls. End points evaluated were tissue metal and electrolyte concentrations, haemolymph chemistry, haemocyte characteristics [counts, neutral red uptake (NRU), and phagocytosis], histology, and expression of metallothionein gene (mt10) expression in digestive glands. Field-collected animals differed by collection site for some end points at time zero, at which time tissue Fe and Pb concentrations were greater and NRU and condition index lower in mussels from the polluted site. Subsequent exposure to cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory caused Cd accumulation mainly in digestive gland, but there were no site-specific effects on tissue trace-metal concentrations. NRU, phagocytosis, and haemolymph Na(+) and K(+) concentrations differed among sites and Cd treatment, but there were no clear trends. Exposure to Cd resulted in lower Ca(2+) concentrations in gill, digestive gland, and haemolymph in animals from the polluted site compared with controls (Kruskal-Wallis, p ≤ 0.05). Lesions, including necrosis, inflammation, and neoplasia, were observed in animals from the polluted site, but the frequency of these lesions appeared to decrease unexpectedly after Cd exposure. Expression of mt10 increased 3-fold in Cd-exposed animals from the polluted site compared with all other groups (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.01). We conclude that Cd exposure affected some immune responses in M. edulis, but pre-exposure history influenced toxicological outcomes of Cd exposure in the laboratory.

  20. Potential sources of nitrous acid (HONO) and their impacts on ozone: A WRF-Chem study in a polluted subtropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Junyu; Xu, Zheng; Lv, Mengyao

    2016-04-01

    the Pearl River Delta region. This result highlights the importance of accurately representing HONO sources in simulations of secondary pollutants over polluted regions.

  1. National marine pollution program: agency program summaries FY 1984 update. Appendix No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The National Ocean Pollution Planning Act, P.L. 95-273 (as amended), calls for the establishment of a comprehensive, coordinated, and effective Federal program for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring. The Agency Program Summaries is one of a series of documents published by NMPPO to meet the mandates of the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act. The Act calls for a detailed listing of all existing Federal programs related to ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring. Two reports are published on an annual basis to meet this requirement. One of these contains summaries of the major programs conducted by the Federal agencies, the second is a catalog of the specific projects that comprise these programs.

  2. Differential fitness of allelic isozymes in the marine gastropods Littorina punctata and Littorina neritoides, exposed to the environmental stress of the combined effects of cadmium and mercury pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Batia; Nevo, Eviatar

    1987-07-01

    The present study tested the separate and the interactive pollution effects of cadmium and mercury on the electrophoretically detected allelic isozyme frequencies of the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase for two species of littoral marine gastropods — Littorina punctata and L. neritoides — and the enzyme amino peptidase for L. neritoides. Our results indicate differential survivorship of allelic isozyme genotypes specific for each type of pollutant and for their interaction, as well as trends common to all pollutants. Theoretically the results reflect the adaptive nature of at least some allozymic genotypes in these marine gastropods and seem inconsistent with the neutral theory of allozyme polymorphisms. Practically, the results reinforce earlier conclusions that changes in the frequency of allelic isozymes may be used as a genetic monitor of pollution.

  3. Assessing pollution in marine protected areas: the role of a multi-biomarker and multi-organ approach.

    PubMed

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; de Araújo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Stremel, Tatiana; Campos, Sandro; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Sousa; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to many pressures, including pollution. However, environmental quality monitoring in these areas traditionally relies on only water chemistry and microbiological parameters. The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of a set of biomarkers in different target organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of fish in order to assess the environmental quality of an MPA (MTs, GPx, GST, GSH, DNA damage, LPO, AChE, and condition index). Chemical analyses were also performed on liver and muscle tissues to evaluate metal body burdens, and PAHs were identified in bile. A demersal fish (Cathorops spixii) that is widely consumed by the local population was used as bioindicator species, and the results were integrated using multivariate analysis. The use of the biomarker approach allowed for the identification of both seasonal and spatial variations in pollution sources around the Environmental Protected Area of Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (APA-CIP). Higher metal body burdens associated with biological responses were found in the sites under the influence of urban areas during the dry season, and they were found in the sites under the influence of the Ribeira de Iguape River (RIR) during the rainy season. The liver was found to be more responsive in terms of its antioxidant responses, whereas gills were found to be more responsive to biomarkers of effect. These results show that this set of biomarker analyses in different organs of fish is a useful tool for assessing chemical pollution in an MPA.

  4. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Nicklisch, Sascha C. T.; Rees, Steven D.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T.; Vermeer, Lydia M.; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)–100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  5. Potential effects of oil spills and other chemical pollutants on marine mammals occurring in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The outer continental shelf report describes and assesses the potential effects of oil spills and other contaminants on marine mammals that occur in Alaskan waters, assuming that a spill or contamination occurs. The report focuses primarily on the potential direct and indirect effects of oil spills on marine mammals and addresses both short-term effects that may occur at the time of contact with oil, and long-term effects that may occur long after contact with oil. The report also briefly reviews the literature on the potential effects of other contaminants such as heavy metals and organochlorines (DDT and PCB's) on marine mammals. The assessment concludes that sea otters, polar bears, fur seals, and very young seal pups could suffer serious or lethal effects if contact with oil occurred.

  6. Evaluation of the InSTEC's EDXRF assembly for Marine Sediment Pollution Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Arado, O. Diaz; Rizo, O. Diaz; Lopez-Pino, N.; D'Alessandro, K.; Olivares, S.; Gelen, A.; Casanova, O. A.; Padilla, F.; Corrales, Y.; Maidana, N. L.

    2009-06-03

    The determination of some heavy elements in marine sediments using the InSTEC's EDXRF assembly was evaluated. The spectrometer's main analytical characteristics were performed using {sup 109}Cd and {sup 238}Pu excitation sources. The system capabilities are tested by the analysis of the Certified Reference Material (CRM) IAEA-356. The results show that the K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Zr and Pb elemental concentrations can be determined in marine sediments with an excellent accuracy and Co, Ni, Sr and Mo concentrations with an acceptable accuracy.

  7. CGILS Phase 2 LES intercomparison of response of subtropical marine low cloud regimes to CO 2 quadrupling and a CMIP3 composite forcing change: Large eddy simulation of cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Blossey, Peter N.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Cheng, Anning; Endo, Satoshi; Heus, Thijs; Lock, Adrian P.; van der Dussen, Johan J.

    2016-10-27

    We extended Phase 1 of the CGILS large-eddy simulation (LES) intercomparison in order to understand if subtropical marine boundary-layer clouds respond to idealized climate perturbations consistently in six LES models. Here the responses to quadrupled carbon dioxide (“fast adjustment”) and to a composite climate perturbation representative of CMIP3 multimodel mean 2×CO2 near-equilibrium conditions are analyzed. As in Phase 1, the LES is run to equilibrium using specified steady summertime forcings representative of three locations in the Northeast Pacific Ocean in shallow well-mixed stratocumulus, decoupled stratocumulus, and shallow cumulus cloud regimes. Our results are generally consistent with a single-LES study of Bretherton et al. (2013) on which this intercomparison was based. Both quadrupled CO2 and the composite climate perturbation result in less cloud and a shallower boundary layer for all models in well-mixed stratocumulus and for all but a single LES in decoupled stratocumulus and shallow cumulus, corroborating similar findings from global climate models (GCMs). For both perturbations, the amount of cloud reduction varies across the models, but there is less intermodel scatter than in GCMs. Furthermore, the cloud radiative effect changes are much larger in the stratocumulus-capped regimes than in the shallow cumulus regime, for which precipitation buffering may damp the cloud response. In the decoupled stratocumulus and cumulus regimes, both the CO2 increase and CMIP3 perturbations reduce boundary-layer decoupling, due to the shallowing of inversion height.

  8. CGILS Phase 2 LES intercomparison of response of subtropical marine low cloud regimes to CO 2 quadrupling and a CMIP3 composite forcing change: Large eddy simulation of cloud feedbacks

    DOE PAGES

    Blossey, Peter N.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Cheng, Anning; ...

    2016-10-27

    We extended Phase 1 of the CGILS large-eddy simulation (LES) intercomparison in order to understand if subtropical marine boundary-layer clouds respond to idealized climate perturbations consistently in six LES models. Here the responses to quadrupled carbon dioxide (“fast adjustment”) and to a composite climate perturbation representative of CMIP3 multimodel mean 2×CO2 near-equilibrium conditions are analyzed. As in Phase 1, the LES is run to equilibrium using specified steady summertime forcings representative of three locations in the Northeast Pacific Ocean in shallow well-mixed stratocumulus, decoupled stratocumulus, and shallow cumulus cloud regimes. Our results are generally consistent with a single-LES study ofmore » Bretherton et al. (2013) on which this intercomparison was based. Both quadrupled CO2 and the composite climate perturbation result in less cloud and a shallower boundary layer for all models in well-mixed stratocumulus and for all but a single LES in decoupled stratocumulus and shallow cumulus, corroborating similar findings from global climate models (GCMs). For both perturbations, the amount of cloud reduction varies across the models, but there is less intermodel scatter than in GCMs. Furthermore, the cloud radiative effect changes are much larger in the stratocumulus-capped regimes than in the shallow cumulus regime, for which precipitation buffering may damp the cloud response. In the decoupled stratocumulus and cumulus regimes, both the CO2 increase and CMIP3 perturbations reduce boundary-layer decoupling, due to the shallowing of inversion height.« less

  9. Transfer of radionuclides from high polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chain in post Fukushima period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezhenar, Roman; Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Willemsen, Stefan; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli

    2015-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake and tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) that resulted in an uncontrolled release of radioactivity into air and ocean. Around 80% of the radioactivity released due to the FDNPP accident in March-April 2011 was either directly discharged into the ocean or deposited onto the ocean surface from the atmosphere. A large amount of long-lived radionuclides (mainly Cs-137) were released into the environment. The concentration of radionuclides in the ocean reached a maximum in mid-April of 2011, and then gradually decreased. From 2011 the concentration of Cs-137 in water essentially fell except the area around the FDNPP where leaks of contaminated water are continued. However, in the bottom sediment high concentrations of Cs-137 were found in the first months after the accident and slowly decreased with time. Therefore, it should be expected that a time delay is found of sediment-bound radionuclides in marine organisms. For the modeling of radionuclide transfer from highly polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms the dynamical food chain model BURN-POSEIDON (Heling et al, 2002; Maderich et al., 2014) was extended. In this model marine organisms are grouped into a limited number of classes based on their trophic level and type of species. These include: phytoplankton, zooplankton, fishes (two types: piscivorous and non-piscivorous), crustaceans, and molluscs for pelagic food chain and bottom sediment invertebrates, demersal fishes and bottom predators for benthic food chain and whole water column predators feeding by pelagial and benthic fishes. Bottom invertebrates consume organic parts of bottom sediments with adsorbed radionuclides which then migrate through the food chain. All organisms take radionuclides directly from water as well as via food. In fishes where radioactivity is not homogeneously distributed over all tissues of the organism, it is assumed that radionuclide

  10. Assessment of Current and Future Air Pollutant Emission Reduction Technologies for Marine Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    33 6.3.1 Biodiesel ...6.3 Alternative Fuels There is some consideration of alternatives to liquid fossil oil fuels for the marine industry. Three of these are biodiesel ...Liquefied Natural Gas and Methanol – Dimethyl Ether. 6.3.1 Biodiesel An extensive review across many transportation sectors of the emissions of

  11. GASEOUS ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN THE MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID REMOVAL IN ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) and related species (including inorganic reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (PHg)) were measured at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), Washington State, in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during 2001-2002. Air of...

  12. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species

    PubMed Central

    Miya, M.; Sato, Y.; Fukunaga, T.; Sado, T.; Poulsen, J. Y.; Sato, K.; Minamoto, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Araki, H.; Kondoh, M.; Iwasaki, W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163–185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  13. Polarimetric radars and polarimetric SAR data in tasks of detection and identification of marine oil pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sineva, A. A.; Ivanov, A. Yu.

    2016-12-01

    Detecting and distinguishing different kinds of oil pollution, including spills of crude oil on the sea surface, is one important problem of modern remote sensing. The wide use of imaging radars is not always effective. In this review paper, the main principles and methods of polarization radar imaging and radar data processing are discussed based on present theoretical and experimental approaches and ideas. The efficiency of polarimetric methods for oil-spill detection and accurate identification on the sea surface is demonstrated as well. As is shown, modern methods of multipolarimetric radar-signal processing is a powerful means for improving oil-pollution detection and discrimination algorithms.

  14. Screening and isolation of PHB-producing bacteria in a polluted marine microbial mat.

    PubMed

    López-Cortés, Alejandro; Lanz-Landázuri, Alberto; García-Maldonado, José Q

    2008-07-01

    The characteristics of microbial mats within the waste stream from a seafood cannery were compared to a microbial community at a pristine site near a sandy beach at Puerto San Carlos, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Isolation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)-producing bacteria, recognition of brightly refractile cytoplasmatic inclusions, lipophilic stains with Sudan Black and Nile Red, and chemical extraction of PHB were used as a culture-dependent strategy for the detection of PHB-producing bacteria. The culture-independent approach included denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of phylotypes of 16S rRNA of microbial communities from environmental samples. Significant differences in community structure were found among the polluted and pristine sites. These differences were correlated with the physicochemical characteristics of the seawater column. At the polluted site, the seawater was rich in nutrients (ammonia, phosphates, and organic matter), compared to the pristine location. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA of cultures of bacteria producing PHB included Bacillus and Staphylococcus at both sites; Paracoccus and Micrococcus were found only at the polluted site and Rhodococcus and Methylobacterium were found only at the pristine site. Bands of the sequences of 16S rDNA from both field samples in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses affiliated closely only with bacterial sequences of cultures of Bacillus and Staphylococcus. High concentrations of organic and inorganic nutrients at the polluted site had a clear effect on the composition and diversity of the microbial community compared to the unpolluted site.

  15. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Echeveste, Pedro; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agustí, Susana

    2016-11-15

    Semivolatile and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) undergo atmospheric transport before being deposited to the oceans, where they partition to phytoplankton organic matter. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of naturally occurring complex mixtures of organic pollutants to temperate and polar phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, the North East (NE) Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. The cell abundance of the different phytoplankton groups, chlorophyll a concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly affected by the complex mixtures of non-polar and polar organic pollutants, with toxicity being greater for these mixtures than for single POPs or simple POP mixtures. Cocktails' toxicity arose at concentrations as low as tenfold the field oceanic levels, probably due to a higher chemical activity of the mixture than of simple POPs mixtures. Overall, smaller cells were the most affected, although Mediterranean picophytoplankton was significantly more tolerant to non-polar POPs than picophytoplankton from the Atlantic Ocean or the Bellingshausen Sea microphytoplankton.

  16. The use of the shanny Lipophrys pholis for pollution monitoring: a new sentinel species for the northwestern European marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lima, D; Santos, M M; Ferreira, A M; Micaelo, C; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic ecosystems by organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a matter of great concern. Mussels have been extensively used as sentinel species in a large number of monitoring programs. However, the use of bivalves as the sole species has some limitations, because they are not as responsive as fish to Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor agonists. Hence, for many marine areas, there is the need to validate new sentinel fish species that can be used in the assessment of pollution by organic contaminants. The shanny Lipophrys pholis is an intertidal fish that combines many characteristics required in a sentinel species: is abundant and easy to catch, has a wide geographical distribution and restrict home range. After larvae recruitment to the intertidal rocky shores, they remain in the same area for the rest of the life-cycle, thus reflecting local pollutants exposure. In order to evaluate the species sensitivity to organic contaminants under field conditions, L. pholis were collected at six sites reflecting different degrees of anthropogenic contamination. The induction of two biomarkers extensively validated in the assessment of PAHs contamination ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) and Fluorescent Aromatic Compounds (FACs) was evaluated. In parallel, mussels were collected at the same locations and levels of 16 PAHs and selected heavy metals determined. Overall, the specimens collected in the urban areas showed a significant induction of EROD and FACs (up to a six-fold induction) if compared with the reference sites. Additionally, a positive correlation was observed between the biomarkers and PAHs levels in mussel tissues. Even though further validation is currently in progress, the available data indicate that L. pholis is responsive to organic contaminants such as PAHs, suggesting its future integration in monitoring programmes designed to evaluate the presence of these contaminants in European marine ecosystems.

  17. Fecal pollution in coastal marine sediments from a semi-enclosed deep embayment subjected to anthropogenic activities: an issue to be considered in environmental quality management frameworks development.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, D; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Nebot-Sanz, E; Sales-Márquez, D

    2010-12-01

    Sewage discharge is a major source of pollution in marine environments. Urban wastewaters can directly enter marine environments carrying pathogen organisms, organic loads, and nutrients. Because marine sediments can act as the ultimate fate of a wide range of pollutants, environmental quality assessment in this compartment can help to identify pollution problems in coastal areas. In the present study, characterization of surficial marine sediments allowed assessment of fecal pollution in a semi-enclosed deep embayment that is subjected to anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters and fecal indicators presented a great spatial heterogeneity. Fecal coliform and Clostridium perfringens showed accumulation in an extensive area, not only in proximity to sewage discharge points, but also in sediments at 100 meters depth. Results included herein demonstrated that, in coastal areas, urban wastewater discharge can affect the whole ecosystem through accumulation of fecal matter in bottom sediments. Application of multivariate techniques provided useful information with applicability for management of coastal areas in such complex systems. Environmental implications of wastewater discharge in coastal areas indicate the need to implement and include sediment quality control strategies in legislative frameworks.

  18. Genome Sequences of Two Naphthalene-Degrading Strains of Pseudomonas balearica, Isolated from Polluted Marine Sediment and from an Oil Refinery Site

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Jaén-Luchoro, Daniel; Seguí, Carolina; Aliaga-Lozano, Francisco; García-Valdés, Elena; Lalucat, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome sequences of Pseudomonas balearica strains LS401 (CCUG 66666) and st101 (CCUG 66667) have been determined. The strains were isolated as naphthalene degraders from polluted marine sediment and from a sample from an oil refinery site, respectively. These genomes provide essential data about the biodegradation capabilities and the ecological implications of P. balearica. PMID:28385841

  19. Temporal evolution of anthropogenic pollution and environmental changes in a marine inlet: the example of Gemlik Gulf, Marmara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albut, Gülüm; Namık Cagatay, M.; Gungor, Nurdan; Gungor, Emin; Acar, Dursun; Balkıs, Nuray

    2014-05-01

    Marginal marine basins are particularly prone to anthropogenic pollution because of restricted water circulation and commonly high population density in their drainage basin. Gemlik Gulf is such a semi-enclosed inlet with maximum depth of 113 m in the eastern part of the Sea of Marmara, which is separated from the rest of the Marmara shelf by a -50 m deep sill. It is under anthropogenic risk from different industrial and municipal pollution sources in its drainage basin. Moreover, Gemlik Gulf, located on the middle branch of the North Anatolian fault (NAF), is under a future earthquake risk with a high possibility of pollution from disruption to industrial plants and municipal infrastucture, similar to the the one that occurred in the Ä°zmit Gulf during the 1999 Mw 7.4 Ä°zmit earthquake. In this study, we investigated the extent and temporal evolution of the heavy metal and organic pollution using a wide range of analyses of a 84 cm sediment/water interface long core from the central part of the basin, involving μ-XRF Core Scanner, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Total Organic (TOC) and Inorganic Carbon (TIC), and mass spectrometric stable C and N isotopic and C and N elemental analyses. The chronology of the core was determined using radionuclide (210Pb and 137Cs) and AMS radiocarbon analysis. The core covers about last 800 years. The upper part of the core, representing the last 155 years, is gray mud grading into very dark grey mud in the top 84 cm. The 5-8 cm interval below sea floor (bsf) (AD 1985-1995) includes 3 white laminae consisting of coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi and another carbonate rich layer deposited during AD 1855-1950. TOC values are commonly between 1.5 and 2.5 % below 12.5 cmbsf (AD 1965), but increases up to 4.25 % towards the core top. The core includes a mass flow unit, which is most probably triggered by the AD 1855 earthquake, and is characterized by high contents of Fe, Zr, low contents of Ca, Nb, La U, Th

  20. Marine pollution originating from purse seine and longline fishing vessel operations in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 2003-2015.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kelsey; Haynes, David; Talouli, Anthony; Donoghue, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Fisheries observer data recorded between 2003 and 2015 on-board purse seine and longline vessels operating in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean reported more than 10 000 pollution incidents within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of 25 Pacific countries and territories, and in international waters. A majority of the reported purse seine pollution incidents related to dumping of plastics waste. Other common pollution incidents related to oil spillages and to abandoned, lost or dumped fishing gear. Data analysis highlighted the need for increased monitoring, reporting, and enforcement of pollution violations by all types of fishing vessels operating in the Pacific region; a regional outreach and compliance assistance programme on marine pollution prevention and improvements in Pacific port waste reception facilities.

  1. Investigating the Marine Protected Areas most at risk of current-driven pollution in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, using a Lagrangian transport model.

    PubMed

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole C; Soomere, Tarmo

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of current-driven propagation of contaminants released along a major fairway polluting the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is examined using a 3D circulation model, a Lagrangian transport model and statistics. Not surprisingly, the number of hits to the MPA decreases almost linearly with its distance from the fairway. In addition, the potential pollution released during a ship accident with the pollutants carried by currents may affect MPAs at very large distances. Typically, a fairway section approximately 125 km long (covering about 1/3 of the approximate 400-km-long gulf) may serve as a source of pollution for each MPA. The largest MPA (in the Eastern Gulf of Finland) may receive pollution from an approximately 210-km-long section (covering about 1/2 of the entire length of the gulf). This information may be useful in assisting maritime management.

  2. The distribution of uranium and thorium in samples taken from different polluted marine environment.

    PubMed

    Akyil, S; Yusof, A M

    2007-06-01

    Concentrations of uranium and thorium in seawater, sediment and some marine species taken from along the coastal areas of Malaysia were determined spectrophotometrically. The uranium and thorium concentrations in seawater were found to vary ranging from 1.80 to 4.1 and 0.14 to 0.88 microg/L, respectively. The concentration of uranium in sediment samples was reported to range from 3.00 to 6.60 microg/g while those of thorium were slightly lower ranging from 0.01 to 0.68 microg/g. The uptake of uranium and thorium in marine species was found to be rather low. Similar variations in total alpha activities in samples were also observed with the total alpha activities relatively lower than the beta activities in most samples.

  3. Integrative assessment of marine pollution in Galician estuaries using sediment chemistry, mussel bioaccumulation, and embryo-larval toxicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Beiras, R; Fernández, N; Bellas, J; Besada, V; González-Quijano, A; Nunes, T

    2003-08-01

    An integrative assessment of environmental quality was carried out in selected sites along the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula) combining analytical chemistry of seawater and sediments, bioaccumulation in the marine mussel, and embryo-larval sediment toxicity bioassays, in order to link biological and chemical criteria for the assessment of coastal pollution. Maximum values of Hg and Cu in seawater, sediment and mussels, were found in the inner part of Ria of Pontevedra, while maximum levels of organics (polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene and aldrin) were found in mussels from A Coruña. Outstanding values of Cu, Pb and Zn have been found in seawater and sediment from a single site, P3, which also was the most toxic in the embryo-larval bioassays performed with four different phyla of marine organisms: mollusks, echinoderms, arthropods and chordates. Sediment quality effects range-median values provided a valuable reference to predict biological effects from sediment chemistry data, while effects range-low values were too conservative. Sediment toxicity could also be predicted by using a toxic-unit model based on published EC50 values for trace metals and mobilization factors independently obtained from measurements of metal contents in sediments and their elutriates. When chemical and toxicological data are independently used to arrange sampling sites by using non-metric multidimensional scaling, a remarkable degree of concordance between both types of configurations could be observed.

  4. Interaction between nitrogen and sulfur cycles in the polluted marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon, S. A.; Plane, J. M. C.; Nien, C.-F.; Cooper, D. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements are reported of the nitrate radical (NO3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the nighttime marine boundary layer over Biscayne Bay in South Florida. These field observations are analyzed and used to initialize a boundary layer box model which examines the relative importance of the various sinks for NOx in the marine boundary layer. The results show that the observed lifetime of NO3 (≤6 min.) is probably controlled both by the loss of nitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) to reaction with water vapor and aerosols and by the reaction between NO3 and DMS. The model is then extended to investigate the loss of nitrogen oxides from an air parcel that remains in the boundary layer with a constant sea-to-air DMS flux for several days. The principal conclusions are (1) that DMS is a much more important sink for NO3 at lower NO2 levels and (2) that the reaction between NO3 and DMS is an important sink for DMS in the marine boundary layer and could exceed that of the daytime removal by OH.

  5. Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from the Natuna Island, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-15

    Five marine fish species were collected from the Natuna Island, South China Sea to investigate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs in marine fish ranged from 2.85 to 7.82, 14.3 to 48.1, and 7.99 to 40.3 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Higher concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs were observed in Snakefish (Trachinocephalus myops), which might be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. PCBs were the predominant POPs in all marine fish, followed by DDTs and PBDEs. BDE 47 and PCB 153 were the predominant congener of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. Compositional distribution of DDTs indicated the possible presence of fresh input sources around the Natuna Island. The ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT being less than 1 in fish samples suggested that DDT contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. New input sources of DDT in South China Sea are worth further research.

  6. Antibiotic Pollution in Marine Food Webs in Laizhou Bay, North China: Trophodynamics and Human Exposure Implication.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sisi; Zhao, Hongxia; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Cai, Xiyun; Chen, Jingwen

    2017-02-21

    Little information is available about the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of antibiotics in marine food webs. Here, we investigate the levels and trophic transfer of 9 sulfonamide (SA), 5 fluoroquinolone (FQ), and 4 macrolide (ML) antibiotics, as well as trimethoprim in nine invertebrate and ten fish species collected from a marine food web in Laizhou Bay, North China in 2014 and 2015. All the antibiotics were detected in the marine organisms, with SAs and FQs being the most abundant antibiotics. Benthic fish accumulated more SAs than invertebrates and pelagic fish, while invertebrates exhibited higher FQ levels than fish. Generally, SAs and trimethoprim biomagnified in the food web, while the FQs and MLs were biodiluted. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) were 1.2-3.9 for SAs and trimethoprim, 0.3-1.0 for FQs and MLs. Limited biotransformation and relatively high assimilation efficiencies are the likely reasons for the biomagnification of SAs. The pH dependent distribution coefficients (log D) but not the lipophilicity (log KOW) of SAs and FQs had a significant correlation (r = 0.73; p < 0.05) with their TMFs. Although the calculated estimated daily intakes (EDI) for antibiotics suggest that consumption of seafood from Laizhou Bay is not associated with significant human health risks, this study provides important insights into the guidance of risk management of antibiotics.

  7. The microbial nitrogen cycling potential is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution of marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicole M; Hess, Matthias; Bouskill, Nick J; Mason, Olivia U; Jansson, Janet K; Gilbert, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    During hydrocarbon exposure, the composition and functional dynamics of marine microbial communities are altered, favoring bacteria that can utilize this rich carbon source. Initial exposure of high levels of hydrocarbons in aerobic surface sediments can enrich growth of heterotrophic microorganisms having hydrocarbon degradation capacity. As a result, there can be a localized reduction in oxygen potential within the surface layer of marine sediments causing anaerobic zones. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to elevated hydrocarbon concentrations would positively correlate with an increase in denitrification processes and the net accumulation of dinitrogen. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen cycling identified in 6 metagenomes from sediments contaminated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 metagenomes from sediments associated with natural oil seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel. An additional 8 metagenomes from uncontaminated sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for comparison. We predicted relative changes in metabolite turnover as a function of the differential microbial gene abundances, which showed predicted accumulation of metabolites associated with denitrification processes, including anammox, in the contaminated samples compared to uncontaminated sediments, with the magnitude of this change being positively correlated to the hydrocarbon concentration and exposure duration. These data highlight the potential impact of hydrocarbon inputs on N cycling processes in marine sediments and provide information relevant for system scale models of nitrogen metabolism in affected ecosystems.

  8. A multi-criteria evaluation system for marine litter pollution based on statistical analyses of OSPAR beach litter monitoring time series.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Neumann, Daniel; Fleet, David M; Matthies, Michael

    2013-12-01

    During the last decades, marine pollution with anthropogenic litter has become a worldwide major environmental concern. Standardized monitoring of litter since 2001 on 78 beaches selected within the framework of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) has been used to identify temporal trends of marine litter. Based on statistical analyses of this dataset a two-part multi-criteria evaluation system for beach litter pollution of the North-East Atlantic and the North Sea is proposed. Canonical correlation analyses, linear regression analyses, and non-parametric analyses of variance were used to identify different temporal trends. A classification of beaches was derived from cluster analyses and served to define different states of beach quality according to abundances of 17 input variables. The evaluation system is easily applicable and relies on the above-mentioned classification and on significant temporal trends implied by significant rank correlations.

  9. Estimating sediment accumulation rates in Manila Bay, a marine pollution hot spot in the Seas of East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sta Maria, E J; Siringan, F P; Bulos, A dM; Sombrito, E Z

    2009-01-01

    The GEF/UNDP/IMO/PEMSEA project identifies Manila Bay as among the marine pollution hot spots in the Seas of East Asia. (210)Pb dating of its sediment can provide a historical perspective of its pollution loading. However, the validity of (210)Pb dating in a complex dynamic coastal system of Manila Bay may come into question. Land-based sediment input can be high and physical and biological processes can possibly disturb the sediment layers. In this report, the (210)Pb profiles of sediment cores from different parts of the bay are presented. The linear sedimentation rates are shown to be higher in the recent past and are also variable across the bay. The largest change in sedimentation rate, coincided with the occurrence of a volcanic eruption in 1991 and is shown by applying a variant of the CIC model in sedimentation rate calculations. The data suggest that (210)Pb dating can be useful in estimating relative magnitudes of sedimentation rates, even in a complex dynamic coastal system like Manila Bay.

  10. Metallothioneins and heat shock proteins 70 in marine mussels as sensors of environmental pollution in Northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Mićović, Vladimir; Bulog, Aleksandar; Kučić, Natalia; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Radošević-Stašić, Biserka

    2009-11-01

    In an attempt to assess the intensity of environmental pollution in industrial zones of Kvarnerian Bay in Northern Adriatic Sea and the reactivity of Mytilus galloprovincialis to these changes, in this study we estimated the concentration of heavy metals at four locations in both sea-sediment and in the mussels. Further we tried to correlate these changes with seasonal variations in environmental temperature, pH and salinity, as well as with the expression of metallothioneins (MTs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the digestive tract of the mussels. Sampling in vivo was performed monthly, during the year 2008, while under the laboratory conditions the reactivity of acclimated mussels were tested to increasing concentrations of CdCl(2) and to thermal stress. The data have shown that the induction of MTs and HSP isoforms of the 70-kDa size class were highly affected by model agents treatment including contamination of sea-sediment by Pb, Hg and Cd, implying that these stress proteins might be power biomarkers of marine pollution.

  11. Chemical characterization of particulate air pollutants Case studies on indoor air quality, cultural heritage and the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horemans, Benjamin

    When attempting to discuss the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), it is important to address both physical and chemical aspects of this pollutant. This work reports on the results of three separate case studies, each approaching a specific problem of air pollution by evaluating the chemical composition of PM. 1. In the US and Europe, office workers often complain about work-related health symptoms. These symptoms are collectively referred as the 'sick building syndrome'. This work could be considered as one of the largest data collections on particulate pollutants in Belgian offices. It helps to understand the sources as well as the behavior and fate of PM at our workplace environments. Especially the chemical information on PM makes the results unique, since it enables a better evaluation of the health risks connected to office dust. 2. The Alhambra and Generalife bring every year more than 3 million people to Granada in Southern Spain. Recently, the increasing urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism form a threat for this heritage. Despite the fact that atmospheric pollutants are known to he potentially aggressive for our cultural patrimony. this case study is the first to assess the effects of environmental aerosols on the Alhambra monument. The results of this study could help decision-makers at the Alhambra and the city of Granada with the formulation of preventive conservation measures. They show how local vehicular traffic is the main source for atmospheric pollution in and around the Alhambra monument. Targeted strategies are necessary in order to maximally preserve these monuments and their UNESCO world cultural heritage label. 3. Excessive input of nitrogen-containing atmospheric nutrients via dry and wet deposition can cause entrophication of marine regions, which is also a common, seasonal phenomenon along the coasts of the North Sea. This study is the first to give a complete quantitative description of the

  12. Use of ERTS imagery in air pollution and marine biology studies, tasks 1 through 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E.; Ludwick, J. C.; Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator); Bandy, A. R.; Fleischer, P.; Hanna, W. J.; Gosink, T. A.; Bowker, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The general suitability of ERTS imagery in detecting ground originated air pollution has proved to be excellent. The quality and resolution exceeded expectations and has permitted in some instances location of point sources to within a thousand feet. Suitable techniques have not yet been developed for determining or measuring area and line sources of air pollution. A major problem has been cloud cover that has persisted over the area of primary interest, the Chesapeake Bay. Work has been completed on mounting the shipboard transmissometer which will be used for investigations to relate the chlorophyll and suspended sediment content in the waters of the Lower Chesapeake Bay to ERTS-1 imagery. Water sampling, plankton analysis, and preparations for sea collection of water truth along the eastern continental shelf of the U.S. have been completed for use in comparisons with ERTS-1 data.

  13. Marine dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of eutrophication and industrial pollution: a discussion.

    PubMed

    Dale, B

    2001-01-17

    The results from an investigation of dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of eutrophication in Tokyo Bay, Japan, by Matsuoka [Sci Total Environ 231 (1999) 17] are discussed with reference to other pertinent literature not discussed in the original article. Both the Japanese study and previous work from Norwegian fjords show that pollution (including cultural eutrophication) may produce changes in the phytoplankton reflected by a shift from more autotrophic--to more heterotrophic--dominance of cyst assemblages. However, this is a proportional change that seems likely to result from reduced autotrophic production rather than the increased heterotrophic production suggested by Matsuoka. This is not unequivocal evidence of eutrophication, since Tokyo Bay is impacted also by heavy industrial pollution, the possible effects of which cannot be distinguished, and the quantitative method used for estimating changes in cyst productivity is flawed.

  14. Rapid assessment of marine pollution using multiple biomarkers and chemical immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Tamara S; Sanger, Ross C; Smith, Karen L; Fillmann, Gilberto; Readman, James W; Ford, Timothy E; Depledge, Michael H

    2002-05-15

    To fully assess the impact of pollutant releases into the environment, it is necessary to determine both the concentration of chemicals accumulating in biota and the biological effects they give rise to. Owing to time, expertise, and cost constraints, this is, however, rarely achieved. Here, quick, simple to perform, and inexpensive biomarkers and chemical immunoassays were combined in a rapid assessment approach to measure exposure to and effects of organic and metal pollutants on the ribbed mussel (Geukensia demmissa) from New Bedford Harbor, MA. Significant differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) tissue residue concentrations were detected among sites using RaPID immunoassay. Selected analyses were verified using GC/MS. No significant differences were observed in metal concentrations (Cu, Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ni) throughout the area. While causality cannot be attributed, multivariate canonical correlation analysis indicated that PCB and PAH concentrations were strongly associated with the induction of biomarkers of genotoxicity (micronucleus formation), immunotoxicity (spontaneous cytotoxicity), and physiological impairment (heart rate). It is concluded thatthe incorporation of chemical immunoassays with biological monitoring tools into routine management procedures is clearly viable and valuable as a means of identifying toxic impacts of pollutants on biota in situ.

  15. Comparison of antibodies in marine fish from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight: relative levels against 36 bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Robohm, R A; Brown, C; Murchelano, R A

    1979-01-01

    Fish from polluted waters are subject to increased prevalence of disease. Because they respond to bacterial pathogens by producing serum antibodies, it was possible to construct a seasonal serological record in three fish species from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight. Antibody levels were determined by testing sera for agglutinating activity against 36 strains of bacteria. Evaluation of 5,100 antibody titrations showed the following. During warm months, summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from the polluted area had significantly higher antibody levels and antibody to a greater diversity of bacteria than fish from the unpolluted area. Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) from the same polluted area shared with summer flounder raised titers to many bacteria. The greatest proportion of raised titers was against Vibrio species, although prominent titers were also seen against Aeromonas salmonicida and Haemophilus piscium, bacteria usually associated with diseases in freshwater but not marine fish. Differences between polluted and clean waters were not as evident in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) during cold months. This could be due, in part, to reduced antibody production at colder temperatures. The data illustrate the usefulness of the serum antibody record in identifying environmental exposure to bacteria in marine fish and indicate that the polluted New York Bight apex has increased levels and diversity of bacteria during warm months. PMID:518084

  16. Marine environment status assessment based on macrophytobenthic plants as bio-indicators of heavy metals pollution.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Tamara; Danowska, Beata

    2017-03-08

    The main aim of study was to develop the environmental quality standards (EQSMP) for selected heavy metals: Pb, Cd, Hg and Ni bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine macrophytobenthic plants: Chara baltica, Cladophora spp., Coccotylus truncatus, Furcellaria lumbricalis, Polysiphonia fucoides, Stuckenia pectinata and Zanichellia palustris, collected in designated areas of the southern Baltic Sea in period 2008-2015. The calculated concentration ratios (CR), which attained very high values: 10(4)Lkg(-1) for lead, 10(3)Lkg(-1) for nickel and mercury and even 10(5)Lkg(-1) for cadmium formed the basis for the determination of EQSMP values. The EQSMP values were: 26mgkg(-1)d.w. for Pb, 33mgkg(-1)d.w. for Cd, 32mgkg(-1)d.w. for Ni and 0.4mgkg(-1)d.w. for Hg. The application of macrophytobenthic plants as bioindicators in marine environment status assessment of certain areas of the Baltic Sea is also described in the paper.

  17. The application of histo-cytopathological biomarkers in marine pollution monitoring: a review.

    PubMed

    Au, D W T

    2004-05-01

    During the past two decades, a variety of histopathological alterations in fish and bivalves have been developed and used as biomarkers in pollution monitoring. Some of these have been successfully adopted in major national monitoring programmes, while others, although show promise, are still in the experimental stage. This paper critically reviews the scientific basis, cause and effect relationship, reliability, advantages and limitations of 14 histo-cytopathological biomarkers. The usefulness and practical application of each biomarker have been evaluated against a number of objective criteria including: ecological relevance, sensitivity, specificity, dose-response relationship, confounding factors, technical difficulties and cost-effectiveness.

  18. Imposex as a biomonitoring tool for marine pollution by tributyltin: some further observations.

    PubMed

    Axiak, Victor; Micallef, Diane; Muscat, Joanne; Vella, Alfred; Mintoff, Bernardette

    2003-03-01

    Imposex, i.e., the imposition of male sexual characteristics on female neograstropods, has been used worldwide as a bioindicator of pollution by the antifouling agent TBT as well as to assess the related ecological impact. The recent total ban on the use of TBT in the maritime industry has been partly based on the use of such a biomarker. This is mainly based on the assumption that no other pollutant, or environmental stress, is able to induce such a biological response. Nonetheless, several authors had challenged this idea. The present paper will present further field observations on imposex in Hexaplex trunculus from Malta (Central Mediterranean) which may help clarify this issue. Furthermore, the incidence of imposex in this species will be related to body burdens and to the environmental levels of organotins as measured analytically. First histological observations will also be presented which may help clarify the ecological significance of this response in this species. Finally a number of alternative scenarios regarding the relationship between imposex and TBT will be discussed.

  19. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4'-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect.

  20. Pollution history of the Savannah Estuary. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.; Ertel, J.; Lee, R.; Loganathan, B.; Martin, J.

    1997-09-01

    Dated cores collected from different sites in the Savannah Estuary were analyzed for 16 metals, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, 16 pesticides and 3 butylins. Time stratigraphy of the cores were determined by measurements of Pb-210 and Cs-137 activities down the cores. Those chemicals which showed significant temporal changes down dated cores in the Savannah Estuary included mercury, lead, chromium, PAHs, DDT isomers and metabolites, PCBs and dieldrin. The present study used cores from the Savannah Estuary, where the population is relatively low (approximately 150,000) and industrial growth has occurred over the past 30 years. Thus, the concentrations of most anthropogenic chemical found in the cores of the Savannah Estuary were comparatively low. An interesting aspect of the study, which has been noted by many pollution history studies, was the decrease in the concentration of anthropogenic chemicals during the past two decades suggesting that many pollution control laws have been effective, even while industrial and population growth continues in an area. In summation, the authors` studies present evidence of relatively large inputs of anthropogenic chemicals, including mercury, chromium, lead, polycycloic aromatic hydrocarbons, dieldrin, DDT isomers, and polychlorinated biphenyls, during the 1950s and 1960 into the Savannah Estuary followed by a gradual decrease of these chemicals during the past 20 to 30 years.

  1. Water-oil separation performance of technical textiles used for marine pollution disasters.

    PubMed

    Seddighi, Mahdi; Hejazi, Sayyed Mahdi

    2015-07-15

    Oil is principally one of the most important energy sources in the world. However, as long as oil is explored and transported for being used, there will be the risk of the spillage into the marine environment. The use of technical textiles, i.e. fibrous beds, is a conventional separation technique for oil/water emulsion since it is efficient and easy to design. In this paper, the recovery of oil by technical textiles was mathematically modeled based on the structural parameters of textile and the capillary mechanism. Eleven types of commercial technical textiles with different properties were prepared for the experimental program. The experimental design included fiber type (polypropylene and polyester), fabric type (woven and/or nonwoven), fabric thickness and fabric areal density. Consequently, the absorption capacities of different technical textile samples were derived by the use of theoretical and experimental methods. The results show that there is a well fitness between theoretical outputs and experimental data.

  2. Anthropogenic microfibres pollution in marine biota. A new and simple methodology to minimize airborne contamination.

    PubMed

    Torre, Michele; Digka, Nikoletta; Anastasopoulou, Aikaterini; Tsangaris, Catherine; Mytilineou, Chryssi

    2016-12-15

    Research studies on the effects of microlitter on marine biota have become more and more frequent the last few years. However, there is strong evidence that scientific results based on microlitter analyses can be biased by contamination from air transported fibres. This study demonstrates a low cost and easy to apply methodology to minimize the background contamination and thus to increase results validity. The contamination during the gastrointestinal content analysis of 400 fishes was tested for several sample processing steps of high risk airborne contamination (e.g. dissection, stereomicroscopic analysis, and chemical digestion treatment for microlitter extraction). It was demonstrated that, using our methodology based on hermetic enclosure devices, isolating the working areas during the various processing steps, airborne contamination reduced by 95.3%. The simplicity and low cost of this methodology provide the benefit that it could be applied not only to laboratory but also to field or on board work.

  3. Foraminifera as indicators of marine pollutant contamination on the inner continental shelf of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Patricia P B; Eichler, Beatriz B; Gupta, Barun Sen; Rodrigues, André Rösch

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of living foraminiferal and environmental parameters near an outfall at Mar Grosso Beach (Laguna, SC, Brazil) demonstrate its usefulness as indicators of domestic sewage pollution. The low species diversity may be due to sand accumulation in the central part. Higher diversity was noted closer to the mouth of Laguna estuarine system where reduced salinity and higher temperatures indicate freshwater influence, suggesting a relationship between increased diversity and greater availability of terrestrial food. On the basis of foraminiferal diversity and average coliform count the higher values are closer to the mouth of the estuarine system and under the influence of the outfall. Due to the effect of local hydrodynamics, the particulate organic waste derived from the outfall does not settle down locally, and thus, do not accumulate nearby. Our hypothesis is that the fine material derived from the outfall is accumulating on the southwestern and northwestern parts of the beach.

  4. Foraminifers as indicators of marine pollution: a culture experiment with Rosalina leei.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, R; Kurtarkar, Sujata R; Mazumder, A; Nigam, R

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop a viable foraminiferal proxy for heavy metal pollutants, juvenile specimens of Rosalina leei were subjected to different mercury concentrations (0-180 ng/l). Initially considerable growth was observed in specimens kept in saline water having a mercury concentration up to 100 ng/l. But with the gradual increase in concentration of mercury the growth rate started decreasing. Total growth achieved was significantly lower in case of specimens kept at relatively higher mercury concentrations then those maintained in normal saline water. The most significant result of this experiment was the addition of abnormal chambers in the specimens kept at higher mercury concentration. Later the specimens kept at highest concentration (180 ng/l) were subjected to progressively increasing concentration of mercury to see the further effects and it was found that the specimens were still living at as high a mercury concentration as 260 ng/l although there was no growth.

  5. Boring crustaceans damage polystyrene floats under docks polluting marine waters with microplastic.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Boring isopods damage expanded polystyrene floats under docks and, in the process, expel copious numbers of microplastic particles. This paper describes the impacts of boring isopods in aquaculture facilities and docks, quantifies and discusses the implications of these microplastics, and tests if an alternate foam type prevents boring. Floats from aquaculture facilities and docks were heavily damaged by thousands of isopods and their burrows. Multiple sites in Asia, Australia, Panama, and the USA exhibited evidence of isopod damage. One isopod creates thousands of microplastic particles when excavating a burrow; colonies can expel millions of particles. Microplastics similar in size to these particles may facilitate the spread of non-native species or be ingested by organisms causing physical or toxicological harm. Extruded polystyrene inhibited boring, suggesting this foam may prevent damage in the field. These results reveal boring isopods cause widespread damage to docks and are a novel source of microplastic pollution.

  6. Novel use of TGA-FTIR technique to predict the pollution degree in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudghiri, Fatiha; García-Morales, José Luis; Rodríguez-Barroso, María Rocío

    2015-09-01

    In this work, thermogravimetric analysis (TG) coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR) was applied to compare the thermal behavior of sediments from Cadiz port and a pristine zone. The samples were thermally degraded in air atmosphere using a heating rate of 10 °C/min. The Physico-Chemical analyses (organic matter, organic carbon, carbonate, total nitrogen, moisture, granulometric analyses; Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg) of sediments indicate that the pollution in zone coming from Cadiz port is mainly of anthropogenic origin. By means of differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and Gram-Schmidt the curves of sediments coming from Cadiz port, showed four stages with temperatures of maximum decomposition rate approximately at 120 °C, 292 °C, 493 °C and 741 °C. The FTIR spectra corresponding to these temperatures shows the formation of high quantities of gases, as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water vapor, aliphatic hydrocarbons, ether and ammonia, while in sediment coming from pristine zone the thermal degradation occurs in two stages, with temperatures of maximum decomposition rate around 500 °C and 750 °C, producing only little quantities of gases, as carbon dioxide and water vapor. By comparing the TG-FTIR of sediments coming from the port and the no polluted zone, it is possible to identify the volatile organic compounds emitted between 200 and 600 °C. These results suggest that modifications in the structures of sediment from the port are due to different sources of contamination. This study demonstrates that TG-FTIR is capable for screening of contaminated sediments.

  7. Trace element levels in mollusks from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean, Red and North Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herut, Barak; Kress, Nurit; Shefer, Edna; Hornung, Hava

    1999-12-01

    The trace element contamination levels in mollusks were evaluated for different marine coastal sites in the Mediterranean (Israeli coast), Red (Israeli coast) and North (German coast) Seas. Three bivalve species (Mactra corallina, Donax sp, and Mytilus edulis) and two gastropod species (Patella sp.and Cellana rota) were sampled at polluted and relatively clean sites, and their soft tissue analyzed for Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe concentrations. Representative samples were screened for organic contaminants [(DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)] which exhibited very low concentrations at all sites. In the Red Sea, the gastropod C. rota showed low levels of Hg (below detection limit) and similar Cd concentrations at all the examined sites, while other trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe) were slightly enriched at the northern beach stations. Along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, Hg and Zn were enriched in two bivalves (M. corallina and Donax sp.) from Haifa Bay, both species undergoing a long-term decrease in Hg based on previous studies. Significant Cd and Zn enrichment was detected in Patella sp. from the Kishon River estuary at the southern part of Haifa Bay. In general, Patella sp. and Donax sp. specimens from Haifa Bay exhibited higher levels of Cd compared to other sites along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, attributed to the enrichment of Cd in suspended particulate matter. Along the German coast (North Sea) M. edulis exhibited higher concentrations of Hg and Cd at the Elbe and Eider estuaries, but with levels below those found in polluted sites elsewhere.

  8. Assessment of oxidative stress indices in a marine macro brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck) from comparable polluted coastal regions of the Arabian Sea, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Dusmant; Jena, Karmabeer; Pise, Navnath M; Jagtap, Tanaji G

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems were assessed in a marine brown alga Padina tetrastromatica, commonly occurring from the tropics. Lipid peroxidation (LPX) and H2O2 were measured as oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant defences were measured as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and ascorbic acid (AsA), in order to understand their dissimilarity with respect to pollution levels from selective locations along the central west coast of India. A significant increased levels of LPX, H2O2, CAT and GST were observed in samples from relatively polluted localities (Colaba and Karwar) when compared to less polluted locality (Anjuna), while AsA concentration was higher in algal samples from worst polluted region of Colaba. Heavy metals such as Cd and Pb were also higher in the vicinity of polluted areas compared to reference area. Variation of oxidative stress indices in response to accumulation of heavy metals within P. tetrastromatica could be used as molecular biomarkers in assessment and monitoring environmental quality of ecologically sensitive marine habitats.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine biota of the Canadian Arctic: an overview of spatial and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Braune, B M; Outridge, P M; Fisk, A T; Muir, D C G; Helm, P A; Hobbs, K; Hoekstra, P F; Kuzyk, Z A; Kwan, M; Letcher, R J; Lockhart, W L; Norstrom, R J; Stern, G A; Stirling, I

    2005-12-01

    This review summarizes and synthesizes the significant amount of data which was generated on mercury (Hg) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota since the first Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was published in 1997. This recent body of work has led to a better understanding of the current levels and spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in biota, including the marine food species that northern peoples traditionally consume. Compared to other circumpolar countries, concentrations of many organochlorines (OCs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota are generally lower than in the European Arctic and eastern Greenland but are higher than in Alaska, whereas Hg concentrations are substantially higher in Canada than elsewhere. Spatial coverage of OCs in ringed seals, beluga and seabirds remains a strength of the Arctic contaminant data set for Canada. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals and seabirds remain fairly consistent across the Canadian Arctic although subtle differences from west to east and south to north are found in the proportions of various chemicals. The most significant development since 1997 is improvement in the temporal trend data sets, thanks to the use of archived tissue samples from the 1970s and 1980s, long-term studies using archeological material, as well as the continuation of sampling. These data cover a range of species and chemicals and also include retrospective studies on new chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers. There is solid evidence in a few species (beluga, polar bear, blue mussels) that Hg at some locations has significantly increased from pre-industrial times to the present; however, the temporal trends of Hg over the past 20-30 years are inconsistent. Some animal populations exhibited significant increases in Hg whereas others did not. Therefore, it is currently not possible to determine if anthropogenic Hg is generally increasing in Canadian Arctic biota. It is

  10. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baya, A.M.; Brayton, P.R.; Brown, V.L.; Grimes, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Colwell, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 ..mu..g of one of a set of chemical selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmic DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites.

  11. Use of scleractinian corals to indicate marine pollution in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Barakat, S A; Al-Rousan, S; Al-Trabeen, M S

    2015-02-01

    The actual and fatal concentrations of selected heavy metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in corals from the Gulf of Aqaba were determined. Several living coral samples of different species (e.g., Porites) were collected from shallow depths (of about 5 m) at a number of sites along the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba coast. The coral samples were collected using either a pneumatic diamond drill corer (for Porites) or a hammer and chisel (for other branched species). Some of the corals that had been collected were analyzed for heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrometry, and other samples were used in incubation experiments. The heavy metal concentrations were determined separately in the coral skeleton and the tissue layer. Heavy metal concentrations have not previously been determined in corals from the Gulf of Aqaba. We conclude that corals are suitable for use as proxy tools for assessing environmental pollution (i.e., they are bioindicators) in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Therefore, this study provides useful information on the degree of heavy metal contamination in the study area.

  12. Marine meiobenthic and nematode community structure in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong upon recovery from sewage pollution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Shou; Xu, Wen-Zhe; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S

    2011-01-01

    Sediment quality, meiofaunal and nematode communities were monitored across six time points at two inside-harbour and three outside-harbour sites over a three-year period in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong, after the implementation of a sewage treatment project. Twenty-one meiofaunal groups comprising mainly free-living nematodes and harpacticoid copepods and 188 species of free-living nematodes were identified. The outside-harbour area had a more diverse and significantly different nematode community structure as compared to that in the inside-harbour area. Such spatial difference was highly correlated with the total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of the sediments. Over the study period, there was no significant improvement in sediment quality within the harbour. However, in the last sampling time, an increase in meiofaunal abundance and a closer similarity in nematode composition between one of the inside- and outside-harbour sites suggested signs of recovery of the meiofauna as a response to abatement of sewage pollution.

  13. Detection of dibenzothiophene in mussel, Mytilus edulis, as a marker of pollution by organosulfur compounds in a marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, S.; Izumi, T.; Ogata, M.

    1983-11-01

    Organosulfur compounds are minor components of crude oil and of some fuel oils. Although the quantity of these compounds depends on the source of production, generally it ranges from 0.002 to nearly 30% in crude oil, found as sulfur containing hydrocarbons. Mussels are a well-known biological monitor of marine pollutants which scientists call ''the mussel watch''. But few reports have been published on organosulfur compound contamination in field mussel samples. In the present study, the authors identified several organosulfur compound contamination in field mussel samples. In the present study, the authors identified several organosulfur compounds through GC-MS, and measured the levels of DBT through GC-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD), in both mussels and in water of the environment. The calculated concentration ratio of DBT in mussels to that in water ranged up to 500 in the field sample and 800 or higher after and experimental exposure. The estimated biological half-life or DBT from field mussel samples was about 9 days in clean sea water.

  14. Surface failure analysis of a field-exposed copper-clad plate in a marine environment with industrial pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Pan; Dong, Chaofang; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-03-01

    The corrosion behavior and electrochemical migration mechanism of a copper-clad plate (PCB-Cu) in a marine atmospheric environment with industrial pollution were studied in field exposure experiments. The results showed that corrosion was initiated from activity locations with low potential. With extended exposure time, the amount of corrosion products increased and gradually formed a double layer structure. The inner layer corrosion products were mainly Cu2O; the outer layer mainly included CuCO3·Cu(OH)2, Cu(OH)2·CuO·HCl, CuSO4·3Cu(OH)2 and CuSO3·3Cu(OH)2. When a 12 V bias voltage was applied, an anomalous electrochemical migration (ECM) phenomenon was observed: a Cu dendrite was produced near the anode and migrated toward the cathode. Finally, ECM led to the bridge connection of the two metallization stripes and caused a short circuit in the PCB-Cu.

  15. Development of an effective methodology for marine pollution monitoring in an industrialized urban envirnoment: (A remotesensing approach)

    SciTech Connect

    Inamdar, A.B.; Venkatakrishnan, N.; Nayak, B.P.

    1997-06-01

    The study area chosen for marine pollution monitoring was Thane Creek; near Bombay city; which essentially constitutes an industrialized urban setting. The area chosen within the Thane Creek, was between Vikhroli Creek and the Vashi Bridge in the south (approx. 75, kms.). Remote sensing technique was applied for assessing water quality parameters around Thane Creek in addition to conventional chemical analysis of samples collected during the pass of the satellite. The variation in the ranges of the water quality parameters chemically analyzed were: pH (6.67 - 7.94), Salinity (5.65 - 33.05 g/Kg), Turbidity (0.2 - 15.0 NTU), TSS (2.1 - 400 mg/L), TDS (850 - 38,500 mg/L), Temperature (24{degrees} - 30{degrees}C), and Colour (colourless-, green-, red-, or black). In the remote sensing studies. Turbidity and Temperature were quantified using Landsat TM data. An empirical approach of relating TM data to ground reference data for these parameters was employed through regression analysis. Two regression models were adapted namely Multiple Regression and Linear Regression. Comparative study between the two model techniques was carried out in order to arrive at the best possible method.

  16. Benthic foraminifera assemblages as elemental pollution bioindicator in marine sediments around fish farm (Vrgada Island, Central Adriatic, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Vidović, Jelena; Dolenec, Matej; Dolenec, Tadej; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Žvab Rožič, Petra

    2014-06-15

    Effects on sediments of fish farming activity near Vrgada Island was analysed through living and total foraminiferal assemblages and concentration of major, minor and trace elements from three sediment cores. Elemental concentrations of sediments are in accordance with carbonate characteristics of the surrounding area and show mostly natural element variations between sampling locations and throughout the cores, with no significant increases due to fish farming activity. Only phosphorus concentration shows elevate values below the fish cage, assigned to fish pellets. Foraminiferal communities are dominated by epifaunal and stress tolerant species, while diversity indices point to normal marine conditions. The type of substrate and phosphorus content in sediments principally influence foraminiferal community composition, while other elemental concentrations have no perceptible effect on the assemblages. Some foraminiferal species Ammoniatepida, Ammoniabeccarii, Elphidiumcrispum, Elphidiummacellum and genus Haynesina are confirmed to be tolerant to elevated nutrient (phosphorus) content, while Ammonia parkinsoniana shows sensitivity to pollution. Postmortem processes cause decrease of foraminiferal density and species richness with core depth. All results point to negligible influence of fish farming and relatively stable environmental conditions at all sampling locations.

  17. Determining provenance of marine metal pollution in French bivalves using Cd, Zn and Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiel, Alyssa E.; Weis, Dominique; Cossa, Daniel; Orians, Kristin J.

    2013-11-01

    Cadmium, Zn and Pb isotopic compositions (MC-ICP-MS) and elemental concentrations (HR-ICP-MS) have been used to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in bivalves collected from the coastlines of France (English Channel, Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts). The Cd isotopic signatures (δ114Cd = -1.08‰ to -0.52‰) exhibited by bivalves from the coastlines of France, excluding those from NE France, are within the range of those exhibited by bivalves from the USA East coast (δ114Cd = -1.20‰ to -0.54‰). This indicates the high prevalence of industry, as well as the low natural contributions of Cd from North Atlantic waters in both regions. Thus, the significance of anthropogenic Cd sources is similar. These significant anthropogenic contributions are identified for bivalves with a large range in tissue Cd concentrations. Importantly, French bivalves from the Gironde estuary and Marennes-Oléron basin (regions of historic and modern importance for oyster farming, respectively) exhibited the highest Cd levels of the study. Their Cd isotopic signatures indicate historical smelting emissions remain the primary Cd source despite the cessation of local smelting activities in 1986 and subsequent remedial efforts. No significant variability is observed in the δ66Zn values of the French bivalves (∼0.53‰), with the exception of the much heavier compositions exhibited by oysters from the polluted Gironde estuary (1.19-1.27‰). Lead isotopes do not fractionate during processing like Cd and Zn. They can, therefore, be used to identify emissions from industrial processes and the consumption of unleaded gasoline and diesel fuel as metal sources to French bivalves. Cadmium and Zn isotopes are successfully used here as tracers of anthropogenic processing emissions and are combined with Pb isotope "fingerprinting" techniques to identify metal sources.

  18. Assessment of marine pollution in Izmir Bay: nutrient, heavy metal and total hydrocarbon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, F; Kontas, A; Altay, O; Uluturhan, E; Darilmaz, E

    2006-01-01

    , in Izmir Bay. Heavy metal levels were lower than the results in fish tissues reported from polluted areas of the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM<0.1 have the lowest probability (9%) of being toxic, those with m-ERM from 0.11 to 0.5 have a 21% probability of toxicity, those with m-ERM from 0.51 to 1.5 a 49% probability of toxicity, while sediments with m-ERM >1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina

  20. Role of environmental pollutants on immune functions, parasitic infections and limb malformations in marine toads and whistling frogs from Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Linzey, Donald; Burroughs, Joy; Hudson, Lisa; Marini, Michele; Robertson, John; Bacon, Jamie; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash

    2003-06-01

    Soil, water, and amphibian tissues collected between 1995 and 1999 from 15 study sites in Bermuda were analysed for pesticides and heavy metals. The most abundant pesticide residue in soil was p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) which was found at all sites in concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 4.023 p.p.m. No pesticide residues were found in water. DDE was also recovered from the livers and fat bodies of marine toads (Bufo marinus) and whistling frogs (Eleutherodactylus johnstonei). Analyses of food sources consumed by these anuran species revealed residue levels of p, p'-DDE ranging from 0.05 to 0.217 p.p.m. Other soil residues included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) at eight study sites, Dicofol(kelthane) at eight sites, dieldrin at five sites, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Arochlor 1254 and Arochlor 1260 at seven sites. Analyses of toad livers revealed significant concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc. Livers of Bermuda toads exhibited altered hepatocytic morphology and an increased number of melanomacrophages and possible granulomas, while spleens showed a marked decrease in white pulp. Spleen cells from Bufo marinus collected at one site having high levels of cadmium exhibited a decreased B cell response to lipopolysaccharide. The incidence of trematode infection in Bufo marinus increased from 53.8% in 1995 to 90% in 1999. Deformity rates in the limbs of subadult and adult toads ranged between 15 and 25%. Examination of 1,995 newly-metamorphosed toads revealed deformity rates as high as 47%. The current comprehensive study suggests that environmental pollutants may account for immunosuppression, increased susceptibility to infections, limb malformations and possible decline in amphibian populations from Bermuda.

  1. A novel biomarker for marine environmental pollution of pi-class glutathione S-transferase from Mytilus coruscus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; He, Jianyu; Zhao, Rongtao; Chi, Changfeng; Bao, Yongbo

    2015-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the superfamily of phase II detoxification enzymes that play crucial roles in innate immunity. In this study, a pi-class GST homolog was identified from Mytilus coruscus (named as McGST1, KC525103). The full-length cDNA sequence of McGST1 was 621bp with a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 70bp and a 3'-UTR of 201bp. The deduced amino acid sequence was 206 residues in length with theoretical pI/MW of 5.60/23.72kDa, containing the conserved G-site and diversiform H-site. BLASTn analysis and phylogenetic relationship strongly suggested that this cDNA sequence was a member of pi class GST family. The prediction of secondary structure displayed a preserved N-terminal and a C-terminal comprised with α-helixes. Quantitative real time RT-PCR showed that constitutive expression of McGST1 was occurred, with increasing order in mantle, muscle, gill, hemocyte, gonad and hepatopancreas. The stimulation of bacterial infection, heavy metals and 180CST could up-regulate McGST1 mRNA expression in hepatopancreas with time-dependent manners. The maximum expression appeared at 6h after pathogenic bacteria injected, with 10-fold in Vibrio alginolyticus and 16-fold in Vibrio harveyi higher than that of the control. The highest point of McGST1 mRNA appeared at different time for exposure to copper (10-fold at day 15), cadmium (9-fold at day10) and 180 CST (10-fold at day 15). These results suggested that McGST1 played a significant role in antioxidation and might potentially be used as indicators and biomarkers for detection of marine environmental pollution.

  2. Impact of marine pollution in green mussel Perna viridis from four coastal sites in Karachi, Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: histopathological observations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar; Ayub, Zarrien; Siddiqui, Ghazala

    2015-04-01

    Pathological changes are regarded as a standard technique to monitor the effects of pollutants in marine animals. Histopathological examination of the population of green mussel Perna viridis (L.) from four sites in Pakistan, namely, Manora Channel, Rehri Creek, Sandspit Backwaters and Bhanbore was conducted. The first three sites are on the Karachi coast, whereas the fourth one, Bhanbore is situated outside Karachi, and is considered to be less polluted. Two types of parasites, Rickettsia-like organisms and metacestode were found in the mussels studied. In the present study, we observed various pathological lesions, such as inflammatory responses, granulocytomas, lipofuscin pigments, vacuolation in the digestive gland and gonads, lamellar fusion and dilated hemolymphatic sinus in the gills of P. viridis. These observations indicate the extent of environmental pollution in the studied areas. Although, Bhanbore is considered to be relatively less polluted compared to other three sites, the present results have revealed that the waters of Bhanbore are also polluted as evidenced by the pathological changes observed in the mussels collected from there.

  3. Cost-efficient methods for marine pollution monitoring at Casey Station, East Antarctica: the choice of sieve mesh-size and taxonomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Belinda W; Riddle, Martin J; Stark, Jonathan S

    2003-02-01

    Contaminants from sewage discharge and abandoned waste tips enter the marine environment adjacent to Australia's Casey Station, East Antarctica. To establish cost-efficient methods for benthic pollution monitoring the effects of sieve mesh-size (0.5 and 1.0 mm) and taxonomic aggregation (family, order and class) on the description of infaunal assemblages were determined. The abundance and taxonomy of fauna retained on a 0.5 mm sieve after passing through a 1.0 mm sieve were examined in this study. The 1.0 mm sieve fraction [Human impacts and assemblages in marine soft-sediments at Casey Station, Antarctica, Ph.D. thesis, University of New England, 2001] contained 70% of individuals and 94% of taxa when compared to combined abundances on the 1.0 and 0.5 mm sieves. Furthermore, the addition of 0.5 mm data did not increase sampling precision or the statistical power to detect differences between locations. Differences between locations were detected when species were aggregated to the family level however, further aggregation to order and class levels altered the perceived pattern of differences. Marine pollution monitoring of the soft-bottom benthos at Casey Station is most cost-effective when using a 1.0 mm sieve and identifying fauna to the family level. This is the first reported comparison of sampling techniques using Antarctic benthos.

  4. The bacterial community structure of hydrocarbon-polluted marine environments as the basis for the definition of an ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Mariana; Marcos, Magalí S; Commendatore, Marta G; Gil, Mónica N; Dionisi, Hebe M

    2014-09-17

    The aim of this study was to design a molecular biological tool, using information provided by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, that could be suitable for environmental assessment and bioremediation in marine ecosystems. We selected 63 bacterial genera that were previously linked to hydrocarbon biodegradation, representing a minimum sample of the bacterial guild associated with this process. We defined an ecological indicator (ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure, EIHE) using the relative abundance values of these genera obtained by pyrotag analysis. This index reflects the proportion of the bacterial community that is potentially capable of biodegrading hydrocarbons. When the bacterial community structures of intertidal sediments from two sites with different pollution histories were analyzed, 16 of the selected genera (25%) were significantly overrepresented with respect to the pristine site, in at least one of the samples from the polluted site. Although the relative abundances of individual genera associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation were generally low in samples from the polluted site, EIHE values were 4 times higher than those in the pristine sample, with at least 5% of the bacterial community in the sediments being represented by the selected genera. EIHE values were also calculated in other oil-exposed marine sediments as well as in seawater using public datasets from experimental systems and field studies. In all cases, the EIHE was significantly higher in oiled than in unpolluted samples, suggesting that this tool could be used as an estimator of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of microbial communities.

  5. The Bacterial Community Structure of Hydrocarbon-Polluted Marine Environments as the Basis for the Definition of an Ecological Index of Hydrocarbon Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Marcos, Magalí S.; Commendatore, Marta G.; Gil, Mónica N.; Dionisi, Hebe M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a molecular biological tool, using information provided by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, that could be suitable for environmental assessment and bioremediation in marine ecosystems. We selected 63 bacterial genera that were previously linked to hydrocarbon biodegradation, representing a minimum sample of the bacterial guild associated with this process. We defined an ecological indicator (ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure, EIHE) using the relative abundance values of these genera obtained by pyrotag analysis. This index reflects the proportion of the bacterial community that is potentially capable of biodegrading hydrocarbons. When the bacterial community structures of intertidal sediments from two sites with different pollution histories were analyzed, 16 of the selected genera (25%) were significantly overrepresented with respect to the pristine site, in at least one of the samples from the polluted site. Although the relative abundances of individual genera associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation were generally low in samples from the polluted site, EIHE values were 4 times higher than those in the pristine sample, with at least 5% of the bacterial community in the sediments being represented by the selected genera. EIHE values were also calculated in other oil-exposed marine sediments as well as in seawater using public datasets from experimental systems and field studies. In all cases, the EIHE was significantly higher in oiled than in unpolluted samples, suggesting that this tool could be used as an estimator of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of microbial communities. PMID:24964812

  6. Water pollution: Uptake of heavy metals by shellfish and marine plants. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning heavy metal contamination of shellfish and marine plants. Toxicity levels and the long term effects on the ecology of the marine environment are discussed. The growth rate of marine life as a function of metal concentration and the long term effects on the food chain are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Water pollution: Uptake of heavy metals by shellfish and marine plants. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning heavy metal contamination of shellfish and marine plants. Toxicity levels and the long term effects on the ecology of the marine environment are discussed. The growth rate of marine life as a function of metal concentration and the long term effects on the food chain are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  9. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research.

  10. Multi-residue analysis of 36 priority and emerging pollutants in marine echinoderms (Holothuria tubulosa) and marine sediments by solid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Hidalgo, F; Ibáñez-Yuste, A J; Alonso, E; Vilchez, J L

    2017-05-01

    Marine echinoderms are filter-feeding invertebrates widely distributed along the coasts, and which are therefore extensively exposed to anthropogenic xenobiotics. They can serve as good sentinels for monitoring a large variety of contaminants in marine ecosystems. In this context, a multi-residue analytical method has been validated and applied to Holothuria tubulosa specimens and marine sediments for the determination of 36 organic compounds, which belong to some of the most problematic groups of emerging and priority pollutants (perfluoroalkyl compounds, estrogens, parabens, benzophenones, plasticizers, surfactants, brominated flame retardants and alkylphenols). Lyophilization of samples prior to solvent extraction and clean-up of extracts with C18, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, is proposed. A Box-Behnken design was used for optimization of the most influential variables affecting the extraction and clean-up steps. For validation, matrix-matched calibration and recovery assay were applied. Linearity (% r(2)) higher than 99%, recoveries between 80% and 114% (except in LAS and NP1EO), RSD (precision) lower than 15% and limits of quantification between 0.03 and 12.5ngg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) were achieved. The method was applied to nine samples of Holothuria collected along the coast of Granada (Spain), and to marine sediments around the animals. The results demonstrated high bioaccumulation of certain pollutants. A total of 25 out of the 36 studied compounds were quantified, being surfactants, alkylphenols, perfluoroalkyl compounds, triclocarban and parabens the most frequently detected. Nonylphenol was found in the highest concentration (340 and 323ngg(-1) d.w. in sediment and Holothuria samples, respectively).

  11. Brown mussels (Perna perna) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as indicators of organic pollutants in the South African marine environment.

    PubMed

    Degger, N; Wepener, V; Richardson, B J; Wu, R S S

    2011-01-01

    A distinct lack of historical and current data on the status of organic pollutant contaminants within the South African marine environment is evident. This has highlighted the need for more current organic pollutant assessments. Reference mussels and SPMDs were transplanted at five South African harbour sites to assess organic bioaccumulation in brown mussels (Perna perna) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Spatial patterns of PAH and PCB contaminants were determined by GC-MS and GC-ECD after appropriate sample preparation. Significant (p<0.05) spatial differences were observed between the sites. Results indicate no correlations between the passive device and the transplanted mussels; however the SPMDs provided complementary information on the presence of dioxin-like PCBs within the environment not detected by the mussel. The results indicate that information provided by both the mussels and SPMDs allow for a more in depth scrutiny of environmental conditions as a result of anthropogenic influence.

  12. Spatiotemporal variations in metal accumulation, RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserve in Perna viridis transplanted along a marine pollution gradient in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-01-21

    We examined spatiotemporal variations of metal levels and three growth related biomarkers, i.e., RNA/DNA ratio (RD), total energy reserve (Et) and condition index (CI), in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis transplanted into five locations along a pollution gradient in the marine environment of Hong Kong over 120days of deployment. There were significant differences in metal levels and biomarker responses among the five sites and six time points. Mussels in two clean sites displayed better CI and significantly lower levels of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn in their tissues than the other sites. Temporal patterns of RD in P. viridis were found to be site-specific. Across all sites, Et decreased in P. viridis over the deployment period, though the rate of decrease varied significantly among the sites. Therefore, temporal variation of biomarkers should be taken to consideration in mussel-watch programs because such information can help discriminate pollution-induced change from natural variation.

  13. Inhibition of release of phospholipase A sub 2 from sponge cells (Geodia cydonium) by detergent-polluted sea water. A sensitive method to monitor marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ugarkovic, D. Inst. Ruder Boscovic, Zagreb ); Kurelec, B. Inst. Ruder Boskovic, Rovinj ); Mueller, W.E.G.; Schroeder, H.C. )

    1991-11-01

    Detergents are important components of the total pollution load of sea water, particularly in the coastal regions in many parts of the world. Many studies have been published on the aquatic effects on cell-cell interaction and gene induction in the low-concentration range. Regenerating sponge cubes of G. cydonium have previously been shown to be a sensitive indicator model in the investigation of pollution of sea water by detergents and by genotoxic xenobiotics. In this paper, the effect of detergents, representing one major component pollutant in the coastal waters of the sea, on the second signal transduction pathway present in Geodia cells, the sponge's lectin-induced PLA{sub 2}/arachidonic acid pathway, was studied. The anionic detergent sodium dodecyl (SDS) and the cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used in the concentration range from 0.1 ppb to 10 ppm.

  14. Special issue on the advances in understanding of the North Pacific subtropical front ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnell, Skip; Seki, Michael P.; Ichii, Taro

    2017-01-01

    Subtropical, oligotrophic oceanic gyres are the largest marine ecosystems in the world. They provide important habitat for many higher trophic level species of fish, squid, seabirds, and marine mammals, with some taxa undergoing extensive seasonal migrations between the subtropical frontal region and summer feeding grounds in the subarctic. Knowledge of the structure, variability, and trends of these regions has developed slowly because of their immense size, remote location, and cost of sampling. The first consolidation of the general understanding of the physical nature of the subtropical North Pacific Ocean (and subarctic transition) was published 25 years ago (Roden, 1991) with important information on its relationship to biota added by the now defunct International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC, 1992; Ito et al., 1993). At that time, a research imperative had arisen from a need by governments to understand the effects of large-scale pelagic driftnet fishing on marine ecosystems (Wetherall, 1991).

  15. Diversity of Benzylsuccinate Synthase-Like (bssA) Genes in Hydrocarbon-Polluted Marine Sediments Suggests Substrate-Dependent Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    The potential of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine sediments was determined through the detection of a functional biomarker, the bssA gene, coding for benzylsuccinate synthase, the key enzyme of anaerobic toluene degradation. Eight bssA clone libraries (409 sequences) were constructed from polluted sediments affected by the Prestige oil spill in the Atlantic Islands National Park and from hydrocarbon-amended sediment microcosms in Mallorca. The amplified products and database-derived bssA-like sequences grouped into four major clusters, as determined by phylogenetic reconstruction, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), and a subfamily prediction tool. In addition to the classical bssA sequences that were targeted, we were able to detect sequences homologous to the naphthylmethylsuccinate synthase gene (nmsA) and the alkylsuccinate synthase gene (assA), the bssA homologues for anaerobic 2-methylnaphthalene and alkane degradation, respectively. The detection of bssA-like variants was determined by the persistence and level of pollution in the marine samples. The observed level of gene diversity was lower in the Mallorca sediments, which were dominated by assA-like sequences. In contrast, the Atlantic Islands samples, which were highly contaminated with methylnaphthalene-rich crude oil, showed a high proportion of nmsA-like sequences. Some of the detected genes were phylogenetically related to Deltaproteobacteria communities, previously described as the predominant hydrocarbon degraders at these sites. Differences between all detected bssA-like genes described to date indicate separation between marine and terrestrial sequences and further subgrouping according to taxonomic affiliation. Global analysis suggested that bssA homologues appeared to cluster according to substrate specificity. We observed undetected divergent gene lineages of bssA homologues, which evidence the existence of new degrader groups in these environments. PMID:23563947

  16. Geochemistry of recent aragonite-rich sediments in Mediterranean karstic marine lakes: Trace elements as pollution and palaeoredox proxies and indicators of authigenic mineral formation.

    PubMed

    Sondi, Ivan; Mikac, Nevenka; Vdović, Neda; Ivanić, Maja; Furdek, Martina; Škapin, Srečo D

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the geochemical characteristics of recent shallow-water aragonite-rich sediments from the karstic marine lakes located in the pristine environment on the island of Mljet (Adriatic Sea). Different trace elements were used as authigenic mineral formation, palaeoredox and pollution indicators. The distribution and the historical record of trace elements deposition mostly depended on the sedimentological processes associated with the formation of aragonite, early diagenetic processes governed by the prevailing physico-chemical conditions and on the recent anthropogenic activity. This study demonstrated that Sr could be used as a proxy indicating authigenic formation of aragonite in a marine carbonate sedimentological environment. Distribution of the redox sensitive elements Mo, Tl, U and Cd was used to identify changes in redox conditions in the investigated lake system and to determine the geochemical cycle of these elements through environmental changes over the last 100 years. The significant enrichment of these elements and the presence of early formed nanostructured authigenic framboidal pyrite in laminated deeper parts of sediment in Malo Jezero, indicate sporadic events of oxygen-depleted euxinic conditions in the recent past. Concentrations of trace elements were in the range characteristic for non-contaminated marine carbonates. However, the increase in the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Sn, Bi in the upper-most sediment strata of Veliko Jezero indicates a low level of trace element pollution, resulting from anthropogenic inputs over the last 40 years. The presence of butyltin compounds (BuTs) in the surface sediment of Veliko Jezero additionally indicates the anthropogenic influence in the recent past.

  17. Lipofuscin-like pigment in gonads of Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius as a potential biomarker of marine pollution: a field study.

    PubMed

    Vaschenko, Marina A; Zhadan, Peter M; Aminin, Dmitry L; Almyashova, Tatyana N

    2012-05-01

    Accumulation of lipofuscin-like pigments (LLPs) has been shown to be an appropriate index of both age and stress in some aquatic invertebrates. In the present study, LLP was quantified by measuring its autofluorescence intensity (ex 450 nm/em 512 nm) in nutritive phagocytes (NPs) of sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius inhabiting polluted and relatively clean areas of Japan Sea. To avoid variations in LLP content related to sea urchin reproductive condition, only developing gonads with acini occupied mostly by NPs were used for LLP quantification as well as semiquantitative histopathological analysis. LLP concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 4.57 ± 0.53% area fraction in female gonads and from 0.0 to 4.61 ± 0.35% in male gonads. The presence of specimens with extremely high LLP concentrations (>1.5%) in all examined samples, including specimens from the reference station, as well as the absence of strong correlations between LLP concentrations and several parameters related to pollution (heavy-metal concentrations in sea urchin gonads and concentrations of heavy metals, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, and total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments), allow us to conclude that LLP content in sea urchin NPs can not be used as a biomarker in marine pollution monitoring.

  18. Marine sponges with contrasting life histories can be complementary biomonitors of heavy metal pollution in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Batista, Daniela; Muricy, Guilherme; Rocha, Rafael Chávez; Miekeley, Norbert F

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we compared the usefulness of a long-living sponge (Hymeniacidon heliophila, Class Demospongiae) and a short-living one (Paraleucilla magna, Class Calcarea) as biomonitors of metallic pollution. The concentrations of 16 heavy metals were analyzed in both species along a gradient of decreasing pollution from the heavily polluted Guanabara Bay to the less impacted coastal islands in Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil (SW Atlantic). The levels of most elements analyzed were higher in H. heliophila (Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Hg, Ni, and Sn) and P. magna (Ni, Cu, Mn, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, Co, Cr, Zn, and V) collected from the heavily polluted bay when compared with the cleanest sites. Hymeniacidon heliophila accumulates 11 elements more efficiently than P. magna. This difference may be related to their skeleton composition, histological organization, symbiont bacteria and especially to their life cycle. Both species can be used as a biomonitors of metallic pollution, but while Hymeniacidon heliophila was more effective in concentrating most metals, Paraleucilla magna is more indicated to detect recent pollutant discharges due to its shorter life cycle. We suggest that the complementary use of species with contrasting life histories can be an effective monitoring strategy of heavy metals in coastal environments.

  19. Modeling sea salt and sulfate aerosol over the global oceans to understand the origins of marine cloud condensation nuclei and the impact of pollution on them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Tianyi

    Over the oceans, anthropogenic aerosols compete with natural aerosols from sea spray and oceanic phytoplankton-derived sulfate to create cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). To understand the impact of pollution on the marine CCN, we need knowledge of both natural and anthropogenic aerosols. In this research, we model sea salt and sulfate aerosol in a coupled climate and sectional microphysical model, CAM/CARMA. We develop a sea salt source function, CMS, based upon several earlier source functions (Clarke, Monahan, and Smith). The CMS source function is capable of reproducing observed sea salt mass, optical depth and number concentration as well as the size distribution better than other source function choices we tried. However, as we note, it is also important to properly set the removal rate of the particles to reproduce the observed abundances. The simulated non-sea-salt sulfate mass agrees well with the observations. Direct emission of sulfate from sea spray is the largest source of marine sulfate aerosol and depends on the sea salt emission. Non-sea-salt sulfate from gas- and aqueous-phase conversion, together with sea salt, contributes to the marine CCN over the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere, while sea salt dominates the CCN over the Southern Ocean. Human impact on marine CCN extends to 45 oS. Anthropogenic sulfur emissions are responsible for about 35% of the surface layer CCN over the global oceans. With doubling the year 2000 anthropogenic sulfur emissions. Surface layer CCN increases by about 22% over the global oceans if sulfur emissions are doubled from. With no or double anthropogenic emissions, the changes in the surface layer CCN number over the Southern Hemisphere oceans are usually less than 10%.

  20. Differential decomposition of bacterial and viral fecal indicators in common human pollution types.

    PubMed

    Wanjugi, Pauline; Sivaganesan, Mano; Korajkic, Asja; Kelty, Catherine A; McMinn, Brian; Ulrich, Robert; Harwood, Valerie J; Shanks, Orin C

    2016-11-15

    Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decomposition of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fecal pollution originating from fresh human feces, septage, and primary effluent sewage in a subtropical marine environment was assessed over a six day period with an emphasis on the influence of ambient sunlight and indigenous microbiota. Ambient water mixed with each fecal pollution type was placed in dialysis bags and incubated in situ in a submersible aquatic mesocosm. Genetic and cultivated fecal indicators including fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci, E. coli, and Bacteroidales), coliphage (somatic and F+), Bacteroides fragilis phage (GB-124), and human-associated genetic indicators (HF183/BacR287 and HumM2) were measured in each sample. Simple linear regression assessing treatment trends in each pollution type over time showed significant decay (p ≤ 0.05) in most treatments for feces and sewage (27/28 and 32/40, respectively), compared to septage (6/26). A two-way analysis of variance of log10 reduction values for sewage and feces experiments indicated that treatments differentially impact survival of cultivated bacteria, cultivated phage, and genetic indicators. Findings suggest that sunlight is critical for phage decay, and indigenous microbiota play a lesser role. For bacterial cultivated and genetic indicators, the influence of indigenous microbiota varied by pollution type. This study offers new insights on the decomposition of common human fecal pollution types in a subtropical marine environment with important implications for water quality management applications.

  1. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Red-Soil-Polluted Seawater in Okinawa, Japan -Potential Impacts on Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Hamdun, A. M.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Ikota, H.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.

    2004-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into coastal ocean (locally termed as red-soil-pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. In an attempt to understand the impacts of red soil on oxidizing power of the seawater, we studied formation of hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent oxidant in the environment, in red-soil-polluted seawaters, using 313 nm monochromatic light. Photo-formation rates of OH radical showed a good correlation with dissolved iron concentrations (R = 0.98). The major source of OH radical was found to be the Fenton reaction (a reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH). The un-filtered red-soil-polluted seawater samples exhibited faster OH radical formation rates than the filtered samples, suggesting that iron-bearing red soil particles enhanced formation of OH radical.

  2. Marine pollution as indicated by oil accumulated on clams collected from the western coasts of the Red Sea, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Shimy, T.M.

    1997-02-01

    In order to save the environment from pollution, many techniques are used for identifying oil accumulated on clams along the western coast of the Red Sea. Gas chromatography (GC), infrared (IR), and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrophotometry are three different techniques used to analyze the collected samples, GC chromatograms for oil extracted from these animals indicate that the source of pollution is petroleum, and a few peaks reveal a mixture of biogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbons. These results are confirmed by the characteristic IR spectra profiles, high concentrations of the aromatic compounds, and the UV absorption spectra of these samples.

  3. Marine molluscs and fish as biomarkers of pollution stress in littoral regions of the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Bissinger, Vera; Abelson, Avigdor; Dizer, Halim; Sturm, Armin; Kratke, Renate; Fishelson, Lev; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich

    1999-12-01

    The intensive development of industry and urban structures along the seashores of the world, as well as the immense increase in marine transportation and other activities, has resulted in the deposition of thousands of new chemicals and organic compounds, endangering the existence of organisms and ecosystems. The conventional single biomarker methods used in ecological assessment studies cannot provide an adequate base for environmental health assessment, management and sustainability planning. The present study uses a set of novel biochemical, physiological, cytogenetic and morphological methods to characterize the state of health of selected molluscs and fish along the shores of the German North Sea, as well as the Israeli Mediterranean and Red Sea. The methods include measurement of activity of multixenobiotic resistance-mediated transporter (MXRtr) and the system of active transport of organic anions (SATOA) as indicators of antixenobiotic defence; glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity as an indicator of biotransformation of xenobiotics; DNA unwinding as a marker of genotoxicity; micronucleus test for clastogenicity; levels of phagocytosis for immunotoxicity; cholinesterase (ChE) activity and level of catecholamines as indicators of neurotoxicity; permeability of external epithelia to anionic hydrophilic probe, intralysosomal accumulation of cationic amphiphilic probe and activity of non-specific esterases as indicators of cell/tissue viability. Complete histopathological examination was used for diagnostics of environmental pathology. The obtained data show that the activity of the defensive pumps, MXRtr and SATOA in the studied organisms was significantly higher in the surface epithelia of molluscs from a polluted site than that of the same species from control, unpolluted stations, providing clear evidence of response to stress. Enhanced frequency of DNA lesions (alkaline and acidic DNA unwinding) and micronucleus-containing cells was significantly higher

  4. Predictable pollution: an assessment of weather balloons and associated impacts on the marine environment--an example for the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Owen R; Hamann, Mark; Smith, Walter; Taylor, Heidi

    2014-02-15

    Efforts to curb pollution in the marine environment are covered by national and international legislation, yet weather balloons are released into the environment with no salvage agenda. Here, we assess impacts associated with weather balloons in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). We use modeling to assess the probability of ocean endpoints for released weather balloons and predict pathways post-release. In addition, we use 21 months of data from beach cleanup events to validate our results and assess the abundance and frequency of weather balloon fragments in the GBRWHA. We found between 65% and 70% of balloons land in the ocean and ocean currents largely determine final endpoints. Beach cleanup data revealed 2460 weather balloon fragments were recovered from 24 sites within the GBRWHA. This is the first attempt to quantify this problem and these data will add support to a much-needed mitigation strategy for weather balloon waste.

  5. DNA adducts in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis living in polluted and unpolluted environments. Chapter 12. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Garg, A.; Krca, S.; Gupta, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    A generally applicable (32)P-postlabeling assay was used to examine the presence of DNA adducts in mussels experimentally exposed to known carcinogens and in mussels collected from sites impacted by wastewaters. Mussels exposed to seawater artificially polluted with 2-aminofluorene showed exclusively one adduct which was identified to be dG-C8-2-aminofluorene. Under the same experimental conditions, Diesel-2 oil did not induce any detectable adducts. When mussel digestive gland DNA was collected and analyzed from one unpolluted site, two moderately impacted sites, and one site heavily impacted by cannery wastewaters, mussel DNA from the unpolluted and only one moderately polluted site showed the presence of 6 to 10 adducts. This indicates they were not related to the pollution. This was further supported by the absence of dose-related adducts. Clear evidence for the presence of pollution-related DNA adducts was, however, found in juvenile mussels collected from an oil refinery site. One major and three minor adducts were detected in these mussels with no adducts detected in juvenile mussels from an unpolluted site.

  6. APPLICATION OF 3D COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO THE QUANTIFICATION OF MARINE SEDIMENT COMMUNITIES IN POLLUTION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) has been demonstrated to be a cost efficient tool for the qualitative and quantitative study of estuarine benthic communities along pollution gradients.
    Now we have advanced this technology to successfully visualize and discriminate three dimen...

  7. Inertia-induced accumulation of flotsam in the subtropical gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beron-Vera, F. J.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Lumpkin, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent surveys of marine plastic debris density have revealed high levels in the center of the subtropical gyres. Earlier studies have argued that the formation of great garbage patches is due to Ekman convergence in such regions. In this work we report a tendency so far overlooked of drogued and undrogued drifters to accumulate distinctly over the subtropical gyres, with undrogued drifters accumulating in the same areas where plastic debris accumulate. We show that the observed accumulation is too fast for Ekman convergence to explain it. We demonstrate that the accumulation is controlled by finite-size and buoyancy (i.e., inertial) effects on undrogued drifter motion subjected to ocean current and wind drags. We infer that the motion of flotsam in general is constrained by similar effects. This is done by using a newly proposed Maxey-Riley equation which models the submerged (surfaced) drifter portion as a sphere of the fractional volume that is submerged (surfaced).

  8. Short-term changes in the composition of active marine bacterial assemblages in response to diesel oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Bosch, Rafael; Nogales, Balbina

    2010-09-01

    The changes caused by diesel oil pollution in the metabolically active bacterioplankton from an oligotrophic coastal location were analysed in laboratory microcosms (44 l) using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) as molecular marker. The aim was to simulate typical hydrocarbon pollution events in a coastal area exploited for seasonal touristic activities. The experiment consisted in addition of low amounts of diesel oil without nutrients to seawater collected at different times (winter and summer). Bacterial diversity was analysed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling of 16S rRNAs after reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and by generation of 16S rRNA clone libraries in control and diesel-polluted microcosms. Diesel addition caused a twofold increase in prokaryotic numbers in comparison with controls at the end of the experiment, both in winter and summer microcosms. Bacterioplankton composition, determined by 16S rRNA T-RFLP data, changed rapidly (within 17 h) in response to treatment. The resulting communities were different in microcosms with water collected in summer and winter. A reduction in diversity (Shannon index, calculated on the basis of T-RFLP data) was observed only in summer microcosms. This was due to the rapid increase of phylotypes affiliated to the Oceanospirillaceae, not observed in winter microcosms. After diesel treatment there was a reduction in the number of phylotypes related to SAR11, SAR86 and picocyanobacteria, while phylotypes of the Roseobacter clade, and the OMG group seemed to be favoured. Our results show that diesel pollution alone caused profound effects on the bacterioplankton of oligotrophic seawater, and explained many of the differences in diversity reported previously in pristine and polluted sites in this coastal area.

  9. Short‐term changes in the composition of active marine bacterial assemblages in response to diesel oil pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P.; Bosch, Rafael; Nogales, Balbina

    2010-01-01

    Summary The changes caused by diesel oil pollution in the metabolically active bacterioplankton from an oligotrophic coastal location were analysed in laboratory microcosms (44 l) using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) as molecular marker. The aim was to simulate typical hydrocarbon pollution events in a coastal area exploited for seasonal touristic activities. The experiment consisted in addition of low amounts of diesel oil without nutrients to seawater collected at different times (winter and summer). Bacterial diversity was analysed by terminal‐restriction fragment length polymorphism (T‐RFLP) profiling of 16S rRNAs after reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR), and by generation of 16S rRNA clone libraries in control and diesel‐polluted microcosms. Diesel addition caused a twofold increase in prokaryotic numbers in comparison with controls at the end of the experiment, both in winter and summer microcosms. Bacterioplankton composition, determined by 16S rRNA T‐RFLP data, changed rapidly (within 17 h) in response to treatment. The resulting communities were different in microcosms with water collected in summer and winter. A reduction in diversity (Shannon index, calculated on the basis of T‐RFLP data) was observed only in summer microcosms. This was due to the rapid increase of phylotypes affiliated to the Oceanospirillaceae, not observed in winter microcosms. After diesel treatment there was a reduction in the number of phylotypes related to SAR11, SAR86 and picocyanobacteria, while phylotypes of the Roseobacter clade, and the OMG group seemed to be favoured. Our results show that diesel pollution alone caused profound effects on the bacterioplankton of oligotrophic seawater, and explained many of the differences in diversity reported previously in pristine and polluted sites in this coastal area. PMID:21255357

  10. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms.

  11. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  12. The effect of subtropical aerosol loading on equatorial precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagan, G.; Chemke, R.

    2016-10-01

    Cloud-aerosol interactions are considered as one of the largest sources of uncertainties in the study of climate change. Here another possible cloud-aerosol effect on climate is proposed. A series of large eddy simulations (LES) with bin microphysics reveal a sensitivity of the total atmospheric water vapor amount to aerosol concentration. Under polluted conditions the rain is suppressed and the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere increases with time compared to clean precipitating conditions. Theoretical examination of this aerosol effect on water vapor transport from the subtropics to the tropics, and hence on the equatorial rain and Hadley circulation, is conducted using an idealized general circulation model (GCM). It is shown that a reduction in the subtropical rain amount results in increased water vapor advection to the tropics and enhanced equatorial rain and Hadley circulation. This joins previously proposed mechanisms on the radiative aerosol effect on the general circulation.

  13. Trends in chronic marine oil pollution in Danish waters assessed using 22 years of beached bird surveys.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jørn Lennart; Durinck, Jan; Skov, Henrik

    2007-09-01

    Beached bird surveys provide an important tool for monitoring the level of oil pollution at sea, which is the most significant observable cause of death for a large number of waterbird species and pose a serious threat to wintering seabird populations. Linear regression analyses of oil rates from the Danish 22 year dataset show a decline in the oil pollution level in offshore areas of the eastern North Sea and Skagerrak and in near-shore parts of the Kattegat; but a worsening in the offshore areas of the Kattegat. These results raise concern for species such as common scoter, velvet scoter, eider and razorbill, for which the Kattegat serves as a globally important wintering area. It is recommended that surveillance for oil spills is intensified in inner Danish waters, and that action is taken to make responses towards offenders faster, and penalties for oil seepage higher.

  14. Heavy metals in sediments and soft tissues of the Antarctic clam Laternula elliptica: more evidence as a possible biomonitor of coastal marine pollution at high latitudes?

    PubMed

    Vodopivez, Cristian; Curtosi, Antonio; Villaamil, Edda; Smichowski, Patricia; Pelletier, Emilien; Mac Cormack, Walter P

    2015-01-01

    Studies on metal contamination in 25 de Mayo Island, Antarctica, yielded controversial results. In this work, we analyzed Antarctic marine sediments and Antarctic clam (Laternula elliptica) tissues to investigate the possible use of this mollusk as a biomonitor of metals and to identify the sources of metal pollution. Different types of paint from several buildings from Carlini Station were examined to assess their contribution to the local and random metal pollution. Five sediment samples, 105 L. elliptica specimens (40.2-78.0mm length) and four types of paint were analyzed to quantify Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Metal concentrations in sediments were lower than the global averages of the earth's crust, with the exception of Cd and Cu. These results were related to the contribution of the local fresh-water runoff. The different varieties of paint showed low levels of Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn, whereas a broad range of values were found in the case of Cr and Pb (20-15,100 μg·g(-1) and 153-115,500 μg·g(-1) respectively). The remains of the paint would be responsible for the significant increases in Cr and Pb which are randomly detected by us and by other authors. High levels of Fe and Cd, in comparison to other Antarctic areas, appear to be related to the terrigenous materials transported by the local streams. Accumulation indexes suggested that kidney tissue from L. elliptica could be an adequate material for biomonitoring pollution with Cd, Zn and probably also Pb. In general, relationships between size and metal contents reported by other authors were not verified, suggesting that this issue should be revised.

  15. EROD activity in gill filaments of anadromous and marine fish as a biomarker of dioxin-like pollutants.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Maria; Abrahamson, Alexandra; Brunström, Björn; Brandt, Ingvar; Ingebrigtsen, Kristian; Jørgensen, Even H

    2003-11-01

    The applicability of a gill filament-based ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay, originally developed in rainbow trout, was examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens) and spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor). All species but spotted wolffish showed strong EROD induction in tip pieces of gill filaments following 48 h of exposure to waterborne beta-naphthoflavone. Atlantic salmon parr, smolts held in freshwater and smolts transferred to seawater showed EROD induction of similar magnitude. Arctic charr, differing 11-fold in body weight, showed similar EROD activities as expressed per gill filament tip. Laboratory exposure of saithe to water and sediments collected at polluted sites, resulted in strong EROD induction. In conclusion, the gill filament assay seems useful for monitoring exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in various species. Furthermore, smoltification status, water salinity and body size proved to have minor influence on gill filament EROD activity. However, the results in spotted wolffish show that some species may be less suitable for monitoring using the gill assay. Assessment of gill filament EROD activity in fish exposed to polluted water and sediments in the laboratory proved to be an easy and cost-effective way to survey pollution with dioxin-like chemicals.

  16. The "bioeffect assessment index" (BAI). A concept for the quantification of effects of marine pollution by an integrated biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Broeg, K; Westernhagen, H V; Zander, S; Körting, W; Koehler, A

    2005-05-01

    The "bioeffect assessment index" (BAI) is based on the integration of several pathological endpoints measured in the liver of European flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) during a long term study of biological effects of pollution in the German Bight. The BAI represents a modification of the "health assessment index" since it includes solely validated biomarkers reflecting toxically induced alterations at different levels of biological organisation in order to quantify the effects of environmental pollution. The concept of the BAI is based on the observation of progressive deleterious effects from early responses to late effects. Specific "key events" were detected, representing progressive stages of functional deterioration. The biomarkers selected from a whole battery of cellular markers for the BAI calculation reflect deleterious effects of various classes of contaminants such as heavy metals, organochlorines, pesticides, PAHs, and therefore reflect general toxicity in an integrative manner. Selected biomarkers were: lysosomal perturbations (reduced membrane stability), storage disorders (lipid accumulation) as early markers for toxic effects of liver cells, and the size of macrophage aggregates and their acid phosphatase activity. The latter two markers are indicative for the modulation of non-specific immune response which represents longer time scale responses after chronic exposure.

  17. Promising Biological Indicator of Heavy Metal Pollution: Bioluminescent Bacterial Strains Isolated and Characterized from Marine Niches of Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Thakre, Neha A; Shanware, Arti S

    2015-09-01

    In present study, several marine water samples collected from the North Goa Beaches, India for isolation of luminescent bacterial species. Isolates obtained labelled as DP1-5 and AB1-6. Molecular characterization including identification of a microbial culture using 16S rRNA gene based molecular technique and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that DP3 & AB1 isolates were Vibrio harveyi. All of the isolates demonstrated multiple metal resistances in terms of growth, with altered luminescence with variable metal concentration. Present investigations were an attempt towards exploring and reporting an updated diversity of bioluminescent bacterial species from various sites around the Goa, India which would be explored in future for constructing luminescence based biosensor for efficiently monitoring the level of hazardous metals in the environment.

  18. The ugly face of tourism: Marine debris pollution linked to visitation in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Scott P; Verlis, Krista M

    2017-04-15

    Marine debris is one of the most significant issues facing oceans worldwide. The sources of this debris vary depending on proximity to urban centres and the nature of activities within an area. This paper examines the influence of tourism in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and its contribution to litter levels in the region. By conducting beach debris surveys on occupied and unoccupied islands, this study found that debris was prevalent throughout the region with significant differences in material types between locations. The greatest source of debris from publically accessible islands was tourist-related, with this source also influencing debris loads on nearby uninhabited islands. A focus on debris at Heron Island, showed that sites close to amenities had greater levels of tourist-sourced items like cigarette butts. These findings indicate the contribution of tourists to this problem and that working with operators and managers is needed to minimise visitor impacts.

  19. Chemical signatures of aged Pacific marine air: Mixed layer and free troposphere as measured during PEM-West A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Bachmeier, A. S.; Blake, D. R.; Heikes, B. G.; Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Kondo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean is one of the few remaining regions of the northern hemisphere that is relatively free of direct anthropogenic emissions. However, long-range transport of air pollutants is beginning to have a significant impact on the atmosphere over the Pacific. In September and October 1991, NASA conducted the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A expedition to study the atmospheric chemistry and background budgets of key atmospheric trace species. Aircraft sampling centered on the northern Pacific, 0° to 40°N and 115° to 180°E. The paper summarizes the chemical signature of relatively well-aged Pacific marine air (residence time ≥10 days over the ocean). The chemical signatures show that marine air is not always devoid of continental influences. Aged marine air which circulates around the semipermanent subtropical anticyclone located off the Asian continent is influenced by infusion of continental air with anthropogenic emissions. The infusion occurs as the result of Asian outflow swept off the continent behind eastward moving cold fronts. When compared to aged marine air with a more southerly pathway, this infusion results in enhancements in the mixing ratio of many anthropogenic/continental species and typically those with lifetimes of weeks in the free troposphere. Less enhancement is seen for the short-lived species with lifetimes of a few days as infused continental emissions are depleted during transport (about a week) around the semipermanent subtropical high.

  20. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.

    PubMed

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5 kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like β propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the

  1. Effects of light pollution on the emergent fauna of shallow marine ecosystems: Amphipods as a case study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Hughes, Lauren Elizabeth

    2015-05-15

    Light pollution from coastal urban development is a widespread and increasing threat to biodiversity. Many amphipod species migrate between the benthos and the pelagic environment and light seems is a main ecological factor which regulates migration. We explore the effect of artificial lighting on amphipod assemblages using two kind of lights, LED and halogen, and control traps in shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef. Both types of artificial light traps showed a significantly higher abundance of individuals for all species in comparison to control traps. LED lights showed a stronger effect over the amphipod assemblages, with these traps collecting a higher number of individuals and differing species composition, with some species showing a specific attraction to LED light. As emergent amphipods are a key ecological group in the shallow water environment, the impact of artificial light can affect the broader functioning of the ecosystem.

  2. Plastic pollution in the marine environment. Hearing before the National Ocean Policy Study of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, July 29, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A hearing on the disposal of plastic wastes in the marine environment brought testimony from representatives of the fishing industry, the shipping industry, the plastics industry, and environmental groups. The disposal of plastics in the ocean is so ubiquitous that it can be compared to nonpoint sources of pollution such as acid rain or agricultural runoff. In that respect, it may be one of the most difficult sources of pollution to effectively monitor or to control and is a problem of immense proportions. The impacts are not confined to aesthetics, as each year hundreds of thousands of sea birds and marine mammals perish as they consume or become entangled in plastic debris. Even human life is threatened when vessels become disabled as their propellers become fouled in plastic debris.

  3. Bacterial community responses during a possible CO2 leaking from sub-seabed storage in marine polluted sediments.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Santiago, Ana R; DelValls, T Ángel; Inmaculada Riba, M

    2017-03-22

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a viable option to reduce high concentrations of CO2 and mitigate their negative effects. This option has associated risks such as possible CO2 leakage from the storage sites. So far, negative effects deriving from a CO2 release have been reported for benthic macrofauna in both polluted and nonpolluted sediments. However, bacterial communities has no considered. In this work, risk assessment was carried out in order to evaluate the possible effects in a contaminated area considering bacterial responses (total number of cells, respiring activity, changes in the bacterial community composition and diversity). Four microcosms were placed into an integrated CO2 injection system with a non-pressurized chamber to simulate four different pH treatments (pH control 7.8, 7, 6.5 and 6). Results showed an impact on bacterial communities because of the CO2 treatment. Changes in respiring activity, community composition groups and diversity were found. This study highlights the use of respiring bacteria activity not only as bioindicator for environmental risk assessment and monitoring purposes but also as a bioindicador during a CO2 leakage event or CO2 enrichment process among all the responses studied.

  4. Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) as an indicator of long range transport of air pollutants over the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Han, J.; Lee, G.; Choi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) was measured at Gosan ABC Superstation, Korea during 19 October ~ 6 November 2010. PAN and NO2 were separated onto a GC column and then quantified by luminol chemiluminescence at 425 nm every 2 minutes. PAN concentrations ranged from 0.2 ppbv to 2.4 ppbv with an average of 0.6 ppbv. The highest PAN concentrations were observed during the two haze events, when stagnant condition developed over the Yellow Sea. Particularly, PAN was surprisingly well correlated with PM10 for the whole experiment period (r = 0.88) (Fig. 1). The PM10 concentration was raised up to 216 μg/m3 during the second event. In addition, PAN concentrations were noticeably enhanced when air masses passed over the populated or industrialized areas in China or Korea and aged over the Sea, which were identified by backward air mass trajectories. In this study, PAN was suggested to be a good indicator of the long range transport of air pollutants.

  5. The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through beached bird surveys 1984-1999.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Francis K; Ryan, Pierre C

    2003-09-01

    The Grand Banks south of Newfoundland provide year-round feeding habitat for tens of millions of seabirds of numerous species, an abundance and diversity unparalleled in the North Atlantic. Dense ship traffic routes traverse this productive environment as vessels travel the Great Circle Route between Europe and North America. Oiled seabirds have washed up on beaches in Newfoundland for many decades. Most oil on their feathers is heavy fuel oil mixed with lubricants, the mixture found in bilges of large vessels. Beached bird surveys conducted between 1984 and 1999 indicate that chronic oil pollution along the southeast coast of Newfoundland is among the highest in world. Sixty two percent of all dead birds found over the 16-year period had oil on their feathers; 74% during the last five years. Auks, especially Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), are the most affected. The mean number of oiled birds per kilometer was 0.77 and thus higher than in other regions of the world during a comparable time period (0.02-0.33). Oiling rates correlated with weather patterns and degree of the regional murre hunt, indicate that illegal dumping of oil may occur year round, and point out that it is critical to assess all possible environmental and anthropogenic factors influencing the number of clean and oiled dead birds found on beaches before inferring trends in oiling rates over time.

  6. Steroid hormone related effects of marine persistent organic pollutants in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Rijk, Jeroen C W; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T; Murk, Albertinka J

    2015-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) 126 and 153, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tributyltin (TBT), and methylmercury (MeHg) can be accumulated in seafood and then form a main source for human exposure. Some POPs have been associated with changes in steroid hormone levels in both humans and animals. This study describes the in vitro effects of these POPs and mixtures thereof in H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Relative responses for 13 steroid hormones and 7 genes involved in the steroidogenic pathway, and CYP1A1, were analyzed. PFOS induced the most pronounced effects on steroid hormone levels by significantly affecting 9 out of 13 hormone levels measured, with the largest increases found for 17β-estradiol, corticosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, TCDD, both PCBs, and TBT significantly altered steroidogenesis. Increased steroid hormone levels were accompanied by related increased gene expression levels. The differently expressed genes were MC2R, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, and CYP19A1 and changes in gene expression levels were more sensitive than changes in hormone levels. The POP mixtures tested showed mostly additive effects, especially for DHEA and 17β-estradiol levels. This study shows that some seafood POPs are capable of altering steroidogenesis in H295R cells at concentrations that mixtures might reach in human blood, suggesting that adverse health effects cannot be excluded.

  7. Isoform-specific responses of metallothioneins in a marine pollution biomonitor, the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, towards different stress stimulations.

    PubMed

    Leung, Priscilla T Y; Park, T J; Wang, Yu; Che, C M; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-08-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are commonly used as biomarker for metal pollution assessment in marine ecosystems. Using integrated genomic and proteomic analyses, this study characterized two types of MT isoform in the digestive gland of a common biomonitor, the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, towards the challenges of a metal (cadmium; Cd) and a non-metal oxidant (hydrogen peroxide; H2 O2 ) respectively. The two isoforms differed in their deduced protein sequences, with 73 amino acids for MT10-I and 72 for MT10-II (a novel type), but both consisted of a high percentage (27.4 to 29.2%) of cysteine. Two-dimensional gel and Western blot showed that the MT proteins were present in multiple isoform spots, and they were further validated to be MT10-I and MT10-II using MS analysis coupled with unrestricted modifications searching. Expression of mRNA revealed that MT10-I responded promptly to Cd but had a lagged induction to H2 O2 treatments, while MT10-II was exclusively induced by Cd treatment over the course of exposure. Expression of the MT proteins also showed a delayed response to H2 O2 , compared to Cd treatments. This study uncovered the potential different functional roles of various MTs isoforms in P. viridis and thus advances the resolution of using MTs as biomarkers in future applications.

  8. Combining contamination indexes, sediment quality guidelines and multivariate data analysis for metal pollution assessment in marine sediments of Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Peña-Icart, Mirella; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues; Lopes Fialho, Lucimar; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos; Bolaños-Alvarez, Yoelvis; Pomares-Alfonso, Mario S

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present work was to combine several tools for assessing metal pollution in marine sediments from Cienfuegos Bay. Fourteen surface sediments collected in 2013 were evaluated. Concentrations of As, Cu, Ni, Zn and V decreased respect to those previous reported. The metal contamination was spatially distributed in the north and south parts of the bay. According to the contamination factor (CF) enrichment factor (EF) and index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), Cd and Cu were classified in that order as the most contaminated elements in most sediment. Comparison of the total metal concentrations with the threshold (TELs) and probable (PELs) effect levels in sediment quality guidelines suggested a more worrisome situation for Cu, of which concentrations were occasional associated with adverse biological effects in thirteen sediments, followed by Ni in nine sediments; while adverse effects were rarely associated with Cd. Probably, Cu could be considered as the most dangerous in the whole bay because it was classified in the high contamination levels by all indexes and, simultaneously, associated to occasional adverse effects in most samples. Despite the bioavailability was partially evaluated with the HCl method, the low extraction of Ni (<3% in all samples) and Cu (<55%, except sample 3) and the relative high extraction of Cd (50% or more, except sample 14) could be considered as an attenuating (Ni and Cu) or increasing (Cd) factor in the risk assessment of those element.

  9. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon H.; Hamilton, Christine D.; Spencer, Gregory C.; Ogston, Heather O.

    2015-05-12

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai‘i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special-status fish (e.g., threatened and endangered) is needed to facilitate project design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef-associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs), forming the nuclei for groups of fishes. Little is known about the potential for WECs and TECs to function as artificial reefs and FADs in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i. We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by reviewing relevant information about fish associations with surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelps, floating debris, oil and gas platforms, marine debris, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net-cages used for mariculture, and piers and docks. Based on our review, we postulate that the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i likely will function as small-scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef-associated fishes (including special-status rockfish species [Sebastes spp.] along the mainland), and that the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai‘i likely will function as de facto FADs with species assemblages varying by distance from shore and deployment depth. Along the U.S. West Coast, frequent associations with midwater and surface structures may be less likely: juvenile, semipelagic, kelp-associated rockfishes may occur at midwater and surface structures of WECs in coastal waters of

  10. Evaluation of the global protein synthesis in Mytilus galloprovincialis in marine pollution monitoring: seasonal variability and correlations with other biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Pytharopoulou, Sofia; Kouvela, Ekaterini C; Sazakli, Eleni; Leotsinidis, Michel; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2006-10-25

    Protein synthesis down-regulation is a life-saving mechanism for many organisms exposed to xenobiotics that threaten normal life. The present study was designed to assess the spatial and seasonal variability of global protein synthesis, determined in the microsomal fraction of digestive glands from caged Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels exposed for 30 days in a relatively clean region and two unevenly polluted areas (Stations 1 and 2) along the Gulf of Patras (Greece). The in vivo activity of translating ribosomes was evaluated by analyzing the translating ribosomes, polysome content, which may serve as an indicator of the efficiency of the protein-synthesizing machinery. To correlate with classical biomonitoring strategies, various biomarkers were measured in digestive glands, including metallothionein content, heavy-metal content, and lysosomal membrane stability. In parallel, gill cells were examined for micronucleus frequency. Metal ion concentrations were also estimated in the surrounding waters as a measure of metal exposure. Substantially lower polysome content was recorded in caged mussels collected from Station 1, in particular during the winter and spring sampling. As verified by chemical analysis of the seawater and measurement of other biomarkers, Station 1 was more contaminated than Station 2. Polysome content was found negatively correlated with metallothionein levels, micronucleus frequency and cytosolic Cu and Hg in all seasons. In addition, negative correlations were obtained between polysome content and lysosomal membrane stability in winter and spring. A progressive increase in polysomes was observed from winter to autumn, in particular in samples from Station 1. A non-uniform trend was detected in 80S ribosomal monosomes, whereas the seasonal changes in ribosomal subunits were opposite to those found in polysome content. Comparisons between seasonal and local site-specific influences on polysome content provides evidence that winter and spring

  11. Marine enzymes.

    PubMed

    Debashish, Ghosh; Malay, Saha; Barindra, Sana; Joydeep, Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and ease in large-scale cultivation. This review deals with the research and development work done on the occurrence, molecular biology, and bioprocessing of marine enzymes during the last decade. Exotic locations have been accessed for the search of novel enzymes. Scientists have isolated proteases and carbohydrases from deep sea hydrothermal vents. Cold active metabolic enzymes from psychrophilic marine microorganisms have received considerable research attention. Marine symbiont microorganisms growing in association with animals and plants were shown to produce enzymes of commercial interest. Microorganisms isolated from sediment and seawater have been the most widely studied, proteases, carbohydrases, and peroxidases being noteworthy. Enzymes from marine animals and plants were primarily studied for their metabolic roles, though proteases and peroxidases have found industrial applications. Novel techniques in molecular biology applied to assess the diversity of chitinases, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia-metabolizing, and pollutant-degrading enzymes are discussed. Genes encoding chitinases, proteases, and carbohydrases from microbial and animal sources have been cloned and characterized. Research on the bioprocessing of marine-derived enzymes, however, has been scanty, focusing mainly on the application of solid-state fermentation to the production of enzymes from microbial sources.

  12. Protecting the Marine Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA works with U.S. government agency partners, foreign nations, industry and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that international decisions and management of marine pollution issues support EPA's mission

  13. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Canadian Arctic has experienced decreasing sea ice extent and increasing shipping activity in the recent decades. While there are economic incentives to develop resources in the North, there are environmental concerns that increasing marine traffic will contribute to declining air quality in Northern communities. In an effort to characterize the relative impact of shipping on air quality in the North, two monitoring stations have been installed in Cape Dorset and Resolute, Nunavut, and have been operational since 1 June 2013. The impact of shipping and other sources of emissions on NOx, O3, SO2, BC, and PM2.5 pollution have been characterized for the 2013 shipping season from 1 June to 1 November. In addition, a high resolution Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for both sites was computed. Shipping consistently increased O3 mixing ratio and PM2.5 concentration. The 90% confidence interval for mean difference in O3 mixing ratio between ship and no ship-influenced air masses were up to 4.6-4.7 ppb and 2.5-2.7 ppb for Cape Dorset and Resolute, respectively. The same intervals for PM2.5 concentrations were up to 1.8-1.9 μg m-3 and 0.5-0.6 μg m-3. Ship-influenced air masses consistently exhibited degraded air quality by an increase of 0.1 to 0.3 in the high resolution AQHI compared to no ship-influenced air masses. Trajectory cluster analysis in combination with ship traffic tracking provided an estimated range for percent ship contribution to NOx, O3, SO2, and PM2.5 that were 12.9-17.5%, 16.2-18.1%, 16.9-18.3%, and 19.5-31.7% for Cape Dorset and 1.0-7.2%, 2.9-4.8%, 5.5-10.0%, and 6.5-7.2% for Resolute during the 2013 shipping season. Additional measurements in Resolute suggested that percent ship contribution to black carbon was 4.3-9.8% and that black carbon constituted 1.3-9.7% of total PM2.5 mass in ship plumes. Continued air quality monitoring in the above sites for future shipping seasons will improve the statistics in our analysis as well as characterize

  14. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Canadian Arctic has experienced decreasing sea ice extent and increasing shipping activity in recent decades. While there are economic incentives to develop resources in the north, there are environmental concerns that increasing marine traffic will contribute to declining air quality in northern communities. In an effort to characterize the relative impact of shipping on air quality in the north, two monitoring stations have been installed in Cape Dorset and Resolute, Nunavut, and have been operational since 1 June 2013. The impact of shipping and other sources of emissions on NOx, O3, SO2, BC, and PM2.5 pollution have been characterized for the 2013 shipping season from 1 June to 1 November. In addition, a high-resolution Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for both sites was computed. Shipping consistently increased O3 mixing ratio and PM2.5 concentration. The 90% confidence interval for mean difference in O3 mixing ratio between ship- and no ship-influenced air masses were up to 4.6-4.7 ppb and 2.5-2.7 ppb for Cape Dorset and Resolute, respectively. The same intervals for PM2.5 concentrations were up to 1.8-1.9 μg m-3 and 0.5-0.6 μg m-3. Ship-influenced air masses consistently exhibited an increase of 0.1 to 0.3 in the high-resolution AQHI compared to no ship-influenced air masses. Trajectory cluster analysis in combination with ship traffic tracking provided an estimated range for percent ship contribution to NOx, O3, SO2, and PM2.5 that were 12.9-17.5 %, 16.2-18.1 %, 16.9-18.3 %, and 19.5-31.7 % for Cape Dorset and 1.0-7.2 %, 2.9-4.8 %, 5.5-10.0 %, and 6.5-7.2 % for Resolute during the 2013 shipping season. Additional measurements in Resolute suggested that percent ship contribution to black carbon was 4.3-9.8 % and that black carbon constituted 1.3-9.7 % of total PM2.5 mass in ship plumes. Continued air quality monitoring in the above sites for future shipping seasons will improve the statistics in our analysis and characterize repeating seasonal patterns

  15. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify

  16. What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Barton, Andrew D.; Lozier, M. Susan; McKinley, Galen A.

    2015-06-01

    The oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres cover a significant portion of the global ocean, and exhibit considerable but poorly understood intraseasonal, interannual, and longer-term variations in spatial extent. Here using historical observations of surface ocean nitrate, wind, and currents, we have investigated how horizontal and vertical supplies of nitrate control seasonal changes in the size and shape of oligotrophic regions of the subtropical North Atlantic. In general, the oligotrophic region of the subtropical North Atlantic is associated with the region of weak vertical supply of nitrate. Though the total vertical supply of nitrate here is generally greater than the total horizontal supply, we find that seasonal expansion and contraction of the oligotrophic region is consistent with changes in horizontal supply of nitrate. In this dynamic periphery of the subtropical gyre, the seasonal variations in chlorophyll are linked to variations in horizontal nitrate supply that facilitate changes in intracellular pigment concentrations, and to a lesser extent, phytoplankton biomass. Our results suggest that horizontal transports of nutrient are crucial in setting seasonal cycles of chlorophyll in large expanses of the subtropical North Atlantic, and may play a key and underappreciated role in regulating interannual variations in these globally important marine ecosystems.

  17. Hygroscopic growth of water-soluble matter extracted from remote marine aerosols over the western North Pacific: Influence of pollutants transported from East Asia.

    PubMed

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, K

    2016-07-01

    We examined the hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) nebulized from water extracts of total suspended particles (TSP) collected at Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific during January to September 2003. The hygroscopic growth factor g(RH) of the aerosol particles was measured using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) with an initial dry particle diameter of 100nm and relative humidity (RH) of 5-95%. The measured growth factor at 90% RH, g(90%), ranged from 1.51 to 2.14 (mean: 1.76±0.15), significantly lower than that of sea salts (2.1), probably owing to the heterogeneous reactions associated with chloride depletion in sea-salt particles and water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The g(90%) maximized in summer and minimized in spring. The decrease in spring was most likely explained by the formation of less hygroscopic salts or particles via organometallic reactions during the long-range transport of Asian dust. Cl(-) and Na(+) dominate the mass fractions of WSM, followed by nss-SO4(2-) and WSOM. Based on regression analysis, we confirmed that g(90%) at Chichijima Island largely increased due to the dominant sea spray; however, atmospheric processes associated with chloride depletion in sea salts and WSOM often suppressed g(90%). Furthermore, we explored the deviation (average: 18%) between the measured and predicted g(90%) by comparing measured and model growth factors. The present study demonstrates that long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic pollutants (SO2, NOx, organics, etc.) and the interactions with sea-salt particles often suppress the hygroscopic growth of marine aerosols over the western North Pacific, affecting the remote background conditions. The present study also suggests that the HCl liberation leads to the formation of less hygroscopic aerosols over the western North Pacific during long-range transport.

  18. Spatio-temporal variations in the diversity and abundance of commercially important Decapoda and Stomatopoda in subtropical Hong Kong waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Karen K. Y.; Ng, Jasmine S. S.; Leung, Kenneth M. Y.

    2007-05-01

    In subtropical Hong Kong, western waters (WW) are strongly influenced by the freshwater input from the Pearl River estuary, especially during summer monsoon, whereas eastern waters (EW) are predominantly influenced by oceanic currents throughout the year. Such hydrographical differences may lead to spatio-temporal differences in biodiversity of benthic communities. This study investigated the diversity and abundance of commercially important decapods and stomatopods in EW (i.e. Tolo Harbour and Channel) and WW (i.e. Tuen Mun and Lantau Island) of Hong Kong using monthly trawl surveys (August 2003-May 2005). In total, 22 decapod and nine stomatopod species were recorded. The penaeid Metapenaeopsis sp. and stomatopod Oratosquillina interrupta were the most abundant and dominant crustaceans in EW and WW, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that WW supported significantly higher abundance, biomass and diversity of crustaceans than EW, although there were significant between-site and within-site variations in community structure. Higher abundance and biomass of crustaceans were recorded in summer than winter. Such spatio-temporal variations could be explained by differences in the hydrography, environmental conditions and anthropogenic impacts between the two areas. Temporal patterns in the abundance-biomass comparison curves and negative W-statistics suggest that the communities have been highly disturbed in both areas, probably due to anthropogenic activities such as bottom trawling and marine pollution.

  19. Using mercury isotopes to understand the bioaccumulation of Hg in the subtropical Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Runsheng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Junjun; Pan, Ke; Wang, Wenxiong; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-03-01

    Coastal and estuarine regions are important areas of mercury pollution. Therefore, it is important to properly characterize the sources and bioaccumulation processes of mercury in these regions. Here, we present mercury stable isotopic compositions in 18 species of wild marine fish collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), south China. Our results showed variations in mass-independent fractionation (Δ(199)Hg: +0.05 ± 0.10‰ to +0.59 ± 0.30‰) with a Δ(199)Hg/Δ(201)Hg of ∼1.26, suggesting that aqueous MeHg underwent photo-degradation prior to incorporation into the food chain. For the results, we discovered small but significant differences of Δ(199)Hg values among herbivorous, demersal, and carnivorous fish, indicating that different feeding guilds of fish may have incorporated MeHg with various degrees of photo-demethylation. The consistent mercury isotope compositions between fish feeding habitat and mercury sources in the estuary provide potentially important findings on the transformation and bioaccumulation of this toxic metal in subtropical coastal environments.

  20. Reducing the uncertainty in subtropical cloud feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Timothy A.; Norris, Joel R.

    2016-03-01

    Large uncertainty remains on how subtropical clouds will respond to anthropogenic climate change and therefore whether they will act as a positive feedback that amplifies global warming or negative feedback that dampens global warming by altering Earth's energy budget. Here we reduce this uncertainty using an observationally constrained formulation of the response of subtropical clouds to greenhouse forcing. The observed interannual sensitivity of cloud solar reflection to varying meteorological conditions suggests that increasing sea surface temperature and atmospheric stability in the future climate will have largely canceling effects on subtropical cloudiness, overall leading to a weak positive shortwave cloud feedback (0.4 ± 0.9 W m-2 K-1). The uncertainty of this observationally based approximation of the cloud feedback is narrower than the intermodel spread of the feedback produced by climate models. Subtropical cloud changes will therefore complement positive cloud feedbacks identified by previous work, suggesting that future global cloud changes will amplify global warming.

  1. A Citizen Science Approach: A Detailed Ecological Assessment of Subtropical Reefs at Point Lookout, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Thurstan, Ruth; Beger, Maria; Dudgeon, Christine; Loder, Jennifer; Kovacs, Eva; Gallo, Michele; Flower, Jason; Gomez Cabrera, K-le; Ortiz, Juan; Lea, Alexandra; Kleine, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical reefs provide an important habitat for flora and fauna, and proper monitoring is required for conservation. Monitoring these exposed and submerged reefs is challenging and available resources are limited. Citizen science is increasing in momentum, as an applied research tool and in the variety of monitoring approaches adopted. This paper aims to demonstrate an ecological assessment and mapping approach that incorporates both top-down (volunteer marine scientists) and bottom-up (divers/community) engagement aspects of citizen science, applied at a subtropical reef at Point Lookout, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Marine scientists trained fifty citizen scientists in survey techniques that included mapping of habitat features, recording of substrate, fish and invertebrate composition, and quantifying impacts (e.g., occurrence of substrate damage, presence of litter). In 2014 these volunteers conducted four seasonal surveys along semi-permanent transects, at five sites, across three reefs. The project presented is a model on how citizen science can be conducted in a marine environment through collaboration of volunteer researchers, non-researchers and local marine authorities. Significant differences in coral and algal cover were observed among the three sites, while fluctuations in algal cover were also observed seasonally. Differences in fish assemblages were apparent among sites and seasons, with subtropical fish groups observed more commonly in colder seasons. The least physical damage occurred in the most exposed sites (Flat Rock) within the highly protected marine park zones. The broad range of data collected through this top-down/bottom-up approach to citizen science exemplifies the projects’ value and application for identifying ecosystem trends or patterns. The results of the project support natural resource and marine park management, providing a valuable contribution to existing scientific knowledge and the conservation of local reefs. PMID

  2. A Citizen Science Approach: A Detailed Ecological Assessment of Subtropical Reefs at Point Lookout, Australia.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, Chris; Thurstan, Ruth; Beger, Maria; Dudgeon, Christine; Loder, Jennifer; Kovacs, Eva; Gallo, Michele; Flower, Jason; Gomez Cabrera, K-le; Ortiz, Juan; Lea, Alexandra; Kleine, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical reefs provide an important habitat for flora and fauna, and proper monitoring is required for conservation. Monitoring these exposed and submerged reefs is challenging and available resources are limited. Citizen science is increasing in momentum, as an applied research tool and in the variety of monitoring approaches adopted. This paper aims to demonstrate an ecological assessment and mapping approach that incorporates both top-down (volunteer marine scientists) and bottom-up (divers/community) engagement aspects of citizen science, applied at a subtropical reef at Point Lookout, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Marine scientists trained fifty citizen scientists in survey techniques that included mapping of habitat features, recording of substrate, fish and invertebrate composition, and quantifying impacts (e.g., occurrence of substrate damage, presence of litter). In 2014 these volunteers conducted four seasonal surveys along semi-permanent transects, at five sites, across three reefs. The project presented is a model on how citizen science can be conducted in a marine environment through collaboration of volunteer researchers, non-researchers and local marine authorities. Significant differences in coral and algal cover were observed among the three sites, while fluctuations in algal cover were also observed seasonally. Differences in fish assemblages were apparent among sites and seasons, with subtropical fish groups observed more commonly in colder seasons. The least physical damage occurred in the most exposed sites (Flat Rock) within the highly protected marine park zones. The broad range of data collected through this top-down/bottom-up approach to citizen science exemplifies the projects' value and application for identifying ecosystem trends or patterns. The results of the project support natural resource and marine park management, providing a valuable contribution to existing scientific knowledge and the conservation of local reefs.

  3. Ship recycling and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Wang, Nannan; Durak, Onur Sabri

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses the historical background, structure and enforcement of the '2009 Hong Kong International Convention on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.' the 2009 Hong Kong Convention establishes control and enforcement instruments related to ship recycling, determining the control rights of Port States and the obligations of Flag States, Parties and recycling facilities under its jurisdiction. The Convention also controls the communication and exchange of information procedures, establishes a reporting system to be used upon the completion of recycling, and outlines an auditing system for detecting violations. The Convention, however, also contains some deficiencies. This paper concludes these deficiencies will eventually influence the final acceptance of this Convention by the international community.

  4. Marine Oil Spills: Prevention Methods and Enforcement Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    D. Potential for Spills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 III. History of International Marine Pollution Laws . . . 29 A. Jurisdictional Powers...Status of International Marine Pollution Law . . . 101 A. New Preventive Measures ..... ........... . 101 V. Lessons and Conclusions...prevention measures. Part III examines how international marine pollution law developed to address the threat. Who has the power to control a vessel’s

  5. Light respiration by subtropical seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Matheus C; Eyre, Bradley D

    2017-03-20

    Here we report the first-ever measurements of light CO2 respiration rate (CRR) by seaweeds. We measured the influence of temperature (15 to 25°C) and light (irradiance from 60 to 670 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) ) on the light CCR of two subtropical seaweed species, and measured the CRR of seven different seaweed species under the same light (150 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) ) and temperature (25°C). There was little effect of irradiance on light CRR, but there was an effect of temperature. Across the seven species light CRR was similar to OCR (oxygen consumption rate in the dark), with the exception of a single species. The outlier species was a coralline alga, and the higher light CRR was probably driven by calcification. CRR could be estimated from OCR, as well as carbon photosynthetic rates from oxygen photosynthetic rates, which suggests that previous studies have probably provided good estimations of gross photosynthesis for seaweeds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    . Comprehensive study of the natural waters (including biohydro-chemical parameters control) for large part of the inland waterway St. Petersburg ­ White Sea (river Neva - Ladoga Lake ­ river Svir - Onega Lake ­ Petrozavodsk) was provided in frame the experimental voyage onboard the m/v «St. Peterburg» (J uly 1998 and June 1999). The results of organic matter charting for the different water masses for vast water basin in the northwestern of Russia were analyzed and classified. The arrangement of dissolved organic for the largest in Europe lakes Ladoga and Onega is analyzed in comparison with hydrological and meteorological processes and phenomena, including thermal regime modification. Spatial and temporal (seasonal and annual) transformation of organic matter for these water basins are studied. Aquatic environment conditions of the coastal zones, different bays and gulfs more pressed by livestock and agricultural farms, and industry are assessed also. According to the shipborne data more polluted water areas are the Svir Bay (Ladoga Lake) and Petrozavodskaya Guba (Onega Lake). These results are well correlated with in situ data and literature data. Thus, first time in practice is carried out the running control of a COD and spatial profile of the organic matter for different natural waters. Accuracy of measurements in comparison with traditional approaches and new technologies (including ideas and results practical application of sonoluminiscence of dissolved organic) are discussed also. The modification of CS COD was used for the cont rol of dissolved organic in different marine aquatic system. Sea water samples and preserved ice cores, gathered in the Barents, White and Kara Seas, were investigated. Probes of saltish and brackish-water (as ice cores) from the estuary of great Siberian rivers (Ob Bay and Yenisey Gulf) were analyzed in laboratory (biochemical analysis of these probes was fulfilled also). It was demonstrat ed that CS COD system can be used till range a

  7. Differential decay of Enterococci and Escherichia coli originating from two fecal pollution sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using in situ subtropical aquatic mesocosms, fecal source (cattle manure versus sewage) was shown to be the most important contributor to differential loss in viability of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), specifically enterococci in freshwater and Escherichia coli in marine habita...

  8. Marine Salvage in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    marine pollution , one aftermath of shipping casualties. The middle ground between preventing casualties and cleaning up after them encompasses operations...addressed. The separate objectives of saving lives, salving vessels or cargoes (which is the saving of property), and the mitigation of marine pollution are...86 Liability for the Cost of Salvage and for Marine Pollution 88 Paying for Salvage Services 89 National Cognizance of Salvage Posture 90 Salvage

  9. Sandy beach molluscs as possible bio-indicators of metal pollution 1. field survey. [South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Watling, H.R.; Watling, R.J.

    1983-09-01

    A great variety of molluscs occur around the South African coast, extending as it does from the sub-tropical environment of Natal to the temperate environment of the Cape. The potential of many of these molluscs as bio-indicators has been discussed in general terms on the basis of the reported use of related species (DARRACOTT and WATLING 1975) and certain of these, among them the bivalve Donax serra and gastropod Bullia rhodostoma, have been included in the national marine pollution monitoring program. The aims of this preliminary investigation are: to determine the metal concentrations in D. serra and B. rhodostoma growing along a 500 km stretch of the southern African coast, supplementing data from sediment and water sampling surveys of the same region; and to determine in laboratory studies whether these molluscs accumulate metals, thus meeting some at least of the criteria for monitoring organisms. The field survey data are presented in this paper.

  10. [Distribution and origin of plastic resin pellets as environmental pollutants at the East China Sea area].

    PubMed

    Kaminuma, T; Ohtake, C; Kabuyama, N

    2000-01-01

    Plastic debris are important marine pollutants. Plastic debris consist of resin pellets and waste plastics. We are particularly interested in resin pellets. We made field survey of resin pellets at nearly 400 sites in 200 beaches in Japan and neighboring countries. The pellets were found at all most all Japan coasts we surveyed and at some beaches of Macao, Hong Kong, Xiamen, the north of Taipei, and Cheju Island in Korea. The number of pellets was more than 1000 pieces per m2 on the most abundant beach in Japan. Through further analysis using GC/ECD, endocrine disrupting chemicals, PCBs, DDTs, HCHs and Nonylphenol were detected in selected samples. Biota such as Bryozoa were observed on the surface of pellets washed up on the beaches in subtropical areas. Pellets has been suspected to affect wildlife and human health, but we have no report on affection to human.

  11. Dynamics of ecosystem services provided by subtropical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The trends in the provision of ecosystem services during restoration and succession of subtropical forests and plantations were quantified, in terms of both receiver and donor values, based on a case study of a 3-step secondary succession series that included a 400-year-old subtropical forest and a 23-year history of growth on 3 subtropical forest plantations in Southeastern China. The ‘People's Republic of China Forestry Standard: Forest Ecosystem Service Valuation Norms’ was revised and applied to quantify the receiver values of ecosystem services, which were then compared with the emergy-based, donor values of the services. The results revealed that the efficiencies of subtropical forests and plantations in providing ecosystem services were 2 orders of magnitude higher than similar services provided by the current China economic system, and these efficiencieskept increasing over the course of succession. As a result, we conclude that afforestation is an efficient way to accelerate both the ability and efficiency of subtropical forests to provide ecosystem services. This paper is significant because it examines the dynamics of the provision of ecosystem services by forests over a succession series that spans 400 years. The paper also examines the rate of increase of services during forest restoration over a period of 23 years. The emergy used in ecosystem services provision is compared to the provision of similar services by economic means in the Chinese e

  12. Tropical/Subtropical Peatland Development and Global CH4 during the Last Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hai; Lan, Jianghu; Sheng, Enguo; Liu, Yong; Liu, Bin; Yu, Keke; Ye, Yuanda; Cheng, Peng; Qiang, Xiaoke; Lu, Fengyan; Wang, Xulong

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of peatland development over the tropical/subtropical zone during the last glaciation is critical for understanding the glacial global methane cycle. Here we present a well-dated ‘peat deposit-lake sediment’ alternate sequence at Tengchong, southwestern China, and discuss the peatland development and its linkage to the global glacial methane cycle. Peat layers were formed during the cold Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-2 and -4, whereas lake sediments coincided with the relatively warm MIS-3, which is possibly related to the orbital/suborbital variations in both temperature and Asian summer monsoon intensity. The Tengchong peatland formation pattern is broadly synchronous with those over subtropical southern China and other tropical/subtropical areas, but it is clearly in contrast to those over the mid-high Northern Hemisphere. The results of this work suggest that the shifts of peatland development between the tropical/subtropical zone and mid-high Northern Hemisphere may have played important roles in the glacial/interglacial global atmospheric CH4 cycles.

  13. Tropical/Subtropical Peatland Development and Global CH4 during the Last Glaciation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai; Lan, Jianghu; Sheng, Enguo; Liu, Yong; Liu, Bin; Yu, Keke; Ye, Yuanda; Cheng, Peng; Qiang, Xiaoke; Lu, Fengyan; Wang, Xulong

    2016-07-28

    Knowledge of peatland development over the tropical/subtropical zone during the last glaciation is critical for understanding the glacial global methane cycle. Here we present a well-dated 'peat deposit-lake sediment' alternate sequence at Tengchong, southwestern China, and discuss the peatland development and its linkage to the global glacial methane cycle. Peat layers were formed during the cold Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-2 and -4, whereas lake sediments coincided with the relatively warm MIS-3, which is possibly related to the orbital/suborbital variations in both temperature and Asian summer monsoon intensity. The Tengchong peatland formation pattern is broadly synchronous with those over subtropical southern China and other tropical/subtropical areas, but it is clearly in contrast to those over the mid-high Northern Hemisphere. The results of this work suggest that the shifts of peatland development between the tropical/subtropical zone and mid-high Northern Hemisphere may have played important roles in the glacial/interglacial global atmospheric CH4 cycles.

  14. Tropical/Subtropical Peatland Development and Global CH4 during the Last Glaciation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai; Lan, Jianghu; Sheng, Enguo; Liu, Yong; Liu, Bin; Yu, Keke; Ye, Yuanda; Cheng, Peng; Qiang, Xiaoke; Lu, Fengyan; Wang, Xulong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of peatland development over the tropical/subtropical zone during the last glaciation is critical for understanding the glacial global methane cycle. Here we present a well-dated ‘peat deposit-lake sediment’ alternate sequence at Tengchong, southwestern China, and discuss the peatland development and its linkage to the global glacial methane cycle. Peat layers were formed during the cold Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-2 and -4, whereas lake sediments coincided with the relatively warm MIS-3, which is possibly related to the orbital/suborbital variations in both temperature and Asian summer monsoon intensity. The Tengchong peatland formation pattern is broadly synchronous with those over subtropical southern China and other tropical/subtropical areas, but it is clearly in contrast to those over the mid-high Northern Hemisphere. The results of this work suggest that the shifts of peatland development between the tropical/subtropical zone and mid-high Northern Hemisphere may have played important roles in the glacial/interglacial global atmospheric CH4 cycles. PMID:27465566

  15. On North Pacific circulation and associated marine debris concentration.

    PubMed

    Howell, Evan A; Bograd, Steven J; Morishige, Carey; Seki, Michael P; Polovina, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Marine debris in the oceanic realm is an ecological concern, and many forms of marine debris negatively affect marine life. Previous observations and modeling results suggest that marine debris occurs in greater concentrations within specific regions in the North Pacific Ocean, such as the Subtropical Convergence Zone and eastern and western "Garbage Patches". Here we review the major circulation patterns and oceanographic convergence zones in the North Pacific, and discuss logical mechanisms for regional marine debris concentration, transport, and retention. We also present examples of meso- and large-scale spatial variability in the North Pacific, and discuss their relationship to marine debris concentration. These include mesoscale features such as eddy fields in the Subtropical Frontal Zone and the Kuroshio Extension Recirculation Gyre, and interannual to decadal climate events such as El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation.

  16. Temporal variation on environmental variables and pollution indicators in marine sediments under sea Salmon farming cages in protected and exposed zones in the Chilean inland Southern Sea.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A

    2016-12-15

    The impacts of any activity on marine ecosystems will depend on the characteristics of the receptor medium and its resilience to external pressures. Salmon farming industry develops along a constant gradient of hydrodynamic conditions in the south of Chile. However, the influence of the hydrodynamic characteristics (weak or strong) on the impacts of intensive salmon farming is still poorly understood. This one year study evaluates the impacts of salmon farming on the marine sediments of both protected and exposed marine zones differing in their hydrodynamic characteristics. Six physico-chemical, five biological variables and seven indexes of marine sediments status were evaluated under the salmon farming cages and control sites. Our results identified a few key variables and indexes necessary to accurately evaluate the salmon farming impacts on both protected and exposed zones. Interestingly, the ranking of importance of the variables and the temporality of the observed changes, varied depending on the hydrodynamic characteristics. Biological variables (nematodes abundance) and environmental indexes (Simpson's dominance, Shannon's diversity and Pielou evenness) are the first to reflect detrimental impacts under the salmon farming cages. Then the physico-chemical variables such as redox, sulphurs and phosphorus in both zones also show detrimental impacts. Based on the present results we propose that the hydrodynamic regime is an important driver of the magnitude and temporality of the effects of salmon farming on marine sediments. The variables and indexes that best reflect the effects of salmon farming, in both protected and exposed zones, are also described.

  17. Status of Marine Biodiversity of the China Seas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by

  18. Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.

    PubMed

    Liu, J Y

    2013-01-01

    China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by

  19. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  20. Enhancement of phytoplankton chlorophyll by submesoscale frontal dynamics in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Levine, Naomi M.

    2016-02-01

    Subtropical gyres contribute significantly to global ocean productivity. As the climate warms, the strength of these gyres as a biological carbon pump is predicted to diminish due to increased stratification and depleted surface nutrients. We present results suggesting that the impact of submesoscale physics on phytoplankton in the oligotrophic ocean is substantial and may either compensate or exacerbate future changes in carbon cycling. A new statistical tool was developed to quantify surface patchiness from sea surface temperatures. Chlorophyll concentrations in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre were shown to be enhanced by submesoscale frontal dynamics with an average increase of 38% (maximum of 83%) during late winter. The magnitude of this enhancement is comparable to the observed decline in chlorophyll due to a warming of ~1.1°C. These results highlight the need for an improved understanding of fine-scale physical variability in order to predict the response of marine ecosystems to projected climate changes.

  1. Dangerous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C

    1976-04-01

    Tales of dangerous marine animals have flourished, entwining history, legend and imagination. Man is now demonstrating his remarkable adaptability in returning to the aquatic environment, from which he had his origins, and factual knowledge of marine creatures is surplanting mystery, folklore and fear. There is still cause to fear certain aspects of the underwater world, and the one aspect that still holds sway over public interest is that of dangerous marine animals. There is little justification for this top priority. The kelp beds of San Diego will claim more diving victims than all the marine animals around the United States of America. The cold seas off the English coastline, the tidal currents of Hawaii and the multitude of drowning accidents in water caves of Florida and Australia belittle the relatively few fatalities caused by marine animals. Nevertheless, the latter do cause injury and death, especially in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The Indo-Pacific area seems particularly well endowed with a variety of potentially lethal species, and some of these will be dealt with in this paper.

  2. Gulf Stream - subtropical gyre properties across two Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Downy, F.; Andersson, M. A.; Chapman, M. R.; Elderfield, H.; McCave, I. N.; Lenton, T. M.; Grützner, J.

    2013-12-01

    Salinity increase in the subtropical gyre system may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic Ocean for a rapid return to stronger overturning circulation and high-latitude warming following meltwater events during the Last Glacial period. Here we investigate the Gulf Stream - subtropical gyre system properties over Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles 14 to 12, including Heinrich ice-rafting event 5. During the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum a positive gradient in surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera δ18O (Globigerinoides ruber) can be observed between the Gulf Stream and subtropical gyre, due to decreasing temperature, increasing salinity, and a change from summer to year-round occurrence of G. ruber. We assess whether this gradient was a common feature during stadial-interstadial climate oscillations of Marine Isotope Stage 3, by comparing existing G. ruber δ18O from ODP Site 1060 (subtropical gyre location) and new data from ODP Site 1056 (Gulf Stream location) between 54 and 46 ka. Our results suggest that this gradient was largely absent during the period studied. During the major warm DO interstadials 14 and 12 we infer a more zonal and wider Gulf Stream, influencing both ODP Sites 1056 and 1060. A Gulf Stream presence during these major interstadials is also suggested by the large vertical δ18O gradient between shallow dwelling planktonic foraminifera species, especially G. ruber, and the deep dwelling species Globorotalia inflata at site 1056, which we associate with strong summer stratification and Gulf Stream presence. A major reduction in this vertical δ18O gradient from 51 ka until the end of Heinrich event 5 at 48.5 ka suggests site 1056 was situated within the subtropical gyre in this mainly cold period, from which we infer a migration of the Gulf Stream to a position nearer to the continental shelf, indicative of a narrower Gulf Stream with possibly reduced transport.

  3. Precipitation: Sub-tropical drying explained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Robin

    2017-01-01

    The sub-tropics are some of Earth's driest regions, and are expected to get even drier under climate change. Now research overturns our previous understanding of this drying, and suggests that it will affect the oceans much more than the land.

  4. Combined use of chemical, biochemical and physiological variables in mussels for the assessment of marine pollution along the N-NW Spanish coast.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Albentosa, Marina; Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Besada, Victoria; Franco, M Ángeles; Fumega, José; González-Quijano, Amelia; Viñas, Lucía; Beiras, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    This study undertakes an overall assessment of pollution in a large region (over 2500 km of coastline) of the N-NW Spanish coast, by combining the use of biochemical (AChE, GST, GPx) and physiological (SFG) responses to pollution, with chemical analyses in wild mussel populations (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The application of chemical analysis and biological techniques identified polluted sites and quantified the level of toxicity. High levels of pollutants were found in mussel populations located close to major cities and industrialized areas and, in general, average concentrations were higher in the Cantabrian than in the Iberian Atlantic coast. AChE activities ranged between 5.8 and 27.1 nmol/min/mg prot, showing inhibition in 12 sampling sites, according to available ecotoxicological criteria. GST activities ranged between 29.5 and 112.7 nmol/min/mg prot, and extreme variability was observed in GPx, showing activities between 2.6 and 64.5 nmol/min/mg prot. Regarding SFG, only 5 sites showed 'moderate stress' (SFG value below 20 J/g/h), and most sites presented a 'high potential growth' (>35 J/g/h) corresponding to a 'healthy state'. Multivariate statistical techniques applied to the chemical and biological data identified PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and BDEs as the main responsible of the observed toxicity. However, the alteration of biological responses caused by pollutants seems to be, in general, masked by biological variables, namely age and mussel condition, which have an effect on the mussels' response to pollutant exposure.

  5. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  6. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention as other types of pollution, such as air pollution, or water pollution. The air around us is ... Air Act Overview Home Progress Cleaning the Air Air Pollution Challenges Requirements and History Role of Science and ...

  7. Aquatic pollution, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book systematically covers all aspects of water pollution in marine and freshwater systems. Didactic style, frequent use of case studies and an extensive bibliography facilitate understanding of fundamental concepts. Offers basic, relevant ecological and toxicological information. Straightforward presentation of the scientific aspects of environmental issues. Information updated, particularly the discussion of toxicology and the case studies of water pollution. Three new chapters on acid rain, groundwater pollution and plastics are added.

  8. Marine pollution risk in a coastal city: use of an eco-genotoxic tool as a stress indicator in mussels from the Eastern Aegean Sea.

    PubMed

    Kacar, Asli; Pazi, Idil; Gonul, Tolga; Kucuksezgin, Filiz

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas, such as bays, estuaries, and harbors, are heavily polluted since these areas are the settlements to which toxic chemicals from industrial and domestic wastes are discharged. The genetic damage was evaluated using bioindicator mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caused by toxic chemicals (metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in İzmir and Çandarlı Bays (the Eastern Aegean Sea) through comet assay. Three sampling sites from the two bays were selected and the study was conducted during the spring and autumn periods. The highest levels of DNA damage expressed as %Tail-DNA were observed in İzmir Bay (34.60 % Tail-DNA) in the spring. Analysis of the correlation between PAHs and metals in mussels and %T-DNA in the hemolymph and gill cells showed a statistically significant positive correlation between %T-DNA and ∑PAH, chromium (p < 0.05). This study determined the pollution level of the İzmir and Çandarlı Bays by using the DNA damage to the mussel, which can identify the effects of environmental pollutants at the cellular levels. These results confirm that comet assay can be used to determine the temporal and spatial differences of DNA damage, and as a suitable tool for the measurement of genotoxicity in regions with low pollutant concentrations.

  9. Pollution-Control Regimes for U.S. Navy Vessels: From Battleship Gray to Environmental Green

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    REGIMES 7.. . . . A. Warships and the Question of Sovereign Immunity Under Marine Pollution -Control Regimes . . 7 B. International Convention for the...Prevention of Pollution From Ships (MARPOL 73/78) and Associated U.S. Law . . . . .. 12 C. Convention of the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of...Manual, Sec. 1-5.1. 2 W. Jackson Davis, GLOBAL ASPECTS OF MARINE POLLUTION POLICY: THE NEED FOR A NEW INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION, Marine Policy, 194 (May

  10. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  11. Bacterioplankton carbon cycling along the Subtropical Frontal Zone off New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltar, Federico; Stuck, Esther; Morales, Sergio; Currie, Kim

    2015-06-01

    Marine heterotrophic bacterioplankton (Bacteria and Archaea) play a central role in ocean carbon cycling. As such, identifying the factors controlling these microbial populations is crucial to fully understanding carbon fluxes. We studied bacterioplankton activities along a transect crossing three water masses (i.e., Subtropical waters [STW], Sub-Antarctic waters [SAW] and neritic waters [NW]) with contrasting nutrient regimes across the Subtropical Frontal Zone. In contrast to bacterioplankton production and community respiration, bacterioplankton respiration increased in the offshore SAW, causing a seaward increase in the contribution of bacteria to community respiration (from 7% to 100%). Cell-specific bacterioplankton respiration also increased in SAW, but cell-specific production did not, suggesting that prokaryotic cells in SAW were investing more energy towards respiration than growth. This was reflected in a 5-fold decline in bacterioplankton growth efficiency (BGE) towards SAW. One way to explain this decrease in BGE could be due to the observed reduction in phytoplankton biomass (and presumably organic matter concentration) towards SAW. However, this would not explain why bacterioplankton respiration was highest in SAW, where phytoplankton biomass was lowest. Another factor affecting BGE could be the iron limitation characteristic of high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions like SAW. Our field-study based evidences would agree with previous laboratory experiments in which iron stress provoked a decrease in BGE of marine bacterial isolates. Our results suggest that there is a strong gradient in bacterioplankton carbon cycling rates along the Subtropical Frontal Zone, mainly due to the HNLC conditions of SAW. We suggest that Fe-induced reduction of BGE in HNLC regions like SAW could be relevant in marine carbon cycling, inducing bacterioplankton to act as a link or a sink of organic carbon by impacting on the quantity of organic carbon they incorporate

  12. Persistent organic pollutants monitoring in marine coastal environment using beached plastic resin pellets and effective risk communication via International Pellet Watch (IPW) as a tool.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, B. G. M.; Takada, H.; Hosoda, J.

    2014-12-01

    International Pellet Watch (IPW) is an ongoing global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using preproduction plastic resin pellets. These pellets are easily collected and transported allowing the general public worldwide to get involved. Thus, risk communication toward the pellet collectors is a significant part of IPW to ensure continuous effort and interest. The pellet samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Additional pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes were also analyzed for some samples. Analytical results showed distinct patterns with high concentrations (< 200ng/g-pellet) of PCBs in urban and industrialized areas mainly in the United States, Japan, and some European countries. These countries are prone to legacy pollution where PCBs were used extensively before the ban in the late 1980's. Pesticide DDTs instead were found to be higher in developing countries such as Brazil and Vietnam (> 500ng/g-pellet). These countries may still be using DDTs as a vector control mostly to combat malaria. High concentrations of DDTs were also found in Greece, China and Australia (> 100ng/g-pellet) suggesting the possibility of illegal usage as pesticide or anti fouling paint. HCHs concentrations were mostly low due to its low retention in the environment. However, high HCHs concentrations were mostly found in the southern hemisphere. Very high concentration of PAHs in pellet samples can be utilized for early identification of recent oil pollution. High PAHs concentration in Tauranga, New Zealand was found to be caused by local oil spill. Hopanes in pellets can be used for source identification of oil pollution. Global mapping and comparison among IPW data can be used to provide better explanations to IPW volunteers by sorting concentrations into pollution categories. Communication reports are tailor written

  13. Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Beth A; Comeros-Raynal, Mia T; Cahill, Thomas; Clement, Cassandra

    2017-03-15

    The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms. Parathion, which has been banned by the US Environmental Protection Agency since 2006, was detected in several stream sites. Increased monitoring and initiatives to limit non-point source land-based pollution will greatly improve the state of freshwater and coastal resources, as well as reduce risks to human health in American Samoa.

  14. Evaluation of induction of metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) in the polychaetes for biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2008-01-01

    Polychaetes are suitable organisms for evaluation of impact of sediment pollution. We evaluated toxicity of cadmium and copper and measured metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) in the polychaete Perinereis nuntia. At the same concentration ranges copper was unexpectedly more toxic than cadmium. Copper also caused no significant increase in MTLPs in the polychaetes. When P. nuntia and another polychaete species, Cirratulus cirratus were cultured in the contaminated sediments collected from Lake Sihwa (Korea), a high mortality of 80% was observed on day 6 in P. nuntia in the sediment with the highest metal concentration. However, no mortality was observed up to 35 days in C. cirratus in any sediment. MTLP contents between two species also varied. These findings suggest that MTLP induction response in the polychaetes varies with the metal type and species and it may be used as a biomarker of sediment pollution in the polychaetes after further validation and field trials.

  15. Head kidney, liver and skin histopathology and gene expression in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) exposed to highly polluted marine sediments from Portman Bay (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ben Hamed, Said; Guardiola, Francisco; Cuesta, Alberto; Martínez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sánchez, María José; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2017-05-01

    Biomarkers have become crucial tools in modern environmental assessment as they can help to predict magnitude of pollution. The head-kidney (HK) and liver (hematopoietic and xenobiotic metabolism organs, respectively) are the key organs in all fish toxicological studies, although the skin has received less attention in this respect. The impact of two different types of polluted sediment collected from Portman Bay (Spain) on HK, liver and skin gene expression in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) exposed for two weeks to the sediments was determined by real time-PCR. The expression levels of different antioxidant enzyme genes [superoxide dismutase (sod) glutathione reductase (gr) and catalase (cat)] and immune-related genes [interleukin -1β (il-1b), immunoglobulin M (igm), T-Cell receptor (tcr-b), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2), colony-stimulating factor 1-receptor (csf-1r) and hepcidin (hep)] was analysed. Expression varied depending on both the organ and gene studied: tcr-b, csf-1r and hep genes were down-regulated in HK, as were gr, tcr-b and il-1b in liver and gr and il-1b in skin, while cox-2 was up-regulated in skin after exposure to both sediments. Concomitantly, histopathological alterations were also studied in HK, liver and skin. While no significant changes were detected in skin cells of fish reared in aquaria with polluted sediments marked changes in the general morphology of HK and liver were observed, accompanied by a substantial degree of cell death and melano-macrophage centre disorganization. The present study suggests that the biomarkers studied in gilthead seabream could be useful for assessing the impact of pollution in coastal environments.

  16. Commercial Vessel Safety. Risk Assessment Study. Volume I. Survey of Data for Marine Risk Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    involving barge transport of hazardous chemicals. Twenty three data systems in the following categories were reviewed: marine safety activities, marine ... pollution , marine traffic, vessel repair costs, vessel accidents, personnel injuries, vessel population, and vessel violation injuries. Discussions of

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mountain soils of the subtropical Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Ribes, A; Grimalt, J O; Torres García, C J; Cuevas, E

    2003-01-01

    Surface soil samples from various altitudes on Tenerife Island, ranging from sea level up to 3400 m above mean sea level, were analyzed to study the distribution of 26 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a remote subtropical area. The stable atmospheric conditions in this island define three vertically stratified layers: marine boundary, trade-wind inversion, and free troposphere. Total PAH concentrations, 1.9 to 6000 microg/kg dry wt., were high when compared with those in tropical areas and in a similar range to those in temperate areas. In the marine boundary layer, fluoranthene (Fla), pyrene (Pyr), benz [a]anthracene (BaA), and chrysene (C + T) were largely dominant. The predominance of Fla over Pyr may reflect photo-oxidative processes during atmospheric transport, although coal combustion inputs cannot be excluded. The PAHs found in higher concentration in the soils from the inversion layer were benzo[b + j]fluoranthene (BbjF) + benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) > benzo[e]pyrene (BeP) approximately indeno[1,2, 3-cd]pyrene (Ind) > benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) approximately benzo[ghi]perylene (Bghi) > coronene (Cor) approximately dibenz[a,h]anthracene (Dib), reflecting that high temperatures and insolation prevent the accumulation of PAHs more volatile than BbjF in significant amounts. These climatic conditions involve a process of standardization that prevents the identification of specific PAH sources such as traffic, forest fires, or industrial inputs. Only soils with high total organic carbon (TOC) (e.g., 10-30%) preserve the more volatile compounds such as phenanthrene (Phe), methylphenanthrenes (MPhe), dimethylphenanthrenes (DMPhe), and retene (Ret). However, no relation between PAHs and soil TOC and black carbon (BC) was found. The specific PAH distributions of the free tropospheric region suggest a direct input from pyrolytic processes related to the volcanic emission of gases in Teide.

  18. Iodine monoxide in the north subtropical free troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puentedura, O.; Gil, M.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Hay, T.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Gómez-Pelaez, A.; Cuevas, E.; Iglesias, J.

    2011-10-01

    Iodine monoxide (IO) was retrieved using a new multi-axis DOAS instrument deployed at the Izaña subtropical observatory as part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) programme. The station is located at 2370 m a.s.l., well above the trade wind inversion that limits the top of the marine boundary layer, and is hence representative of the free troposphere. We report daily observations from May to August 2010 at different viewing angles. During this period, the spectral signature of IO was unequivocally detected on every day of measurement. A mean IO differential slant column density (DSCD) of 1.2 × 1013 molecules cm-2 was observed at 5° instrument elevation angle (IEA) on clear days using a single zenith reference for the reported period, with a day-to-day variability of 12% at 1 standard deviation. At an IEA of 0°, the mean DSCD value for clear days is 2.0 × 1013 molecules cm-2, with a day-to-day variability of 14%. Based on simultaneous O4 measurements, the IO mixing ratio is estimated to be 0.18 pptv in the free troposphere at an IEA of 5°. Episodes of Saharan dust outbreaks were also observed, with large increases in the DSCDs at higher elevation angles, suggesting an enhancement of IO inside the dust cloud.

  19. Iodine monoxide in the north subtropical free troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puentedura, O.; Gil, M.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Hay, T.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Gómez-Pelaez, A.; Cuevas, E.; Iglesias, J.; Gomez, L.

    2012-06-01

    Iodine monoxide (IO) differential slant column densities (DSCD) have been retrieved from a new multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument deployed at the Izaña subtropical observatory as part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) programme. The station is located at 2370 m a.s.l., well above the trade wind inversion that limits the top of the marine boundary layer, and hence is representative of the free troposphere. We report daily observations from May to August 2010 at different viewing angles. During this period, the spectral signature of IO was unequivocally detected on every day of measurement. A mean IO DSCD of 1.52×1013 molecules cm-2 was observed at the 5° instrument elevation angle (IEA) on clear days using a single zenith reference for the reported period, with a day-to-day variability of 33% at one standard deviation. Based on the simulation of the DSCDs using radiative transfer calculations with five different hypothesized IO profiles, the IO mixing ratio is estimated to range between 0.2 and 0.4 pptv in the free troposphere. Episodes of Saharan dust outbreaks were also observed, with large increases in the DSCDs at higher IEA, suggesting an enhancement of IO inside the dust cloud.

  20. Assesment of trace elements and organic pollutants from a marine oil complex into the coral reef system of Cayo Arcas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cram, Silke; Ponce De León, Claudia A; Fernández, Pilar; Sommer, Irene; Rivas, Hilda; Morales, Luis Miguel

    2006-10-01

    Possible contaminants produced by the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) marine oil complex in the vicinity of the Cayo Arcas (Mexico) coral reef ecosystem were evaluated by analyzing sediments and sea water for hydrocarbons and metal elements. We found that the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sea water were generally low, with the highest values detected near the oil station; the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was generally below the detection limit. The hydrocarbons found in the sediments seem to have a pyrogenic origin, and were probably produced by marine traffic in the study area. The total PAH concentration did not exceed the NOAA criteria, although levels of some individual PAHs did. The only metal detected in the sea water at high concentrations was nickel. The Ni/V ratio in the sediments indicates the contribution of crude oil to the system. The high content of Ni and Zn was attributed to the ballast waters from the oil tankers that load at the station's monobuoys. The presence of fine sediments that commonly originate from terrestrial ecosystems supported this assumption.

  1. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. Manatees as sentinels of marine ecosystem health: are they the 2000-pound canaries?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonde, R.K.; Aguirre, A.A.; Powell, J.

    2004-01-01

    The order Sirenia is represented by three species of manatees and one species of dugong distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and considered vulnerable to extinction. The sentinel species concept is useful to identify indicators of the environment and may reflect the quality of health in marine ecosystems. The single species approach to evaluate ecological health may provide a series of “snap shots” of environmental changes to determine if animal, human, or ecosystem health may be affected. Under this concept, marine vertebrates may be good integrators of changes over space and time, and excellent sentinels of ecosystem health. Based on their life history, manatees may or may not be ideal sentinels, as they are robust, long-lived species and appear remarkably resilient to natural disease and the effects of human-related injury and trauma. These characteristics might be the result of an efficient and responsive immune system compared to other marine mammals. Although relatively immune to infectious agents, manatees face other potentially serious threats, including epizootic diseases and pollution while in large aggregations. Manatees can serve as excellent sentinels of harmful algal blooms due to their high sensitivity, specifically to brevetoxicosis, which has caused at least two major die-offs in recent times. Threats to manatees worldwide, such as illegal hunting and boat collisions, are increasing. Habitat is being lost at an alarming rate and the full effects of uncontrolled human population growth on the species are unknown. The manatee may serve as a sentinel species, prognosticating the deleterious effects of unhealthy marine and aquatic ecosystems on humans. We have identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that could help advance the use of the sentinel species concept in marine ecosystem health and monitoring of disease emergence using our knowledge on these magnificent

  4. Wandering albatrosses document latitudinal variations in the transfer of persistent organic pollutants and mercury to Southern Ocean predators.

    PubMed

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Tartu, Sabrina; Meillère, Alizée; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier; Cherel, Yves

    2014-12-16

    Top marine predators are effective tools to monitor bioaccumulative contaminants in remote oceanic environments. Here, we used the wide-ranging wandering albatross Diomedea exulans to investigate potential geographical variations of contaminant transfer to predators in the Southern Ocean. Blood concentrations of 19 persistent organic pollutants and 14 trace elements were measured in a large number of individuals (N = 180) of known age, sex and breeding status from the subantarctic Crozet Islands. Wandering albatrosses were exposed to a wide range of contaminants, with notably high blood mercury concentrations. Contaminant burden was markedly influenced by latitudinal foraging habitats (inferred from blood δ(13)C values), with individuals feeding in warmer subtropical waters having lower concentrations of pesticides, but higher concentrations of mercury, than those feeding in colder subantarctic waters. Sexual differences in contaminant burden seemed to be driven by gender specialization in feeding habitats, rather than physiological characteristics, with females foraging further north than males. Other individual traits, such as adult age and reproductive status, had little effect on blood contaminant concentrations. Our study provides further evidence of the critical role of global distillation on organic contaminant exposure to Southern Ocean avian predators. In addition, we document an unexpected high transfer of mercury to predators in subtropical waters, which merits further investigation.

  5. A biomonitoring study assessing the residual biological effects of pollution caused by the HAVEN wreck on marine organisms in the Ligurian Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Viarengo, A; Dondero, F; Pampanin, D M; Fabbri, R; Poggi, E; Malizia, M; Bolognesi, C; Perrone, E; Gollo, E; Cossa, G P

    2007-11-01

    Residual biological effects of the 1991 HAVEN oil spill off the Ligurian (Arenzano) coast were assessed in this study. Samples of the fish species Boops boops, Mullus barbatus, and Uranoscupus scaber were collected from two polluted sites near the HAVEN wreck and from an uncontaminated area. In addition to this, mussels were caged along the coast affected by the HAVEN disaster. The physiological status of fish and mussels was assessed using a battery of stress and exposure biomarkers. The PAH content of mussel and fish tissues was also analyzed. Significant biological responses were observed in lysosomal membrane stability, neutral lipid and lipofuscin accumulation and micronucleus frequency for mussels caged at two sites close to the HAVEN wreck. Chemical analyses indicated, however, that these effects are not caused by aromatic hydrocarbons. For this reason, we suggest that the aftermath of the HAVEN disaster contributes very little to coastal ecosystem pollution. This was also confirmed by the few biological effects observed in fish specimens (Boops boops) collected from surface waters. Nevertheless, it is important to point out that benthic fish displayed a stress syndrome potentially caused by aromatic hydrocarbons released from the oil tanker, as witnessed by an enhanced EROD activity and increased lipofuscin and neutral lipid lysosomal contents.

  6. Gulf Stream-Subtropical Gyre Properties Across Two Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B.; Chapman, M.; Elderfield, H.; McCave, I. N. N.; Gruetzner, J.

    2014-12-01

    It has been suggested that salinity increases in the subtropical gyre system may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic Ocean for a rapid return to stronger overturning circulation and high-latitude warming following meltwater events during the Last Glacial period (Schmidt et al., 2006). Planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotopes (δ18O) measured on the surface dwelling Globigerinoides ruber show a positive gradient going from the Gulf Stream into the subtropical gyre during the Holocene as well as the Last Glacial Maximum (Keigwin, 2004). This gradient is due to decreasing temperatures, increasing salinity and a change from a summer to year round occurrence of G. ruber(Keigwin, 2004). During rapid climate oscillations between 54 and 46 ka of Marine Isotope Stage 3, including Heinrich ice-rafting event 5, this gradient may have been largely absent; G. ruber δ18O of ODP Site 1060 (subtropical gyre location) and ODP Site 1056 (Gulf Stream location) are virtually identical. Lower G. ruber δ18O that characterize the major warm DO interstadials 14 and 12 suggest a mainly summer occurrence of this species and indicate a more zonal and wider Gulf Stream influencing both ODP Sites. A large vertical δ18O gradient between shallow dwelling G. ruber and the deep dwelling species Globorotalia inflataat site 1056 is associated with strong summer stratification, supporting a Gulf Stream presence during these major interstadials. From about 51 ka until the end of Heinrich event 5 G. ruber δ18O is increased and the δ18O gradient between G. ruber and G. inflata is greatly reduced, suggesting a more year round occurrence of G. ruber and absence of summer stratification at site 1056, associated with subtropical gyre conditions. From this we infer that the Gulf Stream may have taken up a position nearer to the continental shelf during this cold period, where it may have been narrower with reduced transport.

  7. Using Heavy Metal Content and Lipid Peroxidation Indicators in the Tissues of the Mussel Crenomytilus grayanus for Pollution Assessment After Marine Environmental Remediation.

    PubMed

    Belcheva, Nina; Istomina, Alexandra; Dovzhenko, Nadezhda; Lishavskaya, Tatiana; Chelomin, Victor

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effects of environmental remediation on the heavy metal concentration and lipid peroxidation activity in the digestive gland and gills of the marine mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. Changes in heavy metal concentrations and lipid peroxidation biomarkers in the tissues of mussels collected at a contaminated site were compared with those obtained from a reference site. Prior to remediation the concentration of Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe and Zn and the levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and lipofuscin in mussels collected from the contaminated site were significantly increased compared with those obtained from the reference site. Three years after remediation, these parameters did not significantly exceed the reference site parameters, except Pb, whose concentration, though markedly decreased, yet was much higher than in tissues of mussels from the reference site.

  8. A Partial Review of Marine Science in Western Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Oceanography Biological Oceanography Chemical Oceanography Marine Pollution ,20, ABSTRACT (Continue ,m reveree eld. If ne.-eeery d Ident~ity by blnk...Scotland. It has branched out into physical and chemical oceanography and is, to a large degree, marine - pollution oriented. The Plymouth laboratory R...mental Research, operates as a governmental laboratory. Its primary charter is to study marine pollution problems in estuaries and shallow coastal

  9. Lower levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Lock, Erik-Jan; Rasinger, Josef D; Nøstbakken, Ole Jakob; Hannisdal, Rita; Karlsbakk, Egil; Wennevik, Vidar; Madhun, Abdullah S; Madsen, Lise; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Ørnsrud, Robin

    2017-02-08

    Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PBDE, endosulfan, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, cadmium and lead levels were low and comparable in both wild and farmed fish, and there was no significant difference in the marine omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. The total fat content was significantly higher in farmed than wild salmon due to a higher content of both saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as a higher content of omega-6 fatty acids. The omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio was considerably lower in farmed than wild salmon due to the high level of omega-6 fatty acids. Contaminant concentrations in Atlantic salmon were well below maximum levels applicable in the European Union. Atlantic salmon, both farmed and wild, is a good source of EPA and DHA with a 200g portion per week contributing 3.2g or 2.8g respectively, being almost twice the intake considered adequate for adults by the European Food Safety Authority (i.e. 250mg/day or 1.75g/week).

  10. Scales of spatial heterogeneity of plastic marine debris in the northeast pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Miriam C; Titmus, Andrew J; Ford, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris has been documented in many marine ecosystems, including remote coastlines, the water column, the deep sea, and subtropical gyres. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), colloquially called the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch," has been an area of particular scientific and public concern. However, quantitative assessments of the extent and variability of plastic in the NPSG have been limited. Here, we quantify the distribution, abundance, and size of plastic in a subset of the eastern Pacific (approximately 20-40°N, 120-155°W) over multiple spatial scales. Samples were collected in Summer 2009 using surface and subsurface plankton net tows and quantitative visual observations, and Fall 2010 using surface net tows only. We documented widespread, though spatially variable, plastic pollution in this portion of the NPSG and adjacent waters. The overall median microplastic numerical concentration in Summer 2009 was 0.448 particles m(-2) and in Fall 2010 was 0.021 particles m(-2), but plastic concentrations were highly variable over the submesoscale (10 s of km). Size-frequency spectra were skewed towards small particles, with the most abundant particles having a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.01 cm(2). Most microplastic was found on the sea surface, with the highest densities detected in low-wind conditions. The numerical majority of objects were small particles collected with nets, but the majority of debris surface area was found in large objects assessed visually. Our ability to detect high-plastic areas varied with methodology, as stations with substantial microplastic did not necessarily also contain large visually observable objects. A power analysis of our data suggests that high variability of surface microplastic will make future changes in abundance difficult to detect without substantial sampling effort. Our findings suggest that assessment and monitoring of oceanic plastic debris must account for high spatial variability

  11. Scales of Spatial Heterogeneity of Plastic Marine Debris in the Northeast Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Miriam C.; Titmus, Andrew J.; Ford, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris has been documented in many marine ecosystems, including remote coastlines, the water column, the deep sea, and subtropical gyres. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), colloquially called the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch,” has been an area of particular scientific and public concern. However, quantitative assessments of the extent and variability of plastic in the NPSG have been limited. Here, we quantify the distribution, abundance, and size of plastic in a subset of the eastern Pacific (approximately 20–40°N, 120–155°W) over multiple spatial scales. Samples were collected in Summer 2009 using surface and subsurface plankton net tows and quantitative visual observations, and Fall 2010 using surface net tows only. We documented widespread, though spatially variable, plastic pollution in this portion of the NPSG and adjacent waters. The overall median microplastic numerical concentration in Summer 2009 was 0.448 particles m−2 and in Fall 2010 was 0.021 particles m−2, but plastic concentrations were highly variable over the submesoscale (10 s of km). Size-frequency spectra were skewed towards small particles, with the most abundant particles having a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.01 cm2. Most microplastic was found on the sea surface, with the highest densities detected in low-wind conditions. The numerical majority of objects were small particles collected with nets, but the majority of debris surface area was found in large objects assessed visually. Our ability to detect high-plastic areas varied with methodology, as stations with substantial microplastic did not necessarily also contain large visually observable objects. A power analysis of our data suggests that high variability of surface microplastic will make future changes in abundance difficult to detect without substantial sampling effort. Our findings suggest that assessment and monitoring of oceanic plastic debris must account for high spatial variability

  12. Metal concentrations in the growth bands of Porites sp.: A baseline record on the history of marine pollution in the Gulf of Mannar, India.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, S; Ramasamy, S; Magesh, N S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon

    2015-12-15

    The present study was carried out on the Porites coral growth bands (1979 to 2014) to measure the metal accumulation for assessing the environmental pollution status. The concentrations of studied metals are compared with similar global studies, which indicate that the metals are probably derived from natural sources. The identical peaks of Fe and Mn are perfectly matched with Cu, Cr and Ni concentrations. However, the metal profile trend is slightly depressed from a regular trend in Zn, Cd and Pb peaks. The metal accumulation affinity of the reef skeleton is ranked in the following order Cr>Cd>Pb>Fe>Mn>Cu>Ni>Zn. The distribution of metal constituents in coral growth bands is primarily controlled by Fe and Mn in the reef skeleton. Other reef associated metals such as Pb and Cd are derived from other sources like coastal developments and anthropogenic sources.

  13. Passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer: 2. Observations and simulations of microplastic marine debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, K.; Kukulka, T.; Proskurowski, G.; Law, K. L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is the second of a two-part series that investigates passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL). The first part examines the influence of equilibrium wind-waves on vertical tracer distributions, based on large eddy simulations (LESs) of the wave-averaged Navier-Stokes equation. Motivated by observations of buoyant microplastic marine debris (MPMD), this study applies the LES model and the parametric one-dimensional column model from part one to examine the vertical distributions of MPMD. MPMD is widely distributed in vast regions of the subtropical gyres and has emerged as a major open ocean pollutant whose distribution is subject to upper ocean turbulence. The models capture shear-driven turbulence, Langmuir turbulence (LT), and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy input due to breaking waves (BWs). Model results are only consistent with observations of MPMD profiles and the relationship between surface concentrations and wind speed if LT effects are included. Neither BW nor shear-driven turbulence is capable of deeply submerging MPMD, suggesting that the observed vertical MPMD distributions are a characteristic signature of wave-driven LT. Thus, this study demonstrates that LT substantially increases turbulent transport in the OSBL, resulting in deep submergence of buoyant tracers. The parametric model is applied to 11 years of observations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific subtropical gyres to show that surface measurements substantially underestimate MPMD concentrations by a factor of 3-13.

  14. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Genus Phyllospongia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huawei; Dong, Menglian; Wang, Hong; Crews, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Phyllospongia, one of the most common marine sponges in tropical and subtropical oceans, has been shown to be a prolific producer of natural products with a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of secondary metabolites produced by Phyllospongia spp. over the 37 years from 1980 to 2016. PMID:28067826

  15. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Genus Phyllospongia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Dong, Menglian; Wang, Hong; Crews, Phillip

    2017-01-06

    Phyllospongia, one of the most common marine sponges in tropical and subtropical oceans, has been shown to be a prolific producer of natural products with a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of secondary metabolites produced by Phyllospongia spp. over the 37 years from 1980 to 2016.

  16. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  17. Draft genome sequence of the marine Rhodobacteraceae strain O3.65, cultivated from oil-polluted seawater of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Klotz, Franziska; Voget, Sonja; Poehlein, Anja; Grosser, Katrin; Teske, Andreas; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The marine alphaproteobacterium strain O3.65 was isolated from an enrichment culture of surface seawater contaminated with weathered oil (slicks) from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill and belongs to the ubiquitous, diverse and ecological relevant Roseobacter group within the Rhodobacteraceae. Here, we present a preliminary set of physiological features of strain O3.65 and a description and annotation of its draft genome sequence. Based on our data we suggest potential ecological roles of the isolate in the degradation of crude oil within the network of the oil-enriched microbial community. The draft genome comprises 4,852,484 bp with 4,591 protein-coding genes and 63 RNA genes. Strain O3.65 utilizes pentoses, hexoses, disaccharides and amino acids as carbon and energy source and is able to grow on several hydroxylated and substituted aromatic compounds. Based on 16S rRNA gene comparison the closest described and validated strain is Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, however, strain O3.65 is lacking several phenotypic and genomic characteristics specific for the genus Phaeobacter. Phylogenomic analyses based on the whole genome support extensive genetic exchange of strain O3.65 with members of the genus Ruegeria, potentially by using the secretion system type IV. Our physiological observations are consistent with the genomic and phylogenomic analyses and support that strain O3.65 is a novel species of a new genus within the Rhodobacteraceae.

  18. Consistent Occurrence of Hydrocarbonoclastic Marinobacter Strains in Various Cultures of Picocyanobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: Promising Associations for Biodegradation of Marine Oil Pollution.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahaib, Dhuha; Al-Bader, Dhia; Al-Shaikh Abdou, Dana K; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir S

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen nonaxenic cultures of picocyanobacteria were isolated from the Arabian Gulf, from which 122 heterotrophic bacterial strains were obtained. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, those strains were affiliated with 22 different species, 82.8% of which belonged to the genus Marinobacter, known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. The remaining species belonged to the genera Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Halomonas, Mesorhizobium, and Paenibacillus, and a Bacteriodetes bacterium also known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. All the picocyanobacterial cultures harbored one or more strains of Marinobacter. Marinobacter in addition to Alcanivorax and other genera isolated from those picocyanobacteria grew on Tween 80, crude oil, and pure hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy, i.e. they are related to the obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria group. They consumed crude oil, n-octadecane, and phenanthrene in batch cultures. The results indicated that Marinobacter isolates seemed to grow better and consume more oil in the presence of their host picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Such natural microbial associations assumingly play a role in bioremediation of spilled hydrocarbons in the Arabian Gulf. Similar associations probably occur in other marine environments as well and are active in oil spill removal.

  19. Subtropical Productivity from Profiling Floats and Gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, D. P.; Johnson, K. S.; Karl, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007 profiling floats equipped with dissolved oxygen and nitrate sensors have been released from the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) and Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) sites and can be calibrated using time-series observations. More recent deployments have also included bio-optical and pH sensors. Gliders with oxygen sensors and bio-optics have been intermittently deployed near HOT Station ALOHA since 2008 and at BATS since 2014. While gliders maintain a restricted survey region near the time-series stations, profiling floats drifted widely across the subtropical gyres. Multiple floats and gliders enables a cotemporaneous comparison of biogeochemical processes across gyres. These platforms enable observations on spatial scales from submesoscale to basin scale and on temporal scales from diel to interannual. Here, I focus on the spatiotemporal variability of nitrate and oxygen mass balances in the North Pacific and North Atlantic subtropical gyres using a data-assimilating and float-tracking 1D upper ocean model.

  20. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  1. Impacts of pollution derived from ship wrecks on the marine environment on the basis of s/s "Stuttgart" (Polish coast, Europe).

    PubMed

    Rogowska, Justyna; Wolska, Lidia; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-11-01

    In 1943 the German hospital ship s/s Stuttgart (Lazaretschiff "C") was sunk close to the port of Gdynia (Gulf of Gdańsk - Polish coast). This and other actions (undertaken after the war to remove the wreck) led to pollution of the sea bottom with oil derivatives. During our studies (2009) 11 surface sediment and water samples were collected as well as sediment core samples at 4 locations in order to determine the concentration levels of priority pollutants belonging to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The concentrations of 16 PAH and 7 PCB were analysed with GC-MS. ΣPAH varied between 11.54 ± 0.39 and 206.7 ± 6.5mg/kg dry weight in the surface sediments, and from 0.686 ± 0.026 to 1291 ± 53 mg/kg dry weight in the core samples. Contamination in the core samples collected may reach a depth of at least 230-240 cm (deepest sample studied). The PAH-group profiles in all surface sediment samples suggest a pyrolytic source of PAH, while the results obtained for core samples indicate a mixed pattern of pyrolytic and petrogenic inputs of PAH. Results obtained may suggest also that fuel residues being present at sea bottom is not crude oil derived but results from coal processing (synthetic fuel). The sum of PCB in surface sediments ranged from 0.761 ± 0.068 to 6.82 ± 0.28 μg/kg dry weight (except for sampling point W2, where ΣPCB was 108.8 ± 4.4 μg/kg dry weight). The strong correlation between PAH and PCB levels, and the fact that PCB are present only in the surface sediments, suggest that the compounds in these sediments got there as a result of emission from urban areas, entering the aquatic environment via atmospheric deposition. PCB levels in the sediment core samples were generally very low and in most cases did not exceed the method quantification limit.

  2. The positive relationship between ocean acidification and pollution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie

    2015-02-15

    Ocean acidification and pollution coexist to exert combined effects on the functions and services of marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification can increase the biotoxicity of heavy metals by altering their speciation and bioavailability. Marine pollutants, such as heavy metals and oils, could decrease the photosynthesis rate and increase the respiration rate of marine organisms as a result of biotoxicity and eutrophication, facilitating ocean acidification to varying degrees. Here we review the complex interactions between ocean acidification and pollution in the context of linkage of multiple stressors to marine ecosystems. The synthesized information shows that pollution-affected respiration acidifies coastal oceans more than the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Coastal regions are more vulnerable to the negative impact of ocean acidification due to large influxes of pollutants from terrestrial ecosystems. Ocean acidification and pollution facilitate each other, and thus coastal environmental protection from pollution has a large potential for mitigating acidification risk.

  3. The annual silica cycle of the North Pacific subtropical gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Church, Matthew J.; Karl, David M.; Li, Binglin; Jones, Janice L.; Updyke, Brett

    2011-10-01

    . Annual silica production at HOT is nearly 4-fold lower than estimates at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea from the 1990s, but annual silica export at the base of the euphotic zone is similar between the two gyres indicating very different balances between silica production and its loss in surface waters. On a relative basis, BATS is a more productive system with respect to silica, where biogenic silica is recycled with high efficiency in surface waters; in contrast the NPSG is a lower productivity system with respect to silica, but where lower recycling efficiency leads to a much higher fraction of new silica production. The two gyres show contrasting long-term trends in diatom biomass as biogenic silica concentrations at HOT have been increasing since 1997, but they have been decreasing at BATS suggesting very different forcing of decadal trends in the contribution of diatoms in carbon cycling between these gyres. Combining the data from both gyres indicates that globally subtropical gyres produce 13 Tmol Si a -1, which is only 51% of previous estimates reducing the contribution of subtropical gyres to 5-7% of global annual marine silica production.

  4. Using diatom indices for water quality assessment in a subtropical river, China.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiang; Sheldon, Fran; Bunn, Stuart E; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-06-01

    Diatoms have been regularly used as bioindicators to assess water quality of surface waters. However, diatom-based indices developed for a specific geographic region may not be appropriate elsewhere. We sampled benthic diatom assemblages in the upper Han River, a subtropical river in China, to evaluate applicability of 14 diatom-based indices used worldwide for water quality assessment. A total of 194 taxa from 31 genera were identified in the dry season and 139 taxa from 23 genera in the wet season. During the dry season, significant relationships were found for all but one of the diatom-based indices (Index Diatom Artois-Picardie) with one or more physical and chemical variables including nutrients and ion concentrations in river waters. The Biological Diatom Index (IBD) and diatom-based eutrophication/pollution index (EPI-D) were strongly related to trophic status and ionic content, while Watanabe's Index was related to organic pollution and conductivity. Yet, the diatom indices showed weak relationships with physical and chemical variables during the wet season. It suggests that diatom-based indices developed in Europe can be applied with confidence as bioindicators of water quality in subtropical rivers of China, at least during base-flow conditions.

  5. Trace metal variability, background levels and pollution status assessment in line with the water framework and Marine Strategy Framework EU Directives in the waters of a heavily impacted Mediterranean Gulf.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulou, V; Zeri, C; Kaberi, H; Chalkiadaki, O; Krasakopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Scoullos, M

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to assess trace metal pollution status (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in the waters of Saronikos Gulf, Greece, in line with the WFD and MSFD European Directives, based on data collected over a decade (2000-2010). Dissolved metal background levels are estimated for the first time for Greek marine waters and the upper limits are: Cd: 0.574 nmol L(-1); Cu: 8.26 nmol L(-1); Ni: 7.94 nmol L(-1); Pb: 2.60 nmol L(-1); Zn: 115 nmol L(-1). The variability of dissolved and particulate metals reflected the presence of several point sources and revealed the importance of natural mechanisms acting as non-point sources. The status of Saronikos Gulf is classified as 'High' for most metals studied. An exception to this is the enclosed Elefsis Bay where Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations are found above background. Our work will assist the implementation of WFD and MSFD directives in Greece.

  6. Androgen metabolism in oyster Crassostrea gigas: evidence for 17beta-HSD activities and characterization of an aromatase-like activity inhibited by pharmacological compounds and a marine pollutant.

    PubMed

    Le Curieux-Belfond, O; Moslemi, S; Mathieu, M; Séralini, G E

    2001-10-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of oyster Crassostrea gigas depends on environmental factors, but its endocrine regulations are still unknown. Sexual steroids play important roles at this level in vertebrates, and some estradiol effects have been described in invertebrates such as bivalve mollusks. To question these roles in invertebrates, we studied androgen metabolism in C. gigas. Incubations of tissue homogenates with 14C-steroids such as androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2), followed by TLC and HPLC, provide evidence for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs, conversions of A into T, T into A, E1 into E2 and E2 into E1) and aromatase-like (A into E1) activities. The latter activity was further characterized by tritiated water release assay; it was time- and temperature-dependent. Furthermore, this oyster aromatase-like activity was inhibited by 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (IC(50) 0.456 microM) and by other pharmacological compounds including specific cytochrome P450 inhibitors (MR20494, miconazole) and a marine pollutant (tributyltin).

  7. Impact of polar ozone depletion on subtropical precipitation.

    PubMed

    Kang, S M; Polvani, L M; Fyfe, J C; Sigmond, M

    2011-05-20

    Over the past half-century, the ozone hole has caused a poleward shift of the extratropical westerly jet in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we argue that these extratropical circulation changes, resulting from ozone depletion, have substantially contributed to subtropical precipitation changes. Specifically, we show that precipitation in the southern subtropics in austral summer increases significantly when climate models are integrated with reduced polar ozone concentrations. Furthermore, the observed patterns of subtropical precipitation change, from 1979 to 2000, are very similar to those in our model integrations, where ozone depletion alone is prescribed. In both climate models and observations, the subtropical moistening is linked to a poleward shift of the extratropical westerly jet. Our results highlight the importance of polar regions for the subtropical hydrological cycle.

  8. Variability of aerosol, gaseous pollutants and meteorological characteristics associated with continental, urban and marine air masses at the SW Atlantic coast of Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diesch, J.-M.; Drewnick, F.; Zorn, S. R.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Martinez, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of the ambient aerosol were performed at the Southern coast of Spain, within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides) project. The field campaign took place from 20 November until 9 December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" (37°5'47.76" N, 6°44'6.94" W). As the monitoring station is located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville) and the Atlantic Ocean a variety of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols and gas phase could be characterized in dependency on the origin of air masses. Backwards trajectories were examined and compared with local meteorology to classify characteristic air mass types for several source regions. Aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distributions were registered covering a size range from 7 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2) and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Lowest average submicron particle mass and number concentrations were found in air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean with values around 2 μg m-3 and 1000 cm-3. These mass concentrations were about two to four times lower than the values recorded in air masses of continental and urban origins. For some species PM1-fractions in marine air were significantly larger than in air masses originating from Huelva, a closely located city with extensive industrial activities. The largest fraction of sulfate (54%) was detected in marine air masses and was to a high degree not neutralized. In addition small concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA), a product of biogenic dimethyl sulfate (DMS) emissions could be identified in the particle phase. In all

  9. The comet assay in Environmental Risk Assessment of marine pollutants: applications, assets and handicaps of surveying genotoxicity in non-model organisms.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marta; Costa, Pedro M

    2015-01-01

    Determining the genotoxic effects of pollutants has long been a priority in Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) for coastal ecosystems, especially of complex areas such as estuaries and other confined waterbodies. The acknowledged link between DNA damage, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity to the exposure to certain toxicants has been responsible to the growing interest in determining the genotoxic effects of xenobiotics to wildlife as a measure of environmental risk. The comet assay, although widely employed in in vivo and in vitro toxicology, still holds many constraints in ERA, in large part owing to difficulties in obtaining conclusive cause-effect relationships from complex environments. Nevertheless, these challenges do not hinder the attempts to apply the alkaline comet assay on sentinel organisms, wild or subjected to bioassays in or ex situ (from fish to molluscs) as well to standardise protocols and establish general guidelines to the interpretation of findings. Fish have been regarded as an appealing subject due to the ease of performing the comet assay in whole blood. However, the application of the comet assay is becoming increasingly common in invertebrates (e.g. in molluscan haemocytes and solid tissues such as gills). Virtually all sorts of results have been obtained from the application of the comet assay in ERA (null, positive and inconclusive). However, it has become clear that interpreting DNA damage data from wild organisms is particularly challenging due to their ability to adapt to continuous environmental stressors, including toxicants. Also, the comet assay in non-model organisms for the purpose of ERA implies different constraints, assumptions and interpretation of findings, compared with the in vitro procedures from which most guidelines have been derived. This paper critically reviews the application of the comet assay in ERA, focusing on target organisms and tissues; protocol developments, case studies plus data handling and

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in a marine bivalve on the Marennes-Oléron Bay and the Gironde Estuary (French Atlantic Coast) - part 1: bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Luna-Acosta, A; Budzinski, H; Le Menach, K; Thomas-Guyon, H; Bustamante, P

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine 1) the relevance of using the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas as a sentinel organism, at a juvenile stage, for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and persistent organic pollutant (polychlorobiphenyl, PCB, polybromodimethylether, PBDE, and organochlorine pesticide, OCP) contamination, 2) the potential levels of chemical organic contamination in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, and their potential sources and 3) the potential influence of physiological or environmental factors on contaminant body burdens in oysters. To this end, juvenile oysters purchased from an oyster hatchery were transplanted to a reference site, in Bouin, and to different transplantation sites in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, the first oyster production area in France, and in the Gironde Estuary, the biggest estuary in Occidental Europe. Transplantations were done during summer and winter. Whole oyster soft tissues from each site were analysed for PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs. Results obtained with a transplantation period of 3months suggest that C. gigas, at the juvenile stage, is a relevant sentinel organism for short-term assessment of contamination for these contaminants. In addition, no significant effects of physiological factors on contaminant body burdens were observed. Principal component analysis revealed two distinct groups of contaminants (PAHs and OPCs, and PCBs and PBDEs) and three groups of sites: 1) the reference site, 2) Les Palles (LP) and Boyard (BOY) in winter and 3) all the other sites. The group of LP and BOY was clearly defined by the levels of PAHs and OCPs, suggesting higher levels of contamination of these chemical compounds on these sites, potentially due to local contamination sources. In addition, no relevant effects of physiological or environmental factors on contaminant body burdens were observed. Results suggest also a predominance of contaminants related to agricultural activities along the Marennes-Oléron Bay, and therefore

  11. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  12. Deglacial hydrological and thermal evolution of subtropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, G.; Chiessi, C. M.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrology of South America has changed dramatically during the rapid climate fluctuations of the last deglaciation, being the focus of several studies in recent years. However, much attention has been paid to the tropics, leaving an almost complete lack of data for the subtropical latitudes. Here we present high-resolution biomarker-based records of terrigenous organic matter input (as an indicator of hydrological changes on land) and of continental mean annual temperatures (MAT) from subtropical South America covering the last deglaciation. These data were obtained from marine sediment core GeoB6211-2, retrieved from the Brazilian continental margin at 32.51°S, 50.24°W, 657 m water depth. The core is characterized by high sedimentation rates (ca. 70 cm/kyr) for most of the deglaciation, likely fostered by high supply of terrigenous materials. We applied recently developed indices based on the relative abundances of several species of soil- and marine-derived tetraether molecules. The results are then compared with stable oxygen isotope data from planktic foraminifera from the same core. Using the BIT index (Hopmans et al., 2004) we estimated the supply of terrigenous organic matter to the core site. BIT values are generally high during the deglaciation and decrease rapidly at the early Holocene, in accordance with other parameters. However, terrigenous biomarkers exhibit strong centennial to millennial scale variability during deglacial times, displaying distinct maxima near 14.5 kyr BP, between 17 and 16 cal kyr BP coincident with Heinrich event 1, and around 18.5 cal kyr BP. These variations indicate a strong link between oceanic conditions and continental climate in South America. Continental MAT estimated using the method of Weijers et al. (2007) shows a warming of 5°C across the deglaciation, generally parallel to the temporal evolution of Antarctic ice-core records. But centennial to millennial scale variability with amplitudes of 1-2°C observed in

  13. Application of Sister Chromatid Exchange in Marine Polychaetes to Black Rock Harbor Sediment. Laboratory Documentation Phase.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Continue on reverse eide if necomeay and Identify by block number) Marine pollution --Genetic effects (LC) Polychaeta (LC) Dredged material (WES) Biological...necessary end Identify by block number) Marine pollution --Genetic effects (LC) Polychaeta (LC) Dredged material (WES) Biological assay (LC) Sister...populations of marine organisms. 2. The importance of genetic effects in marine pollution studies has been recognized only recently. The International Council

  14. A re-examination of the projected subtropical precipitation decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Soden, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    A large-scale precipitation decline in the subtropics is a widely accepted projection of future climate change, but its causes and implications are uncertain. Two mechanisms are commonly used to explain the large-scale subtropical precipitation decline: an amplification of moisture export due to the increase in moisture and a poleward shift of subtropical subsidence associated with the poleward expansion of the Hadley cell. In an idealized experiment with abrupt CO2 increase, we find that the subtropical precipitation decline forms primarily in the fast adjustment to CO2 forcing during which neither of the two proposed mechanisms exists. Permitting the increase in moisture and the Hadley cell expansion does not substantially change the characteristics of the large-scale subtropical precipitation decline. This precipitation change should be interpreted as a response to the land-sea warming contrast, the direct radiative forcing of CO2 and, in certain regions, the pattern of SST changes. Moreover, the subtropical precipitation decline is projected predominately over oceans. Over subtropical land regions, the precipitation decline is muted or even reversed by the land-sea warming contrast.

  15. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  16. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Water Pollution Table of Contents Health Studies & Clinical Trials ... Trials GuLF Study What NIEHS is Doing on Water Pollution Survival of the resilient: rapid killifish evolution ...

  17. Atmospheric deposition of phthalate esters in a subtropical city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Feng; Lin, Yujun; Cui, Kunyan; Wen, Jiaxin; Ma, Yongqin; Chen, Hongli; Zhu, Fang; Ma, Zhiling; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2010-02-01

    In Chinese cities, air pollution has become a serious and aggravating environmental problem undermining the sustainability of urban ecosystems and the quality of urban life. Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected two-weekly, from February 2007 to January 2008, at three representative areas, one suburban and two urbanized, in the subtropical city, Guangzhou, China, to assess the deposition fluxes and seasonal variations of phthalate esters (PAEs). Sixteen PAE congeners in bulk deposition samples were measured and the depositional fluxes of ∑ 16PAEs ranged from 3.41 to 190 μg m -2 day -1, and were highly affected by local anthropogenic activities. The significant relationship between PAEs and particulate depositional fluxes (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001) showed PAEs are associated primarily with particles. Temporal flux variations of PAEs were influenced by seasonal changes in meteorological parameters, and the deposition fluxes of PAEs were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Diisobutyl phthalate (D iBP), Di- n-butyl phthalate (D nBP), and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAE pattern in bulk depositions, which is consistent with a high consumption of the plasticizer market in China. PAE profiles in bulk deposition showed similarities exhibited in both time and space, and a weak increase of high molecular weight PAE (HMW PAE) contribution in the wet season compared to those in the dry season. Average atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAEs in the present study were significantly higher than those from other studies, reflecting strong anthropogenic inputs as a consequence of rapid industrial and urban development in the region.

  18. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  19. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  20. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  1. Multiparameter Fluorescence Methods for Analysis in the Marine Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Multichannel Fluorometer," NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advanced Techniques on Marine Pollution Studies, Beaulieu-Sur- Mer, France, October 4-14, 1984...Techniques on Marine Pollution Studies, Beaulieu-Sur-Mer, France, October 1-14, 1984. 4) Warner, I.M., Patonay, G. and Thomas, M., "Multidimensional

  2. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  3. Structure and taxonomic composition of free-living nematode and macrofaunal assemblages in a eutrophic subtropical harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Xu, W Z; Cheung, S G; Shin, Paul K S

    2014-08-30

    The spatial and seasonal taxonomic composition patterns of macrofauna and nematodes in a eutrophic subtropical harbour, previously suffered from sewage pollution, were studied in relation to a number of sediment parameters. In the polluted, inner-harbour area, levels of organic contents and heavy metals were high, whereas species number, abundance and diversity of nematodes and macrofauna were the lowest in comparison to the cleaner, outer-harbour area. Different taxonomic composition patterns of nematodes and macrofaunal assemblages were found between inner-harbour and outer-harbour area, which was highly correlated with sediment nutrient levels. Different responses of macrofaunal and nematode communities to sewage pollution suggested that macrofauna might be more tolerant than nematodes to eutrophic conditions due to their ability to modify the sediment. The present findings indicated the usefulness of studying both nematode and macrofaunal communities, in order to reveal different aspects of the benthic ecosystems in response to organic enrichment.

  4. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: EVIDENCE FOR SUBSTRATE LIMITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were measured along a transect in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA, to examine the factors that control microbial water column processes in this subtropical estuary. The microbial measures included 3 H-L-leucine incorporation, e...

  5. Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing countries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a "precautionary principle." Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this paper, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries.

  6. Millennial-scale climate instabilities in the subtropical Atlantic during MIS 6 and 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinwald, A.; Billups, K.

    2012-12-01

    We have constructed a high resolution (~200 year) planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope record spanning Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 6 and 7 in the subtropical Atlantic (ODP Site 1059). The record fills a gap in a ~1 million year long time series of millennial-scale surface ocean hydrography in this region. Our ultimate goal is to test the hypothesis that millennial-scale climate signals in the northwestern subtropical Atlantic are linked to external driving factors such as the harmonics of precession. Results show that longer-term trends in the oxygen isotope data spanning MIS 6-7 closely follow precessional forcing allowing us to refine the original age model of Grützner et al. (2002). High frequency variations are superimposed on the long-term trend during both the glacial MIS 6 and the interglacial MIS 7. Spectral analyses indicate high concentration of power at millennial-scale periodicities of 10.9 kyr, 5.2 kyr, and 2.8 kyr. These periodicities are close to those expected from harmonics of precessional forcing during this interval of time (11.5 kyr, 5.8 kyr, 2.8 kyr). We will show the evolution of the millennial-scale periodicities in this region over the past 1 million years by splicing the record into published ones and unifying the age model.

  7. Community Composition of Photosynthetic Picoeukaryotes in a Subtropical Coastal Ecosystem, with Particular Emphasis on Micromonas.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Chi; Chung, Chih-Ching; Chen, Liang-Yin; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Huang, Chin-Yi; Chiang, Kuo-Ping

    2016-09-16

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) are important constituents in picoplankton communities in many marine ecosystems. However, little is known about their community composition in the subtropical coastal waters of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. In order to study their taxonomic composition, this study constructed 18S rRNA gene libraries using flow cytometric sorting during the warm season. The results show that, after diatoms, prasinophyte clones are numerically dominant. Within prasinophytes, Micromonas produced the most common sequences, and included clades II, III, IV, and VI. We are establishing the new Micromonas clade VI based on our phylogenetic analysis. Sequences of this clade have previously been retrieved from the South China Sea and Red Sea, indicating a worldwide distribution, but this is the first study to detect clade VI in the coastal waters of Taiwan. The TSA-FISH results indicated that Micromonas clade VI peaked in the summer (~4 × 10(2)  cells/ml), accounting for one-fifth of Micromonas abundance on average. Overall, Micromonas contributed half of Mamiellophyceae abundance, while Mamiellophyceae contributed 40% of PPE abundance. This study demonstrates the importance of Micromonas within the Mamiellophyceae in a subtropical coastal ecosystem.

  8. Isolation and evaluation of oil-producing microalgae from subtropical coastal and brackish waters.

    PubMed

    Lim, David K Y; Garg, Sourabh; Timmins, Matthew; Zhang, Eugene S B; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schuhmann, Holger; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae have been widely reported as a promising source of biofuels, mainly based on their high areal productivity of biomass and lipids as triacylglycerides and the possibility for cultivation on non-arable land. The isolation and selection of suitable strains that are robust and display high growth and lipid accumulation rates is an important prerequisite for their successful cultivation as a bioenergy source, a process that can be compared to the initial selection and domestication of agricultural crops. We developed standard protocols for the isolation and cultivation for a range of marine and brackish microalgae. By comparing growth rates and lipid productivity, we assessed the potential of subtropical coastal and brackish microalgae for the production of biodiesel and other oil-based bioproducts. This study identified Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaniella salina and new isolates of Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis sp. as suitable candidates for a multiple-product algae crop. We conclude that subtropical coastal microalgae display a variety of fatty acid profiles that offer a wide scope for several oil-based bioproducts, including biodiesel and omega-3 fatty acids. A biorefinery approach for microalgae would make economical production more feasible but challenges remain for efficient harvesting and extraction processes for some species.

  9. Decadal changes in salinity in the oceanic subtropical gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzer, Bryce A.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed spatial and temporal salinity trends in five subtropical gyre regions over the past six decades using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis with a focus on the subsurface salinity of the upper 1000 m of the ocean. Our results indicate an overall salinity increase within the mixed layer, and a salinity decrease at depths greater than 200 m in the global subtropical gyres over 61 years, of which each individual gyre was analyzed in further detail. We determine that freshwater fluxes at the air-sea interface are the primary drivers of the sea surface salinity (SSS) signature over these open ocean regions by quantifying the advective contribution within the surface layer. This was demonstrated through a mixed layer salinity budget in each subtropical gyre based on the vertically integrated advection and entrainment of salt. Our analysis of decadal variability of fluxes into and out of the gyres reveals little change in the strength of the mean currents through this region despite an increase in the annual export of salt in all subtropical gyres, with the meridional component dominating the zonal. This study reveals that the salt content of E-P maximum waters advected into the subtropical gyres is increasing over time. A combination of increasing direct evaporation over the regions with increasing remote evaporation over nearby E-P maxima is believed to be the main driver in increasing salinity of the subtropical oceans, suggesting an intensification of the global water cycle over decadal time scales.

  10. Development of the Trophic Water Quality Index (TWQI) for subtropical temperate Brazilian lotic systems.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Eduardo A; Schuch, Marilia; Heinrich, Carla Giselda; da Costa, Adilson Ben; Düpont, Adriana; Wetzel, Carlos Eduardo; Ector, Luc

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed at developing the Trophic Water Quality Index (TWQI) for subtropical temperate Brazilian lotic systems based on a review of the indicative values of diatom species obtained using multivariate analysis techniques and considering the environmental gradient defined by a series of measured physical, chemical, and microbiological variables. Sampling was conducted from 2005 to 2009 in the Pardo River Hydrographic Basin, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, and in the Andreas Stream Hydrographic Basin, RS, from 2012 to 2013. A total of 140 biological samples and 211 abiotic samples were collected. Data were analyzed by cluster analysis based on the Ward method and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results indicated that total phosphate, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and thermotolerant coliforms showed a significant correlation with the sample ordination made by CCA, in relation to a gradient of eutrophication. Eutrophication was operationally defined in a broad sense, including the problem of organic pollution and eutrophication of the water. The determination of the different tolerance degrees to eutrophication of the diatom taxa was used to assign trophic values of 1, 2.5, and 4 to species, corresponding to levels of low, medium, and high tolerance, respectively. By using the trophic values obtained for each diatom species, the TWQI constituted a new technological tool for environmental monitoring studies and showed a consistent, robust, and objective database for water quality assessment in subtropical temperate Brazilian lotic systems.

  11. Ocean Pollution Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Ocean Pollution Research Center (OPRC) is a University of Miami center based at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) and with significant involvement by the College of Engineering. It was formed in 1992 out of concerns for potential oil spills placing at risk the fragile ecosystems of the Florida Keys. OPRC's scope also includes the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the South Atlantic Bight. Focus is on the physical transport of oil spills and information management for response operations. Studies of the fates and effects of oil spills are also undertaken.

  12. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed.

  13. Isotopic Composition of Cadmium across the Subtropical Convergence in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gault-Ringold, M.; Stirling, C. H.; Frew, R.; Hunter, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    The almost linear relationship between cadmium (Cd) and phosphate (PO4) in the oceans has been used extensively as a paleoproxy to investigate historical nutrient cycling (Boyle, 1992, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 20, 245). However, our limited understanding of oceanic Cd cycling and the mechanism of the Cd/PO4 relationship limits the reliability of this paleoproxy (Elderfield and Rickaby, 2000, Nature. 405, 305), particularly in the surface waters of the Southern Ocean. Recent studies have shown that the biological uptake of Cd by phytoplankton can create significant (permil-level) isotopic shifts between the phytoplankton and surface ocean water (Ripperger and Rehkamper, 2007, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 261, 670) suggesting that Cd isotopes have the potential to provide more information about the marine cycling of Cd than concentration measurements alone. The subtropical convergence (STC) in the Southern Ocean has some of the world’s lowest Cd:PO4 ratios (Frew and Hunter, 1995, Mar. Chem. 51, 223) and provides an ideal location to study the biogeochemical cycling of Cd in the marine environment. Utilizing double-spiking protocols combined with multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) (Ripperger and Rehkamper, 2007, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 71, 631), we have determined the isotopic composition of Cd in seawater samples collected from the Otago transect off the southeast coast of New Zealand. This transect intersects the STC, passing through both subtropical (iron replete) and subantarctic (HNLC) water masses. Samples were collected seasonally from May 2008 through January 2010 to identify seasonal variability of isotopic composition and concentration due to changes in water mass chemistry and biological activity. This Cd isotope data will help determine the mechanisms controlling Cd uptake in the Southern Ocean and provide insight into the effectiveness of the current Cd/PO4 paleoproxy helping to improve its application.

  14. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  15. 76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations... Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations; Pharmaceuticals Production; and the Printing... NESHAP include: National Emissions Standards for Group I Polymers and Resins (Butyl Rubber...

  16. Interannual variability of trace gases in the subtropical winter stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.J.; Russell, J.M. III

    1999-04-01

    Measurements of water vapor and methane from the Halogen Occultation Experiment instrument on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are used to study the interannual variability of trace gas distributions in the atmosphere. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms influencing trace gas distributions in the subtropics. The study highlights the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) dependence of subtropical tracer distributions more clearly than in previous studies. There is a strong correlation between the equatorial wind QBO and the slope of the tracer isolines in the Northern Hemisphere subtropics, with steeper subtropical isoline slopes in the easterly phase compared with the westerly phase. This is particularly so in the lower stratosphere. Two possible mechanisms for the QBO signal in subtropical isoline slopes are identified: advection by the mean circulation and isentropic mixing. A comparison between the QBO signal in the slope of the tracer isolines and the isentropic tracer gradients is proposed as a method of determining which process is dominant. The authors suggest that the behavior of these two data diagnostics provides a stringent constraint on computer models of the atmosphere. On the basis of these diagnostics three height regions of the subtropical atmosphere are identified. (1) Below 450--500 K isentropic mixing associated with tropospheric disturbances penetrating the lower stratosphere is dominant. (2) In the region 500--750 K the data suggest that advection by the mean meridional circulation is important and that the role of isentropic mixing by eddies is relatively small. (3) Above 750 K isentropic mixing becomes increasingly important with height, and both advection and mixing are influential in determining the subtropical tracer distributions.

  17. Molecular approaches to measuring microbial marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Pommepuy, M; Le Guyader, F

    1998-06-01

    Developments in the rapid detection of pathogens (PCR and its variations) and molecular typing of strains isolated from the ecosystem illustrate the stimulation of research due to the recent foodborne and waterborne disease outbreaks.

  18. A baseline study of benthic community associated with Amphioxus Sand in subtropical Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Cheung, S G; Shin, P K S

    2013-07-15

    An annual investigation on the seasonal changes of benthic community structure associated with Amphioxus Sand was conducted at two sites in the eastern waters of subtropical Hong Kong, where three species of amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, B. japonicum and B. malayanum coexist. A total of 84 species and 4169 individuals were recorded at Tai Long Wan, whereas a total of 87 species and 3915 individuals were recorded at Pak Lap Wan. Benthic polychaetes were dominant, including high abundance of Onuphis eremita and Prionospio malmgreni. Results of cluster analysis showed significant community structures between the two areas because of difference in sediment granulometry. However, temporal changes within these Amphioxus Sand communities were minimal. In general, the Amphioxus Sand communities in Hong Kong showed higher species richness of Polychaeta as compared with similar studies elsewhere, possibly implying an increased level of organic pollution in Hong Kong waters.

  19. Chromium Displacement in Subtropical Soils Fertilized with Hydrolysed Leather: A Laboratory Study.

    PubMed

    Bavaresco, Jovana; Fink, Jessé R; Rodrigues, Maria Lucia K; Gianello, Clesio; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2016-12-01

    Prolonged use of biosolids with high metal content may result in diffuse pollution across large regions, especially if such ions can move freely through the soil profile and reach underground water sources. The objective of this study was to verify whether Cr added to the soil surface in the form of hydrolysed leather or a soluble salt would migrate over significant distances in four subtropical soils differing in physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. Horizontal and vertical mobility were assessed in Petri dishes and small pots, respectively, using low (12 mg kg(-1) soil) and high Cr levels (150 mg kg(-1) soil) added to the soil surface. Irrespective of concentration, soluble Cr salts were found to move more easily in soils with low organic matter and clay content. Contrarily, Cr added as hydrolysed leather exhibited negligible mobility and tended to accumulate in the vicinity of application.

  20. [Toxocariasis in children from a subtropical region].

    PubMed

    Lopez, Maria De Los Angeles; Martin, Graciela; Chamorro, Myrian Del Carmen; Mario Alonso, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Toxocariasis is present worldwide but people living in areas with sanitary deficiencies are considered at the highest risk of infection, particularly children. The aim of this work was to know clinical and immunological aspects of infantile toxocariasis in a subtropical region in Argentina. For this purpose, 182 children of both sexes, 0-16 years old and with eosinophilia higher than 10%, living in Resistencia City (Northeast Argentina) were studied. Clinical examination, personal and epidemiological data recording, parasitological fecal examination and dosage of Toxocara canis IgG and IgM levels by EIE were performed; all positive sera were confirmed by Western Blot. Out of 182 children, 122 were positive for T. canis-IgG (67.0%); 28.8% lack of potable drinking water at home, 58.8% lack of sewerage facilities, 91.1% referred a close contact with dogs or cats, 30.0% had a history of geophagia and 86.7% lived along streets without pavement. The clinical forms of the infection were: 77.8% asymptomatic, 6.7% ocular larva migrans and 15.5% visceral larva migrans. In 22 children the serological follow up until 18 months after treatment showed 10 children without change in IgG levels, in 11 it decreased but remained high, and in one it increased. There were 19 children with high levels of T. canis-IgM; in 8 it decreased along treatment, in one it remained stable and 10 of them became negative. There was one child considered as a re-infection case. Results highlight the importance that health authorities should assign to this infection in regions with sanitary deficiencies, where toxocariasis is usually not recognized as a relevant public health problem.