Science.gov

Sample records for polluter pays principle

  1. The Polluter Pays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Martyn

    1975-01-01

    Presents part of the winning entry in the competition organized by Stirling University (England). The extract presented forms the conclusion to a wide ranging essay which covered the various forms of pollution. (EB)

  2. Incorporation of pollution prevention principles in environmental methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P.; Silzer, J.

    1996-07-01

    The principles of pollution prevention (P2) have not been sufficiently incorporated into analytical methods. In this paper, we focus on the needs for and the benefits of incorporating the principles of P2 into environmental analytical methods.

  3. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    PubMed

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another.

  4. [Principle for strategic decision based on population health risk in emergence environmental cadmium pollution control].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles for strategic decision in emergence environmental pollution control was summarized based on population health risk and features of emergence events of environmental cadmium pollution. Main task and strategies for the events control was suggested in emergency treatment and post-event for water and soil cadmium pollution respectively. The work, monitoring method, key problems for both environment cadmium pollution and human health risk, and main content of health education for cadmium exposure people was proposed in follow-up action, at meanwhile, achievements of study on human health effects caused by environmental cadmium pollution was introduced briefly over recent years.

  5. Survival analysis of stochastic competitive models in a polluted environment and stochastic competitive exclusion principle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Ke; Wu, Qiong

    2011-09-01

    Stochastic competitive models with pollution and without pollution are proposed and studied. For the first system with pollution, sufficient criteria for extinction, nonpersistence in the mean, weak persistence in the mean, strong persistence in the mean, and stochastic permanence are established. The threshold between weak persistence in the mean and extinction for each population is obtained. It is found that stochastic disturbance is favorable for the survival of one species and is unfavorable for the survival of the other species. For the second system with pollution, sufficient conditions for extinction and weak persistence are obtained. For the model without pollution, a partial stochastic competitive exclusion principle is derived.

  6. lnvasive pests ('biological pollutants') and US forests: whose problem, who pays?

    Treesearch

    W.E. Wallner

    1996-01-01

    Invasive pests, or 'biological pollutants' are among the most serious threats to biological diversity in the forest ecosystems of the USA. Additionally, they can disrupt forest management practices and cause enormous financial losses. In the USA, as elsewhere, the receiving country inherits the problem and, along with its citizenry, bears the permanent...

  7. Behavior, preferences, and willingness to pay for measures aimed at preventing pollution by pharmaceuticals and personal care products in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowen; Howley, Peter; Boxall, Alistair Ba; Rudd, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    The release of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) into the environment has been held up as a potential threat to ecosystem and human health. Using a custom-designed survey of residents living in Xiamen, China, this paper examines individuals' disposal practices, awareness of the environmental impact of PPCPs, and willingness to pay for measures aimed at reducing the likelihood of PPCPs being released into the environment. The vast majority of respondents report that they dispose of PPCPs through the thrash. The results of a contingent valuation experiment suggest a substantial willingness to pay (WTP) for policy measures aimed at reducing PPCP pollution. Income as well as subjective perceptions relating to overall financial health, expenditure on PPCPs, and overall concern with environmental issues emerged as significant predictors of respondents' WTP. Our results should be of interest to policymakers looking for ways to mitigate the introduction of PPCPs in the environment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:793-800. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Federal and State Governments Reach Legal Agreement with Tonawanda Coke to Reduce Pollution, Company to Pay $12 million to Address Violations of Environmental Laws

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) Under a $12 million settlement with the United States and the state of New York, Tonawanda Coke Corporation will pay $2.75 million in civil penalties, spend approximately $7.9 million to reduce air pollution and enhance air and water quali

  9. Military Pay Comparability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    for promotions and for pay based on ability. Also included in this idea is one of equal pay for basically equal work. Thus, the sub-principle of...Report established for the first time the idea that pay within the services for basically equal jobs should be the same and that the pay should be...foundation for legislation creating the first idea of 4 P "regular military compensation" (basic pay , subsistence allowance and quarters allowance) as a

  10. Maximizing pollutant removal in constructed wetlands: should we pay more attention to macrophyte species selection?

    PubMed

    Brisson, J; Chazarenc, F

    2009-06-15

    While the positive role of macrophytes on removal efficiency in constructed wetlands has been well established, possible differences in performance between plants species of comparable life forms and sizes are much harder to demonstrate. We reviewed 35 experimental studies published in peer-reviewed journals and proceedings on the effect of macrophyte species selection on pollutant removal in SSFCW. The studies cover a wide range of macrophyte species, experimental approaches (from well-replicated microcosm experiments to comparison between full full-size constructed wetlands), climatic conditions (from tropical to cold-temperate) and types of effluent (domestic, industrial, etc.). Frequent methodological limitations in these studies compel caution in the interpretation of their results. Yet, the fact that the majority found some (occasionally large) differences in efficiency between plant species for one or more type of pollutant suggests that macrophyte species selection does matter. However, there is little generalization to be made that could help guide species selection for SSFCW, except for the exact conditions in which the experiments were done. For example, the same pair of species that was tested in different studies occasionally gave opposite results in terms of which one performs best. Also, most studies provided few insights on the mechanisms or plant properties that could explain the observed differences in plant species efficiency. Finally, we discuss other relevant research questions and approaches that could help better guide macrophyte species selection for CW.

  11. Government employees' perception of urban air pollution and willingness to pay for improved quality: a cross-sectional survey study in Nanchang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Wu, Yanyan; Hu, Yongxin; Liu, Denglai; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Cheng; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-11-01

    To improve the public's awareness of urban air pollution and promote establishment of more efficient policy toward urban air pollution, we investigated the government employees' perceptions of current urban air pollution and their willingness to pay (WTP) taxes for improved quality in Nanchang, China. Stratified cluster sampling strategy was used to distribute 629 questionnaires, and 608 were completed anonymously, yielding a 96.7 % response rate. Descriptive statistics frequencies and proportions were used to summarize the sample characteristics, and logistic regression models were performed to assess the associations of perception of urban air quality and WTP versus demographic variables. We found low awareness of urban air pollution (34.5 %) as well as low WTP (44.9 %), especially among the middle aged people (age 30-39 and age 40-49). Our study shows that female employees have better awareness of urban air pollution but much less willingness to pay for air quality improvement. Majority of the government employees showed their support to the government for more effective policies toward environmental protection, indicating more enhanced public education and environmental protection campaigns to improve the public's awareness of air pollution and work with every citizen to improve air quality. This study also obtained baseline information useful to the local regional and even national government in developing nations in their attempt to control urban air pollution in future.

  12. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods—dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was €6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.

  13. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania.

    PubMed

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods--dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was 6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.

  14. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-01-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested. PMID:2695325

  15. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-11-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested.

  16. Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

  17. Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

  18. Analysis of residents' willingness to pay to reduce air pollution to improve children's health in community and hospital settings in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keran; Wu, Jinyi; Wang, Rui; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Renjie; Maddock, Jay E; Lu, Yuanan

    2015-11-15

    Shanghai, along with many major cities in China, faces deterioration of air quality and increases in air pollution-related respiratory diseases (RDs) in children due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used to qualitatively and quantitatively measure the willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing children's RDs through air quality improvement. Between April and May, 2014, 975 face-to-face interviews were collected from parents in a community-based and a hospital-setting in Shanghai. Multiple imputation and the Probit model were used to determine the relationship between the WTP and the related environmental factors, child health factors and the socio-economic status. Most respondents reported being willing to make a financial contribution to improve air quality in both the community (52.6%) and hospital (70.2%) samples. Those in the hospital setting were willing to pay significantly more ¥504 (USD$80.7) compared to the community sample ¥428 ($68.5) as expected. Reasons for those not being willing to pay included lack of disposable income and believing that responsibility of the air quality was a community issue. These did not differ by sample. Annual household income and education were related to WTP. This study indicated that parents in Shanghai would be willing to pay for improved air quality. Children's health can be the incentive for the citizens' participation and support in the air quality improvement, therefore, hospital settings may present unique places to improve education about air quality and enhance advocacy efforts. This study also suggested that future environmental policies be addressed more rigorously for targeted populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  20. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  1. Big Oil Polluter Pays Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Whitehouse, Sheldon [D-RI

    2010-05-11

    Senate - 05/11/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Basic Principles of the Electrochemical Mineralization of Organic Pollutants for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapałka, Agnieszka; Fóti, György; Comninellis, Christos

    The electrochemical mineralization of organic pollutants is a new technology for treatment of dilute wastewater (COD < 5 g/L). In this method, utilizing the electrical energy, a complete oxidation of pollutants can be achieved on high oxidation power anodes. An ideal anode for this type of treatment is a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) characterized by a high reactivity toward organics oxidation. In the present work, both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of organics mineralization are discussed. The proposed theoretical kinetic model of organics mineralization on BDD anodes is in excellent agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the economical aspect of electrochemical organics mineralization is reported.

  3. Social Comparison of Pay and Inequity Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Ben

    Inequity theory differs from social exchange theory in its analysis of a worker's reaction to pay by asserting that effects on work performance caused by high or low pay are due to social comparison of fairness rather than principles of direct exchange, such as reciprocity and power. The present experiment held piece-rate pay constant at two…

  4. 4 CFR 5.1 - Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fixed by the Comptroller General consistent with the principles that— (1) There be equal pay for work of substantially equal value. (2) Pay distinctions be maintained in keeping with work and performance distinctions... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 5.1 Section 5.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT...

  5. Assessment of economic losses from marine pollution: an introduction to economic principles and methods.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, D D

    2001-09-01

    This paper introduces economic concepts and theory pertaining to public policy issues and concerns about pollution in marine environments. Many of these concepts and theories are unfamiliar to individuals and professionals outside the field of economics, such as biologists, ecologists, environmental lawyers, and even public policymakers. Yet many of these individuals observe economics in action, often for the first time, within a public policy arena. Exposure and a better understanding of the concepts and ideas in economics that are particularly relevant for public policies can help to achieve efficiencies in the form of better designed policies, and help to bridge communications gaps across other professions and the economics profession.

  6. Principles and Applications of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Reactors for Electrochemical Hydrodehalogenation of Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hua; Scott, Keith

    The ability to re-cycle halogenated liquid wastes, based on electrochemical hydrodehalogenation (EHDH), will provide a significant economic advantage and will reduce the environmental burden in a number of processes. The use of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) reactor is very attractive for this purpose. Principles and features of electrochemical HDH technology and SPE EHDH reactors are described. The SPE reactor enables selective dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in both aqueous and non-aqueous media with high current efficiency and low energy consumption. The influence of operating conditions, including cathode material, current density, reactant concentration and temperature on the HDH process and its stability are examined.

  7. Application of the WFD cost proportionality principle to diffuse pollution mitigation: a case study for Scottish Lochs.

    PubMed

    Vinten, A J A; Martin-Ortega, J; Glenk, K; Booth, P; Balana, B B; MacLeod, M; Lago, M; Moran, D; Jones, M

    2012-04-30

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to deliver good ecological status (GES) for Europe's waters. It prescribes the use of economic principles, such as derogation from GES on grounds of disproportionate costs of mitigation. This paper proposes an application of the proportionality principle to mitigation of phosphorus (P) pollution of 544 Scottish lochs at national and local water body scales. P loading estimates were derived from a national diffuse pollution screening tool. For 293 of these lochs (31% of the loch area), GES already occurred. Mitigation cost-effectiveness was assessed using combined mitigation cost curves for managed grassland, rough grazing, arable land, sewage and septic tank sources. These provided sufficient mitigation (92% of national P load) for GES to be achieved on another 31% of loch area at annualised cost of £2.09 m/y. Mitigation of the residual P loading preventing other lochs achieving GES was considered by using a "mop-up" cost of £200/kg P (assumed cost effectiveness of removal of P directly from lochs), leading to a total cost of £189 m/y. Lochs were ranked by mitigation costs per loch area to give a national scale marginal mitigation cost curve. A published choice experiment valuation of WFD targets for Scottish lochs was used to estimate marginal benefits at national scale and combined with the marginal cost curve. This gave proportionate costs of £5.7 m/y leading to GES in 72% of loch area. Using national mean marginal benefits with a scheme to estimate changes in individual loch value with P loading gave proportionate costs of £25.6 m/y leading to GES in 77% of loch area (491 lochs). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A Wallace

    2005-06-01

    The Precautionary Principle in its simplest form states: "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause-and-effect relationships are not fully established scientifically". This Principle is the basis for European environmental law, and plays an increasing role in developing environmental health policies as well. It also is used in environmental decision-making in Canada and in several European countries, especially in Denmark, Sweden, and Germany. The Precautionary Principle has been used in the environmental decision-making process and in regulating drugs and other consumer products in the United States. The Precautionary Principle enhances the collection of risk information for, among other items, high production volume chemicals and risk-based analyses in general. It does not eliminate the need for good science or for science-based risk assessments. Public participation is encouraged in both the review process and the decision-making process. The Precautionary Principle encourages, and in some cases may require, transparency of the risk assessment process on health risk of chemicals both for public health and the environment. A debate continues on whether the Principle should embrace the "polluter pays" directive and place the responsibility for providing risk assessment on industry. The best elements of a precautionary approach demand good science and challenge the scientific community to improve methods used for risk assessment.

  9. Full cost accounting as a tool for the financial assessment of Pay-As-You-Throw schemes: a case study for the Panorama municipality, Greece.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, Avraam; Xirogiannopoulou, Anna; Tchobanoglous, George

    2008-12-01

    In the present paper, implementation scenarios of a Pay-As-You-Throw program were developed and analyzed for the first time in Greece. Firstly, the necessary steps for implementing a Pay-As-You-Throw program were determined. A database was developed for the needs of the full cost accounting method, where all financial and waste-production data were inserted, in order to calculate the unit price of charging for four different implementation scenarios of the "polluter-pays" principle. For each scenario, the input in waste management cost was estimated, as well as the total waste charges for households. Finally, a comparative analysis of the results was performed.

  10. Paying for healthy rivers.

    PubMed

    Pigram, J J J

    2002-01-01

    Concerted efforts are being made at state and federal levels to restore Australia's rivers and waterways to a healthy condition. Yet, there is little consensus on what constitutes a "healthy river" and even less on how to achieve this, or how far to go towards restoration. Some advocate removal of storages and weirs along rivers to revert to some natural state. Others, particularly water users, question the trade-offs involved in leaving more water in the rivers and how the costs of restoration are to be met. At present it seems that the major share of the costs is borne by irrigators, with the wider community essentially enjoying a "free-ride". This situation is justified on the basis of the impactor pays principle whereby water diversions, primarily for irrigation, are held to have contributed most to degradation of the river systems. The altemative-beneficiary pays principle--is of more relevance where demands are made on resource users to mitigate environmental impacts or bring about environmental improvements, eg. healthy rivers, where the beneficiaries are the wider public and the general community. Many resource users are voluntarily undertaking action on private land to conserve biodiversity and achieve sustainability. In these circumstances, the cost-sharing principle should apply, with governments, interest groups and the community contributing to the investment required to attain the desired resource condition objectives.

  11. Behind the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  12. [Principles of a canteen feeding organization of railway transport workers in repair-restorative work in regions polluted with radiation].

    PubMed

    Istomin, A V; Zhiliaev, N S

    1997-01-01

    Dietary intake and actual food consumption of the railway transport workers are employed in repair in radioactive polluted regions. Disbalance of dining rations and deficiency in vegetable fat, some mineral elements and vitamins was established. For the correction of revealed defects the methodological recommendations for organization of a canteen feeding of the workers of railway transport was developed.

  13. Closing the Pay Gap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    the pay gap has been narrowed, hut only to just under 10 percent. And current military compensation legislation does not close the gap until 2026. There...will continue to be a pay gap until 2026 unless the next administration and the next Congress provide more for pay above the 1999 legislated ramp- up...of .5 percent (one half of one percent) per year to attain pay equality . That means that soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines and Coast Guardsmen

  14. Branch v. Western Petroleum: Utah adopts principles of strict liability and nuisance per se for the pollution of ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, H.J. II

    1983-01-01

    The Utah Supreme Court held in Branch v. Western Petroleum, Inc. that the oil company was strictly liable for contamination an adjoining land owner's culinary well water, and found the company liable for compensatory damages. The water contaminating was caused by the percolation of toxic chemicals into the ground water from a pond used for waste water from the oil wells. The author discusses the various theories used to determine liability for polluting ground water, examines the Utah Supreme Court's analysis and application of those theories in the case, and evaluates the propriety of damages awarded. 77 references.

  15. Sticking to (first) principles: quantum molecular dynamics and Bayesian probabilistic methods to simulate aquatic pollutant absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Trerayapiwat, Kasidet; Ricke, Nathan; Cohen, Peter; Poblete, Alex; Rudel, Holly; Eustis, Soren N

    2016-08-10

    This work explores the relationship between theoretically predicted excitation energies and experimental molar absorption spectra as they pertain to environmental aquatic photochemistry. An overview of pertinent Quantum Chemical descriptions of sunlight-driven electronic transitions in organic pollutants is presented. Second, a combined molecular dynamics (MD), time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) analysis of the ultraviolet to visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra of six model organic compounds is presented alongside accurate experimental data. The functional relationship between the experimentally observed molar absorption spectrum and the discrete quantum transitions is examined. A rigorous comparison of the accuracy of the theoretical transition energies (ΔES0→Sn) and oscillator strength (fS0→Sn) is afforded by the probabilistic convolution and deconvolution procedure described. This method of deconvolution of experimental spectra using a Gaussian Mixture Model combined with Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) to determine the mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) as well as the number of observed singlet to singlet transition energy state distributions. This procedure allows a direct comparison of the one-electron (quantum) transitions that are the result of quantum chemical calculations and the ensemble of non-adiabatic quantum states that produce the macroscopic effect of a molar absorption spectrum. Poor agreement between the vertical excitation energies produced from TD-DFT calculations with five different functionals (CAM-B3LYP, PBE0, M06-2X, BP86, and LC-BLYP) suggest a failure of the theory to capture the low energy, environmentally important, electronic transitions in our model organic pollutants. However, the method of explicit-solvation of the organic solute using the quantum Effective Fragment Potential (EFP) in a density functional molecular dynamics trajectory simulation shows promise as a robust model of the hydrated organic

  16. Main Principles of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia - 13333

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshnikov, Mikhail

    2013-07-01

    For the last several years the System of the Spent Nuclear Fuel management in Russia was seriously changed. The paper describes the main principles of the changes and the bases of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia. Among such the bases there are the theses with the interesting names like 'total knowledge', 'pollutant pays' and 'pay and forget'. There is also a brief description of the modern Russian SNF Management Infrastructure. And an outline of the whole System. The System which is - in case of Russia - is quite necessary to adjust SNF accumulation and to utilize the nuclear heritage. (authors)

  17. [Environmental pollution with tobacco smoke--a threat to human health. Principles for prevention of tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Nikodemowicz, E

    1993-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important pathogenetic factor for man, but it is underestimated in our country. The great spread of this factor justifies the term "tobacco epidemic". Three epidemiological surveys made in Cracow and in the country near Lańcut indicated that 37% of the people smoked tobacco: 42% in the city of Cracow and 29% in the country. In 9.7% of adult inhabitants of Cracow, 15.6% of the males and 5.0% of the females had symptoms of chronic bronchitis. In currently smoking men chronic bronchitis was found in 20%, five times more frequent than in nonsmokers, and in 12% of the smoking women, four times more frequent than in non-smokers. In rural inhabitants chronic bronchitis existed in 6.7% of dwellers of suburban villages and in 4.4% of residents of distant villages. In currently smoking men chronic bronchitis was found in 11.7% in suburban villages and in 6.3% in distant ones. This proves the synergistic influence of industrial and transport-related air pollution and cigarette smoke. The consequences of cigarette smoking were discussed: chronic bronchitis and emphysema, heart diseases, cancer of the lung, passive smoking. In antismoking action the most important aim is to protect the young people from initiation to smoking. In adults the decision to abandon smoking is very dependent on the intellectual level of the smoker. Antismoking propaganda must be conducted with great tact, and the advantages of quitting smoking should be emphasized.

  18. 43 CFR 3192.10 - What costs will BLM pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND CONTRACTS FOR OIL AND GAS INSPECTION Cooperative Agreements § 3192.10 What costs will BLM pay... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What costs will BLM pay? 3192.10 Section... Cost Principles for Assistance Programs, of this title. (b) BLM will fund the agreements up to 100...

  19. 29 CFR 778.409 - Provision for overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Exceptions From the Regular Rate Principles Guaranteed Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.409 Provision for overtime pay. The section 7(f) contract must provide for compensation at not less than one and...

  20. An Application of the Equal Pay Act to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Debra H.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of legal principles governing equal pay and sex discrimination in university settings is discussed. The most objective mechanism that a university can utilize to achieve compliance with the Equal Pay Act would be implementation of a salary system that relies on experience, formal education, and time in grade. (MLW)

  1. EQUAL PAY FACTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    EQUAL PAY MEANS PAYMENT OF "RATE OF THE JOB" WITHOUT REGARD TO SEX. EQUAL PAY LAWS WERE ENACTED IN 29 STATES FROM 1919 TO 1965. FOUR ADDITIONAL STATES HAVE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS. SUPPORT FOR SUCH LEGISLATION HAS COME FROM WOMEN'S AND CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS, AFL-CIO, AND THE PRESIDENT'S AND STATE COMMISSIONS ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN. THE…

  2. High Pay Makes Headlines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The skyrocketing pay and benefits of corporate executives have kept reporters and, sometimes, prosecutors busy in recent years. The resulting public outrage over these tales of excess has contributed to a backlash. Now the news media, in searching for excessive pay in places where there seems to be no cap on costs, have increasingly focused their…

  3. EQUAL PAY FACTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    EQUAL PAY MEANS PAYMENT OF "RATE OF THE JOB" WITHOUT REGARD TO SEX. EQUAL PAY LAWS WERE ENACTED IN 29 STATES FROM 1919 TO 1965. FOUR ADDITIONAL STATES HAVE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS. SUPPORT FOR SUCH LEGISLATION HAS COME FROM WOMEN'S AND CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS, AFL-CIO, AND THE PRESIDENT'S AND STATE COMMISSIONS ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN. THE…

  4. Financial Advice: Who Pays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…

  5. History of Combat Pay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    effect on morale and provided a secondary justification for token compensation. Unlike its successors, Badge Pay was not a combat pay in the...designated “combat units” or those wounded, injured, or killed by hostile fire. Defined by statute, “combat units” were effectively restricted to...favored by the Army, eligibility would be restricted to those serving at least six days with designated frontline “combat units,” effectively

  6. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Paying premium pay. 410.402 Section 410... for Training Expenses § 410.402 Paying premium pay. (a) Prohibitions. Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, an agency may not use its funds, appropriated or otherwise available, to...

  7. Energy Slaves and Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Sam S.

    1974-01-01

    Modern man pays a price, pollution, with the dependency shift from humans as converters of energy for work to machines as converters of energy. Emphasis is placed on electromechanical appliances and their respective power ratings. (EB)

  8. Energy Slaves and Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Sam S.

    1974-01-01

    Modern man pays a price, pollution, with the dependency shift from humans as converters of energy for work to machines as converters of energy. Emphasis is placed on electromechanical appliances and their respective power ratings. (EB)

  9. Fairness and Ethical Considerations in Pay for Performance in NSPS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-17

    Principles.1 The second major change occurred with The Civil Service Reform Act ( CSRA ) of 1978. The act continued emphasis on merit system principles...organizational performance. The CSRA established a Merit Pay System and created an appeal mechanism for protection of employee’s rights among other

  10. Pay for performance and medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Marissa A

    2008-01-01

    Health care delivery systems are widely studying and implementing physician pay for performance (P4P) initiatives to improve quality and control costs. However, the increasing focus on quality-driven financial incentives has some troubling implications for medical professionalism. This article examines the P4P concept in light of a notion of medical fiduciary professionalism that dates back to the 18th-century Scottish physician John Gregory. Gregory's principles serve as a framework to assess the appropriateness of P4P initiatives in disseminating the principles of high-quality care without damage to professionalism, the patient-physician relationship, and access to care for all patients.

  11. Agency nursing goes PAYE.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2017-04-19

    Many agency nurses bill for their services through a limited or personal services company. In the past, this has reduced the tax they need to pay, allowing some profits to be taken as dividends. It has also allowed them to offset costs, such as travel, against their profits.

  12. Is Teacher Pay "Adequate?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In school finance lawsuits plaintiffs often claim that pay levels are not sufficient to recruit teachers who can deliver constitutionally-mandated levels of educational services. In this paper I consider several ways in which one might bring economic theory and data to bear on that question. I conclude that at present, and at least for the near…

  13. The Poor Pay More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folse, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a sociology experiential learning assignment where students learned why people living in poverty can sometimes pay more for products than people with better incomes. Focuses specifically on the rent to own concept. States students achieved the goal of learning how life constraints of poverty can hinder the poor from overcoming their…

  14. Consultancy pay for nurses.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Nurses working for NHS Direct could be paid at medical consultant level based on equal pay for equal work initiatives, according to Rob Crouch, Deputy Director and Research Fellow (A&E), Centre for the Advancement of Clinical Practice, University of Surrey.

  15. The Equal Pay Boondoggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Richard A.

    1975-01-01

    Problems of extending the Equal Pay Act to university faculty are examined in light of the complicated market forces and merit systems affecting faculty appointments and salaries. Solutions to the problem are suggested including guidelines for the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor to use in identifying sex discrimination. (JT)

  16. The Poor Pay More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folse, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a sociology experiential learning assignment where students learned why people living in poverty can sometimes pay more for products than people with better incomes. Focuses specifically on the rent to own concept. States students achieved the goal of learning how life constraints of poverty can hinder the poor from overcoming their…

  17. Performance Pay for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    During the past few years, interest in shifting at least a portion of what teachers are paid away from a reliance on a traditional salary schedule to one that incorporates a pay for performance component has reached a new high. Proponents of the approach view it as a way to improve teacher quality by both motivating teachers and--through higher…

  18. Military Pay Gaps and Caps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    RATIOS AND ENLISTED RECRUIT QUALITY AND RETENTION 27 C. MILITARY-CrVIL SERVICE PAY ADJUSTMENT LINKAGE: LEGISLATIVE BACKGROUND, 1967-1993 30...DECI), which we constructed previously and have updated to include fiscal 1992. We compare pay gaps based on the ECI versus the DECI and present DECI...do. There is no claim that the levels of military and civilian pay are equal at base point. If pay levels are equal at the base point, the divergence

  19. Value-Added Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Daniel F.

    The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…

  20. Equal Pay: The Emerging Terrain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Kent M.

    1985-01-01

    Colleges and universities can employ several statutory defenses to alleged pay disparities and demonstrate that there are legitimate reasons for pay differentials. Several preventive strategies in response to the emerging legal terrain of equal pay litigation are suggested. (Author/MLW)

  1. Military Pay Gaps and Caps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    annual military pay legislation suspended 37 USC 1009; this provision called for equal percentage increases in all three cash components of RMC, with the...SERVICE PAY ADJUSTMENT LINKAGE: LEGISLATIVE BACKGROUND, 1967-1993 .................... 30 Bibliography...personnel. We do so via the Defense Employment Cost Index (DECI), which we constructed previously and have updated to include fiscal 1992. We compare pay

  2. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-08-21

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

  3. 29 CFR 778.403 - Constant pay for varying workweeks including overtime is not permitted except as specified in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Constant pay for varying workweeks including overtime is not permitted except as specified in section 7(f). 778.403 Section 778.403 Labor Regulations Relating... Principles Guaranteed Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.403 Constant pay for varying workweeks...

  4. When Punishment Pays

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in groups remains a key problem because reciprocity breaks down between more than two. Punishing individuals who contribute little provides a potential answer but changes the dilemma to why pay the costs of punishing which, like cooperation itself, provides a public good. Nevertheless, people are observed to punish others in behavioural economic games, posing a problem for existing theory which highlights the difficulty in explaining the spread and persistence of punishment. Here, I consider the apparent mismatch between theory and evidence and show by means of instructive analysis and simulation how much of the experimental evidence for punishment comes from scenarios in which punishers may expect to obtain a net benefit from punishing free-riders. In repeated games within groups, punishment works by imposing costs on defectors so that it pays them to switch to cooperating. Both punishers and non-punishers then benefit from the resulting increase in cooperation, hence investing in punishment can constitute a social dilemma. However, I show the conditions in which the benefits of increased cooperation are so great that they more than offset the costs of punishing, thereby removing the temptation to free-ride on others' investments and making punishment explicable in terms of direct self-interest. Crucially, this is because of the leveraging effect imposed in typical studies whereby people can pay a small cost to inflict a heavy loss on a punished individual. In contrast to previous models suggesting punishment is disadvantaged when rare, I show it can invade until it comes into a producer-scrounger equilibrium with non-punishers. I conclude that adding punishment to an iterated public goods game can solve the problem of achieving cooperation by removing the social dilemma. PMID:23483907

  5. When punishment pays.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in groups remains a key problem because reciprocity breaks down between more than two. Punishing individuals who contribute little provides a potential answer but changes the dilemma to why pay the costs of punishing which, like cooperation itself, provides a public good. Nevertheless, people are observed to punish others in behavioural economic games, posing a problem for existing theory which highlights the difficulty in explaining the spread and persistence of punishment. Here, I consider the apparent mismatch between theory and evidence and show by means of instructive analysis and simulation how much of the experimental evidence for punishment comes from scenarios in which punishers may expect to obtain a net benefit from punishing free-riders. In repeated games within groups, punishment works by imposing costs on defectors so that it pays them to switch to cooperating. Both punishers and non-punishers then benefit from the resulting increase in cooperation, hence investing in punishment can constitute a social dilemma. However, I show the conditions in which the benefits of increased cooperation are so great that they more than offset the costs of punishing, thereby removing the temptation to free-ride on others' investments and making punishment explicable in terms of direct self-interest. Crucially, this is because of the leveraging effect imposed in typical studies whereby people can pay a small cost to inflict a heavy loss on a punished individual. In contrast to previous models suggesting punishment is disadvantaged when rare, I show it can invade until it comes into a producer-scrounger equilibrium with non-punishers. I conclude that adding punishment to an iterated public goods game can solve the problem of achieving cooperation by removing the social dilemma.

  6. Pollution liability. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning court decisions regarding pollution liability. Specific aspects of pollution legislation that must be proven to establish liability are discussed. Federal, state, or civil exemptions to pollution laws are detailed. Pollution liability insurance is examined. Punitive assessments providing economic recovery and clean up costs to injured parties are briefly considered. Specific court decisions are used to highlight general principles of pollution liability. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Aetna to pay up.

    PubMed

    Conde, Crystal

    2013-03-01

    In December, Aetna became the latest insurer to agree to a proposed settlement to pay physicians and patients $120 million because it used Ingenix databases that deflated payments for out-of-network physician services. The decision stems from settlement of a 2009 lawsuit against Aetna by the Texas Medical Association, the American Medical Association, and state medical societies in California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington. They alleged Aetna used databases created by Ingenix, Inc., a subsidiary of UnitedHealthcare, to set usual, customary, and reasonable (UCR) rates for out-of-network services. They said Ingenix was inherently flawed and unable to establish proper UCR rates.

  8. Pay as you throw

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, Lisa; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2010-01-15

    Householders' response to weight-based billing for the collection of household waste was investigated with the aim of providing decision support for waste management policies. Three questions were addressed: How much and what kind of information on weight-based billing is discernible in generic Swedish waste collection statistics? Why do local authorities implement weight-based billing, and how do they perceive the results? and, Which strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing have been observed on the local level? The study showed that municipalities with pay-by-weight schemes collected 20% less household waste per capita than other municipalities. Surprisingly, no part of this difference could be explained by higher recycling rates. Nevertheless, the majority of waste management professionals were convinced that recycling had increased as a result of the billing system. A number of contradicting strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing were revealed.

  9. Federal Penalty for Swampscott Water Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Town of Swampscott entered into a Consent Decree today agreeing to pay a $65,000 civil penalty and to take critical remedial measures to address pollution the Town discharged into the ocean near local beaches.

  10. Simulation of waste gas pollution diffusion for urban planning: take Nanjing as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junting; Xu, Jianggang; Qi, Yi; Tong, Jianghua; Wu, Yang

    2008-10-01

    Waste gas pollution diffusion is one of the basic factors that should be considered in the layout of urban planning. In the field of Chinese urban planning, limited by the planning skill and the level of different departments' involvement, the future pollution degree and pollution range of industrial region is hard to be predicted accurately. The newly issued Urban and Rural Planning Act carry out scientific development idea, pay more attention to the proteaction of urban ecological environment in principles, and encourage the application of new technology and new methods in planning skill. This paper combines digital map information, collects industrial point source spatial data of Nanjing, selects appropriate model from the technical requirements of urban land planning, establish database of air pollution diffusion based on ArcGIS platform, calculates spatial concentration of air pollution diffusion with interpolation, and carry out superposition between 16 wind directions and value in multi-sources air pollution, puts forward the conception of effective pollution range according to national environment management system standard, and performs a preliminary spatial fitting between computing result of spatial data and urban land, evaluates the effects of waste gas pollution in Nanjing on urban land planning. Finally the research direction that can be prolonged is pointed out.

  11. Financing Higher Education Worldwide: Who Pays? Who Should Pay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, D. Bruce; Marcucci, Pamela N.

    2010-01-01

    No issue in higher education is as salient, or as controversial, as finance. As demand for higher education around the world grows, so do the costs associated with it, especially as governments shoulder less of the burden. Tuition fees rise and student loan debt grows. Who pays for these surging costs? Who "should" pay? D. Bruce Johnstone and…

  12. Financing Higher Education Worldwide: Who Pays? Who Should Pay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, D. Bruce; Marcucci, Pamela N.

    2010-01-01

    No issue in higher education is as salient, or as controversial, as finance. As demand for higher education around the world grows, so do the costs associated with it, especially as governments shoulder less of the burden. Tuition fees rise and student loan debt grows. Who pays for these surging costs? Who "should" pay? D. Bruce Johnstone and…

  13. 5 CFR 9901.212 - Pay schedules and pay bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay schedules and pay bands. 9901.212 Section 9901.212 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL...

  14. Sources of Funding and Academic Performance in Economics Principles Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Dagney; Srinivasan, Arun K.; Bingham, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine two factors that may affect student achievement in economics principles courses: working for pay and the primary source of funds (employer tuition reimbursement, loans, scholarships, financial aid, self-financing, parental transfers, other) used to pay for college for a sample of students in economics principles classes at a…

  15. Sources of Funding and Academic Performance in Economics Principles Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Dagney; Srinivasan, Arun K.; Bingham, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine two factors that may affect student achievement in economics principles courses: working for pay and the primary source of funds (employer tuition reimbursement, loans, scholarships, financial aid, self-financing, parental transfers, other) used to pay for college for a sample of students in economics principles classes at a…

  16. 43 CFR 2806.10 - What rent must I pay for my grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents General Provisions § 2806.10 What rent must I pay for my grant? (a) You must pay in advance a rent BLM establishes based on sound business management principles and, as far as...

  17. 43 CFR 2806.10 - What rent must I pay for my grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents General Provisions § 2806.10 What rent must I pay for my grant? (a) You must pay in advance a rent BLM establishes based on sound business management principles and, as far as...

  18. 43 CFR 2806.10 - What rent must I pay for my grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents General Provisions § 2806.10 What rent must I pay for my grant? (a) You must pay in advance a rent BLM establishes based on sound business management principles and, as far as...

  19. 43 CFR 2806.10 - What rent must I pay for my grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents General Provisions § 2806.10 What rent must I pay for my grant? (a) You must pay in advance a rent BLM establishes based on sound business management principles and, as far as...

  20. 29 CFR 778.222 - Other payments similar to “call-back” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... payments similar to “call-back” pay. The principles discussed in §§ 778.220 and 778.221 are also applied with respect to certain types of extra payments which are similar to call-back pay, such as: (a) Extra... has been called back to work before the expiration of a specified number of hours between shifts...

  1. The Merits of Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David K.; Murnane, Richard J.

    A study of six selected school districts that had been using merit pay plans successfully for at least 6 years provided insight into administrative strategies associated with merit pay program success. The researchers visited the districts, interviewed teachers and administrators, and studied local documents. Each district used a unique…

  2. Equal Pay for Comparable Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Frank, Jane

    1980-01-01

    Argues that sex discrimination has depressed salaries for jobs filled primarily by women. Shows that under the Equal Pay Act and Title VII, workers in traditionally female occupations can establish equal pay claims. Suggests approaches for developing legal and enforcement standards to deal with discriminatory compensation in traditionally female…

  3. Teacher Pay and Teacher Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Can changes in teacher pay encourage more able individuals to enter the teaching profession? So far, studies of the impact of pay on the aptitude distribution of teachers have provided mixed evidence on the extent to which altering teacher salaries represents a feasible solution to the teacher quality problem. One possible reason is that these…

  4. Teacher Pay and Teacher Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Can changes in teacher pay encourage more able individuals to enter the teaching profession? So far, studies of the impact of pay on the aptitude distribution of teachers have provided mixed evidence on the extent to which altering teacher salaries represents a feasible solution to the teacher quality problem. One possible reason is that these…

  5. Competition in the Pay Cable Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarran, Alan B.

    This paper analyzes the state of competition in the pay cable industry. The analysis conceptualizes competition in pay cable and discusses the current structure of the pay cable industry and the competition for subscribers and programming. The competition for audiences that pay cable faces from both pay-per-view services and the video cassette…

  6. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this subpart shall be— (a) Not less than...

  7. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  8. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  9. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  10. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  11. Monkeys reject unequal pay.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; De Waal, Frans B M

    2003-09-18

    During the evolution of cooperation it may have become critical for individuals to compare their own efforts and pay-offs with those of others. Negative reactions may occur when expectations are violated. One theory proposes that aversion to inequity can explain human cooperation within the bounds of the rational choice model, and may in fact be more inclusive than previous explanations. Although there exists substantial cultural variation in its particulars, this 'sense of fairness' is probably a human universal that has been shown to prevail in a wide variety of circumstances. However, we are not the only cooperative animals, hence inequity aversion may not be uniquely human. Many highly cooperative nonhuman species seem guided by a set of expectations about the outcome of cooperation and the division of resources. Here we demonstrate that a nonhuman primate, the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), responds negatively to unequal reward distribution in exchanges with a human experimenter. Monkeys refused to participate if they witnessed a conspecific obtain a more attractive reward for equal effort, an effect amplified if the partner received such a reward without any effort at all. These reactions support an early evolutionary origin of inequity aversion.

  12. Paying for disease management.

    PubMed

    Levy, Phillip; Nocerini, Robert; Grazier, Kyle

    2007-08-01

    Disease Management (DM) first appeared in the United States in the early 1990s. Since then its incorporation into health plans has increased dramatically, yet proof of its effectiveness in terms of quality improvement and cost reduction remains to be seen. The following review provides an exploratory analysis of the basic principles of DM, its evolution and differences from traditional managed care, the ways in which programs are currently being used in the private and public sectors, and the challenges to determining a payment structure for incorporating DM into the current health insurance system.

  13. Healthy Aging: Paying for Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Paying for health care More information on paying for health care Better ... Coping without insurance More information on paying for health care Explore other publications and websites Age Page: Choosing ...

  14. 5 CFR 1605.13 - Back pay awards and other retroactive pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... apply to participants who receive a back pay award or other retroactive pay adjustment for a period... entitled to make up contributions for the period covered by the back pay award or retroactive pay... contributed to the participant's account had the reduction in pay leading to the back pay award or other...

  15. The courtship of the paying patient.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, S S

    1993-01-01

    This article argues for a prohibition on the courtship of the paying patient by individual practitioners, groups, institutions, and corporations. Our society fails to provide universal access to health care. While we await societal resolution, the private provider retains partial responsibility for addressing issues of distributive justice. All private physicians, groups, institutions, and corporations should offer a fair share of underreimbursed, nonemergency care. If economic survival or beneficent economic commitments of a provider are at risk, the provider may explicitly limit underreimbursed services by a rational system of accepting or rejecting nonemergency, indigent patients. The system should be one that, if implemented by all providers, would meet regional societal needs. One might analyze the issue of courtship of the paying patient as a problem of distributive justice. The desire of paying patients to receive personalized care or nonmedical amenities and to have the freedom to buy the best possible medical care, and the economic interests of the providers (the desire of the already affluent provider to seek further gain and growth, the need of a threatened provider to survive, and the dependency of educational institutions on patient payments) all conflict with distributive justice. The marketing interest of providers conflicts with the greater need of the poor to receive information about health, and it conflicts with public need for protection against misleading solicitation. The possibly higher per capita cost of treating the poor, along with possibly lower success rates, create a conflict between cost-effective allocation of limited resources, on the one hand, and egalitarian distributive justice, on the other. The competitive market principle may even protect, rather than defeat, the principle of justice. The author, however, writing from the point of view of the physician, has analyzed the question in terms of a conflict between the economic

  16. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In all...

  17. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention as other types of pollution, such as air pollution, or water pollution. The air around us is ... Air Act Overview Home Progress Cleaning the Air Air Pollution Challenges Requirements and History Role of Science and ...

  18. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  19. Paying for water.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J; Saunders, P

    1997-03-01

    Water has been taken for granted as an essential public health need since the Victorian sanitary revolution. Water has come back on to the public health agenda in the United Kingdom because of recent policy changes and their untoward environmental and social impacts; along with water privatization and tough new environmental directives, there have been serious water pollution incidents, water shortages, water debt and disconnection. Along with concern about protecting individual rights to a clean safe water supply, there is concern about the ability of national water resources to meet all our communities' needs, without unacceptable environmental damage. A national plan is needed for the conservation of water and protection of water resources and the environment; adequate central funds are needed to see that this happens. There should be greater emphasis on local water management and a key role for local authorities; there should be fair pricing, protection of water supplies for the poorest and most vulnerable, and a ban on water disconnection to domestic users, on public health grounds. More research is needed into the potential adverse health impact of people on prepayment meters disconnecting themselves. There is a place for water metering as the most rapidly deliverable means of controlling peak demand, reducing overall consumption and avoiding a large-scale environmentally damaging solution to supply more water. However, control of leakage offers the largest potential saving and is the most cost-effective means to protect existing water supply. We question whether private water companies, geared to maximizing profit and share dividends, can deliver a national plan for the protection and management of water resources, for the good of the environment and future generations. The public health lobby must become more actively engaged in the debate about the supply, protection and price of our most precious public health asset-water.

  20. 75 FR 18133 - Pay for Sunday Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 550 RIN 3206-AM08 Pay for Sunday Work AGENCY: Office of Personnel... of Sunday premium pay for work performed on Sundays. The revised Sunday premium pay regulations would... are regularly scheduled to perform work on a Sunday are entitled to Sunday premium pay for the non...

  1. 5 CFR 551.501 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overtime pay. 551.501 Section 551.501 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Basic Provisions § 551.501 Overtime pay. (a) An agency...

  2. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI to take a particular type of training in connection with a FPI job are to receive FPI pay if...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.356 Pay retention. (a) Subject to...

  4. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay to...

  5. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay to...

  6. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay to...

  7. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay to...

  8. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay to...

  9. A Taiji-principle-designed magnetic porous C-doped graphitic carbon nitride for environment-friendly solid phase extraction of pollutants from water samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Yuan, Hao; Deng, Wenjing; Bi, Wentao; Yang, Xiaodi

    2015-09-18

    A new magnetic porous carbon-doped graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposite and experimental strategies were environment-friendly designed for solid phase extraction of brominated flame retardants from water sample. The easily synthesized and low cost nanocomposite was characterized using techniques, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, elemental analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The large surface area and enhanced interactions of this nanocomposite with its adsorption behavior in Taiji principle (a balance of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) in aqueous phase benefit the extraction. Magnetic solid phase extraction has advantages such as low solvent consumption and reusability of the sorbent, and was therefore employed in this study. In addition, a quicker and less laborious statistical method, known as response surface methodology, was used to investigate and optimize some crucial factors that affected the adsorption. The combined use of this new nanocomposite and experimental strategy showed excellent precision (2.7-5.2%) and sensitivity (limits of detection (S/N=3): 0.1-0.2 μg L(-1)). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of real water samples giving good spiked recoveries over the range of 92.4-99.8%. This research provides an environment-friendly strategy to prepare suitable sorbents for extraction or adsorption of various compounds within different matrices.

  10. Variation in water density related to pollutants removal in wastewater treatment processes and its use in explaining the working principles of the Unifed SBR.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Liancheng; Wu, Junqi; Song, Yonghui; Liu, Ruixia; Yu, Huibin; Gao, Qiong; Yang, Yingjie; Dai, Yunrong

    2016-11-01

    The wastewater quality of several municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) in Beijing was studied, and the water densities of different processing units were also measured during the wastewater treatment process. The results clearly showed that the water density declined from influent to effluent of the wastewater treatment process. Meanwhile, the variation in water density had good statistical correlation with the concentrations of total organic carbon, total phosphorus, suspended solids and total solids. Furthermore, the variation in water density could be used to explain the working principles of the Unifed sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Tracer tests were conducted in the Unifed SBR to investigate the hydraulic characteristics of the reactor. The experimental results showed that the variable values of water density from influent to effluent in the Fangzhuang MWTPs were greater than those caused by the temperature difference of >3 °C between the influent and the liquid in the reactor at 13 °C. Moreover, the flow regime of wastewater in the Unifed SBR was affected by the variation in water density, which may lead to stratification or a density current. Ascribed to the appearance of stratification in the Unifed SBR reactor, the water quality of the effluent could not be affected by that of the influent.

  11. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  12. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  13. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required.

  14. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  15. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is...

  16. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is...

  17. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is...

  18. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is...

  19. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is...

  20. Merit Pay: The Federal Government’s Pay-for-Performance Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Government’s experience with pay- for-performance, discusses the probable effectiveness of ’merit pay’ as it now stands, and recommends specific actions for more effective performance-based pay management in the public sector.

  1. 29 CFR 778.403 - Constant pay for varying workweeks including overtime is not permitted except as specified in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Exceptions From the Regular Rate Principles Guaranteed Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.403 Constant pay for varying...

  2. Pay rise or better conditions?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephen

    2017-08-09

    Have we even been given the option? I can't remember the government saying if you decline a pay rise, we will cut all wards down to 20 patients, ensure they are air conditioned for summer and provide more care workers for patients with high needs.

  3. The Problem with Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2009-01-01

    Although today's performance pay plans take many forms, the most commonly proposed version--in which teachers are rewarded on the basis of their students' standardized test scores--flows from flawed logic and several troublesome assumptions: that teachers lack motivation and supposedly need financial awards to give students what they need; that…

  4. The Problem with Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2009-01-01

    Although today's performance pay plans take many forms, the most commonly proposed version--in which teachers are rewarded on the basis of their students' standardized test scores--flows from flawed logic and several troublesome assumptions: that teachers lack motivation and supposedly need financial awards to give students what they need; that…

  5. Performance Pay Path to Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of performance pay for the past decade has been higher test scores, and the most prominent strategy has been to increase teacher performance through financial incentives. If teachers are rewarded for success, according to this logic, they will try harder. If they try harder, more children will achieve higher test scores. The…

  6. How Universities Pay Their Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langbert, Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    Statistics show that university presidents at nondenominational and public institutions in the north make a lot more money. Presidents generally also seem to be rewarded for increasing the spending per student. Such indices of quality as "U.S. News" ranking and high SAT scores do relate to presidential pay, but not robustly, and Mitchell Langbert…

  7. Pay for Performance: Whose Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Education reform proposals are not in short supply. Recent issues of the "Kappa Delta Pi Record" examined two of these: Common Core State Standards (Winter 2011) and Charter Schools (Spring 2011). Teacher pay for performance is another policy gaining traction in state legislatures and at the federal level. The Race to the Top (RTTT)…

  8. Performance Pay Path to Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of performance pay for the past decade has been higher test scores, and the most prominent strategy has been to increase teacher performance through financial incentives. If teachers are rewarded for success, according to this logic, they will try harder. If they try harder, more children will achieve higher test scores. The…

  9. History of Pay Equity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2002-01-01

    Traces the evolution of salary-equity studies over time, and how the findings have changed with regard to pay differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Reviews the literature on salary equity for both faculty and nonfaculty academic employees. (EV)

  10. Pay for Performance: Whose Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Education reform proposals are not in short supply. Recent issues of the "Kappa Delta Pi Record" examined two of these: Common Core State Standards (Winter 2011) and Charter Schools (Spring 2011). Teacher pay for performance is another policy gaining traction in state legislatures and at the federal level. The Race to the Top (RTTT)…

  11. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  12. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  13. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  14. Principles of lake sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

  15. Merit Pay: Challenge of the Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Jerome

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the issue of merit pay, its becoming a political issue for national politicians, and reactions of teacher union leaders. Examples illustrating individual merit pay systems in five school districts are presented. (MBR)

  16. Merit Pay: Challenge of the Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Jerome

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the issue of merit pay, its becoming a political issue for national politicians, and reactions of teacher union leaders. Examples illustrating individual merit pay systems in five school districts are presented. (MBR)

  17. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with... (5) The management controls that will be applied to assure compliance with the procedures and a...

  18. Why doesn't performance pay work?

    PubMed

    Griffin, R P

    1992-01-01

    The NHS is about to embark on the widescale introduction of performance-related pay. A number of recent studies have seriously questioned the efficacy of merit pay. Utilizing the expectancy theory of motivation, explains why performance pay is unlike to motivate NHS staff.

  19. Fisherman expectations and pay-lake profits

    Treesearch

    George H. Moeller; John Engelken; John Engelken

    1973-01-01

    Personal interviews with licensed fishermen in Central New York State were used to determine characteristics of fishermen who are willing to pay to fish. Willingness to pay was related to aspects of the fishing experience that most strongly influenced fishing enjoyment. Sixty-two percent of the respondents expressed a willingness to pay for a quality fishing experience...

  20. 20 CFR 218.27 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 218.27 Section 218.27 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ANNUITY BEGINNING AND... Beginning Date § 218.27 Vacation pay. (a) From railroad employer. Vacation pay may be credited to...

  1. Equal Pay for Work of Comparable Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutari, Ellen; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses occupational segregation and other barriers to equal job opportunities for women and examines two approaches toward correcting pay inequities: equal pay for equal work and equal pay for work of comparable value. Legal cases, job evaluation studies, and other steps toward comparable worth are described. A 64-item reference list is…

  2. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  3. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  4. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  5. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  6. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate...

  7. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted...

  8. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused from...

  9. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted...

  10. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate...

  11. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in...

  12. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work...

  13. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in...

  14. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate...

  15. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI...

  16. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate...

  17. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted...

  18. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work...

  19. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused from...

  20. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused from...

  1. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted...

  2. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in...

  3. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused from...

  4. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI...

  5. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work...

  6. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate...

  7. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work...

  8. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in...

  9. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work...

  10. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused from...

  11. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted...

  12. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI...

  13. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI...

  14. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in...

  15. Implementing the precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    deFur, Peter L; Kaszuba, Michelle

    2002-04-08

    The precautionary principle can be found in international treaties that protect human health and the environment from a variety of pollutants and perturbations. One of the earliest forms of the precautionary principle was used in the 1980s in Europe to protect the North Sea. In 1992, the Rio Declaration specifically included the precautionary principle in calling on nations to protect the environment. The US articulation that best embodies this approach to environment and human health protection is the Wingspread statement: 'When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken, even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically.' The key element is the matter of acting in the face of uncertainty. Applications of the precautionary principle are not, however, new to US environmental policy and management. The present paper uses case studies to examine the application of the precautionary principle to environmental decisions. These cases range from ecosystem protection on the Charles River, Massachusetts, to the effort to prevent computer crashes at the end of the year 2000. These cases deal with the problem of uncertainty, whether concerning the cause, effect, systemic condition or multiple factors. Uncertainty represents one of the features that provoke controversy over these issues and the precautionary principle.

  16. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  17. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  18. Payún Volcanic Field

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Situated in the southern Andes Mountains, the Payún volcanic field of Argentina is a complex landscape that formed over hundreds of thousands of years. Sprawling over 5,200 square kilometers (2,000 square miles), Payún is a massive shield volcano—a broad formation resembling an ancient warrior shield. This false-color image is a composite of observations acquired on February 7 and March 20, 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on the Landsat 7 satellite. It was made from a combination of visible and infrared light, where green indicates vegetation, black indicates lava flows, and orange is bare rock rich in iron oxides. Part of the back-arc volcanism of the Andes, Payún lies about 530 kilometers (330 miles) east from where the Nazca plate subducts below the South America plate. Not surprisingly, a volcanic zone extends over some 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) north-to-south in this region. According to a study published in 2010, the regional geology and chemical composition of the rocks indicate that the volcanic field likely formed within the past 300,000 years. The dominant feature of the volcanic field is Payún Matru, an elliptical caldera measuring roughly 9 by 7 kilometers (6 by 4 miles). Geologists surmise that the caldera formed after the old magma chamber emptied and the summit collapsed. Southwest of the caldera is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of compacted ash, hardened lava, and rocks ejected during previous eruptions. This stratovolcano, Payún, rises to 3,680 meters (12,073 feet) above sea level. (The entire volcanic field sits at 2,000 meters, or 6,600 feet.) The stratovolcano may be the most prominent feature in the volcanic field but it is by no means the only one. More than 300 eruptive features litter the shield volcano, most of them occupying an east-west line. West of Payún Matru is an area known as Los Volcanes, a mass of strombolian cones and basaltic lava flows. Image courtesy Michael P. Taylor, Landsat Data

  19. Paying your marketers--properly.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Elizabeth Zink

    2003-09-01

    Home health agencies have more freedom to market their services since the implementation of the prospective payment system. In order to do that, a number of agencies have turned to marketing professionals for help. A common method of compensating marketers in the business world, however, is through payment for referrals--something expressly forbidden by federal statute. Home health agencies need to know what they can and can't do to pay marketers and must train their marketers on the federal anti-kickback regulations to assure their compliance.

  20. Buridan's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamport, Leslie

    2012-08-01

    Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

  1. Principled Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

  2. 5 CFR 9701.354 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 9701.354... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.354 Setting pay upon demotion. DHS will issue implementing directives regarding how to set an employee's pay when he...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.354 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 9701.354... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.354 Setting pay upon demotion. DHS will issue implementing directives regarding how to set an employee's pay when he...

  4. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay differential. (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for...

  5. 5 CFR 550.905 - Payment of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of hazard pay differential. 550... hazard pay differential. (a) When an employee performs duty for which a hazard pay differential is authorized, the agency must pay the hazard pay differential for the hours in a pay status on the day (a...

  6. 5 CFR 550.905 - Payment of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment of hazard pay differential. 550... hazard pay differential. (a) When an employee performs duty for which a hazard pay differential is authorized, the agency must pay the hazard pay differential for the hours in a pay status on the day (a...

  7. 5 CFR 550.905 - Payment of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment of hazard pay differential. 550... hazard pay differential. (a) When an employee performs duty for which a hazard pay differential is authorized, the agency must pay the hazard pay differential for the hours in a pay status on the day (a...

  8. 5 CFR 550.905 - Payment of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment of hazard pay differential. 550... hazard pay differential. (a) When an employee performs duty for which a hazard pay differential is authorized, the agency must pay the hazard pay differential for the hours in a pay status on the day (a...

  9. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay differential. (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for...

  10. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay differential. (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for...

  11. 5 CFR 550.905 - Payment of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment of hazard pay differential. 550... hazard pay differential. (a) When an employee performs duty for which a hazard pay differential is authorized, the agency must pay the hazard pay differential for the hours in a pay status on the day (a...

  12. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay differential. (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for...

  13. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay differential. (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for...

  14. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... preclude exemption under another category. For example, an engineering technician who fails to meet the...

  15. Politeness Principle in Cross-Culture Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yongliang

    2008-01-01

    As we all know, different people hold different views about politeness. To be polite, Leech thinks you should follow "Politeness Principle" while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' "Face Wants". Sometimes what the Chinese people considered to be polite may not be true according to western culture. In order to…

  16. Low resistivity, low contrast pays

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, R.M.; Kulha, J.T. |

    1996-08-01

    Major hydrocarbon accumulations have been produced over the past 40 years in low resistivity, low contrast (LRLC) sands in the Gulf of Mexico Basin (GOM). LRLC reservoirs were commonly considered wet, tight, misidentified as a shale or overlooked, but are being re-evaluated now in other world basins, including Latin America. Seismic response, drill cuttings, cores, log response, petrophysical models, and production testing provide an integrated LRLC evaluation. Causes of LRLC pay in the GOM include: laminated clean sands with shales; silts or shaly sands; clay-coated sands; glauconitic sands; sands with interstitial dispersed clay; sands with disseminated pyrite or other conductive minerals; clay-lined burrows; clay clasts; altered volcanic/feldspathic framework grains; and very fine-grained sand with very saline water. LRLC depositional systems include: deepwater fans, with levee-channel complexes; delta front and toe deposits; shingle turbidites; and alluvial and deltaic channel fills. Geological and petrophysical models developed in the GOM for evaluation of LRLC pay are applicable in Latin America. An Archie clean sand or Waxman-Smits shaly sand model are commonly used to evaluate LRLC anomalies. Often, shaly sand models are not necessarily suited for LRLC evaluation. The Archie lithology exponent (m) and saturation exponent (n) for many LRLC reservoirs range from 1.4 to 1.85, and 1.2 to 1.8, respectively. In thinly laminated LRLC reservoirs, net sand distribution is identified with high resolution logging tools, rock examination and interval testing.

  17. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  18. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Water Pollution Table of Contents What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with chemicals ...

  19. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  20. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  1. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  2. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  4. The toxicity of pay for performance.

    PubMed

    Berwick, D M

    1995-01-01

    Despite their superficial logic, systems of merit pay or pay for performance have features that are toxic to systemic improvement. Contingent rewards doled out by supervisors cause decreased focus on customer needs, loss of accurate information about defects and improvement opportunities, avoidance of stretch goals, and decreased innovation. They may also erode teamwork. Pay for performance may mark a naive understanding of the complexity of human motivation.

  5. Innovative strategies for self-pay segmentation.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Adam; Hansel, John

    2006-01-01

    Risk segmentation of self-pay accounts can help healthcare financial managers determine where to use collection resources. Assessment of self-pay patients should consider each patient's estimated financial condition and potential eligibility for charity care of public assistance patients. Segmenting patients on the basis of demographic variances and potential fraud can help hospitals increase self-pay collections and reduce A/R days.

  6. Principles of Environmental Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Ruth A.

    2007-07-01

    Roy M. Harrison, Editor RSC Publishing; ISBN 0854043713; × + 363 pp.; 2006; $69.95 Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes chemistry of the air, water, and soil. Although it may be confused with green chemistry, which deals with potential pollution reduction, environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical principles that occur in nature. Therefore, it is the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, water, and soil environments, and the effect of human activity on them. Environmental chemistry not only explores each of these environments, but also closely examines the interfaces and boundaries where the environments intersect.

  7. A simpler way to pay.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, E

    2001-04-01

    There have been many changes in professional services since Egon Zehnder founded his executive search firm nearly four decades ago--not the least of which has been a shift in the way professionals pay themselves. When he started, compensation everywhere was strongly tied to seniority. Today, partners at most professional services firms are paid according to the size of their client billings and their ability to bring in new clients. But Egon Zehnder International, which now has 57 offices worldwide, has stuck with the old-fashioned way to pay. In addition to giving partners base salaries and equal shares in a percentage of the profit, the firm apportions another fraction of the profit based only on length of tenure as partner. Yet the firm attracts outstanding consultants, and its turnover rate is low. The reasons, the author says, are simple: the firm's approach to compensation forces it to hire team players--consultants who get more pleasure from the group's success than from their own advancement. And the seniority-based system requires the firm to find people who want to stay for the long haul. Call the system a relic, says Zehnder, but don't call it nonsense. It works. In this article, the author describes the extremely intensive interview process used to hire the right kind of people. By the time the interviews are over, he says, potential hires know that people in the firm's Boston office think and act the same way as people in its Brazil offices--and that they themselves must think and act that way if they are to succeed at the firm.

  8. Automated Pollution Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Patterned after the Cassini Resource Exchange (CRE), Sholtz and Associates established the Automated Credit Exchange (ACE), an Internet-based concept that automates the auctioning of "pollution credits" in Southern California. An early challenge of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Cassini mission was allocating the spacecraft's resources. To support the decision-making process, the CRE was developed. The system removes the need for the science instrument manager to know the individual instruments' requirements for the spacecraft resources. Instead, by utilizing principles of exchange, the CRE induces the instrument teams to reveal their requirements. In doing so, they arrive at an efficient allocation of spacecraft resources by trading among themselves. A Southern California RECLAIM air pollution credit trading market has been set up using same bartering methods utilized in the Cassini mission in order to help companies keep pollution and costs down.

  9. 45 CFR 1309.43 - Use of grant funds to pay fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions § 1309.43 Use of grant funds to pay fees. Consistent with the cost principles referred to in 45 CFR part 74 and 45 CFR part 92, reasonable fees and costs associated with and necessary to the acquisition or major renovation of a facility (including reasonable and necessary fees and costs incurred to...

  10. Value and Opportunity: Comparable Pay for Comparable Worth. Series on Public Issues No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Deborah

    In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues, an argument is presented against comparable pay for comparable worth policies for women. Separate subsections present opposing viewpoints on this controversial issue as well as an examination of whether legislation has been a…

  11. Research on the Effects of Rewards: Implications for Annual Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Richard R.

    Some research suggests reduced cooperation and collaboration among college faculty may result when annual pay increments are based on merit evaluations. Various theories and principles have been put forward to explain these effects. The overjustification theory suggests that extrinsically presented rewards become more salient than one's intrinsic…

  12. Pay-for-virtue: an option to improve pay-for-performance?

    PubMed

    Buetow, Stephen; Entwistle, Vikki

    2011-10-01

    Pay-for-performance schemes reward standardized professional behaviours associated with effective care. However, they neglect the significance of virtue and devalue and erode professional motivation based on virtue. Pay for training to cultivate virtue, and/or pay-for-virtue, may mitigate these dangers. Although virtue is typically considered its own reward, and the assessment of virtue is problematic, pay-for-virtue could involve (1) stringent checks on the appropriateness of the standardized care currently rewarded by pay-for-performance for individual patients or (2) pay for indicators of virtue. These indicators could be based on virtues identified from a framework of universal virtues and through logical inferences from features of practice. It is possible that pay-for-virtue could ultimately strengthen health professionals' intrinsic motivation for good practice, but this and the broader effects of pay-for-virtue would need careful investigation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Paying for Better Teaching: Merit Pay and Its Alternatives. OAP Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; And Others

    President Reagan's promotion of merit pay as the main vehicle of educational change has prompted a sharp debate. This monograph presents arguments for and against merit pay and assesses its relative worth as a means of improving American education. First, merit pay is defined as a compensation system linking individual teachers' salaries to…

  14. Explaining the Gender Wage Gap: Pay Expectations for Self, Others, and Perceptions of "Fair Pay."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip D.; Jackson, Linda A.

    This study was conducted to investigate the pay expectations of graduating seniors, and specifically, the relationship between gender and pay expectations for one's self and others. The main purpose of the study was to determine if women and men differed in their initial pay expectations. Surveys were received from 447 college seniors, including…

  15. 'Paying for performance' in Rwanda: does it pay off?

    PubMed

    Kalk, Andreas; Paul, Friederike Amani; Grabosch, Eva

    2010-02-01

    The study analyses strengths and weaknesses of the 'Paying For Performance' (P4P) approach rolled out in the Rwandan health sector since 2002. It uses three research methods: a cross-sectoral literature review on P4P, its history and its context; 69 mostly semi-structured interviews conducted in Rwanda; and an analysis of factors eventually confounding the impact evaluation of the Rwandan P4P approach. It is argued that P4P approaches can be traced backed in written form over four millennia and that considerable negative effects are reported throughout history. All side effects were found again in various forms in the Rwandan health sector. One particular side effect -'gaming'- seriously threatens to affect the quality of health services. It is argued that P4P implicitly (and unintentionally) promotes a questionable concept of human 'labour' and that its focus on improving indicators rather than systemic changes can be regarded as vertical and counter-productive. Two alternatives to the current P4P system are briefly depicted, and further research on the described challenges is recommended.

  16. Medicare Advantage Plans Pay Hospitals Less Than Traditional Medicare Pays.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Devlin, Aileen M; Kessler, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    There is ongoing debate about how prices paid to providers by Medicare Advantage plans compare to prices paid by fee-for-service Medicare. We used data from Medicare and the Health Care Cost Institute to identify the prices paid for hospital services by fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare, Medicare Advantage plans, and commercial insurers in 2009 and 2012. We calculated the average price per admission, and its trend over time, in each of the three types of insurance for fixed baskets of hospital admissions across metropolitan areas. After accounting for differences in hospital networks, geographic areas, and case-mix between Medicare Advantage and FFS Medicare, we found that Medicare Advantage plans paid 5.6 percent less for hospital services than FFS Medicare did. Without taking into account the narrower networks of Medicare Advantage, the program paid 8.0 percent less than FFS Medicare. We also found that the rates paid by commercial plans were much higher than those of either Medicare Advantage or FFS Medicare, and growing. At least some of this difference comes from the much higher prices that commercial plans pay for profitable service lines.

  17. Paying for College: A Guide for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krefetz, Gerald

    This guide to paying for college is written for families that expect to pay most, if not all, of the costs of college out of savings, investments, gifts, inheritances, borrowed funds, or a combination. It outlines usual approaches but also indicates some unorthodox methods. Chapters cover the following topics: (1) planning for college expenses;…

  18. Paying for College. Minnesota 2014-105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Many people wonder where to start when it comes to paying for college. This guide is intended to help answer questions about paying for college. Applying for financial aid is not difficult, but it is important to plan ahead and understand all of the options. This guide provides information about: (1) grants; (2) loans; (3) scholarships; (4)…

  19. Pay for performance in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Read G; Bozic, Kevin J; Bradford, David S

    2007-04-01

    In recent decades American medicine has undergone tremendous changes. Numerous reimbursement and systems approaches to controlling medical inflation and improving quality have failed to provide cost-effective, high-quality health care in most circumstances. Public and private payers are currently implementing pay for performance, a new reimbursement method linking physician pay to evidence of adherence to performance measures, to constrain costs, encourage efficiency, and maximize value for health care dollars. High-quality research regarding pay for performance and its impact is scarce, particularly in orthopaedic surgery. Although supporters argue pay for performance will remedy the fragmented, costly delivery of health services in the United States, skeptics raise concerns about disagreement over quality guidelines, financial implications for providers and hospitals, inadequate infrastructure, public reporting, system gaming, and physician support. Our survey of orthopaedic surgeons reveals limited understanding of pay for performance, marked skepticism of nonphysician stakeholders' intentions, and a strong desire for greater clinician involvement in shaping the pay for performance movement. As pay for performance will likely be a long-term change that will have an impact on every orthopaedic surgeon, clinician awareness and participation will be fundamental in creating successful pay for performance programs.

  20. Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Women have made gains toward closing the gender pay gap during the past two decades. Much of the progress occurred during the 1980s, with smaller gains in the 1990s (Institute for Women's Policy Research 2004). Women's achievements in higher education are partly responsible for narrowing the pay gap in the 1980s and 1990s. As more women earned…

  1. Teacher Performance Pay: A Review. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive report from the National Center on Performance Incentives reviews the history of teacher pay policy in the United States and earlier cycles of interest in merit or performance-based pay, the various critiques of its use in K-12 education, and empirical research studies that are useful in considering its likely impact. The report…

  2. Merit Pay and the Music Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elpus, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Current proponents of education reform are at present seeking to fundamentally change the system of teacher compensation by eliminating the traditional single salary schedule and instituting a merit pay system that directly links teacher pay to student achievement. To date, the scholarly literature in music education has been silent on the subject…

  3. Intergenerational Effects of Paying for College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A study of families' means of paying for college using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study strongly indicates that part of the process of deciding how students should pay for college is the parents' college financing experience. These effects appear in patterns in parent contribution, amount of financial aid received, and use of…

  4. 20 CFR 404.1044 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacation pay. 404.1044 Section 404.1044 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1044 Vacation pay. We consider...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1044 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacation pay. 404.1044 Section 404.1044 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1044 Vacation pay. We consider...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1044 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacation pay. 404.1044 Section 404.1044 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1044 Vacation pay. We consider...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1044 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 404.1044 Section 404.1044 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1044 Vacation pay. We consider...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1044 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacation pay. 404.1044 Section 404.1044 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1044 Vacation pay. We consider...

  9. Intergenerational Effects of Paying for College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A study of families' means of paying for college using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study strongly indicates that part of the process of deciding how students should pay for college is the parents' college financing experience. These effects appear in patterns in parent contribution, amount of financial aid received, and use of…

  10. 32 CFR 728.14 - Pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pay patients. 728.14 Section 728.14 National... § 728.14 Pay patients. Care is provided on a reimbursable basis to: Coast Guard active duty officers..., patient administration personnel will initiate the collection action process in subpart J in each...

  11. 32 CFR 728.36 - Pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pay patients. 728.36 Section 728.36 National... Services § 728.36 Pay patients. Care is provided on a reimbursable basis to retired Coast Guard officers... such personnel. Accordingly, patient administration personnel will follow the provisions of subpart...

  12. Merit Pay and the Music Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elpus, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Current proponents of education reform are at present seeking to fundamentally change the system of teacher compensation by eliminating the traditional single salary schedule and instituting a merit pay system that directly links teacher pay to student achievement. To date, the scholarly literature in music education has been silent on the subject…

  13. 20 CFR 211.4 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 211.4 Section 211.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.4 Vacation pay. Payments made to an employee with respect to vacation or holidays shall...

  14. Performance Pay for Teachers: Determinants and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Heywood, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and evidence on performance-related pay for teaching remain inconclusive. Teachers will respond to rewards, but an appropriate reward structure may not be devised because education is a collaborative endeavor. Here we test three hypotheses: performance-related pay among teachers is more likely to be observed when there are evident…

  15. Sex, Money and the Equal Pay Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Edwin B.

    1973-01-01

    Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…

  16. Teacher Performance Pay: A Review. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive report from the National Center on Performance Incentives reviews the history of teacher pay policy in the United States and earlier cycles of interest in merit or performance-based pay, the various critiques of its use in K-12 education, and empirical research studies that are useful in considering its likely impact. The report…

  17. Service Sector Offers More Jobs, Lower Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porterfield, Shirley

    1990-01-01

    The shift in employment from manufacturing to services in 1981-86 slowed the increase in average annual pay of U.S. nonagricultural workers, with greater impact in nonmetro than metro areas. However, the distribution of employment in high, middle, and low paying jobs changed little. (Author/SV)

  18. Improving Teaching through Pay for Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassel, Emily Ayscue; Hassel, Bryan C.

    2007-01-01

    For decades, experts have been thinking and writing about the need to revamp teacher pay. In recent years, the pace of reports, op-eds, expert recommendations, and task force proposals calling for change has accelerated. Yet despite the proliferating chatter, the bulk of teacher pay remains fundamentally unchanged. Each passing year of continued…

  19. 28 CFR 551.108 - Performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance pay. 551.108 Section 551.108 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.108 Performance pay. The Warden may approve a pretrial inmate for performance...

  20. Pay Equity and the Administrative Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risher, Howard W.; Toller, John M.

    1989-01-01

    In a study conducted for the University of Connecticut, an analysis of the CUPA Administrative Compensation Survey database for 23 public universities was used to study pay equity issues. Job evaluation and internal equity, market analysis, individual salary adjustments, and planning a pay equity study are discussed. (MLW)

  1. 78 FR 37246 - January 2013 Pay Schedules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... MANAGEMENT January 2013 Pay Schedules AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: Tameka Gillis, Pay and Leave, Employee Services, U.S. Office of Personnel Management; (202) 606-2858; FAX... Order 13641 that the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) publish appropriate notice of the...

  2. 5 CFR 359.705 - Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 359.705 Section 359.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Guaranteed Placement § 359.705 Pay....

  3. 5 CFR 359.705 - Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay. 359.705 Section 359.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Guaranteed Placement § 359.705 Pay....

  4. Paying for College: A Guide for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krefetz, Gerald

    This guide to paying for college is written for families that expect to pay most, if not all, of the costs of college out of savings, investments, gifts, inheritances, borrowed funds, or a combination. It outlines usual approaches but also indicates some unorthodox methods. Chapters cover the following topics: (1) planning for college expenses;…

  5. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    PubMed Central

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  6. Laser principles.

    PubMed

    Bogdan Allemann, Inja; Kaufman, Joely

    2011-01-01

    Since the construction of the first laser in the 1960s, the role that lasers play in various medical specialities, including dermatology, has steadily increased. However, within the last 2 decades, the technological advances and the use of lasers in the field of dermatology have virtually exploded. Many treatments have only become possible with the use of lasers. Especially in aesthetic medicine, lasers are an essential tool in the treatment armamentarium. Due to better research and understanding of the physics of light and skin, there is now a wide and increasing array of different lasers and devices to choose from. The proper laser selection for each indication and treatment requires a profound understanding of laser physics and the basic laser principles. Understanding these principles will allow the laser operator to obtain better results and help avoid complications. This chapter will give an in-depth overview of the physical principles relevant in cutaneous laser surgery. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. 5 CFR 550.1305 - Treatment as basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment as basic pay. 550.1305 Section 550.1305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1305 Treatment as basic pay. (a) The sum of pay for...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.342... under a performance management system established under subpart D of this part. The DHS pay system uses... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance pay increases. 9701.342...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.342... under a performance management system established under subpart D of this part. The DHS pay system uses... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance pay increases. 9701.342...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.342... under a performance management system established under subpart D of this part. The DHS pay system uses... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance pay increases. 9701.342...

  11. 5 CFR 550.1305 - Treatment as basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Treatment as basic pay. 550.1305 Section 550.1305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1305 Treatment as basic pay. (a) The sum of pay for nonovertime...

  12. 5 CFR 9901.352 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting an employee's starting pay. 9901... NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9901.352 Setting an employee's starting pay. (a) Subject to the requirements of this section, the Secretary may...

  13. 5 CFR 550.904 - Authorization of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization of hazard pay differential... Authorization of hazard pay differential. (a) An agency shall pay the hazard pay differential listed in appendix... this subpart. However, hazard pay differential may not be paid to an employee when the hazardous duty...

  14. 5 CFR 550.904 - Authorization of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization of hazard pay differential... Authorization of hazard pay differential. (a) An agency shall pay the hazard pay differential listed in appendix... this subpart. However, hazard pay differential may not be paid to an employee when the hazardous duty...

  15. 5 CFR 550.904 - Authorization of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorization of hazard pay differential... Authorization of hazard pay differential. (a) An agency shall pay the hazard pay differential listed in appendix... this subpart. However, hazard pay differential may not be paid to an employee when the hazardous duty...

  16. 5 CFR 550.904 - Authorization of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorization of hazard pay differential... Authorization of hazard pay differential. (a) An agency shall pay the hazard pay differential listed in appendix... this subpart. However, hazard pay differential may not be paid to an employee when the hazardous duty...

  17. 5 CFR 550.904 - Authorization of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorization of hazard pay differential... Authorization of hazard pay differential. (a) An agency shall pay the hazard pay differential listed in appendix... this subpart. However, hazard pay differential may not be paid to an employee when the hazardous duty...

  18. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  19. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  20. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  1. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  2. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  4. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is likely to reach levels that could be ... high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. ... pollution levels are usually lower. Choose easier outdoor activities ( ...

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  6. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  7. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 9701.342 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  11. The effect of nursing professional pay structures and pay levels on hospitals' heart attack outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    The effect of nursing professionals (i.e., nurse aid/orderly, licensed practical nurse, registered nurse) pay structures and pay levels on hospitals risk-adjusted heart attack outcomes was determined. Operationalizing hospitals' heart attack outcomes as their thirty-day risk-adjusted mortality rates, a positive curvilinear relation is hypothesized between pay dispersion and hospitals' heart attack outcomes, whereas a direct relation is hypothesized between pay level and hospitals' heart attack outcomes. Pay level is also hypothesized as a moderator of the relation between pay dispersion and hospitals' heart attack outcomes. Using a sample of 138 California hospitals, support is not found for either the curvilinear relation between hospitals' nursing professionals pay dispersion and hospitals' heart attack outcomes, or the direct relation between nursing professionals' pay level and hospitals' heart attack outcomes. Support is found for the moderation hypothesis in which nursing professionals' pay level moderates the relation between hospitals' nursing professionals pay dispersion and hospitals' heart attack outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed in light of the study's results.

  12. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen…

  13. A Course in Air Pollution for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seapan, Mayis

    1982-01-01

    An air pollution course covering both the fundamentals and control of air pollution introduces a new sequential structure for its topic presentation. The new structure is built on the basis of theoretical principles and has minimized the traditional case study approach. A detailed course outline is included. (Author/JN)

  14. A Course in Air Pollution for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seapan, Mayis

    1982-01-01

    An air pollution course covering both the fundamentals and control of air pollution introduces a new sequential structure for its topic presentation. The new structure is built on the basis of theoretical principles and has minimized the traditional case study approach. A detailed course outline is included. (Author/JN)

  15. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen…

  16. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  17. Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

  18. 76 FR 52537 - Pay for Sunday Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... premium pay for Sunday work. OPM issued a compensation policy memorandum (CPM-2009-21, December 8, 2009... regarding actions that affect them, OPM took a proactive role in advising agencies in CPM 2009-21 that they...

  19. Congressional Report Waffles on Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A skeptical review of recent congressional task force recommendations for public school teachers, which include only a limited endorsement of merit pay and strong encouragement for sabbatical leave for teachers to study and travel abroad. (JBM)

  20. The EEOC's New Equal Pay Act Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Kohl, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the new guidelines for enforcement of the Equal Pay Act and their implications for personnel management. Argues that there are key problem areas in the new regulations arising from considerable ambiguity and uncertainty about their interpretation. (SK)

  1. Canadian Universities: Who Benefits and Who Pays?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Ronald; Sentance, Jim

    1982-01-01

    Redistributive effects of Canadian higher education are examined from an economic viewpoint. Children of high income families tend to reap the most financial rewards, but low income families often pay a disproportionately large share of educational expenses. (Author/MSE)

  2. 5 CFR 9901.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... lower pay band designated in advance by the component as being hard-to-fill using any of the following... reduced in band on return from an overseas assignment under the terms of a pre-established...

  3. 5 CFR 9901.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lower pay band designated in advance by the component as being hard-to-fill using any of the following... reduced in band on return from an overseas assignment under the terms of a pre-established...

  4. Policy Analysis of Military Optometry Special Pay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-25

    four policy proposals to rectify an outdated recruitment and retention law/policy for Army optometrists . This paper illustrates variables of Army...variable Retention Special Pay to enhance the recruitment and retention of Army optometrists . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Optometry, Special Pay, Recruitment...Statement of Ethical Conduct in Research The author is an Army optometrist . The confidentiality of individual members of the study population was protected

  5. Characteristics and Pay of Federal Civilian Employees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    both overall and within broad occupational categories, than the pay of workers who are covered by the Gen - eral Schedule.Systematic comparisons of...possess good analytical and writing skills. Physician’s assistants, paralegal special- ists, air traffic controllers, technical writers and edi- tors...entire Gen - eral Schedule, especially in terms of linking pay with performance. Federal jobs are also classified in another way that indi- cates the

  6. Microbial bioconversion of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Golovleva, L.A.; Aliyeva, R.M.; Naumova, R.P.; Gvozdyak, P.I. )

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms totally detoxicate xenobiotics of various chemical structures, which are serious and, in some cases, very hazardous pollutants. At present, the efforts of a number of researchers promoted the establishment in this country of a collection of microorganisms able to degrade volatile toxic pollutants--toluene, isomeric xylenes, styrene, alpha-methylstyrene, crotonaldehyde; widely distributed xenobiotics chlorobenzoic acids; isomeric aryldicarboxylic acids; and ecologically hazardous pollutants such as aromatic nitrocompounds. The active strains-destructors are mainly representatives of the genera Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus. Research into their physiological characteristics, key enzymes, pathways of xenobiotics degradation, genetic mechanisms determining the degradation of these foreign compounds, and behaviour of the strains in a real environment made it possible to develop the theoretical principles of using these microbial cultures to purify real industrial wastes and remediate polluted areas of soil and water. Improvement of the methods of immobilizing the active xenobiotics-degrading strains on cheap and efficient carriers made it possible to significantly intensify the cleanup process of industrial wastes and eliminate a number of problems during the development of the biotechnologies for industrial waste cleanup. Successfully operated at present are the biotechnologies of the local cleanup of waste waters of terephthalate production, microbial purification of industrial waste waters in nylon-66 production from hexamethylenediamine, purification of coke production wastes from phenols, waste waters of polyisocyanate production from aromatic amines, local purification of waste waters in synthetic rubber production from alpha-methylstyrene, acetaldehyde production wastes from crotonaldehyde and mercury. 97 references.

  7. Options for Conducting a Pay Equity Study of Federal Pay and Classification Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    III APPE11,DIX III LEGAL BACKGROUND I. Relevant Legislation and Executive Orders A. Equal Pay Act of 1963 :1" B. Civil Rights Act of 1964 C. Civil...consultants with expertise in economics, job evaluation, and other disci- plines. (See app. I.) Through the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the Civil Rights Act...the term "comparable worth" related to existing law? The Equal Pay Act of 1963 made it generally unlawful for employers to pay higher wages to

  8. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  9. Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  10. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  11. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  12. Transport and Reactions of Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekas, Vassilis; Paraskaki, Ioanna

    The aim of this chapter is to provide the food scientist and engineer with tools for understanding the principles of transport and reaction of pollutants and their fate after being released or deposited into the environment. Furthermore, on the grounds of this understanding of basic principles, the food scientist and engineer will possess the ability to model these processes. Mathematical modeling nowadays is facilitated through the use of appropriate computer software programs. There are, generally speaking, a large number of programs available for such modeling and especially for the prediction of the fate of pollutants. When working with these programs it is advisable to understand the principles behind the program rather than treating it as a black box

  13. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  14. Canadian proposal for crimes against the environment: pollution as a criminal act

    SciTech Connect

    Shrader-Frechette, K.

    1986-06-01

    The author examines the proposal of the Law Reform Commission which would add crimes against the environment to Canada's Criminal Code. She discusses the possibility that making pollution a criminal rather than a civil offense would not reduce pollution or polluters. She suggests that polluters should be required to pay into a fund which could be used to compensate victims, and, further, that all liability limits should be removed.

  15. To Pay or Not to Pay: Examining Underlying Principles in the Debate on Financial Support for Family Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Janice

    2007-01-01

    In many countries one approach to supporting family-and-friend caregivers is direct financial or monetary support. Debates about the benefits and consequences of such policies pervade the literature. Building on the premise that values underlie public policy, the paper examines four policy paradoxes in the literature and uses selected examples…

  16. To Pay or Not to Pay: Examining Underlying Principles in the Debate on Financial Support for Family Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Janice

    2007-01-01

    In many countries one approach to supporting family-and-friend caregivers is direct financial or monetary support. Debates about the benefits and consequences of such policies pervade the literature. Building on the premise that values underlie public policy, the paper examines four policy paradoxes in the literature and uses selected examples…

  17. A Course on the Physics and Chemistry of Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Laurent

    1971-01-01

    Describes a course on environmental pollution which stresses physical and chemical principles. Course presents a unified discussion of air and water pollution and solid waste with special treatment of pesticides, thermal pollution, radioactivity, and electric power generation. Uses historical and current statistics extensively to set pollution…

  18. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  19. A Course on the Physics and Chemistry of Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Laurent

    1971-01-01

    Describes a course on environmental pollution which stresses physical and chemical principles. Course presents a unified discussion of air and water pollution and solid waste with special treatment of pesticides, thermal pollution, radioactivity, and electric power generation. Uses historical and current statistics extensively to set pollution…

  20. 5 CFR 532.507 - Pay for holiday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay for holiday work. 532.507 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.507 Pay for holiday work. (a) An employee who is entitled to holiday premium pay and who performs work on a holiday which is not overtime work shall be paid the...

  1. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  2. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  3. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  4. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  5. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  6. 29 CFR 778.303 - Retroactive pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retroactive pay increases. 778.303 Section 778.303 Labor... Additional Pay for Past Period § 778.303 Retroactive pay increases. Where a retroactive pay increase is awarded to employees as a result of collective bargaining or otherwise, it operates to increase the...

  7. 5 CFR 551.512 - Overtime pay entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overtime pay entitlement. 551.512 Section 551.512 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations § 551.512...

  8. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hourly regular rate of pay. 551.511 Section 551.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations § 551.511...

  9. 5 CFR 550.711 - Termination of severance pay entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Termination of severance pay entitlement. 550.711 Section 550.711 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.711 Termination of severance pay entitlement...

  10. 5 CFR 550.711 - Termination of severance pay entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of severance pay entitlement. 550.711 Section 550.711 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.711 Termination of severance pay entitlement...

  11. 5 CFR 550.711 - Termination of severance pay entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Termination of severance pay entitlement. 550.711 Section 550.711 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.711 Termination of severance pay entitlement...

  12. 5 CFR 550.711 - Termination of severance pay entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of severance pay entitlement. 550.711 Section 550.711 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.711 Termination of severance pay entitlement...

  13. 5 CFR 550.711 - Termination of severance pay entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Termination of severance pay entitlement. 550.711 Section 550.711 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.711 Termination of severance pay entitlement...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.354 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 9701.354 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.354 Setting pay...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 9701.353 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.353 Setting pay...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 9701.342 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.342... function of the amount of money in the performance pay pool, the relative point value placed on ratings...

  17. 22 CFR 204.15 - Paying agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paying agent obligations. 204.15 Section 204.15... Guaranty § 204.15 Paying agent obligations. Failure of the Paying Agent to perform any of its obligations... Agent by A.I.D. as a result of such failure or neglect; provided, however, that the Paying Agent is not...

  18. 22 CFR 204.15 - Paying agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paying agent obligations. 204.15 Section 204.15... Guaranty § 204.15 Paying agent obligations. Failure of the Paying Agent to perform any of its obligations... Agent by A.I.D. as a result of such failure or neglect; provided, however, that the Paying Agent is not...

  19. 5 CFR 531.214 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 531.214... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.214 Setting pay upon promotion. (a) General. An agency must set an employee's payable...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9701.353 Section 9701.353 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.353 Setting...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.351 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting an employee's starting pay. 9701.351 Section 9701.351 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.351...

  2. 5 CFR 531.215 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 531.215... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.215 Setting pay upon demotion. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section,...

  3. 5 CFR 550.903 - Establishment of hazard pay differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of hazard pay differentials... Establishment of hazard pay differentials. (a) A schedule of hazard pay differentials, the hazardous duties or... the rate of hazard pay differential to be established and must submit, with its request for an...

  4. 5 CFR 550.903 - Establishment of hazard pay differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of hazard pay differentials... Establishment of hazard pay differentials. (a) A schedule of hazard pay differentials, the hazardous duties or... the rate of hazard pay differential to be established and must submit, with its request for an...

  5. 5 CFR 550.903 - Establishment of hazard pay differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of hazard pay differentials... Establishment of hazard pay differentials. (a) A schedule of hazard pay differentials, the hazardous duties or... the rate of hazard pay differential to be established and must submit, with its request for an...

  6. 5 CFR 550.903 - Establishment of hazard pay differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of hazard pay differentials... Establishment of hazard pay differentials. (a) A schedule of hazard pay differentials, the hazardous duties or... the rate of hazard pay differential to be established and must submit, with its request for an...

  7. 5 CFR 550.903 - Establishment of hazard pay differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of hazard pay differentials... Establishment of hazard pay differentials. (a) A schedule of hazard pay differentials, the hazardous duties or... the rate of hazard pay differential to be established and must submit, with its request for an...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.346 - Pay progression for new supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay progression for new supervisors. 9701.346 Section 9701.346 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.346...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Developmental pay adjustments. 9701.345 Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  10. Pay Equity Act, 17 May 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1988 Pay Equity Act of Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Nova Scotia enacted similar legislation in 1988.) This act defines "female-dominated class" or "male-dominated class" as a class with 60% or more female or male incumbents, respectively. The objective of this act is to achieve pay equity among public sector employers and employees by identifying systemic gender discrimination through a comparison of the relative wages and value of the work performed by female- and male-dominated classes. The value of work is to be determined by considering the skill, effort, and responsibility required by the work as well as the conditions under which it is performed. A difference in wages between a female- and male-dominated class performing work of equal or comparable value can be justified by a formal performance appraisal system or formal seniority system that does not discriminate on the basis of gender or by a skills shortage which requires a temporary inflation in wages to attract workers for a certain position. No wages shall be reduced to implement pay equity. Implementation of pay equity will include the work of bargaining agents to achieve agreement on salient points. Pay equity may be implemented in four stages over a period of 24 months.

  11. When Changing from Merit Pay to Variable/Bonus Pay: What Do Employees Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeremy B.; Donohue, Joan M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines potential responses to a change in an employee reward system from permanent merit pay increases to one-time bonus payments. Removing long term risks associated with escalating pay is an increasingly common compensation strategy. Often overlooked, however, are employee perceptions of reward fairness under such conditions of…

  12. Paying Teachers to Perform: The Impact of Bonus Pay in Pernambuco, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraz, Claudio; Bruns, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of a group (school-based) teacher bonus program introduced in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco in 2008. Research questions are: i) Does setting school level targets and awarding bonus pay produce improvements in student learning? ii) Does setting school level targets and awarding bonus pay stimulate visible…

  13. Self-Solicited Feedback: Effects of Hourly Pay and Individual Monetary Incentive Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slowiak, Julie M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; Huitema, Bradley E.

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of feedback solicitation under hourly pay and individual monetary incentive pay conditions was examined. A between-subjects design was used with 30 college students in the two groups. Participants attended three experimental sessions and entered the cash value of simulated bank checks presented on a computer screen. Performance was…

  14. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  15. Pollution prevention through total quality

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltz, D.L.; Byrant, M.G.; Eggers, D.M.; Gough, R.W.; Schlosberg, W.H.

    1993-05-01

    Application of Total Quality to AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division's (KCD) Pollution Prevention Program has created a dynamic and focused effort to significantly reduce process inefficiencies and waste generation. KCD is demonstrating TQ's usefulness by empowering associates and obtaining their buy-in and ownership of pollution prevention principles. Specific pollution prevention working groups include: establishing a comprehensive recycling process; (2) capitalizing on Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM) expertise; and (3) encouraging the internal implementation of ECM. TQ produces the performance results that promote and sustain plant-wide pollution prevention goals and activities. KCD uses AlliedSignall's nine step Process Improvement Problem/Solving Model'' (Appendix A). Although this program only formally began within the past year, many of the tools have been used over the last eight years to achieve pollution prevention objectives. This paper focuses on the new attitude and gives examples of how each of the nine steps is being used in the KCD Pollution Prevention Program. This paper describe s each step of the process and provides specific pollution prevention examples.

  16. Pollution prevention through total quality

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltz, D.L.; Byrant, M.G.; Eggers, D.M.; Gough, R.W.; Schlosberg, W.H.

    1993-05-01

    Application of Total Quality to AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division`s (KCD) Pollution Prevention Program has created a dynamic and focused effort to significantly reduce process inefficiencies and waste generation. KCD is demonstrating TQ`s usefulness by empowering associates and obtaining their buy-in and ownership of pollution prevention principles. Specific pollution prevention working groups include: establishing a comprehensive recycling process; (2) capitalizing on Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM) expertise; and (3) encouraging the internal implementation of ECM. TQ produces the performance results that promote and sustain plant-wide pollution prevention goals and activities. KCD uses AlliedSignall`s nine step ``Process Improvement Problem/Solving Model`` (Appendix A). Although this program only formally began within the past year, many of the tools have been used over the last eight years to achieve pollution prevention objectives. This paper focuses on the new attitude and gives examples of how each of the nine steps is being used in the KCD Pollution Prevention Program. This paper describe s each step of the process and provides specific pollution prevention examples.

  17. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... judge position to one of the three levels of basic pay, AL-3, AL-2 or AL-1 of the administrative law judge pay system established under 5 U.S.C. 5372 in accordance with this section. Pay level AL-3 has six rates of basic pay, A, B, C, D, E, and F. (1) The rate of basic pay for AL-3, rate A, may not be...

  18. Implications of ``victim pays'' infeasibilities for interconnected games with an illustration for aquifer sharing under unequal access costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Richard E.; Netanyahu, Sinaia

    2004-05-01

    This paper considers application of interconnected game theory to modeling of bilateral agreements for sharing common pool resources under conditions of unequal access. Linking negotiations to issues with reciprocal benefits through interconnected game theory has been proposed in other settings to achieve international cooperation because it can avoid outcomes that are politically unacceptable due to the "victim pays" principle. Previous studies have not considered adequately the critical nature of this political infeasibility, if it exists, in determining advantages of interconnection. This paper investigates how game structure and benefits suggested by interconnected game theory are altered when victim pays strategies are removed from the feasibility set. Linking games is shown to have greater advantages than when the structural implications of eliminating victim pays strategies are not considered. Conversely, a class of cases exists where the full cooperation benefits of interconnection are attainable without linking through isolated component games when victim pays outcomes are feasible.

  19. Imminent Danger Pay: Actions Needed Regarding Pay Designations in the U.S. Central Command Area of Responsibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-30

    Page 1 GAO-14-230R Imminent Danger Pay 441 G St. N.W. Washington, DC 20548 January 30, 2014 The Honorable Chuck Hagel Secretary...of Defense Management Report Imminent Danger Pay: Actions Needed Regarding Pay Designations in the U.S. Central Command Area of...including special pays such as imminent danger pay and benefits for service members who are assigned, deployed, or on temporary duty travel. Service

  20. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  1. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  2. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  3. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  4. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  5. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  6. Private Pay Progression. Research Brief. Edition 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Jake

    2015-01-01

    While the issue of access to the professions is relatively well understood, there is limited understanding of the impact of entrants' backgrounds on success once in graduate employment. The research looks at the way social background continues to influence graduate pay and career progression once in professional employment. Key findings include:…

  7. Private Pay Progression. Research Brief. Edition 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Jake

    2015-01-01

    While the issue of access to the professions is relatively well understood, there is limited understanding of the impact of entrants' backgrounds on success once in graduate employment. The research looks at the way social background continues to influence graduate pay and career progression once in professional employment. Key findings include:…

  8. How to Pay for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, Charles C.

    The financial crisis for institutions of higher education is deepening. Higher tuition rates may be one of the answers, but this would exclude even more young people from attending college because of inability to pay, at a time when greater equality of opportunity in higher education has become an important goal. Federal support has helped but not…

  9. 76 FR 18262 - January 2011 Pay Schedules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... 2, 2010, which is explained in an OPM memorandum, CPM 2009-27. (See http://www.opm.gov/oca/compmemo... memorandum (CPM 2010-20) on the Executive order for the 2011 pay schedules. (See http://www.opm.gov/oca...

  10. 75 FR 4592 - January 2010 Pay Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... nonforeign area on January 2, 2010, which is explained in an OPM memorandum, CPM 2009-27. (See http://www.opm...,300 in 2010). On December 23, 2009, OPM issued a memorandum (CPM 2009-23) on the January 2010 pay...

  11. Let's Talk about Paying the President's Spouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oden, Teresa Johnston

    2005-01-01

    Ask a group of presidents' spouses what's on their minds, and they're likely to say "compensation for the partner." As more spouses of academic presidents come to expect compensation or recognition for the various duties they assume in advancing their mate's presidencies, the issue of pay for partners and the waters beneath it remain murky. Paying…

  12. 32 CFR 728.14 - Pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pay patients. 728.14 Section 728.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Members of the Uniformed Services on Active Duty...

  13. Subscription Television (STV--Pay TV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Subscription television (STV), established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1968, involves transmitting television programs over the air to viewers who pay for the service. The development, trial operation, and test results of subscription television are described in this report, along with four Commission reports, and FCC…

  14. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF... requirements of this section, DHS will, after coordination with OPM, issue implementing directives...

  15. Annual Merit Pay: One Department's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Peter, H.; And Others

    Efforts since 1974 to create an acceptable merit pay system at Bowling Green State University's Department of Educational Foundations and Inquiry (EDFI) are described. Construction of the activity-point merit approach that has been used since 1980 began in 1979. Each of the 24 faculty in the EDFI department listed activities or products that they…

  16. Let's Talk about Paying the President's Spouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oden, Teresa Johnston

    2005-01-01

    Ask a group of presidents' spouses what's on their minds, and they're likely to say "compensation for the partner." As more spouses of academic presidents come to expect compensation or recognition for the various duties they assume in advancing their mate's presidencies, the issue of pay for partners and the waters beneath it remain murky. Paying…

  17. Study Casts Cold Water on Bonus Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The most rigorous experimental study of performance-based teacher compensation ever conducted in the United States shows that a nationally watched bonus-pay system had no overall impact on student achievement--results that are certain to set off a firestorm of debate. The study, known as POINT for the Project on Incentives in Teaching, was a…

  18. Study Throws Cold Water on Bonus Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on an experimental study of performance-based teacher compensation conducted in the U.S. which shows that a nationally watched bonus-pay system had no overall impact on student achievement. Nearly 300 middle school mathematics teachers in Nashville, Tennessee, voluntarily took part in the Project on Incentives in Teaching, a…

  19. Pay Equity--A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet addresses pay equity, that is, the goal of a fair wage-setting process that eliminates sex and race discrimination. It begins by setting forth the problem through statistics on men's and women's median annual earnings, the occupational categories represented by women workers, and median annual earnings by occupation. A glossary is…

  20. Paying for College: Plot a Course Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Week, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Provided are suggestions for parents to take to pay for their children's college education. Making systematic payments to a college fund, setting up a Clifford Trust, zero-coupons, and other areas (such as part-time student employment) are considered. Also suggests considering the cost factor of public over private institutions. (JN)

  1. 77 FR 11599 - January 2012 Pay Schedules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... higher aggregate limitation on pay--up to the Vice President's salary ($230,700 in 2012, the same level....asp .) The memorandum transmitted Executive Order 13594 and provided the 2012 salary tables, locality... information. The ``2012 Salary Tables'' posted on OPM's Web site at www.opm.gov/oca/12tables/index.asp are...

  2. Pay Cable: A Viable Advertising Medium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Dean M.; Barban, Arnold M.

    Cable television, which cannot only clarify local signals to weak signal areas but can also bring in distant signals to areas which have been receiving few signals, has the capacity to present special television programs to customers for extra fees. The number of pay cable subscribers is growing and industry projections are that it will reach 20…

  3. Medicare Pays for Chronic Care Management.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-09-01

    As of January, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services began paying for chronic care management of patients with two or more conditions under its Chronic Care Management program. The payment applies to patients in traditional fee-for-service and noncapitated Medicare Advantage plan arrangements. Texas Medical Association leaders caution the program has some hefty requirements.

  4. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  6. An Accounting Program Merit Pay Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.; Wagner, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. Before the effectiveness of merit-based salary plans can be examined empirically, it must be determined which accounting programs use such a system. In this study, the 852 accounting programs in the United…

  7. 76 FR 45710 - Pay in Nonforeign Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... the need for special rates, special rate supplements to be computed using an alternate method in nonforeign areas, locality rates to be considered basic pay for the purpose of computing nonforeign area... Rate and Locality Rate Regulations Normally, OPM computes a special rate supplement by adding a...

  8. Why it pays to 'grill' your supplier.

    PubMed

    Fudge, Joe

    2010-03-01

    When it comes to ensuring that your cold storage operation and maintenance meets MHRA requirements, it pays to ensure that your service supplier knows what it is doing. So says Joe Fudge, instrumentation service manager for ABB's instrumentation business in the U.K., who outlines some of the key factors to consider when selecting a supplier of cold chain mapping services.

  9. 4 CFR 2.4 - Merit system principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., color, sex, religion, age, or national origin. Central to this principle is the protection of employees... without regard to political affiliation, race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age...) Equal pay should be provided for work of substantially equal value, with appropriate consideration...

  10. The Use of Business Principles in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Stephanine Martin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to investigate the borrowing and use of three business principles, benchmarking, merit pay, and students as customers in higher education. This is accomplished by first looking into the borrowing of educational models. After which, the purpose of higher education and for-profit business is defined using a systems…

  11. Pay for performance: will dentistry follow?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background "Pay for performance" is an incentive system that has been gaining acceptance in medicine and is currently being considered for implementation in dentistry. However, it remains unclear whether pay for performance can effect significant and lasting changes in provider behavior and quality of care. Provider acceptance will likely increase if pay for performance programs reward true quality. Therefore, we adopted a quality-oriented approach in reviewing those factors which could influence whether it will be embraced by the dental profession. Discussion The factors contributing to the adoption of value-based purchasing were categorized according to the Donabedian quality of care framework. We identified the dental insurance market, the dental profession position, the organization of dental practice, and the dental patient involvement as structural factors influencing the way dental care is practiced and paid for. After considering variations in dental care and the early stage of development for evidence-based dentistry, the scarcity of outcome indicators, lack of clinical markers, inconsistent use of diagnostic codes and scarcity of electronic dental records, we concluded that, for pay for performance programs to be successfully implemented in dentistry, the dental profession and health services researchers should: 1) expand the knowledge base; 2) increase considerably evidence-based clinical guidelines; and 3) create evidence-based performance measures tied to existing clinical practice guidelines. Summary In this paper, we explored factors that would influence the adoption of value-based purchasing programs in dentistry. Although none of these factors were essential deterrents for the implementation of pay for performance programs in medicine, the aggregate seems to indicate that significant changes are needed before this type of program could be considered a realistic option in dentistry. PMID:20423526

  12. Pay for performance: will dentistry follow?

    PubMed

    Voinea-Griffin, Andreea; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Rindal, Donald B; Barasch, Andrei; Gilbert, Gregg H; Safford, Monika M

    2010-04-28

    "Pay for performance" is an incentive system that has been gaining acceptance in medicine and is currently being considered for implementation in dentistry. However, it remains unclear whether pay for performance can effect significant and lasting changes in provider behavior and quality of care. Provider acceptance will likely increase if pay for performance programs reward true quality. Therefore, we adopted a quality-oriented approach in reviewing those factors which could influence whether it will be embraced by the dental profession. The factors contributing to the adoption of value-based purchasing were categorized according to the Donabedian quality of care framework. We identified the dental insurance market, the dental profession position, the organization of dental practice, and the dental patient involvement as structural factors influencing the way dental care is practiced and paid for. After considering variations in dental care and the early stage of development for evidence-based dentistry, the scarcity of outcome indicators, lack of clinical markers, inconsistent use of diagnostic codes and scarcity of electronic dental records, we concluded that, for pay for performance programs to be successfully implemented in dentistry, the dental profession and health services researchers should: 1) expand the knowledge base; 2) increase considerably evidence-based clinical guidelines; and 3) create evidence-based performance measures tied to existing clinical practice guidelines. In this paper, we explored factors that would influence the adoption of value-based purchasing programs in dentistry. Although none of these factors were essential deterrents for the implementation of pay for performance programs in medicine, the aggregate seems to indicate that significant changes are needed before this type of program could be considered a realistic option in dentistry.

  13. The Automobile and Air Pollution: A Chemical Review of the Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeman, Thomas R.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes chemical principles underlying the operation of automobiles and the cause of air pollution, including concentrations of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. Comments and opinions are made concerning present and future pollution control devices. (CC)

  14. The Automobile and Air Pollution: A Chemical Review of the Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeman, Thomas R.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes chemical principles underlying the operation of automobiles and the cause of air pollution, including concentrations of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. Comments and opinions are made concerning present and future pollution control devices. (CC)

  15. [Current situation of pollution eco-chemistry and its prospects].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q; Sun, T

    2000-10-01

    As a new discipline, pollution eco-chemistry comes into being with the development and intersection of ecology and environmental chemistry. Main contents of the subject were summarized: 1) movement and transformation of chemical pollutants and their microcosmically eco-chemical processes; 2) ecological effects, eco-toxicology and ecological risk assessment of chemical pollutants; 3) ecological chemistry of global changes; 4) analyses and monitoring of chemical pollutants in ecosystems; 5) eco-chemistry for pollution control. Under the guidance of knowledge innovation as its scientific goal, the research on pollution eco-chemistry will be devoted to a theoretical breakthrough. While doing a through basic research, we should pay attention to related applied research, in order to implement the technological and practical goal of the discipline.

  16. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  17. Underlining some aspects of the equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, E.; Feoli, A.

    2017-09-01

    We want to shed light on some discussed aspects of the principle of equivalence. We consider two different phases in the evolution of the principle. We pay attention to the fact that some textbooks do not dwell on the mathematical meaning of ‘locally flat spacetime’, which can confuse students and, occasionally, can also lead to misinterpretations. For example, the non-eliminability of tidal forces, not even locally, may suggest that the equivalence principle is wrong. By contrast, we want to show that this is in perfect agreement with the Einstein geometrical interpretation of spacetime. Finally, in order to check the approximations used in the Gedankenexperiment of an elevator, we estimate explicitly the magnitude of the deflection of light and the effects of tidal forces in a ‘real lift’.

  18. 26 CFR 301.6653-1 - Failure to pay tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (b)(2) of this section. (e) Failure to pay stamp tax. Any person (as defined in section 6671(b)) who willfully fails to pay any tax payable by stamp, coupons, tickets, books or other devices or...

  19. 25 CFR 134.2 - Landowners financially unable to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.2 Landowners financially unable to pay. Considerable... or his heirs under the regulations, the purchaser is to pay the accrued and future irrigation charges...

  20. Do Workers Pay for On-the-Job Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; Berger, Mark C.; Black, Dan A.

    1999-01-01

    Employers pay higher starting wages to workers requiring less training, but do not give lower starting wages to workers requiring more training. Employers appear to pay most of the cost of and reap most of the returns to training. (SK)

  1. 25 CFR 134.2 - Landowners financially unable to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.2 Landowners financially unable to pay. Considerable... or his heirs under the regulations, the purchaser is to pay the accrued and future irrigation charges...

  2. 25 CFR 134.2 - Landowners financially unable to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.2 Landowners financially unable to pay. Considerable... or his heirs under the regulations, the purchaser is to pay the accrued and future irrigation charges...

  3. 25 CFR 134.2 - Landowners financially unable to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.2 Landowners financially unable to pay. Considerable... or his heirs under the regulations, the purchaser is to pay the accrued and future irrigation charges...

  4. 25 CFR 134.2 - Landowners financially unable to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.2 Landowners financially unable to pay. Considerable... or his heirs under the regulations, the purchaser is to pay the accrued and future irrigation charges...

  5. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  6. Estimating residents' willingness to pay for groundwater protection in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Danh Thanh; Huynh, Khai Viet

    2017-03-01

    Groundwater in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is facing the pollution and it needs to be protected. Searching literature reviews on economic valuation techniques, the contingent valuation method (CVM) has been popularly applied to estimate the economic value of water protection. This approach is based on a hypothetical scenario in which respondents are requested through questionnaires to reveal their maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for the water protection project. The study used the approach of CVM to analyze the households' motivations and their WTP for the program of groundwater protection in the Mekong Delta. The study performed that the residents in the delta were willing to pay approximately 141,730 VND (US6.74) per household a year. Groundwater could be an inferior good with the negative income effect found in the demanding for clean groundwater. Respondent's gender and groundwater-related health risk consideration were factors sensitively affecting the probability of demanding for groundwater protection.

  7. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  8. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  9. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  10. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  11. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be paid...

  12. 20 CFR 604.3 - Able and available requirement-general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... principles. 604.3 Section 604.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...—general principles. (a) A State may pay UC only to an individual who is able to work and available for... for an individual under its UC law. (c) The requirement that an individual be able to work and...

  13. DBS pay television: Picture signal scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, M. J.

    1985-10-01

    Picture signal scrambling methods suitable for a direct broadcast by satellite DBS MAC pay television channel are described. They use a technique known as rotation scrambling, which is shown to meet the likely requirements for picture quality, security against piracy, scrambling effectiveness and cost. The methods have been tested using experimental equipment and the results have led to an agreement within the EBU to incorporate them into the MAC specification.

  14. Should the precautionary principle guide our actions or our beliefs?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, M

    2007-01-01

    Two interpretations of the precautionary principle are considered. According to the normative (action‐guiding) interpretation, the precautionary principle should be characterised in terms of what it urges doctors and other decision makers to do. According to the epistemic (belief‐guiding) interpretation, the precautionary principle should be characterised in terms of what it urges us to believe. This paper recommends against the use of the precautionary principle as a decision rule in medical decision making, based on an impossibility theorem presented in Peterson (2005). However, the main point of the paper is an argument to the effect that decision theoretical problems associated with the precautionary principle can be overcome by paying greater attention to its epistemic dimension. Three epistemic principles inherent in a precautionary approach to medical risk analysis are characterised and defended. PMID:17209101

  15. 5 CFR 532.509 - Pay for Sunday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay for Sunday work. 532.509 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.509 Pay for Sunday work. A wage employee whose regular work schedule includes a period of service of up to 8 hours which is not overtime work, a part of which is on...

  16. 5 CFR 534.504 - Annual adjustment in pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual adjustment in pay. 534.504 Section 534.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.504 Annual adjustment...

  17. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... language proficiency pay. (a) General provisions. (1) This section applies to employees who may be paid Foreign Language Proficiency Pay (FLPP) if they are certified as proficient in a foreign language the...

  18. Teachers' Perception on Pay-for-Performance Programs in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mighty, Nardiann Kenisha

    2013-01-01

    States are implementing performance programs to help reform compensation systems for teachers; however, little is known on teachers' perception on alternative pay plans. Accordingly, this research study examined the types of pay-for-performance programs Georgia teachers prefer by exploring their perceptions of pay for individual performance, pay…

  19. Teacher Performance Pay: A Review. Working Paper 2006-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael J.; Springer, Matthew G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine the research literature on teacher performance pay. Evidence clearly suggests an upsurge of interest in many states and school districts; however, expanded use of performance pay has been controversial. We briefly review the history of teacher pay policy in the U.S. and earlier cycles of interest in merit or…

  20. 5 CFR 531.215 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 531.215 Section 531.215 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... Changes § 531.215 Setting pay upon demotion. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section,...

  1. 5 CFR 531.215 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 531.215 Section 531.215 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... Changes § 531.215 Setting pay upon demotion. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section,...

  2. Critical Issues in the Development of a Merit Pay System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natriello, Gary; Cohn, Marilyn

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of a school district where merit pay has existed for 30 years and a more general review of other merit pay proposals led to the disclosure of eight critical issues to be considered before the actual implementation of merit pay programs. (MLF)

  3. 5 CFR 531.215 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 531.215 Section 531.215 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... Changes § 531.215 Setting pay upon demotion. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an...

  4. 5 CFR 531.215 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 531.215 Section 531.215 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... Changes § 531.215 Setting pay upon demotion. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an...

  5. Teachers' Perception on Pay-for-Performance Programs in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mighty, Nardiann Kenisha

    2013-01-01

    States are implementing performance programs to help reform compensation systems for teachers; however, little is known on teachers' perception on alternative pay plans. Accordingly, this research study examined the types of pay-for-performance programs Georgia teachers prefer by exploring their perceptions of pay for individual performance, pay…

  6. 5 CFR 534.407 - Pay computation and aggregate compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay computation and aggregate compensation. 534.407 Section 534.407 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay and Performance Awards Under the Senior Executive Service § 534.407...

  7. 32 CFR 728.113 - Categories of pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categories of pay patients. 728.113 Section 728.113 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND... Pay Patients § 728.113 Categories of pay patients. The categories of patients for whom...

  8. 12 CFR 268.407 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 268.407 Section... Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A complainant is authorized under section 16(b) of the Fair Labor Standards..., if the violation is willful, three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay...

  9. 12 CFR 268.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal Pay Act. 268.202 Section 268.202 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 268.202 Equal Pay Act. Complaints alleging violations of the Equal Pay Act shall be processed under this part....

  10. Some Thoughts on the Equal Pay Act and Coaching Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boring, Phyllis

    This paper discusses the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as it applies to women athletic coaches and physical education teachers. The following points are considered: (1) application of the Equal Pay Act; (2) advantage of voluntary compliance with the Equal Pay Act; (3) factors used to measure "equal work"; (4)…

  11. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... language proficiency pay. (a) General provisions. (1) This section applies to employees who may be paid Foreign Language Proficiency Pay (FLPP) if they are certified as proficient in a foreign language...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.351 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....351 Section 9701.351 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.351 Setting...

  13. 5 CFR 304.104 - Determining rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.104 Determining rate of pay. (a) The rate of basic pay for experts and consultants is set by administrative action. The head of an agency, or his or her designee, must determine the... setting the initial rate of basic pay for an expert or consultant: (1) The level and difficulty of the...

  14. 5 CFR 304.104 - Determining rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.104 Determining rate of pay. (a) The rate of basic pay for experts and consultants is set by administrative action. The head of an agency, or his or her designee, must determine the... setting the initial rate of basic pay for an expert or consultant: (1) The level and difficulty of the...

  15. 5 CFR 304.104 - Determining rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.104 Determining rate of pay. (a) The rate of basic pay for experts and consultants is set by administrative action. The head of an agency, or his or her designee, must determine the... setting the initial rate of basic pay for an expert or consultant: (1) The level and difficulty of the...

  16. 5 CFR 304.104 - Determining rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.104 Determining rate of pay. (a) The rate of basic pay for experts and consultants is set by administrative action. The head of an agency, or his or her designee, must determine the... setting the initial rate of basic pay for an expert or consultant: (1) The level and difficulty of the...

  17. 5 CFR 304.104 - Determining rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.104 Determining rate of pay. (a) The rate of basic pay for experts and consultants is set by administrative action. The head of an agency, or his or her designee, must determine the... setting the initial rate of basic pay for an expert or consultant: (1) The level and difficulty of the...

  18. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  19. 31 CFR 321.4 - Paying agents previously qualified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Paying agents previously qualified...) Procedures for Qualification § 321.4 Paying agents previously qualified. Institutions qualified as paying agents under previous revisions of this part are authorized to continue to act in that capacity without...

  20. 31 CFR 321.4 - Paying agents previously qualified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Paying agents previously qualified... SHARES) Procedures for Qualification § 321.4 Paying agents previously qualified. Institutions qualified as paying agents under previous revisions of this part are authorized to continue to act in that...

  1. 31 CFR 321.10 - Responsibilities of paying agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibilities of paying agents. 321... SHARES) Scope of Authority § 321.10 Responsibilities of paying agents. (a) Payment of securities. A paying agent is required to redeem eligible securities during its regular business hours for any...

  2. 31 CFR 321.4 - Paying agents previously qualified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Paying agents previously qualified...) Procedures for Qualification § 321.4 Paying agents previously qualified. Institutions qualified as paying agents under previous revisions of this part are authorized to continue to act in that capacity without...

  3. 31 CFR 321.4 - Paying agents previously qualified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Paying agents previously qualified... SHARES) Procedures for Qualification § 321.4 Paying agents previously qualified. Institutions qualified as paying agents under previous revisions of this part are authorized to continue to act in that...

  4. 31 CFR 321.4 - Paying agents previously qualified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Paying agents previously qualified... SHARES) Procedures for Qualification § 321.4 Paying agents previously qualified. Institutions qualified as paying agents under previous revisions of this part are authorized to continue to act in that...

  5. 31 CFR 321.10 - Responsibilities of paying agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities of paying agents. 321... SHARES) Scope of Authority § 321.10 Responsibilities of paying agents. (a) Payment of securities. A paying agent is required to redeem eligible securities during its regular business hours for any...

  6. 5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....102 and this section, an authorized agency official may provide pay retention to an employee not... employee to pay retention under paragraph (a) of this section, the agency must apply the geographic... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional pay retention. 536.302 Section...

  7. 22 CFR 204.15 - Paying agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying agent obligations. 204.15 Section 204.15 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS The Guaranty § 204.15 Paying agent obligations. Failure of the Paying Agent to perform any of its...

  8. 22 CFR 204.15 - Paying agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paying agent obligations. 204.15 Section 204.15 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS The Guaranty § 204.15 Paying agent obligations. Failure of the Paying Agent to perform any of its...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372 Section 9701.372 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372 Section 9701.372 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372 Section 9701.372 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372...

  12. 44 CFR 12.18 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evaluation system applicable to the position. Pay of the member of the staff of an advisory committee shall... Director or his designee has determined that, under its evaluation system, the staff member's position... to an advisory committee shall not exceed the maximum rate of pay which FEMA may pay experts and...

  13. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  14. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  15. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  16. 5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conversion rule in § 536.303(a) before determining whether an employee's rate of basic pay otherwise would be... entitled to pay retention under § 536.301, but whose payable rate of basic pay otherwise would be reduced (after application of any applicable geographic conversion under § 536.303(a)) as the result of...

  17. 5 CFR 532.419 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.419 Grade and pay retention. (a) In accordance with section 9(a)(1) of Public Law 92-392 (86 Stat. 564, 573), an employee's initial rate of pay on conversion to a... Code, shall be determined under conversion rules prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management....

  18. 5 CFR 550.906 - Termination of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Termination of hazard pay differential. 550.906 Section 550.906 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Termination of hazard pay differential. An agency shall discontinue payment of hazard pay differential to an...

  19. 5 CFR 550.121 - Authorization of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorization of night pay differential... differential. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, nightwork is regularly scheduled work... his or her rate of basic pay plus a night pay differential amounting to 10 percent of his or her rate...

  20. 5 CFR 550.906 - Termination of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of hazard pay differential. 550.906 Section 550.906 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Termination of hazard pay differential. An agency shall discontinue payment of hazard pay differential to an...

  1. 5 CFR 550.906 - Termination of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Termination of hazard pay differential. 550.906 Section 550.906 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Termination of hazard pay differential. An agency shall discontinue payment of hazard pay differential to an...

  2. 5 CFR 550.121 - Authorization of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization of night pay differential... differential. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, nightwork is regularly scheduled work... his or her rate of basic pay plus a night pay differential amounting to 10 percent of his or her rate...

  3. 5 CFR 550.121 - Authorization of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorization of night pay differential... differential. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, nightwork is regularly scheduled work... his or her rate of basic pay plus a night pay differential amounting to 10 percent of his or her rate...

  4. 5 CFR 550.906 - Termination of hazard pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Termination of hazard pay differential. 550.906 Section 550.906 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Termination of hazard pay differential. An agency shall discontinue payment of hazard pay differential to an...

  5. 5 CFR 550.121 - Authorization of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorization of night pay differential... differential. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, nightwork is regularly scheduled work... his or her rate of basic pay plus a night pay differential amounting to 10 percent of his or her rate...

  6. 5 CFR 550.121 - Authorization of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization of night pay differential... differential. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, nightwork is regularly scheduled work... his or her rate of basic pay plus a night pay differential amounting to 10 percent of his or her rate...

  7. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made to...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 9701.353 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.353 Setting...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.351 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....351 Section 9701.351 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.351...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.354 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 9701.354 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.354 Setting...

  11. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate workers...

  12. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate workers...

  13. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate workers...

  14. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate workers...

  15. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate workers...

  16. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  17. 5 CFR 9901.354 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9901.354 Section 9901.354 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay...

  18. 5 CFR 9901.353 - Setting pay upon reassignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay upon reassignment. 9901.353 Section 9901.353 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay...

  19. Perquisites: the intrinsic form of pay.

    PubMed

    Ellig, B R

    1981-01-01

    Compensation packages, particularly for executives, are made up of five elements--salary, employee benefits, short-term incentives, long-term incentives, and perquisites. Of these, perquisites are probably the most misunderstood, according to author Bruce Ellig, vice-president of Corporate Compensation and Benefits for Pfizer Inc. The value of perquisites, or "perks," is their degree of exclusivity--that is, their worth as status symbols or "membership benefits" for those employees at or above a certain level in the company's hierarchy. And their value is enhanced when they (as some do) qualify for favorable tax treatment. True perks fall into six categories--time off with pay, executive services, nonperformance awards, health-care, survivor protection, and retirement coverage. Within these categories, perks take many forms. Time off with pay, for example, might include employment contracts, liberalized vacations, the privilege of working at home, disability benefits, sabbaticals, severance pay, or outplacement assistance. The use of perks varies among companies, but is more popular among small companies.

  20. Unifying generative and discriminative learning principles.

    PubMed

    Keilwagen, Jens; Grau, Jan; Posch, Stefan; Strickert, Marc; Grosse, Ivo

    2010-02-22

    The recognition of functional binding sites in genomic DNA remains one of the fundamental challenges of genome research. During the last decades, a plethora of different and well-adapted models has been developed, but only little attention has been payed to the development of different and similarly well-adapted learning principles. Only recently it was noticed that discriminative learning principles can be superior over generative ones in diverse bioinformatics applications, too. Here, we propose a generalization of generative and discriminative learning principles containing the maximum likelihood, maximum a posteriori, maximum conditional likelihood, maximum supervised posterior, generative-discriminative trade-off, and penalized generative-discriminative trade-off learning principles as special cases, and we illustrate its efficacy for the recognition of vertebrate transcription factor binding sites. We find that the proposed learning principle helps to improve the recognition of transcription factor binding sites, enabling better computational approaches for extracting as much information as possible from valuable wet-lab data. We make all implementations available in the open-source library Jstacs so that this learning principle can be easily applied to other classification problems in the field of genome and epigenome analysis.

  1. Unifying generative and discriminative learning principles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The recognition of functional binding sites in genomic DNA remains one of the fundamental challenges of genome research. During the last decades, a plethora of different and well-adapted models has been developed, but only little attention has been payed to the development of different and similarly well-adapted learning principles. Only recently it was noticed that discriminative learning principles can be superior over generative ones in diverse bioinformatics applications, too. Results Here, we propose a generalization of generative and discriminative learning principles containing the maximum likelihood, maximum a posteriori, maximum conditional likelihood, maximum supervised posterior, generative-discriminative trade-off, and penalized generative-discriminative trade-off learning principles as special cases, and we illustrate its efficacy for the recognition of vertebrate transcription factor binding sites. Conclusions We find that the proposed learning principle helps to improve the recognition of transcription factor binding sites, enabling better computational approaches for extracting as much information as possible from valuable wet-lab data. We make all implementations available in the open-source library Jstacs so that this learning principle can be easily applied to other classification problems in the field of genome and epigenome analysis. PMID:20175896

  2. [LIGHT POLLUTION AS THE HYGIENIC PROBLEM].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Gerasev, V F; Deynego, V N

    2015-01-01

    Mass introduction of lighting devices according to the concept of "maximum coverage area" and multistoried buildings of cities gave rise to light pollution, which became a problem for astronomers, ecologists and hygienists. Analysis of modern lighting devices and installations has shown that about 30-45% of the luminous flux becomes the light pollution. Night lighting of cities causes both direct and indirect damage to the environment, leads to unnecessary energy wastes. So in the USA due to excessive light there is wasted about 2 million barrels of oil per day. Light pollution affects the human hormonal system, causing various health disorders, such as insomnia and depression as a consequence. The light pollution through the ganglion cells of the retina affects the synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland (epiphysis) and contributes to its calcification, which greatly affects the human psyche. At present, many countries have been paying much state attention to this problem via delivery of national documents and change of the concept of the designing of lighting devices and installations. The essence of this concept--to shine with a preset quality of light only in the right place at the specified time interval. This reduces the light pollution, saves energy and increases the environmental safety of lighting. There is presented an example of a technical solution to reduce the light pollution in the application of the light panel in the form of the gradient of the light guide generator project development.

  3. Developing physician pay arrangements: the cash and care equation.

    PubMed

    Levitch, J H

    1998-11-01

    Developing physician compensation packages that help a healthcare organization meet its business objectives while satisfying physician pay expectations requires new ways of linking pay to physician performance. Such compensation arrangements specifically should include pay tied to defined performance standards, compensation linked to group performance, performance incentives based on realistic, achievable goals, work performance measured by common criteria, and similar pay ensured for similar work. Final pay arrangements also should include items that are sometimes overlooked, such as fully delineated job responsibilities, performance measures aligned correctly with performance areas, and the value of benefits considered in the cash compensation levels.

  4. Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

  5. Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

  6. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes.

  7. Willingness to pay for obesity pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Scott; Lloyd, Andrew; Birt, Julie; Curtis, Bradley; Ali, Shehzad; Godbey, Kecia; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-10-01

    Several treatments for obesity have received regulatory approval, but health insurers and other payers typically refuse to support access to them. Thus, patients are left to bear significant out-of-pocket costs for obesity pharmacotherapy. This study aimed to assess preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for obesity medications among people seeking weight loss in the United States and United Kingdom. An online survey was developed based on literature review, clinician interviews, and profiles of available therapies. Participants indicated their preference for hypothetical treatments which varied by seven attributes: percentage of weight loss, long-term health risk reduction, time to noticeable weight loss, delivery mode, side effects, lifestyle modification, and cost; 502 obese participants completed the survey (mean BMI 37.12 kg/m(2) (±4.63); 73.5% female; 47.7 (±12.9) years of age). The participants deemed weight loss of >21 kg (United Kingdom) and >28 kg (United State) as "acceptable". All treatment attributes were important (P < 0.001) except "time to noticeable weight loss." The survey found that percentage weight loss was the most important factor for patients and a reduction in long-term health risk was relatively less important. Patients were willing to pay £6.51/$10.49 per month per percentage point of weight loss that a pharmacotherapy could provide. Participants also highly valued therapies that did not require substantial lifestyle modifications and were willing to pay £17.78/$30.77 more per month for a one-pill-per-day treatment vs. a weekly injectable. Participants placed a high value on weight loss and avoiding changes to their lifestyle, and less value on reducing long-term risks to health.

  8. High quality care and ethical pay-for-performance: a Society of General Internal Medicine policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Wharam, J Frank; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Farber, Neil J; Sinsky, Christine; Rucker, Lisa; Rask, Kimberly J; Figaro, M Kathleen; Braddock, Clarence; Barry, Michael J; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2009-07-01

    Pay-for-performance is proliferating, yet its impact on key stakeholders remains uncertain. The Society of General Internal Medicine systematically evaluated ethical issues raised by performance-based physician compensation. We conclude that current arrangements are based on fundamentally acceptable ethical principles, but are guided by an incomplete understanding of health-care quality. Furthermore, their implementation without evidence of safety and efficacy is ethically precarious because of potential risks to stakeholders, especially vulnerable patients. We propose four major strategies to transition from risky pay-for-performance systems to ethical performance-based physician compensation and high quality care. These include implementing safeguards within current pay-for-performance systems, reaching consensus regarding the obligations of key stakeholders in improving health-care quality, developing valid and comprehensive measures of health-care quality, and utilizing a cautious evaluative approach in creating the next generation of compensation systems that reward genuine quality.

  9. Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Manny

    Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

  10. Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Manny

    Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

  11. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  12. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  13. River and Stream Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons River and Stream Pollution Kids Homepage Topics Pollution River and Stream Pollution ... stream in the first place by disturbing the land as little as possible. Farmers and construction workers ...

  14. Reforming agricultural nonpoint pollution policy in an increasingly budget-constrained environment.

    PubMed

    Shortle, James S; Ribaudo, Marc; Horan, Richard D; Blandford, David

    2012-02-07

    Agricultural nonpoint source water pollution has long been recognized as an important contributor to U.S. water quality problems and the subject of an array of local, state, and federal initiatives to reduce the problem. A "pay-the-polluter" approach to getting farmers to adopt best management practices has not succeeded in improving water quality in many impaired watersheds. With the prospects of reduced funding for the types of financial and technical assistance programs that have been the mainstay of agricultural water quality policy, alternative approaches need to be considered. Some changes to the way current conservation programs are implemented could increase their efficiency, but there are limits to how effective a purely voluntary approach can be. An alternative paradigm is the "polluter pays" approach, which has been successfully employed to reduce point source pollution. A wholesale implementation of the polluter-pays approach to agriculture is likely infeasible, but elements of the polluter-pays approach could be incorporated into agricultural water quality policy.

  15. Laser spectroscopic detection of air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the operating principles and applications of laser systems for monitoring pollution based on absorption spectroscopy. Particular consideration is given to an active bistatic system involving a cooperative reflector; an active monostatic system involving natural reflectors; an active monostatic system involving aerosol backscattering; and passive monostatic heterodyne detection.

  16. Performance-related pay for hospital consultants.

    PubMed

    Cash, Andrew; Somers, Andre

    2007-08-01

    In the United Kingdom there about 300,000 people who earn at least pounds 100,000 per year. These people represent just 1% of U.K. workers. Hospital consultants are in this exclusive earning group, and so they should be. Following a new pay deal in 2003, which enabled consultants to achieve a record average NHS salary of pounds 110,000 in 2006, there is growing momentum to introduce a system of performance-related pay. Such a system could work. Many believe this would create the necessary leverage to get the consultant body to work with the managers to create a robust NHS that is fit for purpose and can compete healthily against alternative providers in an open marketplace. The resolve to achieve this has never been stronger. The NHS has always been dogged by status and power divides between the different groups of workers. The time has come to make some headway with breaking down these divides and get on with running a business. Let's hope the NHS can transform into a place where managers and doctors trust each other and work better together. This would give the 1.3 million people that work in the NHS the best chance of creating a successful business that cares for ill people. The financial and professional rewards will follow.

  17. Hazard pay for workers: risk and reward

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.; Shakow, D.

    1981-10-01

    The second in a series of articles on the differences between worker protection from hazards and that provided for the general public deals with worker reimbursement for job-associated risks. The justification for higher pay is based on market place economic theory that assumes a free choice of occupations, but overlooks skill, bargaining power, and regional variations as contributing factors. A debate is emerging over the concept of putting a dollar value on human life through either the discounted future earnings (DFE) or the willingness to pay (WTP) approach because some individuals are undervalued and because people respond to certain death differently than to statistical risk. As an alternative to extra compensation, employers can elect to make the work environment safer. The difference is one in which society values worker health over choice. Comparisons of actuarial risk data to test the doctrine of equalizing differences continue to be inconclusive and disparate in their results. A review of the literature confirms compensation only for the risk of death and opens up several questions about the level and uniformity of compensation and the definition of risk. 22 references, 3 tables. (DCK)

  18. 5 CFR 1605.13 - Back pay awards and other retroactive pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The employing agency must give the participant the following options for electing makeup contributions... makeup contributions; or (ii) Instead of making contributions for the period of separation in accordance... deducted before payment or other retroactive pay adjustment. Employee makeup contributions required under...

  19. Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillier, James

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to correct for perceived deficiencies in the No Child Left Behind Act, value-added models were proposed as a way to find out how much students learned in schools and classrooms throughout the school year. What has garnered much controversy regarding the value-added model, however, is the attempt to link pay and tenure to performance.…

  20. Gender Differences in Pay Histories and Views on Pay Entitlement among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Serge; Curtis, James

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether gender differences in recent pay experience influence entitlement views by providing different standards for female and male students' judgments of their entitlements. Responses from 309 undergraduate students reveal that income gaps in the full-time working world extended to their own recent work experiences and that these past…

  1. Better Pay for Better Teaching: Making Teaching Compensation Pay off in the Age of Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassel, Bryan C.

    In the debate on U.S. public education, there is one thing that every agrees is vital: great teaching. It is essential that teaching be improved, and it is necessary to change the way teachers are recruited and trained, and the way they are paid. Teachers must be paid more, and a pay system must be developed that rewards teachers not just for…

  2. Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariola, Matt J.

    2012-01-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

  3. Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariola, Matt J.

    2012-01-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

  4. Intuitions, principles and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, A

    2001-01-01

    Some approaches to the assessment of moral intuitions are discussed. The controlled ethical trial isolates a moral issue from confounding factors and thereby clarifies what a person's intuition actually is. Casuistic reasoning from situations, where intuitions are clear, suggests or modifies principles, which can then help to make decisions in situations where intuitions are unclear. When intuitions are defended by a supporting principle, that principle can be tested by finding extreme cases, in which it is counterintuitive to follow the principle. An approach to the resolution of conflict between valid moral principles, specifically the utilitarian and justice principles, is considered. It is argued that even those who justify intuitions by a priori principles are often obliged to modify or support their principles by resort to the consideration of consequences. Key Words: Intuitions • principles • consequences • utilitarianism PMID:11233371

  5. The effects of information on willingness to pay for animal welfare in dairy production: application of nonhypothetical valuation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, L; Nayga, R M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare in dairy production using nonhypothetical Vickrey auctions and open-ended choice experiments. Two hundred fifteen subjects participated in experimental sessions with 4 types of dairy products (humane animal care-labeled cheese and ice cream and conventional cheese and ice cream) and 4 valuation mechanisms. Information treatment, which included information about humane animal care principles in dairy production, was used to examine the effects of information on WTP. The results showed that participants, on average, were willing to pay extra for a scoop of humane animal care-labeled ice cream above the price of conventional ice cream. However, no premium WTP for humane animal care-labeled cheese was detected. Furthermore, provision of information only about humane animal care principles in dairy production, without corresponding information about conventional production practices, did not increase WTP for humane animal care-labeled products.

  6. Senior Executive Service Pay Setting and Reassignments: Expectations Vs. Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Key CSRA Features Affecting SES Pay ;;nd PP.".ivig-nrns........................................... IN the SES a Ran~k-in-Person System ?9...Senior Execu- ( CSRA ), the pay of the Government’s senior execu- tive Sei vice as a "rank-in-person" system tives--those at the GS-16 through GS-18 grade...required correlation between SES pay level spectively. and relative position in the organizational hierarchy. ’I he CSRA eliminated grade levels for

  7. Continuation of NHS Pay Review body benefits all.

    PubMed

    2014-08-19

    The prospect of yet another year in which most nurses' standard of living will fall because the English government is too mean to fund a pay rise could hardly be more depressing. Last week's announcement by the Treasury that nurses will not receive a cost-of-living pay award next year - only a 1 per cent one-off payment if they are at the top of their pay band - demonstrates the lack of respect ministers have for the profession.

  8. [Shift-share analysis on regional industrial pollution growth].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying-chun; Tong, Lian-jun

    2010-04-01

    Based on the statistical calculation of industrial pollution charge, an extended shift share analysis method was employed to study the regional industrial pollution growth in Jilin Province, and the preferred action for regional industrial ecological transition was discussed from a view point of pollution treatment. The results could be summarized as follows: 1) Proportional shift could suggest some ways to promote industrial ecological transition from the aspect of industrial organization, while differential shift can provide some enlightenment for pollution treatment in terms of technology. The variation coefficients of proportional shift and differential shift at regional scale are 15.78 and 34.05 respectively, and the difference between them implies that production technology plays a much more important role than that of industrial organization in the course of regional industrial ecological transition. 2) Comparing the corresponding components at regional scale and neighborhood scale is meaningful to discover the area which has a dominant effect on regional pollution. As to Jilin Province, it should pay more attention on the pollution reducing in Changchun City and Jilin City. 3) By means of identifying sectoral linkage influence and non-linkage influence on pollutants output, regional pollution types can be grouped into compound category and monomial category, and relevant countermeasures could be adopted to control industrial pollution through industrial organization. 4) The spatial structure of industrial ecological transition in Jilin Province can be divided into four regions which are central area, southeast area, western area and eastern area.

  9. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  10. Interpretation and Implications of Previous Sea Pay Estimates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    amount of sea duty that can be gained from a rise in Career Sea Pay and Career Sea Pay Premium. The second was how to separate multiple effects of sea...Navy’s Director, Research, Modeling and Analysis Division (OPNAV N1Z4) asked CNA to assess the effectiveness of the service’s Career Sea Pay and Career ...Over the past 30 years, Career Sea Pay (CSP) has not kept pace with inflation for the majority of those who receive it.  Analysis from 2002

  11. 28 CFR 545.25 - Eligibility for performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: (1) Institution work assignment; (2) Literacy program (GED) participation; (3) Apprenticeship... receiving performance pay who are found through the disciplinary process (part 541 of this subchapter) to...

  12. 28 CFR 545.25 - Eligibility for performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Institution work assignment; (2) Literacy program (GED) participation; (3) Apprenticeship... receiving performance pay who are found through the disciplinary process (part 541 of this subchapter) to...

  13. 28 CFR 545.25 - Eligibility for performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: (1) Institution work assignment; (2) Literacy program (GED) participation; (3) Apprenticeship... receiving performance pay who are found through the disciplinary process (part 541 of this subchapter) to...

  14. 28 CFR 545.25 - Eligibility for performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: (1) Institution work assignment; (2) Literacy program (GED) participation; (3) Apprenticeship... receiving performance pay who are found through the disciplinary process (part 541 of this subchapter) to...

  15. 28 CFR 545.25 - Eligibility for performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: (1) Institution work assignment; (2) Literacy program (GED) participation; (3) Apprenticeship... receiving performance pay who are found through the disciplinary process (part 541 of this subchapter) to...

  16. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets. For payers to adopt use of a new pharmaceutical, they would require objective third-party evaluation and pharmaceutical manufacturer accountability for projected outcomes efficacy of their treatments on population health. The pay for outcomes underpinning of this approach falls within the wider aspirations of health reform. PMID:26945298

  17. [Pay for performance in Colombian healthcare].

    PubMed

    Gorbanev, Iouri; Cortes, Ariel; Torres, Sergio; Yepes, Francisco

    2011-10-01

    Describing the extent and forms of use of pay for performance (P4P) in Colombian healthcare. This was a descriptive study based on interviews and surveys of health insurance agency managers in Bogotá, Colombia. The authors relied on transaction cost theory to interpret the results. P4P was found to be used by contribution scheme insurers in an outpatient setting, basically in promotion and prevention; P4P is not being used in a hospital setting. Subsidized scheme insurers do not use P4P. Similarly, P4P is not being used in the case of so called associated users. P4P use in Colombia is limited. Colombian practice only partially validates the transaction costs theory approach to governance model attributes, one of which is incentive intensity.

  18. The Willingness to Pay for Groundwater Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, Steven D.; Lindsay, Bruce E.

    1990-09-01

    To determine the willingness to pay (WTP) for a hypothetical groundwater protection plan in Dover, New Hampshire, a mail contingent valuation survey was conducted. The median WTP value among Dover residents was estimated to be 40 per household, and the community WTP value is estimated to be at least 100,000 annually for a groundwater protection plan. The assessed land values of respondents as well as their incomes were shown to positively influence their WTP values, while their ages had a negative influence on WTP. A variety of other socioeconomic variables were shown to have no influence on individuals WTP for groundwater protection. This research illustrates a methodology that other researchers, and water resource managers can use to estimate the value which people place on various water resources and can help to predict whether water policies and projects will be accepted by the public.

  19. Chemical Principls Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

  20. Chemical Principls Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)