Science.gov

Sample records for polluter pays principle

  1. Equivocating on the polluter-pays principle: The consequences for Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Luken, Ralph A

    2009-08-01

    The polluter-pays principle has been widely implemented in OECD countries and credited for bring about a significant reduction in pollutant discharge. However, it has had only limited implementation in developing countries. The consequences of not implementing it in developing countries, to the extent they are documented, are limited to estimating the economic damages of environmental degradation. Yet there are several other but seldom documented negative consequences of the failure to implement the polluter-pays principle. These consequences are documented in the case of Pakistan. They include limited construction of effluent treatment plants, heavy dependence on the government and international donors for funding the only two operational common effluent treatment plants, significant operational issues at the two common effluent treatment plants, missed opportunities to build cost-effective common effluent treatment plants and minimal environmental improvements from isolated investments in individual effluent treatment plants in addition to the already documented significant level of environmental degradation due to uncontrolled pollutant discharge.

  2. The Polluter Pays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Martyn

    1975-01-01

    Presents part of the winning entry in the competition organized by Stirling University (England). The extract presented forms the conclusion to a wide ranging essay which covered the various forms of pollution. (EB)

  3. Pollution--Who Pays?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    The cost of dealing with pollution and ensuring an acceptable environment must be regarded as part of the price to be paid for providing ourselves with the products of industrial activity. However, since environmental problems are relative rather than absolute, any judgment of risk needs to be balanced against the assessment of the benefit.…

  4. Incorporation of pollution prevention principles in environmental methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P.; Silzer, J.

    1996-07-01

    The principles of pollution prevention (P2) have not been sufficiently incorporated into analytical methods. In this paper, we focus on the needs for and the benefits of incorporating the principles of P2 into environmental analytical methods.

  5. Improvement of lake water quality by paying farmers to abate nonpoint source pollution. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lupi, F.; Farnsworth, R.L.; Braden, J.B.

    1988-12-01

    To mitigate damages caused by agricultural runoff, private lake owners' associations are paying for inlake and instream pollution abatement measures and on land-conservation practices. This phenomenon supports the notion that individuals who benefit from improved water quality should be willing to pay part of the abatement costs. The research suggests that on land-conservation measures can substantially reduce sediment delivery at low cost. The Sediment Economics (SEDEC) model was modified and then used to select and to site management systems that achieved stated sediment goals at least cost. Other resource policies such as T value, no-till, and contouring were compared with the least-cost frontier and shown to be more costly. The noncropland areas substantially reduced sediment delivery to water channels and lowered abatement costs. Further research is needed for long-range watershed-planning models such as SEDEC.

  6. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    PubMed

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another.

  7. [Principle for strategic decision based on population health risk in emergence environmental cadmium pollution control].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles for strategic decision in emergence environmental pollution control was summarized based on population health risk and features of emergence events of environmental cadmium pollution. Main task and strategies for the events control was suggested in emergency treatment and post-event for water and soil cadmium pollution respectively. The work, monitoring method, key problems for both environment cadmium pollution and human health risk, and main content of health education for cadmium exposure people was proposed in follow-up action, at meanwhile, achievements of study on human health effects caused by environmental cadmium pollution was introduced briefly over recent years.

  8. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-01-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested. PMID:2695325

  9. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-11-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested. PMID:2695325

  10. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Egboka, B.C.E.; Orajaka, I.P.; Ejiofor, A.O. ); Nwankwor, G.I. )

    1989-11-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested.

  11. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-11-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested.

  12. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania.

    PubMed

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods--dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was 6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas. PMID:25860594

  13. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods—dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was €6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.

  14. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania.

    PubMed

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods--dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was 6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.

  15. 4 CFR 5.1 - Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 5.1 Section 5.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.1 Pay. (a) Pay principles. Pay of the employees of GAO shall be... Merit Pay System, the pay of GAO employees shall be adjusted at the same time and to the same extent...

  16. Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

  17. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  18. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Luther L.

    1970-01-01

    Our mechanized environment has produced a variety of man-made pollutants. Prevention of pollution and resulting health hazards is a primary challenge. The Federal Government undertakes a large responsibility in the field of environmental control. (CK)

  19. Social Comparison of Pay and Inequity Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Ben

    Inequity theory differs from social exchange theory in its analysis of a worker's reaction to pay by asserting that effects on work performance caused by high or low pay are due to social comparison of fairness rather than principles of direct exchange, such as reciprocity and power. The present experiment held piece-rate pay constant at two…

  20. Principles and Applications of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Reactors for Electrochemical Hydrodehalogenation of Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hua; Scott, Keith

    The ability to re-cycle halogenated liquid wastes, based on electrochemical hydrodehalogenation (EHDH), will provide a significant economic advantage and will reduce the environmental burden in a number of processes. The use of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) reactor is very attractive for this purpose. Principles and features of electrochemical HDH technology and SPE EHDH reactors are described. The SPE reactor enables selective dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in both aqueous and non-aqueous media with high current efficiency and low energy consumption. The influence of operating conditions, including cathode material, current density, reactant concentration and temperature on the HDH process and its stability are examined.

  1. Application of the WFD cost proportionality principle to diffuse pollution mitigation: a case study for Scottish Lochs.

    PubMed

    Vinten, A J A; Martin-Ortega, J; Glenk, K; Booth, P; Balana, B B; MacLeod, M; Lago, M; Moran, D; Jones, M

    2012-04-30

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to deliver good ecological status (GES) for Europe's waters. It prescribes the use of economic principles, such as derogation from GES on grounds of disproportionate costs of mitigation. This paper proposes an application of the proportionality principle to mitigation of phosphorus (P) pollution of 544 Scottish lochs at national and local water body scales. P loading estimates were derived from a national diffuse pollution screening tool. For 293 of these lochs (31% of the loch area), GES already occurred. Mitigation cost-effectiveness was assessed using combined mitigation cost curves for managed grassland, rough grazing, arable land, sewage and septic tank sources. These provided sufficient mitigation (92% of national P load) for GES to be achieved on another 31% of loch area at annualised cost of £2.09 m/y. Mitigation of the residual P loading preventing other lochs achieving GES was considered by using a "mop-up" cost of £200/kg P (assumed cost effectiveness of removal of P directly from lochs), leading to a total cost of £189 m/y. Lochs were ranked by mitigation costs per loch area to give a national scale marginal mitigation cost curve. A published choice experiment valuation of WFD targets for Scottish lochs was used to estimate marginal benefits at national scale and combined with the marginal cost curve. This gave proportionate costs of £5.7 m/y leading to GES in 72% of loch area. Using national mean marginal benefits with a scheme to estimate changes in individual loch value with P loading gave proportionate costs of £25.6 m/y leading to GES in 77% of loch area (491 lochs).

  2. Full cost accounting as a tool for the financial assessment of Pay-As-You-Throw schemes: a case study for the Panorama municipality, Greece.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, Avraam; Xirogiannopoulou, Anna; Tchobanoglous, George

    2008-12-01

    In the present paper, implementation scenarios of a Pay-As-You-Throw program were developed and analyzed for the first time in Greece. Firstly, the necessary steps for implementing a Pay-As-You-Throw program were determined. A database was developed for the needs of the full cost accounting method, where all financial and waste-production data were inserted, in order to calculate the unit price of charging for four different implementation scenarios of the "polluter-pays" principle. For each scenario, the input in waste management cost was estimated, as well as the total waste charges for households. Finally, a comparative analysis of the results was performed.

  3. Economic Assessment: A Model for Assessing Ability to Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Patricia; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the client's ability to pay is the cornerstone to fee collections in any service organization. York County Counseling Services implemented a new method of fee assessment and collection based on the principles of providing a service worth paying for, accurate assessment of ability to pay, and a budget-payment system. (Author)

  4. Behind the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  5. Residual household waste: from pay-per-bag to pay-per-kilogram. An evaluation study for Flanders.

    PubMed

    De Jaeger, Simon

    2010-04-01

    To be in line with the polluter-pays principle, an increasing number of Flemish municipalities have introduced a weight-based pricing system for residual household waste. Municipalities using this new pricing scheme are keen to ascribe decreasing waste production to the introduction of the new system. In order to evaluate the real impact of the weight-based pricing, an extension to the standard difference-in-differences evaluation techniques is proposed. The main idea is to use historical observations on waste production to determine which version of the difference-in-differences technique is most suitable to assess the impact of a policy action on waste quantities. The method is easy to apply, which makes it a very useful tool for both scientists and policy makers. Surprisingly, empirical results for Flanders indicate that, on average, municipalities using the weight-based system do not perform better than other municipalities.

  6. Sticking to (first) principles: quantum molecular dynamics and Bayesian probabilistic methods to simulate aquatic pollutant absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Trerayapiwat, Kasidet; Ricke, Nathan; Cohen, Peter; Poblete, Alex; Rudel, Holly; Eustis, Soren N

    2016-08-10

    This work explores the relationship between theoretically predicted excitation energies and experimental molar absorption spectra as they pertain to environmental aquatic photochemistry. An overview of pertinent Quantum Chemical descriptions of sunlight-driven electronic transitions in organic pollutants is presented. Second, a combined molecular dynamics (MD), time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) analysis of the ultraviolet to visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra of six model organic compounds is presented alongside accurate experimental data. The functional relationship between the experimentally observed molar absorption spectrum and the discrete quantum transitions is examined. A rigorous comparison of the accuracy of the theoretical transition energies (ΔES0→Sn) and oscillator strength (fS0→Sn) is afforded by the probabilistic convolution and deconvolution procedure described. This method of deconvolution of experimental spectra using a Gaussian Mixture Model combined with Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) to determine the mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) as well as the number of observed singlet to singlet transition energy state distributions. This procedure allows a direct comparison of the one-electron (quantum) transitions that are the result of quantum chemical calculations and the ensemble of non-adiabatic quantum states that produce the macroscopic effect of a molar absorption spectrum. Poor agreement between the vertical excitation energies produced from TD-DFT calculations with five different functionals (CAM-B3LYP, PBE0, M06-2X, BP86, and LC-BLYP) suggest a failure of the theory to capture the low energy, environmentally important, electronic transitions in our model organic pollutants. However, the method of explicit-solvation of the organic solute using the quantum Effective Fragment Potential (EFP) in a density functional molecular dynamics trajectory simulation shows promise as a robust model of the hydrated organic

  7. Estimation of historical pollution trends using mass balance principles: Selected metals and pesticides in the Hudson-Raritan basin, 1880 to 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Rod, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The historical loadings of lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, and of the pesticides chlordane and DDT onto land and into surface waters of the Hudson and Raritan River basins from 1880 to 1980 are reconstructured to demonstrated an application of material balance principles to multimedia pollution transport modeling. The methodology models the river basin as a source-receptor matrix. The Hudson-Raritan basin is divided both geographically and by environmental medium, and mass conservation conditions are imposed. Information to complete material cycles and quantitative mass balances is derived from existing data and transport models. The method can identify major pollutant source categories, key pathways and concentration points within the basin, and contaminant accumulations over long time periods. Analyses reveal roughly similar emission and river loadings trends for cadmium, copper, mercury and lead. Both emissions and river loadings of the four metals increased from 1880 to around 1945, then fluctuated until they peaked in the late 1960's. Since 1970, emissions and river loadings of cadmium, copper, lead and mercury have all declined. Historical trends in metal emissions and loadings to surface waters compare well to metal deposition rates in data river sediment cores.

  8. Main Principles of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia - 13333

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshnikov, Mikhail

    2013-07-01

    For the last several years the System of the Spent Nuclear Fuel management in Russia was seriously changed. The paper describes the main principles of the changes and the bases of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia. Among such the bases there are the theses with the interesting names like 'total knowledge', 'pollutant pays' and 'pay and forget'. There is also a brief description of the modern Russian SNF Management Infrastructure. And an outline of the whole System. The System which is - in case of Russia - is quite necessary to adjust SNF accumulation and to utilize the nuclear heritage. (authors)

  9. Environmental and pollution science. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Pepper; Charles Gerba; Mark Brusseau,

    2006-07-01

    This book integrates a large number of subjects in environmental studies and provides a realistic and objective evaluation of pollution as a price we pay for a modern economy. It focuses on the scientific assessment of environmental quality by developing a framework of principles that can be applied to any environmental problem. It addresses tactical issues for managers and government workers such as remediation, environmental monitoring, risk assessment, and management. It can be used by professionals as well as undergraduate students. 186 ills. 79 tabs.

  10. A new, versatile field immunosensor for environmental pollutants: development and proof of principle with TNT, diuron, and atrazine.

    PubMed

    Ciumasu, Ioan M; Krämer, Petra M; Weber, Cristina M; Kolb, Gunther; Tiemann, David; Windisch, Stefan; Frese, Ines; Kettrup, Antonius A

    2005-08-15

    This paper presents a new, versatile, portable miniaturized flow-injection immunosensor which is designed for field analysis. The temperature-controlled field prototype can run for 6h without external power supply. The bio-recognition element is an analyte-specific antibody immobilized on a gold surface of pyramidal structures inside an exchangeable single-use chip, which hosts also the enzyme-tracer and the sample reservoirs. The competition between the enzyme-tracer and the analyte for the antigen-binding sites of the antibodies yields in the final step a chemiluminescence signal that is inversely proportional to the concentration of analyte in the given range of detection. A proof of principle is shown for nitroaromatics and pesticides. The detection limits (DL; IC20) reached with the field prototype in the laboratory was below 0.1 microg l(-1) for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and about 0.2 microg l(-1) for diuron and atrazine, respectively. Important aspects in this development were the design of the competition between analyte and enzyme-tracer, the unspecific signal due to unspecific binding and/or luminescence background signal, and the flow pattern inside the chip.

  11. Financial Advice: Who Pays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…

  12. EQUAL PAY FACTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    EQUAL PAY MEANS PAYMENT OF "RATE OF THE JOB" WITHOUT REGARD TO SEX. EQUAL PAY LAWS WERE ENACTED IN 29 STATES FROM 1919 TO 1965. FOUR ADDITIONAL STATES HAVE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS. SUPPORT FOR SUCH LEGISLATION HAS COME FROM WOMEN'S AND CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS, AFL-CIO, AND THE PRESIDENT'S AND STATE COMMISSIONS ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN. THE…

  13. Reforming Teacher Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Susan Freeman; Gardner, Catherine D.

    2010-01-01

    A recent Google search for information regarding performance pay in education produced 6.1 million results. This number should come as no surprise given the current level of interest in incentives as a popular reform option in public education. Supporters believe pay-for-performance programs encourage less effective teachers to improve and will…

  14. Merit Pay and Developmental Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klink, William

    Five areas are considered with respect to the relationship of merit pay and developmental composition: (1) the kinds of merit pay; (2) the sources of merit pay funds; (3) the combinations of developmental writing programs, types of merit pay, and the sources of funding; (4) the evaluation of teachers for the purposes of merit pay; and (5) the…

  15. Geo-conservation: an example of the application of its principles in the sanitation of the polluted Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, het Gooi, The Netherlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevink, Jan; Khodabux, Eric; Landsmeer, Dick; Stoeten, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, a nature reserve under management of the Goois Natuurreservaat with extensive drift sands and several fens, was heavily polluted by heavy metals and toxic organic substances as a result of prolonged discharge of sewage water onto the fens. Already upon the start of its environmental restoration in 2004, it became clear that the area holds important geological phenomena, including LateGlacial paleosols and multiple Holocene drift sands with intercalated paleosols. This discovery induced the Province of Noord-Holland in 2006 to declare het Gooi, of which the Laarder Wasmeren area forms part, a geological monument and thus to set limits for future activities that might lead to disturbance of its superficial geology. Today het Gooi is one of the 17 geological monuments of the province. The basic principle of provincial geo-conservation - minimal disturbance of the superficial geology - was also applied in the further restoration of the LWM area that included its ecological restoration as a nature reserve. This restoration project was supervised by the author and belongs to the major operations of that kind in the Netherlands. Completed in 2010/2011, it resulted in the discovery and conservation of a complex of Holocene drift sands and paleosols that is unique for the Netherlands. The project forms an excellent example of the application of a provincial geo-conservation policy.

  16. Geo-conservation: an example of the application of its principles in the sanitation of the polluted Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, het Gooi, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevink, J.; Khodabux, E. R.; Landsmeer, D.; Stoeten, G. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, a nature reserve under management of the Goois Natuurreservaat with extensive drift sands and several fens, was heavily polluted by heavy metals and toxic organic substances as a result of prolonged discharge of sewage water onto the fens. Already upon the start of its environmental restoration in 2004, it became clear that the area holds important geological phenomena, including LateGlacial paleosols and multiple Holocene drift sands with intercalated paleosols. This discovery induced the Province of Noord-Holland in 2006 to declare het Gooi, of which the Laarder Wasmeren area forms part, a geological monument and thus to set limits for future activities that might lead to disturbance of its superficial geology. Today het Gooi is one of the 17 geological monuments of the province. The basic principle of provincial geo-conservation - minimal disturbance of the superficial geology - was also applied in the further restoration of the LWM area that included its ecological restoration as a nature reserve. This restoration project was supervised by the author and belongs to the major operations of that kind in the Netherlands. Completed in 2010/2011, it resulted in the discovery and conservation of a complex of Holocene drift sands and paleosols that is unique for the Netherlands. The project forms an excellent example of the application of a provincial geo-conservation policy.

  17. Energy Slaves and Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Sam S.

    1974-01-01

    Modern man pays a price, pollution, with the dependency shift from humans as converters of energy for work to machines as converters of energy. Emphasis is placed on electromechanical appliances and their respective power ratings. (EB)

  18. Merit Pay Misfires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Al

    2011-01-01

    Critics argue that the uniform salary schedule is unfair because it promotes mediocrity by rewarding poor performers while failing to recognize outstanding achievement on the job. Advocates for merit pay systems for preK-12 education also contend that the uniform salary schedule ignores the basic purpose of education--student learning. Although…

  19. Performance Pay for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    During the past few years, interest in shifting at least a portion of what teachers are paid away from a reliance on a traditional salary schedule to one that incorporates a pay for performance component has reached a new high. Proponents of the approach view it as a way to improve teacher quality by both motivating teachers and--through higher…

  20. Pay for Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2008-01-01

    The practice of paying students to earn good grades either in class or on standardized achievement tests has touched off a storm of controversy. Praised by some educators as a way of linking economic rewards to school performance, it is being tested in a number of large cities, such as New York, Baltimore and Chicago, as well as some smaller…

  1. 20 CFR 404.1242 - Back pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Back pay. 404.1242 Section 404.1242 Employees... Prior to 1987 § 404.1242 Back pay. (a) Back pay defined. Back pay is pay received in one period of time... to wages. (b) Back pay under a statute. Back pay under a statute is a payment by an...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1242 - Back pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Back pay. 404.1242 Section 404.1242 Employees... Prior to 1987 § 404.1242 Back pay. (a) Back pay defined. Back pay is pay received in one period of time... to wages. (b) Back pay under a statute. Back pay under a statute is a payment by an...

  3. Value-Added Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Daniel F.

    The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…

  4. When punishment pays.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in groups remains a key problem because reciprocity breaks down between more than two. Punishing individuals who contribute little provides a potential answer but changes the dilemma to why pay the costs of punishing which, like cooperation itself, provides a public good. Nevertheless, people are observed to punish others in behavioural economic games, posing a problem for existing theory which highlights the difficulty in explaining the spread and persistence of punishment. Here, I consider the apparent mismatch between theory and evidence and show by means of instructive analysis and simulation how much of the experimental evidence for punishment comes from scenarios in which punishers may expect to obtain a net benefit from punishing free-riders. In repeated games within groups, punishment works by imposing costs on defectors so that it pays them to switch to cooperating. Both punishers and non-punishers then benefit from the resulting increase in cooperation, hence investing in punishment can constitute a social dilemma. However, I show the conditions in which the benefits of increased cooperation are so great that they more than offset the costs of punishing, thereby removing the temptation to free-ride on others' investments and making punishment explicable in terms of direct self-interest. Crucially, this is because of the leveraging effect imposed in typical studies whereby people can pay a small cost to inflict a heavy loss on a punished individual. In contrast to previous models suggesting punishment is disadvantaged when rare, I show it can invade until it comes into a producer-scrounger equilibrium with non-punishers. I conclude that adding punishment to an iterated public goods game can solve the problem of achieving cooperation by removing the social dilemma.

  5. When punishment pays.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in groups remains a key problem because reciprocity breaks down between more than two. Punishing individuals who contribute little provides a potential answer but changes the dilemma to why pay the costs of punishing which, like cooperation itself, provides a public good. Nevertheless, people are observed to punish others in behavioural economic games, posing a problem for existing theory which highlights the difficulty in explaining the spread and persistence of punishment. Here, I consider the apparent mismatch between theory and evidence and show by means of instructive analysis and simulation how much of the experimental evidence for punishment comes from scenarios in which punishers may expect to obtain a net benefit from punishing free-riders. In repeated games within groups, punishment works by imposing costs on defectors so that it pays them to switch to cooperating. Both punishers and non-punishers then benefit from the resulting increase in cooperation, hence investing in punishment can constitute a social dilemma. However, I show the conditions in which the benefits of increased cooperation are so great that they more than offset the costs of punishing, thereby removing the temptation to free-ride on others' investments and making punishment explicable in terms of direct self-interest. Crucially, this is because of the leveraging effect imposed in typical studies whereby people can pay a small cost to inflict a heavy loss on a punished individual. In contrast to previous models suggesting punishment is disadvantaged when rare, I show it can invade until it comes into a producer-scrounger equilibrium with non-punishers. I conclude that adding punishment to an iterated public goods game can solve the problem of achieving cooperation by removing the social dilemma. PMID:23483907

  6. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-08-01

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss. PMID:26308020

  7. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-08-21

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

  8. Pay as you throw

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, Lisa; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2010-01-15

    Householders' response to weight-based billing for the collection of household waste was investigated with the aim of providing decision support for waste management policies. Three questions were addressed: How much and what kind of information on weight-based billing is discernible in generic Swedish waste collection statistics? Why do local authorities implement weight-based billing, and how do they perceive the results? and, Which strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing have been observed on the local level? The study showed that municipalities with pay-by-weight schemes collected 20% less household waste per capita than other municipalities. Surprisingly, no part of this difference could be explained by higher recycling rates. Nevertheless, the majority of waste management professionals were convinced that recycling had increased as a result of the billing system. A number of contradicting strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing were revealed.

  9. 29 CFR 778.220 - “Show-up” or “reporting” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.220 “Show-up” or “reporting” pay. (a... “show-up” or “reporting” pay. Under the principles and subject to the conditions set forth in subpart B... overtime compensation due under the Act. The amount by which the specified number of hours' pay...

  10. 29 CFR 778.220 - “Show-up” or “reporting” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.220 “Show-up” or “reporting” pay. (a... “show-up” or “reporting” pay. Under the principles and subject to the conditions set forth in subpart B... only the $10 earned in the 2 hours of work on Monday but an extra 2 hours' “show-up” pay, or $10...

  11. 29 CFR 778.220 - “Show-up” or “reporting” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.220 “Show-up” or “reporting” pay. (a... “show-up” or “reporting” pay. Under the principles and subject to the conditions set forth in subpart B... only the $10 earned in the 2 hours of work on Monday but an extra 2 hours' “show-up” pay, or $10...

  12. 29 CFR 778.220 - “Show-up” or “reporting” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.220 “Show-up” or “reporting” pay. (a... “show-up” or “reporting” pay. Under the principles and subject to the conditions set forth in subpart B... only the $10 earned in the 2 hours of work on Monday but an extra 2 hours' “show-up” pay, or $10...

  13. 29 CFR 778.220 - “Show-up” or “reporting” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.220 “Show-up” or “reporting” pay. (a... “show-up” or “reporting” pay. Under the principles and subject to the conditions set forth in subpart B... only the $10 earned in the 2 hours of work on Monday but an extra 2 hours' “show-up” pay, or $10...

  14. Sources of Funding and Academic Performance in Economics Principles Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Dagney; Srinivasan, Arun K.; Bingham, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine two factors that may affect student achievement in economics principles courses: working for pay and the primary source of funds (employer tuition reimbursement, loans, scholarships, financial aid, self-financing, parental transfers, other) used to pay for college for a sample of students in economics principles classes at a…

  15. Financing Higher Education Worldwide: Who Pays? Who Should Pay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, D. Bruce; Marcucci, Pamela N.

    2010-01-01

    No issue in higher education is as salient, or as controversial, as finance. As demand for higher education around the world grows, so do the costs associated with it, especially as governments shoulder less of the burden. Tuition fees rise and student loan debt grows. Who pays for these surging costs? Who "should" pay? D. Bruce Johnstone and…

  16. Pollution liability. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning court decisions regarding pollution liability. Specific aspects of pollution legislation that must be proven to establish liability are discussed. Federal, state, or civil exemptions to pollution laws are detailed. Pollution liability insurance is examined. Punitive assessments providing economic recovery and clean up costs to injured parties are briefly considered. Specific court decisions are used to highlight general principles of pollution liability. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Regular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.221 “Call-back” pay. (a) General. In the interest of... minimum “call-back” or “call-out” payments made pursuant to employment agreements. Typically, such minimum.... (b) Application illustrated. The application of these principles to call-back payments may...

  18. 29 CFR 778.222 - Other payments similar to “call-back” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... payments similar to “call-back” pay. The principles discussed in §§ 778.220 and 778.221 are also applied with respect to certain types of extra payments which are similar to call-back pay, such as: (a) Extra... has been called back to work before the expiration of a specified number of hours between shifts...

  19. 43 CFR 2806.10 - What rent must I pay for my grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents General Provisions § 2806.10 What rent must I pay for my grant? (a) You must pay in advance a rent BLM establishes based on sound business management principles and, as far...

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of Merit Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Vanessa; Langheinrich, Cornelia; Loth, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to show the various perceptions teachers have on merit pay. This research was designed to examine the perceptions and attitudes of teachers towards the idea of performance based pay. This topic has been an ongoing battle within school systems since the 1800s. The participants in this study were teachers from the state…

  1. The Merits of Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David K.; Murnane, Richard J.

    A study of six selected school districts that had been using merit pay plans successfully for at least 6 years provided insight into administrative strategies associated with merit pay program success. The researchers visited the districts, interviewed teachers and administrators, and studied local documents. Each district used a unique…

  2. Teacher Pay and Teacher Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Can changes in teacher pay encourage more able individuals to enter the teaching profession? So far, studies of the impact of pay on the aptitude distribution of teachers have provided mixed evidence on the extent to which altering teacher salaries represents a feasible solution to the teacher quality problem. One possible reason is that these…

  3. Monkeys reject unequal pay.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; De Waal, Frans B M

    2003-09-18

    During the evolution of cooperation it may have become critical for individuals to compare their own efforts and pay-offs with those of others. Negative reactions may occur when expectations are violated. One theory proposes that aversion to inequity can explain human cooperation within the bounds of the rational choice model, and may in fact be more inclusive than previous explanations. Although there exists substantial cultural variation in its particulars, this 'sense of fairness' is probably a human universal that has been shown to prevail in a wide variety of circumstances. However, we are not the only cooperative animals, hence inequity aversion may not be uniquely human. Many highly cooperative nonhuman species seem guided by a set of expectations about the outcome of cooperation and the division of resources. Here we demonstrate that a nonhuman primate, the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), responds negatively to unequal reward distribution in exchanges with a human experimenter. Monkeys refused to participate if they witnessed a conspecific obtain a more attractive reward for equal effort, an effect amplified if the partner received such a reward without any effort at all. These reactions support an early evolutionary origin of inequity aversion.

  4. The courtship of the paying patient.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, S S

    1993-01-01

    This article argues for a prohibition on the courtship of the paying patient by individual practitioners, groups, institutions, and corporations. Our society fails to provide universal access to health care. While we await societal resolution, the private provider retains partial responsibility for addressing issues of distributive justice. All private physicians, groups, institutions, and corporations should offer a fair share of underreimbursed, nonemergency care. If economic survival or beneficent economic commitments of a provider are at risk, the provider may explicitly limit underreimbursed services by a rational system of accepting or rejecting nonemergency, indigent patients. The system should be one that, if implemented by all providers, would meet regional societal needs. One might analyze the issue of courtship of the paying patient as a problem of distributive justice. The desire of paying patients to receive personalized care or nonmedical amenities and to have the freedom to buy the best possible medical care, and the economic interests of the providers (the desire of the already affluent provider to seek further gain and growth, the need of a threatened provider to survive, and the dependency of educational institutions on patient payments) all conflict with distributive justice. The marketing interest of providers conflicts with the greater need of the poor to receive information about health, and it conflicts with public need for protection against misleading solicitation. The possibly higher per capita cost of treating the poor, along with possibly lower success rates, create a conflict between cost-effective allocation of limited resources, on the one hand, and egalitarian distributive justice, on the other. The competitive market principle may even protect, rather than defeat, the principle of justice. The author, however, writing from the point of view of the physician, has analyzed the question in terms of a conflict between the economic

  5. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In...

  6. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In...

  7. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In...

  8. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In...

  9. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  10. Paying for water.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J; Saunders, P

    1997-03-01

    Water has been taken for granted as an essential public health need since the Victorian sanitary revolution. Water has come back on to the public health agenda in the United Kingdom because of recent policy changes and their untoward environmental and social impacts; along with water privatization and tough new environmental directives, there have been serious water pollution incidents, water shortages, water debt and disconnection. Along with concern about protecting individual rights to a clean safe water supply, there is concern about the ability of national water resources to meet all our communities' needs, without unacceptable environmental damage. A national plan is needed for the conservation of water and protection of water resources and the environment; adequate central funds are needed to see that this happens. There should be greater emphasis on local water management and a key role for local authorities; there should be fair pricing, protection of water supplies for the poorest and most vulnerable, and a ban on water disconnection to domestic users, on public health grounds. More research is needed into the potential adverse health impact of people on prepayment meters disconnecting themselves. There is a place for water metering as the most rapidly deliverable means of controlling peak demand, reducing overall consumption and avoiding a large-scale environmentally damaging solution to supply more water. However, control of leakage offers the largest potential saving and is the most cost-effective means to protect existing water supply. We question whether private water companies, geared to maximizing profit and share dividends, can deliver a national plan for the protection and management of water resources, for the good of the environment and future generations. The public health lobby must become more actively engaged in the debate about the supply, protection and price of our most precious public health asset-water.

  11. A Taiji-principle-designed magnetic porous C-doped graphitic carbon nitride for environment-friendly solid phase extraction of pollutants from water samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Yuan, Hao; Deng, Wenjing; Bi, Wentao; Yang, Xiaodi

    2015-09-18

    A new magnetic porous carbon-doped graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposite and experimental strategies were environment-friendly designed for solid phase extraction of brominated flame retardants from water sample. The easily synthesized and low cost nanocomposite was characterized using techniques, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, elemental analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The large surface area and enhanced interactions of this nanocomposite with its adsorption behavior in Taiji principle (a balance of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) in aqueous phase benefit the extraction. Magnetic solid phase extraction has advantages such as low solvent consumption and reusability of the sorbent, and was therefore employed in this study. In addition, a quicker and less laborious statistical method, known as response surface methodology, was used to investigate and optimize some crucial factors that affected the adsorption. The combined use of this new nanocomposite and experimental strategy showed excellent precision (2.7-5.2%) and sensitivity (limits of detection (S/N=3): 0.1-0.2 μg L(-1)). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of real water samples giving good spiked recoveries over the range of 92.4-99.8%. This research provides an environment-friendly strategy to prepare suitable sorbents for extraction or adsorption of various compounds within different matrices.

  12. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI to take a particular type of training in connection with a FPI job are to receive FPI pay if...

  13. 5 CFR 551.501 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Overtime pay. 551.501 Section 551.501 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Basic Provisions § 551.501 Overtime pay. (a) An...

  14. 5 CFR 551.501 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Overtime pay. 551.501 Section 551.501 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Basic Provisions § 551.501 Overtime pay. (a) An...

  15. 5 CFR 551.501 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overtime pay. 551.501 Section 551.501 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Basic Provisions § 551.501 Overtime pay. (a) An...

  16. 5 CFR 551.501 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Overtime pay. 551.501 Section 551.501 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Basic Provisions § 551.501 Overtime pay. (a) An...

  17. 5 CFR 551.501 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Overtime pay. 551.501 Section 551.501 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Basic Provisions § 551.501 Overtime pay. (a) An...

  18. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.356 Pay retention. (a) Subject to...

  20. 75 FR 18133 - Pay for Sunday Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 550 RIN 3206-AM08 Pay for Sunday Work AGENCY: Office of Personnel... of Sunday premium pay for work performed on Sundays. The revised Sunday premium pay regulations would... are regularly scheduled to perform work on a Sunday are entitled to Sunday premium pay for the...

  1. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay...

  2. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay...

  3. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay...

  4. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay...

  5. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  6. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  7. 5 CFR 534.305 - Pay periods and computation of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.305 Pay periods and computation of pay. (a) The requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5504, must be applied to employees of temporary organizations. This includes requirements for biweekly pay periods and requirements for converting an...

  8. 5 CFR 534.305 - Pay periods and computation of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.305 Pay periods and computation of pay. (a) The requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5504, must be applied to employees of temporary organizations. This includes requirements for biweekly pay periods and requirements for converting an...

  9. 5 CFR 534.305 - Pay periods and computation of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.305 Pay periods and computation of pay. (a) The requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5504, must be applied to employees of temporary organizations. This includes requirements for biweekly pay periods and requirements for converting an...

  10. 5 CFR 534.305 - Pay periods and computation of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.305 Pay periods and computation of pay. (a) The requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5504, must be applied to employees of temporary organizations. This includes requirements for biweekly pay periods and requirements for converting an...

  11. 5 CFR 534.305 - Pay periods and computation of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.305 Pay periods and computation of pay. (a) The requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5504, must be applied to employees of temporary organizations. This includes requirements for biweekly pay periods and requirements for converting an...

  12. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to and from training. (1) Compensation provisions are contained in 5 CFR 550.112(g) for time spent... contained in 5 CFR 551.422 for time spent traveling for employees covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act... period of duty for which he or she is already receiving premium pay for overtime, night, holiday,...

  13. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to and from training. (1) Compensation provisions are contained in 5 CFR 550.112(g) for time spent... contained in 5 CFR 551.422 for time spent traveling for employees covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act... period of duty for which he or she is already receiving premium pay for overtime, night, holiday,...

  14. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to and from training. (1) Compensation provisions are contained in 5 CFR 550.112(g) for time spent... contained in 5 CFR 551.422 for time spent traveling for employees covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act... period of duty for which he or she is already receiving premium pay for overtime, night, holiday,...

  15. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to and from training. (1) Compensation provisions are contained in 5 CFR 550.112(g) for time spent... contained in 5 CFR 551.422 for time spent traveling for employees covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act... period of duty for which he or she is already receiving premium pay for overtime, night, holiday,...

  16. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to and from training. (1) Compensation provisions are contained in 5 CFR 550.112(g) for time spent... contained in 5 CFR 551.422 for time spent traveling for employees covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act... period of duty for which he or she is already receiving premium pay for overtime, night, holiday,...

  17. 5 CFR 9901.212 - Pay schedules and pay bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 9901.212 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL... competencies, or other characteristics of the work encompassed by the pay band. (d) The Secretary will— (1)...

  18. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required. PMID:15473207

  19. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required.

  20. Compliance through pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, B.D.; Coyle, S.; Kachel, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Decreased budgetary resources have caused the Air Force Materiel Command to look for a better way to target pollution prevention investments. The new paradigm, Compliance through Pollution Prevention (CTP2), is based upon the Code of Environmental Management Principles (CEMP) for federal facilities. It provides a procedure to assure that all future AFMC P2 investments result in the greatest reduction in environmental compliance burden possible. This paper describes the evolution of this new environmental management system, both past and future.

  1. Pay for Performance: Whose Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Education reform proposals are not in short supply. Recent issues of the "Kappa Delta Pi Record" examined two of these: Common Core State Standards (Winter 2011) and Charter Schools (Spring 2011). Teacher pay for performance is another policy gaining traction in state legislatures and at the federal level. The Race to the Top (RTTT) federal grant…

  2. The Problem with Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2009-01-01

    Although today's performance pay plans take many forms, the most commonly proposed version--in which teachers are rewarded on the basis of their students' standardized test scores--flows from flawed logic and several troublesome assumptions: that teachers lack motivation and supposedly need financial awards to give students what they need; that…

  3. Looming Questions in Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

  4. Performance Pay Path to Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of performance pay for the past decade has been higher test scores, and the most prominent strategy has been to increase teacher performance through financial incentives. If teachers are rewarded for success, according to this logic, they will try harder. If they try harder, more children will achieve higher test scores. The…

  5. TAP: More than Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception, the program has tackled the most challenging issue facing the teaching profession: how to align systems for managing schools' human capital with goals for improving student achievement. In addition to pay, the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) shapes new approaches to on-the-job training, career advancement, and evaluation in…

  6. Principles of lake sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

  7. Pay scheme preferences and health policy objectives.

    PubMed

    Abelsen, Birgit

    2011-04-01

    This paper studies the preferences among healthcare workers towards pay schemes involving different levels of risk. It identifies which pay scheme individuals would prefer for themselves, and which they think is best in furthering health policy objectives. The paper adds, methodologically, a way of defining pay schemes that include different levels of risk. A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1111 dentists. Respondents provided information about their current and preferred pay schemes, and indicated which pay scheme, in their opinion, would best further overall health policy objectives. A total of 504 dentists (45%) returned the questionnaire, and there was no indication of systematic non-response bias. All public dentists had a current pay scheme based on a fixed salary and the majority of individuals preferred a pay scheme with more income risk. Their preferred pay schemes coincided with the ones believed to further stabilise healthcare personnel. The predominant current pay scheme among private dentists was based solely on individual output, and the majority of respondents preferred this pay scheme. In addition, their preferred pay schemes coincided with the ones believed to further efficiency objectives. Both public and private dentists believed that pay schemes, furthering efficiency objectives, had to include more performance-related pay than the ones believed to further stability and quality objectives. PMID:20565995

  8. 29 CFR 778.222 - Other payments similar to “call-back” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... payments similar to “call-back” pay. The principles discussed in §§ 778.220 and 778.221 are also applied with respect to certain types of extra payments which are similar to call-back pay, such as: (a) Extra... tours of duty, sometimes referred to as a “rest period.” The extra payment, over and above the...

  9. Merit Pay: Reaganomics for the Faculty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Linda Ray

    1988-01-01

    Merit pay replicates Reaganomics by breeding competition between entrepreneurs who design their own teaching and research in direct response to the merit pay system. It also breeds cynicism and discourages faculty service to the institution. (MSE)

  10. Why doesn't performance pay work?

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Examines performance pay as a means of motivation in the health sector, and indicates possible reasons for its ineffectiveness. Points out that there are various means of motivating employees, with pay being just one of these. Suggests that this is the reason why performance pay has little impact. Concludes that the NHS is about to implement performance pay within its system. Predicts that this may be problematic.

  11. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (5) The management controls that will be applied to assure compliance with the procedures and a... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay...

  12. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work... holidays provided the inmate is in work status on the day before and the day after the holiday occurs....

  13. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work... holidays provided the inmate is in work status on the day before and the day after the holiday occurs....

  14. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work... holidays provided the inmate is in work status on the day before and the day after the holiday occurs....

  15. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work... holidays provided the inmate is in work status on the day before and the day after the holiday occurs....

  16. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work... holidays provided the inmate is in work status on the day before and the day after the holiday occurs....

  17. 4 CFR 5.3 - Merit pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Merit pay. 5.3 Section 5.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.3 Merit pay. The Comptroller General may promulgate regulations establishing a merit pay system for such employees of the Government Accountability Office as...

  18. Why doesn't performance pay work?

    PubMed

    Griffin, R P

    1992-01-01

    The NHS is about to embark on the widescale introduction of performance-related pay. A number of recent studies have seriously questioned the efficacy of merit pay. Utilizing the expectancy theory of motivation, explains why performance pay is unlike to motivate NHS staff. PMID:10124180

  19. Why doesn't performance pay work?

    PubMed

    Griffin, R P

    1992-01-01

    The NHS is about to embark on the widescale introduction of performance-related pay. A number of recent studies have seriously questioned the efficacy of merit pay. Utilizing the expectancy theory of motivation, explains why performance pay is unlike to motivate NHS staff.

  20. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided...

  1. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  2. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are...

  3. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the...

  4. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided...

  5. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  6. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  7. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the...

  8. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the...

  9. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are...

  10. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  11. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided...

  12. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the...

  13. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are...

  14. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  15. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  17. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is not considered in applying the premium pay limitations established under 5 U.S.C. 5547 and 5 CFR 550.105...

  18. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is not considered in applying the premium pay limitations established under 5 U.S.C. 5547 and 5 CFR 550.105...

  19. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is not considered in applying the premium pay limitations established under 5 U.S.C. 5547 and 5 CFR 550.105...

  20. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is not considered in applying the premium pay limitations established under 5 U.S.C. 5547 and 5 CFR 550.105...

  1. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is not considered in applying the premium pay limitations established under 5 U.S.C. 5547 and 5 CFR 550.105...

  2. Principled Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

  3. Buridan's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamport, Leslie

    2012-08-01

    Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

  4. Pay Equity Act, 19 May 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1989 Pay Equity Act of the Province of New Brunswick, Canada. This Act implements pay equity to public service employees. The Act sets out the conditions which may prevail and cause differences in pay between a female-dominated class and a male-dominated class. These include a formal seniority system which does not discriminate on the basis of gender, a temporary employee training assignment, a merit pay plan that does not discriminate, a gender-neutral reevaluation process to down-grade a position, or a temporary increase in pay due to a skills shortage. The Act provides that comparisons be made between female-dominated classes and male-dominated classes in terms of pay on an hourly basis and the value of the work performed. No employee is to have pay reduced in order to implement this Act.

  5. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... preclude exemption under another category. For example, an engineering technician who fails to meet...

  6. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  7. Low resistivity, low contrast pays

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, R.M.; Kulha, J.T. |

    1996-08-01

    Major hydrocarbon accumulations have been produced over the past 40 years in low resistivity, low contrast (LRLC) sands in the Gulf of Mexico Basin (GOM). LRLC reservoirs were commonly considered wet, tight, misidentified as a shale or overlooked, but are being re-evaluated now in other world basins, including Latin America. Seismic response, drill cuttings, cores, log response, petrophysical models, and production testing provide an integrated LRLC evaluation. Causes of LRLC pay in the GOM include: laminated clean sands with shales; silts or shaly sands; clay-coated sands; glauconitic sands; sands with interstitial dispersed clay; sands with disseminated pyrite or other conductive minerals; clay-lined burrows; clay clasts; altered volcanic/feldspathic framework grains; and very fine-grained sand with very saline water. LRLC depositional systems include: deepwater fans, with levee-channel complexes; delta front and toe deposits; shingle turbidites; and alluvial and deltaic channel fills. Geological and petrophysical models developed in the GOM for evaluation of LRLC pay are applicable in Latin America. An Archie clean sand or Waxman-Smits shaly sand model are commonly used to evaluate LRLC anomalies. Often, shaly sand models are not necessarily suited for LRLC evaluation. The Archie lithology exponent (m) and saturation exponent (n) for many LRLC reservoirs range from 1.4 to 1.85, and 1.2 to 1.8, respectively. In thinly laminated LRLC reservoirs, net sand distribution is identified with high resolution logging tools, rock examination and interval testing.

  8. The toxicity of pay for performance.

    PubMed

    Berwick, D M

    1995-01-01

    Despite their superficial logic, systems of merit pay or pay for performance have features that are toxic to systemic improvement. Contingent rewards doled out by supervisors cause decreased focus on customer needs, loss of accurate information about defects and improvement opportunities, avoidance of stretch goals, and decreased innovation. They may also erode teamwork. Pay for performance may mark a naive understanding of the complexity of human motivation.

  9. Innovative strategies for self-pay segmentation.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Adam; Hansel, John

    2006-01-01

    Risk segmentation of self-pay accounts can help healthcare financial managers determine where to use collection resources. Assessment of self-pay patients should consider each patient's estimated financial condition and potential eligibility for charity care of public assistance patients. Segmenting patients on the basis of demographic variances and potential fraud can help hospitals increase self-pay collections and reduce A/R days.

  10. A simpler way to pay.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, E

    2001-04-01

    There have been many changes in professional services since Egon Zehnder founded his executive search firm nearly four decades ago--not the least of which has been a shift in the way professionals pay themselves. When he started, compensation everywhere was strongly tied to seniority. Today, partners at most professional services firms are paid according to the size of their client billings and their ability to bring in new clients. But Egon Zehnder International, which now has 57 offices worldwide, has stuck with the old-fashioned way to pay. In addition to giving partners base salaries and equal shares in a percentage of the profit, the firm apportions another fraction of the profit based only on length of tenure as partner. Yet the firm attracts outstanding consultants, and its turnover rate is low. The reasons, the author says, are simple: the firm's approach to compensation forces it to hire team players--consultants who get more pleasure from the group's success than from their own advancement. And the seniority-based system requires the firm to find people who want to stay for the long haul. Call the system a relic, says Zehnder, but don't call it nonsense. It works. In this article, the author describes the extremely intensive interview process used to hire the right kind of people. By the time the interviews are over, he says, potential hires know that people in the firm's Boston office think and act the same way as people in its Brazil offices--and that they themselves must think and act that way if they are to succeed at the firm. PMID:11299693

  11. Research on the Effects of Rewards: Implications for Annual Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Richard R.

    Some research suggests reduced cooperation and collaboration among college faculty may result when annual pay increments are based on merit evaluations. Various theories and principles have been put forward to explain these effects. The overjustification theory suggests that extrinsically presented rewards become more salient than one's intrinsic…

  12. Value and Opportunity: Comparable Pay for Comparable Worth. Series on Public Issues No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Deborah

    In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues, an argument is presented against comparable pay for comparable worth policies for women. Separate subsections present opposing viewpoints on this controversial issue as well as an examination of whether legislation has been a "friend"…

  13. 43 CFR 2806.10 - What rent must I pay for my grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pay in advance a rent BLM establishes based on sound business management principles and, as far as... then existing statutory authority, upon request, BLM will conduct an informal hearing before a proposed... rent or from initially being put on a rent schedule. You are not entitled to a hearing on...

  14. Principles for Sustainable Governance of the Oceans

    PubMed

    Costanza; Andrade; Antunes; den Belt M; Boersma; Boesch; Catarino; Hanna; Limburg; Low; Molitor; Pereira; Rayner; Santos; Wilson; Young

    1998-07-10

    Pressures being exerted on the ocean ecosystems through overfishing, pollution, and environmental and climate change are increasing. Six core principles are proposed to guide governance and use of ocean resources and to promote sustainability. Examples of governance structures that embody these principles are given.

  15. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  16. Social Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Aristide Henri

    1971-01-01

    Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

  17. Genetic principles.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  18. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  19. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  20. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  1. Paying for Better Teaching: Merit Pay and Its Alternatives. OAP Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; And Others

    President Reagan's promotion of merit pay as the main vehicle of educational change has prompted a sharp debate. This monograph presents arguments for and against merit pay and assesses its relative worth as a means of improving American education. First, merit pay is defined as a compensation system linking individual teachers' salaries to…

  2. Medicare Advantage Plans Pay Hospitals Less Than Traditional Medicare Pays.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Devlin, Aileen M; Kessler, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    There is ongoing debate about how prices paid to providers by Medicare Advantage plans compare to prices paid by fee-for-service Medicare. We used data from Medicare and the Health Care Cost Institute to identify the prices paid for hospital services by fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare, Medicare Advantage plans, and commercial insurers in 2009 and 2012. We calculated the average price per admission, and its trend over time, in each of the three types of insurance for fixed baskets of hospital admissions across metropolitan areas. After accounting for differences in hospital networks, geographic areas, and case-mix between Medicare Advantage and FFS Medicare, we found that Medicare Advantage plans paid 5.6 percent less for hospital services than FFS Medicare did. Without taking into account the narrower networks of Medicare Advantage, the program paid 8.0 percent less than FFS Medicare. We also found that the rates paid by commercial plans were much higher than those of either Medicare Advantage or FFS Medicare, and growing. At least some of this difference comes from the much higher prices that commercial plans pay for profitable service lines.

  3. Medicare Advantage Plans Pay Hospitals Less Than Traditional Medicare Pays.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Devlin, Aileen M; Kessler, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    There is ongoing debate about how prices paid to providers by Medicare Advantage plans compare to prices paid by fee-for-service Medicare. We used data from Medicare and the Health Care Cost Institute to identify the prices paid for hospital services by fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare, Medicare Advantage plans, and commercial insurers in 2009 and 2012. We calculated the average price per admission, and its trend over time, in each of the three types of insurance for fixed baskets of hospital admissions across metropolitan areas. After accounting for differences in hospital networks, geographic areas, and case-mix between Medicare Advantage and FFS Medicare, we found that Medicare Advantage plans paid 5.6 percent less for hospital services than FFS Medicare did. Without taking into account the narrower networks of Medicare Advantage, the program paid 8.0 percent less than FFS Medicare. We also found that the rates paid by commercial plans were much higher than those of either Medicare Advantage or FFS Medicare, and growing. At least some of this difference comes from the much higher prices that commercial plans pay for profitable service lines. PMID:27503970

  4. Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Women have made gains toward closing the gender pay gap during the past two decades. Much of the progress occurred during the 1980s, with smaller gains in the 1990s (Institute for Women's Policy Research 2004). Women's achievements in higher education are partly responsible for narrowing the pay gap in the 1980s and 1990s. As more women earned…

  5. Paying for College: A Guide for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krefetz, Gerald

    This guide to paying for college is written for families that expect to pay most, if not all, of the costs of college out of savings, investments, gifts, inheritances, borrowed funds, or a combination. It outlines usual approaches but also indicates some unorthodox methods. Chapters cover the following topics: (1) planning for college expenses;…

  6. Merit Pay and the Music Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elpus, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Current proponents of education reform are at present seeking to fundamentally change the system of teacher compensation by eliminating the traditional single salary schedule and instituting a merit pay system that directly links teacher pay to student achievement. To date, the scholarly literature in music education has been silent on the subject…

  7. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pay. (b) The selection process. Candidates for premium pay must be nominated by a foreman on the FPI staff, and recommended on the basis of specific posted criteria by a selection committee assigned by the... selections. This authority may not be delegated below the level of Acting SOI. (2) The selected...

  8. 4 CFR 5.4 - Pay administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay administration. 5.4 Section 5.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.4 Pay administration. The provisions of chapter 55 of title 5, U.S. Code and the Office of Personnel Management implementing regulations apply to...

  9. Paying for College. Minnesota 2014-105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Many people wonder where to start when it comes to paying for college. This guide is intended to help answer questions about paying for college. Applying for financial aid is not difficult, but it is important to plan ahead and understand all of the options. This guide provides information about: (1) grants; (2) loans; (3) scholarships; (4)…

  10. Research on Performance Pay for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarson, Lawrence; Kleinhenz, Elizabeth; Wilkinson, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on published research about performance pay for teachers in Australian schools. This report falls into three main sections. The first provides an overview of current pay arrangements and collective enterprise bargaining agreements for Australian teachers. Within these arrangements, the report gives particular attention to…

  11. Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

  12. 28 CFR 551.108 - Performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance pay. 551.108 Section 551.108 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.108 Performance pay. The Warden may approve a pretrial inmate for performance...

  13. Performance Pay for Teachers: Determinants and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Heywood, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and evidence on performance-related pay for teaching remain inconclusive. Teachers will respond to rewards, but an appropriate reward structure may not be devised because education is a collaborative endeavor. Here we test three hypotheses: performance-related pay among teachers is more likely to be observed when there are evident…

  14. 76 FR 68631 - Pay in Nonforeign Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... account the benefits of replacing COLA with basic pay. Basic pay is used to compute retirement annuities, Government contributions towards Thrift Savings Plan accounts, life insurance benefits, and other payments... August 1, 2011, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) published proposed regulations (76 FR...

  15. 76 FR 52537 - Pay for Sunday Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Management (OPM) issued proposed regulations at 75 FR 18133 to implement the decision in Fathauer v. United... MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Parts 532 and 550 RIN 3206-AM08 Pay for Sunday Work AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management... for work performed on Sundays. The revised Sunday premium pay regulations eliminate references...

  16. Correlates of Pay Satisfaction in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshagbemi, Titus

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the correlates of pay satisfaction among British academics using a questionnaire methodology. Finds significant differences in satisfaction levels based on gender (females were more satisfied with their pay than males) and rank (senior lecturers were more satisfied than professors, lecturers, or readers), but not on age. (DB)

  17. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted... discretion of the SOI. Industrial managers should make every reasonable attempt to schedule an inmate worker... detail, e.g., on construction details, also earns vacation credit which he or she must take or be...

  18. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted... discretion of the SOI. Industrial managers should make every reasonable attempt to schedule an inmate worker... detail, e.g., on construction details, also earns vacation credit which he or she must take or be...

  19. Teacher Performance Pay: A Review. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive report from the National Center on Performance Incentives reviews the history of teacher pay policy in the United States and earlier cycles of interest in merit or performance-based pay, the various critiques of its use in K-12 education, and empirical research studies that are useful in considering its likely impact. The report…

  20. Guidelines for an Effective Merit Pay Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    The approach chosen to award pay for performance is not as important as the need to assess the organization's commitment to merit, the quality of the relationship with employees, and the ability to do a fair job. With careful implementation, merit pay systems can be mutually rewarding. (MSE)

  1. Pay dispersion and performance in teams.

    PubMed

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a "team". This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  2. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    PubMed Central

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  3. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  4. 5 CFR 550.1305 - Treatment as basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Treatment as basic pay. 550.1305 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1305 Treatment as basic pay. (a) The sum of pay for nonovertime... straight-time portion of overtime pay for hours in a firefighter's regular tour of duty is treated as...

  5. 5 CFR 550.1305 - Treatment as basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Treatment as basic pay. 550.1305 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1305 Treatment as basic pay. (a) The sum of pay for nonovertime... straight-time portion of overtime pay for hours in a firefighter's regular tour of duty is treated as...

  6. 5 CFR 550.1305 - Treatment as basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Treatment as basic pay. 550.1305 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1305 Treatment as basic pay. (a) The sum of pay for nonovertime... straight-time portion of overtime pay for hours in a firefighter's regular tour of duty is treated as...

  7. 5 CFR 550.804 - Determining entitlement to back pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining entitlement to back pay. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Back Pay § 550.804 Determining entitlement to back pay. (a) When an... action, the employee shall be entitled to back pay under section 5596 of title 5, United States Code,...

  8. 5 CFR 550.804 - Determining entitlement to back pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining entitlement to back pay. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Back Pay § 550.804 Determining entitlement to back pay. (a) When an... action, the employee shall be entitled to back pay under section 5596 of title 5, United States Code,...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.346 - Pay progression for new supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.346 Pay....346 Section 9701.346 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... of a formal training/developmental program. In administering performance pay increases for...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.346 - Pay progression for new supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.346 Pay....346 Section 9701.346 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... of a formal training/developmental program. In administering performance pay increases for...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.354 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.354 Setting pay... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 9701.354 Section 9701.354 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.353 Setting pay... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9701.353 Section 9701.353 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  13. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  14. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  15. 5 CFR 550.1305 - Treatment as basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Treatment as basic pay. 550.1305 Section 550.1305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1305 Treatment as basic pay. (a) The sum of pay for...

  16. 5 CFR 550.1305 - Treatment as basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment as basic pay. 550.1305 Section 550.1305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1305 Treatment as basic pay. (a) The sum of pay for...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.346 - Pay progression for new supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....346 Section 9701.346 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.346 Pay... of a formal training/developmental program. In administering performance pay increases for...

  18. 5 CFR 531.207 - Applying annual pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rate of basic pay under the rules in 5 CFR 536.305 (or under 5 CFR 359.705 for former members of the... effect immediately before the effective date of the pay adjustment. Any simultaneous pay actions must...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 9701.342 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  20. 42 CFR 24.6 - Pay and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientist. (d) The following factors will be used in establishing appropriate pay rates for individual... adjustments to pay rates may be made effective on the first day of the first pay period on or after January...

  1. 42 CFR 24.6 - Pay and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... scientist. (d) The following factors will be used in establishing appropriate pay rates for individual... adjustments to pay rates may be made effective on the first day of the first pay period on or after January...

  2. 42 CFR 24.6 - Pay and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... scientist. (d) The following factors will be used in establishing appropriate pay rates for individual... adjustments to pay rates may be made effective on the first day of the first pay period on or after January...

  3. 42 CFR 24.6 - Pay and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientist. (d) The following factors will be used in establishing appropriate pay rates for individual... adjustments to pay rates may be made effective on the first day of the first pay period on or after January...

  4. Are physician executive pay-for-performance programs the future of physician leader compensation in Canada?

    PubMed

    Vounasis, Frank; Dubinsky, Isser L

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the growing trend of physician executive pay-for-performance plans in the U.S. and Canada and discusses the underlying principles of incentive-based compensation models. Pay-for-performance plans are becoming increasingly popular with boards of many healthcare organizations across the country. They may offer an opportunity for increased accountability in the context of the 2003 Health Accord. Although there is little current evidence to support the notion that incentive-based compensation has long-term implications for quality improvement, their popularity continues to increase. PMID:16323519

  5. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, R.B. )

    1992-06-01

    Air pollution has been directly responsible for increases in mortality and morbidity in the general population during periods known as episodes, when pollutant levels were elevated well above those that occur on a regular basis. The major concern today regarding pollution and health is, however, more subtle--namely, whether the lower levels of pollution to which we are exposed daily are harmful to health. It is extremely difficult to relate specific health problems to specific pollutants, because other environmental and lifestyle factors may contribute to decrements in health. Furthermore, people are generally exposed to mixtures of pollutants, making it difficult to extract the effects caused by individual components, or to determine which combinations are the most hazardous. Community air pollution results from various sources: mobile sources, such as vehicles; stationary sources, such as power plants and factories; and indoor sources, such as building material. Complicating the picture is the fact that many chemicals released into the air may react, producing additional secondary pollutants. This article provides an overview of the major air pollutants that may be of concern in terms of public health.

  6. Atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, R B

    1992-06-01

    Air pollution has been directly responsible for increases in mortality and morbidity in the general population during periods known as episodes, when pollutant levels were elevated well above those that occur on a regular basis. The major concern today regarding pollution and health is, however, more subtle--namely, whether the lower levels of pollution to which we are exposed daily are harmful to health. It is extremely difficult to relate specific health problems to specific pollutants, because other environmental and lifestyle factors may contribute to decrements in health. Furthermore, people are generally exposed to mixtures of pollutants, making it difficult to extract the effects caused by individual components, or to determine which combinations are the most hazardous. Community air pollution results from various sources: mobile sources, such as vehicles; stationary sources, such as power plants and factories; and indoor sources, such as building material. Complicating the picture is the fact that many chemicals released into the air may react, producing additional secondary pollutants. This article provides an overview of the major air pollutants that may be of concern in terms of public health.

  7. 20 CFR 211.4 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COMPENSATION § 211.4 Vacation pay. Payments made to an employee with respect to vacation or holidays shall be considered creditable compensation whether or not the employee takes the vacation or holiday....

  8. 20 CFR 211.4 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COMPENSATION § 211.4 Vacation pay. Payments made to an employee with respect to vacation or holidays shall be considered creditable compensation whether or not the employee takes the vacation or holiday....

  9. 20 CFR 211.4 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMPENSATION § 211.4 Vacation pay. Payments made to an employee with respect to vacation or holidays shall be considered creditable compensation whether or not the employee takes the vacation or holiday....

  10. 20 CFR 211.4 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COMPENSATION § 211.4 Vacation pay. Payments made to an employee with respect to vacation or holidays shall be considered creditable compensation whether or not the employee takes the vacation or holiday....

  11. 20 CFR 211.4 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPENSATION § 211.4 Vacation pay. Payments made to an employee with respect to vacation or holidays shall be considered creditable compensation whether or not the employee takes the vacation or holiday....

  12. 78 FR 37246 - January 2013 Pay Schedules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... President signed Executive Order 13641 (78 FR 21503), which documented the January 2013 pay schedules... incorporated as part of this notice. U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Elaine Kaplan, Acting...

  13. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... receive holiday pay for the period of time the inmate is officially assigned to the Industries work detail... escape is not entitled to credit for time spent in Industries prior to said program failure. This...

  14. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... receive holiday pay for the period of time the inmate is officially assigned to the Industries work detail... escape is not entitled to credit for time spent in Industries prior to said program failure. This...

  15. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... receive holiday pay for the period of time the inmate is officially assigned to the Industries work detail... escape is not entitled to credit for time spent in Industries prior to said program failure. This...

  16. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... receive holiday pay for the period of time the inmate is officially assigned to the Industries work detail... escape is not entitled to credit for time spent in Industries prior to said program failure. This...

  17. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... receive holiday pay for the period of time the inmate is officially assigned to the Industries work detail... escape is not entitled to credit for time spent in Industries prior to said program failure. This...

  18. Congressional Report Waffles on Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A skeptical review of recent congressional task force recommendations for public school teachers, which include only a limited endorsement of merit pay and strong encouragement for sabbatical leave for teachers to study and travel abroad. (JBM)

  19. Obamacare Paying Off with Improved Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159906.html Obamacare Paying Off With Improved Health Care: Report But gains between 2011 and 2014 were ... 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new report finds health care improved in much of the United States between ...

  20. Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

  1. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is likely to reach levels that could be ... high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. ... pollution levels are usually lower. Choose easier outdoor activities ( ...

  2. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  4. To Pay or Not to Pay: Examining Underlying Principles in the Debate on Financial Support for Family Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Janice

    2007-01-01

    In many countries one approach to supporting family-and-friend caregivers is direct financial or monetary support. Debates about the benefits and consequences of such policies pervade the literature. Building on the premise that values underlie public policy, the paper examines four policy paradoxes in the literature and uses selected examples…

  5. To pay or not to pay: examining underlying principles in the debate on financial support for family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Janice; Rajnovich, Beth

    2007-01-01

    In many countries one approach to supporting family-and-friend caregivers is direct financial or monetary support. Debates about the benefits and consequences of such policies pervade the literature. Building on the premise that values underlie public policy, the paper examines four policy paradoxes in the literature and uses selected examples from an international policy analysis to illustrate the underlying objectives and values upon which many of the policies were developed. These include the responsibility to care, economic or social objectives, gender equity, and the autonomy of care receivers. The authors conclude that policy makers need to be cautious about the unintended effects of financial support policy and develop a menu of policies and services to support caregivers. Future policy development in Canada must enable legitimate choice across the life course and ensure that neither the caregiver nor the care receiver will experience short- or long-term financial consequences of his or her choice. PMID:21598748

  6. A Course in Air Pollution for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seapan, Mayis

    1982-01-01

    An air pollution course covering both the fundamentals and control of air pollution introduces a new sequential structure for its topic presentation. The new structure is built on the basis of theoretical principles and has minimized the traditional case study approach. A detailed course outline is included. (Author/JN)

  7. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

  8. 5 CFR 551.512 - Overtime pay entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overtime pay entitlement. 551.512 Section 551.512 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  9. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hourly regular rate of pay. 551.511 Section 551.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  10. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hourly regular rate of pay. 551.511 Section 551.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  11. 5 CFR 551.512 - Overtime pay entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Overtime pay entitlement. 551.512 Section 551.512 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  12. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hourly regular rate of pay. 551.511 Section 551.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  13. 5 CFR 551.512 - Overtime pay entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Overtime pay entitlement. 551.512 Section 551.512 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  14. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hourly regular rate of pay. 551.511 Section 551.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  15. 5 CFR 551.512 - Overtime pay entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Overtime pay entitlement. 551.512 Section 551.512 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  16. 5 CFR 551.512 - Overtime pay entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Overtime pay entitlement. 551.512 Section 551.512 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  17. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hourly regular rate of pay. 551.511 Section 551.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.354 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 9701.354 Section 9701.354 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.354 Setting...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9701.353 Section 9701.353 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.353 Setting...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.351 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting an employee's starting pay. 9701.351 Section 9701.351 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.351...

  1. 5 CFR 532.507 - Pay for holiday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay for holiday work. 532.507 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.507 Pay for holiday work. (a) An employee who is entitled to holiday premium pay and who performs work on a holiday which is not overtime work shall be paid...

  2. 5 CFR 532.507 - Pay for holiday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay for holiday work. 532.507 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.507 Pay for holiday work. (a) An employee who is entitled to holiday premium pay and who performs work on a holiday which is not overtime work shall be paid...

  3. 5 CFR 532.507 - Pay for holiday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay for holiday work. 532.507 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.507 Pay for holiday work. (a) An employee who is entitled to holiday premium pay and who performs work on a holiday which is not overtime work shall be paid...

  4. 5 CFR 534.603 - Rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rates of basic pay. 534.603 Section 534... SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.603 Rates of basic pay. (a) The administrative appeals judge pay system (AA) has six rates of basic pay—AA-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. These...

  5. 5 CFR 534.603 - Rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rates of basic pay. 534.603 Section 534... SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.603 Rates of basic pay. (a) The administrative appeals judge pay system (AA) has six rates of basic pay—AA-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. These...

  6. 5 CFR 534.603 - Rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rates of basic pay. 534.603 Section 534... SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.603 Rates of basic pay. (a) The administrative appeals judge pay system (AA) has six rates of basic pay—AA-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. These...

  7. 5 CFR 550.805 - Back pay computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Back pay computations. 550.805 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Back Pay § 550.805 Back pay computations. (a) When an appropriate authority corrects or... paragraph (d) of this section, in computing the amount of back pay under section 5596 of title 5,...

  8. 28 CFR 545.26 - Performance pay provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance pay provisions. 545.26... WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.26 Performance pay provisions. (a... effective management of the overall performance pay program, the percentage of inmates assigned to...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.342... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance pay increases. 9701.342 Section 9701.342 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.342... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance pay increases. 9701.342 Section 9701.342 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.351 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.351 Setting... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting an employee's starting pay. 9701.351 Section 9701.351 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  12. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  13. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  14. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  15. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  16. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  17. Performance Pay and Teacher Motivation: Separating Myth from Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on research from outside of education to evaluate some common myths about performance pay and to consider future directions for designing and evaluating performance pay systems in K-12 education. The five common myths surrounding performance pay include: (1) Performance pay systems improve performance; (2) Performance pay…

  18. 5 CFR 534.407 - Pay computation and aggregate compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay and Performance Awards Under the Senior Executive Service § 534.407... pay in 5 CFR part 530, subpart B. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay computation and...

  19. 5 CFR 532.507 - Pay for holiday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay for holiday work. 532.507 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.507 Pay for holiday work. (a) An employee who is entitled to holiday premium pay and who performs work on a holiday which is not overtime work shall be paid...

  20. 5 CFR 532.507 - Pay for holiday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay for holiday work. 532.507 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.507 Pay for holiday work. (a) An employee who is entitled to holiday premium pay and who performs work on a holiday which is not overtime work shall be paid...

  1. 5 CFR 532.419 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 532.419 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.419 Grade and pay retention. (a) In accordance with section 9(a)(1) of Public Law 92-392 (86 Stat. 564, 573), an employee's initial rate of pay on conversion to...

  2. Transport and Reactions of Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekas, Vassilis; Paraskaki, Ioanna

    The aim of this chapter is to provide the food scientist and engineer with tools for understanding the principles of transport and reaction of pollutants and their fate after being released or deposited into the environment. Furthermore, on the grounds of this understanding of basic principles, the food scientist and engineer will possess the ability to model these processes. Mathematical modeling nowadays is facilitated through the use of appropriate computer software programs. There are, generally speaking, a large number of programs available for such modeling and especially for the prediction of the fate of pollutants. When working with these programs it is advisable to understand the principles behind the program rather than treating it as a black box

  3. When Changing from Merit Pay to Variable/Bonus Pay: What Do Employees Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeremy B.; Donohue, Joan M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines potential responses to a change in an employee reward system from permanent merit pay increases to one-time bonus payments. Removing long term risks associated with escalating pay is an increasingly common compensation strategy. Often overlooked, however, are employee perceptions of reward fairness under such conditions of…

  4. Self-Solicited Feedback: Effects of Hourly Pay and Individual Monetary Incentive Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slowiak, Julie M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; Huitema, Bradley E.

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of feedback solicitation under hourly pay and individual monetary incentive pay conditions was examined. A between-subjects design was used with 30 college students in the two groups. Participants attended three experimental sessions and entered the cash value of simulated bank checks presented on a computer screen. Performance was…

  5. Paying Teachers to Perform: The Impact of Bonus Pay in Pernambuco, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraz, Claudio; Bruns, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of a group (school-based) teacher bonus program introduced in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco in 2008. Research questions are: i) Does setting school level targets and awarding bonus pay produce improvements in student learning? ii) Does setting school level targets and awarding bonus pay stimulate visible…

  6. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  7. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  8. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  9. 5 CFR 550.132 - Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.132 Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay. (a) Premium pay for holiday work is in addition to overtime pay or night pay...) Notwithstanding premium pay for holiday work, the number of hours of holiday work are included in determining...

  10. 5 CFR 550.132 - Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.132 Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay. (a) Premium pay for holiday work is in addition to overtime pay or night pay...) Notwithstanding premium pay for holiday work, the number of hours of holiday work are included in determining...

  11. 5 CFR 550.132 - Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.132 Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay. (a) Premium pay for holiday work is in addition to overtime pay or night pay...) Notwithstanding premium pay for holiday work, the number of hours of holiday work are included in determining...

  12. 5 CFR 550.132 - Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.132 Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay. (a) Premium pay for holiday work is in addition to overtime pay or night pay...) Notwithstanding premium pay for holiday work, the number of hours of holiday work are included in determining...

  13. 5 CFR 550.132 - Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.132 Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay. (a) Premium pay for holiday work is in addition to overtime pay or night pay...) Notwithstanding premium pay for holiday work, the number of hours of holiday work are included in determining...

  14. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  15. A Course on the Physics and Chemistry of Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Laurent

    1971-01-01

    Describes a course on environmental pollution which stresses physical and chemical principles. Course presents a unified discussion of air and water pollution and solid waste with special treatment of pesticides, thermal pollution, radioactivity, and electric power generation. Uses historical and current statistics extensively to set pollution…

  16. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  17. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc. PMID:22888729

  18. 5 CFR 532.503 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... night shift, who performs overtime work which extends into or falls entirely within a day shift, shall be entitled to overtime pay computed on the night rate. (2) When the overtime is performed on a... work on both day and night shifts who performs overtime work which extends or falls entirely within...

  19. 5 CFR 532.503 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... night shift, who performs overtime work which extends into or falls entirely within a day shift, shall be entitled to overtime pay computed on the night rate. (2) When the overtime is performed on a... work on both day and night shifts who performs overtime work which extends or falls entirely within...

  20. 5 CFR 532.503 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... night shift, who performs overtime work which extends into or falls entirely within a day shift, shall be entitled to overtime pay computed on the night rate. (2) When the overtime is performed on a... work on both day and night shifts who performs overtime work which extends or falls entirely within...

  1. 5 CFR 532.503 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... night shift, who performs overtime work which extends into or falls entirely within a day shift, shall be entitled to overtime pay computed on the night rate. (2) When the overtime is performed on a... work on both day and night shifts who performs overtime work which extends or falls entirely within...

  2. 5 CFR 532.503 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... night shift, who performs overtime work which extends into or falls entirely within a day shift, shall be entitled to overtime pay computed on the night rate. (2) When the overtime is performed on a... work on both day and night shifts who performs overtime work which extends or falls entirely within...

  3. How to Pay for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, Charles C.

    The financial crisis for institutions of higher education is deepening. Higher tuition rates may be one of the answers, but this would exclude even more young people from attending college because of inability to pay, at a time when greater equality of opportunity in higher education has become an important goal. Federal support has helped but not…

  4. Study Throws Cold Water on Bonus Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on an experimental study of performance-based teacher compensation conducted in the U.S. which shows that a nationally watched bonus-pay system had no overall impact on student achievement. Nearly 300 middle school mathematics teachers in Nashville, Tennessee, voluntarily took part in the Project on Incentives in Teaching, a…

  5. Study Casts Cold Water on Bonus Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The most rigorous experimental study of performance-based teacher compensation ever conducted in the United States shows that a nationally watched bonus-pay system had no overall impact on student achievement--results that are certain to set off a firestorm of debate. The study, known as POINT for the Project on Incentives in Teaching, was a…

  6. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  7. 75 FR 4592 - January 2010 Pay Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... INFORMATION: On December 23, 2009, the President signed Executive Order 13525 (74 FR 69231), which implemented...: The President adjusted the rates of basic pay and locality payments for certain categories of Federal... authorized to receive locality payments. Executive Order 13525 establishes the range of rates of basic...

  8. Medicare Pays for Chronic Care Management.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-09-01

    As of January, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services began paying for chronic care management of patients with two or more conditions under its Chronic Care Management program. The payment applies to patients in traditional fee-for-service and noncapitated Medicare Advantage plan arrangements. Texas Medical Association leaders caution the program has some hefty requirements. PMID:26360339

  9. Some Efforts on Merit Pay Scaled Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2011-01-01

    Two competing pressures--downsized budgets and rising policy interest--have left the future of performance-based teacher compensation uncertain. A dicey fiscal climate and research that has shown limited impact have led some states and districts to scale back, abandon, or change their fledgling merit-pay programs, causing observers to wonder what…

  10. Today and Tomorrow: Paying for a Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examines several private savings vehicles that have emerged in recent years to help with paying for college. These include: CollegeSure certificates of deposit; custodial bank accounts; education trusts or 2503 trusts; and the Tuition Plan Consortium. Discusses questions that college or university business officers should think about regarding…

  11. Job Evaluation: Pay Equity Problem or Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecham, Robert C.

    It has been hypothesized that current methods of determining pay rates value the characteristics of jobs held primarily by men differently than the characteristics of jobs held primarily by women, resulting in lower earnings for women. A policy capturing approach using numerically rated job characteristics (PAQ data) was applied separately to the…

  12. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... (5) The management controls that will be applied to assure compliance with the procedures and a... under 5 U.S.C. 5303 or the Executive Schedule adjustment under 5 U.S.C. 5318 effective the same date....

  13. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... (5) The management controls that will be applied to assure compliance with the procedures and a... under 5 U.S.C. 5303 or the Executive Schedule adjustment under 5 U.S.C. 5318 effective the same date....

  14. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... (5) The management controls that will be applied to assure compliance with the procedures and a... under 5 U.S.C. 5303 or the Executive Schedule adjustment under 5 U.S.C. 5318 effective the same date....

  15. Subscription Television (STV--Pay TV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Subscription television (STV), established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1968, involves transmitting television programs over the air to viewers who pay for the service. The development, trial operation, and test results of subscription television are described in this report, along with four Commission reports, and FCC…

  16. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  18. Principals' Group Seeks Influence on Incentive Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    School districts that want to start pay-for-performance programs for school leaders should look beyond high-stakes student tests as the primary measure for awarding bonuses, a position paper released last week by the National Association of Secondary School Principals says. Gerald N. Tirozzi, the executive director of the Reston, Virginia-based…

  19. Performance-Related Pay: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swabe, A. I. R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses performance-related pay and why the system was introduced, how it was negotiated, and how it has operated. The case study illustrated is in a British financial services company where the system was negotiated in 1986 and began in 1987. (JOW)

  20. College Faculty Attitudes toward Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Peter H.; Burke, Richard R.

    Tenured and probationary faculty at a midwestern state university were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 21 merit-pay-related questions and five biographic-status questions. The typical faculty member preferred: (1) that 40% of their annual salary increment be allocated to merit; (2) that this merit component be controlled by their…

  1. An Accounting Program Merit Pay Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.; Wagner, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. Before the effectiveness of merit-based salary plans can be examined empirically, it must be determined which accounting programs use such a system. In this study, the 852 accounting programs in the United…

  2. The Trouble with Pay for Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Structured interviews with 575 administrators and supervisors in 6 school districts finds 8 impediments to school board implementation of an effective merit pay system for these employees: Lack of knowledge, teacher heritage, supervisor's ability, supervisor's motivation, managerial prerogatives, amount of rewards, and type of rewards. Offers…

  3. Private Pay Progression. Research Brief. Edition 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Jake

    2015-01-01

    While the issue of access to the professions is relatively well understood, there is limited understanding of the impact of entrants' backgrounds on success once in graduate employment. The research looks at the way social background continues to influence graduate pay and career progression once in professional employment. Key findings include:…

  4. Medicare Pays for Chronic Care Management.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-09-01

    As of January, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services began paying for chronic care management of patients with two or more conditions under its Chronic Care Management program. The payment applies to patients in traditional fee-for-service and noncapitated Medicare Advantage plan arrangements. Texas Medical Association leaders caution the program has some hefty requirements.

  5. Legal Considerations Regarding Merit Pay Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Rosemarie Feuerbach

    This paper examines how a merit-pay award may lead to employer liability under the following types of laws: constitutional (federal and state); federal and state statutory law; and the common or case law handed down by the federal and state court judges. First, several court decisions are presented to indicate the status of the law as it is likely…

  6. 32 CFR 728.14 - Pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pay patients. 728.14 Section 728.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Members of the Uniformed Services on Active...

  7. Let's Talk about Paying the President's Spouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oden, Teresa Johnston

    2005-01-01

    Ask a group of presidents' spouses what's on their minds, and they're likely to say "compensation for the partner." As more spouses of academic presidents come to expect compensation or recognition for the various duties they assume in advancing their mate's presidencies, the issue of pay for partners and the waters beneath it remain murky. Paying…

  8. 28 CFR 0.145 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Respect to Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.145 Overtime pay. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, the Commissioner of Federal Prison... Administration, the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the......

  9. 28 CFR 0.145 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Respect to Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.145 Overtime pay. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, the Commissioner of Federal Prison... Administration, the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the......

  10. 28 CFR 0.145 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Respect to Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.145 Overtime pay. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, the Commissioner of Federal Prison... Administration, the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the......

  11. 28 CFR 0.145 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Respect to Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.145 Overtime pay. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, the Commissioner of Federal Prison... Administration, the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the......

  12. 28 CFR 0.145 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Respect to Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.145 Overtime pay. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, the Commissioner of Federal Prison... Administration, the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the......

  13. Pollutional haze as a potential cause of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xuefei; Liu, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Along with fast economic growth over the past few decades, the world is faced with cumulatively serious environmental pollution and now is paying increased attention to pollutional haze. In the last few years, multiple epidemiological studies and animal models have provided compelling evidences that inhalation of pollutional haze could be linked to several adverse health effects. Since the respiratory tract is the crucial passageway of entry of pollutional haze, the lung is the main affected organ. Therefore, here, we reviewed some of the important information around long-term exposure to pollutional haze and lung cancer, as well as highlight important roles of pollutional haze in human lung carcinogenesis, providing evidence for pollutional haze acting as another risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:26623118

  14. Pollutional haze as a potential cause of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuefei; Liu, Hongbing; Song, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Along with fast economic growth over the past few decades, the world is faced with cumulatively serious environmental pollution and now is paying increased attention to pollutional haze. In the last few years, multiple epidemiological studies and animal models have provided compelling evidences that inhalation of pollutional haze could be linked to several adverse health effects. Since the respiratory tract is the crucial passageway of entry of pollutional haze, the lung is the main affected organ. Therefore, here, we reviewed some of the important information around long-term exposure to pollutional haze and lung cancer, as well as highlight important roles of pollutional haze in human lung carcinogenesis, providing evidence for pollutional haze acting as another risk factor for lung cancer.

  15. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  16. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  17. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  18. [Indoor pollution].

    PubMed

    Tarsitani, G

    1995-01-01

    The Author reports more important phases from the beginning of housing to now: the indoor pollution time. Shelter is a basic need; humans require protection against the elements, somewhere to store and prepare the food, and a secure place to raise offspring; but indoor environment is not always safe. It has been known since Hippocrates' time that housing conditions affect health. Today situation starts from the enormous growth of urbanization. At 1888 in Italy first legislation on health, including healthy building, has been issued. The prevention policies were based on local hygiene regulations. At present housing programmes of who stress the problem in consideration too of the great part of time that, in industrialized Countries, we all pass at home, in the indoor environment. Following the general introduction the Author relates on the features of indoor climate, that may be identical that out of doors, or may be modified by heating, cooling, humidification and ventilation. Larger commentaries are reported on indoor pollution and its increasing by modern technology producing several new hazards. Physical, chemical and biological indoor air pollutants, with their principal sources and health damages associated, are analyzed. In conclusion the author shows some data from a research on indoor pollution in the houses of Rome.

  19. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  20. Prosperity without pollution: The prevention strategy for industry and consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S.; Oldenburg, K.U.

    1991-12-31

    ;Contents: Pollution prevention pays for everyone; What pollution prevention is-What waste recycling and other strategies are not; Achieving succcess by overcoming obstacles; Data tells the story-too much waste; The ozone groan-do we still have time; Harm to the farm and home from chemical pesticides; Changing consumption-reducing garbage; Household toxic products-thinking more and buying less; and No time to waste.

  1. Should the precautionary principle guide our actions or our beliefs?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, M

    2007-01-01

    Two interpretations of the precautionary principle are considered. According to the normative (action‐guiding) interpretation, the precautionary principle should be characterised in terms of what it urges doctors and other decision makers to do. According to the epistemic (belief‐guiding) interpretation, the precautionary principle should be characterised in terms of what it urges us to believe. This paper recommends against the use of the precautionary principle as a decision rule in medical decision making, based on an impossibility theorem presented in Peterson (2005). However, the main point of the paper is an argument to the effect that decision theoretical problems associated with the precautionary principle can be overcome by paying greater attention to its epistemic dimension. Three epistemic principles inherent in a precautionary approach to medical risk analysis are characterised and defended. PMID:17209101

  2. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rates of basic pay, A, B, C, D, E, and F. (1) The rate of basic pay for AL-3, rate A, may not be less... above the administrative law judge's current AL-3 pay rate, up to the maximum rate F. (h) Upon... judge position to one of the three levels of basic pay, AL-3, AL-2 or AL-1 of the administrative...

  3. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rates of basic pay, A, B, C, D, E, and F. (1) The rate of basic pay for AL-3, rate A, may not be less... above the administrative law judge's current AL-3 pay rate, up to the maximum rate F. (h) Upon... judge position to one of the three levels of basic pay, AL-3, AL-2 or AL-1 of the administrative...

  4. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rates of basic pay, A, B, C, D, E, and F. (1) The rate of basic pay for AL-3, rate A, may not be less... above the administrative law judge's current AL-3 pay rate, up to the maximum rate F. (h) Upon... judge position to one of the three levels of basic pay, AL-3, AL-2 or AL-1 of the administrative...

  5. Estimating residents' willingness to pay for groundwater protection in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Danh Thanh; Huynh, Khai Viet

    2014-11-01

    Groundwater in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is facing the pollution and it needs to be protected. Searching literature reviews on economic valuation techniques, the contingent valuation method (CVM) has been popularly applied to estimate the economic value of water protection. This approach is based on a hypothetical scenario in which respondents are requested through questionnaires to reveal their maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for the water protection project. The study used the approach of CVM to analyze the households' motivations and their WTP for the program of groundwater protection in the Mekong Delta. The study performed that the residents in the delta were willing to pay approximately 141,730 VND (US6.74) per household a year. Groundwater could be an inferior good with the negative income effect found in the demanding for clean groundwater. Respondent's gender and groundwater-related health risk consideration were factors sensitively affecting the probability of demanding for groundwater protection.

  6. 44 CFR 12.18 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evaluation system applicable to the position. Pay of the member of the staff of an advisory committee shall... Director or his designee has determined that, under its evaluation system, the staff member's position... to an advisory committee shall not exceed the maximum rate of pay which FEMA may pay experts...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372 Section 9701.372 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372...

  8. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for a period when he is excused from nightwork on a holiday or other nonworkday and for night hours of... hours. (c) Relation to overtime, Sunday, and holiday pay. Night pay differential is in addition...

  9. 5 CFR 534.304 - Basic pay for staff positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.304 Basic pay for staff... of basic pay for staff and other non-executive level positions of temporary organizations, the head of a temporary organization must give consideration to the significance, scope, and...

  10. 5 CFR 534.304 - Basic pay for staff positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.304 Basic pay for staff... of basic pay for staff and other non-executive level positions of temporary organizations, the head of a temporary organization must give consideration to the significance, scope, and...

  11. 5 CFR 534.304 - Basic pay for staff positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.304 Basic pay for staff... of basic pay for staff and other non-executive level positions of temporary organizations, the head of a temporary organization must give consideration to the significance, scope, and...

  12. 5 CFR 534.304 - Basic pay for staff positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.304 Basic pay for staff... of basic pay for staff and other non-executive level positions of temporary organizations, the head of a temporary organization must give consideration to the significance, scope, and...

  13. 5 CFR 534.304 - Basic pay for staff positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.304 Basic pay for staff... of basic pay for staff and other non-executive level positions of temporary organizations, the head of a temporary organization must give consideration to the significance, scope, and...

  14. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  15. 5 CFR 9701.351 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....351 Section 9701.351 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.351...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.351 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....351 Section 9701.351 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.351...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.346 - Pay progression for new supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....346 Section 9701.346 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.346...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.346 - Pay progression for new supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....346 Section 9701.346 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.346...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.345... Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... or her performance, demonstration of required competencies, and/or other factors....

  20. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.345... Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... or her performance, demonstration of required competencies, and/or other factors....

  1. A Legal Perspective on Differential Pay for Teachers. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In the paper "A Legal Perspective on Differential Pay for Teachers," James E. Ryan assesses whether there are legal obstacles associated with creating differential pay programs for teachers. He concludes that although the legal landscape is open to differential pay programs, several considerations related to governmental authority and individual…

  2. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  3. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  4. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  5. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  6. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372 Creating... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372 Section 9701.372 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  8. 4 CFR 5.2 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 5.2 Section 5.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.2 Grade and pay retention. (a) Change of... pay system. (4) For such other purposes as the Comptroller General may provide by regulation....

  9. 38 CFR 3.654 - Active service pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Active service pay. 3.654..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.654 Active service pay... stated in § 3.700(a)(1) for any period for which the veteran received active service pay. For...

  10. 38 CFR 3.654 - Active service pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Active service pay. 3.654..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.654 Active service pay... stated in § 3.700(a)(1) for any period for which the veteran received active service pay. For...

  11. 22 CFR 214.42 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 214.42 Section 214.42... Advisory Committees § 214.42 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) A.I.D. follows OMB/CSC guidelines in section 11 of OMB Circular A-63 in establishing rates of pay for advisory committee members, staffs, and...

  12. 41 CFR 301-76.2 - What is disposable pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is disposable pay? 301-76.2 Section 301-76.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System... What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is the part of the employee's compensation remaining after...

  13. 41 CFR 301-54.2 - What is disposable pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is disposable pay? 301-54.2 Section 301-54.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System... BILLED TRAVEL CHARGE CARD General Rules § 301-54.2 What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is...

  14. 5 CFR 532.509 - Pay for Sunday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay for Sunday work. 532.509 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.509 Pay for Sunday work. A wage employee whose regular work schedule includes a period of service of up to 8 hours which is not overtime work, a part of which is...

  15. 5 CFR 532.509 - Pay for Sunday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay for Sunday work. 532.509 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.509 Pay for Sunday work. A wage employee whose regular work schedule includes a period of service of up to 8 hours which is not overtime work, a part of which is...

  16. Merit Pay Plans for Teachers: Status and Descriptions. ERS Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    This report, an update of the 1978 survey of national merit pay plans for teachers, provides descriptive data on currently operating merit pay plans and state level activities. Outlining current research, the report points out that neither a commonly acceptable definition of merit pay nor a generally acceptable method of determining meritorious…

  17. 28 CFR 545.26 - Performance pay provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.26 Performance pay provisions. (a) The Warden shall ensure that all institution work assignments have standardized work descriptions. Each inmate work position is assigned one of four pay grade levels. Factors to consider in assigning...

  18. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate...

  19. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate...

  20. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate...

  1. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate...

  2. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate...

  3. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... language proficiency pay. (a) General provisions. (1) This section applies to employees who may be paid Foreign Language Proficiency Pay (FLPP) if they are certified as proficient in a foreign language...

  4. 5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....102 and this section, an authorized agency official may provide pay retention to an employee not... employee to pay retention under paragraph (a) of this section, the agency must apply the geographic... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional pay retention. 536.302...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.345... certification points as part of a formal training/developmental program. In administering...

  6. Teachers' Perception on Pay-for-Performance Programs in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mighty, Nardiann Kenisha

    2013-01-01

    States are implementing performance programs to help reform compensation systems for teachers; however, little is known on teachers' perception on alternative pay plans. Accordingly, this research study examined the types of pay-for-performance programs Georgia teachers prefer by exploring their perceptions of pay for individual performance, pay…

  7. The Automobile and Air Pollution: A Chemical Review of the Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeman, Thomas R.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes chemical principles underlying the operation of automobiles and the cause of air pollution, including concentrations of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. Comments and opinions are made concerning present and future pollution control devices. (CC)

  8. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  9. Merit Pay and the Evaluation Problem: Understanding Why Most Merit Pay Plans Fail and a Few Survive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnane, Richard J.; Cohen, David K.

    Merit pay for teachers is often proposed as a compensation system that will enable public schools to motivate teachers to pursue organizational goals. Yet the promise of merit pay is dimmed by knowledge of its history: most attempts to implement merit pay for public school teachers over the last 75 years have failed. The first part of this paper…

  10. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  11. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes.

  12. Can CA describe collective effects of polluting agents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troisi, A.

    2015-03-01

    Pollution represents one of the most relevant issues of our time. Several studies are on stage but, generally, they do not consider competitive effects, paying attention only to specific agents and their impact. In this paper, it is suggested a different scheme. At first, it is proposed a formal model of competitive noxious effects. Second, by generalizing a previous algorithm capable of describing urban growth, it is developed a cellular automata (CA) model that provides the effective impact of a variety of pollutants. The final achievement is a simulation tool that can model pollution combined effects and their dynamical evolution in relation to anthropized environments.

  13. 5 CFR 534.303 - Basic pay for executive level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.303 Basic pay for executive level positions. Rates of basic pay for executive level positions of temporary organizations...

  14. 5 CFR 534.303 - Basic pay for executive level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.303 Basic pay for executive level positions. Rates of basic pay for executive level positions of temporary organizations...

  15. 5 CFR 534.303 - Basic pay for executive level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.303 Basic pay for executive level positions. Rates of basic pay for executive level positions of temporary organizations...

  16. 5 CFR 534.303 - Basic pay for executive level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.303 Basic pay for executive level positions. Rates of basic pay for executive level positions of temporary organizations...

  17. 5 CFR 534.303 - Basic pay for executive level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.303 Basic pay for executive level positions. Rates of basic pay for executive level positions of temporary organizations...

  18. [LIGHT POLLUTION AS THE HYGIENIC PROBLEM].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Gerasev, V F; Deynego, V N

    2015-01-01

    Mass introduction of lighting devices according to the concept of "maximum coverage area" and multistoried buildings of cities gave rise to light pollution, which became a problem for astronomers, ecologists and hygienists. Analysis of modern lighting devices and installations has shown that about 30-45% of the luminous flux becomes the light pollution. Night lighting of cities causes both direct and indirect damage to the environment, leads to unnecessary energy wastes. So in the USA due to excessive light there is wasted about 2 million barrels of oil per day. Light pollution affects the human hormonal system, causing various health disorders, such as insomnia and depression as a consequence. The light pollution through the ganglion cells of the retina affects the synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland (epiphysis) and contributes to its calcification, which greatly affects the human psyche. At present, many countries have been paying much state attention to this problem via delivery of national documents and change of the concept of the designing of lighting devices and installations. The essence of this concept--to shine with a preset quality of light only in the right place at the specified time interval. This reduces the light pollution, saves energy and increases the environmental safety of lighting. There is presented an example of a technical solution to reduce the light pollution in the application of the light panel in the form of the gradient of the light guide generator project development. PMID:26856133

  19. [LIGHT POLLUTION AS THE HYGIENIC PROBLEM].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Gerasev, V F; Deynego, V N

    2015-01-01

    Mass introduction of lighting devices according to the concept of "maximum coverage area" and multistoried buildings of cities gave rise to light pollution, which became a problem for astronomers, ecologists and hygienists. Analysis of modern lighting devices and installations has shown that about 30-45% of the luminous flux becomes the light pollution. Night lighting of cities causes both direct and indirect damage to the environment, leads to unnecessary energy wastes. So in the USA due to excessive light there is wasted about 2 million barrels of oil per day. Light pollution affects the human hormonal system, causing various health disorders, such as insomnia and depression as a consequence. The light pollution through the ganglion cells of the retina affects the synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland (epiphysis) and contributes to its calcification, which greatly affects the human psyche. At present, many countries have been paying much state attention to this problem via delivery of national documents and change of the concept of the designing of lighting devices and installations. The essence of this concept--to shine with a preset quality of light only in the right place at the specified time interval. This reduces the light pollution, saves energy and increases the environmental safety of lighting. There is presented an example of a technical solution to reduce the light pollution in the application of the light panel in the form of the gradient of the light guide generator project development.

  20. Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

  1. 5 CFR 550.172 - Relation to overtime, night, and holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relation to overtime, night, and holiday..., and holiday pay. Premium pay for Sunday work is in addition to premium pay for holiday work, overtime... used to compute the pay for holiday work, overtime pay, or night pay differential. Law...

  2. 5 CFR 550.172 - Relation to overtime, night, and holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relation to overtime, night, and holiday..., and holiday pay. Premium pay for Sunday work is in addition to premium pay for holiday work, overtime... used to compute the pay for holiday work, overtime pay, or night pay differential. Law...

  3. 5 CFR 550.172 - Relation to overtime, night, and holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relation to overtime, night, and holiday..., and holiday pay. Premium pay for Sunday work is in addition to premium pay for holiday work, overtime... used to compute the pay for holiday work, overtime pay, or night pay differential. Law...

  4. 5 CFR 550.172 - Relation to overtime, night, and holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relation to overtime, night, and holiday..., and holiday pay. Premium pay for Sunday work is in addition to premium pay for holiday work, overtime... used to compute the pay for holiday work, overtime pay, or night pay differential. Law...

  5. 5 CFR 550.172 - Relation to overtime, night, and holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relation to overtime, night, and holiday..., and holiday pay. Premium pay for Sunday work is in addition to premium pay for holiday work, overtime... used to compute the pay for holiday work, overtime pay, or night pay differential. Law...

  6. Making it pay in Athens, GA

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-04-01

    The materials recovery facility (MRF) in Athens, GA, is a well-fed recycling facility. But, if the local government has its way, it will be even better fed in the near future. The Athens-Clarke County (ACC) regional municipality in which the facility resides has a put-or-pay contract with the plant`s owner/operator, under which the more it feeds the MRF, the more money it receives in return, through the sale of recycled end products. The ACC Solid Waste Department uses a volume-based waste collection system that encourages residents to recycle--the more they recycle, the less trash they have to put out, and the less they pay each month. The Athens facility, which will be a featured site tour at next month`s WasteExpo `97 in nearby Atlanta, had its ground-breaking two years ago, in April 1995. ACC is responsible for delivering material--or seeing that recyclables are delivered--to the MRF, which is owned and operated by Resource Recovery Systems (RRS, Centerbrook, Conn.). Over the past year, ACC has stepped up various incentives for businesses to recycle and send their recyclables to the facility, including instituting pilot programs for commercial interests that offer them versions of volume-based collection similar to that done by residents.

  7. Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-19

    Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company`s regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses.

  8. 5 CFR 1605.13 - Back pay awards and other retroactive pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The employing agency must give the participant the following options for electing makeup contributions... makeup contributions; or (ii) Instead of making contributions for the period of separation in accordance... deducted before payment or other retroactive pay adjustment. Employee makeup contributions required...

  9. 5 CFR 1605.13 - Back pay awards and other retroactive pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The employing agency must give the participant the following options for electing makeup contributions... makeup contributions; or (ii) Instead of making contributions for the period of separation in accordance... deducted before payment or other retroactive pay adjustment. Employee makeup contributions required...

  10. Framing the willingness-to-pay question: impact on response patterns and mean willingness to pay.

    PubMed

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Jensen, Mette Lundsby; Kjaer, Trine

    2014-05-01

    In this study, respondents were randomly allocated to three variants of the payment card format and an open-ended format in order to test for convergent validity. The aim was to test whether preferences (as measured by willingness to pay additional tax) would be affected by framing the willingness-to-pay question differently. Results demonstrated that valuations were highly sensitive to whether respondents were asked to express their maximum willingness to pay per month or per year. Another important finding is that the introduction of a binary response filter prior to the payment card follow-up tends to eliminate the positive aspects of introducing a payment card and produces response patterns that are much in line with those of the open-ended contingent valuation format. However, although a filter will impact on the distribution of willingness-to-pay bids and on the rate of zero and protest bids, the overall impact on the welfare estimate is minor. The outcomes of this study indicate that valuations in the stated preference literature may be, at least in part, a function of the instrument designed to obtain the valuations. PMID:23696155

  11. Comments on the Carnegie Commission Report: "Higher Education: Who Benefits? Who Pays? Who Should Pay?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackrey, Russell I.

    This document comments on the major points of the June 1973 Carnegie Commission Report "Higher Education: Who Benefits? Who Pays". It is suggested that an outstanding characteristic of the report is that it is full of contradictions. Many of its observations, generalized recommendations, and stated goals, are such as would command a general…

  12. Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillier, James

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to correct for perceived deficiencies in the No Child Left Behind Act, value-added models were proposed as a way to find out how much students learned in schools and classrooms throughout the school year. What has garnered much controversy regarding the value-added model, however, is the attempt to link pay and tenure to performance.…

  13. Principles of project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  14. Intuitions, principles and consequences.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A B

    2001-02-01

    Some approaches to the assessment of moral intuitions are discussed. The controlled ethical trial isolates a moral issue from confounding factors and thereby clarifies what a person's intuition actually is. Casuistic reasoning from situations, where intuitions are clear, suggests or modifies principles, which can then help to make decisions in situations where intuitions are unclear. When intuitions are defended by a supporting principle, that principle can be tested by finding extreme cases, in which it is counterintuitive to follow the principle. An approach to the resolution of conflict between valid moral principles, specifically the utilitarian and justice principles, is considered. It is argued that even those who justify intuitions by a priori principles are often obliged to modify or support their principles by resort to the consideration of consequences.

  15. Chemical Principls Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

  16. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  17. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

  18. The effects of information on willingness to pay for animal welfare in dairy production: application of nonhypothetical valuation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, L; Nayga, R M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare in dairy production using nonhypothetical Vickrey auctions and open-ended choice experiments. Two hundred fifteen subjects participated in experimental sessions with 4 types of dairy products (humane animal care-labeled cheese and ice cream and conventional cheese and ice cream) and 4 valuation mechanisms. Information treatment, which included information about humane animal care principles in dairy production, was used to examine the effects of information on WTP. The results showed that participants, on average, were willing to pay extra for a scoop of humane animal care-labeled ice cream above the price of conventional ice cream. However, no premium WTP for humane animal care-labeled cheese was detected. Furthermore, provision of information only about humane animal care principles in dairy production, without corresponding information about conventional production practices, did not increase WTP for humane animal care-labeled products.

  19. Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Manny

    Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

  20. Making the connection between physician performance and pay.

    PubMed

    Woodson, S B

    1999-02-01

    Cost competition in health care, the demand for physician performance data, and the need to minimize fixed costs, such as automatic, annual physician pay increases, have prompted healthcare organizations to develop physician compensation structures that deemphasize fixed salaries and introduce variable pay tied to measurable performance goals. Case studies of this shift in approach to physician compensation at two organizations--a large, multispecialty group practice and a medical school affiliated with an academic medical center--show how replacing traditional pay systems that were ineffectual in fostering organizational improvements with compensation systems that tied pay to performance resulted in both improved physician performance and lower overhead costs. PMID:10345615

  1. Making the connection between physician performance and pay.

    PubMed

    Woodson, S B

    1999-02-01

    Cost competition in health care, the demand for physician performance data, and the need to minimize fixed costs, such as automatic, annual physician pay increases, have prompted healthcare organizations to develop physician compensation structures that deemphasize fixed salaries and introduce variable pay tied to measurable performance goals. Case studies of this shift in approach to physician compensation at two organizations--a large, multispecialty group practice and a medical school affiliated with an academic medical center--show how replacing traditional pay systems that were ineffectual in fostering organizational improvements with compensation systems that tied pay to performance resulted in both improved physician performance and lower overhead costs.

  2. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  3. Recompletion by horizontal drilling pays off

    SciTech Connect

    Holifield, R.H.; Rehm, B.

    1989-03-01

    More than 20 wells have been recompleted in the Giddings field by drilling a new, horizontal interval from existing 5 1/2-in. cased wells for distances of 300 to 1,250 ft. Recompleting existing wells is much cheaper than drilling a new well. Plus, the new completions, overall, produce better. The horizontal wells are routinely profitable now, and pay out occurs in 3 to 24 months. During this program, the techniques for slim-hole- medium-radius, horizontal drilling in Giddings have been mastered and costs have dropped 75%. It is believed that this program may be the first (or among the first) continuing horizontal project drilled out of cased wells with repeatable profitability as opposed to projected viability.

  4. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets. For payers to adopt use of a new pharmaceutical, they would require objective third-party evaluation and pharmaceutical manufacturer accountability for projected outcomes efficacy of their treatments on population health. The pay for outcomes underpinning of this approach falls within the wider aspirations of health reform. PMID:26945298

  5. Reforming agricultural nonpoint pollution policy in an increasingly budget-constrained environment.

    PubMed

    Shortle, James S; Ribaudo, Marc; Horan, Richard D; Blandford, David

    2012-02-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source water pollution has long been recognized as an important contributor to U.S. water quality problems and the subject of an array of local, state, and federal initiatives to reduce the problem. A "pay-the-polluter" approach to getting farmers to adopt best management practices has not succeeded in improving water quality in many impaired watersheds. With the prospects of reduced funding for the types of financial and technical assistance programs that have been the mainstay of agricultural water quality policy, alternative approaches need to be considered. Some changes to the way current conservation programs are implemented could increase their efficiency, but there are limits to how effective a purely voluntary approach can be. An alternative paradigm is the "polluter pays" approach, which has been successfully employed to reduce point source pollution. A wholesale implementation of the polluter-pays approach to agriculture is likely infeasible, but elements of the polluter-pays approach could be incorporated into agricultural water quality policy.

  6. Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariola, Matt J.

    2012-01-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

  7. Paying you back or paying me forward: understanding rewarded and unrewarded organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Korsgaard, M Audrey; Meglino, Bruce M; Lester, Scott W; Jeong, Sophia S

    2010-03-01

    The definition of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has evolved from one in which the behavior is unrewarded to one in which rewards play a significant role. As a result, little is known about mechanisms that sustain unrewarded OCB. We used the theory of other orientation to examine 2 mechanisms based on the norm of reciprocity: the obligation to reciprocate the benefits already received from another ("paying you back") and the expected reciprocity that one's actions will stimulate future benefits from another ("paying me forward"). We propose that these mechanisms are more or less influential depending on one's motivational orientation. In 3 experiments using both trait and state indicators of other orientation, we found that the prosocial behavior of individuals higher in other orientation was more strongly influenced by the obligation to reciprocate and less affected by the expectation of reciprocity.

  8. The Librarians' Pay Equity Case 2002--Not Just a Pay Rise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Kate

    2004-01-01

    On 28 March 2002, the first decision under the Equal Remuneration Principle (re Equal Remuneration Principle (2000) 97 IR 177) was made by the NSW Industrial Relations Commission. Applications were made by three parties, the Public Service Association of NSW (PSA) for a new "Crown Employees (Library and Archives Workers All Departments and…

  9. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  10. 20 CFR 211.10 - Separation allowance or severance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Separation allowance or severance pay. 211.10 Section 211.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.10 Separation allowance or severance pay. Separation or...

  11. 20 CFR 211.10 - Separation allowance or severance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separation allowance or severance pay. 211.10 Section 211.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.10 Separation allowance or severance pay. Separation or...

  12. 20 CFR 211.10 - Separation allowance or severance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Separation allowance or severance pay. 211.10 Section 211.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.10 Separation allowance or severance pay. Separation or...

  13. 20 CFR 211.10 - Separation allowance or severance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Separation allowance or severance pay. 211.10 Section 211.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.10 Separation allowance or severance pay. Separation or...

  14. 20 CFR 211.10 - Separation allowance or severance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation allowance or severance pay. 211.10 Section 211.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.10 Separation allowance or severance pay. Separation or...

  15. Toward a More Comprehensive Model of Teacher Pay. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Toward a More Comprehensive Model of Teacher Pay"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Julia Koppich examines recent policy initiatives implementing new approaches to teacher pay. Her discussion focuses on four current initiatives: ProComp in Denver, Toledo Review and…

  16. 77 FR 23595 - National Equal Pay Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Force has helped women recover millions in lost wages, built collaborative training programs that... the heart of an America built to last. Equal pay will strengthen our families, grow our economy, and... efforts to achieve equal pay. ] IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventeenth day...

  17. 20 CFR 702.274 - Employer's refusal to pay penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer's refusal to pay penalty. 702.274 Section 702.274 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Procedures Discrimination § 702.274 Employer's refusal to pay penalty. In the event the employer refuses...

  18. Private Schools and the Willingness to Pay for Public Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasington, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Households pay a premium to live in houses assigned to high quality public schools, and the housing market yields information about the demand for public school quality. The current study estimates a two-stage house price hedonic emphasizing the role that private schools play in the willingness to pay for public school quality. The elasticity of…

  19. College Too Pricey? Don't Blame Faculty Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Faculty pay is a big part of college budgets, but it is not what has driven tuition increases. In this article, the author talks about faculty pay and examines why it is accounted for large increases in college tuition. According to the 2004 American Association of University Professors report that although faculty and staff salary increases…

  20. 20 CFR 10.200 - What is continuation of pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is continuation of pay? 10.200 Section 10.200 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL..., or COP. The employer, not OWCP, pays COP. Unlike wage loss benefits, COP is subject to taxes and...

  1. 20 CFR 10.200 - What is continuation of pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is continuation of pay? 10.200 Section 10.200 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL..., or COP. The employer, not OWCP, pays COP. Unlike wage loss benefits, COP is subject to taxes and...

  2. 20 CFR 10.200 - What is continuation of pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is continuation of pay? 10.200 Section 10.200 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL..., or COP. The employer, not OWCP, pays COP. Unlike wage loss benefits, COP is subject to taxes and...

  3. 25 CFR 134.2 - Landowners financially unable to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.2 Landowners financially unable to pay. Considerable... or his heirs under the regulations, the purchaser is to pay the accrued and future irrigation...

  4. Performance-Based Pay in the Federal Government. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Performance-Based Pay in the Federal Government"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Steve Nelson discusses the evolution of employee pay systems in the federal government, from the inception of the General Schedule to continuing interest in creating more…

  5. Distance Education: More Work, Same Pay for Faculty!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba Farhad, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Considers workload and pay issues for faculty in distance education courses, and maintains that faculty are doing more work for the same pay. Discusses costs of technology-based instruction; the emerging trend of partnerships in education; venture capital; and the role of the Department of Defense. (LRW)

  6. 38 CFR 10.0 - Adjusted service pay entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adjusted service pay entitlements. 10.0 Section 10.0 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.0 Adjusted service pay entitlements. A veteran entitled...

  7. 38 CFR 10.0 - Adjusted service pay entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adjusted service pay entitlements. 10.0 Section 10.0 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.0 Adjusted service pay entitlements. A veteran entitled...

  8. 44 CFR 353.7 - Failure to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LICENSEE RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND PREPAREDNESS § 353.7 Failure to pay. In any case where there is a... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Failure to pay. 353.7 Section 353.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. Incentive Pay and Collective Bargaining in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, David B.; Conley, Sharon C.

    Recent proposals to implement teacher incentive pay or merit pay plans have failed to recognize that in most states such plans must be negotiated and administered through collective bargaining at the local district level. The traditional collective bargaining process makes major changes difficult to enact; both sides must bluff, threaten, and make…

  10. Teacher Performance Pay Programs and Necessary Communication Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneman, Herbert G., III; Worth, Robin; Arrigoni, Jessica; Kimball, Steven M.; Milanowski, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Teacher performance pay programs have proliferated across the country over the past 20 years. To aid in understanding their many variations, the seven major components of these programs are described. Three examples of teacher performance pay programs are provided for illustration: Denver ProComp, TAP, and Houston ASPIRE. Evidence is mixed on the…

  11. Shortchanged: The Hidden Costs of Lockstep Teacher Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Nobody goes into teaching to get rich, but that's no excuse not to pay teachers as professionals. Compensation is one of the most important factors in determining who enters the teaching profession and how long they stay--yet 90 percent of all U.S. school districts pay teachers without any regard for their actual performance with students,…

  12. 5 CFR 9901.371 - Conversion into NSPS pay system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion into NSPS pay system. 9901.371 Section 9901.371 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and...

  13. 20 CFR 10.200 - What is continuation of pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or COP. The employer, not OWCP, pays COP. Unlike wage loss benefits, COP is subject to taxes and all... employee who is eligible for COP, and may not require the employee to use his or her own sick or annual... employee's pay, the employer may controvert the employee's COP entitlement pending a final determination...

  14. 20 CFR 10.200 - What is continuation of pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or COP. The employer, not OWCP, pays COP. Unlike wage loss benefits, COP is subject to taxes and all... (c) of this section, who is eligible for COP, and may not require the employee to use his or her own... continuing the employee's pay, the employer may controvert the employee's COP entitlement pending a...

  15. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

    2001-12-01

    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  16. 5 CFR 550.111 - Authorization of overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... physical, mathematical, natural, medical, or social sciences or engineering or architecture. (e) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) and (d) of this section, when an employee's basic workweek includes a daily tour of... provided by § 550.113, the department shall pay him at his basic rate of pay for each hour of his...

  17. 5 CFR 550.111 - Authorization of overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... physical, mathematical, natural, medical, or social sciences or engineering or architecture. (e) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) and (d) of this section, when an employee's basic workweek includes a daily tour of... provided by § 550.113, the department shall pay him at his basic rate of pay for each hour of his...

  18. 5 CFR 550.111 - Authorization of overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... physical, mathematical, natural, medical, or social sciences or engineering or architecture. (e) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) and (d) of this section, when an employee's basic workweek includes a daily tour of... provided by § 550.113, the department shall pay him at his basic rate of pay for each hour of his...

  19. Rewarding Better Teachers? Performance Related Pay in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Tony; Waine, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Discusses performance-related pay (PRP) for teachers in Britain, defining the concept and outlining precedents in public-sector services. Critically examines major performance measures recommended by the School Teachers' Pay Review Board and documents broad political support for PRP, despite considerable implementation obstacles. (64 references)…

  20. Teacher Incentive Pay Programs: Characteristics and Association with Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Guodong

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation research examined the characteristics of teacher incentive pay programs in the state of Missouri and across the nation in the United States. The purposes of this study were (a) to examine the characteristics of districts that offered performance-related pay (PRP) programs and teachers who received PRP awards in 2007 using the…

  1. 44 CFR 12.18 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 12.18 Section 12.18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.18 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Members. Subject to...

  2. 44 CFR 12.18 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 12.18 Section 12.18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.18 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Members. Subject to...

  3. 44 CFR 12.18 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Uniform pay guidelines. 12.18 Section 12.18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.18 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Members. Subject to...

  4. 5 CFR 531.215 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agency sets the employee's pay at a higher rate under— (1) The grade and pay retention rules in 5 CFR... retention rules in 5 CFR part 536 or the maximum payable rate rule in § 531.221. (c) Expiration or... retroactively under 5 CFR 511.703, the corrective action is cancellation of the original demotion....

  5. New Pay: Compensation as a Strategic Tool. Workforce Brief #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Stephen

    Although what the work companies do and how they do it have shifted significantly, companies' reward and salary structures have remained largely the same; however, a properly designed compensation and pay system can be a strategic tool to enhance a firm's competitiveness. New approaches tie pay more closely to performance, rather than to tenure…

  6. Designing and Implementing a Successful Merit Pay Program for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Briant; And Others

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, a Salt Lake City school district began developing a merit pay program to cover all certified teachers. A committee of teachers designed an assessment method called AIM. Implementation involved developing measurement criteria, establishing evaluation procedures, providing feedback, creating a merit pay plan tied to career development, and…

  7. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency officers' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.754 Emergency officers' retirement pay. A...

  8. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.754 Emergency officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to...

  9. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.754 Emergency officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to...

  10. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.754 Emergency officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to...

  11. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.754 Emergency officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to...

  12. Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    The general-equilibrium effects of performance-related teacher pay include long-term incentive and teacher-sorting mechanisms that usually elude experimental studies but are captured in cross-country comparisons. Combining country-level performance-pay measures with rich PISA-2003 international achievement micro data, this paper estimates…

  13. Be vigilant, this government is coming after your pay.

    PubMed

    Travis, Mike

    2016-02-10

    When chancellor George Osborne accepted what might have been a couple of luncheon vouchers from Google in payment of ten years' unpaid UK tax, the Department of Health submitted its evidence to the Pay Review Body in favour of extending 'plain time working' and introducing performance-related incremental pay progression. PMID:26860172

  14. Performance Pay System Preferences of Students Preparing to Be Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the potential acceptability of performance pay to new teachers by investigating attitudes toward performance pay of students preparing to be teachers. Focus groups and a survey of students preparing to be teachers at a large U.S. university were conducted. Most students expressed a preference for some form of performance pay…

  15. Teacher Opinions on Performance Pay: Evidence from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    The practical viability of performance-based pay programs for teachers depends critically on the extent of support the idea will receive from teachers. We present evidence on teacher opinions with regard to performance-based pay from teacher interviews conducted in the context of an experimental evaluation of a program that provided…

  16. Review of "Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The primary claim of this Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance report and the abridged Education Next version is that nations "that pay teachers on their performance score higher on PISA tests." After statistically controlling for several variables, the author concludes that nations with some form of merit pay system have, on…

  17. Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

  18. Exploratory Investigations of Pay-for-Knowledge Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Nina; And Others

    A study was conducted to provide a scientific database about the prevalence, dynamics, and effectiveness of pay-for-knowledge plans. (Pay-for-knowledge is an innovative compensation system that bases salaries, not on particular job classifications, but rather on the repertoire of skills that an employee possesses.) A four-pronged research design…

  19. Merit Pay and Music Education: A Motivation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recently, state and federal legislators have emphasized teacher quality in their efforts to improve public education. Many reformers believe that merit pay may prove invaluable in attracting highly qualified educators to the workforce and retaining them, as well as in improving students' test scores. While merit pay's ability to recruit…

  20. 5 CFR 831.1003 - Deductions from pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deductions from pay. 831.1003 Section 831.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1003 Deductions from pay. (a) Except as otherwise provided in...

  1. 5 CFR 831.1003 - Deductions from pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deductions from pay. 831.1003 Section 831.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1003 Deductions from pay. (a) Except as otherwise provided in...

  2. 5 CFR 831.1003 - Deductions from pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deductions from pay. 831.1003 Section 831.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1003 Deductions from pay. (a) Except as otherwise provided in...

  3. 5 CFR 831.1003 - Deductions from pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deductions from pay. 831.1003 Section 831.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1003 Deductions from pay. (a) Except as otherwise provided in...

  4. Pay Equity for the Library Profession: An Employer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidmaier, Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    Pay equity, as a concept and outcome, is significant for libraries and librarians because it demonstrates the value of the library and information profession, and the significance of the work undertaken by librarians and allied professionals. The State Library's involvement in the NSW Pay Equity Case and precursor investigations into the worth of…

  5. Collective Bargaining in Education and Pay for Performance. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Collective Bargaining in Education and Pay for Performance"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Jane Hannaway and Andrew J. Rotherham examine the interplay between the emerging policy focus on teacher pay for performance and the response of teacher unions. Noting that…

  6. Pay-for-Knowledge Compensation Plans: Hypotheses and Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Nina; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe the concept of "pay-for-knowledge" compensation plans and report results from a survey of 20 personnel directors in pay-for-knowledge plants. Results indicate that companies using this system have generally found it workable and feel it would be a mistake to revert to traditional compensation plans. (CH)

  7. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  8. Physical principles of hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Psychophysical properties of hearing * The cochlear amplifier * Mechanosensory hair cells * The "critical" oscillator as a general principle of auditory detection * Bibliography

  9. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues

  10. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding: a case of test driver recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Næss, Teresa; Juhl, Jens; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails the reduction of a 30% discount on the driver's car insurance premium, which therefore produced the name, Pay as You Speed. The ISA equipment consists of a GPS-based On Board Unit with a mobile phone connection to a web server. The project was planned for a three-year test period with 300 young car drivers, but it never succeeded in recruiting that number of drivers. After several design changes, the project eventually went forward with 153 test drivers of all ages. This number represents approximately one thousandth of all car owners in the proving ground of North Jutland in Denmark. Furthermore the project was terminated before its scheduled closing date. This article describes the project with an emphasis on recruitment efforts and the project's progress. We include a discussion of possible explanations for the failure to recruit volunteers for the project and reflect upon the general barriers to using ISA with ordinary drivers.

  11. Groups win pollution suit against Texaco

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, P. )

    1992-12-01

    The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and the Delaware Audubon Society have won a ruling in federal court against Texaco Refining and Marketing, Inc. for continuous pollution of the Delaware River. Texaco was found to have committed hundreds of violations under the Clean Water Act during a 9 year period from 1983 to 1991, and was ordered to pay a $1.68 million penalty. Texaco must also improve its water pollution investigation practices which were deemed inconsistent and less than thorough, relying on supposition rather than thorough investigation. A court order enjoining Texaco from further violations was deemed necessary to vindicate the public interest. Illegal discharges included chlorine, ammonia, and oil and grease, with some violations exceeding legal limits by as much as 2000%.

  12. Pollution in America: The Trouble with Trash. Series on Public Issues No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurice, S. Charles; Smithson, Charles W.

    Examined in this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, are such questions as the origins of interest in combating pollution, why people pollute, continuing interest in the issue, the social costs of pollution, and a possible solution to the problem, all considered from an…

  13. How to Pay for Health Care.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael E; Kaplan, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The United States stands at a crossroads in how to pay for health care. Fee for service, the dominant payment model in the U.S. and many other countries, is now widely recognized as perhaps the single biggest obstacle to improving health care delivery. A battle is currently raging, outside of the public eye, between the advocates of two radically different payment approaches: capitation and bundled payments. The stakes are high, and the outcome will define the shape of the health care system for many years to come, for better or for worse. In this article, the authors argue that although capitation may deliver modest savings in the short run, it brings significant risks and will fail to fundamentally change the trajectory of a broken system. The bundled payment model, in contrast, triggers competition between providers to create value where it matters--at the individual patient level--and puts health care on the right path. The authors provide robust proof-of-concept examples of bundled payment initiatives in the U.S. and abroad, address the challenges of transitioning to bundled payments, and respond to critics' concerns about obstacles to implementation. PMID:27526565

  14. 5 CFR 550.131 - Authorization of pay for holiday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization of pay for holiday work... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.131 Authorization of pay for holiday work. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, an employee who performs holiday work...

  15. 5 CFR 550.131 - Authorization of pay for holiday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorization of pay for holiday work... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.131 Authorization of pay for holiday work. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, an employee who performs holiday work...

  16. 5 CFR 550.131 - Authorization of pay for holiday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization of pay for holiday work... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.131 Authorization of pay for holiday work. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, an employee who performs holiday work...

  17. 5 CFR 550.131 - Authorization of pay for holiday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorization of pay for holiday work... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.131 Authorization of pay for holiday work. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, an employee who performs holiday work...

  18. 5 CFR 550.131 - Authorization of pay for holiday work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorization of pay for holiday work... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.131 Authorization of pay for holiday work. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, an employee who performs holiday work...

  19. 20 CFR 10.216 - How is the pay rate for COP calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is the pay rate for COP calculated? 10..., AS AMENDED Continuation of Pay Calculation of Cop § 10.216 How is the pay rate for COP calculated? The employer shall calculate COP using the period of time and the weekly pay rate. (a) The pay...

  20. 20 CFR 10.216 - How is the pay rate for COP calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How is the pay rate for COP calculated? 10..., AS AMENDED Continuation of Pay Calculation of Cop § 10.216 How is the pay rate for COP calculated? The employer shall calculate COP using the period of time and the weekly pay rate. (a) The pay...

  1. 20 CFR 10.216 - How is the pay rate for COP calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true How is the pay rate for COP calculated? 10.216... AMENDED Continuation of Pay Calculation of Cop § 10.216 How is the pay rate for COP calculated? The employer shall calculate COP using the period of time and the weekly pay rate. (a) The pay rate for...

  2. 20 CFR 10.216 - How is the pay rate for COP calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the pay rate for COP calculated? 10..., AS AMENDED Continuation of Pay Calculation of Cop § 10.216 How is the pay rate for COP calculated? The employer shall calculate COP using the period of time and the weekly pay rate. (a) The pay...

  3. 20 CFR 10.216 - How is the pay rate for COP calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true How is the pay rate for COP calculated? 10.216... AMENDED Continuation of Pay Calculation of Cop § 10.216 How is the pay rate for COP calculated? The employer shall calculate COP using the period of time and the weekly pay rate. (a) The pay rate for...

  4. 5 CFR 531.211 - Setting pay for a newly appointed employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay for a newly appointed... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.211 Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. (a) First appointment. An...

  5. 5 CFR 535.105 - Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay... REGULATIONS CRITICAL POSITION PAY AUTHORITY § 535.105 Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay. (a) The rate... head of an agency may set pay initially at any amount up to the rate of pay for level II or level I...

  6. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

    2012-03-06

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  7. Principles of learning.

    PubMed

    Voith, V L

    1986-12-01

    This article discusses some general principles of learning as well as possible constraints and how such principles can apply to horses. A brief review is presented of experiments that were designed to assess learning in horses. The use of behavior modification techniques to treat behavior problems in horses is discussed and several examples of the use of these techniques are provided. PMID:3492241

  8. Hamilton's Principle for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…

  9. A critique of principlism.

    PubMed

    Clouser, K D; Gert, B

    1990-04-01

    The authors use the term "principlism" to refer to the practice of using "principles" to replace both moral theory and particular moral rules and ideals in dealing with the moral problems that arise in medical practice. The authors argue that these "principles" do not function as claimed, and that their use is misleading both practically and theoretically. The "principles" are in fact not guides to action, but rather they are merely names for a collection of sometimes superficially related matters for consideration when dealing with a moral problem. The "principles" lack any systematic relationship to each other, and they often conflict with each other. These conflicts are unresolvable, since there is no unified moral theory from which they are all derived. For comparison the authors sketch the advantages of using a unified moral theory. PMID:2351895

  10. Financing under the California Pollution Control Financing Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Seegmiller, K.M.

    1994-12-31

    The California Pollution Control Financing Authority (CPCFA) provides California industry with a method of financing facilities needed to control and eliminate pollution hazards to the environment. The program enables private companies to utilize funds received from the sale of CPCFA bonds for the acquisition, construction, or installation of pollution control facilities and, when possible, to meet environmental requirements imposed by public agencies. Subsequent changes in federal and state law authorized CPCFA to finance municipal and biomass resource recovery projects. Most bonds sold by the CPCFA pay interest to investors that is exempt from both federal and state income taxes. The insurance of these tax-exempt bonds has resulted in significant reductions in pollution control project financing costs for companies which otherwise would have to secure private taxable financing for their projects.

  11. Exploring residents' attitudes and willingness to pay for solid waste management in Macau.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2016-08-01

    Increasing public attention has been brought to bear on the solid waste management in Macau, due to the continually increasing generation of amount and the limited space. In this study, we discussed residents' attitudes and willingness to pay (WTP) for solid waste management through a questionnaire survey. The results showed that Macau residents owned a relatively high environmental awareness. In regard to Macau environmental quality, most respondents (92.4 %) expressed their satisfactions on the current situation. About 50.2 % respondents thought that the solid waste pollution in Macau should be paid more attention than the other three environmental pollution ways (air pollution, water pollution, and soil pollution). The survey data revealed the positive attitudes toward source separation in Macau. About 95.7 % respondents were willing to sort the solid waste at home, if the government required them to do it. In addition, for the question on how to improve the solid waste issues in Macau, "Enhancing residents' environmental awareness" was considered as the most effective method, accounting for about 38.5 % respondents. In our study, most respondents (85.4 %) also provided positive answers to the questions about WTP. Using the logistic regression method, these survey results support the hypothesis that the probability of the respondents' saying "yes" to the WTP question increases with education level. The monthly mean WTP was 38.5 MOP per household, and the annual WTP was approximately 79.7 million MOP for all of Macau. The results of our study can help managers develop more effective environmental management policies for solid waste disposal.

  12. Exploring residents' attitudes and willingness to pay for solid waste management in Macau.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2016-08-01

    Increasing public attention has been brought to bear on the solid waste management in Macau, due to the continually increasing generation of amount and the limited space. In this study, we discussed residents' attitudes and willingness to pay (WTP) for solid waste management through a questionnaire survey. The results showed that Macau residents owned a relatively high environmental awareness. In regard to Macau environmental quality, most respondents (92.4 %) expressed their satisfactions on the current situation. About 50.2 % respondents thought that the solid waste pollution in Macau should be paid more attention than the other three environmental pollution ways (air pollution, water pollution, and soil pollution). The survey data revealed the positive attitudes toward source separation in Macau. About 95.7 % respondents were willing to sort the solid waste at home, if the government required them to do it. In addition, for the question on how to improve the solid waste issues in Macau, "Enhancing residents' environmental awareness" was considered as the most effective method, accounting for about 38.5 % respondents. In our study, most respondents (85.4 %) also provided positive answers to the questions about WTP. Using the logistic regression method, these survey results support the hypothesis that the probability of the respondents' saying "yes" to the WTP question increases with education level. The monthly mean WTP was 38.5 MOP per household, and the annual WTP was approximately 79.7 million MOP for all of Macau. The results of our study can help managers develop more effective environmental management policies for solid waste disposal. PMID:27164886

  13. Paying surgeons less has cost more.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Joseph; Derman, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 mandated reductions in physician reimbursement. This reduction in payments could be envisioned to limit expenditures on 2 counts: first, individual fees would be lower, producing inherent savings. Furthermore, reducing fees should depress the incentive to work, thereby generating additional savings from reduced output. A rival point of view holds that lower fees might paradoxically lead to greater spending because surgeons compensate for per-case reductions by performing more cases. If this income-targeting hypothesis is correct, lower per-case fees leads to increased volume. Increased work output has particularly sizable economic effects in fields like orthopedic surgery because the total cost of orthopedic interventions is usually many times larger than the physician's fee (largely owing to the cost of implants). As such, increases in work volume more than negate the potential savings from lower surgeon's fees.This phenomenon was studied in the context of total knee arthroplasty. In the decade spanning 1996 to 2005, inflation-adjusted physician reimbursement decreased by approximately 5% per year, leading to a cumulative drop in reimbursement from $2847 to $1685. Nonetheless, because the number of procedures performed increased from 253,841 to 498,169 and because payments to hospitals far exceeded payments to surgeons, total expenditures for total knee arthroplasty increased dramatically: more than $7.1 billion additional was spent on hospital payments. Continuing to pay surgeons less is apt to continue to cost more. Counter to intuition, the best strategy for controlling overall spending might be higher, not lower, surgical fees.

  14. Intervening to promote pay-it-forward behavior: Does perceived self-motivation of the benefactor matter?

    PubMed

    Furrow, Cory B; McCarty, Shane M; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    Pay-it-forward behavior reflects actively caring for people (AC4P) and the reciprocity principle. Interventions to increase the frequency of pay-it-forward behavior were evaluated. At a buffet-style dining hall, a research assistant (RA) entered the line and paid for the next person's meal. In the Sign Intervention Phase, the RA discreetly paid for the next person's meal. In the Verbal + Sign Intervention Phase, the RA verbally activated reciprocity and paid for the next diner's meal. For Baseline and Withdrawal, a sign prompted the purchase of another person's meal. The Verbal + Sign Intervention was significantly more effective at activating pay-it-forward behavior (24.6% of 171) than the Sign Intervention (15.6% of 122), Baseline (6.8% of 148), and Withdrawal (12.6% of 95). These results were contrary to the research hypothesis that verbal and sign prompting would decrease perceived self-motivation of the benefactor and thereby reduce the beneficiary's perceived obligation to pay it forward. PMID:27309024

  15. [The willingness-to-pay concept in question].

    PubMed

    Mould Quevedo, Joaquín F; Contreras Hernández, Iris; Garduño Espinosa, Juan; Salinas Escudero, Guillermo

    2009-04-01

    The adequacy of the concept of willingness to pay within health economics evaluations is reviewed. A considerable number of researchers in the literature have pointed out multiple methodological issues involving willingness-to-pay estimates. On the other hand, the theoretical discussion about the aggregation of individual preferences within an aggregate demand remains open. However, over the last 20 years, willingness-to-pay estimates alongside health economics research significantly increased and in many cases they are one of the key factors for decision making on issues of health policies. The article describes some limitations of this approach as well as the potential distorting effect that it might have on health economics evaluations.

  16. 5 CFR 551.213 - Exemption of employees receiving availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.213... and overtime pay provisions of the Act: (a) A criminal investigator receiving availability pay...

  17. 5 CFR 551.213 - Exemption of employees receiving availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.213... and overtime pay provisions of the Act: (a) A criminal investigator receiving availability pay...

  18. 5 CFR 551.213 - Exemption of employees receiving availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.213... and overtime pay provisions of the Act: (a) A criminal investigator receiving availability pay...

  19. 5 CFR 551.213 - Exemption of employees receiving availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.213... and overtime pay provisions of the Act: (a) A criminal investigator receiving availability pay...

  20. 5 CFR 551.213 - Exemption of employees receiving availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.213... and overtime pay provisions of the Act: (a) A criminal investigator receiving availability pay...